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1

Effects of silage preservation on astaxanthin forms and fatty acid profiles of processed shrimp ( Pandalus borealis) waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid silage of shellfish processing waste has been reported to be a good and economical technique to protect these biomasses from bacterial decomposition. Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) by-products contain some value-added nutrients for the aquaculture industry such as carotenoid pigments (mainly astaxanthin) and n ? 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of ensiling

Alain Guillou; Michel Khalil; Lucien Adambounou

1995-01-01

2

Microbial changes and growth of Listeria monocytogenes during chilled storage of brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis).  

PubMed

Thirteen storage trials and ten challenge tests were carried out to examine microbial changes, spoilage and the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Shrimp in brine as well as brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were produced and studied. Different recipes were used to study the effect of preserving parameters (organic acids, pH and NaCl) on growth of microorganisms and shelf life at 7-8 degrees C or 12 degrees C. Particularly, brines with different concentrations of (i) benzoic, citric and sorbic acids or (ii) acetic, citric and lactic acids were studied. Furthermore, the effect of adding diacetate to brined shrimp was evaluated. A single batch of cooked and peeled shrimp was used to study both industrially and manually processed brined shrimp with respect to the effect of process hygiene on microbial changes and the shelf life of products. Concentrations of microorganisms on newly produced brined shrimp from an industrial scale processing line were 1.0-2.3 log (CFU g(-1)) higher than comparable concentrations in manually processed samples. This resulted in a substantially shorter shelf life and a more diverse spoilage microflora of the industrially processed brined shrimp. In addition, shelf life of brined shrimp was affected by the types and concentrations of organic acids and by the storage temperature as expected. The effect of MAP was less pronounced. Eighty-two isolates from the spoilage microflora of brined shrimp were identified and they included 53 lactic acid bacteria, 6 coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp., 18 Pseudomonas fluorescens and 5 yeast isolates. After storage at 7 degrees C, P. fluorescens, Enterococcus-like isolates, E. malodoratus, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. and Lactobacillus sakei constituted the dominating microflora of shrimp in brines that contained benzoic, citric and sorbic acids as preservatives. L. sakei dominated the spoilage microflora of brined and drained MAP shrimp, and of brined shrimp preserved using acetic, citric and lactic acids, irrespective of packaging conditions. Shrimp in brine with benzoic, citric and sorbic acids prevented growth of L. monocytogenes during more than 40 days at 7 degrees C when the preserving parameters resembled those of commercial products. However, small changes in the preserving parameters and, particularly, reduced concentrations of benzoic acid led to growth of L. monocytogenes in brined shrimp. The present study provides significant new information on microbial changes, shelf life and growth of L. monocytogenes in brined shrimp. This information can facilitate development of new and safe brined shrimp products. PMID:18456355

Mejlholm, Ole; Kjeldgaard, Jette; Modberg, Anne; Vest, Mette Bohn; Bøknaes, Niels; Koort, Joanna; Björkroth, Johanna; Dalgaard, Paw

2008-06-10

3

Egg survival, embryonic development, and larval characteristics of northern shrimp ( Pandalus borealis ) females subject to different temperature and feeding conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments on ovigerous females of northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) were used to assess the effects of temperature and food ration on female condition during incubation and examine how combined effects of temperature and female condition influenced egg survival, embryonic development, and larval characteristics. Ovigerous females were maintained at 2°C, 5°C, and 8°C and fed on a low (three times\\/week;

Sophie Brillon; Yvan Lambert; Julian Dodson

2005-01-01

4

DESCRIPTION OF LARVAE OF THE NORTHERN SHRIMP, PANDALUS BOREALIS, REARED IN SITU IN KACHEMAK BAY, ALASKA  

E-print Network

, the rostrum ofP. borealis has more dorsal teeth, the second pereopods are more developed, and the pleopods stage is included. MATERIALS AND METHODS Rearing techniques were identical in all re- spects to those at sea. Larvae from plankton were also reared in flasks at sea in an identical manner beginning

5

Recruitment of shrimp ( Pandalus borealis) in the Barents Sea related to spawning stock and environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shrimp spawn in autumn, and the females carry their eggs as out roe until spring when the larvae hatch. Within a period of 2 months the shrimp larvae settle to the bottom. It has been claimed that the year-class strength probably is determined during the larval phase. Today's assessment and forecast of the shrimp stock productivity and potential fishing yields are weak. This is partly due to poor knowledge on population dynamics from hatching until the shrimp are caught in the fishery at the age of 3 or 4 years. We, therefore, here identify the most important abiotic and biotic factors that affect recruitment in addition to spawning stock biomass. Since 1995, a net attached to the underbelly of the survey trawl used at the annual cruise in the Barents Sea has caught juvenile shrimp. The abundance of settled shrimp larvae varies in time and space. The recruitment to the fishery has been quite stable with the exception of the 1996 year-class, which was observed as 1-year-olds but has not been registered since. The temporal pattern of the three youngest year-classes is studied in relation to abiotic factors such as sea temperature, ice index and North Atlantic Oscillation, as well as biotic factors such as spawning stock biomass and presence of copepods, euphausiids and predating cod. Recruitment indices and factors identified by the Spearmann correlation to be significantly correlated with recruitment were used as input in a principal component analysis (PCA) and a generalized additive model (GAM) was applied. Abundance of 1-year-old shrimp is positively correlated to spawning stock biomass the previous year and to temperature of the previous winter, and negatively correlated with the number of 1-year-old cod. Two-year-old shrimp show significant correlation with temperature, whereas there is a strong negative correlation with euphausiids. Three-year-old shrimp are significantly correlated with the number of 2-year-old shrimp the previous year but negatively correlated to temperature at sampling time. This is probably due to less overlap with the main predator cod when cold. Ricker functions indicate an increased density-dependent mortality with age. When predicting the recruitment of shrimp to the fishery, the spawning stock biomass, the abundance of cod and euphausiids, as well as the temperature should be included.

Aschan, Michaela; Ingvaldsen, Randi

2009-10-01

6

Temperature dependence of ionic and acid-base regulation in boreal and arctic Crangon crangon and Pandalus borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of temperature on intracellular pH were investigated in the abdominal muscle tissue of two latitudinally separated populations of the euryhaline and eurythermic common sand shrimp Crangon crangon and in the stenohaline and stenothermic deep water shrimp Pandalus borealis. The contribution of passive mechanisms (due to the physico-chemical responses of intracellular buffers) and active mechanisms (due to ion exchange)

F. J. Sartoris; H. O. Pörtner

1997-01-01

7

Population structure of the deep-sea shrimp (Pandalus borealis) in the north-east Atlantic based on allozyme variation  

E-print Network

variation. They were caught at various locations in the Barents Sea, in waters off Svalbard, Jan Mayen was by far the most polymorphic. Samples caught within the Barents Sea and in the Svalbard area showed. borealis in the Barents Sea. Genetic differentiation was found, however, between Norwegian fjords

Vincent, Warwick F.

8

The stability of adenosine deaminase and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) deaminase as potential spoilage indicators for postmortem ice stored shrimp  

E-print Network

(Pandalus borealis), caught in Canada, at a level of 92 pmole/100 g of shrimp tissue. Since the activity of the enzymes involved at each step of the metabolic pathway are temperature dependent, Arai (1966b) observed an accumulation and sub- sequent...-life of shrimp from various locations on the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. J. Milk Food Technol. 36(9):463. Collins, J. and Kelley, C. 1969. Alaska pink shrimp, Pandalus borealis: Effects of heat treatment on color and machine peelability. U. S. Fish. Wi' dl...

Cheuk, Wai Lun

2012-06-07

9

FECUNDITY OF NORTHERN SHRIMp, PANDALUS BOREALIS, (CRUSTACEA, DECAPODA) IN AREAS OF  

E-print Network

Baffin Island, in the eastern Hudson Strait and Labrador Sea, and off the south coast of New- foundland samples was selected for analysis. These were taken from the Baffin Island area (east of Cumberland Sound

10

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES OF PINK SHRIMP, PANDALUS BOREALIS, HELD IN CARBON DIOXIDE MODIFIED REFRIGERATED  

E-print Network

and disadvantages of the refrig- erated seawater system (RSW)for holding fish and shellfish are well documented be heldinthe RSW system modifiedby the addition of carbon dioxide (MRSW) for longer periods of time than in ice

11

Evaluating port monitoring program: A case study of the northern shrimp fishery in the Gulf of Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like many fisheries in the world, the northern shrimp, Pandalus borealis, fishery in the Gulf of Maine is monitored with both fishery-dependent and independent sampling programs. A periodic review of sampling programs is essential to assess if they effectively and efficiently monitor spatial and temporal variations of key fisheries statistics, which provide the information critical to achieve management objectives. In

Cinamon Moffett; Yong Chen; Margaret Hunter

2011-01-01

12

UTILIZATION OF SODIUM METABISULPHITE FOR PRESERVATION OF FROZEN-THAWED SHRIMP (PANDALEUS BOREALIS )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole frozen-thawed shrimp (Pandaleus borealis K.) was dipped into 1.25% of sodium metabisulphite solution and stored in ice and ice slurry for 7 days at 2-3°C. The effect of sodium metabisulphite on melanosis development was assayed by sensory analyses and bacterial counts. Spoilage bacterial growth, pH, TVB-N, TMA and sulphite were monitored for comparison. Sodium metabisulphite showed strong properties of

Maria Isabel Virgílio Omar

13

An investigation into environment dependent nanomechanical properties of shallow water shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) exoskeleton.  

PubMed

The present investigation focuses on understanding the influence of change from wet to dry environment on nanomechanical properties of shallow water shrimp exoskeleton. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) based measurements suggest that the shrimp exoskeleton has Bouligand structure, a key characteristic of the crustaceans. As expected, wet samples are found to be softer than dry samples. Reduced modulus values of dry samples are found to be 24.90±1.14GPa as compared to the corresponding values of 3.79±0.69GPa in the case of wet samples. Hardness values are found to be 0.86±0.06GPa in the case of dry samples as compared to the corresponding values of 0.17±0.02GPa in the case of wet samples. In order to simulate the influence of underwater pressure on the exoskeleton strength, constant load creep experiments as a function of wet and dry environments are performed. The switch in deformation mechanism as a function of environment is explained based on the role played by water molecules in assisting interface slip and increased ductility of matrix material in wet environment in comparison to the dry environment. PMID:25280717

Verma, Devendra; Tomar, Vikas

2014-11-01

14

Expression Profiling without Genome Sequence Information in a Non-Model Species, Pandalid Shrimp (Pandalus latirostris), by Next-Generation Sequencing  

PubMed Central

While the study of phenotypic variation is a central theme in evolutionary biology, the genetic approaches available to understanding this variation are usually limited because of a lack of genomic information in non-model organisms. This study explored the utility of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies for studying phenotypic variations between 2 populations of a non-model species, the Hokkai shrimp (Pandalus latirostris; Decapoda, Pandalidae). Before we performed transcriptome analyses using NGS, we examined the genetic and phenotypic differentiation between the populations. Analyses using microsatellite DNA markers suggested that these populations genetically differed from one another and that gene flow is restricted between them. Moreover, the results of our 4-year field observations indicated that the egg traits varied genetically between the populations. Using mRNA extracted from the ovaries of 5 females in each population of Hokkai shrimp, we then performed a transcriptome analysis of the 2 populations. A total of 13.66 gigabases (Gb) of 75-bp reads was obtained. Further, 58,804 and 33,548 contigs for the first and second population, respectively, and 47,467 contigs for both populations were produced by de novo assembly. We detected 552 sequences with the former approach and 702 sequences with the later one; both sets of sequences showed greater than twofold differences in the expression levels between the 2 populations. Twenty-nine sequences were found in both approaches and were considered to be differentially expressed genes. Among them, 9 sequences showed significant similarity to functional genes. The present study showed a de novo assembly approach for the transcriptome of a non-model species using only short-read sequence data, and provides a strategy for identifying sequences showing significantly different expression levels between populations. PMID:22016807

Kawahara-Miki, Ryouka; Wada, Kenta; Azuma, Noriko; Chiba, Susumu

2011-01-01

15

Corona Borealis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(the Northern Crown; abbrev. CrB, gen. Coronae Borealis; area 179 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Boötes and Hercules, and culminates at midnight in mid-May. It represents the crown that in Greek mythology was made by Hephaestus, god of fire, and worn by Princess Ariadne of Crete. Its brightest stars were cataloged by Ptolemy (c. AD 100-175) in the Almagest....

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

16

SPAM (Sex-structured Pandalus Assessment Model): a stock1 assessment model for Pandalus stocks2  

E-print Network

dedicated to protandric hermaphrodite Pandalids stock assessment. Pandalids are difficult26 to assess-change and recruitment. The model provides traditional stock assessment outputs30 such as fishing mortality estimates. borealis) are protandric hermaphrodites, i.e. they reproduce43 first as males and then change sex

Boyer, Edmond

17

UV DAMAGE AND PHOTOREACTIVATION POTENTIALS OF LARVAL SHRIMP, 'PANDALUS PLATYCEROS', AND ADULT EUPHAUSIIDS, 'THYSANOESSA RASCHII'  

EPA Science Inventory

Previously reported thresholds for UV-B dose and dose-rate were determined under artificial light regimes using more than an order of magnitude less visible light than round naturally. Near-UV and/or visible light is needed for photoreactivation and the accuracy of earlier findin...

18

Aurora borealis lags during the Middle Ages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dated observations of the Northern Lights from the 13th-18th centuries are analyzed in terms of the relationship between sunspot cycles and aurora borealis cycles. Aurora borealis was recorded in circumpolar latitudes south of the auroral oval surrounding the magnetic south pole on 1500 days during the epoch studied. The phase relationship by Fritz (1864) relating sunspot and auroral cycles is considered, and it is shown that the cycles of normal solar activity were accompanied by a delayed maxima of auroral frequency. The relationship is less pronounced further in the past for the alternating epochs of reduced solar activity. The conclusion is that the phase-dependent frequency of aurora boreales is confirmed for some epochs of reduced and normal solar activity.

Schlamminger, L.

1992-08-01

19

The hybrid origin of the polyploid liverwort Pellia borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isozyme markers were used to investigate the origin of the polyploid liverwort, Pellia borealis (gametophytic n=18), which was believed to represent an autopolyploid form of Pellia epiphylla (n=9). Enzyme variation was studied in four taxa: polyploid P. borealis, two recently discovered sibling species of P. epiphylla complex, and the closely related P. neesiana (n=9). Gametophytes of the polyploid showed a

Ireneusz J. Odrzykoski; Ewa Chudzifiska; Jerzy Szweykowski

1996-01-01

20

Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment. Injury to Prince William Sound spot shrimp. Subtidal study number 5. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Since the grounding of the T/V Exxon Valdez caused an oil spill on March 24, 1989, four surveys have been conducted by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) to assess possible damage done by the oil spill to spot shrimp Pandalus platyceros. The surveys were conducted November 1989, March 1990, and November 1990 as Fish/Shellfish Study 15, then November 1991 as Subtidal Study 5. The report incorporates results of all surveys, but emphasizes November surveys and their analysis.

NONE

1992-12-01

21

Inadvertent consequences of fishing: the case of the sex-changing shrimp.  

PubMed

The Hokkai shrimp Pandalus latirostris starts life as a male, but eventually turns into a female given the right size and social conditions. The traps used in the fishery targeting this species selectively retain the larger females, leaving a severely male-biased sex ratio in nature and social conditions that bear no resemblance to those that prompted (or prevented) sex change. Photo: Susumu Chiba Chiba, S., Yoshino, K., Kanaiwa, M., Kawajiri, T. & Goshima, S. (2013) Maladaptive sex ratio adjustment by a sex-changing shrimp in selective fishing environments. Journal of Animal Ecology, 82, 631-640. Fishing can have many unintended consequences. In this issue, Chiba et al. (2013) demonstrate that size-selective harvesting of a sex-changing shrimp effectively voids their normally adaptive adjustments to population sex ratio. The shrimp's 'decision' to change sex depends largely on the relative abundance of mature males and females in early summer, before fishing begins. However, fishing traps selectively retain females, leading to heavily male-biased sex ratios at the onset of autumn breeding that are different from the ratios that influenced sex-change decisions. Although this phenomenon is not yet expressed in catch trends, maladaptive sex-change decisions could ultimately affect population productivity and persistence. PMID:24499309

Côté, Isabelle M

2013-05-01

22

Punching Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Legendary boxer Muhammad Ali used to brag that he could "float like a butterfly and sting like a bee." But to be a true champion, a prizefighter should really try to "punch like a mantis shrimp." This Science Update examines the research behind copying this mechanism for application to machinery design.

Science Update;

2004-06-28

23

SZ effect from Corona Borealis supercluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Corona Borealis supercluster has been observed with the millimeter and infrared testa grigia observatory (MITO). Here we present the results of the observations together with a comparison with observations performed at 33 GHz with the very small array (VSA) interferometer. We have observed in the direction of the supercluster toward a cosmic microwave background (CMB) cold spot previously detected in a VSA temperature map. We claim a weak detection of a faint signal compatible with a SZ effect characterized at most by a comptonization parameter y=(7.8-4.4+5.3)×10-6 68% CL. The low level of confidence in the presence of a SZ signal invites us to study this sky region with higher sensitivity and angular resolution experiments such as already planned upgraded versions of VSA and MITO. This is the first millimetric evidence of unknown cluster/diffuse intra-supercluster gas (possibly warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM)) interacting, via inverse Compton, scattering with the CMB.

Battistelli, E. S.; De Petris, M.; Lamagna, L.; Watson, R. A.; Rebolo, R.; Génova-Santos, R.; Luzzi, G.; De Gregori, S.; Rubiño-Martin, J. A.

2007-03-01

24

Brine Shrimp 1: Hatching Brine Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Science NetLinks lesson, students will design a test to determine the optimum salinity for hatching brine shrimp. In the second brine shrimp lesson of the series, students will raise these brine shrimp, designing an artificial environment in which they can survive. This lesson relates to the idea that in any particular environment, the growth and survival of organisms depend on the physical conditions.

Science Netlinks;

2001-10-20

25

Brine Shrimp 2: Brine Shrimp Survival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is the second of two lessons on brine shrimp. In the first brine shrimp lesson, students determined the optimum salinity for hatching. In this lesson, students will raise brine shrimp, designing an artificial environment in which they can survive. This Science NetLinks lesson relates to the idea that in any particular environment, the growth and survival of organisms depend on the physical conditions.

Science Netlinks;

2001-10-20

26

The Aurora and Borealis Stream Processing Ugur Cetintemel1  

E-print Network

The Aurora and Borealis Stream Processing Engines Ugur C¸etintemel1 , Daniel Abadi2 , Yanif Ahmad1 on an SPE. The Aurora stream-processing engine, motivated by these three tenets, is currently operational-shedding algorithms are presented in [18], and our approach to high availability in a multi-site Aurora installation

Balazinska, Magdalena

27

Translocation of twinflower (Linnaea borealis L.) in the Scottish Borders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twinflower, Linnaea borealis L., is a creeping, woody, clonal perennial nationally scarce in the UK, with its distribution confined to discrete patches in Scotland. Translocation of twinflower from natural patches into either existing patches, with a view to increasing genetic variation and outcrossing rates, or to unoccupied habitat, with a view to increasing its overall prevalence, could effectively increase the

D. Kohn; P. Lusby

2004-01-01

28

Organellar inheritance in liverworts: an example of Pellia borealis.  

PubMed

Liverwort Pellia borealis is an allopolyploid species that originated after the hybridization and chromosome doubling of two cryptic species; Pellia epiphylla species N and Pellia epiphylla species S. A sequence comparison of chloroplast tRNAUCCGly, tRNAUUULys gene introns, the mitochondrial tRNAGCUSer gene intron, and the first intron of the coxIII gene in the case of three liverwort species studied revealed that the chloroplast and mitochondrial sequences are identical in P. borealis and P. epiphylla species N but different from homologous P. epiphylla species S sequences. Both mitochondria and chloroplasts of P. borealis were thus inherited from one parent- P. epiphylla species N. Studies on 14 different populations of P. borealis gave the same result. These are the first data on organellar transmission in liverworts, the earliest land plants. Moreover, we show that the intron sequences of some organellar genes, until now not used in any systematic studies, could be very good markers in studying taxonomic relationships in closely related species and reconstructing historical events. PMID:12569418

Pacak, Andrzej; Szweykowska-Kuli?ska, Zofia

2003-01-01

29

Interspecific aggression by a rabid eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis).  

PubMed

On 16 March 2012 a rabid eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) was found attached to an evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis) in Randolph County, Arkansas, USA. This appears to be the first confirmed case of a rabid bat attacking a bat of another species. PMID:24807361

Sasse, D Blake; Weinstein, Susan; Saugey, David A

2014-07-01

30

Shrimp Farming in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project on culturing shrimp. Presents observational labs and the experimentation procedure. Provides general information about shrimp, their life span, optimum temperatures, and other important information. (YDS)

Ruggiero, Lovelle

2000-01-01

31

La Linnaea Borealis L. Nel Versante Occidentale del Parco Nazionale Dello Stelvio  

Microsoft Academic Search

LINNAEA BOREALIS L. on the occidental slope of the Stelvio National Park. — Distribution of Linnaea borealis L. is here examined within territorial limits of the occidental slope of the National Park on the Stelvio, taking out and noticing, for many stations characteristics of association in which the plant has beenobserved.

G. Fornaciari

1964-01-01

32

Potential and realized rates of vegetative reproduction in Spirodela polyrhiza, Lemna minor, and Wolffia borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of vegetative propagule development was estimated in three duckweed (Lemnaceae) species, Spirodela polyrhiza, Lemna minor, and Wolffia borealis, by measuring the number of daughter fronds produced over the life span of mother fronds. Under the same constant environmental conditions, plants of L. minor lived the longest (31.3 days) and produced the most daughter fronds (14.0), yet W. borealis

Gordon D. Lemon; Usher Posluszny; Brian C. Husband

2001-01-01

33

DISTRIBUTION AND CATCH COMPOSITION OF JONAH CRAB, CANCER BOREALIS, AND ROCK CRAB, CANCER IRRORATUS,  

E-print Network

DISTRIBUTION AND CATCH COMPOSITION OF JONAH CRAB, CANCER BOREALIS, AND ROCK CRAB, CANCER IRRORATUS ofJonah crab, Cancer borealis, and rock crab, C. irroratus, collected near Boothbay Harbor, Maine, revealed dissimilarities in the distribution of the two species. Jonah crabs were more numerous

34

Draft Genome Sequence of Sclerotinia borealis, a Psychrophilic Plant Pathogenic Fungus  

PubMed Central

Sclerotinia borealis is a necrotrophic phytopathogenic fungus notable for its wide host range and environmental persistence. It grows at low temperatures, causing snow mold disease of crop plants. To understand the molecular mechanisms of its pathogenesis and adaptation to the psychrophilic lifestyle, we determined the 39.3-Mb draft genome sequence of S. borealis F-4128. PMID:24459262

Beletsky, Alexey V.; Kadnikov, Vitaly V.; Ignatov, Alexander N.; Ravin, Nikolai V.

2014-01-01

35

Stream Sockets on SHRIMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an implementation of stream sockets for the SHRIMP multicomputer. SHRIMP supports protected, user-level data transfer, allows user-level code to perform its own buffer management, and separates data transfers from control transfers so that data transfers can be done without the interrupting the receiving node's CPU. Our sockets implementation exploits all of these features to provide high performance.

Stefanos N. Damianakis; Cezary Dubnicki; Edward W. Felten

1997-01-01

36

Optical Spectroscopy at Deep Light Minimum of R Coronae Borealis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present optical spectroscopy late in a deep minimum for the quintessential hydrogen-deficient carbon star R Coronae Borealis. Starting 3.5 years into the current deep and long minimum, we have secured observations that reveal some of the oddest optical spectra ever obtained for any astronomical object. Helium emission lines from triplet transitions, strong Ca II H and K emission, and forbidden lines of oxygen and nitrogen are the only spectral features observed. The spectra can be interpreted as coming from a chromospheric-like region lying above a carbon shell ejection front combined with a large-scale nebular-like region surrounding the star.

Howell, Steve B.; Rector, Travis A.; Walter, Donald

2013-08-01

37

STS-56 remote manipulator system (RMS) backdropped against Aurora Borealis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-56 remote manipulator system (RMS) arm is backdropped against the 'northern lights' (Aurora Borealis) in this view exposed from the crew cabin of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. The arm was used in operations with the Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy 201 (SPARTAN-201). Space Shuttle astronauts have the opportunity to observe auroral activity only on 57-degree inclination missions and only in the 'night' hemisphere. Astronaut hand-held photography is the only method which is capable of documenting the detailed structure of the auroral oval.

1993-01-01

38

Migration and molt patterns of red bats, Lasiurus borealis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), in Illinois  

E-print Network

Red bats, Lasiurus borealis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), are widespread in North America, but many aspects of their biology are poorly known. In an attempt to elucidate patterns of migration and molt in red bats, data were collected over...

Timm, Robert M.

1989-01-01

39

Streptomyces graminifolii sp. nov., isolated from bamboo (Sasa borealis) litter.  

PubMed

The taxonomic position of strain JL-22(T), isolated from litter of a bamboo (Sasa borealis) forest, was determined using a polyphasic approach. The organism had phenotypic and morphological properties consistent with it being a member of the genus Streptomyces. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain JL-22(T) was closely related to Streptomyces prunicolor NRRL B-12281(T) (99.2%), Streptomyces galilaeus JCM 4757(T) (99.0%) and Streptomyces chartreusis NBRC 12753(T) (99.0%). However, the results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical tests showed that strain JL-22(T) could be differentiated from its closest phylogenetic relatives both genotypically and phenotypically. Based on phenotypic and genotypic data, strain JL-22(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces graminifolii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JL-22(T) (?=?KACC 17180(T)?=?NBRC 109806(T)). PMID:24812360

Lee, Hyo-Jin; Whang, Kyung-Sook

2014-08-01

40

Variable Winds and Dust Formation in R Coronae Borealis Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed P-Cygni and asymmetric, blue-shifted absorption profiles in the He I ?10830 lines of 12 R Coronae Borealis stars over short (1 month) and long (3 yr) timescales to look for variations linked to their dust-formation episodes. In almost all cases, the strengths and terminal velocities of the line vary significantly and are correlated with dust formation events. Strong absorption features with blue-shifted velocities ~400 km s-1 appear during declines in visible brightness and persist for about 100 days after recovery to maximum brightness. Small residual winds of somewhat lower velocity are present outside of the decline and recovery periods. The correlations support models in which recently formed dust near the star is propelled outward at high speed by radiation pressure and drags the gas along with it.

Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Geballe, T. R.; Zhang, Wanshu

2013-08-01

41

VARIABLE WINDS AND DUST FORMATION IN R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS  

SciTech Connect

We have observed P-Cygni and asymmetric, blue-shifted absorption profiles in the He I {lambda}10830 lines of 12 R Coronae Borealis stars over short (1 month) and long (3 yr) timescales to look for variations linked to their dust-formation episodes. In almost all cases, the strengths and terminal velocities of the line vary significantly and are correlated with dust formation events. Strong absorption features with blue-shifted velocities {approx}400 km s{sup -1} appear during declines in visible brightness and persist for about 100 days after recovery to maximum brightness. Small residual winds of somewhat lower velocity are present outside of the decline and recovery periods. The correlations support models in which recently formed dust near the star is propelled outward at high speed by radiation pressure and drags the gas along with it.

Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Zhang Wanshu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Geballe, T. R., E-mail: gclayton@fenway.phys.lsu.edu, E-mail: wzhan21@lsu.edu, E-mail: tgeballe@gemini.edu [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

2013-08-01

42

Mexican Shrimp Culture: Legal Changes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mexico has one of the largest potentials in Latin America to culture shrimp. Various groups in Mexico are intensifying efforts to culture shrimp, while the country's fishery cooperatives appear to be experiencing increasing difficulties. Private investors...

D. M. Weidner, R. M. Wells

1991-01-01

43

Shrimp Farming in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In inquiry-based instruction, discovery and learning belong to the students. In this exploration, jumbo shrimp are the source of inspiration. The magic in this project lies not in successfully culturing these shrimp, known as Macrobrachium rosenbergii

Ruggiero, Lovelle

2000-01-01

44

Brazilian Shrimp Culture Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Brazilian harvests of marine and freshwater shrimp are still very limited. While precise data are not available, the consensus in the industry is that farmers only harvested about 2,000 metric tons in 1989 and will probably not exceed 2,500 tons in 1990. ...

D. M. Weidner

1990-01-01

45

Color Control in Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a detailed manual for instructing a laboratory exercise in invertebrate marine physiology. Students investigate the environmental and physiological causes of color change in shrimp. This exercise is suitable for introductory animal or invertebrate physiology courses, and could be adapted further to explore the ecological consquences of color change.

Mary-Jane O'Halloran (Dalhousie University;)

1990-01-01

46

Millimetric observations of the SZE towards Corona Borealis Supercluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed the Corona Borealis Supercluster with the Millimeter and Infrared Testa grigia Observatory (MITO) at 143, 214, 272, and 353 GHz. We present a description of the measure- ments, data analysis, and results together with a comparison of observations performed at 33 GHz with the Very Small Array (VSA). Observations have been made in a region of the supercluster corresponding to one Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) cold spot previously detected in VSA temperature map. Observational strategy and data analysis are described, explaining the procedures used to disentangle primary and secondary anisotropies in the resulting maps. With a data analysis using map making and the maximum entropy method we claim a weak detection of a faint signal spectrally compatible with a SZ effect characterized at most by a Comptonization parameter y = (7.8-4.4) × 10-6 68% CL. The low level of confidence in the presence of a SZ si- gnal invites us to study this sky region with higher sensitivity and angular resolution experiments like the already planned upgraded versions of VSA and MITO.

Luzzi, Gemma

47

A dynamical analysis of the Corona Borealis supercluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey we assess the current dynamical state of the Corona Borealis supercluster (CSC), a highly dense and compact supercluster at z ? 0.07. The Fundamental Plane relation is used to determine redshift-independent distances to six clusters in the densest region of the supercluster, with mean accuracy in the relative distance estimates of 4 per cent. Peculiar velocities determined from these distance estimates indicate that the clusters have broken from the Hubble flow, suggesting that the CSC likely contains two regions that have reached turnaround and are currently undergoing gravitational collapse. These results provide the strongest observational evidence to date that the CSC is a bound system similar to the much more extensive Shapley supercluster, which is the most extensive confirmed bound supercluster yet identified in the Universe. When compared with simulations of the CSC our results require substantially more mass than is contained within the clusters, possibly indicating a significant intercluster dark matter component. In order to facilitate comparison with studies for which spectroscopic data are not available, an alternative analysis of the dynamics is made using the Kormendy relation as a distance indicator. The results are generally consistent with those of the Fundamental Plane and suggest similar global dynamics, but we find that the relatively sparse sampling of the clusters makes the Kormendy relation less reliable overall and more susceptible to small systematic differences between the cluster samples.

Batiste, Merida; Batuski, David J.

2013-12-01

48

Will R Coronae Borealis Ever Return to Maximum Light?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

R Coronae Borealis (R CrB) has been in a deep decline for almost 7 years. Before that, it spent 6 uninterrupted years at maximum light. R CrB is the prototype of its eponymous class of stars, which are very rare, and have many unusual characteristics including extreme hydrogen deficiency, and large, sudden declines in brightness of 8 magnitudes or more. These declines are caused by clouds of carbon dust forming near the atmospheres of the stars, which are later dissipated by radiation pressure. The RCB stars are true irregular variables in that the timing of their declines cannot be predicted, but several RCB stars are also known to begin their declines at a particular phase of their pulsations. There is a wide range of dust formation activity among these stars, as well as as a wide variation in the level of activity for an individual star over time. Long Time Domain observations of the RCB stars are necessary to understand the frequency of their declines, and to give clues about how and when the dust forms around these enigmatic stars.

Clayton, Geoffrey C.

2014-06-01

49

Oxygen Isotopic Ratios in Cool R Coronae Borealis Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the relationship between R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars and hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) stars by measuring precise 16O/18O ratios for five cool RCB stars. The 16O/18O ratios are derived by spectrum synthesis from high-resolution (R ~ 50, 000) K-band spectra. Lower limits to the 16O/17O and 14N/15N ratios as well as Na and S abundances (when possible) are also given. RCB stars in our sample generally display less 18O than HdC stars—the derived 16O/18O ratios range from 3 to 20. The only exception is the RCB star WX CrA, which seems to be an HdC-like star with 16O/18O = 0.3. Our result of a higher 16O/18O ratio for the RCB stars must be accounted for by a theory of the formation and evolution of HdC and RCB stars. We speculate that a late dredge-up of products of He burning, principally 12C and 16O, may convert an 18O-rich HdC star into an 18O-poor RCB star as the H-deficient star begins its final evolution from a cool supergiant to the top of the white dwarf cooling track.

García-Hernández, D. A.; Lambert, David L.; Kameswara Rao, N.; Hinkle, Ken H.; Eriksson, Kjell

2010-05-01

50

Microbial flora of fresh and stored shrimp  

E-print Network

or 5 C . The use of artificial seawater is not recommended in media preparation. The microbial flora of fresh Gulf shrimp was dominated by coryneforms and species of Pseudomonas, Moraxella Micrococcus, and Flavobacterium. Refrigerated storage... of shrimp usually caused an increase in the percentage of Pseudomonas species and a decrease in coryneforms. Bacterial counts of pond shrimp were much lower than those of Gulf shrimp. The microflora of pond shrimp differed from that of Gulf shrimp...

Mroz, Eva

2012-06-07

51

Aploparaksis borealis sp. n. (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) from passeriform and charadriiform birds in Chukotka and Alaska.  

PubMed

Aploparaksis borealis sp. n. (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae), from the long-tailed jaeger, Stercorarisu longicaudus Vieillot, on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, and from the red-throated pipit, Anthus cervinus (Pallas), and the Lapland longspur, Calcarius lapponicus (Linnaeus), in Chukotka, northestern Siberia, is described. This cestode is distinguished by the structure of the cirrus and other morphologic characters from other species of Aploparaksis Clerc 1903 in which there are 10 rostellar hooks and the vitelline gland is aporal to the ovary. A. borealis is the first species of Aploparaksis to be reported from birds representing 2 orders (Passeriformes and Charadriiformes). PMID:845746

Bondarenko, S K; Rausch, R L

1977-02-01

52

OXYGEN ISOTOPIC RATIOS IN COOL R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the relationship between R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars and hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) stars by measuring precise {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratios for five cool RCB stars. The {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratios are derived by spectrum synthesis from high-resolution (R {approx} 50, 000) K-band spectra. Lower limits to the {sup 16}O/{sup 17}O and {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratios as well as Na and S abundances (when possible) are also given. RCB stars in our sample generally display less {sup 18}O than HdC stars-the derived {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratios range from 3 to 20. The only exception is the RCB star WX CrA, which seems to be an HdC-like star with {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O = 0.3. Our result of a higher {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratio for the RCB stars must be accounted for by a theory of the formation and evolution of HdC and RCB stars. We speculate that a late dredge-up of products of He burning, principally {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O, may convert an {sup 18}O-rich HdC star into an {sup 18}O-poor RCB star as the H-deficient star begins its final evolution from a cool supergiant to the top of the white dwarf cooling track.

Garcia-Hernandez, D. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), C/Via Lactea s/n, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Lambert, David L. [W. J. McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin. 1 University Station, C1400. Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Rao, N. Kameswara [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Hinkle, Ken H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Eriksson, Kjell, E-mail: agarcia@iac.e, E-mail: dll@astro.as.utexas.ed, E-mail: nkrao@iiap.res.i, E-mail: hinkle@noao.ed, E-mail: Kjell.Eriksson@astro.uu.s [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 515, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

2010-05-01

53

What are the Hot R Coronae Borealis Stars?  

E-print Network

We investigate the evolutionary status of four stars: V348 Sgr, DY Cen and MV Sgr in the Galaxy and HV 2671 in the LMC. These stars have in common random deep declines in visual brightness which are characteristic for R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars. RCB stars are typically cool, hydrogen deficient supergiants. The four stars studied in this paper are hotter (T$_{\\rm eff}$ = 15-20 kK) than the majority of RCB stars (T$_{\\rm eff}$ = 5000-7000 K). Although these are commonly grouped together as the \\emph{hot RCB stars} they do not necessarily share a common evolutionary history. We present new observational data and an extensive collection of archival and previously-published data which is reassessed to ensure internal consistency. We find temporal variations of various properties on different time scales which will eventually help us to uncover the evolutionary history of these objects. DY Cen and MV Sgr have typical RCB helium abundances which excludes any currently known post-AGB evolutionary models. Moreover, their carbon and nitrogen abundances present us with further problems for their interpretation. V348 Sgr and HV 2671 are in general agreement with a born-again post-AGB evolution and their abundances are similar to Wolf-Rayet central stars of PN. The three Galactic stars in the sample have circumstellar nebulae which produce forbidden line radiation (for HV 2671 we have no information). V348 Sgr and DY Cen have low density, low expansion velocity nebulae (resolved in the case of V348 Sgr), while MV Sgr has a higher density, higher expansion velocity nebula.

Orsola De Marco; Geoffrey C. Clayton; F. Herwig; D. L. Pollacco; J. S. Clark; David Kilkenny

2002-03-08

54

Partner limitation and restoration of sexual reproduction in the clonal dwarf shrub Linnaea borealis L. (Caprifoliaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Reports suggest that there is widespread reproductive failure inLinnaea borealis in Britain, Scandinavia, and North America. Our investigations of Scottish populations of this clonal dwarf shrub indicate that, although visited by a number of different insects, pollen transfer in this species is highly effective and principally occurs by small flies (Muscidae). However, natural levels of fruit set varied between

C. C. Wilcock; S. B. Jennings

1999-01-01

55

A reconsideration of the native status of Linnaea borealis L. (Caprifoliaceae) in lowland Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doubt is cast on the native status of Linnaea borealis L. in pine plantations in the coastal areas of north-east Scotland. These woods were mostly planted between 1750 and 1850 on ground that was previously grassland, and Linnaea is believed to have been accidentally carried to the sites in the root masses of the young pines being planted. Linnaea suffers

D. WELCH

2003-01-01

56

Kohninia linnaeicola, a new genus and species of the Sclerotiniaceae pathogenic to Linnaea borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new genus and species is described to accommodate a newly discovered fungus pathogenic to Linnaea borealis. The fungus forms true sclerotia on stems and leaves of its host and apothecia arise singly or gregariously on the surface of ripe sclerotia. The new fungus was collected together with a stro- matic conidiomal fungus that occurred on the same host. A

Arne Holst-Jensen; Trude Vralstad; Trond Schumacher

2004-01-01

57

Molecular evidence for distinct Antarctic lineages in the cosmopolitan terrestrial diatoms Pinnularia borealis and Hantzschia amphioxys.  

PubMed

Recent morphology-based studies indicate that freshwater diatom floras in the Antarctic comprise a significant share of endemics among a majority of apparently cosmopolitan species. Given the widespread (pseudo)cryptic species diversity in diatoms, we assessed the molecular divergence and temperature-dependent growth characteristics between Antarctic and non-Antarctic strains for two presumed species with a cosmopolitan distribution, namely Pinnularia borealis and Hantzschia amphioxys. Molecular phylogenies based on the plastid gene rbcL and the nuclear 28S rDNA (D1-D3 region) revealed that both taxa consist of multiple lineages, each including a distinct Antarctic lineage. A molecular clock estimates the origin of P. borealis at 35.8 (30-47) million years (Ma) ago, making this the oldest known diatom species complex. The Antarctic P. borealis lineage is estimated to have diverged 7.8 (2-15) Ma ago, after the geographical and thermal isolation of the Antarctic continent. Despite not being psychrophilic, the Antarctic lineages of P. borealis and H. amphioxys have a lower optimal growth temperature and upper lethal temperature than most lineages from more temperate regions, indicating niche differentiation. Together, this suggests that many presumed cosmopolitan Antarctic diatom species are in fact species complexes, possibly containing Antarctic endemics with low temperature preferences. PMID:22554828

Souffreau, Caroline; Vanormelingen, Pieter; Van de Vijver, Bart; Isheva, Tsvetelina; Verleyen, Elie; Sabbe, Koen; Vyverman, Wim

2013-01-01

58

An atlas of Zeeman polarisation in the Stokes IQUV spectrum of Coronae Borealis ?  

E-print Network

Physique, Universit#19;e de Montr#19;eal, CP 6128, succ Centre-Ville, Montr#19;eal, PQ, Canada H3C 3J7 JAn atlas of Zeeman polarisation in the Stokes IQUV spectrum of #12; Coronae Borealis ? To appear 3K7 Abstract We present an atlas of the Zeeman spectral line polarisation throughout the visible

Donati, Jean-François

59

HEARING AND HUNTING IN RED BATS (LASIURUS BOREALIS, VESPERTILIONIDAE): AUDIOGRAM AND EAR PROPERTIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined aspects of hearing in the red bat (Lasiurus borealis) related to its use of biosonar. Evoked potential audiograms, obtained from volume-conducted auditory brainstem responses, were obtained in two bats, and the sound pressure transformation of the pinna was measured in three specimens. Field-recorded echolocation signals were analysed for comparison. The fundamental sonar search calls sweep from 45 to

MARTIN K. OBRIST; JEFFREY J. WENSTRUP

60

The Norris Survey of the Corona Borealis Supercluster: III. Structure and Mass of the Supercluster  

E-print Network

(Abridged) We present a study of the structure and dynamics of the Corona Borealis Supercluster (z ~ 0.07) based on the redshifts for 528 galaxies in the supercluster. The galaxy distribution within Corona Borealis is clumpy and appears overall to be far from relaxed. A background supercluster at z ~ 0.11 makes a substantial contribution to the projected surface density of galaxies in the Corona Borealis field. In order to estimate the mass of the supercluster, we have assumed that the mass of the supercluster is proportional to v^2r, where v and r are suitable scale velocity and radius, respectively, and we have used N-body simulations of both critical- and low-density universes to determine the applicability of standard mass estimators based on this assumption. Although superclusters are obviously not in equilibrium, our simulations demonstrate that the virial mass estimator yields mass estimates with an insignificant bias and a dispersion of only ~25% for objects with overdensities >~ 5. Non-uniform spatial sampling can, however, cause systematic underestimates by as much as 30%. All of our simulated superclusters turn out to be bound, and based on the overdensity of the Corona Borealis supercluster, we believe it is also very likely to be bound and may well have started to collapse. The mass of Corona Borealis is at least 3 x 10^16 solar masses, which yields a B(AB)-band mass-to-light ratio of 564h (M/L)_solar on scales of ~20 h^-1 Mpc. The background supercluster has a mass-to-light ratio of 726h (M/L)_solar. By comparing the supercluster mass-to-light ratios with the critical mass-to-light ratio required to close the universe, we determine that Omega_0 >~ 0.4 on supercluster scales.

Todd A. Small; Chung-Pei Ma; Wallace L. W. Sargent; Donald Hamilton

1997-08-16

61

Monodon baculovirus of shrimp.  

PubMed

Among the viruses infecting penaeid shrimp, monodon-type baculovirus (MBV) otherwise known as Penaeus monodon singly enveloped nuclear polyhedrosis virus (PmSNPV), is one of the widely reported and well described viruses. It is a rod-shaped, enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus, and considered till recently, as the type A baculovirus. Besides MBV, two strains of SNPV are reported-plebejus baculovirus and bennettae baculovirus. MBV was reported to be originated from Taiwan and has wide geographic distribution and is reported to be enzootic in wild penaeids of the Indo-pacific coasts of Asia. The virus also has diverse host-range including a variety of cultured and captured shrimp species and freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MBV has been reported in all life stages of P. monodon with late larval, postlarval and young juvenile as the most susceptible stages/ages. However, MBV has not been documented in early larval stages. Although MBV has been reported to be tolerated well by shrimp, the infection has been attributed to decreased productivity. The target organs or tissues of MBV are the hepatopancreatic tubules and duct epithelium of postlarvae, juveniles and adults, and the anterior midgut epithelium of very young postlarvae. The prominent clinical sign of infection is the presence of multiple spherical inclusion bodies in the hepatopancreas and midgut epithelial cells. The major mode of transmission of the virus is horizontal through oral exposure to occlusion bodies, contaminated tissues or fomites. Minor morphometric variation of the virus has been reported among different isolates. The rod-shaped enveloped virus particles range from 265-324 nm in length and 42-77 nm in diameter. Although complete genome sequence of MBV is not available, nucleic acid of MBV is circular, double-stranded DNA with a genome size ranging from 80 to 160 kbp. The virus codes for a 53 kDa major polyhedrin polypeptide and two minor 47 and 49 kDa polypeptides. A variety of diagnostic tools have been reported for this virus including real-time PCR and LAMP-based detection. Taxonomic position is still uncertain and International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses lists MBV as a tentative species named PemoNPV in the genus Nucleopolyhedrovirus. However, according to the latest genomic information on the virus, it has been suggested to create a new group of non-occluded bacilliform viruses called nudiviruses with MBV as one of the members. The aim of the current work is to describe the knowledge on the status, distribution and host-range, pathology, transmission, virus structure and morphogenesis, genomic characteristics, diagnosis and the latest taxonomic position of MBV. PMID:23997439

Rajendran, K V; Makesh, M; Karunasagar, I

2012-09-01

62

Science Nation: Disappearing Red Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Along the shore in Hawaii, the ponds imbedded in lava rocks contain organisms found only in that environment. Among the marine life in these pools are hundreds of tiny red shrimp. With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), molecular biologist Scott Santos and his team at Auburn University are studying how the shrimp, along with other organisms, thrive in harsh, brackish pools of water.

63

A Mid-Infrared Search for C60 in R Coronae Borealis Stars and IRC + 10216  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buckminsterfullerene (C60) is suspected to be an important constituent of the Interstellar Medium but to date no certain detection of C60 has been made in an astronomical context. Dust-forming material around R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars may be ideal sites for the formation of C60. The high-temperature, hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich environment around RCB stars closely mimics the laboratory conditions under which

Geoffrey C. Clayton; Douglas M. Kelly; J. H. Lacy; Irene R. Little-Marenin; P. A. Feldman; P. F. Bernath

1995-01-01

64

Hydraulic redistribution in Eucalyptus kochii subsp. borealis with variable access to fresh groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity caused by land clearing is an important cause of land degradation in the Western Australian wheatbelt. Returning\\u000a a proportion of the cleared land to higher water use perennial vegetation is one option for reducing or slowing the salinisation\\u000a of land. Over the course of a year patterns of water use by Eucalyptus kochii subsp borealis (C. Gardner) D. Nicolle,

K. Brooksbank; D. A. White; E. J. Veneklaas; J. L. Carter

2011-01-01

65

Neuropeptidomic analysis of the brain and thoracic ganglion from the Jonah crab, Cancer borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass spectrometric methods were applied to determine the peptidome of the brain and thoracic ganglion of the Jonah crab (Cancer borealis). Fractions obtained by high performance liquid chromatography were characterized using MALDI-TOF MS and ESI-Q-TOF MS\\/MS. In total, 28 peptides were identified within the molecular mass range 750–3000Da. Comparison of the molecular masses obtained with MALDI-TOF MS with the calculated

Jurgen Huybrechts; Michael P Nusbaum; Luc Vanden Bosch; Geert Baggerman; Arnold De Loof; Liliane Schoofs

2003-01-01

66

Rhabdom breakdown in the eye of Cirolana borealis (Crustacea) caused by exposure to daylight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of daylight on the compound eye was investigated in the deep-water crustacean isopod Cirolana borealis Lilljeborg. The animals were captured and fixed at night (‘dark-exposed’, i.e. not exposed to light) and day (‘daylight-exposed’), respectively. Changes in light and darkness have an effect on the retinula cells; the ultrastructure of dark-exposed eyes is characterized by well-preserved organelles and cytoplasm.

Heimo L. Nilsson

1982-01-01

67

Shrimp Farms, Ecuador  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In many parts of the world, wetlands are being converted to shrimp ponds in order to farm these crustaceans for food and sale. One example is on the west coast of Ecuador, south of Guayaquil. The 1991 Landsat image on top shows a coastal area where 143 square kilometers of wetlands were converted to shrimp ponds. By the time ASTER acquired the bottom image in 2001, 243 square kilometers had been converted, eliminating 83% of the wetlands. These scenes cover an area of 30 x 31 km, and are centered near 3.4 degrees south latitude and 80.2 degrees west longitude.

With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

Size: 30 by 31 kilometers (18.6 by 19.2 miles) Location: 3.4 degrees South latitude, 80.2 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: Landsat bands 4,3 and 2; ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: Landsat 30 meters (24.6 feet); ASTER 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: Landsat: April 29, 1991; ASTER March 31, 2001

2006-01-01

68

Shrimp farming in China: Operating characteristics, environmental impact and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has been one of the world's largest shrimp producers since 1988. Although the industry suffered disease outbreaks and environmental problems, shrimp farming has recently seen a rapid expansion in China. This study provides some necessary background to shrimp aquaculture in China. It focuses briefly on the operating characteristics of shrimp aquaculture. Emphasis is placed on the shrimp farming impact

Xie Biao; Yu Kaijin

2007-01-01

69

Climatic controls of a keystone understory species, Sasamorpha borealis , and an impact assessment of climate change in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction\\u000a   The aims of this study were to identify the climatic conditions controlling the distribution of Sasamorpha borealis and to assess the impact of climate change on the species in Japan.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods\\u000a   The relationship between S. borealis distribution and climatic variables in the Japanese Archipelago was explored using classification tree analysis. Potential\\u000a habitat maps under the current and

Ikutaro Tsuyama; Katsuhiro Nakao; Tetsuya Matsui; Motoki Higa; Masahiro Horikawa; Yuji Kominami; Nobuyuki Tanaka

70

Physiological constraints in shrimp cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological requirements of animals change considerably during development from the egg to the (early) adult stage. Some basic physiological requirements (respiration, excretion of metabolic end products, space requisites, aspects of feeding biology) of cultured animals are considered in relation to design (surface area, depth) and maintenance (water refreshment) of shrimp (and fish) culture units. From general relations between respiration

Dirk H. Spaargaren

1997-01-01

71

THE HOT R CORONAE BOREALIS STAR DY CENTAURI IS A BINARY  

SciTech Connect

The remarkable hot R Coronae Borealis (RCB) star DY Cen is revealed to be the first and only binary system to be found among the RCB stars and their likely relatives, including the extreme helium stars and the hydrogen-deficient carbon stars. Radial velocity determinations from 1982 to 2010 have shown that DY Cen is a single-lined spectroscopic binary in an eccentric orbit with a period of 39.67 days. It is also one of the hottest and most H-rich member of the class of RCB stars. The system may have evolved from a common envelope to its current form.

Kameswara Rao, N. [543, 17th Main, IV Sector, HSR Layout, Bangalore 560102 (India); Lambert, David L.; McArthur, Barbara [W. J. McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-1083 (United States); Garcia-Hernandez, D. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna (Spain); Simon Jeffery, C. [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Woolf, Vincent M., E-mail: nkrao@iiap.res.in, E-mail: dll@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: agarcia@iac.es [Physics Department, University of Nebraska at Omaha, NE 68182-0266 (United States)

2012-11-20

72

Hydrologic activity during late Noachian and Early Hesperian downwarping of Borealis Basin, Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pronounced global volcanism as well as fracturing and erosion along the highland/lowland boundary (HLB) during the Late Noachian (LN) and Early Hesperian (EH) led McGill and Dimitriou to conclude that the Borealis basin formed tectonically during this period. This scenario provides a basis for interpretation of the initiation and mode of formation of erosional and collapse features along the HLB. The interpretation, in turn, is integral to hypotheses regarding the development of ancient lakes (or an ocean) and their impact on the climate history of Mars. Hydrologic features of Mars are discussed along with their implications for paleolakes and climate history.

Tanaka, Kenneth L.

1991-01-01

73

Selection of diurnal roosts by red bats ( Lasiurus borealis) in an intensively managed pine forest in Mississippi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest managers are increasingly expected to incorporate biodiversity objectives within forest landscapes devoted to timber production. However, data on which to base management recommendations for bats within these systems are limited. Although the red bat (Lasiurus borealis) is a widespread and common species in temperate forests of North America, little is known of its ecology within intensively managed pine (Pinus

Leslie W. Elmore; Darren A. Miller; Francisco J. Vilella

2004-01-01

74

PAST AND PRESENT DISTRIBUTIONOF THE RED-COCKADED WOODPECKER PICOIDES BOREALIS AND ITS HABITATIN THE OUACHITA MOUNTAINS, ARKANSAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the past 15 years, at least 41 and probably more active cavity tree clusters (or colonies) of Red- cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) have existedin remnant, mature shortleafpine (Pinus echina- ta) woodlandsin the Ouachita Mountainsof Arkansas. These clusters were located on both private timberlands and in the OuachitaNational Forest. Fewer than half of thisnumber were still active in early 1991,

Poteau Ranger District

1991-01-01

75

Arsenic in shrimp from Kuwait  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic is ubiquitous in the environment and can accumulate in food via contaminated soil, water or air. It enters the food chain through dry and wet atmospheric deposition. Combustion of oil and coal, use of arsenical fertilizers and pesticides and smelting of ores contributes significantly to the natural background of arsenic in soils and sediments. The metal can be transferred from soil to man through plants. In spite of variation in acute, subacute, and chronic toxic effects to plants and animals, evidence of nutritional essentiality of arsenic for rats, goats, and guinea pigs has been suggested, but has not been confirmed for humans. Adverse toxic effects of arsenic as well as its widespread distribution in the environment raises concern about levels of arsenic in man`s diet. Higher levels of arsenic in the diet can result in a higher accumulation rate. Arsenic levels in marine organisms are influenced by species differences, size of organism, and human activities. Bottom dwellers such as shrimp, crab, and lobster accumulate more arsenic than fish due to their frequent contact with bottom sediments. Shrimp constitute approximately 30% of mean total seafood consumption in Kuwait. This study was designed to determine the accumulation of arsenic in the commercially important jinga shrimp (Metapenaeus affinis) and grooved tiger prawn (Penaeus semisulcatus). 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Bou-Olayan, A.H. [Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait); Al-Yakoob, S.; Al-Hossaini, M. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait)

1995-04-01

76

Molecular mechanisms of the shrimp clotting system.  

PubMed

Shrimp, like other invertebrates, relies solely on its innate immune system, to combat invading pathogens. The invertebrate immune system has ancient origins that involve cellular and humoral responses. The clotting system of the humoral immune response is the first line of defense against pathogens and also serves to prevent blood loss during injury and wound healing. Tranglutaminase and clotting protein are molecules involved in the blood clotting system of crayfish and shrimp. Studies have shown that the shrimp clotting system is linked with the activation of antimicrobial peptides, similar to that of the horseshoe crab. Unlike the horseshoe crab and crayfish blood coagulation which are well studied systems, blood clotting in shrimp remains poorly understood. Here we review the shrimp clotting system and its involvement in innate immunity. PMID:23044383

Maningas, Mary Beth B; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo

2013-04-01

77

Caryospora uptoni n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis borealis).  

PubMed

Oocysts of Caryospora uptoni n. sp. were described from the feces of red-tailed hawks, Buteo jamaicensis borealis. Sporulated oocysts were spherical or subspherical and measured 28.1 by 26.4 micron. The oocyst wall was composed of a yellowish outer layer and brownish inner layer and was about 1.5 micron thick. Neither micropyle, polar granules, nor oocyst residuum were present. A single, spherical sporocyst 18.2 by 17.9 micron was present; a Stieda body was absent. A spherical eccentrically located sporocyst residuum was present in many sporocysts, but it degenerated to form a dispersed granular residuum in other sporocysts. Eight randomly arranged sporozoites, 12.6 by 4.2 micron, were present in each sporocyst; they contained a centrally or slightly posteriorly located nucleus. PMID:3806324

Lindsay, D S; Blagburn, B L

1986-10-01

78

What is the True Population of the R Coronae Borealis Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are rare hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich supergiants. Two evolutionary scenarios have been suggested, a double degenerate merger of two white dwarfs (WDs), or a final helium shell flash (FF) in a PN central star. The evidence pointing toward a WD merger or a FF origin for RCB stars is contradictory. Therefore, determining the population of RCB stars is very important. Predictions of the number of RCB stars in the Galaxy range as high as 5,000 but very few RCB stars are known. The discovery rate for RCB stars has been accelerated by the use of WISE IR colors and the ASAS-3 lightcurves. The number of Milky Way RCB stars identified has doubled in just a few years to about 100 and may double again soon.

Clayton, G.

2014-04-01

79

Rhabdom breakdown in the eye of Cirolana borealis (Crustacea) caused by exposure to daylight.  

PubMed

The effect of daylight on the compound eye was investigated in the deep-water crustacean isopod Cirolana borealis Lilljeborg. The animals were captured and fixed at night ('dark-exposed', i.e. not exposed to light) and day ('daylight-exposed'), respectively. Changes in light and darkness have an effect on the retinula cells; the ultrastructure of dark-exposed eyes is characterized by well-preserved organelles and cytoplasm. The photoreceptor membranes covering the microvilli are regularly aligned, and the outline of the villi is smooth. Electron-dense pigment granules are evenly distributed in the cytoplasm of the retinula cell outside the rhabdom. Daylight-exposed eyes differ from the dark-exposed eyes in the following aspects: (i) the microvilli are disrupted, (ii) retinula-cell pigment is found in the rhabdom, and (iii) the cytoplasm of retinula cells is vesiculated. These results are interpreted as retinal damage caused by excess exposure to light. PMID:7151137

Nilsson, H L

1982-01-01

80

Discovery of Five New R Coronae Borealis Stars in the MACHO Galactic Bulge Database  

E-print Network

We have identified five new R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars in the Galactic bulge using the MACHO Project photometry database, raising the total number of known Galactic RCB stars to about 40. We have obtained spectra to confirm the identifications. The fact that four out of the five newly identified RCB stars are ``cool'' (T(eff) 6000 K) suggests that the preponderance of warm RCB stars among the existing sample is a selection bias. These cool RCB stars are redder and fainter than their warm counterparts and may have been missed in surveys done with blue plates. Based on the number of new RCB stars discovered in the MACHO bulge fields, there may be ~250 RCB stars in the reddened "exclusion" zone toward the bulge.

A. Zaniewski; Geoffrey C. Clayton; D. L. Welch; Karl D. Gordon; D. Minniti; K. H. Cook

2005-07-22

81

Scientific ballooning on a shoestring budget: The Montana Space Grant Consortium's BOREALIS program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High altitude ballooning using Latex weather balloons provides frequent and low cost opportunities to carry small meaningful scientific payloads to well in excess of 100,000 feet. Maximizing payload scientific capability requires utilization of the newest available miniature, low-power, light-weight technologies to minimize system mass and size. The Balloon Outreach, Research, Exploration And Land Imaging System (BOREALIS) program of the Montana Space Grant Consortium has provided for undergraduate student teams to build payload systems up to 5.4 kg to conduct high altitude flight experiments. In the university setting such a program provides direct experience to students in the fabrication and operation of (near)space flight systems and payloads, and subsequent analysis of the scientific data. Over the course of the past three years 19 successful balloon flights have been conducted, with full payload recovery, reaching altitudes in excess of 110,000 feet, providing rewarding and exciting developmental test flights for satellite subsystems and mini-science missions to the edge of space. Missions have included measurement of Ozone altitude profiles, UV and Cosmic Ray fluxes, and atmospheric temperature and pressure soundings. In addition to providing hands on training at our colleges and universities for future scientists and engineers; by involving the public, a much larger audience is exposed to the scientific research process. In this paper we describe our methodologies and program accomplishments, including the design of a payload support system utilizing commercially available subsystems. More information may be found at http://spacegrant.montana.edu/borealis/index.asp

Klumpar, D.; Kirn, S.; Hiscock, W.

82

The Norris Survey of the Corona Borealis Supercluster: II. Galaxy Evolution with Redshift and Environment  

E-print Network

We measure the field galaxy luminosity function (LF) as a function of color and redshift from z = 0 to z = 0.5 using galaxies from the Norris Survey of the Corona Borealis Supercluster. We find that our local r-band LF, when normalized to counts in high galactic latitude fields, agrees well with the local LF measured in the Las Campanas Redshift Survey. Our B-band local LF, however, does not match the B-band LF from the Stromlo/APM survey, having a normalization 1.6 times higher. We see compelling evidence that B-band field galaxy LF evolves with redshift. The evolution is strongest for the population of star-forming galaxies with [OII]3727 rest-frame equivalent widths greater than 10A. The population of red, quiescent galaxies shows no sign of evolution to z = 0.5. The evolution of the LF which we observe is consistent with the findings of other faint galaxy redshift surveys. The fraction of galaxies with [OII] emission increases rapidly with redshift, but the fraction of galaxies with strong Hdelta 4101 absorption, a signature of a burst of star formation, does not. We thus conclude that the star formation in distant galaxies is primarily long-lived. We also compute the LFs of the Corona Borealis supercluster and the A2069 supercluster. The shapes of the two supercluster LFs are broadly similar to the shape of the local LF. However, there are important differences. Both supercluster LFs have an excess of very bright galaxies. In addition, there is a suggestion of an upturn in the LF for galaxies fainter than M(B) = -17 mag. (Abridged from the abstract in the paper.)

Todd A. Small; Wallace L. W. Sargent; Donald Hamilton

1997-05-05

83

High-resolution spectroscopy of the R Coronae Borealis star V Coronae Australis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical high-resolution spectra of the R Coronae Borealis star V CrA at light maximum and during minimum light are discussed. Abundance analysis confirms previous results showing that V CrA has the composition of the small subclass of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars know as `minority' RCBs, i.e. the Si/Fe and S/Fe ratios are 100 times their solar values. A notable novel result for RCBs is the detection of the 1-0 Swan system 12C13C bandhead indicating that 13C is abundant: spectrum synthesis shows that 12C/13C is about 3-4. Absorption-line profiles are variable at maximum light with some lines showing evidence of splitting by about 10 kms-1. A spectrum obtained as the star was recovering from a deep minimum shows the presence of cool C2 molecules with a rotational temperature of about 1200K, a temperature suggestive of gas in which carbon is condensing into soot. The presence of rapidly outflowing gas is shown by blueshifted absorption components of the NaI D and KI 7698 Å resonance lines. Based on observations obtained with (1) The Blanco 4-m Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under contract to the National Science Foundation of USA and (2) The Harlan J. Smith Telescope of the W. J. McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin. E-mail: nkrao@iiap.res.in

Rao, N. Kameswara; Lambert, David L.

2008-02-01

84

Shrimp yields and harvest characteristics of mixed shrimp–mangrove forestry farms in southern Vietnam: factors affecting production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp yields and harvest characteristics were monitored at mixed shrimp–mangrove forestry farms in two state forestry–fisheries enterprises, Tam Giang 3 and 184, in Ca Mau province, southern Vietnam. The aim was to identify key factors contributing to poor and declining shrimp production in the region over recent years. Shrimp yields were highly variable between farms but were generally low with

Danielle Johnston; Ngyuen Van Trong; Doan Van Tien; Tran Thanh Xuan

2000-01-01

85

Ex-vessel demand by size for the Gulf shrimp  

E-print Network

that it is always desirable to shift the most shrimp possible into the larger market, provided that maximized total revenue is an objective and that management controls exist that can effectively influence the distribution by sizes. DEDICATION This thesis... of landings, but also the size of shrimp landed, which influences the revenue shrimpers receive, Any change in policy concerning shrimping season, or depth of water at which shrimp vessels operate, will have a significant effect on the size of shrimp caught...

Chui, Margaret Kam-Too

2012-06-07

86

Chitosan Fibers Modified with HAp/?-TCP Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a method for preparing chitosan fibers modified with hydroxyapatite (HAp), tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP), and HAp/?-TCP nanoparticles. Fiber-grade chitosan derived from the northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and nanoparticles of tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) suspended in a diluted chitosan solution were used in the investigation. Diluted chitosan solution containing nanoparticles of Hap/?-TCP was introduced to a 5.16 wt% solution of chitosan in 3.0 wt% acetic acid. The properties of the spinning solutions were examined. Chitosan fibers modified with nanoparticles of HAp/?-TCP were characterized by a level of tenacity and calcium content one hundred times higher than that of regular chitosan fibers. PMID:22174598

Wawro, Dariusz; Pighinelli, Luciano

2011-01-01

87

Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases. PMID:23738078

Lakshmi, Bestha; Sai Gopal, D. V. R.

2013-01-01

88

Shell form, growth, and production of Astarte borealis (Schumacher, 1817) (Astartidae, Bivalvia) in the southeastern Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationships between the linear dimensions and body weight and the ratio between the masses, growth, and production were studied for the bivalve Astarte borealis inhabiting the southeastern Baltic Sea. The maximal shell length was 21.09 mm, while the maximum age was 8+. The linear growth was described by the Bertalanffy equation L ? = (1 - e -0.0894(?-(-0.7354))). The annual production was 7.60 kJ/m2 at a P s/ B coefficient of 0.41. It was found that the A. borealis inhabiting the southeastern Baltic Sea was characterized by a lower linear growth rate compared to the mollusks of other parts of the geographical range due to the low salinity of the Baltic Sea.

Gusev, A. A.; Rudinskaya, L. V.

2014-07-01

89

Discovery of a Previously Unrecognised Allusion to the Aurora Borealis in Paradise Lost, and Implications for Edmund Halley Scholarship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research reveals that John Milton employed an allusion to the aurora borealis in the epic poem Paradise Lost which has not been recognised in more than three centuries of scholarly analysis. It further disproves the long-held belief, made popular by the astronomer Edmund Halley, that no notable aurora was visible in England in the seventeenth century. A study of the personal Latin diary of the Elizabethan historian William Camden shows that the famous aurora of 1621 was visible in England. While Pierre Gassendi has been credited with creation of the term 'aurora borealis' based on his report of the 1621 aurora, this study reaffirms a neglected analysis from 1986 that established the term originated with Galileo in 1619.

Cunningham, Clifford J.

2014-11-01

90

76 FR 6603 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-549-822] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Thailand. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Final Results and Final Partial...

2011-02-07

91

Limited mate availability decreases reproductive success of fragmented populations of Linnaea borealis, a rare, clonal self-incompatible plant  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Small populations of rare plant species are increasingly reported to have high levels of reproductive failure. The objective of this study was to understand the principal constraints on sexual reproduction in small fragmented populations of a rare clonal self-incompatible plant. Methods The pollinator spectrum, diversity of flower colour, natural pollination and fruit-set levels of L. borealis were examined in Scotland. Artificially crossed seed production was compared within and between different flower colour types and patches. Key Results Linnaea borealis was pollinated by a diverse spectrum of insect species and the principal pollinators were muscid, syrphid and empid flies which mostly moved only small distances (<0·25 m) between flowers when foraging. Natural pollination levels were high, indicating high pollinator effectiveness, but fruit set was very low in most patches. Flower colour diversity was low in most patches and only those with a diversity of flower colour types had high fruiting success. Pollination experiments showed L. borealis to be highly self-incompatible and artificial crosses within and between patches and flower colour types confirmed that low fruit success was the result of a lack of compatible mates and limited pollen movement between them. Evidence of isolation from pollen exchange was apparent at as little as 6 m and severe at 30 m and beyond. Conclusions Limited mate availability and isolation from pollen exchange compromise the reproductive success of fragmented populations of L. borealis in Scotland. A diversity of compatible mates situated within close proximity (<6 m) is the key requirement to ensure high natural fruiting success. This study emphasizes that an understanding of the breeding system, pollinator spectrum and potential for interconnectivity via pollinator movement are fundamental to identify isolation distances and to establish when conservation intervention is necessary for rare species. PMID:19181748

Scobie, A. R.; Wilcock, C. C.

2009-01-01

92

Microarray analyses of shrimp immune responses.  

PubMed

Shrimp aquaculture is one of the major foodproducing industries in the world. However, it is being impacted by several problems including diseases, antibiotic use, and environmental factors. The extent of the effects of these problems in the immune system of the shrimp at the molecular level is just beginning to be understood. Here, we review the gene expression profile of shrimp in response to some of these problems using the high-throughput microarray analysis, including white spot syndrome virus, yellow head virus, Vibrio spp., peptidoglycan, oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, salinity, and temperature. PMID:20393773

Aoki, Takashi; Wang, Han-Ching; Unajak, Sasimanas; Santos, Mudjekeewis D; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo

2011-08-01

93

The effect of Echinorhynchus borealis (Acanthocephala) infection on the anti-predator behavior of a benthic amphipod.  

PubMed

In benthic habitats, predators can generally not be detected visually, so olfaction may be particularly important for inducing anti-predation behaviors in prey organisms. Manipulative parasites infecting benthic hosts could suppress these responses so as to increase the probability of predation and thus trophic transmission. We studied how infection with the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus borealis affects the response of the benthic amphipod Pallasea quadrispinosa to water conditioned by burbot (Lota lota), the parasite's definitive host. In normal lake water, refuge use by infected and uninfected amphipods was similar, but when exposed to burbot-conditioned water, uninfected amphipods spent much more time hiding than infected amphipods. Thus, rather than affecting ambient hiding behavior, E. borealis infection seems to alter host response to a predator. A group of amphipods sampled from a postglacial spring that is devoid of fish predators exhibited only a weak response to burbot-conditioned water, perhaps suggesting these anti-predator behaviors are costly to maintain. The hiding behavior of spring and infected amphipods was very similar. If the reduced refuge use by the spring amphipods reflects adaptation to a predator-free environment, this indicates that E. borealis severely weakens its host's anti-predator behavior. Presumably this increases the likelihood of parasite transmission. PMID:18564759

Benesh, D P; Kitchen, J; Pulkkinen, K; Hakala, I; Valtonen, E T

2008-04-01

94

Antiviral defense in shrimp: from innate immunity to viral infection.  

PubMed

The culture of penaeid shrimp is rapidly developing as a major business endeavor worldwide. However, viral diseases have caused huge economic loss in penaeid shrimp culture industries. Knowledge of shrimp innate immunity and antiviral responses has made important progress in recent years, allowing the design of better strategies for the prevention and control of shrimp diseases. In this study, we have updated information on shrimp antiviral immunity and interactions between shrimp hosts and viral pathogens. Current knowledge and recent progress in immune signaling pathways (e.g., Toll/IMD-NF-?B and JAK-STAT signaling pathways), RNAi, phagocytosis, and apoptosis in shrimp antiviral immunity are discussed. The mechanism of viral infection in shrimp hosts and the interactions between viruses and shrimp innate immune systems are also analyzed. PMID:24886688

Wang, Pei-Hui; Huang, Tianzhi; Zhang, Xiaobo; He, Jian-Guo

2014-08-01

95

Zhongshania aliphaticivorans sp. nov., an aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium isolated from marine sediment, and transfer of Spongiibacter borealis Jang et al. 2011 to the genus Zhongshania as Zhongshania borealis comb. nov.  

PubMed

A Gram-staining-negative, facultatively aerobic bacterium, designated SM-2(T), was isolated from a sea-tidal flat of Yellow Sea, South Korea. Cells were catalase- and oxidase-positive motile rods with a single polar flagellum. Growth of strain SM-2(T) was observed at 10-37 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C), at pH 5.5-8.5 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5) and in the presence of 0-11?% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2?%). Strain SM-2(T) contained ubiquinone-8 (Q-8) as the sole isoprenoid quinone and C17?:?1?8c, summed feature 3 (comprising C16?:?1?7c and/or iso-C15?:?0 2-OH), C17?:?0 and C18?:?1?7c as the major fatty acids. Phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified lipid were identified as the major cellular polar lipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 52.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain SM-2(T) formed a tight phyletic lineage with Zhongshania antarctica ZS5-23(T), Zhongshania guokunii ZS6-22(T) and Spongiibacter borealis CL-AS9(T), but that S. borealis CL-AS9(T) was distinct from other species of the genus Spongiibacter. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strain SM-2(T) was most closely related to S. borealis CL-AS9(T), Z. antarctica ZS5-23(T) and Z. guokunii ZS6-22(T), with similarities of 99.5?%, 98.9?% and 98.7?%, respectively, but the DNA-DNA hybridization values among these species were clearly lower than 70?%. On the basis of chemotaxonomic data and molecular properties, we propose strain SM-2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Zhongshania with the name Zhongshania aliphaticivorans sp. nov. (type strain SM-2(T)?=?KACC 18120(T)?=?JCM 30138(T)). We also propose the transfer of Spongiibacter borealis Jang et al. 2011 to the genus Zhongshania as Zhongshania borealis comb. nov. (type strain CL-AS9(T)?=?KCCM 90094(T)?=?JCM 17304(T)). PMID:25122615

Lo, Naysim; Kang, Hyo Jung; Jeon, Che Ok

2014-11-01

96

Geologic support for the putative Borealis basin (Mega-Impact) on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of recent papers (all in Nature v. 453) using Martian gravity and topography [Andrews-Hanna et al., 2008], 3-D hydrodynamic simulations [Marinova et al., 2008], and 2-D hydrocode models [Nimmo et al., 2008] have eloquently reintroduced the single mega-impact hypothesis for the formation of the Martian hemispheric dichotomy boundary. Although geophysical models often return non-unique solutions, the coalition front presented by these three independent methods to test such a hypothesis lends credibility and demands further evaluation. The central tenet of these works is the proposition that an elliptical basin (long axis 10,600km, ellipticity 1.25) centered at 67N, 208E marks the pre-Tharsis crustal thickness transition and thus the real dichotomy boundary. Evaluation of this new boundary with respect to the geologic record offers new avenues, especially since geologic tests of the mega-impact hypothesis have mostly proved inconclusive because of Mars' multi-stage and multi-process geologic history. Within this survey, a slightly larger ellipse with a long axis of 12,500 km, ellipticity of 1.48, and centered at 65.3N, 250E expands the putative Borealis impact basin (which does not necessarily represent the transient or final impact cavity dimensions, but defines a potential 'affected zone') while maintaining agreement with the original observations with respect to gravity and topography. The 'affected zone' can be defined by basement structure that may become susceptible to later deformation, or it may in fact have been the paleo- topographic expression of the basin. By expanding the overall area (nearly twice the area of the original mega-impact basin proposed by Wilhelms and Squyres in 1984) several geologic features become significant in evaluating the mega-impact story. 1) Valles Marineris is concentric to the putative basin interior and parallels the ellipse margin suggesting that it is the structural manifestation of localized crustal relaxation of the Tharsis volcanic pile over pre-existing basement structure related to Borealis basin subsidence. The present day Valles Marineris may actually represent the 'missing portion' of the original crustal dichotomy trace underneath Tharsis. 2) The 'great faults' (Connerney et al., 2005) that offset the magnetic field pattern radiate from near the center of the putative basin, again suggesting basement structural control related to basin formation. 3) The mysterious Medusa Fossae Formation is completely enclosed within the basin margin and the units' southern contacts fall within 5 km of the same elliptical trace that bisects central Valles Marineris. 4) Chaos regions at the eastern end of Valles Marineris are wholly contained within the basin margin and suggest some kind of marginal control on their locations. 5) Valley network (channel) densities sharply increase outside the basin and are truncated by the Borealis ellipse. Integrating these and other geologic observations (still ongoing) with the newly formulated geophysical methods suggests that a single mega-impact is reemerging as a viable and perhaps preferred mechanism for dichotomy formation.

Bleamaster, L. F.

2008-12-01

97

AURORA BOREALIS - Icebreaking Deep-Sea Drilling Platform and Multi-Purpose Research Vessel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future breakthroughs in scientific deep-sea drilling critically depend on our ability to perform field expeditions with state-of-the-art technologies and modern infrastructures. This will require major investments, both in terms of generating new, as well as maintaining and renovating existing infrastructure. Diverse models for science operations are presently projected, also within the context of scientific needs after the current phase of the IODP will come to an end. In spite of its critical role in global climate and tectonic evolution, the Arctic Ocean is one of the most unexplored ocean basins of the world, its geologic and paleo-environmental history remaining largely unknown. Restricted by circulating sea ice, scientific drilling has been slow to arrive in the Arctic Ocean. This lack of data remains and represents one of the largest gaps of information in modern Earth Science. We here report on the finalised technical planning of a new European research icebreaker and deep-sea drilling vessel, the AURORA BOREALIS, designed with an all-season capability of endurance in permanently ice-covered waters. The icebreaker will be able to carry out deep-sea drilling in ice-covered deep-sea basins primarily during the more favorable summer seasons in order to fulfill the needs of the IODP or its eventual successor as a Mission-Specific Platform. AURORA BOREALIS will be the most advanced polar research vessel in the world with a multi-functional role of drilling in deep ocean basins and supporting climate and environmental research and decision support for stakeholder governments within the next 35-40 years. It will feature the highest attainable icebreaker classification, considerably surpassing in performance all currently operating research icebreakers. New technological features to be implemented include a novel hull design and specialized dynamic positioning systems for operations under closed sea-ice cover conditions with up to 2.5 m ice thickness, combined with advanced ice-forecasting support. The vessel is planned to operate routinely without ice management support by additional icebreakers, thus reducing operational costs for scientific drilling in polar regions considerably. Two moon-pools (7x7 m each) will allow routine deployment of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) in ice conditions. A dedicated deep-sea drilling rig with full weather protection will enable sampling of the ocean floor in water depths between 100 and 5000 m with more than 1000 m penetration under polar conditions. The modular arrangement of science space with hangars, the possibility to flexibly equip the ship with laboratory or supply containers and with helicopters, addresses the needs of diverse disciplines in marine research. This icebreaker will allow to stage long international, interdisciplinary drilling expeditions in the central Arctic. In a long-term perspective, AURORA BOREALIS will also be used to address Antarctic research targets, both in its mode as a regular research and a scientific drilling vessel.

Lembke-Jene, L.; Biebow, N.; Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Thiede, J.; Egerton, P.; Azzolini, R.

2009-04-01

98

MFR PAPER 103 0 An important shrimp  

E-print Network

. The last mentioned method . wh ich is conduct- ed on a large scale along the east coast of Sumatra increas- in g activities in the local shrimp fish- eries along the north coast of J a\\ a and south Sumatra

99

Selenium requirement of shrimp Penaeus chinensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Penaeus chinensis were reared in fibreglass tanks for the study of their selenium requirements. The shrimp were fed semipurified diets containing graded levels of selenium, and weight gains, activities of glutatione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and selenium contents in muscle and hepatopancreas were determined. Weight gain and GSH-Px activity were the highest when the shrimp were fed diet containing 20 mg/kg selenium. Good linear correlation was found between GSH-Px activities and selenium contents in the diets, and the number of healthy shrimp. The experiment showed that 20 mg/kg selenium in the diet is optimal for the shrimp and that GSH-Px activity can be an important biochemical index of the selenium nutrition status of the animal.

Tian, Yuchuan; Liu, Fayi

1993-09-01

100

Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides in Penaeid Shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penaeid shrimp aquaculture has been consistently affected worldwide by devastating diseases that cause a severe loss in production.\\u000a To fight a variety of harmful microbes in the surrounding environment, particularly at high densities (of which intensive\\u000a farming represents an extreme example), shrimps have evolved and use a diverse array of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as part\\u000a of an important first-line response

Anchalee Tassanakajon; Piti Amparyup; Kunlaya Somboonwiwat; Premruethai Supungul

2010-01-01

101

COBALT60 Gamma Irradiation of Shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meta- and ortho-tyrosine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in conjunction with electrochemical detection in shrimp irradiated using cobalt-60 gamma radiation in the absorbed dose range 0.8 to 6.0 kGy, in nonirradiated shrimp, and in bovine serum albumin (BSA) irradiated in dilute aqueous solution at 25.0 kGy. Ortho-tyrosine was measured in nonirradiated BSA. Para-, meta-, and ortho-tyrosine were

Nancy L. B. Sullivan; N. L. B

1993-01-01

102

The Brine Shrimp's Butterfly Stroke  

E-print Network

We investigate the fluid dynamics of brine shrimp larvae swimming in this gallery of fluid motion video. Time resolved particle image velocimetry was performed using nano-particles as seeding material to measure the time dependent velocity and vorticity fields. The Reynolds number of the flow was roughly 8 and the Womerseley number (ratio of periodic forcing to viscous forcing) was about 5. Vorticity dynamics reveals the formation of a vortex ring structure at the tip of each arm at the beginning of the power stroke. This two vortex system evolves dramatically with time as the stroke progresses. The outer circulation is noted to weaken while the inner circulation strengthens over the power stroke. The gaining strength of the inner vortex correlates with the acceleration and forward movement of the larvae.

Johnson, Brennan; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

2011-01-01

103

Streptomyces graminisoli sp. nov. and Streptomyces rhizophilus sp. nov., isolated from bamboo (Sasa borealis) rhizosphere soil.  

PubMed

Four strains of actinomycete, designated strains JR-19T, JR-12, JR-29 and JR-41T were isolated from bamboo (Sasa borealis) rhizosphere soil. Phylogenetic, morphological, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analysis demonstrated that the four strains belong to the genus Streptomyces. Microscopic observation revealed that the four strains produced spirales spore chains with spiny surfaces. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of the four strains contained ll-diaminopimelic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and glycine. Whole-cell hydrolysates mainly contained glucose and ribose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that these strains and the members of the genus Streptomyces exhibited moderately high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 98.3-99.3%, with the most closely related strains being Streptomyces shenzhenensis 172115T and Streptomyces gramineus JR-43T. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic data, the four strains are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the names Streptomyces graminisoli sp. nov. [to accommodate strains JR-19T (type strain; =KACC 16472T=NBRC 108883T), JR-12 (=KACC 16471) and JR-29 (=KACC 16473)] and Streptomyces rhizophilus sp. nov. [for strain JR-41T (=KACC 16580T=NBRC 108885T)] are proposed. PMID:24478213

Lee, Hyo-Jin; Whang, Kyung-Sook

2014-05-01

104

Kohninia linnaeicola, a new genus and species of the Sclerotiniaceae pathogenic to Linnaea borealis.  

PubMed

A new genus and species is described to accommodate a newly discovered fungus pathogenic to Linnaea borealis. The fungus forms true sclerotia on stems and leaves of its host and apothecia arise singly or gregariously on the surface of ripe sclerotia. The new fungus was collected together with a stromatic conidiomal fungus that occurred on the same host. A putative teleomorph-anamorph connection of the observed taxa was ruled out by sequence comparison of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer DNA sequences (ITS rDNA). Based on morphology and pathogenicity, the new fungus belongs in the family Sclerotiniaceae, Helotiales, Ascomycota. A phylogenetic analysis of ITS rDNA sequences from 26 taxa of the family Sclerotiniaceae was performed to conclude on the systematic position of the new fungus. The small tuberoid sclerotia, brownish subsessile to substipitate apothecia, four-spored asci, ellipsoid to isthmoid ascospores, inability to grow on PDA culture media and a number of ITS rDNA sequence autapomorphies characterize and distinguish the fungus from other taxa of the Sclerotiniaceae. PMID:21148835

Holst-Jensen, Arne; Vrålstad, Trude; Schumacher, Trond

2004-01-01

105

Millimeter Observation of the SZ Effect in the Corona Borealis Supercluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed the Corona Borealis supercluster with the Millimeter and Infrared Testa Grigia Observatory (MITO), located in the Italian Alps, at 143, 214, 272, and 353 GHz. We present a description of the measurements, data analysis, and results of the observations together with a comparison with observations performed at 33 GHz with the Very Small Array (VSA) interferometer situated at the Teide Observatory (Tenerife, Spain). Observations have been made in the direction of the supercluster toward a cosmic microwave background (CMB) cold spot previously detected in a VSA temperature map. Observational strategy and data analysis are described in detail, explaining the procedures used to disentangle primary and secondary anisotropies in the resulting maps. From a first level of data analysis, we find evidence in MITO data of primary anisotropy but still with room for the presence of secondary anisotropy, especially when VSA results are included. With a second level of data analysis using map making and the maximum entropy method, we claim a weak detection of a faint signal compatible with a SZ effect, characterized at most by a Comptonization parameter y=(7.8+5.3-4.4)×10-6 68% CL. The low level of confidence in the presence of a SZ signal invites us to study this sky region with higher sensitivity and angular resolution experiments such as the already-planned upgraded versions of VSA and MITO.

Battistelli, E. S.; De Petris, M.; Lamagna, L.; Watson, R. A.; Rebolo, R.; Melchiorri, F.; Génova-Santos, R.; Luzzi, G.; De Gregori, S.; Rubiño-Martin, J. A.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; Grainge, K.; Hobson, M. P.; Saunders, R. D. E.; Scott, P. F.

2006-07-01

106

R Coronae Borealis Stars in M31 from the Palomar Transient Factory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the discovery of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars in the Andromeda galaxy (M31) using the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). RCB stars are rare hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich supergiant variables, most likely the merger products of two white dwarfs. These new RCBs, including two confirmed ones and two candidates, are the first to be found beyond the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds. All of M31 RCBs showed >1.5 mag irregular declines over timescales of weeks to months. Due to the limiting magnitude of our data (R ? 21-22 mag), these RCB stars have R ? 19.5-20.5 mag at maximum light, corresponding to MR = -4 to -5, making them some of the most luminous RCBs known. Spectra of two objects show that they are warm RCBs, similar to the Milky Way RCBs RY Sgr and V854 Cen. We consider these results, derived from a pilot study of M31 variables, as an important proof-of-concept for the study of rare bright variables in nearby galaxies with the PTF or other synoptic surveys.

Tang, Sumin; Cao, Yi; Bildsten, Lars; Nugent, Peter; Bellm, Eric; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Laher, Russ; Levitan, David; Masci, Frank; Ofek, Eran O.; Prince, Thomas A.; Sesar, Branimir; Surace, Jason

2013-04-01

107

Do R Coronae Borealis Stars Form from Double White Dwarf Mergers?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A leading formation scenario for the irregular variable R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars invokes the merger of a degenerate Helium white dwarf with a Carbon-Oxygen white dwarf in a binary. The observed ratio of ^16O / ^18O for RCB stars is in the range of 0.3 - 20, much smaller than the solar value of 500. We report on our investigations into whether such a low oxygen isotope ratio can be obtained in simulations of double white dwarf mergers. We identify a ``shell of fire'' feature in the simulations surrounding the merged object where temperatures and densities are favorable for forming ^18O for binaries with initial mass ratios near 0.7. However, the accretion stream's impact dredges up ^16O from the Carbon-Oxygen white dwarf which forms a competing process that raises the oxygen isotope ratio. We present the most favorable scenarios we have identified for creating RCB stars in light of these competing processes and outline steps for future progress.

Motl, Patrick; Staff, Jan; Menon, Athira; Herwig, Falk; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris; Geballe, Tom; Pignatari, Marco; Clayton, Geoffrey; Tohline, Joel

2013-04-01

108

A new threat to honey bees, the parasitic phorid fly Apocephalus borealis.  

PubMed

Honey bee colonies are subject to numerous pathogens and parasites. Interaction among multiple pathogens and parasites is the proposed cause for Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a syndrome characterized by worker bees abandoning their hive. Here we provide the first documentation that the phorid fly Apocephalus borealis, previously known to parasitize bumble bees, also infects and eventually kills honey bees and may pose an emerging threat to North American apiculture. Parasitized honey bees show hive abandonment behavior, leaving their hives at night and dying shortly thereafter. On average, seven days later up to 13 phorid larvae emerge from each dead bee and pupate away from the bee. Using DNA barcoding, we confirmed that phorids that emerged from honey bees and bumble bees were the same species. Microarray analyses of honey bees from infected hives revealed that these bees are often infected with deformed wing virus and Nosema ceranae. Larvae and adult phorids also tested positive for these pathogens, implicating the fly as a potential vector or reservoir of these honey bee pathogens. Phorid parasitism may affect hive viability since 77% of sites sampled in the San Francisco Bay Area were infected by the fly and microarray analyses detected phorids in commercial hives in South Dakota and California's Central Valley. Understanding details of phorid infection may shed light on similar hive abandonment behaviors seen in CCD. PMID:22235317

Core, Andrew; Runckel, Charles; Ivers, Jonathan; Quock, Christopher; Siapno, Travis; Denault, Seraphina; Brown, Brian; Derisi, Joseph; Smith, Christopher D; Hafernik, John

2012-01-01

109

Population structure of red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in south Florida: RAPDs revisited  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Six south Florida populations of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) were sampled to examine genetic diversity and population structure in the southernmost portion of the species' range relative to 14 previously sampled populations from throughout the species range. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses were used to evaluate the populations (n= 161 individuals, 13 primers, one band/primer). Results suggested that south Florida populations have significant among-population genetic differentiation (FST= 0.17, P < 0.000), although gene flow may be adequate to offset drift (Nm= 1.26). Comparison of Florida populations with others sampled indicated differentiation was less in Florida (FST for all populations = 0.21). Cluster analyses of all 20 populations did not reflect complete geographical predictions, although clustering of distant populations resulted in a significant correlation between genetic distance and geographical distance. Overall, results suggest populations in south Florida, similar to the remainder of the species, have low genetic diversity and high population fragmentation. Exact clustering of distant populations supports the ability of RAPDs to differentiate populations accurately. Our results further support past management recommendations that translocations of birds among geographically proximate populations is preferable to movement of birds between distant populations.

Haig, Susan M.; Bowman, R.; Mullins, Thomas D.

1996-01-01

110

R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS IN M31 FROM THE PALOMAR TRANSIENT FACTORY  

SciTech Connect

We report the discovery of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars in the Andromeda galaxy (M31) using the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). RCB stars are rare hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich supergiant variables, most likely the merger products of two white dwarfs. These new RCBs, including two confirmed ones and two candidates, are the first to be found beyond the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds. All of M31 RCBs showed >1.5 mag irregular declines over timescales of weeks to months. Due to the limiting magnitude of our data (R Almost-Equal-To 21-22 mag), these RCB stars have R Almost-Equal-To 19.5-20.5 mag at maximum light, corresponding to M{sub R} = -4 to -5, making them some of the most luminous RCBs known. Spectra of two objects show that they are warm RCBs, similar to the Milky Way RCBs RY Sgr and V854 Cen. We consider these results, derived from a pilot study of M31 variables, as an important proof-of-concept for the study of rare bright variables in nearby galaxies with the PTF or other synoptic surveys.

Tang Sumin; Bildsten, Lars [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Cao Yi; Bellm, Eric; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Levitan, David; Prince, Thomas A.; Sesar, Branimir [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nugent, Peter [Computational Cosmology Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Masci, Frank [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ofek, Eran O. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics and the Helen Kimmel Center for Planetary Science, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel)

2013-04-20

111

A BIOECONOMIC MODEL OF RECIRCULATING SHRIMP PRODUCTION SYSTEMS.  

E-print Network

??To prevent disease outbreaks and increase competitiveness of U.S. shrimp products, U.S. aquaculture researchers have developed super-intensive, bio-secure, recirculating shrimp production systems since the early… (more)

ZHOU, XIA Vivian

2007-01-01

112

21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. 102.55 Section 102... § 102.55 Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. (a) The common on...shape and that is not misleading. (b) The words “made from minced...

2010-04-01

113

Ecophsiology of Growth in the Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)  

E-print Network

adjustment of the model parameter MMSO, it also adequately simulated studies taken from the literature. Thus, Ecophys.Shrimp seems capable of realistically representing the ecophysiological dynamics of shrimp metabolism and growth in various culture systems....

Walker, Scott J.

2010-07-14

114

Prey exoskeletons influence the course of gastric evacuation in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of prey exoskeleton characteristics on gastric evacuation patterns in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. Three distinct stages were highlighted in the gastric evacuation of crustacean prey characterized by a robust exoskeleton. The experiments confirmed that the three shrimp species, Pandalus borealis, Pandalus montagui and Eualus macilentus, and the crab Chionoecetes opilio, were evacuated from the stomach at different rates. The duration of all stages increased with increasing ash (and carbonate) content of the fresh prey. Thickness, chemical composition and morphology of the prey exoskeleton all affected gastric evacuation: duration of initial delay, overall evacuation rate and a decreased evacuation rate at the end of the process. The power exponential function (PEF), with its shape parameter, described the course of evacuation for these prey types well, especially the initial delay. The PEF does not, however, allow describing evacuation by the current stomach content mass independent of meal size, which limits its usefulness in estimating consumption rates of wild G. morhua. To predict and describe gastric evacuation of prey with a robust exoskeleton, it is therefore suggested that the square-root function be expanded with an initial lag phase, coupled to the mechanistically based cylinder model of gastric evacuation. PMID:23464544

Couturier, C S; Andersen, N G; Audet, C; Chabot, D

2013-03-01

115

Shrimp Farms and Mangroves, Gulf of Fonseca  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For decades, astronauts on space missions have documented land use changes around the world. In this pair of images, astronauts track the development of shrimp farming along the Honduran coastline of the Gulf of Fonseca between 1989 and 2001. Mariculture, primarily shrimp farming, has become a leading agricultural effort in Honduras. The regional transformation of large tracts of coastal swamps into shrimp farms blossomed throughout the 1990s. The top image was taken with color infrared film in 1989. Dense vegetation, like the coastal mangrove swamps and the forested slopes of Volcan Cosiguina show up as dark red. The bottom image, taken with color visible film by the crew of the most recent Space Shuttle mission in December 2001 shows that hundreds of square kilometers of coastal swamp, primarily in Honduras, have been converted to shrimp ponds. These appear as the light-colored, rectilinear land use pattern. The Honduras shrimp farms were hit hard by flooding after Hurricane Mitch in 1998, and a devastating virus in 1999-2000. It is not known how many of the ponds in this view are still functional. A vigorous debate continues about the sustainability of the shrimp farms and the impacts to the environment and coastal ecosystem due to mangrove clearing and mariculture waste production. Apart from the shrimp farms, the other prominent feature on these images is the impressive volcano Cosiguina, which erupted explosively in 1859 (the largest recorded eruption in the Western Hemisphere). Photograph STS-108-717-85 was taken in the December 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 108 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. Photograph STS030-93-15 was taken in May 1989 using a Hasselblad camera and color infrared film. Both images are provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

116

The Penaeid Shrimp Viruses TSV, IHHNV, WSSV, and YHV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral diseases have emerged during this decade as serious economic impediments to successful shrimp farming. While nearly 20 distinct viruses or groups of viruses are known to infect penaeid shrimp, only four, WSSV, YHV, IHHNV, and TSV, pose a threat to the future of penaeid shrimp culture in the Western Hemisphere. TSV and IHHNV have caused serious disease epizootics throughout

D. V. Lightner

1999-01-01

117

LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATION IN THE COMMON OR WHITE SHRIMP  

E-print Network

LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATION IN THE COMMON OR WHITE SHRIMP PENAEUS SETIFERUS Marine Biological, Arnie J. Suomela, Commissioner LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATION IN THE COMMON OR WHITE SHRIMP, PENAEUS SETIFERUS. C. May 1958 #12;#12;LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATION IN THE COMMON OR WHITE SHRIMP , PENAEUS SETIFERUS

118

Bottom Soil and Water Quality Management in Shrimp Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine shrimp farming has become an important component of aquaculture. Water and soil conditions have a great influence on the efficiency of shrimp production, and a review of water quality and bottom soil management will be provided. After a shrimp pond has been drained for harvest, organic carbon analyses can indicate if organic matter concentrations are too low (< 0.5%)

Claude E. Boyd

2003-01-01

119

Water quality control using Spirulina platensis in shrimp culture tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cyanobacterium (Spirulina platensis) was co-cultured with black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) for water quality control. We evaluated the effects of: (1) three S. platensis trial conditions on inorganic nitrogen concentrations at one shrimp density (S. platensis trial conditions included: absent, nonharvested and semicontinuous harvesting) and (2) two shrimp densities on inorganic nitrogen concentrations, with and without S. platensis. Semicontinuous

Benjamas Chuntapa; Sorawit Powtongsook; Piamsak Menasveta

2003-01-01

120

Biological treatment of shrimp production wastewater.  

PubMed

Over the last few decades, there has been an increase in consumer demand for shrimp, which has resulted in its worldwide aquaculture production. In the United States, the stringent enforcement of environmental regulations encourages shrimp farmers to develop new technologies, such as recirculating raceway systems. This is a zero-water exchange system capable of producing high-density shrimp yields. The system also produces wastewater characterized by high levels of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, and organic carbon, which make waste management costs prohibitive. Shrimp farmers have a great need for a waste management method that is effective and economical. One such method is the sequencing batch reactor (SBR). A SBR is a variation of the activated sludge biological treatment process. This process uses multiple steps in the same reactor to take the place of multiple reactors in a conventional treatment system. The SBR accomplishes equalization, aeration, and clarification in a timed sequence in a single reactor system. This is achieved through reactor operation in sequences, which includes fill, react, settle, decant, and idle. A laboratory scale SBR was successfully operated using shrimp aquaculture wastewater. The wastewater contained high concentrations of carbon and nitrogen. By operating the reactors sequentially, namely, aerobic and anoxic modes, nitrification and denitrification were achieved as well as removal of carbon. Ammonia in the waste was nitrified within 4 days. The denitrification of nitrate was achieved by the anoxic process, and 100% removal of nitrate was observed within 15 days of reactor operation. PMID:19396482

Boopathy, Raj

2009-07-01

121

Stable hydrogen isotopes record the summering grounds of eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis)  

PubMed Central

Bats face numerous threats associated with global environmental change, including the rapid expansion of wind-energy facilities, emerging infectious disease, and habitat loss. An understanding of the movement and migration patterns of these highly dispersive animals would help reveal how spatially localized the impacts from these threats are likely to be on bat populations, thus aiding in their conservation. Stable hydrogen isotope ratios (?2H) can be used to infer regions where bats have foraged during the summer molt season, thus allowing an assessment of summering location and distance of movement of bats sampled during other times of year. However, a major impediment to the application of ?2H for inference of bat movements is that the relationship between ?2H of bat hair and precipitation tends to be species specific and is still unknown for some key species of conservation concern. We addressed this issue by using geo-referenced museum specimens to calibrate the relationship between ?2H of hair (?2Hhair) and long-term ?2H of growing-season precipitation (?2HGSprecip) at the site of collection for eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis), one of the main species of bats experiencing large numbers of fatalities at wind-energy facilities in North America. Based on comparison of ?2Hhair and ?2HGSprecip values for males we estimated a period of molt of June 14–August 7. Within this period, male and female red bats exhibited a significant positive relationship between ?2Hhair and ?2HGSprecip. These results establish the relationship between ?2Hhair and ?2HGSprecip for red bats, which is necessary for the use of ?2Hhair to infer the movement and migration patterns of this important species. These results provide a critical resource to conservation biologists working to assess the impacts of environmental change on bat populations. PMID:25337458

Pylant, Cortney L.; Keller, Stephen R.

2014-01-01

122

An XMM-Newton Study of the Coronae of $?^2$ Coronae Borealis  

E-print Network

(Abridged) We present results of XMM-Newton observations of the RS CVn binary $\\sigma^2$ Coronae Borealis. The RGS and EPIC MOS2 spectra were simultaneously fitted with collisional ionization equilibrium plasma models to determine coronal abundances of various elements. Contrary to the solar first ionization potential (FIP) effect in which elements with a low FIP are overabundant in the corona compared to the solar photosphere, and contrary to the ``inverse'' FIP effect observed in several active RS CVn binaries, coronal abundance ratios in $\\sigma^2$ CrB show a complex pattern as supported by similar findings in the Chandra HETGS analysis of $\\sigma^2$ CrB with a different methodology (Osten et al. 2003). Low-FIP elements ($<10$ eV) have their abundance ratios relative to Fe consistent with the solar photospheric ratios, whereas high-FIP elements have their abundance ratios increase with increasing FIP. We find that the coronal Fe abundance is consistent with the stellar photospheric value, indicating that there is no metal depletion in $\\sigma^2$ CrB. However, we obtain a higher Fe absolute abundance than in Osten et al. (2003). Except for Ar and S, our absolute abundances are about 1.5 times larger than those reported by Osten et al. (2003). However, a comparison of their model with our XMM-Newton data (and vice versa) shows that both models work adequately in general. We find, therefore, no preference for one methodology over the other to derive coronal abundances. Despite the systematic discrepancy in absolute abundances, our abundance ratios are very close to those obtained by Osten et al. (2003). Finally, we confirm the measurement of a low density in \\ion{O}{7} ($< 4 \\times 10^{10}$ cm$^{-3}$), but could not confirm the higher densities measured in spectral lines formed at higher temperatures.

J. A. Suh; M. Audard; M. Guedel; F. B. S. Paerels

2005-06-10

123

THE CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENT OF R CORONAE BOREALIS: WHITE DWARF MERGER OR FINAL-HELIUM-SHELL FLASH?  

SciTech Connect

In 2007, R Coronae Borealis (R CrB) went into a historically deep and long decline. In this state, the dust acts like a natural coronagraph at visible wavelengths, allowing faint nebulosity around the star to be seen. Imaging has been obtained from 0.5 to 500 {mu}m with Gemini/GMOS, Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2, Spitzer/MIPS, and Herschel/SPIRE. Several of the structures around R CrB are cometary globules caused by wind from the star streaming past dense blobs. The estimated dust mass of the knots is consistent with their being responsible for the R CrB declines if they form along the line of sight to the star. In addition, there is a large diffuse shell extending up to 4 pc away from the star containing cool 25 K dust that is detected all the way out to 500 {mu}m. The spectral energy distribution of R CrB can be well fitted by a 150 AU disk surrounded by a very large diffuse envelope which corresponds to the size of the observed nebulosity. The total masses of the disk and envelope are 10{sup -4} and 2 M{sub Sun }, respectively, assuming a gas-to-dust ratio of 100. The evidence pointing toward a white dwarf merger or a final-helium-shell flash origin for R CrB is contradictory. The shell and the cometary knots are consistent with a fossil planetary nebula. Along with the fact that R CrB shows significant lithium in its atmosphere, this supports the final-helium-shell flash. However, the relatively high inferred mass of R CrB and its high fluorine abundance support a white dwarf merger.

Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Andrews, J. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Sugerman, Ben E. K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Goucher College, 1021 Dulaney Valley Rd., Baltimore, MD 21204 (United States); Adam Stanford, S. [IGPP, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Whitney, B. A. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut St. Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Honor, J.; Babler, B. [Department of Astronomy, 475 North Charter St., University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Barlow, M. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Gordon, K. D.; Bond, Howard E.; Matsuura, M. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Geballe, T. R. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); De Marco, O. [Department of Physics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Lawson, W. A. [School of PEMS, University of New South Wales, ADFA, P.O. Box 7916, Canberra, ACT 2610 (Australia); Sibthorpe, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Olofsson, G. [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Polehampton, E. [Space Science and Technology Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Gomez, H. L.; Hargrave, P. C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, 5 The Parade, Cardiff, Wales CF24 3YB (United Kingdom); Ivison, R. J., E-mail: gclayton@phys.lsu.edu, E-mail: jandrews@phys.lsu.edu, E-mail: ben.sugerman@goucher.edu, E-mail: stanford@physics.ucdavis.edu, E-mail: bwhitney@spacescience.org, E-mail: jhonor@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: brian@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: mjb@star.ucl.ac.uk [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, ROE, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); and others

2011-12-10

124

Using 16O/18O to Determine the Evolutionary History of the R Coronae Borealis Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of the Galactic hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) and R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars for which oxygen isotopic ratios can be measured, all of them show 16O/18O < 5, values that are orders of magnitude lower than measured in other stars (the Solar value is 500). This suggests that most if not all HdC and RCB stars are highly enriched in 18O. This is an important clue in determining the evolutionary pathways of HdC and RCB stars, for which two models have been proposed: the double degenerate (white dwarf (WD) merger), and the final helium-shell flash (FF). No overproduction of 18O is expected in the FF scenario. However, some RCB stars also show characteristics, such as 13C and Lithium, seen in FF stars. Therefore, we are conducting a survey all the RCB stars in the LMC and SMC for the characteristics of a WD merger or a FF. Most of the stars have been surveyed for 13C already and we plan to survey them for Lithium in the future. This proposal is to use Gemini/Flamingos-2 to survey all the stars, which are cool enough to show CO bands, for the presence of 18O near 2.3 micron. The Magellanic Clouds provide an unbiased, relatively complete sample of RCB stars which are at a known distance so their bolometric luminosities can be used in our stellar evolution models. This survey, combined with our models, will reveal the true fraction of RCB stars formed by each of the proposed scenarios.

Clayton, Geoffrey; Geballe, Tom; Welch, Douglas; Tisserand, Patrick

2013-08-01

125

Stable hydrogen isotopes record the summering grounds of eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis).  

PubMed

Bats face numerous threats associated with global environmental change, including the rapid expansion of wind-energy facilities, emerging infectious disease, and habitat loss. An understanding of the movement and migration patterns of these highly dispersive animals would help reveal how spatially localized the impacts from these threats are likely to be on bat populations, thus aiding in their conservation. Stable hydrogen isotope ratios (? (2)H) can be used to infer regions where bats have foraged during the summer molt season, thus allowing an assessment of summering location and distance of movement of bats sampled during other times of year. However, a major impediment to the application of ? (2)H for inference of bat movements is that the relationship between ? (2)H of bat hair and precipitation tends to be species specific and is still unknown for some key species of conservation concern. We addressed this issue by using geo-referenced museum specimens to calibrate the relationship between ? (2)H of hair (? (2)Hhair) and long-term ? (2)H of growing-season precipitation (? (2)HGSprecip) at the site of collection for eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis), one of the main species of bats experiencing large numbers of fatalities at wind-energy facilities in North America. Based on comparison of ? (2)Hhair and ? (2)HGSprecip values for males we estimated a period of molt of June 14-August 7. Within this period, male and female red bats exhibited a significant positive relationship between ? (2)Hhair and ? (2)HGSprecip. These results establish the relationship between ? (2)Hhair and ? (2)HGSprecip for red bats, which is necessary for the use of ? (2)Hhair to infer the movement and migration patterns of this important species. These results provide a critical resource to conservation biologists working to assess the impacts of environmental change on bat populations. PMID:25337458

Pylant, Cortney L; Nelson, David M; Keller, Stephen R

2014-01-01

126

Effects of southern flying squirrels Glaucomys volans on red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis reproductive success  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anecdotal data gathered from many populations suggest that southern flying squirrel (SFS, Glaucomys volans) use of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker's (RCW, Picoides borealis) nest and roost cavities may negatively affect RCW populations. We conducted a controlled experiment to determine the effects of SFSs on RCW reproductive success. During the 1994 and 1995 breeding seasons, SFSs were removed from 30 RCW clusters and 32 clusters served as controls. SFSs were the most frequently encountered occupants of RCW cavities and used 20-33% of RCW cavities in control and treatment clusters over both years. Treatment groups produced significantly more successful nests (??? 1 fledgling) than control groups in 1994. In 1995 however, there was no difference in the number of successful nests. In both years, RCW groups nesting in treatment clusters produced significantly more fledglings than groups in control clusters in each of four experimental areas, averaging approximately 0.7 additional fledglings per nesting group. Loss of entire clutches or broods, possibly as a result of predation or abandonment, was a major factor limiting reproduction in control groups in 1994. In contrast, differences in partial brood loss appeared to be the cause of differential fledging success in 1995 Usurpation of RCW roost cavities by SFSs may have placed greater energetic demands on RCWs for cavity defence or thermoregulation, thus reducing energy available for reproduction. Our results show that SFS use of RCW cavities during the breeding season has a significant impact on RCWs and that management of RCW populations should include activities that either minimize SFS populations in RCW clusters or limit access of SFSs to RCW cavities.

Laves, K.S.; Loeb, S.C.

1999-01-01

127

Hearing and hunting in red bats (Lasiurus borealis, Vespertilionidae): audiogram and ear properties.  

PubMed

We examined aspects of hearing in the red bat (Lasiurus borealis) related to its use of biosonar. Evoked potential audiograms, obtained from volume-conducted auditory brainstem responses, were obtained in two bats, and the sound pressure transformation of the pinna was measured in three specimens. Field-recorded echolocation signals were analysed for comparison. The fundamental sonar search calls sweep from 45 to 30 kHz (peak energy at 35 kHz), approach-phase calls sweep from 65 to 35 kHz (peak 40 kHz) and terminal calls sweep from 70 to 30 kHz (peak 45 kHz). The most sensitive region of the audiogram extended from 10 kHz to 45-55 kHz, with maximum sensitivity as low as 20 dB SPL occurring between 25 and 30 kHz. A relative threshold minimum occurred between 40 and 50 kHz. With increasing frequency, the acoustic axis of the pinna moves upwards and medially. The sound pressure transformation was noteworthy near 40-45 kHz; the acoustic axis was closest to the midline, the -3 dB acceptance angles showed local minima, and the pinna gain and interaural intensity difference were maximal. These results are related to the known echolocation and foraging behavior of this species and match the spectral components of approach- and final-phase calls. We conclude that co-evolution with hearing prey has put a higher selective pressure on optimizing localization and tracking of prey than on improving detection performance. PMID:9390945

Obrist, M K; Wenstrup, J J

1998-01-01

128

Using 16O/18O to Determine the Evolutionary History of the R Coronae Borealis Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All of the Galactic hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) and R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars for which oxygen isotopic ratios can be measured, show 16O/18O < 5, values that are orders of magnitude lower than measured in other stars (the Solar value is 500). This suggests that most if not all HdC and RCB stars are highly enriched in 18O. This is an important clue to determining the evolutionary pathways of HdC and RCB stars, for which two models have been proposed: the double degenerate (white dwarf (WD) merger), and the final helium-shell flash (FF). No overproduction of 18O is expected in the FF scenario. However, some RCB stars also show characteristics, such as 13C and Lithium, seen in FF stars. Therefore, we are conducting a survey of all the RCB stars in the LMC and SMC for the characteristics of a WD merger or a FF. Most of the stars have been surveyed for 13C already, and we are also planning to survey them for Lithium. But no RCB star in the Magellanic Clouds has been observed for 18O. The Magellanic Clouds provide an unbiased, relatively complete sample of RCB stars which are at a known distance so their bolometric luminosities can be used in our stellar evolution models. This proposal is to use Gemini/Flamingos-2 to survey all of the Magellanic Cloud stars, which are cool enough to show CO bands, for the presence of 18O near 2.3 micron. This survey, combined with our stellar evolution models, will reveal the true fraction of RCB stars formed by each of the proposed scenarios.

Clayton, Geoffrey; Geballe, Tom; Welch, Douglas; Tisserand, Patrick

2014-08-01

129

DISCOVERY OF BRIGHT GALACTIC R CORONAE BOREALIS AND DY PERSEI VARIABLES: RARE GEMS MINED FROM ACVS  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a machine-learning (ML)-based search for new R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars and DY Persei-like stars (DYPers) in the Galaxy using cataloged light curves from the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) Catalog of Variable Stars (ACVS). RCB stars-a rare class of hydrogen-deficient carbon-rich supergiants-are of great interest owing to the insights they can provide on the late stages of stellar evolution. DYPers are possibly the low-temperature, low-luminosity analogs to the RCB phenomenon, though additional examples are needed to fully establish this connection. While RCB stars and DYPers are traditionally identified by epochs of extreme dimming that occur without regularity, the ML search framework more fully captures the richness and diversity of their photometric behavior. We demonstrate that our ML method can use newly discovered RCB stars to identify additional candidates within the same data set. Our search yields 15 candidates that we consider likely RCB stars/DYPers: new spectroscopic observations confirm that four of these candidates are RCB stars and four are DYPers. Our discovery of four new DYPers increases the number of known Galactic DYPers from two to six; noteworthy is that one of the new DYPers has a measured parallax and is m Almost-Equal-To 7 mag, making it the brightest known DYPer to date. Future observations of these new DYPers should prove instrumental in establishing the RCB connection. We consider these results, derived from a machine-learned probabilistic classification catalog, as an important proof-of-concept for the efficient discovery of rare sources with time-domain surveys.

Miller, A. A.; Richards, J. W.; Bloom, J. S.; Cenko, S. B.; Silverman, J. M.; Starr, D. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Stassun, K. G., E-mail: amiller@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

2012-08-20

130

Guianas-Brazil Shrimp Fishery and Related U.S. Research Activity  

E-print Network

grounds extend from Trinidad south to the mouth of the Amazon River. Brown shrimp. Penaeus subtil is. pink-Brazil offshore shrimp fishery. The Guianas-Brazil fishery grounds extend from Trinidad to south of the Amazon River (Fig. 1). Brown shrimp, Penaeus subtilis, pink-spotted shrimp, P. brasiliensis, pink shrimp, P

131

Albertonykus borealis, a new alvarezsaur (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Maastrichtian of Alberta, Canada: implications for the systematics and ecology of the Alvarezsauridae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new alvarezsaur, Albertonykus borealis, is described from the Lower Maastrichtian of the Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada. Forelimb and hindlimb elements from at least two individuals were recovered from the Albertosaurus bonebed at Dry Island Provincial Park, along with pedal phalanges from nearby localities. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Albertonykus is the sister taxon of the Asian clade Mononykinae, consistent

Nicholas R. Longrich; Philip J. Currie

2009-01-01

132

Prime Rib Roast Shrimp & Penne Alfredo  

E-print Network

Monday Prime Rib Roast Shrimp & Penne Alfredo Green Bean Almandine Fresh Vegetable Medley Sauteed and Cheese Whole Green Beans Fried Green Tomato's Potato Salad/Cole Slaw Grill Special: Flank Steak Soups: Chili and Beef Vegetable Thursday BBQ Pulled Turkey BBQ Pork Steamed Rice Collard Greens Macaroni

Almor, Amit

133

MFR PAPER 1171 Shrimp taste and vitamin  

E-print Network

MFR PAPER 1171 Shrimp taste and vitamin content did not differ markedly in thermal and microwave been done on vitamin anal '>es of \\egetables cooked b) micro~\\ ave and ~onven ti )nalmean hot spot. by employing peliodic stilTing. Vitamin selected for thi "tud) \\~e;e those \\\\ hich had been

134

COBALT-60 Gamma Irradiation of Shrimp.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meta- and ortho-tyrosine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in conjunction with electrochemical detection in shrimp irradiated using cobalt-60 gamma radiation in the absorbed dose range 0.8 to 6.0 kGy, in nonirradiated shrimp, and in bovine serum albumin (BSA) irradiated in dilute aqueous solution at 25.0 kGy. Ortho-tyrosine was measured in nonirradiated BSA. Para-, meta-, and ortho-tyrosine were measured using HPLC in conjunction with uv-absorption detection in dilute aqueous solutions of phenylalanine irradiated in the absorbed dose range 16.0 to 195.0 kGy. The measured yields of tyrosine isomers were approximately linear as a function of absorbed dose in shrimp, and in irradiated solutions of phenylalanine up to 37.0 kGy. The occurrence of meta- and ortho-tyrosine, which had formerly been considered unique radiolytic products, has not previously been reported in nonirradiated shrimp or BSA. The conventional hydrolyzation and analytical techniques used in the present study to measure meta- and ortho-tyrosine may provide the basis for a method to detect and determine the dose used in food irradiation.

Sullivan, Nancy L. B.

135

Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation of shrimp  

SciTech Connect

Meta- and ortho-tyrosine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in conjunction with electrochemical detection in shrimp irradiated using cobalt-60 gamma radiation in the absorbed dose range 0.8 to 6.0 kGy, in nonirradiated shrimp, and in bovine serum albumin (BSA) irradiated in dilute aqueous solution at 25.0 kGy. Ortho-tyrosine was measured in nonirradiated BSA. Para-, meta-, and ortho-tyrosine was measured using HPLC in conjunction with uv-absorption detection in dilute aqueous solutions of phenylalanine irradiated in the absorbed dose range 16.0 to 195.0 kGy. The measured yields of tyrosine isomers were approximately linear as a function of absorbed dose in shrimp, and in irradiated solutions of phenylalanine up to 37.0 kGy. The occurrence of meta- and ortho-tyrosine, which had formerly been considered unique radiolytic products, has not previously been reported in nonirradiated shrimp or BSA. The conventional hydrolyzation and analytical techniques used in the present study to measure meta- and ortho-tyrosine may provide the basis for a method to detect and determine the dose used in food irradiation.

Sullivan, N.L.B.

1993-01-01

136

The Circumstellar Environment of R Coronae Borealis: White Dwarf Merger or Final-helium-shell Flash?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2007, R Coronae Borealis (R CrB) went into a historically deep and long decline. In this state, the dust acts like a natural coronagraph at visible wavelengths, allowing faint nebulosity around the star to be seen. Imaging has been obtained from 0.5 to 500 ?m with Gemini/GMOS, Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2, Spitzer/MIPS, and Herschel/SPIRE. Several of the structures around R CrB are cometary globules caused by wind from the star streaming past dense blobs. The estimated dust mass of the knots is consistent with their being responsible for the R CrB declines if they form along the line of sight to the star. In addition, there is a large diffuse shell extending up to 4 pc away from the star containing cool 25 K dust that is detected all the way out to 500 ?m. The spectral energy distribution of R CrB can be well fitted by a 150 AU disk surrounded by a very large diffuse envelope which corresponds to the size of the observed nebulosity. The total masses of the disk and envelope are 10-4 and 2 M ?, respectively, assuming a gas-to-dust ratio of 100. The evidence pointing toward a white dwarf merger or a final-helium-shell flash origin for R CrB is contradictory. The shell and the cometary knots are consistent with a fossil planetary nebula. Along with the fact that R CrB shows significant lithium in its atmosphere, this supports the final-helium-shell flash. However, the relatively high inferred mass of R CrB and its high fluorine abundance support a white dwarf merger. Based in part on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, and from the data archive at STScI, which are operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Stanford, S. Adam; Whitney, B. A.; Honor, J.; Babler, B.; Barlow, M. J.; Gordon, K. D.; Andrews, J. E.; Geballe, T. R.; Bond, Howard E.; De Marco, O.; Lawson, W. A.; Sibthorpe, B.; Olofsson, G.; Polehampton, E.; Gomez, H. L.; Matsuura, M.; Hargrave, P. C.; Ivison, R. J.; Wesson, R.; Leeks, S. J.; Swinyard, B. M.; Lim, T. L.

2011-12-01

137

What is the True Population of R Coronae Borealis Stars in the Galaxy?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are rare hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich supergiants. Two evolutionary scenarios have been suggested, a double degenerate merger of two white dwarfs (WDs), or a final helium shell flash in a PN central star. The evidence pointing toward a WD merger or a FF origin for RCB stars is contradictory. The distribution on the sky and radial velocities of the RCB stars tend toward those of the bulge population but a much larger sample of stars is needed to determine the true population. We need to discover RCB much more efficiently. In order to do this we are pursuing three lines of attack: 1. Light Curves: Using the traditional technique of identifying RCB stars from their characteristic large and irregular light variations, we have we have investigated the stars in the ASAS-3 south survey. We have discovered 21 new RCB stars. The different analysis applied allowed us to extend our detection efficiency to fainter magnitudes that would not have been easily accessible to classical analysis based on light-curve variability. 2. Color-Color Diagrams: All RCB stars have IR excesses. Using the recent release of the WISE All-Sky Catalog, a series of IR color-color cuts have produced a sample of candidates 1600) that may yield over 200 new RCB star identifications. A pilot project to get spectra of the 200 brighter candidates has yielded an unexpectedly high new discovery rate 20%) based on photometric colors alone. 3. Spectral Classification: We are attempting to develop a quantitative spectral classification system for the RCB stars so that they can perhaps be identified without an accompanying light curve. The cooler RCB stars look like carbon stars with strong C2 bands, but they can be differentiated from carbon stars by their extreme hydrogen deficiency and very low 13C/12C ratio. Also, the red CN bands are much weaker in RCB stars than in carbon stars. The number of RCB stars in the Galaxy may be consistent with the predicted number of He/CO WD mergers. Solving the mystery of how the RCB stars evolve would be a watershed event in the study of stellar evolution that will lead to a better understanding of other important types of stellar merger events such as Type Ia SNe.

Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Tisserand, P.; Welch, D. L.; Zhang, W.

2013-01-01

138

The ongoing pursuit of R Coronae Borealis stars: the ASAS-3 survey strikes again  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) are rare, hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich supergiant variable stars that are likely the evolved merger products of pairs of CO and He white dwarfs. Only 55 RCB stars have been found in our galaxy and their distribution on the sky is weighted heavily by microlensing survey field positions. A less biased wide-area survey would enable us to test competing evolutionary scenarios, understand the population or populations that produce RCBs, and constrain their formation rate. Aims: The ASAS-3 survey monitored the sky south of declination +28 deg between 2000 and 2010 to a limiting magnitude of V = 14. We searched ASAS-3 for RCB variables using several different methods to ensure that the probability of RCB detection was as high as possible and to reduce selection biases based on luminosity, temperature, dust production activity and shell brightness. Methods: Candidates whose light curves were visually inspected were pre-selected based on their infrared (IR) excesses due to warm dust in their circumstellar shells using the WISE and/or 2MASS catalogues. Criteria on light curve variability were also applied when necessary to minimise the number of objects. Initially, we searched for RCB stars among the ASAS-3 ACVS1.1 variable star catalogue, then among the entire ASAS-3 south source catalogue, and finally directly interrogated the light curve database for objects that were not catalogued in either of those. We then acquired spectra of 104 stars to determine their real nature using the SSO/WiFeS spectrograph. Results: We report 21 newly discovered RCB stars and 2 new DY Per stars. Two previously suspected RCB candidates were also spectroscopically confirmed. Our methods allowed us to extend our detection efficiency to fainter magnitudes that would not have been easily accessible to discovery techniques based on light curve variability. The overall detection efficiency is about 90% for RCBs with maximum light brighter than V ~ 13. Conclusions: With these new discoveries, 76 RCBs are now known in our Galaxy and 22 in the Magellanic Clouds. This growing sample is of great value to constrain the peculiar and disparate atmosphere composition of RCBs. Most importantly, we show that the spatial distribution and apparent magnitudes of Galactic RCB stars is consistent with RCBs being part of the Galactic bulge population.

Tisserand, P.; Clayton, G. C.; Welch, D. L.; Pilecki, B.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Kilkenny, D.

2013-03-01

139

76 FR 18782 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis...shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead...shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would not be likely...

2011-04-05

140

78 FR 50387 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination...shrimp (frozen shrimp) from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam). For information on the estimated subsidy...

2013-08-19

141

50 CFR 622.201 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. 622.201 Section...Atlantic Region § 622.201 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. (a) Commercial Vessel Permits for Rock Shrimp (South Atlantic EEZ)....

2013-10-01

142

U.S. southeastern shrimp and reef fish resources and their management  

E-print Network

comprised 65% of the total weight, with penaeid shrimp at 16%, nonpenaeid shrimp crustaceans at 13%, non-crustacean invertebrates at 4%, and debris at 1%. In the southeastern Atlantic, finfish accounted for 47%, with penaeid shrimp at 24%, invertebrates...

Scott-Denton, Elizabeth

2009-05-15

143

75 FR 1078 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and...

2010-01-08

144

76 FR 18157 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation...frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Brazil, India and Thailand. The anniversary...Kate Johnson at (202) 482-4929 (Brazil), Henry Almond at (202)...

2011-04-01

145

75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and...

2010-04-28

146

75 FR 22370 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic...of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic...Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910 (December 23,...

2010-04-28

147

75 FR 57501 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and...

2010-09-21

148

75 FR 48724 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and...

2010-08-11

149

78 FR 50385 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Warmwater Shrimp from India'' (Decision Memorandum...Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing...Public versions of all business proprietary documents...Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia...Devi Seafoods, because doing so risks disclosure...

2013-08-19

150

Progress in the development of shrimp cell cultures in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary shrimp cell cultures were developed from lymphoid organ and ovaries of black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, in double-strength Leibovitz's L-15 medium supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum, 1% glucose, 5 g\\/L NaCl, 15% shrimp meat extract. The optimum conditions for primary culture in vitro were obtained in L-15 medium with an osmolality of approximately 730 ± 10 mmol\\/kg, a

J. Kasornchandra; R. Khongpradit; U. Ekpanithanpong; S. Boonyaratpalin

1999-01-01

151

Quantitative role of shrimp fecal bacteria in organic matter fluxes in a recirculating shrimp aquaculture system.  

PubMed

Microorganisms play integral roles in the cycling of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for fish and shellfish production. We quantified the pathways of shrimp fecal bacterial activities and their role in C- and N-flux partitioning relevant to culturing Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, in RAS. Freshly produced feces from P. vannamei contained 0.6-7 × 10(10) bacteria g(-1) dry wt belonging to Bacteroidetes (7%), Alphaproteobacteria (4%), and, within the Gammaproteobacteria, almost exclusively to the genus Vibrio (61%). Because of partial disintegration of the feces (up to 27% within 12 h), the experimental seawater became inoculated with fecal bacteria. Bacteria grew rapidly in the feces and in the seawater, and exhibited high levels of aminopeptidase, chitinase, chitobiase, alkaline phosphatase, ?- and ?-glucosidase, and lipase activities. Moreover, fecal bacteria enriched the protein content of the feces within 12 h, potentially enriching the feces for the coprophagous shrimp. The bacterial turnover time was much faster in feces (1-10 h) than in mature RAS water (350 h). Thus, shrimp fecal bacteria not only inoculate RAS water but also contribute to bacterial abundance and productivity, and regulate system processes important for shrimp health. PMID:21426366

Beardsley, Christine; Moss, Shaun; Malfatti, Francesca; Azam, Farooq

2011-07-01

152

Energetic consequences of flight speeds of foraging red and hoary bats (Lasiurus borealis and Lasiurus cinereus; Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)  

PubMed

We used Doppler radar readings of the flight speeds of foraging, lactating female Lasiurus borealis (N=826) and Lasiurus cinereus (N=544) to test morphologically based predictions about their flight performance. Both species flew at speeds (V=6.7 and 7.7 m s-1, respectively) that differed significantly from predicted minimum power speed (Vmp; 4.0 and 5.08 m s-1, respectively) or predicted maximum range speed (Vmr; 5.25 and 6.69 m s-1, respectively), perhaps reflecting the active pursuit of moths performing evasive manoeuvres. Estimates of costs of flight and lactation are combined with data on prey size together with encounter and capture rates to illustrate the energetic benefits accruing to these species when they forage in concentrations of insects. PMID:9320162

Salcedo; Fenton; Hickey; Blake

1995-01-01

153

High-Resolution Optical Spectroscopy of the R Coronae Borealis Star V532 Ophiuchi at Maximum Light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution optical spectra of the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) star V532 Oph at light maximum are discussed. The absolute visual magnitude MV of the star is found to be -4.9 ± 0.5. The elemental abundances suggest the star belongs to the majority class of RCB stars but is among the most O-poor of this class with mild enhancements of heavy elements Y, Zr, Ba, and La. The C2 Swan bands are weak in V532 Oph relative to R CrB. Other aspects of the high-resolution spectrum confirm that V532 Oph is representative of majority RCBs, i.e., the radial velocity is variable, circumstellar material is present, and the photosphere feeds a high-velocity stellar wind.

Kameswara Rao, N.; Lambert, David L.; Woolf, Vincent M.; Hema, B. P.

2014-11-01

154

Comparison of NIMS and MALDI platforms for neuropeptide and lipid mass spectrometric imaging in C. borealis brain tissue  

PubMed Central

Nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS) is a recently developed matrix-free laser desorption/ionization technique that has shown promise for peptide analyses. It is also useful in mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) studies of small molecule drugs, metabolites, and lipids, minimizing analyte diffusion caused by matrix application. In this study, NIMS and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MSI of a crustacean model organism Cancer borealis brain were compared. MALDI was found to perform better than NIMS in these neuropeptide imaging experiments. Twelve neuropeptides were identified in MALDI MSI experiments whereas none were identified in NIMS MSI experiments. In addition, lipid profiles were compared using each ionization method. Both techniques provided similar lipid profiles in the m/z range 700 – 900. PMID:23544036

Sturm, Robert M; Greer, Tyler; Chen, Ruibing; Hensen, Broderick; Li, Lingjun

2013-01-01

155

Comparison of NIMS and MALDI platforms for neuropeptide and lipid mass spectrometric imaging in C. borealis brain tissue.  

PubMed

Nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS) is a recently developed matrix-free laser desorption/ionization technique that has shown promise for peptide analyses. It is also useful in mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) studies of small molecule drugs, metabolites, and lipids, minimizing analyte diffusion caused by matrix application. In this study, NIMS and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MSI of a crustacean model organism Cancer borealis brain were compared. MALDI was found to perform better than NIMS in these neuropeptide imaging experiments. Twelve neuropeptides were identified in MALDI MSI experiments whereas none were identified in NIMS MSI experiments. In addition, lipid profiles were compared using each ionization method. Both techniques provided similar lipid profiles in the m/z range 700 - 900. PMID:23544036

Sturm, Robert M; Greer, Tyler; Chen, Ruibing; Hensen, Broderick; Li, Lingjun

2013-01-01

156

Abundance of Ohio shrimp (Macrobrachium ohione) and Glass shrimp (Palaemonetes kadiakensis) in the unimpounded Upper Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large rivers of the United States have been altered by construction and maintenance of navigation channels, which has resulted in habitat loss and degradation. Using 7 y of Long Term Resource Monitoring Program data collected from the unimpounded upper Mississippi River, we investigated Ohio and Glass Shrimp abundance collected from four physical habitats of the unimpounded upper Mississippi River: main channel border, main channel border with wing dike, open side channel and closed side channel. Our objective was to assess associations between Ohio and Glass Shrimp abundance, environmental measurements and the four habitats to better understand the ecology of these species in a channelized river system. Ohio Shrimp were most abundant in the open side channels, while Glass Shrimp were most abundant in the main channel border wing dike habitat. Thirty-two percent of the variance in Glass Shrimp abundance was explained by year 1995, year 1998, water temperature, depth of gear deployment, Secchi disk transparency and river elevation. Approximately 8% of variation in Ohio Shrimp abundance was explained by Secchi disk transparency. Catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) was greatest in 1998 for Glass Shrimp but lowest in 1997. Conversely, CPUE was greatest in 1996 for Ohio Shrimp and lowest in 2000. Both species exhibited inter-annual variability in CPUE. Long-term impacts of river modifications on aquatic invertebrates have not been well documented in many large, river systems and warrants further study. The findings from this study provide ecological information on Glass and Ohio Shrimp in a channelized river system.

Barko, V.A.; Hrabik, R.A.

2004-01-01

157

Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.  

PubMed

Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus) were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ?T*?4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times. PMID:24244273

Hess, David; Brücker, Christoph; Hegner, Franziska; Balmert, Alexander; Bleckmann, Horst

2013-01-01

158

Vortex Formation with a Snapping Shrimp Claw  

PubMed Central

Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus) were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ?T*?4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times. PMID:24244273

Hess, David; Brucker, Christoph; Hegner, Franziska; Balmert, Alexander; Bleckmann, Horst

2013-01-01

159

Biology, genome organization, and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp.  

PubMed

As shrimp aquaculture has evolved from a subsistent farming activity to an economically important global industry, viral diseases have also become a serious threat to the sustainable growth and productivity of this industry. Parvoviruses represent an economically important group of viruses that has greatly affected shrimp aquaculture. In the early 1980s, an outbreak of a shrimp parvovirus, infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), led to the collapse of penaeid shrimp farming in the Americas. Since then, considerable progress has been made in characterizing the parvoviruses of shrimp and developing diagnostic methods aimed to preventing the spread of diseases caused by these viruses. To date, four parvoviruses are known that infect shrimp; these include IHHNV, hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), spawner-isolated mortality virus (SMV), and lymphoid organ parvo-like virus. Due to the economic repercussions that IHHNV and HPV outbreaks have caused to shrimp farming over the years, studies have been focused mostly on these two pathogens, while information on SMV and LPV remains limited. IHHNV was the first shrimp virus to be sequenced and the first for which highly sensitive diagnostic methods were developed. IHHNV-resistant lines of shrimp were also developed to mitigate the losses caused by this virus. While the losses due to IHHNV have been largely contained in recent years, reports of HPV-induced mortalities in larval stages in hatchery and losses due to reduced growth have increased. This review presents a comprehensive account of the history and current knowledge on the biology, diagnostics methods, genomic features, mechanisms of evolution, and management strategies of shrimp parvoviruses. We also highlighted areas where research efforts should be focused in order to gain further insight on the mechanisms of parvoviral pathogenicity in shrimp that will help to prevent future losses caused by these viruses. PMID:24751195

Dhar, Arun K; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Saksmerprome, Vanvimon; Lakshman, Dilip K

2014-01-01

160

Closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with a new system of aquaculture, i.e., a closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture. The culture system consisted of several shrimp ponds, a mollusk water-purifying pond and a reservoir. During the production cycle, water circulated between the shrimp and mollusk ponds, and the reservoir compensated for water loss from seepage and evaporation. Constricted tagelus, Sinonovacula constricta, was selected as the cultured mollusk, and Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, as the cultured shrimp. The main managing measures during the production cycle were: setting and using the aerators; introducting the probiotic products timely into the shrimp ponds; adopting a “pen-closing” method for controlling shrimp viral epidemics; setting the flow diversion barriers in the mollusk pond to keep the circulating water flowing through the pond along a sine-like curve and serve as substrate for biofilm; no direct feeding was necessary for the cultured mollusk until the co-cultured shrimp was harvested; natural foods in the water from the shrimp ponds was used for their foods. Two sets of the system were used in the experiment in 2002 and satisfactory results were achieved. The average yield of the shrimp was 11 943.5 kg/hm2, and that of the mollusk was 16 965 kg/hm2. After converting the mollusk yield into shrimp yield at their market price ratio, the food coefficient of the entire system averaged at as low as 0.81. The water quality in the ponds was maintained at a desirable level and no viral epidemics were discovered during the production cycle.

Wu, Xiongfei; Zhao, Zhidong; Li, Deshang; Chang, Kangmei; Tong, Zhuanshang; Si, Liegang; Xu, Kaichong; Ge, Bailin

2005-12-01

161

An Economical, Portable System for Hatching Brine Shrimp Artemia spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design and construction of a portable, inexpensive hatching system for brine shrimp Artemia spp. is described. The system design is based on batch culture methodology, which is easily customized to the feeding requirements of a larval system and optimizes the nutritional value of brine shrimp. This system can be set up quickly and provides stable temperature and aeration under a

Richard S. Fulford; D. Allen Rutherford

1998-01-01

162

DOUBLE-RIG SHRIMP TRAWLING IN THE GULF OF MEXICO  

E-print Network

DOUBLE-RIG SHRIMP TRAWLING IN THE GULF OF MEXICO , , FISB AND WILDLIFE SERVICE Vaited Sial, Commissioner Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director DOUBLE-RIG SHRIMP TRAWLING 470 Washington· September 1958 #12;CONTENTS Introduction · . . . · . Double-Trawl Method Rigging

163

Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Vietnam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the job satisfaction of small-scale shrimp trawl fishers in the vicinity of Camau National Park in southern Vietnam. The research sample consisted of 77 fishers who belong to a growing population of shrimp fishers in the region. The results suggest that 60% would change their fishing metier, 78% would leave fishing for…

Sinh, Le Xuan

2012-01-01

164

Sanitation Guidelines for the Breaded-Shrimp Industry  

E-print Network

Sanitation Guidelines for the Breaded-Shrimp Industry UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH OF THE INTERIOR U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES Sanitation Guidelines Dress 12 Habits 13 Supervision 14 in #12;#12;Sanitation Guidelines for the Breaded-Shrimp Industry

165

Microbiological Profile of Pacific Shrimp, Panda/us jordani, Stowed  

E-print Network

. with the exception 01 Pseu- high quality of stowed shrimp. The RSW may become contaminated from an un- clean fIsh hold or from the shrimp itself. The effect of these factors on the ulti- mate microbial quality of RSW seawater (RSW) samples were collected on four occasions. Two of these samples were obtained onboard f

166

Advances in Research of Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis Bacterium (NHPB) Affecting Penaeid Shrimp Aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (NHP) is a severe bacterial disease affecting penaeid shrimp aquaculture. NHP is caused by the gram-negative, pleomorphic, obligately intracellular NHP-bacterium (NHPB) that targets the hepatopancreas tissue of shrimp. NHPB is classified as an ? -proteobacterium and is related to members of the Rickettsia. First reported in 1985 in a Texas shrimp farm, NHP has since affected shrimp farming

Amanda G. Vincent; Jeffrey M. Lotz

2007-01-01

167

An individual-based, spatially-explicit simulation model of the population dynamics of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatially-explicit population models allow a link between demography and the landscape. We developed a spatially-explicit simulation model for the red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis, an endangered and territorial cooperative breeder endemic to the southeastern United States. This kind of model is especially appropriate for this species because it can incorporate the spatial constraints on dispersal of helpers, and because territory locations

Benjamin H. Letcher; Jeffery A. Priddy; Jeffrey R. Walters; Larry B. Crowder

1998-01-01

168

Cellular immune responses against viral pathogens in shrimp.  

PubMed

Shrimp is one of the most important commercial marine species worldwide; however, viral diseases threaten the healthy development of shrimp aquaculture. In order to develop efficient control strategies against viral diseases, researchers have begun focusing increasing attention to the molecular mechanism of shrimp innate immunity. Although knowledge of shrimp humoral immunity has grown significantly in recent years, very little information is available about the cell-mediated immune responses. Several cellular processes such as phagocytosis, apoptosis, and RNA interference critical in cellular immune response play a significant role in endogenous antiviral activity in shrimp. In this review, we summarize the emerging research and highlight key mediators of cellular immune response to viral pathogens. PMID:25111591

Xu, Dandan; Liu, Weifeng; Alvarez, Angel; Huang, Tianzhi

2014-12-01

169

Marine shrimp aquaculture and natural resource degradation in Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rising demand for shrimp in the developed nations has helped to foster a dramatic growth in marine shrimp aquaculture, particularly in South America and South Asia. In Thailand, Marine shrimp aquaculture is now an important earmer of foreign exchange. The growth in Production has been achieved through the expansion of the culture area and the adoption of intensive production methods. The conversion of near-shore areas to shrimp culture, however, is proving to have many consequences that impinge on the environmental integrity of coastal areas. This paper reviews the development of Thailand's marine shrimp culture industry and examines the nature of the environmental impacts that are emerging. It then discusses the implications these have for rural poor and the long-term viability of the culture industry.

Flaherty, Mark; Karnjanakesorn, Choomjet

1995-01-01

170

Immunization with Hypoallergens of Shrimp Allergen Tropomyosin Inhibits Shrimp Tropomyosin Specific IgE Reactivity  

PubMed Central

Designer proteins deprived of its IgE-binding reactivity are being sought as a regimen for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Although shrimp tropomyosin (Met e 1) has long been identified as the major shellfish allergen, no immunotherapy is currently available. In this study, we aim at identifying the Met e 1 IgE epitopes for construction of hypoallergens and to determine the IgE inhibitory capacity of the hypoallergens. IgE-binding epitopes were defined by three online computational models, ELISA and dot-blot using sera from shrimp allergy patients. Based on the epitope data, two hypoallergenic derivatives were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (MEM49) and epitope deletion (MED171). Nine regions on Met e 1 were defined as the major IgE-binding epitopes. Both hypoallergens MEM49 and MED171 showed marked reduction in their in vitro reactivity towards IgE from shrimp allergy patients and Met e 1-sensitized mice, as well as considerable decrease in induction of mast cell degranulation as demonstrated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. Both hypoallergens were able to induce Met e 1-recognizing IgG antibodies in mice, specifically IgG2a antibodies, that strongly inhibited IgE from shrimp allergy subjects and Met e 1-sensitized mice from binding to Met e 1. These results indicate that the two designer hypoallergenic molecules MEM49 and MED171 exhibit desirable preclinical characteristics, including marked reduction in IgE reactivity and allergenicity, as well as ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies. This approach therefore offers promises for development of immunotherapeutic regimen for shrimp tropomyosin allergy. PMID:25365343

Wai, Christine Y. Y.; Leung, Nicki Y. H.; Ho, Marco H. K.; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Shu, Shang An; Leung, Patrick S. C.; Chu, Ka Hou

2014-01-01

171

Isolation of indole-producing bacteria from white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus)  

E-print Network

fozmation during shrimp spoilage. LITERATURE REVIEW Previous research Most of the studies on the decomposition of shrimp and the analysis of indole was done by United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) investigators, although few of these studies...- tion of the shrimp. REFERENCES 1. Anon. 1979. FDA wins contested shrimp decomposition seizure. Food Chem. News. 21:3:30. 2. Barry, H. C. , J. F. Weeks, Jr. and R. E. Duggan. 1956. Effect of storage on decomposed canned shrimp. J. Assoc. Off. Agr...

Smith, Rodney Lee

2012-06-07

172

Systems analysis of a shrimp mariculture system  

E-print Network

mariculture pond 126 Figure D2: Oxygen profile in shrimp ponds. 128 Figure Figure Figure Figure D3: Efi'ect of feed decomposition rate on oxygen level. D0: Effect of' light transmittance on change in oxygen concentration D5: Effect of' feeding level...) also estimated the optimum intensity to be constant (. 03 langleys) for Blue- green algae. The rate of photosynthesis is also dependent on temper- ature, amount of carbon stored within the cell and the limiting nutrients of phosphates or nitrates...

Farnsworth, John Terry

2012-06-07

173

Transglutaminase regulates immune-related genes in shrimp.  

PubMed

Transglutaminase (TGase) is known to be involved in blood coagulation, a conserved defence mechanism among invertebrates. Gene silencing of TGase was previously shown to render shrimp susceptible to both bacterial and viral infections suggesting that TGase is an essential component of the shrimp immune system. Here, we examine the effects of the absence of TGase on the transcriptomic profile of kuruma shrimp by microarray analysis, focussing on genes that are involved in shrimp immunity. Total RNAs from shrimp haemocytes injected with dsRNA specific for TGase and control samples were isolated at 3 and 7 days p.i. and analyzed by microarray. Results revealed that TGase silencing affects the expression of genes in shrimp and caused significant down-regulation of the expressions of crustin and lysozyme. Furthermore, TGase-depleted samples were found to have lower haemocyte counts and higher total bacterial counts in their haemolymph. These results suggest that TGase is an important component of the shrimp immune response and is involved in the regulation of some immune-related genes particularly antimicrobial peptides. PMID:22306779

Fagutao, Fernand F; Maningas, Mary Beth B; Kondo, Hidehiro; Aoki, Takashi; Hirono, Ikuo

2012-05-01

174

Variation of shrimp texture with rigor-mortis  

E-print Network

on the nutritional state and not on type of death of the fish (Love et al. , 1974) ~ The pH in postmortem tissue of warm-blooded animals decreases prior to onset of rigor, then increases slightly as rigor is resolved (Pearson, 1970). However, in shrimp tissue p... t '' t tissue pH. Possibly different levels of lactic acid affected the pH of freshly caught shrimp, depending on the amount of struggle before death. The pH of shrimp during postmortem aging was probably infuenced by the amount of glycogen remaining...

Wilaichon, Wunwiboon

2012-06-07

175

Description of three ecology studies on brown shrimp Penaeus aztecus and white shrimp P. setiferus conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service, Galveston, Texas  

E-print Network

, Sciaeno s ocellata, as predator. COMPARATIVE ABUNDANCES OF BROWN SHRIMP IN VEGETATED AND NON-VEGETATED HABITATS IN A LOUISIANA SPARTINA PATENS MARSH. Penaeid shrimp in the Gulf of Mex1co migrate from open waters into estuaries as postlarvae..., Sciaeno s ocellata, as predator. COMPARATIVE ABUNDANCES OF BROWN SHRIMP IN VEGETATED AND NON-VEGETATED HABITATS IN A LOUISIANA SPARTINA PATENS MARSH. Penaeid shrimp in the Gulf of Mex1co migrate from open waters into estuaries as postlarvae...

Diego, Maria Eugenia de

2012-06-07

176

Sexing Live Pupae and Adults of Two Wax Blooming Beetles, Colposcelis microderoides microderoides and Anatolica polita borealis  

PubMed Central

The wax blooming beetles Colposcelis microderoides microderoides Reitter and Anatolica polita borealis Kaszab (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) are small, flightless beetles living in the Guerbantonggut desert in the northwestern region of China. These beetles were recently found to have wax blooms, and their short life cycle and ease of rearing under laboratory conditions make them excellent models for advanced studies on desert adaptation. To date, dissection has been used for sex identification in these species, whereas a nondestructive method is needed for further studies on sexual dimorphism. Microscopic examinations of pupae and adults revealed distinct differences between the sexes in the 8th abdominal sternites, including the presence of a setose cleft in adult males that is not visible in females, in which the 8th sternite forms a single semicircular plate. The female pupae have a pair of tan papillae and a tan genital orifice, which are absent on the male 8th sternite. These two sexual characteristics can be used to sex live adults and pupae. These methods are simple, nondestructive, 100% accurate, and useful for sex differentiation of dead beetles and some other tenebrionid species (including some pests) in both the field and the laboratory. PMID:24766472

Wang, Yan; Zhang, Fuchun; Ma, Ji

2013-01-01

177

Neuropilar projections of the anterior gastric receptor neuron in the stomatogastric ganglion of the Jonah crab, Cancer borealis.  

PubMed

Sensory neurons provide important feedback to pattern-generating motor systems. In the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system (STNS), feedback from the anterior gastric receptor (AGR), a muscle receptor neuron, shapes the activity of motor circuits in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) via polysynaptic pathways involving anterior ganglia. The AGR soma is located in the dorsal ventricular nerve posterior to the STG and it has been thought that its axon passes through the STG without making contacts. Using high-resolution confocal microscopy with dye-filled neurons, we show here that AGR from the crab Cancer borealis also has local projections within the STG and that these projections form candidate contact sites with STG motor neurons or with descending input fibers from other ganglia. We develop and exploit a new masking method that allows us to potentially separate presynaptic and postsynaptic staining of synaptic markers. The AGR processes in the STG show diversity in shape, number of branches and branching structure. The number of AGR projections in the STG ranges from one to three simple to multiply branched processes. The projections come in close contact with gastric motor neurons and descending neurons and may also be electrically coupled to other neurons of the STNS. Thus, in addition to well described long-loop pathways, it is possible that AGR is involved in integration and pattern regulation directly in the STG. PMID:24312448

Goeritz, Marie L; Bowers, Matthew R; Slepian, Brian; Marder, Eve

2013-01-01

178

First Observations of an R Coronae Borealis Star with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph: RY Sagittarii near Maximum Light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the far-UV (1140-1740 Å) spectrum of the hydrogen-deficient R Coronae Borealis (RCB) star RY Sgr, obtained near maximum light (pulsational phase ~0.1) by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on Hubble Space Telescope. The far-UV spectrum shows a photospheric continuum rising steeply toward longer wavelengths and two prominent emission features at the shorter wavelengths: C II ?1335 and Cl I ?1351 (the latter is radiatively fluoresced by the 10 times stronger C II multiplet). We also find evidence for CO A-X 4th-positive system absorption band heads and possible weak CO fluorescent emissions pumped by C II ?1335, but the inferred column densities are low (~few times 1016 cm-2), consistent with formation in a warm (~5000 K) atmospheric layer. The detection of CO molecules, if confirmed, would be significant, because they are thought to play a key role in the dust ejection episodes of RCB stars through the initiation of ``molecular cooling catastrophes.'' Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by STScI for the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Ayres, T. R.; Lawson, Warrick A.; Drilling, John S.; Woitke, P.; Asplund, Martin

1999-04-01

179

Apron heights around stepped massifs in the Cydonia Mensae region: Do they record the local paleobathymetry of Oceanus Borealis?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of photoclinometry and shadow measurements to determine the basin volume without linking the measurements to a global datum is described. Since the boundary, or shoreline, of the basin cannot be tied to the datum and typically has no useful local relative height to measure, what is needed is a number of measurements of the height of the paleoshorelines distributed across the basin. Photoclinometric profiles are being compiled from Viking Orbiter images of the Cydonia Mensae region, which includes images with high sun elevations, necessary to avoid shadows, and images with low sun elevations, to enable the use of shadow measurements as an independent check, at high resolution (40 to 100 m/pixel). Both asymmetric and symmetric photoclinometric profile models are being used, and the results cross checked with one another to minimize errors. An apron-height map, potentially a paleobathymetric map of part of the margin of Oceanus Borealis, can be compiled from this data to determine whether variations in apron height are consistent with a lacustrine interpretation.

Parker, T. J.; Gorsline, D. S.

1993-01-01

180

Offshore observations of eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis) in the Mid-Atlantic United States using multiple survey methods.  

PubMed

Little is known about the migration and movements of migratory tree-roosting bat species in North America, though anecdotal observations of migrating bats over the Atlantic Ocean have been reported since at least the 1890s. Aerial surveys and boat-based surveys of wildlife off the Atlantic Seaboard detected a possible diurnal migration event of eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis) in September 2012. One bat was sighted approximately 44 km east of Rehoboth Beach, Delaware during a boat-based survey. Eleven additional bats were observed between 16.9 and 41.8 km east of New Jersey, Delaware, and Virginia in high definition video footage collected during digital aerial surveys. Observations were collected incidentally as part of a large baseline study of seabird, marine mammal, and sea turtle distributions and movements in the offshore environment. Digital survey methods also allowed for altitude estimation for several of these bats at >100 m above sea level. These observations provide new evidence of bat movements offshore, and offer insight into their flight heights above sea level and the times of day at which such migrations may occur. PMID:24367614

Hatch, Shaylyn K; Connelly, Emily E; Divoll, Timothy J; Stenhouse, Iain J; Williams, Kathryn A

2013-01-01

181

Shrimp and redfish studies, bryan mound brine disposal site off Freeport, Texas, 1979-1981. Volume IV. Interview sampling survey of shrimp catch and effort. Technical memo  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interview sampling survey of shrimp catch and fishing effort was conducted at specified ports along the Texas coast to strengthen the information base required to determine the effect of the disposal of brine from the Bryan Mound salt dome off Freeport, Texas on commercial brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) and white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) populations in the Gulf of Mexico.

Johnson

1981-01-01

182

21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly...

2014-04-01

183

21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.  

...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.175 Frozen raw...are in a shape similar to that of breaded fish sticks the name is “Breaded shrimp...

2014-04-01

184

MAPPING BURROWING SHRIMP AND SEAGRASS IN YAQUINA ESTUARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Burrowing shrimp and seagrasses create extensive intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats within Pacific NW estuaries. Maps of their populations are useful to inform estuarine managers of locations that deserve special consideration for conservation, and to inform oyster farmers...

185

Diel and Seasonal Occurrence of Pink Shrimp, Penaeus duorarum  

E-print Network

transmission, and activity in relation to moon phase. Catches were larger during darkness and rose of transmitted light. In dark phases of the moon greater numbers of shrimp were caught than during light phases

186

FOOD PATHWAYS ASSOCIATED WITH PENAEID SHRIMPS IN A MANGROVEFRINGED ESTUARY  

E-print Network

FOOD PATHWAYS ASSOCIATED WITH PENAEID SHRIMPS IN A MANGROVE·FRINGED ESTUARY ALLAN W. STONERl AND Ro, particularly where wetland habitats such as marsh grasses or mangroves are prominent coastal fea- tures

187

Economic and financial implications of shrimp farming in West Texas  

E-print Network

A research and demonstration shrimp producing facility was established at Imperial, Texas in 1991. The results showed technical feasibility. Using data collected from the facility in West Texas and commercial operations on the Southern coast...

Britt, David Westbrook

2012-06-07

188

Proceedings of the Latin American Shrimp Culture Congress  

E-print Network

, density, salinity, substrate texture, hunger, and the presence of fish predators on the burrowing behavior), substrate (fine sand course sand, crushed shell), density (5.8, 11.6, 23.1 shrimp per sq m), hunger (fed

189

GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF A BURROWING SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Ghost shrimp, (Neotypaea californiensis) are burrowers, whose bioturbation and sediment destabilizations have a negative effect on mariculture of the commercially important oyster (Crassostrea gigas). Oyster farmers in Washington and Oregon estuaries have been poisoning these shr...

190

Growth, survival and salinity tolerances of penaeid shrimp in thermal effluents  

E-print Network

, which adjusted the salinity to 5. 0 ppt. Throughout the period the shrimp were fed brine shrimp larvae. All shrimp were siphoned from the tank into a 25 liter container, mixed by hand, sampled using a 25 ml flask and counted to determine the number... the water. Water temperature was maintained at 25 C throughout the 10-day acclimation period. Postlarvae were fed brine shrimp throughcut the acclimation and testing. Ten shrimp from the 15 and ten shrimp from the 25 ppt acclimation salinities were...

Berry, Robert Leon

2012-06-07

191

Brine shrimp lethality of the compounds from Phryma leptostachya L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brine shrimp assay-guided fractionation and isolation of the EtOAc soluble fraction ofPhryma leptostachya L. (Phrymacaceae) gave two active compounds, phrymarolin II (1) and ursolic acid (2), which were identified by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. Compound 1 exhibited potent lethality with LD50 value of 0.0013 ?g\\/ml, whereas2 showed moderate lethality with LD50 value of 27.0 ?g\\/ml against brine shrimp. The cytotoxic

SangMyung Lee; ByungSun Min; YungHee Kho

2002-01-01

192

Hydrocarbon analysis of shrimp from oil polluted waters  

E-print Network

HYDROCARBON ANALYSIS OF SHRIMP FROM OIL POLLUTED WATERS A Thesis by BERNARD JOHN DEWITT III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1982... Major Subject: Food Science and Technology HYDROCARBON ANALYSIS OF SHRIMP FROM OIL POLLUTED WATERS A Thesis BERNARD JOHN DEWITT III Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) (Head of apartment) May 1982...

DeWitt, Bernard John

2012-06-07

193

Diurnal and nocturnal catchability of Kuwait's commercial shrimps  

Microsoft Academic Search

In descending order of importance, the shrimps Penaeus semisulcatus De Haan, 1844; Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837); and Parapenaeopsis stylifera (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837) account for over 95% of Kuwait's commercial landings. Throughout its range, P. semisulcatus is nocturnal, but Kuwait trawlers are active 24h a day during season. Historically, all scientific shrimp surveys in Kuwait have been conducted during daylight

J. M. Bishop; Y. Ye; A. H. Alsaffar; H. M. Al-Foudari; S. Al-Jazzaf

2008-01-01

194

Enhanced Cellular Immunity in Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) after 'Vaccination'  

PubMed Central

It has long been viewed that invertebrates rely exclusively upon a wide variety of innate mechanisms for protection from disease and parasite invasion and lack any specific acquired immune mechanisms comparable to those of vertebrates. Recent findings, however, suggest certain invertebrates may be able to mount some form of specific immunity, termed ‘specific immune priming’, although the mechanism of this is not fully understood (see Textbox S1). In our initial experiments, either formalin-inactivated Vibrio harveyi or sterile saline were injected into the main body cavity (haemocoel) of juvenile shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Haemocytes (blood cells) from V. harveyi-injected shrimp were collected 7 days later and incubated with a 1?1 mix of V. harveyi and an unrelated Gram positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. Haemocytes from ‘vaccinated’ shrimp showed elevated levels of phagocytosis of V. harveyi, but not B. subtilis, compared with those from saline-injected (non-immunised) animals. The increased phagocytic activity was characterised by a significant increase in the percentage of phagocytic cells. When shrimp were injected with B. subtilis rather than vibrio, there was no significant increase in the phagocytic activity of haemocytes from these animals in comparison to the non-immunised (saline injected) controls. Whole haemolymph (blood) from either ‘immunised’ or non-immunised’ shrimp was shown to display innate humoral antibacterial activity against V. harveyi that was absent against B. subtilis. However, there was no difference in the potency of antibacterial activity between V. harveyi-injected shrimp and control (saline injected) animals showing that ‘vaccination’ has no effect on this component of the shrimp's immune system. These results imply that the cellular immune system of shrimp, particularly phagocytosis, is capable of a degree of specificity and shows the phenomenon of ‘immune priming’ reported by other workers. However, in agreement with other studies, this phenomenon is not universal to all potential pathogens. PMID:21698190

Roberts, Emily C.; Shields, Robin J.; Wardle, Robin; Rowley, Andrew F.

2011-01-01

195

Detection of virus in shrimp using digital color correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of virus in shrimp tissue using digital color correlation is presented. Phase filters in three channels (red, green and blue) were used in order to detect HPV virus like target. These first results obtained showed that is possible to detect virus in shrimp tissue. More research must be made with color correlation in order to consider natural morphology of the virus, color, scale and rotation and noise in the samples.

Alvarez-Borrego, Josue; Chavez-Sanchez, Cristina; Bueno-Ibarra, Mario A.

1999-07-01

196

A bio-economic model for penaeid shrimp mariculture systems  

E-print Network

. variety of aquacultural systems other than penaeid shrimp mariculture (Brown, Iiill, and. Chessness; Her ick and Baldwin; Johnson; NacDonald, I'leade, and. Gates; Shang; Smith) . The majority of these analyses have involved only the derivation... these to date. Costs and. returns analyses have been performed. by Shang and. Fujimura for freshwater shrimp farming. Although this work provided no budgeting or cash flow analysis, it did provide a detailed cost and. returns analyses on the freshwater...

Adams, Charles M

2012-06-07

197

Subaru/HDS Study of HE 1015-2050: Spectral Evidence of R Coronae Borealis Light Decline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen deficiency and a sudden optical light decline of about 6-8 mag are two principal characteristics of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars. The high latitude carbon star HE 1015-2050 was identified as a hydrogen-deficient carbon star from low-resolution spectroscopy. Photometric data of the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey gathered between 2006 February and 2012 May indicate that the object exhibits no variability. However, a high-resolution (R ~ 50, 000) optical spectrum of this object obtained with the 8.2 m Subaru telescope using High Dispersion Spectrograph on the 2012 January 13 offers sufficient spectral evidence that the object is a cool HdC star of RCB type undergoing light decline. In contrast to the Na I D broad absorption features seen in the low-resolution spectra on several occasions, the high-resolution spectrum exhibits Na I D2 and D1 features in emission. A few emission lines due to Mg I, Sc II, Ti I, Ti II, Fe II, and Ba I are also observed in the spectrum of this object for the first time. Such emission features combined with neutral and singly ionized lines of Ca, Ti, Fe, etc., in absorption are reportedly seen in RCBs spectra in the early stage of decline or during the recovery to maximum. Further, the light decline of RCBs is ascribed to the formation of a cloud of soot that obscures the visible photosphere. The presence of such circumstellar material is evident from the polarimetric observations with an estimated V-band percentage polarization of ~1.7% for this object.

Goswami, Aruna; Aoki, Wako

2013-02-01

198

SUBARU/HDS STUDY OF HE 1015-2050: SPECTRAL EVIDENCE OF R CORONAE BOREALIS LIGHT DECLINE  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen deficiency and a sudden optical light decline of about 6-8 mag are two principal characteristics of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars. The high latitude carbon star HE 1015-2050 was identified as a hydrogen-deficient carbon star from low-resolution spectroscopy. Photometric data of the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey gathered between 2006 February and 2012 May indicate that the object exhibits no variability. However, a high-resolution (R {approx} 50, 000) optical spectrum of this object obtained with the 8.2 m Subaru telescope using High Dispersion Spectrograph on the 2012 January 13 offers sufficient spectral evidence that the object is a cool HdC star of RCB type undergoing light decline. In contrast to the Na I D broad absorption features seen in the low-resolution spectra on several occasions, the high-resolution spectrum exhibits Na I D{sub 2} and D{sub 1} features in emission. A few emission lines due to Mg I, Sc II, Ti I, Ti II, Fe II, and Ba I are also observed in the spectrum of this object for the first time. Such emission features combined with neutral and singly ionized lines of Ca, Ti, Fe, etc., in absorption are reportedly seen in RCBs spectra in the early stage of decline or during the recovery to maximum. Further, the light decline of RCBs is ascribed to the formation of a cloud of soot that obscures the visible photosphere. The presence of such circumstellar material is evident from the polarimetric observations with an estimated V-band percentage polarization of {approx}1.7% for this object.

Goswami, Aruna [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560034 (India); Aoki, Wako, E-mail: aruna@iiap.res.in [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2013-02-01

199

75 FR 12206 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results, Partial Rescission, and Request...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''), covering the period of review...

2010-03-15

200

76 FR 20318 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary Results of...of Grobest & I-Mei Industrial (Vietnam) Co., Ltd. (``Grobest & I-Mei...shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). We have...

2011-04-12

201

75 FR 27705 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final Results of Antidumping Duty New...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). This review covers the period February...

2010-05-18

202

78 FR 15699 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') for the period of review (``POR'')...

2013-03-12

203

77 FR 13547 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Administrative Review AGENCY...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') for the period of review (``POR'')...

2012-03-07

204

78 FR 59650 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') meets the statutory and regulatory...

2013-09-27

205

75 FR 3446 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Intent To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Intent To Rescind New Shipper Review...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). See Notice of Amended Final...

2010-01-21

206

78 FR 72635 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') covering the period February 1, 2013...

2013-12-03

207

76 FR 36519 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the period February...

2011-06-22

208

77 FR 4993 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary Results of...circumstances review (``CCR'') of C. P. Vietnam Corporation, the Department of Commerce...shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). We have...

2012-02-01

209

77 FR 1053 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\1\\ The Department is conducting a new...

2012-01-09

210

75 FR 60730 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''), received on August 26, 2010, meets the...

2010-10-01

211

76 FR 20627 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\1\\ The Department is conducting a new...

2011-04-13

212

75 FR 47546 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of the First Five-year...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). On the basis of the notice of intent to...

2010-08-06

213

77 FR 20358 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\1\\ We gave interested parties an...

2012-04-04

214

76 FR 16384 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''), received on February 28, 2011, meets...

2011-03-23

215

76 FR 12054 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results, Partial Rescission, and Request...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') for the period of review (``POR'')...

2011-03-04

216

78 FR 56211 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\2\\ Based upon our analysis of the...

2013-09-12

217

75 FR 55740 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary Results of Antidumping...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the period February...

2010-09-14

218

75 FR 37757 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary Results of Changed-Circumstances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-552-802] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary Results of Changed-Circumstances...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). We have preliminarily concluded that...

2010-06-30

219

75 FR 844 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary Results of Antidumping...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). This review covers the period February...

2010-01-06

220

RESPONSE OF GHOST SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS) BIOTURBATION TO ORGANIC MATTER ENRICHMENT OF ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Populations of burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia p;ugettensis) are the dominant invertebrate fauna on Pacific estuarine tide flats, occupying >80% of intertidal area in some estuaries. Burrowing shrimp are renowned for their bioturbation of intertidal sedi...

221

Quality perceptions of stakeholders in Beninese export-oriented shrimp chain.  

PubMed

In recent years, the Beninese shrimp sector has faced a ban on export to the European Union due to lack of compliance with food safety standards. The present study aimed at obtaining insight into the factors that determine shrimp quality and safety in Benin. A survey was conducted to investigate the relationships between stakeholders, the conditions under which shrimps are handled at fishing areas and processed at shrimp plants, and the stakeholders' perceptions of quality. A total of 325 fishermen, 128 intermediate traders, 12 collectors, and 3 shrimp processing plant managers were interviewed face to face. The results showed that various specific relations existed between the stakeholders. For example, loyalty was ensured by family relationships, or incentives were provided to ensure a supply of shrimps between stakeholders. Shrimp handling practices during the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants were not in agreement with the requirements of the European regulations. For example, shrimps were kept at ambient temperature (28 ± 1°C) by 94.1% of fishermen and 60.9% of intermediate traders. Shrimps were also stored in inappropriate holding containers and washed with nonpotable water. Fishermen, intermediate traders, and collectors considered shrimp size and texture their priority quality attributes, whereas plant managers considered shrimp appearance (freshness) and texture their priority quality attributes. This survey demonstrated that the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants are the critical steps for shrimp quality and safety because of temperature abuse and inappropriate hygienic conditions. There is a need to communicate and provide incentives for the stakeholders in the first part of the chain to give priority to shrimp freshness. Moreover, training in Good Fishing Practices and safe food handling practices and evaluation of compliance with the practices through monitoring will contribute to better shrimp quality and safety management. PMID:25198861

Dabade, D Sylvain; den Besten, Heidy M W; Azokpota, Paulin; Nout, M J Rob; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Zwietering, Marcel H

2014-09-01

222

Reproduction in a simultaneous hermaphroditic shrimp, Lysmata wurdemanni : any two will do?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The caridean shrimp Lysmata wurdemanni (Gibbes) displays protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism with out-crossing, but not all males become simultaneous hermaphrodites (euhermaphrodites). In this laboratory study, we attempted to determine why some shrimp remain males. In our experiment, we grew L. wurdemanni from post-larvae to adults in several group sizes and observed their reproductive function. We found that all shrimp reared in

J. Lin; D. Zhang

2001-01-01

223

Metals in Shrimp Culture Areas from the Gulf of Fonseca, Central America. I. Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp aquaculture is a prominent industrial activity in the Gulf of Fonseca, which is shared by Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador. The shrimp culture area in Honduras is widely extended and mainly located in the Departments of Valle and Choluteca, receiving waters from Choluteca, Sampile, Goascoran, Nacaome and Negro Rivers. Three thousands tons of shrimps were produced during 1993. In

G. Carbonell; C. Ramos; J. V. Tarazona

1998-01-01

224

Dendrilla nigra, a marine sponge, as potential source of antibacterial substances for managing shrimp diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary metabolites of marine sponge Dendrilla nigra were tested for determining the efficacy of controlling shrimp bacterial pathogens. Based on the exploratory experiments, the chosen dose of D. nigra (500 mg\\/kg of shrimp) was used for pilot experiment. The percent relative protection (PRP) of shrimps treated with Dendrilla feed and challenged with various concentrations of bacterial pathogen was evaluated. Dendrilla

Joseph Selvin; A. P Lipton

2004-01-01

225

Globalization of shrimp mariculture: The impact on social justice and environmental quality in central America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the consequences of the globalization of the shrimp mariculture industry on rural livelihoods, social justice, and environmental quality in Central America. It considers the association between the expansion of shrimp farms and enhanced social conflict and the emergence of local resistance movements of the poor. It describes the globalization of shrimp mariculture, discusses its repercussions in Asia

Susan C. Stonich; John R. Bort; Luis L. Ovares

1997-01-01

226

75 FR 44229 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...shrimp; 2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; 3) with the...surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; 4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product...

2010-07-28

227

75 FR 52718 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with...surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product...

2010-08-27

228

Farm Level and Geographic Predictors of Antibiotic Use in Sri Lankan Shrimp Farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon farming is important for Sri Lanka's rural development plans. Consumer confidence is critical for the development and maintenance of export and domestic shrimp markets. Public concern about the use of antimicrobial drugs and chemicals on shrimp farms, however, could threaten market access. We sought to identify high-risk areas and farm-level risk factors for antimicrobial use

Nalaka Munasinghe; Craig Stephen; Colin Robertson; Preeni Abeynayake

2012-01-01

229

Pink shrimp ( P. brasiliensis and P. paulensis) residue: Influence of extraction method on carotenoid concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main residue from the shrimp processing is formed by head and carapace and represents from 40 to 50% (w\\/w) of the integral shrimp. The recovery of the carotenoid fraction from this residue stands for an alternative to increase its aggregated value. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use the pink shrimp waste as raw material to obtain

Natália Mezzomo; Bianca Maestri; Renata Lazzaris dos Santos; Marcelo Maraschin; Sandra R. S. Ferreira

230

FRESH-WATER SHRIMP, A NATURAL FISH FOOD By S. G. Worth  

E-print Network

FRESH-WATER SHRIMP, A NATURAL FISH FOOD By S. G. Worth Superintendent U. S. Fisheries Station. A., September 22 to 26, 1908 853 #12;Blank page retained for pagination #12;FRESH-WATER SHRIMP and conserve it. In the fresh-water shrimp we have an example of such a gatherer and conservator. Palemonetes

231

Expression analysis of selected haemocyte transcripts from black tiger shrimp infected with yellow head virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow head virus (YHV) is a lethal Penaeid shrimp virus that has caused significant losses to aquaculture farms raising black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). In order to probe some of the underlying molecular events occurring in P. monodon cells in response to YHV infection, we investigated the response of 96 selected shrimp haemocyte transcripts from 90 distinct genes at 24

Lerdchai Chintapitaksakul; Apinunt Udomkit; Duncan R. Smith; Sakol Panyim

2008-01-01

232

The atyid shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae) rostrum: phylogeny versus adaptation, taxonomy versus trophic ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cave shrimps of the subgenus Troglocaris (Atyidae), exhibit high variability in rostral length and dentition. In shrimp populations that co-occur with the amphibian predator Proteus anguinus, longer rostra armed with more numerous teeth are recorded. These shrimps are also larger than those living in a presumably Proteus-free environment. Discrepancies between molecularly established phylogenetic relationships and distributions of rostral length, as

Jure Jugovic; Simona Prevorcnik; Gregor Aljancic; Boris Sket

2010-01-01

233

50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida...Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida...For a person aboard a vessel to fish for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off...

2011-10-01

234

50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida...Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida...For a person aboard a vessel to fish for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off...

2012-10-01

235

50 CFR 622.208 - Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida. 622...208 Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida. (a) The minimum mesh size for the cod end of a rock shrimp trawl net in the South...

2013-10-01

236

50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida...Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida...For a person aboard a vessel to fish for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off...

2010-10-01

237

State of the art of immunological tools and health control of penaeid shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp farming constitutes an important source of revenue and employment in many develop- ing countries. However, infectious diseases have affected the profitability of the shrimp industry. For this reason, disease prevention is a priority and shrimp immunology has become a prime area of research. In such a perspective, studies into the value of cellular and humoral parameters as indicators of

Jenny Rodriguez; Gilles Le Moulla

238

Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses.  

PubMed

Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerly known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus), their impacts were greatly diminished after the introduction of tolerant stocks of P. vannamei. Less important viruses are Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV; formerly called hepatopancreatic parvovirus), and Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV; previously called monodon baculovirus). For freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus are considered important viral pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the shrimp viruses described above have been generated and used as an alternative tool in various immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Some of these MAbs were further developed into immunochromatographic strip tests for the detection of WSSV, YHV, IMNV and PemoNPV and into a dual strip test for the simultaneous detection of WSSV/YHV. The strip test has the advantages of speed, as the result can be obtained within 15 min, and simplicity, as laboratory equipment and specialized skills are not required. Therefore, strip tests can be used by shrimp farmers for the pond-side monitoring of viral infection. PMID:24567913

Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

2014-02-12

239

Growth and reproductive performance of broodstock shrimp reared in a biosecure recirculating aquaculture system versus a flow-through pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, viral pathogens have caused mass mortalities of farmed shrimp throughout the major shrimp farming regions of the world. In addition, the global shrimp farming industry has been criticized for negatively impacting coastal environments. These issues have raised concerns about the sustainability of traditional shrimp farming practices, and have prompted farmers and researchers to develop biosecure technologies

Clete A. Otoshi; Steve M. Arce; Shaun M. Moss

2003-01-01

240

Chandra, Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, and Very Large Array Observations of the Active Binary System ?2 Coronae Borealis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a coordinated observing campaign on the short-period RS CVn binary ?2 Coronae Borealis (F6V+G0V Porb=1.14 days) with the Very Large Array, the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer. The radio emission is consistent with previously determined quiescent gyrosynchrotron properties. Multiple flares were seen with Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, five occurring within two consecutive orbital periods. The first of these flares was observed with Chandra. The Chandra observations of ?2 CrB showed no systematic variations of line fluxes, widths, or Doppler shifts with orbital phase, nor any response in line width or offset due to the flare. This is consistent with both stars being equally active coronal emitters. We have developed a self-consistent method of spectral analysis to derive information from the line and continuum emissions concerning the distribution of plasma with temperature and elemental abundances. A bimodal temperature distribution is appropriate for both quiescent and flare intervals, with a stable peak at 6-8 MK and another variable enhancement at higher temperatures, with evidence for significant contribution from temperatures up to 50 MK during the flare, compared to 30 MK during quiescence. The iron abundance is subsolar during quiescence but is enriched by about a factor of 2 during a large flare seen with Chandra. The noble gas elements neon and argon show elevated abundances with respect to iron, but there is no clear evidence for any first ionization potential-based abundance pattern during quiescence or the flare. We have determined coronal electron densities from the helium-like ions O VII, Ne IX, Mg XI, and Si XIII, which imply densities >=1010 cm-3. There is a small enhancement in the electron densities derived for the flare, but it is not statistically significant. We call attention to electron temperature constraints provided by the ratios of 1s2 1S0-1snp 1P1 transitions of the helium-like ions O VII, Ne IX, Mg XI, and Si XIII. The derived coronal electron pressures change by 1-2 orders of magnitude over a 25% change in temperature, implying nonisobaric coronal conditions. We find no evidence for significant departures from the effectively thin coronal assumption. The electron densities inferred from the soft X-ray spectra are inconsistent with cospatial gyrosynchrotron emission; further observations are necessary to discriminate the relative locations of the radio and soft X-ray-emitting plasma.

Osten, Rachel A.; Ayres, Thomas R.; Brown, Alexander; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Krishnamurthi, Anita

2003-01-01

241

Clues to the Evolution of the R Coronae Borealis Stars from their Unique 16O/18O ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report new spectroscopic observations of the CO bands near 2.3 micron in order to measure the 16O/18O isotopic ratio in the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars using IRTF/SpeX. These observations of ten additional stars confirm the remarkable discovery made a few years ago that the hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) and RCB stars have 16O/18O ratios that are close to and in some cases less than unity, values that are orders of magnitude smaller than measured in other stars (the Solar value is 500). The RCB stars are a small group of carbon-rich supergiants. Only about 100 RCB stars are known in the Galaxy. Their defining characteristics are hydrogen deficiency and unusual variability - RCB stars undergo massive declines of up to 8 mag due to the formation of carbon dust at irregular intervals. The six known HdC stars are very similar to the RCB stars spectroscopically, but do not show declines or IR excesses. Two scenarios have been proposed for the origin of an RCB star: the double degenerate and the final helium-shell flash models. The former involves the merger of a CO- and a He-white dwarf. In the latter, a star evolving into a planetary nebula central star expands to supergiant size by a final, helium-shell flash. Greatly enhanced 18O is evident in every HdC and RCB we have measured that is cool enough to have detectable CO bands. This discovery is important evidence to help distinguish between the proposed evolutionary pathways of HdC and RCB stars. No overproduction of 18O is expected in a final flash, so we are investigating the merger scenario. We are working to reproduce the observed 16O/18O ratios by performing hydrodynamical simulations of the merger of CO- and He-WDs to investigate the formation of RCB stars. We are also using the MESA stellar evolution and NuGrid nucleosynthesis codes to construct post-merger 1D spherical models and follow their evolution into the region of the HR diagram where RCB stars are located.

Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Montiel, Edward J.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Welch, Douglas L.; Tisserand, Patrick

2014-06-01

242

Two new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from eastern red bats, Lasiurus borealis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), in Arkansas and North Carolina.  

PubMed

During August 2003 and August 2004, 11 adult eastern red bats, Lasiurus borealis, were collected and their feces examined for coccidian parasites. Bats were obtained in August 2003 from Garland, Montgomery, and Yell counties, Arkansas (n=6) and in August 2004 from Anson and Montgomery counties, North Carolina (n=5). Seven (63.6%) of the bats were passing oocysts of 2 undescribed species of Eimeria. Oocysts of Eimeria dowleri n. sp. were subspherical to ellipsoidal, 24.7 x 22.0 (23-26 x 20-23) microm, with a bilayered wall, externally moderately pitted, internally smooth, and with a shape index of 1.1. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 13.4 x 9.2 (12-14 x 8-9) pm; shape index was 1.5; Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present. A sporocyst residuum consisting of homogeneous granules was scattered among the sporozoites; sporozoites were elongate, with a subspherical anterior refractile body and an elongate posterior refractile body; a nucleus was not discernable. Oocysts of Eimeria sealanderi n. sp. were subspherical to ellipsoidal, 16.7 x 14.4 (15-18 x 13-16) microm, with a bilayered wall, externally lightly pitted, internally smooth, and with a shape index of 1.2. A micropyle was absent, but the oocyst residuum and polar granule were present. Oocyst residuum consisted of a single, membrane-bound homogenous granule. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 8.9 x 5.7 (8-10 x 5-6) microm, with a shape index of 1.6; Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present. The sporocyst residuum consisted of 10, to several dozen, homogeneous granules of various sizes loosely clustered among the sporozoites, which were elongate and without obvious refractile bodies and nucleus. This is the first time any coccidian has been reported from this host and the first instance of a bat coccidian reported from North Carolina. PMID:20050004

McAllister, Chris T; Upton, Steve J

2009-08-01

243

Microprobe analysis of brine shrimp grown on meteorite extracts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear microprobe methods have been used to investigate the uptake and distribution of various elements by brine shrimps and their unhatched eggs when grown in extracts of the Murchison and Allende carbonaceous meteorites, which were selected as model space resources. Measurements were carried out using a focussed 2 MeV proton beam raster scanned over the samples in order to obtain the average elemental concentrations. Line scans across the egg and shrimp samples show uptake of elements such as Mg, Ni, S and P which are present in the meteorites. The results confirmed that carbonaceous chondrite materials can provide nutrients, including high levels of the essential nutrient phosphate. The concentrations of these elements varied significantly between shrimp and eggs grown in extracts of the two meteorite types, which can help in identifying optimal growth media. Our results illustrate that nuclear microprobe techniques can determine elemental concentrations in organisms exposed to meteorite derived media and thus help in identifying useful future resources.

Kennedy, J.; Mautner, M. N.; Barry, B.; Markwitz, A.

2007-07-01

244

Issues, Impacts, and Implications of Shrimp Aquaculture in Thailand  

PubMed

Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just beginning to be considered in Thailand, partial recirculating and integrated intensive farming systems are producing promising, if somewhat limited, results. By providing on-site treatment of the effluent from the shrimp growout ponds, there is less reliance on using outside water supplies, believed to be the source of the contamination.The explosion in the number of intensively operated shrimp farms has not only impacted the coastal zone of Thailand, but has also resulted in an unsustainable aquaculture industry. Abandonment of shrimp ponds due to either drastic, disease-caused collapses or more grandual, year-to-year reductions in the productivity of the pond is common. To move Thailand towards a more sustainable aquaculture industry and coastal zone environment, integrated aquaculture management is needed. Components of integrated aquaculture management are technical and institutional. The technical components involve deployment of wastewater treatment and minimal water-use systems aimed at making aquaculture operations more hydraulically closed. Before this is possible, technical and economic feasibility studies on enhanced nitrification systems and organic solids removal by oxidation between production cycles and/or the utilization of plastic pond liners need to be conducted. The integration of semi-intensive aquaculture within mangrove areas also should be investigated since mangrove losses attributable to shrimp aquaculture are estimated to be between 16 and 32 % of the total mangrove area destroyed betweeen 1979 and 1993.Government policy needs to devote as much attention to sustainability issues as it has on promoting intensive pond culture. Such a balanced policy would include training and education monitoring and enforcement, rehabilitating abandoned ponds, managing land use within the coastal zone, more community involvement, and government reorganization to eliminate overlapping jurisdictions among agencies.As integrated aquaculture management becomes more the practice than the exception, less risk of crop failure to the industry and reduced discharge loadings from intensively managed shrimp ponds to receiving waters can be expected. Projected limitations on growing and marketing shrimp in the future, such as scarcity of land and broodstock, continued disease outbreaks, negative publicity, regulatory enforcement, water treatment and solids disposal costs, and increased competition from growers in other Asian countries will also drive the government and the industry towards adopting integrated aquaculture management.KEY WORDS: Shrimp aquaculture; Thailand; Historical practices; Environmental impacts; Sustainability; Integrated management; Water treatment; Institutional aspects PMID:8703103

Dierberg; Kiattisimkul

1996-09-01

245

Description and analysis of the shrimp raceway run for the summer 1990, Shrimp Mariculture Project, Texas A&M University System  

E-print Network

amount of research directed toward the culture of these crustaceans. For more information about the history of shrimp farming the reviews by Lawrence et al. (1985) and Lawrence and Huner (1987) are recommended. However, more details about this topic... which classifies them into two taxa: the grooved shrimp with closed th ly, f pl P t od P. d: d th nongrooved shrimp with open thelyca, like P. setiferus, P. ~tl t, d P. ' (L t 1. 1885) Penaeid shrimp, like other decapoda crustaceans, have larval...

Mena, Luis

2012-06-07

246

Phylogeny and evolution of Indo-Pacific shrimp-associated gobies (Gobiiformes: Gobiidae).  

PubMed

Despite the ubiquity of obligate mutualisms on coral reef ecosystems, little is known about the evolution of many participating species. The shrimp gobies, known primarily from the coral reef habitats of the Indo-Pacific, are small benthic fishes that participate in a remarkable mutualism with alpheid shrimp. In this mutualism, the shrimp build and maintain a burrow that is guarded by the goby, and the shrimp and goby engage in an intricate tactile communication system. The mutualism is obligate for most shrimp gobies as participating species are highly vulnerable to predation when separated from a shrimp partner. We use phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data to infer evolutionary relationships among shrimp gobies, and between shrimp gobies and their non-mutualistic gobiid relatives. We show that the mutualist shrimp association has arisen twice among gobies, once in a clade composed of Amblyeleotris, Ctenogobiops, and Vanderhorstia, and a second time in a clade including Cryptocentrus, Mahidolia, Tomiamichthys and Stonogobiops. We then compare the evolution of traits within each shrimp goby clade and consider their intrarelationships. We document cryptic diversity among shrimp gobies, with three distinct clades delineated among Mahidolia mysticina specimens captured at the same locality, paired with the same shrimp species. Mahidolia is placed as sister to the Cryptocentrus species Cryptocentrus cinctus; both exhibit pronounced dichromatism, occurring in both brown and yellow (xanthic) forms. We additionally clarify species identities within Amblyeleotris, confirming that widespread similar species Amblyeleotris fasciata, Amblyeleotris steinitzi and Amblyeleotris wheeleri are all distinct. We hypothesize that the flexibility of gobiid gobies and alpheid shrimp to interact with mutualist partners, as well as the apparently highly beneficial nature of mutualism between them, has contributed to the dual evolution of shrimp-association among Indo-Pacific gobies. PMID:21315161

Thacker, Christine E; Thompson, Andrew R; Roje, Dawn M

2011-04-01

247

Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp  

PubMed Central

The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

Walker, Peter J.; Winton, James R.

2010-01-01

248

Brine shrimp lethality bioassay of selected Indian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extracts of six Indian medicinal plants, piperine, guggulsterone E and guggulsterone Z were tested for cytotoxicity using brine shrimp lethality test. Piper longum showed most potent cytotoxic activity. Piperine, guggulsterone E and guggulsterone Z showed potent activity with LC50 2.4, 8.9 and 4.9, respectively.

R Padmaja; P. C Arun; D Prashanth; M Deepak; A Amit; M Anjana

2002-01-01

249

Antioxidant, icthyotoxicity and brine shrimp lethality tests of Magonia glabrata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanolic extract of the fruit bark from Magonia glabrata yielded shikimic acid, scopoletin, sitosterol glycoside and 2-O-methyl-l-inositol. Antioxidant, icthyotoxicity and brine shrimp lethality activities were observed in this extract. The major constituent, 2-O-methyl-l-inositol, was found to be inactive in two assays but showed moderate activity as a radical scavenger.

Telma L. G. Lemos; Luciana L. Machado; João S. N. Souza; Aluisio M. Fonseca; Juliana L. Maia; Otilia D. L. Pessoa

2006-01-01

250

Evaluation of Brine Shrimp Lethality of Cinnamomum Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cinnamomum species have long been used as spices. The preliminary bioactive constituent’s identification and brine shrimp lethality activities of ethanolic extracts of seven Cinnamomum species, viz., C. travancoricum, C. walaiwarense, C. wightii, C. verum, C. sulphuratum, C. riparium, and C. perrottetii were evaluated in this study. The results of cytotoxic activity of the bark extracts of seven Cinnamomum species were

Muthiah Maridass

2008-01-01

251

21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...label shall name the food, as prepared from each...accurately descriptive of the food. The word “prawns” may...in the name of the food if the shrimp are of large...names of the optional ingredients used, as provided...designated as “spice and coloring”, unless the spice is...

2012-04-01

252

21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...label shall name the food, as prepared from each...accurately descriptive of the food. The word “prawns” may...in the name of the food if the shrimp are of large...names of the optional ingredients used, as provided...designated as “spice and coloring”, unless the spice is...

2010-04-01

253

21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...label shall name the food, as prepared from each...accurately descriptive of the food. The word “prawns” may...in the name of the food if the shrimp are of large...names of the optional ingredients used, as provided...designated as “spice and coloring”, unless the spice is...

2013-04-01

254

21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...label shall name the food, as prepared from each...accurately descriptive of the food. The word “prawns” may...in the name of the food if the shrimp are of large...names of the optional ingredients used, as provided...designated as “spice and coloring”, unless the spice is...

2011-04-01

255

EXPLORATORY SHRIMP FISHING IN THE GULF OF MEXICO  

E-print Network

............... 9 9 A Large Catch of PinlFish, ani Bat tom Trash From the D~ Tortugas GroundsEXPLORATORY SHRIMP FISHING IN THE GULF OF MEXICO 1950 -51 FISHERY LEAFLET 406 FISB AND WILDLIFE. Chapman, Secretary Fish and Wildlife Service, Albert H. Day, Direct or Fishery Leaflet 406 Washington 25

256

Fast RPC on the SHRIMP Virtual Memory Mapped Network Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of new network interface technology is enabling new approaches to the development of communications software. This paper evaluates the SHRIMP virtual memory mapped network interface by using it to build two fast implementations of remote procedure call (RPC). Our first implementations, called vRPC, is fully compatible with the SunRPC standard. We change the RPC runtime library, the operating

Angelos Bilas; Edward W. Felten

1997-01-01

257

Design Choices in the SHRIMP System: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SHRIMP cluster-computing system has progressed to a point of relative maturity; a variety of applications are running on a 16-node system. We have enough experience to understand what we did right and wrong in designing and building the system. In this paper we discuss some of the lessons we learned about computer architecture, and about the challenges involved in

Matthias A. Blumrich; Richard D. Alpert; Yuqun Chen; Douglas W. Clark; Stefanos N. Damianakis; Cezary Dubnicki; Edward W. Felten; Liviu Iftode; Kai Li; Margaret Martonosi; Robert A. Shillner

1998-01-01

258

Early Experience with Message-Passing on the SHRIMP Multicomputer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SHRIMP multicomputer provides virtual memory-mapped communication (VMMC), which supports protected, user-level message passing, allows user programs to perform their own buffer management, and separates data transfers from control transfers so that a data transfer can be done without the intervention of the receiving node CPU. An important question is whether such a mechanism can indeed deliver all of the

Edward W. Felten; Richard D. Alpert; Angelos Bilas; Matthias A. Blumrich; Douglas W. Clark; Stefanos N. Damianakis; Cezary Dubnicki; Liviu Iftode; Kai Li

1996-01-01

259

21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.  

...for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized...The common on usual name of the food product that conforms to the...this chapter, except that the food is made from comminuted shrimp...or graphic matter, and in a height not less than the larger...

2014-04-01

260

21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized...The common on usual name of the food product that conforms to the...this chapter, except that the food is made from comminuted shrimp...or graphic matter, and in a height not less than the larger...

2012-04-01

261

21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized...The common on usual name of the food product that conforms to the...this chapter, except that the food is made from comminuted shrimp...or graphic matter, and in a height not less than the larger...

2011-04-01

262

21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized...The common on usual name of the food product that conforms to the...this chapter, except that the food is made from comminuted shrimp...or graphic matter, and in a height not less than the larger...

2013-04-01

263

Impacts of shrimp farming in Bangladesh: Challenges and alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp farming is growing in Bangladesh due to suitable agro-climatic conditions, adequate water resources, cheap labour force, international donor agencies and the involvement of multinational corporations. Although it provides immediate economic benefits, contributes to poverty reduction and food security, as well as generates employment from seed collectors to exporters, it has also been facing a host of challenges. They hinder

Brojo Gopal Paul; Christian Reinhard Vogl

2011-01-01

264

Review article Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp  

E-print Network

has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been the challenges presented by climate change. disease emergence / shrimp / fish / virus Table of contents 1 CSIRO Livestock Industries, Australian Animal Health Laboratory (AAHL), 5 Portarlington Road, Geelong

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

265

NORMAL POSTMORTEM CHANGES IN THE BROWN SHRIMP, PENAEUS AZTECUSI  

E-print Network

reported by Flick and Lovell (1972). They reported that the compounds ATP. ADP. AMP, IMP, and glycogen. Shrimp tails remained tender and soft during the entire storage period of 10 days (at DOC) and did BULLETIN: VOL. 72. NO.1. the characteristics commonly associated with rigor mortis (Flick and Lovell, 1972

266

Food preference of fairy shrimp Streptocephalus dichotomus (Baird) Crustacea: Anostraca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate and describe the feeding biology of fairy shrimp. Methodology and results: The nature of food items and uptake of phyto and zooplankton were studied in three different size classes i.e. immature forms (6 - 9 mm), mature males (20 - 22 mm), and mature females (11 - 14 mm). The composition of food items and percentage composition

B. Jesi Selvarani

267

[Freshwater Pearl mussels of the genus Margaritifera (Mollusca: Bivalvia) described as M. elongata (Lamarck, 1819) and M. borealis (Westerlund, 1871) should be classified with M. margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758)].  

PubMed

The shells of Pearl mussels from the basins of the Solza, Keret', and Umba rivers flowing into the White Sea have been measured to determine the ratio of shell convexity to its maximum height. This ratio is the main character that, according to Bogatov et al. (2003), allows one to distinguish between three species of the genus Margaritifera: M. margaritifera, M. elongata, and M. borealis. It has been found that the above ratio gradually increases as the shell grows. Therefore, this character is unsuitable for species diagnosis, the more so that no hiatus in it between the three forms of pearl mussels has been revealed in any of the samples studied. On this basis, it may be concluded that Northern Europe, including Russia, is inhabited by only one species of pearl mussels, M. margaritifera. PMID:18491570

Sergeeva, I S; Bolotov, I N; Bespalaia, Iu V; Makhrov, A A; Bukhanova, A L; Artamonova, V S

2008-01-01

268

Issues, impacts, and implications of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just beginning to be considered in Thailand, partial recirculating and integrated intensive farming systems are producing promising, if somewhat limited, results. By providing on-site treatment of the effluent from the shrimp growout ponds, there is less reliance on using outside water supplies, believed to be the source of the contamination. The explosion in the number of intensively operated shrimp farms has not only impacted the coastal zone of Thailand, but has also resulted in an unsustainable aquaculture industry. Abandonment of shrimp ponds due to either drastic, disease-caused collapses or more grandual, year-to-year reductions in the productivity of the pond is common. To move Thailand towards a more sustainable aquaculture industry and coastal zone environment, integrated aquaculture management is needed. Components of integrated aquaculture management are technical and institutional. The technical components involve deployment of wastewater treatment and minimal water-use systems aimed at making aquaculture operations more hydraulically closed. Before this is possible, technical and economic feasibility studies on enhanced nitrification systems and organic solids removal by oxidation between production cycles and/or the utilization of plastic pond liners need to be conducted. The integration of semi-intensive aquaculture within mangrove areas also should be investigated since mangrove losses attributable to shrimp aquaculture are estimated to be between 16 and 32% of the total mangrove area destroyed betweeen 1979 and 1993. Government policy needs to devote as much attention to sustainability issues as it has on promoting intensive pond culture. Such a balanced policy would include training and education monitoring and enforcement, rehabilitating abandoned ponds, managing land use within the coastal zone, more community involvement, and government reorganization to eliminate overlapping jurisdictions among agencies. As integrated aquaculture management becomes more the practice than the exception, less risk of crop failure to the industry and reduced discharge loadings from intensively managed shrimp ponds to receiving waters can be expected. Projected limitations on growing and marketing shrimp in the future, such as scarcity of land and broodstock, continued disease outbreaks, negative publicity, regulatory enforcement, water treatment and solids disposal costs, and increased competition from growers in other Asian countries will also drive the government and the industry towards adopting integrated aquaculture management.

Dierberg, Forrest E.; Kiattisimkul, Woraphan

1996-09-01

269

Distribution and physiological effects of B-type allatostatins (myoinhibitory peptides, MIPs) in the stomatogastric nervous system of the crab, Cancer borealis  

PubMed Central

The crustacean stomatogastric ganglion (STG) is modulated by a large number of amines and neuropeptides that are found in descending pathways from anterior ganglia or reach the STG via the hemolymph. Among these are the allatostatin (AST) – B types also known as myoinhibitory peptides (MIPs). We used mass spectrometry to determine the sequences of nine members of the AST-B family of peptides that were found in the stomatogastric nervous system of the crab, Cancer borealis. We raised an antibody against Cancer borealis Allatostatin-B1 (CbAST-B1) (VPNDWAHFRGSWa) and used it to map the distribution of CbAST-B1-like immunoreactivity (-LI) in the stomatogastric nervous system. CbAST-B1-LI was found in neurons and neuropil in the commissural ganglia (CoGs), in somata in the esophageal ganglion (OG), in fibers in the stomatogastric nerve (stn), and in neuropilar processes in the STG. CbAST-B1-LI was blocked by preincubation with 10-6 M CbAST-B1, and partially blocked by lower concentrations. Electrophysiological recordings of the effects of CbAST-B1, CbAST-B2, and CbAST-B3 on the pyloric rhythm of the STG showed that all three peptides inhibited the pyloric rhythm in a state-dependent manner. Specifically, all three peptides at 10-8 M significantly decreased the frequency of the pyloric rhythm when the initial frequency of the pyloric rhythm was below 0.6 Hz. These data suggest important neuromodulatory roles for the CbAST-B family in the stomatogastric nervous system. PMID:21491432

Szabo, Theresa M.; Chen, Ruibing; Goeritz, Marie L.; Maloney, Ryan T.; Tang, Lamont S.; Li, Lingjun; Marder, Eve

2011-01-01

270

Species on the menu of a generalist predator, the eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis): using a molecular approach to detect arthropod prey.  

PubMed

One of the most difficult interactions to observe in nature is the relationship between a predator and its prey. When direct observations are impossible, we rely on morphological classification of prey remains, although this is particularly challenging among generalist predators whose faeces contain mixed and degraded prey fragments. In this investigation, we used a polymerase chain reaction and sequence-based technique to identify prey fragments in the guano of the generalist insectivore, the eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis), and evaluate several hypotheses about prey selection and prey defences. The interaction between bats and insects is of significant evolutionary interest because of the adaptive nature of insect hearing against echolocation. However, measuring the successes of predator tactics or particular prey defences is limited because we cannot normally identify these digested prey fragments beyond order or family. Using a molecular approach, we recovered sequences from 89% of the fragments tested, and through comparison to a reference database of sequences, we were able to identify 127 different species of prey. Our results indicate that despite the robust jaws of L. borealis, most prey taxa were softer-bodied Lepidoptera. Surprisingly, more than 60% of the prey species were tympanate, with ears thought to afford protection against these echolocating bats. Moths of the family Arctiidae, which employ multiple defensive strategies, were not detected as a significant dietary component. Our results provide an unprecedented level of detail for the study of predator-prey relationships in bats and demonstrate the advantages which molecular tools can provide in investigations of complex ecological systems and food-web relationships. PMID:19457192

Clare, Elizabeth L; Fraser, Erin E; Braid, Heather E; Fenton, M Brock; Hebert, Paul D N

2009-06-01

271

Aurora Borealis on Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image, taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft, shows the darkside of Jupiter, the part not illuminated by sunlight. The curved line crossing from the lower left to the upper right is the auroral arc on the horizon. With north at the top of the image, the central part of the auroral arc has a latitude of 57 degrees north. When this same region was imaged 30 seconds later, the central part had changed. The left and right boxes below show a magnified view of the central region at the earlier and later times, respectively. The aurora is dynamic on Jupiter, just as it is here on Earth. The eerie, glowing light is created when molecules in the upper atmosphere are struck by charge particles from the space around Jupiter. Fluctuations in the charged particle flow cause variations in the auroral emission.

This image was part of a multi-instrument set of observations made as Galileo flew through a region of space rich in charged particles. The particles follow the magnetic field and, in this case, the spacecraft was flying through the particular field line that was imaged. With these observations, scientists hope to learn more about the particles and their interaction with the molecules in the atmosphere. This image provides a severe test of the camera optics. The overexposed region at the lower right is the illuminated part of the planet, which is much brighter than the aurora. When light from this region is scattered into the telescope, it creates a diffuse background. The long exposure subjects the detector to more cosmic rays than usual. These create spikes, the bright dots that are sprinkled throughout the image. These images were taken in the clear filter of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard the Galileo spacecraft on Nov. 5, 1996. Each pixel subtends a square about 30 kilometers (18.5 miles) throughout the image. The range is 1.433 million kilometers (0.89 million miles).

Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on Dec. 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and its magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are on the Galileo mission home page on the World Wide Web at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

1997-01-01

272

Design and Test of a Topless Shrimp Trawl to Reduce Pelagic Fish Bycatch in the Gulf of Maine Pink Shrimp Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new innovative topless shrimp trawl was designed and tested in the flume tank, and at sea to evaluate its potential of reducing finfish bycatch in the pink shrimp fishery in the Gulf of Maine. The trawl design removed the square and the top part of the section after the square (first belly section), to become \\

Pingguo He; David Goethel; Tracey Smith

2007-01-01

273

Snapping shrimp prefer natural as opposed to artificial materials as their habitat in laboratory conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzed the habitat selection behavior of the snapping shrimp, Alpheus spp., comparing natural shelters (Rocks with oysters attached on the surface Sh; rocks with smooth surface, Ro and coral rubble, Co with plastic bottle. Controlled laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the habitat preference, effect of photoperiod and shrimp orientation at shelter. The current study indicated that snapping shrimp preferred natural materials but rejected plastic bottle as their shelter. Among the natural shelters, coral rubble was the most preferred habitat followed by shell and rock. Photoperiod showed minimum effect on the shrimp where they spend most of the time inside and underneath the shelters. In conclusion the current study showed that snapping shrimp preferred coral rubble as opposed to other natural material and plastic bottle. The result also suggested that plastic debris in the marine environment is not an alternative habitat for snapping shrimp.

Sim, Lai Kean; Ghazali, Shahriman M.

2014-09-01

274

The Effect of Copper on the Color of Shrimps: Redder Is Not Always Healthier  

PubMed Central

The objective of this research is to test the effects of copper on the color of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in vivo. Forty-eight shrimps (L. vannamei) were exposed to a low concentration of copper (1 mg/L; experimental treatment) and forty-eight shrimps were used as controls (no copper added to the water). As a result of this experiment, it was found that shrimps with more copper are significantly redder than those designated as controls (hue (500–700 nm): P?=?0.0015; red chroma (625–700 nm): P<0.0001). These results indicate that redder color may result from exposure to copper and challenge the commonly held view that highly pigmented shrimps are healthier than pale shrimps. PMID:25229639

Martinez, Ana; Romero, Yanet; Castillo, Tania; Mascaro, Maite; Lopez-Rull, Isabel; Simoes, Nuno; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Barbosa, Andres

2014-01-01

275

Differential gene expression in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, following administration of oxytetracycline and oxolinic acid.  

PubMed

The intensification of shrimp farming systems has led to the spreading of a variety of bacterial and viral diseases that continue to plague the shrimp industry worldwide. Efforts to combat these pathogenic organisms include the use of immunostimulants, probiotics, vaccines and antibiotics. Although a few studies have already reported on the effects of various stimuli on shrimp, the effect of antibiotics, particularly on the changes in the shrimp transcriptomic profile have yet to be reported. Here we show that injecting shrimp with oxytetracycline and oxolinic acid alters the expression of genes in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, lymphoid organ. These antibiotics, especially oxylinic acid, down-regulated the expression of a few immune-related genes, most notably penaeidin, proPO, clotting protein, profilin and whey acidic protein. PMID:19497335

Fagutao, Fernand F; Yasuike, Motoshige; Santos, Mudjekeewis D; Ruangpan, Lila; Sangrunggruang, Kulvara; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Takahashi, Yuikinori; Ueno, Ryuji; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi

2009-10-01

276

Assessing the Shelf Life of Retail Shrimp Using Real-time Microrespirometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp is the most consumed seafood item in the United States (U.S.). Currently 90% of the shrimp consumed in the U.S. is imported from a few Asian countries. When imported shrimp arrives to its destination, it probably contains a load of microbial contamination due to the post-harvest processing steps such as transportation, handling, preparation, beheading, peeling, deveining, packaging and storage

Fahad Alderees

2010-01-01

277

Proximate composition and extraction of carotenoids and lipids from Brazilian redspotted shrimp waste ( Farfantepenaeus paulensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of redspotted shrimp (Penaeus paulensis) waste was investigated. The shrimp waste (freeze-dried heads, shells and tails) was found to have high protein (49% d.w.) and ash (27% d.w.) contents, but a low lipid content (4.9% d.w.) although the latter was higher than those found in other kinds of shrimp captured in Brazil. The fatty acid compositions showed

Andrea del Pilar Sánchez-Camargo; Maria Ângela de Almeida Meireles; Bruna Letícia Fontoura Lopes; Fernando Antonio Cabral

2011-01-01

278

Ecological limitations and appropriation of ecosystem support by shrimp farming in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shrimp farming in mangrove areas has grown dramatically in Asia and Latin America over the past decade. As a result, demand for resources required for farming, such as feed, seed, and clean water, has increased substantially. This study focuses on semiintensive shrimp culture as practiced on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. We estimated the spatial ecosystem support that is required to produce the food inputs, nursery areas, and clean water to the shrimp farms, as well as to process wastes. We also made an estimate of the natural and human-made resources necessary to run a typical semiintensive shrimp farm. The results show that a semiintensive shrimp farm needs a spatial ecosystem support—the ecological footprint—that is 35-190 times larger than the surface area of the farm. A typical such shrimp farm appropriates about 295 J of ecological work for each joule of edible shrimp protein produced. The corresponding figure for industrial energy is 40:1. More than 80% of the ecological primary production required to feed the shrimps is derived from external ecosystems. In 1990 an area of 874-2300 km2 of mangrove was required to supply shrimp postlarvae to the farms in Colombia, corresponding to a total area equivalent to about 20-50% of the country’s total mangrove area. The results were compared with similar estimates for other food production systems, particularly aquacultural ones. The comparison indicates that shrimp farming ranks as one of the most resource-intensive food production systems, characterizing it as an ecologically unsustainable throughput system. Based on the results, we discuss local, national, and regional appropriation of ecological support by the semiintensive shrimp farms. Suggestions are made for how shrimp farming could be transformed into a food production system that is less environmentally degrading and less dependent on external support areas.

Larsson, Jonas; Folke, Carl; Kautsky, Nils

1994-09-01

279

Acute toxicity of increased pH to the freshwater shrimpParatya curvirostris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The highly alkaline wastes from the ash lagoons at the Huntly thermal power station are a potential hazard to the upstream migration of the shrimp Paratya curvirostris. To test the response of the shrimp to such wastes migrating shrimp were exposed for 48 h in the laboratory to a pH range of 7.47–10.66. The relation between the median period of

T. L. Shaw

1981-01-01

280

Food habits of the mantis shrimp, Squilla empusa Say, in Galveston Bay, Texas  

E-print Network

that a variety of prey items were taken in the field, but the majority of the fragments identified were crustacean (mostly penaeid shrimp), fish, and detrital material. The various prey items found were significantly affected by the month the mantis... at the food habits of the mantis shrimp Scfuilla ~em usa and determine if this species exhibits a food preference. Are the food habits of S. ~em usa consistent with those known from other species of mantis shrimp? Stomatopods are predatory crustaceans...

Cappola, Valerie Ann

2012-06-07

281

Seabird use of discards from a nearshore shrimp fishery in the South Atlantic Bight, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp trawling is common throughout the southeastern and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the USA and is the primary contributor\\u000a to fisheries discards in these regions. Tens of thousands of nearshore seabirds nest near shrimp trawling grounds in the USA,\\u000a but to date, there has been no assessment of the relationship between seabirds and shrimp trawlers. We examined the taxonomic

Patrick G. R. JodiceLisa; Lisa C. Wickliffe; Elena B. Sachs

282

Toxicity of a phthalate ester in the diet of a penaied shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of dl?2?ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, was measured experimentally as a contaminant in shrimp aquaculture feeds. Diets containing 40 to 50,000 ppm DEHP were fed to Penaeus vannamei for 14 d at 4% body weight\\/d. DEHP concentrations in shrimp, diet, and water were measured by electron?capture gas chromatography. Whole?body residues in shrimp were 18 ppm at

James F. Hobson; Dean E. Carter; Donald V. Lightner

1984-01-01

283

An analysis of the impact of alternative import management policies for shrimp  

E-print Network

. Blomo's study was the first to examine both supply and demand of shrimp by size category. Studies investigating the demand for shrimp are numerous ? Timmer 1968; Gillespie et al. , 1969; Doll, 1972; Batie, 1974; Miller, 1975; Mar- asco, 1976... was constructed by Doll using annual data for the period 1950-1968. Market demand was estimated at retail, wholesale, and ex-vessel levels. Domestic landings and imports are regarded as exogenous in the model since, "the factors that cause shrimp abundance...

Hopkins, Jane Chadwick

2012-06-07

284

Visualizing Flow Diagrams in WebSphere Studio Using SHriMP Views  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the integration of an information visualization tool, called SHriMP Views, with IBM WebSphere Studio Application Developer Integration Edition, which was developed with Eclipse technology. Although SHriMP was originally developed for visualizing programs, it is content-independent. We have re-targeted SHriMP for visualizing flow diagrams. Flow diagrams, as supported by WebSphere Studio Appli- cation Developer Integration Edition, can be

Derek Rayside; Marin Litoiu; Margaret-anne D. Storey; Casey Best; Robert Lintern

2003-01-01

285

Uncovering the mechanisms of shrimp innate immune response by RNA interference.  

PubMed

Because of the importance of shrimp in world aquaculture, there is much interest in understanding their immune system in order to improve their resistance to pathogenic microorganisms. An effective tool in studying genes involved in the immune response in shrimp is RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi, first recognized as an antiviral response against RNA viruses, is a cellular mechanism that is triggered by double-stranded RNAs and results in the degradation of homologous genes. In this review, we describe the current studies of genes in shrimp that employed RNAi technology to elucidate or confirm their functions. We also review the potential of RNAi to elicit antiviral response in shrimp. PMID:20396922

Hirono, Ikuo; Fagutao, Fernand F; Kondo, Hidehiro; Aoki, Takashi

2011-08-01

286

Alterations in prey capture and induction of metallothioneins in grass shrimp fed cadmium-contaminated prey  

SciTech Connect

The aquatic oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri from a Cd-contaminated cove on the Hudson River, Foundry Cove, New York, USA, has evolved Cd resistance. Past studies have focused on how the mode of detoxification of Cd by these Cd-resistant worms influences Cd trophic transfer to the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. In the present study, the authors investigate reductions in prey capture in grass shrimp fed Cd-contaminated prey. They also investigate the induction of metal-binding proteins, metallothioneins, in these Cd-exposed shrimp. Grass shrimp were fed field-exposed Cd-contaminated Foundry Cove oligochaetes or laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated Artemia salina. Following these exposures, the ability of Cd- dosed and control shrimp to capture live A. salina was compared. Results show that shrimp fed laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated A. salina for 2 weeks exhibit significant reductions in their ability to successfully capture prey (live A. salina). Reductions in prey capture were also apparent, though not as dramatic in shrimp fed for 1 week on field-exposed Cd-contained Foundry Cove oligochaetes. Shrimp were further investigated for their subcellular distribution of Cd to examine if alterations in prey capture could be linked to saturation of Cd-metallothionein. Cd-dosed shrimp produced a low molecular weight CD-binding metallothionein protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Most importantly, successful prey capture decreased with increased Cd body burdens and increased Cd concentration bound to high molecular weight proteins.

Wallace, W.G.; Hoexum Brouwer, T.M.; Brouwer, M.; Lopez, G.R.

2000-04-01

287

Sound production by white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) analysis of another crustacean-like sound from the Gulf of Mexico, and the possible use of passive sonar for dedication and stock assessment of shrimp  

E-print Network

Sound production by white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) was studied acoustically and behaviorally. Another crustacean-like signal from the Gulf of Mexico was analyzed, and the use of passive sonar for the detection and stock assessment of shrimp...

Berk, Ilona M.

2012-06-07

288

Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii as a teratogen test system.  

PubMed

Brine shrimp increase in length rapidly after hatching. A teratogen test system is based on disruption of elongation between 24 and 48 hr after wetting of the cysts. Teratogenicity of substances dissolved in the medium is assayed by comparison of average lengths of animals raised for the test period in suspect solution with average lengths of controls. The system is fast, inexpensive, and requires little skill. Brine shrimp are suited to testing industrial wastes, chemical formulations, drugs, and food additives that can be dissolved in water at 25 degrees C. The method appears unsuited to testing the teratogenicity of gases, particulates, very dilute wastes, or natural waters. Cadmium, mercury, lead, zinc, bromoform, n-butylphthalate, 1,2-dichloroethane, nitrobenzene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, and 1,1,3-trichloroethane were found teratogenic. Chromium (III), chromium (VI), copper, chlorobenzene, chloroform, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and phenol were found not teratogenic. Other aquatic organism teratogen test systems are surveyed. PMID:6872918

Kerster, H W; Schaeffer, D J

1983-06-01

289

Extraction of Astaxanthin from Shrimp Waste Using Pressurized Hot Ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient and environmentally sustainable extraction method is proposed for the enrichment of a high-value pigment, astaxanthin,\\u000a from a low-value raw material, shrimp waste. Ethanol at elevated temperature and pressure was used as a “green” extraction\\u000a solvent. An experimental design approach based on central composite design was used to investigate the dependence of pressurized\\u000a liquid extraction (PLE) operating variables (pressure,

Can Quan; Charlotta Turner

2009-01-01

290

Effective extraction of astaxanthin pigment from shrimp using proteolytic enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was to investigate efficient extraction conditions of astaxanthin from shrimp wastes for utilizing it as\\u000a a functional food additive. In order to enhance the stability of pigments, proteolytic enzymes were applied to extract astaxanthin\\u000a as carotenoprotein. Also, various conditions such as acid ensilaging of samples, using EDTA solution and adding various enzymes\\u000a were examined to optimize extraction

Seung Hwan Lee; Seung Koo Roh; Ki Hwan Park; Kwang-Ro Yoon

1999-01-01

291

Cost and returns budgets for penaeid shrimp culture operations  

E-print Network

techniques presently being used in the Texas AAM University Shrimp Mariculture Program and current industry tech- nology. Budgets were developed for variations in hatchery tank size and tank number using fixed numbers of maturation tanks within a range... various combinations of hatchery tank sizes and num- bers for a 6 month period assuming 1. 67 runs per month per tank and 75 percent capacity . Page 24 Variable input and per unit price for items required for postlarval production . Fixed input...

Johns, M. A.

2012-06-07

292

U-Pb SHRIMP dating of uraniferous opals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

U-Pb and U-series analyses of four U-rich opal samples using sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) demonstrate the potential of this technique for the dating of opals with ages ranging from several tens of thousand years to millions of years. The major advantages of the technique, compared to the conventional thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS), are the high spatial resolution (???20 ??m), the ability to analyse in situ all isotopes required to determine both U-Pb and U-series ages, and a relatively short analysis time which allows obtaining a growth rate of opal as a result of a single SHRIMP session. There are two major limitations to this method, determined by both current level of development of ion probes and understanding of ion sputtering processes. First, sufficient secondary ion beam intensities can only be obtained for opal samples with U concentrations in excess of ???20 ??g/g. However, this restriction still permits dating of a large variety of opals. Second, U-Pb ratios in all analyses drifted with time and were only weakly correlated with changes in other ratios (such as U/UO). This drift, which is difficult to correct for, remains the main factor currently limiting the precision and accuracy of the U-Pb SHRIMP opal ages. Nevertheless, an assumption of similar behaviour of standard and unknown opals under similar analytical conditions allowed successful determination of ages with precisions of ???10% for the samples investigated in this study. SHRIMP-based U-series and U-Pb ages are consistent with TIMS dating results of the same materials and known geological timeframes. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Nemchin, A.A.; Neymark, L.A.; Simons, S.L.

2006-01-01

293

Antimicrobial Interventions to Reduce Listeria spp. Contamination on Shrimp  

E-print Network

and Technology iii ABSTRACT Antimicrobial Interventions to Reduce Listeria spp. Contamination on Shrimp. (August 2009) Tsui-Yin Wong, B.S., University of Chai-Yi (Taiwan); M.S., Texas A&M University Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Leon Russell... to thank the farm manager, Dell, and receptionist, Faye, for providing me with the poultry?s farm computer when I needed it to input my data. vii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT...

Wong, Tsui-Yin

2010-01-14

294

Virtual memory mapped network interface for the SHRIMP multicomputer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The network interfaces of existing multicomputers require a significant amount of software overhead to provide protection and to implement message passing protocols. This paper describes the design of a low-latency, high-bandwidth, virtual memory-mapped network interface for the SHRIMP multicomputer project at Princeton University. Without sacrificing protection, the network interface achieves low latency by using virtual memory mapping and write-latency hiding

Matthias A. Blumrich; Kai Li; Richard Alpert; Cezary Dubnicki; Edward W. Felten; Jonathan Sandberg

1998-01-01

295

Virtual memory mapped network interface for the SHRIMP multicomputer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The network interfaces of existing multicomputers require a significant amount of software overhead to provide protection and to implement message passing protocols. This paper describes the design of a low-latency, high-bandwidth, virtual memory-mapped network interface for the SHRIMP multicomputer project at Princeton University. Without sacrificing protection, the network interface achieves low latency by using virtual memory mapping and write-latency hiding

Matthias A. Blumrich; Kai Li; Richard Alpert; Cezary Dubnicki; Edward W. Felten; Jonathan Sandberg

1994-01-01

296

IMPACT OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS ON NITROGEN CYCLING AND WATER QUALITY IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN TEMPERATE ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (predominantly, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of tide flats in North American Pacific estuaries, from British Columbia to Baja California. Feeding, burrowing, and burrow irrigation by burrowing shrimp can ...

297

IMPACT OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS ON C, N CYCLING AND WATER QUALITY IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN TEMPERATE ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (predominantly, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of tide flats in North American Pacific estuaries, from British Columbia to Baja California. Feeding, burrowing, and burrow irrigation by burrowing shrimp can ...

298

75 FR 28760 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-AY58 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Revisions...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf FMP) and the Fishery...

2010-05-24

299

77 FR 1045 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-BB61 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Revisions...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf FMP) and the Fishery...

2012-01-09

300

75 FR 20548 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-AY58 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Revisions...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf FMP) and the Fishery...

2010-04-20

301

76 FR 30100 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Amended Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Department calculated new surrogate values for shrimp using ranged data from the Indian shrimp producer Devi Seafoods, Ltd. (``Devi'') and adopted a new surrogate labor rate. Id. at 1342. Using these revised values, the...

2011-05-24

302

75 FR 49889 - Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review: Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Changed-Circumstances Review: Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Vietnam AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') in which it preliminarily determined that...

2010-08-16

303

76 FR 30648 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...successor-in-interest to Grobest & I-Mei Industrial (Vietnam) Co., Ltd. (``Grobest & I-Mei...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). [[Page...

2011-05-26

304

77 FR 55800 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Final Partial Rescission of Antidumping...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\1\\ Based upon our analysis of the...

2012-09-11

305

76 FR 49729 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of Antidumping...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the period February...

2011-08-11

306

75 FR 75965 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the First Five-year ``Sunset...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). On the basis of the notices of intent to...

2010-12-07

307

76 FR 73594 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') to January 9, 2012. The period of...

2011-11-29

308

76 FR 64307 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results and Final Partial Rescission...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\1\\ The period of review...

2011-10-18

309

77 FR 63786 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Court Decision...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony...Review of Grobest & I Mei Industrial (Vietnam) Co., Ltd., and Notice of Amended...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') for the period...

2012-10-17

310

75 FR 36635 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of New Shipper...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of New Shipper Review AGENCY: Import...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') with respect to Nhat Duc Co.,...

2010-06-28

311

75 FR 47771 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Partial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Partial Rescission of Antidumping...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\1\\ We gave interested parties an...

2010-08-09

312

76 FR 45775 - Fourth New Shipper Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''), covering the period of review...

2011-08-01

313

76 FR 67418 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') to December 9, 2011. The period of...

2011-11-01

314

76 FR 55350 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') to November 9, 2011. The period of...

2011-09-07

315

76 FR 56158 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results and Final Partial Rescission of Antidumping...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\1\\ We gave interested parties an...

2011-09-12

316

78 FR 57352 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Re...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Re-conducted...Review of Grobest & I-Mei Industrial (Vietnam) Co., Ltd. and Intent Not To Revoke...shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The period of...

2013-09-18

317

Are the Hawaiian Opae-ula Shrimps Halocaridina rubra and H. palahemo Simply Different Morphotypes of the Same Species?  

E-print Network

Are the Hawaiian Opae-ula Shrimps Halocaridina rubra and H. palahemo Simply Different Morphotypes Approximately 300 H. rubra shrimp ("opae-ula" in Hawaiian) (Figure 1) were evenly split between two experimental

Cowles, David L.

318

Effect of Shrimp Chitin and Shrimp Chitin Hydrolysate on the Freeze-Induced Denaturation, and on the Amount of Unfreezable Water of Wanieso Lizardfish Myofibrillar Protein  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of potential utilization of shrimp waste, shrimp chitin (SC) and shrimp chitin hydrolysate (SCH) were prepared from 3 kinds of shrimp species, namely: black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, endeavour shrimp Metapenaeus endeavouri and giant freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The effects of 5% SC and SCH (dry weight) on the state of water and on the denaturation of wanieso lizardfish Saurida wanieso myofibrillar protein (Mf) were evaluated based on changes in Mf Ca-ATPase activity and the amount of unfreezable water during frozen storage. Each effect was compared with those of Mf without additives (control) and Mf with glucose. The changes in Ca-ATPase activity of control and Mf with SC during frozen storage were exhibited biphasic pattern while those of SCH and glucose exhibited monophasic pattern. The amount of unfreezable water of Mf with SC was lower than that of control while those of Mf with SCH and glucose were higher than that of control. Present findings suggested that the preventive effect of SCH on freeze-induced denaturation of Mf is caused by the stabilizing the hydrated water molecule surrounding the Mf.

Somjit, Kingduean; Kongpun, Orawan; Osatomi, Kiyoshi; Hara, Kenji; Nozaki, Yukinori

319

Predation by native brown shrimp on invasive Pacific oyster spat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decades, the invasive Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) increased dramatically in the Wadden Sea. One of the driving mechanisms for the success of the Pacific oyster could be a relatively low predation pressure by epibenthic predators and shore birds on oyster spat. Nevertheless, observations and experiments on predation rates on early life-stages of the Pacific oyster are rare. Therefore, we examined predation rates of brown shrimps on Pacific oyster spat in a number of laboratory experiments. Our results demonstrate that spat of Pacific oysters are most susceptible to predation by brown shrimps (Crangon crangon) in the first days after settlement, when attachment to the substrate (unglazed tiles in our study) is still absent or weak. At this stage the shell length of oyster spat is around ~ 300 ?m, and around 50% of the individuals in the experiment were consumed in the two hour trials. Predation rates decreased rapidly as the spat grew larger and reached zero within 10 days after settlement of the spat (shell length > 700 ?m). Additional experiments revealed that the attachment of oysters is probably limiting predation by brown shrimps rather than the size of the spat. This indicates that Pacific oyster spat may limit predation loss faster compared to native bivalves, which commonly depend on size to reduce predation rates. Overall, our results suggest that the invasive success of Pacific oysters may in part be explained by relatively low predation rates throughout their life stages.

Weerman, E. J.; Eriksson, B. K.; Olff, H.; van der Heide, T.

2014-01-01

320

The contribution of flocculated material to shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) nutrition in a high-intensity, zero-exchange system  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-intensity, zero-exchange shrimp ponds contain a high density of flocculated particles, rich in bacteria and phytoplankton, compared with flow-through systems. The flocculated particles provide a potential food source for shrimp. Short-term tank experiments were conducted to determine the retention of nitrogen (N) from natural biota, dominated by flocculated particles, in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) at a high-intensity, zero-exchange shrimp farm

Michele A Burford; Peter J Thompson; Robins P McIntosh; Robert H Bauman; Doug C Pearson

2004-01-01

321

Abundance and Size of Gulf Shrimp in Louisiana's Coastal Estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.  

PubMed

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus) in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP) design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1) exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2) fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events. PMID:25272142

van der Ham, Joris L; de Mutsert, Kim

2014-01-01

322

Abundance and Size of Gulf Shrimp in Louisiana's Coastal Estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

PubMed Central

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus) in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP) design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1) exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2) fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events. PMID:25272142

van der Ham, Joris L.; de Mutsert, Kim

2014-01-01

323

These Squatters Are Not Innocent: The Evidence of Parasitism in Sponge-Inhabiting Shrimps  

PubMed Central

Marine sponges are frequently inhabited by a wide range of associated invertebrates, including caridean shrimps. Symbiotic shrimps are often considered to be commensals; however, in most cases, the relationship with sponge hosts remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that sponge-inhabiting shrimps are often parasites adapted to consumption of sponge tissues. First, we provide detailed examination of morphology and stomach contents of Typton carneus (Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae), a West Atlantic tropical shrimp living in fire sponges of the genus Tedania. Remarkable shear-like claws of T. carneus show evidence of intensive shearing, likely the result of crushing siliceous sponge spicules. Examination of stomach contents revealed that the host sponge tissue is a major source of food for T. carneus. A parasitic mode of life is also reflected in adaptations of mouth appendages, in the reproduction strategy, and in apparent sequestration of host pigments by shrimp. Consistent results were obtained also for congeneric species T. distinctus (Western Atlantic) and T. spongicola (Mediterranean). The distribution of shrimps among sponge hosts (mostly solitary individuals or heterosexual pairs) suggests that Typton shrimps actively prevent colonisation of their sponge by additional conspecifics, thus protecting their resource and reducing the damage to the hosts. We also demonstrate feeding on host tissues by sponge-associated shrimps of the genera Onycocaris, Periclimenaeus, and Thaumastocaris (Pontoniinae) and Synalpheus (Alpheidae). The parasitic mode of life appears to be widely distributed among sponge-inhabiting shrimps. However, it is possible that under some circumstances, the shrimps provide a service to the host sponge by preventing a penetration by potentially more damaging associated animals. The overall nature of interspecific shrimp-sponge relationships thus warrants further investigation. PMID:21814564

Duris, Zdenek; Horka, Ivona; Juracka, Petr Jan; Petrusek, Adam; Sandford, Floyd

2011-01-01

324

Evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) ?-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens. PMID:24780624

Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

2014-10-01

325

An Assessment of the Economic Importance of the San Carlos Island Shrimp Processing Industry to the Lee County Economy  

E-print Network

to the Lee County Economy Chuck Adams, David Mulkey, and Alan Hodges Food and Resource Economics Department the shrimp processing industry on San Carlos Island contributes to the Lee County economy. Most of the shrimp of the revenues earned on a trip are spent within the Lee County economy. During seasons when shrimp landings

Florida, University of

326

Larva' distribution and transport of penaeoid shrimps during the presence of the Tortugas Gyre in May-June 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part ofthe Southeast Florida and Caribbean Recruitment Project (SEFCAR), penaeoid shrimp lar­ vae were collected during the spring and summer cruise of the RV Longhorn in the Lower Florida Keys and Dry'Ibrtugas from 29 May to 30 June 1991. Larvae of the pink shrimp, Penaeusduorarum, and the rock shrimp, Sicyonia sp., were dis­ tributed inshore close to the Dry

Maria M. Criales; Thomas N. Lee

327

Brine Shrimp Lethality Activity of Thai Medicinal Plants in the Family Meliaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brine shrimp larvae have been used as a bioassay for a variety of toxic substances. The method has also been applied to plant extracts in order to facilitate the isolation of biologically active compounds. In this study, the plants in the family Meliaceae have been selected to test for brine shrimp lethality activity based on taxonomic approach including Azedirachta indica,

Sirintorn Pisutthanana; Pinyupa Plianbangchang

328

A comparison between two brine shrimp assays to detect in vitro cytotoxicity in marine natural products  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The brine shrimp lethality assay is considered a useful tool for preliminary assessment of toxicity. It has also been suggested for screening pharmacological activities in plant extracts. However, we think that it is necessary to evaluate the suitability of the brine shrimp methods before they are used as a general bio-assay to test natural marine products for pharmacological activity.

José Luis Carballo; Zaira L Hernández-Inda; Pilar Pérez; María D García-Grávalos

2002-01-01

329

White spot syndrome virus epizootic in cultured Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in Taiwan.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused significant losses in shrimp farms worldwide. Between 2004 and 2006, Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) were collected from 220 farms in Taiwan to determine the prevalence and impact of WSSV infection on the shrimp farm industry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis detected WSSV in shrimp from 26% of farms. Juvenile shrimp farms had the highest infection levels (38%; 19/50 farms) and brooder shrimp farms had the lowest (5%; one of 20 farms). The average extent of infection at each farm was as follows for WSSV-positive farms: post-larvae farms, 71%; juvenile farms, 61%; subadult farms, 62%; adult farms, 49%; and brooder farms, 40%. Characteristic white spots, hypertrophied nuclei and basophilic viral inclusion bodies were found in the epithelia of gills and tail fans, appendages, cephalothorax and hepatopancreas, and virions of WSSV were observed. Of shrimp that had WSSV lesions, 100% had lesions on the cephalothorax, 96% in gills and tail fans, 91% on appendages and 17% in the hepatopancreas. WSSV was also detected in copepoda and crustaceans from the shrimp farms. Sequence comparison using the pms146 gene fragment of WSSV showed that isolates from the farms had 99.7-100% nucleotide sequence identity with four strains in the GenBank database--China (AF332093), Taiwan (AF440570 and U50923) and Thailand (AF369029). This is the first broad study of WSSV infection in L. vannamei in Taiwan. PMID:24111694

Cheng, L; Lin, W-H; Wang, P-C; Tsai, M-A; Hsu, J-P; Chen, S-C

2013-12-01

330

Arsenic speciation in shrimp and mussel from the Mid-Atlantic hydrothermal vents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specimens of shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and mussel (Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis) were collected 3500 m below the ocean surface at the hydrothermal vents of the mid-Atlantic Ridge (TAG and Snake Pit sites, respectively). Arsenic, a potentially toxic element, is among the substances emitted by the hydrothermal vents. The hydrothermal vent shrimp, which are known to be a primary consumer of the primary

Erik H. Larsen; Christophe R. Quétel; Riansares Munoz; Aline Fiala-Medioni; Olivier F. X. Donard

1997-01-01

331

Communications: Bioencapsulation of the Antibacterial Drug Sarafloxacin in Nauplii of the Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana were enriched with the antibacterial drug sarafloxacin hydrochloride to determine if levels effective against four pathogenic strains of Vibrio spp. would accumulate in brine shrimp. Three vibrio strains were Vibrio anguillarum; the fourth was V. vulnifcus. Concentrations of sarafloxacin ranging from 1 to 40% (weight volume) were incorporated into the oil phase of

B. A. Dixon; S. O. Van Poucke; M. Chair; M. Dehasque; H. J. Nelis; P. Sorgeloos; A. P. De Leenheer

1995-01-01

332

78 FR 33342 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2) to which a ``dusting''' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with...surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product...

2013-06-04

333

78 FR 33346 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Countervailing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2) to which a ``dusting''' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with...surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product...

2013-06-04

334

Simulated Economic Impact of TED Regulations on Selected Vessels in the Texas Shrimp Fishery  

E-print Network

Simulated Economic Impact of TED Regulations on Selected Vessels in the Texas Shrimp Fishery JOY legislation requires the use ofa Turtle Ex cluderDevice (TED) which, when inplace in the shrimp trawl, reduces sea turtle mortal ity. The impactofthe TED on shrimpproduc tion is notknown. This intermediate

335

Immunity enhancement in black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) by a probiont bacterium ( Bacillus S11)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival and growth of Penaeus monodon fed the probiont Bacillus S11 in two 90-day culture trials were increased compared with non-treated shrimp. Bacillus S11 also efficiently activated and increased the engulfment of foreign particles (phagocytic activity) as measured by % phagocytosis and phagocytic index (PI) in hemolymph. Phenoloxidase and antibacterial activities increased with age in all shrimp, but were even

Sirirat Rengpipat; Sombat Rukpratanporn; Somkiat Piyatiratitivorakul; Piamsak Menasaveta

2000-01-01

336

METHOD OF DETERMINING CAROTENOID CONTENTS OF ALASKA PINK SHRIMP AND REPRESENTATIVE VALVES FOR  

E-print Network

FOR SEVERAL SHRIMP PRODUCTS CAROLYN E. KELLEY' AND ANTHONY W. HARMON" ABSTRACf An extraction method and marketingpractices. The carotenoid in Alaska pink shrimp is pri- marily astaxanthin. Both total astaxanthin as a filter aid, is not essential but makes subsequent extraction and filtration easier. Blend just enough

337

Supercritical CO 2 extraction of lipids and astaxanthin from Brazilian redspotted shrimp waste ( Farfantepenaeus paulensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazilian redspotted shrimp (Farfantepenaeus paulensis) waste is an important source of carotenoids such as astaxanthin and lipids with a high ??3 fatty acids content, mainly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). In order to establish an efficient and environmental friendly recovery process, the lipids and astaxanthin were extracted from the freeze-dried redspotted shrimp waste (including head, tail and shell)

Andrea P. Sánchez-Camargo; Hugo A. Martinez-Correa; Losiane C. Paviani; Fernando A. Cabral

2011-01-01

338

Financial Feasibility of Producing Value-Added Seafood from Shrimp Waste in Quebec  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp waste disposal represents a financial and environmental cost to processors and society. There have been successful biotechnology experiments in producing certain value-added marketable consumer products from shrimp waste. This study reports on the economics of that process and its commercial viability in Quebec. Discounted cash flow methods (NPV, IRR) and the payback period criteria were employed to conduct investment

P. Goldsmith; F. Amankwah; K. Gunjal; J. Smith

2004-01-01

339

UPTAKE, ASSIMILATION, AND LOSS OF DDT RESIDUES BY Euphausia pacifica, A EUPHAUSIID SHRIMP  

E-print Network

UPTAKE, ASSIMILATION, AND LOSS OF DDT RESIDUES BY Euphausia pacifica, A EUPHAUSIID SHRIMP ABSTRACT JAMES L. Cox' Euphausia pacifica Hensen, an abundant euphausiid shrimp from the California Current, can acquire sufficient DDT residue from its food to account for amounts found in its tissues. Assimilation

340

BIOACCUMULATION OF KEPONE BY GRASS SHRIMP (PALAEMONETIS PUGIO): IMPORTANCE OF DIETARY ACCUMULATION AND INGESTION RATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The relative extent of dietary accumulation and bioconcentration of Kepone by grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) was quantitatively evaluated at food rations of 4 and of the average wet weight of the shrimp. 14C]Kepone was utilized to determine bioconcentration and dietary accumul...

341

FISH PREDATION ON JUVENILE BROWN SHRIMp, PENAEUS AZTECUS IVES: EFFECTS OF TURBIDITY AND  

E-print Network

FISH PREDATION ON JUVENILE BROWN SHRIMp, PENAEUS AZTECUS IVES: EFFECTS OF TURBIDITY AND SUBSTRATUM for burrowing. Regardless of the type of substratum, turbid water increased predation by southern flounder clear and turbid water, the presence of sand, whic1l allowed shrimp to burrow, decreased predation

342

Environmental Impacts and their Socioeconomic Consequences of Shrimp Farming in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial shrimp culture in Bangladesh has expanded dramatically over the last two decades for itshigh demand in the international market and its potential for making quick profit. Large farm size, very low input, low stocking density, diseases infestation and low production are the characteristics of most shrimp farms. While other Asian countries like Taiwan, Malaysia, Thailand, India and Srilanka have

Sadika Haque; Gopal Datt Bhatta; Nazmul Hoque; Mahbub Hossain Rony; Mustafizur Rahman

2008-01-01

343

The application of bacterial indicator phylotypes to predict shrimp health status.  

PubMed

The incidence of shrimp disease is closely associated with the microbial composition in surrounding water, but it remains uncertain whether microbial indicator phylotypes are predictive for shrimp health status (healthy or diseased). To test this idea, we combined the data from our previous works, to investigate the feasibility of indicator phylotypes as independent variables to predict the health status during a shrimp culture procedure. The results showed linearly increased dissimilarities (P?shrimps. In particular, we created a model to identify indicators that discriminated ponds with diseased shrimp populations from these with healthy shrimp populations. As a result, 13 indicative families were screened, in which seven are healthy indicator and six are diseased indictor. An improved logistic regression model additionally revealed that the occurrences of these indicator families could be predictive of the shrimp health status with a high degree of accuracy (>79 %). Overall, this study provides solid evidences that indicator phylotypes could be served as independent variables for predicting the incidences of shrimp disease. PMID:25042597

Xiong, Jinbo; Zhu, Jianlin; Zhang, Demin

2014-10-01

344

Identification of Continuous, Allergenic Regions of the Major Shrimp Allergen Pen a 1 (Tropomyosin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Crustaceans and mollusks are a frequent cause of allergic reactions. The only major allergen identified in shrimp is the muscle protein tropomyosin; at least 80% of shrimp-allergic subjects react to tropomyosin. Furthermore, tropomyosin is an important allergen in other crustaceans such as lobsters, crabs and mollusks, as well as other arthropods such as house dust mites and cockroaches, and

R. Ayuso; S. B. Lehrer; G. Reese

2002-01-01

345

Frozen Commodity Shrimp: Potential Avenue for Introduction of White Spot Syndrome Virus and Yellow Head Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1992, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) have caused mortalities in cultured shrimp throughout Asia. By 1995, WSSV was detected in Texas and South Carolina, and the virus has also been recently reported in Central and South America (Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, Panama, Colombia, Peru, and Ecuador). The importation of live infected shrimp is the principal

S. V. Durand; K. F. J. Tang; D. V. Lightner

2000-01-01

346

A new RNA virus found in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon from Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, apparently innocuous virus was found while investigating the cause of monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS) in cultured black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). It was identified via plasmid vector clones of E. coli containing randomly amplified cDNA fragments produced from total nucleic acid extracts of hemolymph from MSGS shrimp. Of 421 clones, 30 that failed to give positive dot

Kallaya Sritunyalucksana; Somjai Apisawetakan; Anutara Boon-nat; Boonsirm Withyachumnarnkul; Timothy W. Flegel

2006-01-01

347

Onboard processing of deepwater pink shrimp ( Parapenaeus longirostris ) with liquid ice: Effect on quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect on the quality of deepwater pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) of onboard chilling with liquid ice versus the traditional chilling with flaked ice. Quality was estimated by physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory parameters after 24 h and 4 days of chilled storage. Application of liquid ice immediately after catch for the fast chilling of pink shrimp

Almudena Huidobro; María Elvira López-Caballero; Rogério Mendes

2002-01-01

348

Determinants of Yields in Shrimp Culture: Scientific Vs. Traditional Farming Systems in West Bengal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at identifying various determinants of shrimp yield in scientific and traditional farming systems in West Bengal. The primary data was collected from two shrimp farming districts—North 24 Parganas and Purba Midnapur during 2004-05. The empirical results derived from the multiple regression analysis show that education and capital costs have a positive impact on the yield in both

Poulomi Bhattacharya

2009-01-01

349

Oxidative stress response of black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) to enrofloxacin and to culture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Vietnam, enrofloxacin is one of the most commonly used antibiotics in shrimp farms. Although the European Union set a maximum residue limit (MRL) of 100 ?g\\/kg for enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in edible tissues of aquatic animals for human consumption, only few data are available on its potential deleterious effects on shrimp. This study aimed to investigate the impacts

Huynh Thi Tu; Frédéric Silvestre; Amandine Bernard; Caroline Douny; Nguyen Thanh Phuong; Chau Tai Tao; Guy Maghuin-Rogister; Patrick Kestemont

2008-01-01

350

Hydraulic activities by ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis induce oxic-anoxic oscillations in sediments  

EPA Science Inventory

We applied porewater pressure sensing, time-lapse photography and planar optode imaging of oxygen to investigate hydraulic behaviors of the Thalassinidean ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis and the associated dynamics of oxygen in and around their burrows. Ghost shrimp were h...

351

A Review of the Offshore Shrimp Fishery and the 1981 Texas Closure  

E-print Network

with the fisheries of earlier years. Statistics describing the U.S. Gulf of Mexico shrimp fishery began in 1956 reported in "Fishery Statistics of the United States" and "Shrimp Landings" (USFWS, 1956-70a, b; NMFS, 1970) to determine re- cruitment to the offshore fisheries. Figure I.-Locations of statistical subareas (no. 12

352

MODELING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SHRIMP MARICULTURE AND WATER QUALITY IN THE RIO CHONE ESTUARY, ECUADOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The Rio Chone estuary in Ecuador has been heavily altered by the conversion of over 90% of the original mangrove forest to shrimp ponds. We carried out computational experiments using both hydrodynamic and shrimp pond models to investigate factors leading to declines in estuarine...

353

A Demographic Profile of Participants in Two Gulf of Mexico Inshore Shrimp Fisheries and Their  

E-print Network

of the offshore shrimp fishery by delaying amined differ in that the market distribution ofshrimpfrom Galveston sequently, shrimp are harvested by both inshore and offshore shrimpers. These two user groups harvest of inshore and offshore James M. Nance is with the National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Galveston

354

MIGRATIONS AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF PINK SHRIMP, PENAEUS DUORARUM, OF THE TORTUGAS AND SANIBEL GROUNDS,  

E-print Network

patterns on the offshore grounds. The migrations and geographic distribution of pink shrimp, Penae'u8 d'IW1MIGRATIONS AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF PINK SHRIMP, PENAEUS DUORARUM, OF THE TORTUGAS on the offshore Tortugas and Sanibel trawling grounds in the Gulf of Mexico. To study the Tortugas and Sanibel

355

Field study of cyclic hypoxic effects on gene expression in grass shrimp hepatopancreas.  

PubMed

Grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, are widely used for ecological and toxicological research. They commonly experience cyclic hypoxia in their natural habitats. The response of grass shrimp to laboratory-controlled cyclic hypoxia has been studied in detail, but little is known about how field acclimatized grass shrimp regulate the gene expression and response to cyclic hypoxia. In this study we examined morphometric parameters, relative fecundity and gene expression of grass shrimp collected from two areas in Weeks Bay (Mobile, Alabama). One is a traditionally normoxic location (WBM), and the other is a traditionally cyclic hypoxic location (WC). In the week preceding grass shrimp collection dissolved oxygen (DO) at the field sites was measured continuously. DO was <2 (mg/L DO) and between 2 and 3 (mg/L DO) for 0 and 255min at WBM, and for 285 and 1035min at WC, respectively. Weight and length of WBM grass shrimp were significantly greater than weight and length of WC shrimp. WBM shrimp had more eggs than WC shrimp, but the difference was not significant. Shrimp from WC had a significant higher number of parasites than those from WBM. A cDNA microarray was utilized to investigate the changes in gene expression in grass shrimp hepatopancreas. Five genes, previously identified as hypoxia/cyclic hypoxia-responsive genes in laboratory exposure studies, were significantly up-regulated in WC shrimp relative to WBM. A total of 5 genes were significantly down-regulated in the field study. Only one of those genes, vitellogenin, has been previously found in chronic and cyclic hypoxic studies. Up and down-regulation of 7 selected genes was confirmed by qPCR. The overall pattern of gene expression in wild shrimp from cyclic DO sites in Weeks Bay showed only weak correlations with gene expression in shrimp from chronic and cyclic hypoxic laboratory studies. It appears therefore that transcriptome profiles of laboratory acclimated animals are of limited utility for understanding responses in field acclimatized animals that are exposed to a broader array of environmental variables. PMID:24077186

Li, Tiandao; Brouwer, Marius

2013-12-01

356

SYMBIOSIS BETWEEN AN ALPHEID SHRIMP AND A XANTHOID CRAB IN SALT MARSHES OF MID-ATLANTIC STATES, U.S.A.  

E-print Network

(i.e., grass shrimp and fiddler crabs), it will not prey on snapping shrimp. Alpheus cagedSYMBIOSIS BETWEEN AN ALPHEID SHRIMP AND A XANTHOID CRAB IN SALT MARSHES OF MID-ATLANTIC STATES, U snapping shrimp (Alpheus heterochaelis) participates in a symbiosis with the black-clawed mud crab

Bermingham, Eldredge

357

Asian-Style Shrimp Noodle Soup with Lemongrass and Coconut Milk By Tom McNary of Carried Away, Aptos, CA  

E-print Network

Asian-Style Shrimp Noodle Soup with Lemongrass and Coconut Milk By Tom McNary of Carried Away teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons fish sauce 1 can coconut milk 1¼ pounds gulf shrimp, peeled Chef Tom Mc juice, salt, fish sauce, coconut milk and shrimp. Simmer for about 5 minutes until shrimp is pink

California at Santa Cruz, University of

358

Optimization of microbial inactivation of shrimp by dense phase carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

Microbial inactivation of Litopenaeus vannamei by dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) treatment was investigated and neural network was used to optimize the process parameters of microbial inactivation. The results showed that DPCD treatment had a remarkable bactericidal effect on microorganism of shrimp. A 3×5×2 three-layer neural network model was established. According to the neural network model, the inactivation effect was enhanced with pressure, temperature and exposure time increasing and temperature was the most important factor affecting microbial inactivation of shrimp. Cooked appearance of shrimp by DPCD treatment was observed and seemed to be more positively acceptable by Chinese diet custom. Therefore, color change of shrimp by DPCD treatment could have a positive effect on quality attributes. Moderate temperature 55 °C with 15 MPa for 26 min treatment time achieved a 3.5-log reduction of total aerobic plate counts (TPC). The parameters combination might be appropriate for shrimp process by DPCD. PMID:22424934

Ji, Hongwu; Zhang, Liang; Liu, Shucheng; Qu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Chaohua; Gao, Jialong

2012-05-01

359

Influence of ultrasonic treatment on the allergenic properties of Shrimp ( Penaeus vannamei) Allergen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study was undertaken to determine whether high intensity ultrasound could reduce the allergic properties of shrimp allergens. Reducing the allergenic properties of these allergens will be beneficial to allergic individuals. Samples of shrimp protein extract and shrimp muscle were treated by high-intensity ultrasound with water bathing at 0°C or 50°C for different time periods. The treated and untreated samples were then analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western blots and competitive inhibition ELISA (Ci-ELISA) to determine the shrimp allergenicity. The results show that high-intensity ultrasound has no effect on allergenicity when the extracts were treated at 0°C. However, a significant decrease was observed in the level of the major shrimp allergen, Pen a 1, when the samples were treated at 50°C. In the determination of allergenicity with Ci-ELISA, a reduction in IgE binding was also observed.

Zhenxing, Li; Hong, Lin; Limin, Cao

2006-04-01

360

Burrow utilization in the goby Eutaeniichthys gilli associated with the mud shrimp Upogebia yokoyai.  

PubMed

We investigated the estuarine goby's (Eutaeniichthys gilli) utilization of mud shrimp (Upogebia yokoyai) burrows in laboratory experiments at Kochi, Japan. The goby utilized the shrimp burrow in the presence of the host, without predators, when the mud surface was covered with water. The goby spent one quarter to half the time in shrimp burrows in experimental tanks. The goby frequently entered and exited the shrimp burrows, with bout durations of several seconds to several minutes. The goby also utilized vacant artificial burrows in much the same manner. It is suggested that E. gilli feeds on small-sized crustaceans and other organic matter on the mud surface frequently utilizing shrimp burrows for possible predator avoidance even when no predator is present. Repeated evolution of burrow utilization in the North Pacific bay gobies in both the East and West Pacific would correlate with burrow commensalism in E. gilli, which is the most proximal outgroup of the bay gobies. PMID:25088593

Henmi, Yumi; Itani, Gyo

2014-08-01

361

Evaluate of heavy metal concentration in shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) and crab (Portunus pelagicus) with INAA method.  

PubMed

The level of the heavy metal in green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) and crab (Portunus pelagicus) caught off the Persian Gulf near Bushehr province were investigated. This study was performed to evaluate instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to analyze heavy metal concentration in crab and shrimp whole body tissue. The order of the swimmer crab and shrimp heavy metal concentrations were Zn>Fe>As>Mn>Co and Fe>Zn>Mn>As>Co, respectively. The results showed swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) and shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) caught off Persian gulf, were contaminated with high level of As (21.38±3.31ppm and 8.28±2.82 ppm, respectively). High levels of As and Mn were noted in crabs and shrimp, respectively. PMID:23487484

Heidarieh, Marzieh; Maragheh, Mohammad Ghannadi; Shamami, Mehrdad Azizi; Behgar, Mehdi; Ziaei, Farhood; Akbari, Zahra

2013-12-01

362

The fall and rise of V854 Centauri: long-term ultraviolet spectroscopy of a highly-active R Coronae Borealis star  

E-print Network

We examine long-term low-dispersion IUE, SWP and LWP spectroscopy of the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) star V854 Cen, obtained across the deep 1991, 1992-1993 and 1994 declines. We also report the optical light curve for the star in the interval 1987-1998, including multi-color photometry obtained during 1989-1998. Analysis of the UV emission line spectra indicates most lines decay during the deep declines on characteristic timescales comparable to that reported for optical features. Fe, Mg and neutral C lines decay on timescales of typically 50-100 d. Other lines, notably ionized C lines, decay on longer timescales (> 200 d) or appear to be unaffected by the declines. The general nature of the UV emission lines and other UV features during the declines is consistent with the E1/E2/BL line-region model developed from the behavior of optical spectral features during declines. However, the detailed line-behavior indicates large intrinsic variability between decline events inconsistent with the simple E1/E2/BL model. Limited temporal coverage prevents detailed examination of the geometry of the emission line region or the obscuring dust. We also report the first detection of the transition-region line C IV 1550 in the spectrum of an RCB star.

W. A. Lawson

1999-05-15

363

The fall and rise of V854 Centauri long-term ultraviolet spectroscopy of a highly-active R Coronae Borealis star  

E-print Network

We examine long-term low-dispersion IUE, SWP and LWP spectroscopy of the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) star V854 Cen, obtained across the deep 1991, 1992-1993 and 1994 declines. We also report the optical light curve for the star in the interval 1987-1998, including multi-color photometry obtained during 1989-1998. Analysis of the UV emission line spectra indicates most lines decay during the deep declines on characteristic timescales comparable to that reported for optical features. Fe, Mg and neutral C lines decay on timescales of typically 50-100 d. Other lines, notably ionized C lines, decay on longer timescales (> 200 d) or appear to be unaffected by the declines. The general nature of the UV emission lines and other UV features during the declines is consistent with the E1/E2/BL line-region model developed from the behavior of optical spectral features during declines. However, the detailed line-behavior indicates large intrinsic variability between decline events inconsistent with the simple E1/E2/BL model....

Lawson, W A; Clayton, G C; Valencic, L A; Jones, A F; Kilkenny, J D; Van Wyk, C J; Roberts, G; Marang, F

1999-01-01

364

Post-merger evolution of carbon-oxygen + helium white dwarf binaries and the origin of R Coronae Borealis and extreme helium stars  

E-print Network

Orbital decay by gravitational-wave radiation will cause some close-binary white dwarfs (WDs) to merge within a Hubble time. The results from previous hydrodynamical WD-merger simulations have been used to guide calculations of the post-merger evolution of carbon-oxygen + helium (CO+He) WD binaries. Our models include the formation of a hot corona in addition to a Keplerian disk. We introduce a 'destroyeddisk' model to simulate the effect of direct disk ingestion into the expanding envelope. These calculations indicate significant lifetimes in the domain of the rare R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars, before a fast evolution through the domain of the hotter extreme helium (EHe) stars. Surface chemistries of the resulting giants are in partial agreement with the observed abundances of RCB and EHe stars. The production of 3He, 18O and 19F are discussed. Evolutionary timescales combined with binary white-dwarf merger rates from binary-star population synthesis are consistent with present-day numbers of RCBs and EHes...

Zhang, Xianfei; Chen, Xuefei; Han, Zhanwen

2014-01-01

365

Changes in the composition of Vibrio communities in pond water during tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) cultivation and in the hepatopancreas of healthy and diseased shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two batches of shrimp were cultivated in a total of 4 culture ponds from March 28 to June 13, and July 17 to September 11, 1997. Vibrio spp. were isolated from the pond water and the hepatopancreas of healthy and diseased shrimp using thiosulfate–citrate–bile salt–sucrose agar plate, and then identified using fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. In each culture

Hung-Hung Sung; Hai-Ching Li; Fu-Ming Tsai; Yun-Yuan Ting; Wei-Liang Chao

1999-01-01

366

Molecular Characterizations of a Novel Putative DNA-Binding Protein LvDBP23 in Marine Shrimp L. vannamei Tissues and Molting Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLitopenaeus Vannamei, well known as pacific white shrimp, is the most popular shrimp in the world shrimp market. Identification and characterization of shrimp muscle regulatory genes are not only important for shrimp genetic improvement, but also facilitate comparative genomic tools for understanding of muscle development and regeneration.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsA novel mRNA encoding for a putative DNA-binding protein LvDBP23 was identified from

Yanisa Laoong-u-thai; Baoping Zhao; Amornrat Phongdara; Jinzeng Yang

2011-01-01

367

Organotins in North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon L.) after implementation of the TBT ban.  

PubMed

The organotin (OT) compounds tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) are potent biocides that have been used ubiquitously in antifouling paints and pesticides since the mid-1970s. These biocides are extremely toxic to marine life, particularly marine gastropod populations. The European Union therefore took measures to reduce the use of TBT-based antifouling paints on ships and ultimately banned these paints in 2003. Despite sufficient data on OT concentrations in marine gastropods, data are scarce for other species such as the North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon), a dominant crustacean species in North Sea inshore benthic communities. The present study provides the first spatial overview of OT concentrations in North Sea brown shrimp. We have compared these data with historical concentrations in shrimp as well as with sediment concentrations. We have also addressed the effect on the shrimp stock and any human health risks associated with the OT concentrations found. TBT and TPhT in shrimp tail muscle ranged from 4 to 124 and from 1 to 24 ?g kg(-1) DW, respectively. High levels are accumulated in estuarine areas and are clearly related with sediment concentrations (biota-sediment accumulation factor ~10). Levels have decreased approximately 10-fold since the ban took effect, coinciding with a recovery of the shrimp stock after 30 years of gradual regression. Furthermore, the OT levels found in brown shrimp no longer present a human health risk. PMID:22154339

Verhaegen, Y; Monteyne, E; Neudecker, T; Tulp, I; Smagghe, G; Cooreman, K; Roose, P; Parmentier, K

2012-03-01

368

Evaluation of green tea extract as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing.  

PubMed

Solutions of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract (GTE) in distilled water were evaluated as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing. Total of 2%, 3%, and/or 5% GTE solutions (2GTE, 3GTE, 5GTE) were used for glazing. Distilled water glazed (GDW) and nonglazed shrimp (NG) served as controls. The GTE was characterized by measuring color, pH, (o) Brix, total phenols, and % antiradical activity. Individual catechins were identified by HPLC. The freezing time, freezing rate, and energy removal rate for freezing shrimp by cryogenic freezing process were estimated. The frozen shrimp samples were stored in a freezer at -21 °C for 180 d. Samples were analyzed for pH, moisture content, glazing yield, thaw yield, color, cutting force, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) after 1, 30, 90, and 180 d. The HPLC analysis of GTE revealed the presence of catechins and their isomers and the total polyphenol content was 148.10 ± 2.49 g/L. The freezing time (min) and energy removal rate (J/s) were 48.67 ± 2.3 and 836.67 ± 78.95, respectively. Glazed samples had higher moisture content compared to NG shrimp after 180 d storage. GTE was effective in controlling the lipid oxidation in shrimp. Glazing with GTE affected a* and b* color values, but had no significant effect on the L* values of shrimp. PMID:22417550

Sundararajan, Srijanani; Prudente, Alfredo; Bankston, J David; King, Joan M; Wilson, Paul; Sathivel, Subramaniam

2011-09-01

369

Molecular cloning and characterisation of prophenoloxidase from haemocytes of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

cDNA encoding prophenoloxidase (proPO) of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was obtained from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA using oligonucleotide primers based on the proPO sequence of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, green tiger shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus (accession no.: AF521949) and kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus (accession no.: AB0733223). proPO of L. vannamei was constitutively expressed. The 2471-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2058 bp, a 96-bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 317-bp 3'-untranslated region containing the poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid sequence (686 amino acids) was 78.1 kDa with an estimated pI of 6.02. It contained putative copper binding sites, a complement-like motif (GCGWPQHM), a proteolytic activation site, and a conserved C-terminal region common to all known proPOs. However, no signal peptide sequence was detected in white shrimp proPO. Comparison of amino acid sequences showed that white shrimp proPO is more closely related to the proPO of another penaeid than to that of a freshwater crayfish. White shrimp proPO mRNA was synthesized in haemocytes and not in the hepatopancreas or muscle. The activation responses of the proPO of the white shrimp to an exogenous protease (trypsin), a detergent (sodium dodecyl sulphate), and algal and microbial cell wall components (laminarin, sodium alginate, zymosan, and lipopolysaccharide), and its susceptibility to protease inhibitors in vitro resemble the proPO activation system of other crustaceans. These facts suggest that the proPO system in haemocytes of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei serves an important function in non-self recognition and host immune reactions. PMID:15683918

Lai, Ching-Yi; Cheng, Winton; Kuo, Ching-Ming

2005-05-01

370

Characterization of Intestinal Bacteria in Wild and Domesticated Adult Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)  

PubMed Central

The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp. PMID:24618668

Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

2014-01-01

371

Chitin extraction from shrimp shell waste using Bacillus bacteria.  

PubMed

The ability of six protease-producing Bacillus species (Bacillus pumilus A1, Bacillus mojavencis A21, Bacillus licheniformis RP1, Bacillus cereus SV1, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6 and Bacillus subtilis A26) to ferment media containing only shrimp shell waste, for chitin extraction, was investigated. More than 80% deproteinization was attained by all the strains tested. However, demineralization rates not exceeding 67% were registered. Cultures conducted in media containing shrimp shell waste supplemented with 5% (w/v) glucose were found to remarkably promote demineralization efficiency, without affecting deproteinization rates. The antioxidant activities of hydrolysates, at different concentrations, produced during fermentation in medium supplemented with glucose, were determined using different tests: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging method, reducing power assay and chelating activity. All hydrolysates showed varying degrees of antioxidant activity. Hydrolysate produced by B. pumilus A1 exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, with an IC(50) value of 0.3 mg/ml. Highest reducing power (DO 700 nm=1.55 at 1.5 mg/ml) and metal chelating activity (98% at 5mg/ml) were obtained with B. pumilus A1 and B. licheniformis RP1 hydrolysates, respectively. PMID:22981824

Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Younes, Islem; Maâlej, Hana; Hajji, Sawssen; Nasri, Moncef

2012-12-01

372

Cyanobacterial cytotoxicity versus toxicity to brine shrimp Artemia salina.  

PubMed

Heterocytous cyanobacteria from various habitats were screened for toxicity to brine shrimp Artemia salina and the murine lymphoblastic cell line Sp/2 in order to compare these two testing models for evaluation of risk posed by cyanobacteria to human health. Methanol extracts of biomass and cultivation media were tested for toxicity and selected extracts were fractionated to determine the active fraction. We found a significant toxic effect to A. salina and to Sp/2 cells in 5.2% and 31% of studied extracts, respectively. Only 8.6% of the tested strains were highly toxic to both A. salina and the Sp/2 cell line, and only two of the tested strains were toxic to A. salina and not to the murine cell line. Therefore, it is likely that the toxic effect of cyanobacterial secondary metabolites mostly targets basal metabolic pathways present in mammal cells and so is not manifested in A. salina. We conclude that it is insufficient to monitor cytotoxicity of cyanobacteria using only the brine shrimp bioassay as was usual in the past, since cytotoxicity is a more frequent feature in cyanobacteria in comparison with toxicity to A. salina. A. salina toxicity test should not be used when estimating the possible health risk for humans. We suggest that in vitro mammal cells be used for these purposes. PMID:20946912

Hisem, Daniel; Hrouzek, Pavel; Tomek, Petr; Tomší?ková, Jana; Zapom?lová, Eliška; Skácelová, Kate?ina; Lukešová, Alena; Kopecký, Ji?í

2011-01-01

373

Fate of outflow channel effluents in the northern lowlands of Mars: The Vastitas Borealis Formation as a sublimation residue from frozen ponded bodies of water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the fate of the Hesperian-aged outflow channel effluents emplaced into the northern lowlands of Mars. We have modeled the evolution of these effluents under the assumption that they were emplaced under a range of atmospheric conditions comparable to those of today and thought to have prevailed in the Hesperian. Under these conditions we find that the evolution of the sediment-loaded water after it left the channels includes three phases. Phase 1: Emplacement and intensive cooling: Violent emplacement of water followed by a short period of intensive evaporation from the surface and near-surface layer, and intensive convection. During this phase the water maintained and redistributed its large suspended sediment load. Water vapor strongly influenced the climate, at least for a geologically short time. When the temperature of the water reached the temperature of the maximum density or the freezing point, boiling and intensive convection ceased and the water deposited the sediments. Phase 2: Freezing solid: Geologically rapid freezing of the water body accompanied by weak convective water movement occurred over a period of the order of ~104 years. Phase 3: Sublimation and loss: This period involved sublimation of the ice and lasted longer than the freezing phase. The rate and latitudinal dependence of the sublimation, as well as the location of water vapor condensation, crucially depend on the planetary obliquity, climate, and sedimentary veneering of the ice. Phase 3 would have been very short geologically (~105-106 years) if an insulating sedimentary layer did not build up rapidly. If such an insulating layer did form rapidly, sublimation could cease and residual ice hundreds of meters thick could remain below the surface today. The northern lowlands of Mars are largely covered by the Late Hesperian-aged Vastitas Borealis Formation (VBF), which has sharp boundaries clearly seen in the map of kilometer-scale roughness, and a distinctive kilometer-scale roughness signature. We examine detrended topography data and find evidence that the VBF is underlain at very shallow depths by an Early Hesperian ridged volcanic plains substrate, rather than frozen water deposits remaining from the outflow channel events. Analysis of the VBF roughness characteristics suggests at least 100 m thickness of sediments on top of the underlying volcanic ridged plains. The total inferred volume of the VBF material approximately corresponds to the volume of material removed from the outflow channels. These results support a model in which the Vastitas Borealis Formation predominantly represents the sedimentary residue remaining after the sediment-laden water effluents of the outflow channels ponded in the northern lowlands and rapidly froze solid and sublimed. The distinctive facies of the VBF are interpreted to be related to the freezing, sublimation, and residue of the outflow channel effluents. Ridged facies are dominantly marginal and are interpreted to be related to ice sheet lateral retreat. Knobby facies occur throughout and are interpreted to be due to a variety of causes, including dewatering, de-icing and brine-related processes, and kame-like ice residues. Grooved facies are interpreted to represent postsublimation uplift and fracturing due to load removal. The mottled facies may represent bright ejecta whose albedo is related to buried sedimentary or evaporitic residues. Presently, the most likely sites to find frozen remnants of the Hesperian ocean are below the floors of stealth craters underlying the VBF. On the basis of these findings and interpretations, we make predictions for the fate of the outflow channel water vapor and the nature of the Martian hydrologic cycle during the Hesperian. If Noachian-aged oceans existed, conditions at that time would be similar to those described for a Hesperian ocean as soon as a global cryosphere was formed. If any residual deposits remain in the northern lowlands from a proposed Noachian ocean, they would lie below both the VBF and the underlying sequence of Hesperian ridged plains.

Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.

2002-12-01

374

The use of indole as a potential quality index for fresh, frozen, cooked and canned shrimp  

E-print Network

. samples were far below the 25~/100 g shrimp suggested by FDA while total aezobic plate counts were more than 8 0 10 organisms per gram. At 12 0 the indole level reached 100~/100 shrimp with TPC of more than 10 /g aftez 78 hr of storage. At 22 0 8 0... for determina- tion of the quality of shrimp hes, for years, been an important goal not only to seafood. processors but also to agencies like the National Marine Fisheries Servies (NMFS) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The need for rapid...

Chang, Olivia Hui-Fen

2012-06-07

375

Shrimp Culture Research at Texas A&M University: 1989 to 1991.  

E-print Network

strate and seawater, the substrate being more im portant than seawater; and (3) production was greater at low than at high salinities. However, the growth at high salinities could be increased by raising the protein level of the feed. Growth studies... per day (1.70 glweek and 5,912 kgl ha); (2) growth was either equal to or greater in shrimp fed during the day than in shrimp fed at night; (3) growth inoceased as feeding frequency increased from 1 to 4 times per day, (4) shrimp fed a 25 percent...

Lawrence, A.; Castille, F.; Samocha, T.; Bray, W.; Robertson, L.; Frelier, P.

1994-01-01

376

A model for the management of the Texas brown shrimp fishery  

E-print Network

1979 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics A MODEL FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE TEXAS BROWN SHRIMP FISHERY A Thesis by GLENN CHARLES TYDLACKA Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman oE Commi e) pg w~ (Member) (M j) Augvst 1979 ABSTRACT... A Model for the Management of the Texas Brown Shrimp Fishery. (August 1979) Glenn Charles Tydlacka, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chairman of Advi" ory Committee: Dr. Wade L. Griffin The management of the shrimp fi-hery in Texas is an important...

Tydlacka, Glenn Charles

2012-06-07

377

The Dust Properties of Hot R Coronae Borealis Stars and a Wolf-Rayet Central Star of a Planetary Nebula: In Search of the Missing Link  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present new Spitzer IIRS spectra of two hot R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars, one in the Galaxy,V348 Sgr, and one lying in the Large Magellanic Cloud, HV 2671. These two objects constitute a link between the RCB stars and the [WCL] class of central stars of planetary nebula (CSPNe) that has little or no hydrogen in their atmospheres such as CPD -560 8032. HV 2671 and V348 Sgr are members of a rare subclass that has significantly higher effective temperatures than most RCB stars, but sharing the traits of hydrogen deficiency and dust formation that define the cooler RCB stars. The [WC] CSPNe star, CPD -560 8032, displays evidence for dual-dust chemistry showing both PAHs and crystalline silicates in its mid-IR spectrum. HV 2671 shows strong PAH emission but shows no sign of having crystalline silicates. The spectrum of V348 Sgr is very different from those of CPD -56deg 8032 and HV 2671. The PAH emission seen strongly in the other two stars is only weakly present. Instead, the spectrum is dominated by a broad emission centered at about 8.5 microns. This feature is not identified with either PAHs or silicates. Several other novae and post-asymptotic giant branch stars show similar features in their IR spectra. The mid-IR spectrum of CPD -56deg 8032 shows emission features associated with C60 . The other two stars do not show evidence for C60. The nature of the dust around these stars does not help us in establishing further links that may indicate a common origin.

Clayton, Geoffrey C.; De Marco, O.; Whitney, B. A.; Babler, B.; Gallagher, J. S.; Nordhaus, J.; Speck, A. K.; Wolff, M. J.; Freeman, W. R.; Camp, K. A.; Lawson, W. A.; Roman-Duval, J.; Misselt, K. A.; Meade, M.; Sonneborn, G.; Matsuura, M.; Meixner, M.

2012-01-01

378

Observations on the Activity and Life History of the Scavenging Isopod Natatolana borealisLilljeborg (Isopoda: Cirolanidae) from Loch Fyne, Scotland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activity and life history of the cirolanid isopod Natatolana borealisLilljeborg has been studied using (primarily) fish-baited traps deployed at a deep-water station (190 m) in Loch Fyne, Scotland. A voracious scavenger, it burrows into soft mud, emerging to feed when suitable food odours are detected in the water. Isopods were attracted significantly to baited vs. non-baited traps. Underwater video observations revealed that most animals were active in the vicinity of traps, that capture efficiency was low, but retention complete. Only traps on the sea-bed captured mancas or juveniles in any numbers. Any seasonal pattern in catch rate through the year was confounded by high variability. Only one (manca-)brooding female was ever caught in a trap (in April). It is assumed that brooding females desist from feeding. The sex ratio of isopods in most trap collections was thus significantly male dominated. Mancas were trapped during February to August. Growth rate was slowest in adults and was similar for males and females. The maximum growth rate occurred during autumn associated with the seasonal cycle in bottom water temperatures. Longevity was estimated (by following peaks in the size-frequency distributions with time) to be c. 2·5 years, with sexual maturity (based on oostegites/spurred appendix masculinae) achieved after c. 19 months. Semelparity is suggested. A low incidence of an unnamed epicaridean parasite is reported from the Clyde population. Natatolana borealisalso carried peritrich ciliate epizoites on their antennae. Possible predators are swimming crabs and gadid fish, e.g. whiting and cod.

Wong, Y. M.; Moore, P. G.

1996-02-01

379

Post-merger evolution of carbon-oxygen + helium white dwarf binaries and the origin of R Coronae Borealis and extreme helium stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orbital decay by gravitational-wave radiation will cause some close-binary white dwarfs (WDs) to merge within a Hubble time. The results from previous hydrodynamical WD-merger simulations have been used to guide calculations of the post-merger evolution of carbon-oxygen + helium (CO+He) WD binaries. Our models include the formation of a hot corona in addition to a Keplerian disc. We introduce a `destroyed-disc' model to simulate the effect of direct disc ingestion into the expanding envelope. These calculations indicate significant lifetimes in the domain of the rare R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars, before a fast evolution through the domain of the hotter extreme helium (EHe) stars. Surface chemistries of the resulting giants are in partial agreement with the observed abundances of RCB and EHe stars. The production of 3He, 18O and 19F are discussed. Evolutionary time-scales combined with binary WD merger rates from binary-star population synthesis are consistent with present-day numbers of RCBs and EHes, provided that the majority come from relatively recent (<2 Gyr) star formation. However, most RCBs should be produced by CO-WD + low-mass He-WD mergers, with the He WD having a mass in the range 0.20-0.35 M?. Whilst, previously, a high He-WD mass (?0.40 M?) was required to match the carbon-rich abundances of RCB stars, the `destroyed-disc' model yields a high-carbon product with He-WD mass ?0.30 M?, in better agreement with population synthesis results.

Zhang, Xianfei; Jeffery, C. Simon; Chen, Xuefei; Han, Zhanwen

2014-11-01

380

Fucoidan effectively provokes the innate immunity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against experimental Vibrio alginolyticus infection.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the effect of fucoidan on the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus infection. Fucoidan induced degranulation, caused changes in the cell morphology, and increased activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) and the production of superoxide anions in vitro. Shrimp that received fucoidan via immersion at 100, 200, and 400 mg l(-1) after 3 h showed haemocyte proliferation and a higher mitotic index of haematopoietic tissue. In another experiment, the haemocyte count, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and respiratory bursts (RBs) were examined after the shrimp had been fed diets containing fucoidan at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g kg(-1) for 7-21 days. Results indicated that these parameters directly increased with time. The immune parameters of shrimp fed the 1.0 g kg(-1) diet were significantly higher than those of shrimp fed the 2.0 g kg(-1) diet after 14 and 21 days. Phagocytic activity and the clearance efficiency against V. alginolyticus were significantly higher in shrimp fed the 1.0 g kg(-1) diet compared to those of shrimp fed the 0, 0.5 and 2.0 g kg(-1) diets. In a separate experiment, shrimp that had been fed diets containing fucoidan for 21 days were challenged with V. alginolyticus at 10(6) colony-forming units shrimp(-1). Survival rates of shrimp fed the 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1) diets were significantly higher than those of shrimp fed the 0 and 0.5 g kg(-1) diets for 96-120 h. We concluded that fucoidan provokes innate immunity of shrimp as evidenced by haemocyte degranulation, proPO activation, and the mitotic index of haematopoietic tissue, and that dietary administration of fucoidan at 1.0 g kg(-1) enhanced the immune response of shrimp and their resistance against V. alginolyticus infection. PMID:23201320

Kitikiew, Suwaree; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Liou, Chyng-Hwa

2013-01-01

381

21 CFR 161.173 - Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent containers.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.173 Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent...

2014-04-01

382

50 CFR 654.24 - Shrimp/stone crab separation zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.24 Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. Five zones are established in the...

2011-10-01

383

50 CFR 654.24 - Shrimp/stone crab separation zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.24 Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. Five zones are established in the...

2010-10-01

384

Development of Stable Microencapsulated Astaxanthin Powders Using Extracted Astaxanthin from Crawfish and Shrimp Byproducts.  

E-print Network

??Crawfish and shrimp byproducts are an excellent source of astaxanthin. The antioxidant-rich natural astaxanthin dispersed in alpha linolenic acid-rich flaxseed oil (FO) may provide healthier… (more)

Pu, Jianing

2010-01-01

385

Shrimp pond effluent dominates foliar nitrogen in disturbed mangroves as mapped using hyperspectral imagery.  

PubMed

Conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds creates fragmentation and eutrophication. Detection of the spatial variation of foliar nitrogen is essential for understanding the effect of eutrophication on mangroves. We aim (i) to estimate nitrogen variability across mangrove landscapes of the Mahakam delta using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing (HyMap) and (ii) to investigate links between the variation of foliar nitrogen mapped and local environmental variables. In this study, multivariate prediction models achieved a higher level of accuracy than narrow-band vegetation indices, making multivariate modeling the best choice for mapping. The variation of foliar nitrogen concentration in mangroves was significantly influenced by the local environment: (1) position of mangroves (seaward/landward), (2) distance to the shrimp ponds, and (3) predominant mangrove species. The findings suggest that anthropogenic disturbances, in this case shrimp ponds, influence nitrogen variation in mangroves. Mangroves closer to the shrimp ponds had higher foliar nitrogen concentrations. PMID:24103095

Fauzi, Anas; Skidmore, Andrew K; van Gils, Hein; Schlerf, Martin; Heitkönig, Ignas M A

2013-11-15

386

78 FR 50383 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Republic of Indonesia: Final Negative Countervailing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, People's Republic of China, Thailand, and Socialist...through Bank Rakyat Indonesia 5. Government Provision of Electricity to the Indonesian Fishing and Aquaculture Sector for...

2013-08-19

387

The occurrence of semicarbazide in the meat and shell of Bangladeshi fresh-water shrimp.  

PubMed

There is evidence that semicarbazide (SEM), a marker for the banned nitrofuran nitrofurazone, can arise from other, unrelated sources. Recently, Belgium rejected 54 consignments of Bangladeshi freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), following a laboratory decision to test meat and exoskeleton combined. To study the possible natural occurrence of SEM in wild shrimp, samples were collected and analysed from 29 sites across Bangladesh. SEM (<1.0 ?g/kg) was detected in ?65% of meat samples. However, SEM concentrations were approximately 100 times higher in the exoskeleton, and were unrelated to sampling location, strongly suggesting natural occurrence. In meat, most SEM was surface-associated. When the shrimp was shelled, some of the epidermal layer (which synthesises new exoskeleton) remained with the shell and some remained with the meat--leading to differing levels of natural SEM on the shrimp surface. This has implications for the use of SEM and the analytical strategy used to control nitrofuran use. PMID:23194563

McCracken, Robert; Hanna, Bob; Ennis, David; Cantley, Lynne; Faulkner, Dermot; Kennedy, D Glenn

2013-02-15

388

77 FR 23222 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...Department'') has determined that C. P. Vietnam Corporation is the successor-in-interest to C. P. Vietnam Livestock Corporation, and shall be...

2012-04-18

389

75 FR 16436 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-04-01

390

75 FR 51756 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Changed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-08-23

391

78 FR 33344 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2013-06-04

392

78 FR 33347 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2013-06-04

393

75 FR 13492 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-03-22

394

Intraspecific relationships among the stygobitic shrimp Typhlatya mitchelli, by analyzing sequence data from mitochondrial DNA  

E-print Network

may correspond to a new species. This unidentified Typhlatya from Cenote San Antonio Chiich was helpful in establishing a period in which the epigean ancestor colonized the cenotes. Based on pairwise distance data and previously published shrimp...

Webb, Michael Scott

2004-09-30

395

Requirements of shrimp, Penaeus chinensis O'sbeck for potassium, sodium, magnesium and iodine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potassium, sodium, magnesium and iodine requirements of shrimp, Penaeus chinensis were studied. Orthogonal design was employed in this experiment. The composition of the basal diet consisted of fish meal, peanut cake, corn meal, soybean cake, wheat bran, vitamin mix and mineral mix, and supplementations of potassium, sodium, magnesium and iodine in the basal diet were made according to the L9(34) orthogonal table. The results indicated that iodine supplementation improved growth of the shrimp significantly and raised survival very significantly, iodine requirement of the shrimp was 0.003%; sodium requirement was 0.87% or less; and that 1.1 1.3% potassium and 0.18 0.38% magnesium in the diet were proper nutrition supplements for the shrimp.

Liu, Fa-Yi; Li, He-Fang; Wang, Hui-Liang; Liang, De-Hai; Tian, Yu-Chuan

1995-06-01

396

Application of a Bio-Economic-Engineering Model for Shrimp Mariculture Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of a bio-economic-engineering (BEE) model for penaeid shrimp mariculture and its application to a specific system is described. The tool is introduced in primarily an application context. The BEE model is capable of integrating biological ...

C. M. Adams, W. L. Griffin, J. P. Nichols, R. E. Brick

1980-01-01

397

Genetic characterization of the burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis) in Washington and Oregon estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

The Ghost shrimp, (Neotrypaea californiensis) are burrowers, which have a wide demographic distribution along the United States Pacific Coast. Our study used genetic analysis to estimate the source populations of larvae recruiting into estuaries to allow a greater understanding ...

398

75 FR 41813 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Ltd. (17) G.K S Business Associates Pvt. Ltd...Gujarat, 360 575, India) (21) Indian Aquatic...longer exists and is now doing business as Calcutta Seafoods...Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results and...

2010-07-19

399

Brine shrimp toxicity and antiplasmodial activity of five Kenyan medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic extracts of leaves and roots of five plants used for treating malaria in Central, Nairobi and Rift Valley Provinces, Kenya were tested for brine shrimp lethality and in vitro antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine sensitive and resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Of the plants tested, 60% were toxic to the brine shrimp (LC50<30?g\\/ml) and eight out of ten plant

G. N. Wanyoike; S. C. Chhabra; C. C. Lang’at-Thoruwa; S. A. Omar

2004-01-01

400

Proper use of sodium bisulfite with minimal salt penetration during brine immersion freezing of shrimp  

E-print Network

brine immersion tank was direct addition of sodium bisulfite to the brine mixture at a concentration of 8. 75(I. Shrimp frozen in 23% sodium chloride with 8. 75% sodium bisulfite produced initial residual sulfur dioxide close to the maximum level..., sodium chloride and sodium bisulfite must be replenished on a regular basis. Background information for shrimp frozen in brine immersion tanks were obtained on the Ramona Cruz, IV a brine immersion vessel. It was recommended that 3. 5...

Broussard, Suzanne Rene

2012-06-07

401

Tolerance and behaviour of the mysid shrimp Tenagomysis novae?zealandiae to low dissolved oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estuarine hypoxia (<4.0 mg O2\\/litre) caused by eutrophication has been linked to mass mortality of fish and Crustacea. However, there is little information on the hypoxia tolerance of New Zealand's estuarine mysid shrimps and\\/or if these species exhibit behavioural and physiological responses to low dissolved oxygen. Laboratory experiments demonstrated the native mysid shrimp Tenagomysis novae?zealandiae was tolerant of dissolved oxygen

Gregory Larkin; Gerard P. Closs; Barrie Peake

2007-01-01

402

Can small male shrimps achieve copulation in the presence of larger ones?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity for insemination and competitive ability of small males of the partially protandrous alpheid shrimpAthanas kominatoensis Kubo which lives in symbiosis with the Japanese purple sea urchinAnthocidaris crassispina (A. Agassiz) were examined. Although male shrimps 1.5 mm in carapace length or larger produced sperm, it was not until they\\u000a grew to 2.4 mm that they became functional. Males lost

Yasuhiro Nakashima

1995-01-01

403

DOUBLE-RIG TWIN SHRIMP-TRAWLING GEAR USED IN GULF OF MEXICO  

E-print Network

DOUBLE-RIG TWIN SHRIMP-TRAWLING GEAR USED IN GULF OF MEXICO llar I IL Hulhs .Ir. I Ilt nil d Doublt advan...es technology sign of the out1'lgg rs, mast trud 1I b, an other rigging ..;omponent r lat d to h purpose 0: this paper IS to des nb on t 111 shrimp-trawling rig that has b en flsh d along the Texas 'oast

404

Effects of a probiotic bacterium on black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon survival and growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus S11 bacterium isolated from black tiger shrimp habitats was added to shrimp feed as a probiotic in three forms: fresh cells, fresh cells in normal saline solution, and a lyophilized form. After a 100-day feeding trial with probiotic supplemented and non-supplemented (control) feeds, Penaeus monodon (from PL30) exhibited no significant difference (p>0.05) in growth, survival nor external appearance between

Sirirat Rengpipat; Wannipa Phianphak; Somkiat Piyatiratitivorakul; Piamsak Menasveta

1998-01-01

405

Management plan for a penaeid shrimp larviculture facility in Belize, Central America  

E-print Network

responsibilities included the culture, harvesting and feeding of ~A ~Q; the disinfection and preparation of tanks for stocking shrimp larvae; the harvesting and packing of postlarvae for shipment; and, the regulation of water exchanges. As my internship... of culturing algae. I was responsible for maintaining pure cultures, starting up mass cultures, mixing up nutrients, and regulating the distribution of algae to the tanks containing the larval shrimp. By the end of my internship at the LMSF-TX hatchery, I...

Skidmore,John D.

2012-06-07

406

Effects of shrimp-farm effluents on the food web structure in subtropical coastal lagoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although numerous studies have reported the negative effects of shrimp aquaculture on water quality, little is known about the ecological effects of these practices in coastal lagoons and near-shore marine habitats. The impact of shrimp-farm effluents on the food webs of an impacted subtropical coastal lagoon in the Gulf of California was evaluated through measurements of isotopic (?13C, ?15N) signatures

L. Serrano-Grijalva; S. Sánchez-Carrillo; D. G. Angeler; R. Sánchez-Andrés; M. Álvarez-Cobelas

2011-01-01

407

Review of Some Recent Developments in Sustainable Shrimp Farming Practices in Texas, Arizona, and Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world shrimp-farming industry is currently experiencing major crop losses due to disease outbreaks, which are often associated with environmental degradation. Such losses can be minimized through the adaptation of technologies that enhance biosecurity and environmental control. Current technologies suggest that a shrimp yield as high as 10 kg\\/m\\/crop can be achieved in indoor, super-intensive, closed-recirculation systems in which environmental

Tzachi M. Samocha; Louis Hamper; Craig R. Emberson; Allen D. Davis; Dennis McIntosh; Addison L. Lawrence; Peter M. Van Wyk

2002-01-01

408

Presence, growth and survival characteristics of Yersinia enterocolitica in oysters, shrimp and crab  

E-print Network

PRESENCE, GROWTH AND SURVIVAL CHARACTERISTICS OF YERSI NZA ENTEROCOLITI CA IN OYSTERS, SHRIMP AND CRAB A Thesis by SUE STALLER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1979 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology PRESENCE, GROWTH AND SURVIVAL CHARACTERISTICS OF YERSZNZA ENTEROCOLZTZCA IN OYSTERS, SHRIMP AND CRAB A Thesis by SUE STALLER Approved as to style and content by: Chairman o f...

Staller, Sue

2012-06-07

409

Gene Expression Profile of Hemocytes of Kuruma Shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus Following Peptidoglycan Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimps are believed to lack an adaptive immune system and therefore rely heavily on their innate immune mechanisms to ward\\u000a off pathogens. Moreover, their innate defense reactions are triggered by bacterial and fungal cell wall components such as\\u000a lipopolysaccharides, peptidoglycan and ?-glucans. In this study, we used microarray to examine the gene expression profile\\u000a of kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus, after

Fernand F. Fagutao; Motoshige Yasuike; Christopher Marlowe Caipang; Hidehiro Kondo; Ikuo Hirono; Yukinori Takahashi; Takashi Aoki

2008-01-01

410

Freshwater shrimp ( Palaemonetes australis ) as a potential bioindicator of crustacean health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palaemonetes australis is a euryhaline shrimp found in southwestern Australian estuaries. To determine if P. australis is a suitable bioindicator species for monitoring the health of estuarine biota, they were exposed to measured concentrations\\u000a of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) at 0.01, 0.1, or 1 ppm for 14 days under laboratory conditions. At the end of exposure the shrimp were sacrificed

Diane Webb

2011-01-01

411

Molecular Phylogeny and In Situ Detection of the Etiologic Agent of Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis in Shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (NHP) is a severe disease of farm-raised Penaeus vannamei that has been associated with mortality losses ranging from 20 to 95%. NHP was first recognized in Texas in 1985 (S. K. Johnson,p.16,inHandbookofShrimpDiseases,1989)andisaneconomicallyimportantdiseasethathaslimited the ability to culture shrimp in Texas. The putative cause of NHP is a gram-negative, pleomorphic, intracel- lular, rickettsia-like bacterium that remains uncultured in part because

JAMES K. LOY; FLOYD E. DEWHIRST; WILLIAM WEBER; PAUL F. FRELIER; THEODORE L. GARBAR; SERBAN I. TASCA; ANDJOE W. TEMPLETON

1996-01-01

412

Survival and Histological Alterations in Juvenile Tiger Shrimps Exposed to Saponin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival and shell quality of juvenile tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, exposed to a plant derived toxicant, saponin, were investigated. The 96 h LC50 was 132.07 mg l-1 of saponin. The juvenile tiger shrimp tested against 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentrations of the 96 h LC50 value of saponin for 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 days recorded shell

T. S. Nagesh; N. Jayabalan; C. V. Mohan; T. S. Annappaswamy; T. M. Anil

1999-01-01

413

Enabling Sustainable Shrimp Aquaculture: Narrowing the Gaps Between Science and Policy in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since the early 1980s, shrimp aquaculture has expanded rapidly with production increasing more than 100-fold from 31,000 t\\u000a in 1976 to 2.6 million tons in 2006 (Fig. 7.1). About 90% of farmed shrimp is produced in Asia (mainly in China, Thailand,\\u000a Vietnam, Indonesia and India). The other 10% is produced mainly in Latin America, where Mexico, Brazil and Ecuador are

Dao Huy Giap; Po Garden; Louis Lebel

414

Polyculture of indigenous marine fishes stocked with penaeid shrimp in thermally enriched brackish water ponds  

E-print Network

POLYCULTURE OF INDIGENOU MARINE FISHES STOCKED WITH PENAEID SHRIMP Ii~J THERMALLY ENRICHED BRACKISH RATER PONDS A Thesis by KAREN SUE ROSSBERG Submitted by the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial ulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major Subject: JJildlife and F'sheries Sciences POLYCULTURE OF INDIGENOUS MARINE FISHES STOCKED WITH PENAEID SHRIMP IN THERMALLY ENRICHED BRACKISH WATER PONDS A Thesis by KAREN SUE ROSSBERG Approved...

Rossberg, Karen Sue

2012-06-07

415

Hemolymph analysis and evaluation of newly formulated media for culture of shrimp cells ( Penaeus stylirostris )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Creation of a shirmp cell line has been an elusive goal. This failure may be due to the composition of the cell culture medium,\\u000a which may be inadequate to support primary cultured cells. Shrimp hemolymph should contain the nutritional components needed\\u000a to support cell growth and division. We report here the comprehensive biochemical analysis of hemolymph from the blue shrimp,Penaeus

Chisato Shimizu; Hiroko Shike; Kurt R. Klimpel; Jane C. Burns

2001-01-01

416

Antibiotic administration by osmotic infiltration in the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

E-print Network

ANTIBIOTIC ADMINISTRATION BY OSMOTIC INFILTRATION IN THE FRESHWATER SHRIMP, MACROBRACHIUM POSENBERGII A Thesis by ALCESTIS TRILLO LLOBRERA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A%M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1980 Major Subject: Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology ANTIBIOTIC ADMINISTRATION BY OSMOTIC INFILTRATION IN THE FRESHWATER SHRIMP, MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII A Thesis by ALCESTIS TRILLO LLOBRERA Approved...

Llobrera, Alcestis Trillo

2012-06-07

417

Effects of ghost shrimp on zinc and cadmium in sediments from Tampa Bay, FL  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study investigated the effects that ghost shrimp have on the distribution of metals in sediment. We measured levels of HNO3-extractable zinc and cadmium in surface sediment, in ghost shrimp burrow walls and in sediment ejected by the ghost shrimp from their burrows, at five sandy intertidal sites in Tampa Bay. Ghost shrimp densities and their rate of sediment ejection were also quantified, as were sediment organic content and silt + clay content. Densities of ghost shrimp (Sergio trilobata and Lepidophthalmus louisianensis) averaged 33/m2 at our sites, and they ejected sediment at an average rate of 28 g/burrow/day. Levels of both Zn and Cd were significantly higher in burrow walls than in surface sediments. Sediment ejected by the shrimp from their burrows had elevated levels of Zn (relative to surface sediments) at one of the sites. Sediment organic content and silt + clay content were higher in burrow-wall sediments than in ejected sediment, which in turn tended to have values above those of surface sediments. Differences in levels of HNO3-extractable Zn and Cd among sediment types may be a consequence of these sediments differing in other physiochemical characteristics, though the differences in metal levels remained statistically significant for some sites after correcting for differences in organic content and silt + clay content. We conclude that the presence of ghost shrimp burrows contributes to spatial heterogeneity of sedimentary metal levels, while the ghost shrimp bioturbation results in a significant flux of metals to the sediment surface and is expected to decrease heterogeneity of metal levels in sedimentary depth profiles.

Klerks, P. L.; Felder, D. L.; Strasser, K.; Swarzenski, P. W.

2007-01-01

418

Identification of arachidonic acid and its metabolism in Gulf of Mexico shrimp  

E-print Network

IDENTIFICATION QF ARACHIDONIC ACID AND ITS METABOLISM IN GULF OF MEXICO SHRIMP A Thesis by MARTHA LAE LILLY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement fcr the degree of MASTER QF... SCIENCE August 1980 Major Subject: Biochemistry IDENTIFICATION OF ARACHIDONIC ACID AND ITS METABOLISM IN GULF OF MEXICO SHRIMP A Thesis by MARTHA LAE LILLY Approved as to style and content by: airman of Committee) (M (Member) ead of Department...

Lilly, Martha Lae

2012-06-07

419

Effects of three Caribbean cleaner shrimps on ectoparasitic monogeneans in a semi-natural environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most research on cleaning symbioses on coral reefs has focused on fish clients being cleaned by smaller fishes. While many shrimps and other crustaceans are reported as cleaners, whether they remove parasites from fish hosts and can effectively regulate populations of ectoparasites is unclear. The effects of Pederson shrimp ( Periclimenes pedersoni) , spotted shrimp ( P. yucatanicus), and banded coral shrimp ( Stenopus hispidus), on the parasitic monogenean Neobenedenia melleni on a host reef fish, blue tang ( Acanthurus coeruleus), were investigated. The abundance and size of N. melleni from fish with and without access to shrimps in a semi-natural macrocosm was quantified. P. pedersoni had a strong effect on both the abundance and size of parasites. In contrast, P. yucatanicus and S. hispidus had no effect on the abundance of parasites but had a small yet statistically significant effect on average size. These data suggest that P. pedersoni can play a significant role in the biological regulation of at least some ectoparasites on Caribbean reef fishes, but further suggest that some other shrimps regarded as “cleaners” may have little or no effectiveness at removing parasites and underscore the need for further verification before this term is applied.

McCammon, A.; Sikkel, P. C.; Nemeth, D.

2010-06-01

420

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) exposed to low and high salinity.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has a worldwide distribution and is considered one of the most pathogenic and devastating viruses to the shrimp industry. A few studies have explored the effect of WSSV on shrimp acclimated to low (5 practical salinity units [psu]) or high ([40 psu) salinity conditions. In this work, we analysed the physiological response of WSSV-infected Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles that were acclimated to different salinities (5, 15, 28, 34 and 54 psu). We evaluated the osmotic response and survival of the shrimp at different times after infection (0 to 48 hours), and we followed the expression levels of a viral gene (vp664) in shrimp haemolymph using real-time PCR. Our results indicate that the susceptibility of the shrimp to the virus increased at extreme salinities (5 and 54 psu), with higher survival rates at 15 and 28 psu, which were closer to the iso-osmotic point (24.7 psu, 727.5 mOsmol/kg). Acute exposure to the virus made the haemolymph less hyperosmotic at 5 and 15 psu and less hypo-osmotic at higher salinities ([28 psu). The capacity of white shrimp to osmoregulate, and thus survive, significantly decreased following WSSV infection. According to our results, extreme salinities (5 or 54 psu) are more harmful than seawater. PMID:24658782

Ramos-Carreño, Santiago; Valencia-Yáñez, Ricardo; Correa-Sandoval, Francisco; Ruíz-García, Noé; Díaz-Herrera, Fernando; Giffard-Mena, Ivone

2014-09-01

421

Molecular characterization of a Ran isoform gene up-regulated in shrimp immunity.  

PubMed

Diseases caused by viruses are the greatest challenge to worldwide shrimp aquaculture. Ran gene was an important antiviral gene identified from shrimp and its mRNA level was up-regulated in response to viral infection. In this investigation, a Ran isoform gene (named Ran-iso) cDNA was cloned from shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus. The full-length cDNA of Ran-iso was 1286 bp, including a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 272 bp, 3'-terminal UTR of 366 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 648 bp encoding a polypeptide of 215 amino acids. The deduced protein was highly homologous, it shared 90.64%, 84.19%, 81.48% and 67.58% identities with Ran protein of shrimp, honey bee, human and tobacco respectively. Ran-iso gene was constitutively expressed in 6 tissues examined, including gill, hepatopancreas, hemolymph, heart, intestine and muscle. However, Ran-iso was highest expressed in hepatopancreas (p<0.01), whereas the expressions of other five tissues were equal and relatively low. Time course analysis showed that the expression level of Ran-iso was obviously up-regulated 2.8 times (at 6h) as much as that in the control in the hepatopancreas challenged by WSSV. This investigation might provide a clue to elucidate the shrimp innate immunity and would be helpful to shrimp disease control. PMID:22192911

Han, Fang; Wang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Zhiyong

2012-03-01

422

The effect of three culture methods on intensive culture system of pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different culture methods may affect the intensive culture system of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) regarding water quality and growth and economic performance. This study evaluated the potential effects of three culture methods through cultivation of juvenile shrimps under consistent tank management conditions for 84 d. The three methods involved shrimp cultivation in different tanks, i.e., outdoor tanks with cement bottom (mode-C), greenhouse tanks with cement bottom (mode-G) and outdoor tanks with mud-substrate (mode-M). Results showed that water temperature was significantly higher in mode-G than that in mode-C ( P < 0.05). In contrast to the other two treatments, mode-M had stable pH after 50 d cultivation of shrimps. In the mid-late period, the average concentrations of TAN, NO2-N, DIP and COD were significantly lower in mode-M and mode-G compared with those in mode-C ( P < 0.05). Despite lack of differences in the final shrimp weight among different treatments ( P > 0.05), mode-M had significantly higher shrimp yield, survival rate and feed conversion rate ( P < 0.05) than other modes. There were significant differences in revenue and net return among different treatments ( P < 0.05). These demonstrated that the treatments of mode-G and mode-M were conductive to the intensive culture system of L. vannamei.

Ma, Zhen; Wan, Rong; Song, Xiefa; Gao, Lei

2013-09-01

423

Effect of stocking density on extensive production of freshwater shrimp in coal mine reclamation ponds  

SciTech Connect

The use of post-mining reclamation ponds for the production of freshwater shrimp was evaluated by examining different stocking densities. Juvenile shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) averaging 0.5g each were stocked into four existing ponds at Peabody`s Ken Surface Mine at 6,175; 12,350; 18,500; and 24,700/ha (2,500, 5,000, 7,500, and 10,000/acre) on June 1, 1995. Shrimp were fed twice a week for 103 days, with harvest conducted September 13, 1995. Survival averaged 40%, overall. Average individual weight size was inversely related to stocking density ranging from 52 g (8.7 shrimp/lb) at 6,175/ha to 20.3 g (22.7 shrimp/lb) at 18,500/acre. Total production was directly related to stocking density ranging from 97 kg/ha (86 lbs/acre) at low density to 211 kg/ha (188 lbs/acre) at 18,500/ha shrimp acre. The major difficulty was at harvest due to difficulty in draining ponds. Construction of designed culture ponds with gravity drains during reclamation could greatly enhance survival, harvestability, and commercial feasibility.

Tidwell, J.H.; Wynne, F.; Coyle, S.D. [Kentucky State Univ., Frankfort, KY (United States). Aquaculture Research Center; Grey, B. [Peabody Coal Co., Rockport, KY (United States); McGuire, J.

1998-12-31

424

Rapid identification of enterovirulent Escherichia coli strains using polymerase chain reaction from shrimp farms.  

PubMed

Although, Escherichia coli is widely distributed in the environment, only a small percentage is pathogenic to humans. The most commonly encountered are those belonging to the Enterotoxigenic (ETEC), Enteroinvasive (EIEC), Enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) and Enteropathogenic (EPEC) subtypes. Aquaculture premises specially shrimp farm in tropical and subtropical countries largely susceptive to different types of E. coli strains. With the PCR system, an attempt was taken to identify the virulent E. coli in a rapid basis from water, sediment and live shrimp from different shrimp farms established in the shrimp production areas of southwest part of Bangladesh. The target genes chosen for this investigation included the PhoA, a housekeeping gene in all E. coli and thereafter the virulent genes LT1, LT1 and ST1 of ETEC, the VT of EHEC and EAE of EPEC, which were amplified with the primers designed for their specific genes. The restriction enzyme conformation and the gel electrophoresis bands showed the presence of E. coli, among which ETEC and EPEC groups were present in the environmental and biological samples of shrimp farms, brings up into the human health concern. The sanitation conditions amid farm were also investigated to find the link of pathogenic E. coli, which came into the result of less infection if the farm maintains improved sanitation. This study has clearly urged the exigency of periodical quick check of virulent E. coli with the versatile PCR system from brood management to post-harvest handling of shrimp. PMID:24511733

Roy, Debashis; Biswas, Bhabananda; Islam, H M Rakibul; Ahmed, Md Shamim; Rasheduzzaman, Md; Sarower, Md Golam

2013-11-01

425

Extension of shelf life of whole and peeled shrimp with organic acid salts and bifidobacteria.  

PubMed

Microbiological and sensory characteristics of treated whole and peeled shrimp from the east coast of Saudi Arabia were evaluated. Shrimp samples were treated with organic acid salts with or without Bifidobacterium breve culture and stored in ice. Peeling alone extended the microbiological shelf life by 4 days. Treatment of whole shrimp with sodium acetate alone or potassium sorbate with bifidobacteria prolonged the microbiological shelf life by 3 days and increased the microbial generation time from 12.8 h (control) to 30.1 h or 31.4 h, respectively. The microbiological and sensory shelf life of peeled shrimp treated with sodium acetate was more than 17 days. Sodium acetate extended the microbial lag phase and lengthened the generation time (38.7 h compared to 15.8 h for the control). Micrococci and coryneforms were the predominant microorganisms in whole shrimp during storage. Treatment with sodium acetate maintained better sensory characteristics for peeled shrimp than potassium sorbate combined with bifidobacteria. PMID:9921829

Al-Dagal, M M; Bazaraa, W A

1999-01-01

426

Inhibition of melanosis formation in Pacific white shrimp by the extract of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed.  

PubMed

Lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extract was prepared using distilled water as a medium. An extraction yield of 26.16g/100g of seed was obtained after extraction at room temperature for 12h. Total phenolic and mimosine contents in the lead seed extract powder (LSEP) were 17.4g GAE/100g and 8.8g/100g, respectively. LSEP at different concentrations (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1%, w/v) showed inhibitory activity towards polyphenoloxidase (PPO) of Pacific white shrimp in a dose dependent manner. When the whole Pacific white shrimp were treated with 0.25% and 0.5% (w/v) LSEP, the shrimp treated with 0.5% LSEP had the lower melanosis score throughout the storage of 12days and showed a higher score for colour and odour, as well as overall likeness, compared with the control (without treatment) and 1.25% sodium metabisulphite treated samples at day 12 (P<0.05). Meat of shrimps treated with LSEP at both levels had the increase in mimosine content up to 8days, suggesting the migration of mimosine into shrimp muscle during extended storage. Therefore, 0.5% LSEP can be used as a novel melanosis inhibitor for Pacific white shrimp. PMID:25212152

Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat

2011-09-15

427

Abundance and seasonal migrations of the penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne-Edwards) within Iraqi waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migration of Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne-Edwards) from the Arabian Gulf to nursery grounds in the inland waters of Iraq extends from May\\/June to January\\/February. Shrimp ranging in size from 3–125 mm total length were found in inland waters. In the shallow waters of the Al-Assaflya small-sized shrimp only were caught, while in the Marshes large-sized shrimp were abundant. Maximum numbers

S. D. Salman; M. H. Ali; A. H. Y. Al-AdhubI

1990-01-01

428

The effect of Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharide extracts on vibriosis resistance and immune activity of the shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunostimulants are valuable for control of shrimp diseases and the immunostimulatory effects of some polysaccharide additives for shrimp have been reported. In this study, the Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharide extract (SFPSE) was assessed as a feed additive when supplemented in the diet (0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0%) for juvenile shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis, in order to study the effects of SFPSE on

Xuxiong Huang; Hongqi Zhou; Hui Zhang

2006-01-01

429

Cation-dependent nutrient transport in shrimp digestive tract.  

PubMed

Purified epithelial brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were produced from the hepatopancreas of the Atlantic White shrimp, Litopeneaus setiferus, using standard methods originally developed for mammalian tissues and previously applied to other crustacean and echinoderm epithelia. These vesicles were used to study the cation dependency of sugar and amino acid transport across luminal membranes of hepatopancreatic epithelial cells. (3)H-D: -glucose uptake by BBMV against transient sugar concentration gradients occurred when either transmembrane sodium or potassium gradients were the only driving forces for sugar accumulation, suggesting the presence of a possible coupled transport system capable of using either cation. (3)H-L: -histidine transport was only stimulated by a transmembrane potassium gradient, while (3)H-L: -leucine uptake was enhanced by either a sodium or potassium gradient. These responses suggest the possible presence of a potassium-dependent transporter that accommodates either amino acid and a sodium-dependent system restricted only to L: -leucine. Uptake of (3)H-L: -leucine was significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) by several metallic cations (e.g., Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Mn(2+), Cd(2+), or Co(2+)) at external pH values of 7.0 or 5.0 (internal pH 7.0), suggesting a potential synergistic role of the cations in the transmembrane transfer of amino acids. (3)H-L: -histidine influxes (15 suptakes) were hyperbolic functions of external [zinc] or [manganese], following Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The apparent affinity constant (e.g., K (m)) for manganese was an order of magnitude smaller (K (m) = 0.22 ?M Mn) than that for zinc (K (m) = 1.80 ?M Zn), while no significant difference (P > 0.05) occurred between their maximal transport velocities (e.g., J (max)). These results suggest that a number of cation-dependent nutrient transport systems occur on the shrimp brush border membrane and aid in the absorption of these important dietary elements. PMID:21983793

Simmons, Tamla; Mozo, Julie; Wilson, Jennifer; Ahearn, Gregory A

2012-02-01

430

Diseases of the eye of farmed shrimp Penaeus monodon.  

PubMed

Lesions were found in the eyes of cultured shrimp Penaeus monodon that displayed non-specific signs of disease, including lethargy, dark pigmentation, brown gills, empty midgut, anorexia, white tail muscle, necrosis of uropods and fouled cuticle. Eye lesions were associated with sexual development in moribund shrimp in at least 1 disease event. Suppurative inflammation, granuloma and malacia were observed in histological examination of the eye and the causative agents of lesions appear to be Vibrio spp. and a rod-shaped virus (similar to Lymphoid Organ Virus, Gill-Associated Virus [GAV] and Yellow-Head Virus). Suppurative inflammation was characterised by edema, infiltration of haemocytes and local sites of abscesses. Eyes with granuloma usually appeared white in pond-side examinations, and histology showed that fibrous tissue replaced ommatidia, ganglia and internal structures of the eye. Malacia of the eye was characterised by necrosis of nervous tissue, vacuolation and vascular proliferation in the medulla ganglia. Levels of presumptive Vibrionaceace were high in moribund specimens and Gram-negative rods were observed in some specimens as free particles in the interstitial fluid and haemolymph in the eye. Transmission electron microscopy showed that nerve cells in the fasciculated zone (near the basement membrane) contained cytoplasmic vesicles (1 to 3 microm in diameter) with particles (15 to 26 nm in diameter) and rod-shaped nucleocapsids. The rods were similar to those of GAV and were 130 to 260 nm long, 10 to 16 nm in diameter and had helical symmetry with a screw-like thread (2.4 to 3.5 nm pitch). Also, unidentified enveloped virions, averaging 74 nm in diameter, were observed in cytoplasmic vesicles in the fasciculated zone. In conclusion, it is suggested that bacterial and viral infections of the eye could result in impaired neuroendocrine functions, which may cause a range of clinical signs of disease. PMID:11206731

Smith, P T

2000-12-21

431

Measurement of pollution levels of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in water, soil, sediment, and shrimp to identify possible impacts on shrimp production at Jiquilisco Bay.  

PubMed

This study aims to identify levels of several organochlorine and organophosphorus compounds in shrimp-raising areas of coastal El Salvador, to assess potential impacts on shrimp growth and survival that hamper the sustainability of aquaculture in the region. The paper reports the current levels of ?-HCH, 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDD, endrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, parathion, methyl parathion, and etoprophos in soils (depth 20 cm), sediments (depth 5 cm), shrimp (Penaeus sp.), and water of three rearing ponds and also in the sediment (depth 5 cm) and water surrounding those ponds in Jiquilisco Bay. Sampling was carried out during the dry (January-March) and rainy (June-August) seasons of 2008. The presence of pesticides in the samples of water, shrimp, and sediment at shrimp ponds was not detected in either season; however, in soil samples (depth 20 cm) taken from these ponds, heptachlor, endrin, dieldrin, 4,4'-DDD, and 4,4'-DDT were identified at concentrations below the method limit of quantification (LOQ), and 4,4'-DDE was found in a concentration falling in the range from 3.85 to 19.61 ng/g. In samples of water taken at the bay water intakes to the rearing ponds, we observed dieldrin concentrations in the range between 0.085 ng/mL and 0.182 ng/mL during the dry season. In the samples of sediments taken in the surrounding areas of shrimp ponds, we found-for both seasons-that in 60 % of the samples, 4,4'-DDE was present in concentrations ranging from 3.75 ng/g to 30.97 ng/g. Additionally, in the rainy season, we observed heptachlor in sediment at concentrations below the method quantification limit. It was concluded that organochlorine compounds from pesticides are still present in Jiquilisco Bay, trapped in deep sediment, even though they have been banned since the 1980s. These were not detected in shrimp tissue, surface water, and shallow sediment in rearing ponds, and hence, we do not believe their presence has any major impact on shrimp production in sampled areas. PMID:22573096

Nomen, Rosa; Sempere, Julià; Chávez, Francisco; de López, Nelly Amaya; Rovira, Ma Dolores

2012-09-01

432

Occurrence, movements, and behavior of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in association with the shrimp fishery in Galveston Bay, Texas  

E-print Network

individuals were often seen feeding behind shrimp boats (28% of non-mother/calf groups). Seventy-four percent of the photo-identified dolphins were seen in association with shrimp boats. Dolphins never sighted with shrimp boats were infrequent visitors... to the study area. Dolphins did not appear to alter their movements in response to the different stages of shrimp boat operation. The large percentage of mother/calf pair sightings may indicate a strategy by some females to deal with the caloric burden...

Fertl, Dagmar Catherine

2012-06-07

433

Peptidomic analysis of Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) hemolymph by magnetic bead-based MALDI-TOF MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peptides in shrimp hemolymph play an important role in the innate immune response. Analysis of hemolymph will help to detect and identify potential novel biomarkers of microbial infection. We used magnetic bead-based purification (ClinProt system) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to characterize shrimp hemolymph peptides. Shrimp serum and plasma were used as the source of samples for comparative analysis, and it was found that serum was more suitable for shrimp hemolymph peptidomic analysis. To screen potential specific biomarkers in serum of immune-challenged shrimps, we applied magnetic bead-based MALDI-TOF MS to serum samples from 10 immune-challenged and 10 healthy shrimps. The spectra were analyzed using FlexAnalysis 3.0 and ClinProTools 2.1 software. Thirteen peptide peaks significantly different between the two groups were selected as candidate biomarkers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-infection. The diagnostic model established by genetic algorithm using five of these peaks was able to discriminate LPS-challenged shrimps from healthy control shrimps with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 100%. Our approach in MALDITOF MS-based peptidomics is a powerful tool for screening bioactive peptides or biomarkers derived from hemolymph, and will help to enable a better understanding of the innate immune response of shrimps.

Wang, Baojie; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Zhang, Guofan; Wang, Lei

2013-03-01

434

The Dust Properties of Two Hot R Coronae Borealis Stars and a Wolf-Rayet Central Star of a Planetary Nebula: In Search of a Possible Link  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new Spitzer/IRS spectra of two hot R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars, one in the Galaxy, V348 Sgr, and one lying in the Large Magellanic Cloud, HV 2671. These two objects may constitute a link between the RCB stars and the late Wolf-Rayet ([WCL]) class of central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNe), such as CPD -56° 8032, that has little or no hydrogen in their atmospheres. HV 2671 and V348 Sgr are members of a rare subclass that has significantly higher effective temperatures than most RCB stars, but shares the traits of hydrogen deficiency and dust formation that define the cooler RCB stars. The [WC] CSPN star, CPD -56° 8032, displays evidence of dual-dust chemistry showing both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and crystalline silicates in its mid-IR spectrum. HV 2671 shows strong PAH emission but no sign of having crystalline silicates. The spectrum of V348 Sgr is very different from that of CPD -56° 8032 and HV 2671. The PAH emission seen strongly in the other two stars is not present. Instead, the spectrum is dominated by a broad emission centered at about 8.2 ?m. This feature is not identified with either PAHs or silicates. Several other cool RCB stars, novae, and post-asymptotic giant branch stars show similar features in their IR spectra. The mid-IR spectrum of CPD -56° 8032 shows emission features that may be associated with C60. The other two stars do not show evidence of C60. The different nature of the dust around these stars does not help us in establishing further links that may indicate a common origin. HV 2671 has also been detected by Herschel/PACS and SPIRE. V348 Sgr and CPD -56° 8032 have been detected by AKARI/Far-Infrared Surveyor. These data were combined with Spitzer, IRAS, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and other photometry to produce their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from the visible to the far-IR. Monte Carlo radiative transfer modeling was used to study the circumstellar dust around these stars. HV 2671 and CPD -56° 8032 require both a flared inner disk with warm dust and an extended diffuse envelope with cold dust to fit their SEDs. The SED of V348 Sgr can be fit with a much smaller disk and envelope. The cold dust in the extended diffuse envelopes inferred around HV 2671 and CPD -56° 8032 may consist of interstellar medium swept up during mass-loss episodes.

Clayton, Geoffrey C.; De Marco, O.; Whitney, B. A.; Babler, B.; Gallagher, J. S.; Nordhaus, J.; Speck, A. K.; Wolff, M. J.; Freeman, W. R.; Camp, K. A.; Lawson, W. A.; Roman-Duval, J.; Misselt, K. A.; Meade, M.; Sonneborn, G.; Matsuura, M.; Meixner, M.

2011-08-01

435

Radio, X-Ray, and Extreme-Ultraviolet Coronal Variability of the Short-Period RS Canum Venaticorum Binary ?2 Coronae Borealis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a coordinated observing campaign on the short-period (1.14 days) RS CVn binary ?2 Coronae Borealis with the VLA, ASCA, and RXTE. We also discuss earlier observations of the same system obtained by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). Dramatic coronal variability is present in all of these observations across the electromagnetic spectrum. ?2 CrB undergoes frequent large flares that occur close together in time. Radio flares are unambiguously correlated with X-ray flares; the X-ray flares peak as much as 1.4 hr before the corresponding radio maxima. Response to flares is more rapid in higher energy X-ray bandpasses, signaling an increase in temperature during the course of the flare. Flares are seen more frequently in the harder RXTE bandpass than in simultaneously taken ASCA observations. There is greater contrast between flaring and nonflaring conditions in the RXTE light curve. Complex flaring is seen in the radio at 3 and 6 cm, consistent with optically thin nonthermal gyrosynchrotron emission for most of the duration of the observation. Bursts of left-circularly polarized emission at 20 cm lasting <=15 minutes appear to be due to a coherent emission process. EUVE spectra reveal coronal material at ne<=1012 cm-3, with no discernible density differences between flaring and quiescent time intervals. Quiescent ASCA spectra show lower than solar photospheric abundances with iron depleted by a factor of 4 from the solar photospheric value. The abundances increase during a large flare observed with ASCA, with iron enhanced to the solar photospheric value during the rise phase of the flare. Two-temperature fits to extracted spectra show a low-temperature quiescent value of 8 MK and a high-temperature component that varies from 22 MK during quiescence to 50 MK at the peak of the flare. Emission measure distributions measured from the ASCA observations are consistent with the temperatures derived from the discrete two-temperature fits and indicate the presence of very hot (>100 MK) plasma during the rise phase of the ASCA flare. Many of the flares observed with EUVE, ASCA, and RXTE show a double exponential decay phase, further highlighting the importance of this phenomenon in diagnosing flaring conditions. We also find that the observed second decay timescale cannot be explained by some of the currently used flare parameterizations.

Osten, Rachel A.; Brown, Alexander; Ayres, Thomas R.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Drake, Stephen A.; Gagné, Marc; Stern, Robert A.

2000-12-01

436

Resistance to the crayfish plague pathogen, Aphanomyces astaci, in two freshwater shrimps.  

PubMed

Aphanomyces astaci, the causal agent of the crayfish plague, has recently been confirmed to infect also freshwater-inhabiting crabs. We experimentally tested the resistance of freshwater shrimps, another important decapod group inhabiting freshwaters, to this pathogen. We exposed individuals of two Asian shrimp species, Macrobrachium dayanum and Neocaridina davidi, to zoospores of the pathogen strain isolated from Procambarus clarkii, a known A. astaci carrier likely to get into contact with shrimps. The shrimps were kept in separate vessels up to seven weeks; exuviae and randomly chosen individuals were sampled throughout the experiment. Shrimp bodies and exuviae were tested for A. astaci presence by a species-specific quantitative PCR. The results were compared with amounts of A. astaci DNA in an inert substrate to distinguish potential pathogen growth in live specimens from persisting spores or environmental DNA attached to their surface. In contrast to susceptible crayfish Astacus astacus, we did not observe mortality of shrimps. The amount of detected pathogen DNA was decreasing steadily in the inert substrate, but it was still detectable several weeks after zoospore addition, which should be considered in studies relying on molecular detection of A. astaci. Probably due to moulting, the amount of A. astaci DNA was decreasing in N. davidi even faster than in the inert substrate. In contrast, high pathogen DNA levels were detected in some non-moulting individuals of M. dayanum, suggesting that A. astaci growth may be possible in tissues of this species. Further experiments are needed to test for the potential of long-term A. astaci persistence in freshwater shrimp populations. PMID:25064254

Svoboda, J; Mruga?a, A; Kozubíková-Balcarová, E; Kouba, A; Diéguez-Uribeondo, J; Petrusek, A

2014-09-01

437

An Oxidant and Solvent-Stable Protease Produced by Bacillus cereus SV1: Application in the Deproteinization of Shrimp Wastes and as a Laundry Detergent Additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current increase in amount of shrimp wastes produced by the shrimp industry has led to the need in finding new methods\\u000a for shrimp wastes disposal. In this study, an extracellular organic solvent- and oxidant-stable metalloprotease was produced\\u000a by Bacillus cereus SV1. Maximum protease activity (5,900 U\\/mL) was obtained when the strain was grown in medium containing 40 g\\/L shrimp

Laila Manni; Kemel Jellouli; Olfa Ghorbel-Bellaaj; Rym Agrebi; Anissa Haddar; Alya Sellami-Kamoun; Moncef Nasri

2010-01-01

438

A novel integrase-containing element may interact with Laem-Singh virus (LSNV) to cause slow growth in giant tiger shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  From 2001-2003 monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS) caused severe economic losses for Thai shrimp farmers who cultivated the\\u000a native, giant tiger shrimp, and this led them to adopt exotic stocks of the domesticated whiteleg shrimp as the species of\\u000a cultivation choice, despite the higher value of giant tiger shrimp. In 2008, newly discovered Laem-Singh virus (LSNV) was\\u000a proposed as a

Wattana Panphut; Saengchan Senapin; Siriporn Sriurairatana; Boonsirm Withyachumnarnkul; Timothy W Flegel

2011-01-01

439

Effect of ante-mortem hypoxia on the physicochemical and functional properties of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) muscle stored on ice.  

PubMed

The effect of ante-mortem hypoxia on the physicochemical and functional properties of raw and cooked white shrimp was studied. Hue angle was greater (p???0.05) for stressed raw shrimp compared to control (greener color); whereas a lower angle was detected for cooked stressed shrimp (redder/orange coloration). In addition, hue angle increased (p???0.05) over the ice storage period for control and stressed shrimp (raw and/or cooked). Muscle hardness and shear force showed no differences when comparing control and stressed shrimp (raw and/or cooked). However, during ice storage, shear force increased (p???0.05) by 22% and 9% for control and stressed raw shrimp, respectively; in contrast, shear force and muscle hardness decreased for cooked shrimp (p???0.05). Control showed more (p???0.05) elasticity than stressed cooked shrimp. Stressed raw shrimp showed a water holding capacity 10.8% lower (p???0.05) than control. However, during the storage, water holding capacity increased (p???0.05) reaching similar values to control after day 4. Muscle protein solubility of stressed shrimp was 31% lower than control; however, no differences (p?>?0.05) were observed after the second day. The thermal stability of myosin (T max) showed differences (p???0.05) among control and stressed shrimp, whereas no differences for ?H were observed. Results showed the influence of ante-mortem hypoxia on the physicochemical and functional properties of white shrimp muscle. PMID:23685566

García-Sifuentes, Celia Olivia; Pacheco-Aguilar, Ramón; Scheuren-Acevedo, Susana María; Carvallo-Ruiz, Gisela; Garcia-Sanchez, Guillermina; Gollas-Galván, Teresa; Hernández-López, Jorge

2013-06-01

440

A cDNA microarray, UniShrimpChip, for identification of genes relevant to testicular development in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)  

PubMed Central

Background Poor reproductive maturation in captive male broodstock of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is one of the serious problems to the farming industries. Without genome sequence, EST libraries of P. monodon were previously constructed to identify transcripts with important biological functions. In this study, a new version of cDNA microarray, UniShrimpChip, was constructed from the Peneaus monodon EST libraries of 12 tissues, containing 5,568 non-redundant cDNA clones from 10,536 unique cDNA in the P. monodon EST database. UniShrimpChip was used to study testicular development by comparing gene expression levels of wild brooders from the West and East coasts of Thailand and domesticated brooders with different ages (10-, 14-, 18-month-old). Results The overall gene expression patterns from the microarray experiments revealed distinct transcriptomic patterns between the wild and domesticated groups. Moreover, differentially expressed genes from the microarray comparisons were identified, and the expression patterns of eight selected transcripts were subsequently confirmed by reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Among these, expression levels of six subunits (CSN2, 4, 5, 6, 7a, and 8) of the COP9 signalosome (CSN) gene family in wild and different ages of domesticated brooders were examined by RT-qPCR. Among the six subunits, CSN5 and CSN6 were most highly expressed in wild brooders and least expressed in the 18-month-old domesticated group; therefore, their full-length cDNA sequences were characterized. Conclusions This study is the first report to employ cDNA microarray to study testicular development in the black tiger shrimp. We show that there are obvious differences between the wild and domesticated shrimp at the transcriptomic level. Furthermore, our study is the first to investigate the feasibility that the CSN gene family might have involved in reproduction and development of this economically important species. PMID:21486443

2011-01-01

441

Quantification of viable Brochothrix thermosphacta in cooked shrimp and salmon by real-time PCR.  

PubMed

Brochothrix thermosphacta, a Gram-positive bacterium, is considered as the predominant spoilage microbiota of modified atmosphere packing (MAP) shrimp and fish. Traditional methods currently used to detect B. thermosphacta in foods are time-consuming and labour-intensive. The aim of this study was to develop a real-time PCR quantification method combined with a propidium monoazide (PMA) sample treatment step to monitor the population of B. thermosphacta in cooked shrimp and salmon. The specificity of the two primers MO405 and MO404 used to amplify a 70 bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene was demonstrated by using purified DNA from 30 strains, among 21 bacterial species including 22 reference strains. Using these primers for real-time PCR and in pure culture, a good correlation was obtained between real-time PCR and the conventional plating method. Quantification was linear over 7-log units using artificially inoculated samples. The method performed successfully when tested on naturally contaminated cooked shrimp and fresh salmon, with a minimum threshold of 1.9×10² CFU/g for accurate quantification of B. thermosphacta. The correlation between the B. thermosphacta counts obtained by real-time PCR and plate counts on naturally contaminated shrimp and salmon was high (R²=0.895). Thus, this study presents a rapid tool for producing reliable quantitative data on B. thermosphacta in cooked shrimp and fresh salmon. PMID:22265298

Mamlouk, Kelthoum; Macé, Sabrina; Guilbaud, Morgan; Jaffrès, Emmanuel; Ferchichi, Mounir; Prévost, Hervé; Pilet, Marie-France; Dousset, Xavier

2012-05-01

442

Quality evaluation of farmed whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, treated with different slaughter processing by infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The present study was to evaluate two slaughter processing methods (ice water immersion (T-1) and individual beheaded (T-2)) on whiteleg shrimp quality farmed in freshwater culture systems using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) technology. In addition, the corresponding physical, chemical and microbial properties of shrimp samples were also determined. No significant differences were observed in pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbutiric acid (TBA) and K value as well as the contents of moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash between groups of T-1 and T-2. However, significantly higher springiness and chewiness (P<0.05) were observed in T-1 as compared to those of T-2. As for the result of total viable counts (TVC), significantly lower value (P<0.05) was shown in T-1 than that of T-2, indicating that the quality and shelf life of whiteleg shrimp killed by ice water immersion could be improved and prolonged. Furthermore, all the samples were successfully divided into two categories regarding the two slaughter methods by principal component analysis (PCA) according to the infrared spectra. By analysis of the regression coefficients of PLS-DA, it can be supposed that the quality differences of whiteleg shrimp with different slaughter processing are largely caused by structural changes of their protein and fat. All together, our results indicated that the springiness and chewiness of whiteleg shrimp with different processing could be correctly distinguished using infrared spectroscopy. PMID:24423537

Fu, Ling-lin; Chen, Xiaojing; Wang, Yanbo

2014-05-15

443

Pink shrimp (P. brasiliensis and P. paulensis) residue: influence of extraction method on carotenoid concentration.  

PubMed

The main residue from the shrimp processing is formed by head and carapace and represents from 40 to 50% (w/w) of the integral shrimp. The recovery of the carotenoid fraction from this residue stands for an alternative to increase its aggregated value. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use the pink shrimp waste as raw material to obtain carotenoid enriched extracts, evaluating different pre-treatments and extraction methods. The shrimp waste was supplied by a local public market (Florianópolis, SC, Brazil). The investigation of the different pre-treatments applied to the raw material shows that cooking associated with milling and drying produced the extract richest in carotenoid fraction. The extraction methods considered in this work were Soxhlet, maceration and ultrasound by means of different organic solvents and also a vegetable oil as solvent. The extracts were evaluated in terms of yield, carotenoid profile, total carotenoid content (TCC), UV-Visible scanning spectrophotometry and mid-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicate that shrimp waste can provide carotenoid enriched extracts, particularly astaxanthin, in concentrations up to 252 ?g(astaxanthin)g(extract)(-1). The most adequate solvents were acetone and hexane: isopropanol (50:50, v/v) used in the maceration procedure. The UV-Vis results revealed the presence of carotenoids and flavonoids in the extracts while the FTIR spectroscopy indicated the existence of fatty acids, proteins, and phenolics. PMID:21807199

Mezzomo, Natália; Maestri, Bianca; dos Santos, Renata Lazzaris; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ferreira, Sandra R S

2011-09-15

444

Toxicity of the insecticide etofenprox to three life stages of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.  

PubMed

Opportunities for environmental contamination by the insecticide etofenprox are increasing as its uses expand from primarily indoor residential to rice cultivation and mosquito control. To provide toxicity data for sensitive saltwater species, effects of etofenprox were assessed using three life stages of the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. Adults, larvae, and embryos were tested in aqueous exposures, while adults and larval shrimp were also tested in the presence of sediment. In addition, sublethal cellular stress biomarkers, glutathione and lipid peroxidation, were examined. Larval shrimp was the most sensitive life stage, with 96-h median lethal concentration (LC(50)) of 0.89 microg/l, compared with 1.26 microg/l for adults and 100 microg/l for embryos. Presence of sediment significantly decreased toxicity of etofenprox to both adult and larval shrimp. Etofenprox exposure (100 micog/l) increased time to hatch in embryos. Lipid peroxidation levels were reduced in adult and larval shrimp after 96 h exposure to etofenprox, while no effect on glutathione was detected. The results of this study provide new information on the toxicity of etofenprox to estuarine invertebrates. These data may prove beneficial to the regulation of this pesticide and management of its uses in coastal areas. PMID:20300745

DeLorenzo, Marie E; De Leon, Ryan G

2010-05-01

445

Two cysteine proteinases respond to bacterial and WSSV challenge in Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis.  

PubMed

The cDNAs encoding CathL and legumain from Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis (FcCathL, FcLegu) were obtained. Both FcCathL and FcLegu mRNA were expressed mainly in the hepatopancreas of unchallenged shrimp. Time-course analysis of FcCathL showed that FcCathL was upregulated in the hepatopancreas of shrimp challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) at 12 h. FcLegu mRNA in hepatopancreas was down-regulated by Vibrio. FcLegu transcript first declined from 2 h to 6 h and then recovered from 12 h to 24 h in hepatopancreas challenged with WSSV. FcCathL protein was detected in the hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gill, stomach, and intestine of unchallenged shrimp. Three bands of FcCathL protein detected in some tissues may represent preproenzyme, single chain and mature double chain form respectively. In hepatopancreas, FcLegu was detected in the proenzyme form. In other tissues, only active form could be detected. The protein of FcLegu was down-regulated by Vibrio or WSSV challenge in the stomach and gills. FcCathL and FcLegu were proposed to play a role in shrimp innate immunity for the first time. PMID:20362060

Ren, Qian; Zhang, Xiao-Wen; Sun, Yun-Dong; Sun, Shan-Shan; Zhou, Jing; Wang, Zong-Heng; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

2010-10-01

446

Environmental mutagenicity and toxicity caused by sodium metabisulfite in sea shrimp harvesting in Piauí, Brazil.  

PubMed

Sodium metabisulfite is used in marine shrimp harvesting to prevent the occurrence of black spots. Shrimps are soaked in a sodium metabisulfite solution in ice, which is disposed of in sewages that run into marine canals, creating an environmental hazard. This study evaluates the toxicity and mutagenicity caused by sodium metabisulfite in sea waters and sediments collected in a shrimp farm in Cajueiro da Praia (Luis Correia), state of Piauí, Brazil, using the Allium cepa assay. Water and sediment samples were collected in the dry and in the rainy seasons, in three sites: upstream the shrimp farm (Site 1), at the point sodium metabisulfite is discharged (Site 2), and 100 m downstream the farm (Site 3). Three sample dilutions were used (50%, 25% and 10%) for all samples. A negative control (well water) and a positive control (copper sulfate 0.0006 mg mL?¹) were used in each experiment. At the end of the 72-h exposure period, onion roots were measured and removed. Mutagenicity analysis included the determination of mitotic index, chromosomal aberrations and the detection of micronuclei; analysis of root size and mitotic index were used as an index of toxicity. The A. cepa assay revealed that the water and sediments samples collected in the Piauí coast contaminated with sodium metabisulfite induce toxicity. The results demonstrate that the assay may be used as a regular tool in the analysis of water parameters in shrimp farms in the coast of Piauí state, and in strategies to preserve the region's marine ecosystem. PMID:21056453

da Costa Machado Matos Carvalho, Ivana Mara; Cavalcante, Ana Amélia Melo; Dantas, Alisson Ferreira; Pereira, Danilo Leôncio Aguiar; Rocha, Francisco Cézar Costa; Oliveira, Francisco Massal de; Da Silva, Juliana

2011-02-01

447

Melanization reaction products of shrimp display antimicrobial properties against their major bacterial and fungal pathogens.  

PubMed

Melanization is a rapid defense mechanism in invertebrates. The substrate specificity of phenoloxidases (POs) and the role of melanization reaction products were investigated in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Two PmPOs (PmproPO1 and PmproPO2) were found to display a substrate specificity towards monophenols and diphenols, and exhibit relatively weak activity against 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI). Systemic infection of the PmproPO1/2 co-silenced shrimp with the fungus, Fusarium solani, led to a significantly increased mortality, suggesting an important role of PmproPOs in shrimp's defense against fungal infection. Using l-DOPA, dopamine or DHI as a substrate, the melanization reaction products exhibited in vitro antimicrobial activities towards Gram-negative bacteria (Vibrio harveyi and Vibrioparahaemolyticus) and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), whereas the lower effect was detected against the fungus (F. solani). SEM analysis revealed the morphological changes and damage of cell membranes of V. harveyi and F. solani after treatment with shrimp melanization reaction products. Together, these findings demonstrate the crucial functions of the proPO system and the importance of melanization reaction products in the shrimp's immune defense. PMID:25043262

Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Amparyup, Piti; Suriyachan, Chawapat; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

2014-11-01

448

77 FR 21679 - Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Revisions of Bycatch Reduction Device...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-BB61 Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Revisions...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf FMP) and the Fishery Management...devices (BRDs) for use in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) and South Atlantic...

2012-04-11

449

Extraction of astaxanthin from giant tiger ( Panaeus monodon) shrimp waste using palm oil: Studies of extraction kinetics and thermodynamic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of extraction of astaxanthin from giant tiger (Panaeus monodon) shrimp waste using palm oil was conducted to determine the extraction kinetics and thermodynamic parameters. Two extraction models were proposed: mass transfer kinetic model and reaction kinetic model. It was found that both of mass transfer and reaction kinetic control the extraction of astaxanthin from shrimp waste using palm oil.

Akdes Dewi Handayani; Sutrisno; Nani Indraswati; Suryadi Ismadji

2008-01-01

450

77 FR 34935 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Court Decision...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony...CIT's remand order in Amanda Foods (Vietnam) Ltd., et al. v. United States...shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam covering the period of review...

2012-06-12

451

PARTICLE REMOVAL RATES BY THE MUD SHRIMP UPOGEBIA PUGETTENSIS, ITS BURROW, AND A COMMENSAL CLAM: EFFECTS ON ESTUARINE PHYTOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The burrowing shrimp Upogebia pugettensis is an abundant intertidal inhabitant of Pacific Northwest bays and estuaries where it lives commensally with the bivalve Cryptomya californica. Suspension-feeding activities by the shrimp and by its commensal clam, as well as particle se...

452

DEVELOPMENT OF A PCR BASED PROTOCOL FOR WSSV SCREENING FOR MAJOR CRUSTACEANS INHABITING IN CULTURED SHRIMP FARM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Islam, M. N., Hossain, M. A. and Ahsan, M. N. 2007. Development of a PCR Based Protocol for WSSV Screening for Major Crustaceans Inhabiting in Cultured Shrimp Farm. Int. J. Sustain. Crop Prod. 2(4): 9-17 The array of prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in cultured tiger shrimp, Bagda (Penaeus monodon) and non cultured Metapenaeus monoceros & crab, Scylla

M. N. ISLAM; M. A. HOSSAIN; M. N. AHSAN

2007-01-01

453

Effects of the 1981 Closure on the Texas Shrimp Fishery ALBERT C. JONES, EDWARD F. KLIMA, and JOHN R. POFFENBERGER  

E-print Network

, and location of fishing) were col- lected in each of the Gulf States (Texas to Florida) by interviewing dealersEffects of the 1981 Closure on the Texas Shrimp Fishery ALBERT C. JONES, EDWARD F. KLIMA, and JOHN shrimp, Pe- naeus aztecus, in the FCZ off the coast of Texas during the time of year when large numbers

454

Current status of genetics and genomics of reared penaeid shrimp: information relevant to access and benefit sharing.  

PubMed

At present, research and progress in shrimp genomics and genetics show significant developments. Shrimp genetics and genomics also show immense potential for an increased production in a way that meets shrimp culture progress goals for the third millennium. This review article aims to provide an overview of its current status and future direction, discusses questions that need focused research to address them, and summarizes areas where genetics and genomics knowledge can make a positive difference to shrimp culture sustainability. Sustainable progress of penaeid shrimps will depend upon feasible solutions for environmental, research, economic, consumer problems, proper development, and planning policy enforcement. It is recommended that increased funding for biotechnology research and progress be directed to expand worldwide commercial shrimp culture and address environmental and public health issues. For any researcher or shrimp company member who has attempted to or whom would like to thoroughly search the literature to gain a complete understanding of the current state of shrimp genetics and genomics, this publication will be an invaluable source of reference materials, some of which is reported here for the first time. PMID:23529408

Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Feng, Tingting; Xiang, Jianhai

2013-08-01

455

On predatory tendencies in the feeding ecology of the fairy shrimp Streptocephalus proboscideus (Frauenfeld, 1873) (Crustacea: Anostraca)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding habits of the filter-feeding fairy shrimp Streptocephalus proboscideus are documented experimentally by offering them ciliates, Volvox, rotifers, nematodes and small crustaceans as prey. Escape capabilities (e.g. swimming speed) rather than size or shape were found to determine these animals' vulnerability to predation by the fairy shrimp. Ingestion rates for Volvox increased hyperbolically with size and, at the high

Johan Mertens; N. Munuswamy; Christine Walsche; Henri J. Dumont

1990-01-01

456

Comparison of the Parasites of Pond-Reared and Wild Pink Shrimp (Penaeus duorarum Burkenroad) in South Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink shrimp, Penaeus duorarum Burkenroad, from natural populations in Biscayne Bay and from cultured populations in ponds operated by the University of Miami at Turkey Point, Florida, were examined for parasites during the summer of 1969. Parasites, with percentage incidence in parentheses, found in pond-reared shrimp were: the gregarines Cephalolobus penaeus Kruse, 1959 (11%), and Nematopsis penaeus Kruse, 1959 (20%);

John B. Villella; Edwin S. Iversen; Carl J. Sindermann

1970-01-01

457

Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of protein-bound residues in shrimp dosed with nitrofurans.  

PubMed

An analytical method was developed for the determination of bound residues of the nitrofuran drugs furazolidone, nitrofurazone, furaltadone, and nitrofurantoin with a sensitivity of 1 ppb in shrimp. In this procedure, shrimp tissue is prewashed with solvents followed by overnight acid hydrolysis, during which the side chains of the bound residues are released and simultaneously derivatized with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde. After liquid-liquid extraction cleanup, the derivatives are detected and quantitated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface. The method was validated using control shrimp fortified with each side-chain analyte at 1, 2, and 4 ppb. Method accuracies were >80% with coefficients of variation of <20% for all four analytes. Tissues from dosed shrimp were assayed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method for recovering bound residues of nitrofurans. In shrimp dosed with nitrofurans, nitrofurantoin exhibited the lowest level of bound residues. PMID:16277385

Chu, Pak-Sin; Lopez, Mayda I

2005-11-16

458

Vibrio vulnificus as a health hazard for shrimp consumers.  

PubMed

Over the last 30 years, a number of Vibrio species found in the aquatic environment have been indicated as cause of disease in human beings. Vibrio vulnificus is an emergent pathogen, an invasive and lethal marine bacterium related to wound infection and held accountable for gastroenteritis and primary septicemia. It occurs quite frequently in marine organisms, mainly in mollusks. This study aimed at isolating and identifying strains of V. vulnificus based upon the analysis of twenty samples of seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller), purchased at the Mucuripe fish market (Fortaleza, Brazil). TCBS agar was used to isolate suspect strains. Seven of twenty-nine strains isolated from six different samples were confirmed as such by means of biochemical evidence and thus submitted to biological assays to determine their virulence. The susceptibility of the V. vulnificus strains to a number of antibiotics was tested. None of the V. vulnificus strains showed signs of virulence during a 24-hour observation period, possibly due to the shedding of the capsules by the cells. As to the results of the antimicrobial susceptibility tests, the seven above-mentioned V. vulnificus strains were found to be sensitive to nitrofurantoin (NT), ciprofloxacin (CIP), gentamicin (GN) and chloramphenicol (CO) and resistant to clindamycin (CI), penicillin (PN) and ampicillin (AP). PMID:11696848

do Nascimento, S M; dos Fernandes Vieira, R H; Theophilo, G N; Dos Prazeres Rodrigues, D; Vieira, G H

2001-01-01

459

Physicochemical and functional characteristics of radiation-processed shrimp chitosan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of gamma irradiation on chitosan samples were determined in terms of physicochemical and functional properties. Shrimp chitosan was extracted from shell using a chemical process involving demineralization, deproteinization, decolorization and deacetylation. Commercial snow chitosan was also used. Samples (in a solid state) were given irradiation dose of 25 kGy at a dose rate of 1.1013 kGy/h in air and 0 kGy samples were used as controls. Results showed that moisture contents were between 8.690% and 13.645%. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in the degree of deacetylation of the chitosan samples. Significant differences ( P<0.05) were observed in the viscosity and viscosity-average molecular weight of the chistosan samples. Viscosity and molecular weight decreased when the samples were given the irradiation dose of 25 kGy. Chitosan samples had low antioxidant activity compared with BHT. Water binding capacity ranged from 582.40% to 656.75% and fat binding capacity was between 431.00% and 560.55%. Irradiation had a major effect on the viscosity and the viscosity-average molecular weight of the chitosan samples.

Ocloo, F. C. K.; Quayson, E. T.; Adu-Gyamfi, A.; Quarcoo, E. A.; Asare, D.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Woode, B. K.

2011-07-01

460

Phylogenetics links monster larva to deep-sea shrimp  

PubMed Central

Mid-water plankton collections commonly include bizarre and mysterious developmental stages that differ conspicuously from their adult counterparts in morphology and habitat. Unaware of the existence of planktonic larval stages, early zoologists often misidentified these unique morphologies as independent adult lineages. Many such mistakes have since been corrected by collecting larvae, raising them in the lab, and identifying the adult forms. However, challenges arise when the larva is remarkably rare in nature and relatively inaccessible due to its changing habitats over the course of ontogeny. The mid-water marine species Cerataspis monstrosa (Gray 1828) is an armored crustacean larva whose adult identity has remained a mystery for over 180 years. Our phylogenetic analyses, based in part on recent collections from the Gulf of Mexico, provide definitive evidence that the rare, yet broadly distributed larva, C. monstrosa, is an early developmental stage of the globally distributed deepwater aristeid shrimp, Plesiopenaeus armatus. Divergence estimates and phylogenetic relationships across five genes confirm the larva and adult are the same species. Our work demonstrates the diagnostic power of molecular systematics in instances where larval rearing seldom succeeds and morphology and habitat are not indicative of identity. Larval–adult linkages not only aid in our understanding of biodiversity, they provide insights into the life history, distribution, and ecology of an organism. PMID:23145324

Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Felder, Darryl L; Vollmer, Nicole L; Martin, Joel W; Crandall, Keith A

2012-01-01

461

Phylogenetic relationships within the snapping shrimp genus Synalpheus (Decapoda: Alpheidae).  

PubMed

The snapping shrimp genus Synalpheus (Alpheidae) is one of the most speciose decapod genera, with over 160 described species worldwide. Most species live in symbiotic relationships with other marine organisms, such as sponges, corals and crinoids, and some sponge-dwelling species have a highly organized, social structure. The present study is the first worldwide molecular phylogenetic analysis of Synalpheus, based on >2,200 bp of sequence data from two mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and two nuclear (PEPCK and 18S) loci. Our molecular data show strong support for monophyly of three out of six traditionally recognized morphology-based species groups: the S. brevicarpus, S. comatularum and S. gambarelloides groups. The remaining three species groups (S. paulsoni, S. neomeris and S. coutierei groups) are non-monophyletic in their current composition and will need to be either abandoned or taxonomically redefined. We also identified potential cryptic species of Synalpheus in our dataset, using intraspecific and interspecific sequence variation in COI from the taxonomically well-studied S. gambarelloides group to establish a genetic divergence threshold. We then used both genetic divergence and tree-based criteria (reciprocal monophyly) to identify potential cryptic species in the remaining taxa of the genus. Our results suggest the presence of multiple cryptic lineages in Synalpheus, underlining the need for more integrative taxonomic studies-including morphological, ecological, molecular, and color pattern data-in this biologically interesting genus. PMID:24680914

Hultgren, Kristin M; Hurt, Carla; Anker, Arthur

2014-08-01

462

Insights into the antiviral functions of the RNAi machinery in penaeid shrimp.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, RNA interference pathways have emerged in eukaryotes as critical regulators of many diverse biological functions including, among others, transcriptional gene regulation, post-transcriptional gene silencing, heterochromatin remodelling, suppression of transposon activity, and antiviral defences. Although this gene silencing process has been reported to be relatively well conserved in species of different phyla, there are important discrepancies between plants, invertebrates and mammals. In penaeid shrimp, the existence of an intact and functional RNAi machinery is supported by a rapidly growing body of evidence. However, the extent to which this process participates to the host immune responses remains poorly defined in this non-model organism. This review summarizes our current knowledge of RNAi mechanisms in shrimp and focuses on their implication in antiviral activities and shrimp immune defences. PMID:22732509

Labreuche, Yannick; Warr, Gregory W

2013-04-01

463

Influence of probiotics on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of white Pacific shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of Bacillus probiotics on the digestive enzyme activity and the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei were determined in this study. The shrimp was treated with five percentages (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5) of probiotics ( Bacillus spp.) supplemented to the feed and cultured for 45d. The growth measured as the weight gain at the end of culturing was significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimps than that of the control (without receiving probiotics). Activities of protease and amylase, two digestive enzymes of the midgut gland and the intestine were significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimp than in the control.

Gómez, R. Geovanny D.; Shen, M. A.

2008-05-01

464

Effluents of shrimp farms and its influence on the coastal ecosystems of Bahía de Kino, Mexico.  

PubMed

The impact on coastal ecosystems of suspended solids, organic matter, and bacteria in shrimp farm effluents is presented. Sites around Bahía de Kino were selected for comparative evaluation. Effluent entering Bahia Kino (1) enters Laguna La Cruz (2). A control site (3) was outside the influence of effluents. Water quality samples were collected every two weeks during the shrimp culture period. Our data show that the material load in shrimp farm effluents changes biogeochemical processes and aquatic health of the coastal ecosystem. Specifically, the suspended solids, particulate organic matter, chlorophyll a, viable heterotrophic bacteria, and Vibrio-like bacteria in the bay and lagoon were two- to three-fold higher than the control site. This can be mitigated by improvements in the management of aquaculture systems. PMID:23861653

Barraza-Guardado, Ramón H; Arreola-Lizárraga, José A; López-Torres, Marco A; Casillas-Hernández, Ramón; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Magallón-Barrajas, Francisco; Ibarra-Gámez, Cuauhtemoc

2013-01-01

465

The Sei Whale, Balaenoptera borealis  

E-print Network

, and fin, B. physalus, whales. Sei whales are gray with a variable white area extending from the chin statistics) is mainly from lat. 400 S to 50o S, and the winter distribution is as yet unknown. In the North Atlantic, the northern (sum- mer) limit is thought to be lat. nON, although little is known of southern

466

Development of gene transfer technology for black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.  

PubMed

An effective foreign gene transfer method for shrimp would have several potential uses in the shrimp culture industry, such as in preventing infectious diseases. We evaluated two gene transfer methods and used black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, as a model target species. For a promoter, we used the 1,592-bp promoter region of the EF-1alpha gene, a house-keeping gene, of kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus. The promoter region was linked to either the gene for green fluorescence protein (GFP) or the gene for chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT). The fusion genes were designated pJEF-GFP and pJEF-CAT, respectively. The pJEF-GFP gene was introduced into fertilized eggs of black tiger shrimp by microinjection and particle gun bombardment. The survival rate of the microinjected eggs was 17.6%, and 1.0% of the treated embryos were found to be GFP-positive. However, the GFP-positive embryos were damaged and embryogenesis did not progress. The survival rate of the particle-bombarded eggs was 60.6%, and 0.42% of the treated embryos were found to be GFP-positive. Ubiquitous GFP expression was observed from 8 hr post-fertilization and these embryos developed and hatched normally. The pJEF-CAT gene was introduced into fertilized eggs of black tiger shrimp using the optimized conditions of the particle gun bombardment. CAT activity was observed from 1 to 7 days post-fertilization, with the highest activities being observed at 5 and 7 days post-hatching. PMID:16254920

Yazawa, Ryosuke; Watanabe, Keisuke; Koyama, Takashi; Ruangapan, Lila; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi

2005-12-01

467

Horizontally transferred genes in the genome of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, as the development of next-generation sequencing technology, a growing number of genes have been reported as being horizontally transferred from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, most of them involving arthropods. As a member of the phylum Arthropoda, the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has to adapt to the complex water environments with various symbiotic or parasitic microorganisms, which provide a platform for horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Results In this study, we analyzed the genome-wide HGT events in L. vannamei. Through homology search and phylogenetic analysis, followed by experimental PCR confirmation, 14 genes with HGT event were identified: 12 of them were transferred from bacteria and two from fungi. Structure analysis of these genes showed that the introns of the two fungi-originated genes were substituted by shrimp DNA fragment, two genes transferred from bacteria had shrimp specific introns inserted in them. Furthermore, around other three bacteria-originated genes, there were three large DNA segments inserted into the shrimp genome. One segment was a transposon that fully transferred, and the other two segments contained only coding regions of bacteria. Functional prediction of these 14 genes showed that 6 of them might be related to energy metabolism, and 4 others related to defense of the organism. Conclusions HGT events from bacteria or fungi were happened in the genome of L. vannamei, and these horizontally transferred genes can be transcribed in shrimp. This is the first time to report the existence of horizontally transferred genes in shrimp. Importantly, most of these genes are exposed to a negative selection pressure and appeared to be functional. PMID:23914989

2013-01-01

468

Real-time assessment of the microbial quality of retail shrimp using CO2 evolution rate.  

PubMed

A real-time CO(2) evolution rate (CER) method together with conventional cultural and sensory techniques were utilized to determine the microbial quality and shelf life of several types of shrimp products: chloramphenicol (CAP) treated, imported farm raised, and domestic wild caught. Treatment with CAP was used to create different bacterial loads in shrimp samples to demonstrate the ability and sensitivity of the CER method for differentiating the bacterial activity in samples. Samples were divided into control (nontreated) and 0, 10, and 30 ppm of CAP treatment groups and stored at 4°C. The CER was recorded with a microrespirometer, and aerobic plate counts (APCs), olfactory sensory analyses, and pH measurements were recorded daily until spoilage occurred. The real-time CER results were highly correlated with the APCs (R(2) = 0.93) and readily distinguished the onset of spoilage in each of the treatment groups. CAP treatment at 10 and 30 ppm increased the sample shelf life by 2 and 3 days, respectively, compared with the nontreated samples. Untreated domestic wild-caught shrimp had a shelf life 1 day longer than that of the untreated imported farm-raised shrimp. No pattern of change in pH was noted throughout the storage period. When the olfactory sensory scores reached the marginally acceptable level, the mean CER was 27.23 ?l/h/g and the mean APC was 5.78 log CFU/g. A cutoff CER of 25.0 ?l/h/g was therefore selected to define acceptable raw shrimp. The CER method was a highly effective and sensitive real-time method for determining the microbial quality of raw shrimp. PMID:23212016

Alderees, Fahad; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy

2012-12-01

469

The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N, 68%). Phosphate (PO4-P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO3-N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (Pshrimp weight and survival rate in the RAS (3.8 +/-1.8 g/shrimp and 90%) significantly (Pshrimp and 71%). This study concludes that constructed wetlands can improve the water quality and provide a good culture environment, consequently increasing the shrimp growth and survival without water exchange, in a recirculating system. PMID:12663210

Lin, Ying-Feng; Jing, Shuh-Ren; Lee, Der-Yuan

2003-01-01

470

Acquisition of epibiotic bacteria along the life cycle of the hydrothermal shrimp Rimicaris exoculata  

PubMed Central

The caridean shrimp Rimicaris exoculata dominates the fauna at several Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent sites. This shrimp has an enlarged gill chamber, harboring a dense ectosymbiotic community of chemoautotrophic bacteria associated with mineral oxide deposits. Until now, their acquisition is not fully understood. At three hydrothermal vent sites, we analyzed the epibionts diversity at different moult stages and also in the first stages of the shrimp life (eggs, hatched eggs (with larvae) and juveniles). Hatched eggs associated with young larvae were collected for the first time directly from gravid females at the Logachev vent site during the Serpentine cruise. An approach using 16S rRNA clone libraries, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescent in situ hybridization was used. Molecular results and microscope observations indicated a switch in the composition of the bacterial community between early R. exoculata life cycle stage (egg libraries dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria) and later stages (juvenile/adult libraries dominated by the Epsilonproteobacteria). We hypothesized that the epibiotic phylotype composition could vary according to the life stage of the shrimp. Our results confirmed the occurrence of a symbiosis with Gammaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria, but more complex than previously assumed. We revealed the presence of active type-I methanotrophic bacteria colonizing the cephalothorax of shrimps from the Rainbow site. They were also present on the eggs from the Logachev site. This could be the first ‘epibiotic' association between methanotrophic bacteria and hydrothermal vent crustacean. We discuss possible transmission pathways for epibionts linked to the shrimp life cycle. PMID:21993397

Guri, Mathieu; Durand, Lucile; Cueff-Gauchard, Valerie; Zbinden, Magali; Crassous, Philippe; Shillito, Bruce; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne

2012-01-01

471

Culture of penaeid shrimp in brackfish water ponds receiving thermal effluents  

E-print Network

shelled) and then randomly testing 20-40 grams of the blended tissue. The tissue was analyzed for concentrations of aroclor 1254, dieldr