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1

Environmental Physiology of Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several laboratory experiments with shrimp (Pandalus borealis) larvae were conducted to estimate (1) the minimum daily number of food items (Artemia nauplii) required to be captured and ingested to insure survival, (2) the probabilities for one larva to c...

A. P. Stickney H. C. Perkins

1980-01-01

2

'Pandalus borealis' Management Modeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis, Kroyer) fishery has declined rapidly. The decline appears to have been caused by higher than optimum temperatures during the year of egg hatch and overfishing of the stock. The state-federal management program relie...

R. G. Rinaldo

1977-01-01

3

Description of Larvae of the Northern Shrimp, 'Pandalus borealis', Reared in situ in Kachemak Bay, Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Northern shrimp, Pandalus borealis, were reared in situ in Kachemak Bay, Alaska, from Stage I (first zoeal) through Stage VIII (second juvenile). Each of the six larval stages and first juvenile stage is described and illustrated, and a brief description ...

E. Haynes

1979-01-01

4

Environmental Physiology of Northern Shrimp, 'Pandalus borealis'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Evidence has been obtained relevant to the hypothesis that early hatching of shrimp larvae such as might occur after a warm winter, can lead to failure to find food and subsequent starvation. Several related topics have also been studied. These include a ...

A. P. Stickney H. C. Perkins

1979-01-01

5

Effects of Ocean Acidification on Early Life Stages of Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and Mussel (Mytilus edulis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean acidification (OA) resulting from anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) has already lowered and is predicted to further lower surface ocean pH. There is a particular need to study effects of OA on organisms living in cold-water environments due to the higher solubility of CO2 at lower temperatures. Mussel larvae (Mytilus edulis) and shrimp larvae (Pandalus borealis) were kept

Renée Katrin Bechmann; Ingrid Christina Taban; Stig Westerlund; Brit Fjone Godal; Maj Arnberg; Sjur Vingen; Anna Ingvarsdottir; Thierry Baussant

2011-01-01

6

Effect of Shrimp Processing Procedures on the Quality and Quantity of Extracted Chitin from the Shells of Northern Shrimp Pandalus borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of various shrimp processing procedures on the quality and quantity of extracted chitin from the shells of Northern Species Pandalus borealis was investigated. The shrimp were caught from the Northern Shrimp Fishery in 2001 and processed using two different procedures. The first procedure involved cooking in boiling salt water on board the vessel, then packing on ice until

A. Ghanem; A. E. Ghaly; M. Chaulk

2004-01-01

7

Molecular and enzymatic properties of a cathepsin L-like proteinase with distinct substrate specificity from northern shrimp ( Pandalus borealis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We purified a cathepsin L-like proteinase to homogeneity from the hepatopancreas of northern shrimp Pandalus borealis by several chromatographic procedures. The purified proteinase showed the highest specificity for leucine residue at P2, a specificity pattern similar to cathepsins S and K whereas proline and arginine residues were not suitable as P2 substrates. However, unlike these proteinases, it accepted valine almost

H. Aoki; M. N. Ahsan; S. Watabe

2004-01-01

8

Size and temperature-dependent variations in intermolt duration and size increment at molt of Northern Shrimp, Pandalus borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of Pandalus borealis post-larval stages was measured in relation to size and temperature. Growth characteristics, including intermolt period (IP),\\u000a molt increment (MI) in size and mass, and tissue allocation in juvenile, male, and female shrimp, were evaluated at 2, 5,\\u000a and 8°C, the temperature range where this species is generally found in the Northwest Atlantic. Significant variations in\\u000a growth

Dounia Daoud; Yvan Lambert; Céline Audet; Denis Chabot

2010-01-01

9

A framework to model shrimp (Pandalus borealis) stock dynamics and to quantify the risk associated with alternative management options, using Bayesian methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new integrated Bayesian framework for making quantitative assessments, predictions, and risk analyses of shrimp (Pandalus borealis) stock development is constructed. A bio- mass dynamic model, based on the logistic function but including an explicit term for cod predation, suggests that the quantity of shrimp consumed by cod could equal that taken by the fishery. The model proved superior to

Carsten Hvingel; Michael C. S. Kingsley

2006-01-01

10

The northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) offshore fishery in the Northeast Atlantic.  

PubMed

This chapter describes the development and current situation of the offshore shrimp fisheries in Iceland, Greenland, Svalbard, Jan Mayen and the Norwegian Barents Sea area, with information on the biology of Pandalus borealis and its relation to the environment. Some additional information about the inshore shrimp fisheries of Iceland and Greenland of relevance to this study is also included. The Icelandic offshore shrimp fishery started in 1975 and has formed between 68% and 94% of the annual catch of shrimp since 1984. Landings peaked at 66,000 tons in 1997. The offshore fleet increased threefold from 1983 to 1987, and catch per unit of effort doubled. The first signs of overfishing were detected in 1987, when the first total allowable catch (TAC) was set, and catches decreased during the next few years despite the discovery of new fishing grounds. Good recruitment allowed catches to rise steadily from 1990 to 1996. However, catches and stock index have decreased markedly since then, with a minimum catch for the period 1998-2003 of 21,500 tons in 2000. It has been suggested that predation by cod is an important factor affecting shrimp stock size, but mortality from predation is slightly lower than fishing mortality, so that the impact of fishing cannot be disregarded. The Greenland offshore shrimp fishery is one of the largest in the North Atlantic and it generates 90% of the export value of the country. The fishery started in 1970 in West Greenland with landings of 1200 tons, but since 1974 it has formed between 59% and 89% of the annual shrimp catch. In 2004, landings reached 113,000 tons and the fishable stock was estimated at 300,000 tons. The significant spatial expansion of the fishery from the original fishing grounds off the Disko Island area to all of the West coast south of 75 degrees N and the fleet improvement over the past three decades have made possible this spectacular growth. Other fishing grounds off the East coast have been fished since 1978, mostly by foreign vessels. Catches in this area oscillated between 5000 and 15,000 tons during the period 1980-2004. The main problem of the shrimp fishery in Greenland is its overlapping with nursery areas of redfish, Greenland halibut, cod and other groundfish species, some of which show declining trends of biomass and abundance. This led to the implementation in 2000 of sorting grids and laws that forbid fishing when the bycatch exceeds legal limits. However, it is likely that ecological processes only partially understood, such as the trophic web and hydrography of the area, greatly influence the stock abundance of the demersal community. The offshore Norwegian fishery started in 1973. The main fishing grounds are off Svalbard and in the Barents Sea. Catches at Jan Mayen have never exceeded 5% of the total annual catch of northern shrimp. Large fluctuations in catches and stock size are the main characteristic of this fishery. Stock size seems to be largely dependent on the annual hydrographic variability in the area and trends in abundance of predator species, especially cod. However, shrimp mortality due to predation has been estimated to be the same as fishing mortality, and therefore fishing probably accounts for part of the observed variability in stock size. Large populations of juvenile cod, haddock, redfish and Greenland halibut are often found on the shrimp fishing grounds. The implementation of sorting grids in 1991 and a bio-economical model in 1993 to estimate allowable maximum catches of the commercial bycatch species have not solved the bycatch problem. All the commercial fish species present on the shrimp grounds are currently below safe biological limits. This is the only fishery within the studied area that is not regulated by means of a TAC system. PMID:17298891

Garcia, Elena Guijarro

2007-01-01

11

Seasonal changes in migratory and predatory activity of two species of gadoid preying on inshore northern shrimp Pandalus borealis.  

PubMed

The interaction between two species of gadoid and a shrimp stock was studied in a 40 km long two-armed fjord in north-west Iceland. On the basis of acoustic and trawl surveys in 2005 and 2006, immature cod Gadus morhua and haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus were found to migrate to the inner part of the fjord in late summer, concurrent with rising temperatures. At the same time, the local northern shrimp Pandalus borealis stock retreated into the north-east arm of the fjord. Vertical distribution of acoustic targets indicated that a significant and temporally variable fraction of the gadoids was inaccessible to the trawl. Shrimp was a significant part of the diet of immature G. morhua, except in June 2006 when euphausiids comprised most of the diet of both G. morhua and M. aeglefinus. Shrimp was only a minor part of the diet of M. aeglefinus. An on-off relationship was observed in the catches of gadoids and shrimp. In hauls with large catches of gadoids, few shrimp were found and vice versa, indicating avoidance reaction at this spatial scale. The cooling in winter may have driven the gadoids to the outer parts of the fjord, which in turn may have aided in the dispersal of the shrimp stock in the following months. PMID:21463310

Björnsson, B; Reynisson, P; Solmundsson, J; Valdimarsson, H

2011-03-11

12

Species identification of the Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and proteomic analysis.  

PubMed

Genomic and proteomic techniques for species identification of meat and seafood products are being widely used. In this study, a genomic approach was used to differentiate Pandalus borealis (the Northern shrimp), which belongs to the superfamily Pandaloidea, from 30 crustaceans consisting of 19 commercially relevant prawns/shrimps species that belong to the superfamily Penaeoidea, which include the families Penaeidae and Solenoceridae, and 11 other crustacean species, including prawns, shrimps, lobsters, and crabs. For this purpose, a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was designed based on the amplification of the 16S rRNA/tRNA(Val)/12S rRNA mitochondrial regions using the primers 16S-CruF and 16S-CruR. The 966-bp PCR products were produced and cleaved with the restriction enzymes AluI, TaqI, and HinfI, which provided species-specific restriction patterns. In addition, a proteomic approach, based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and electrospray ionization-ion trap (ESI-IT) mass spectrometry, was used to identify and characterize new P. borealis-specific peptides that could be useful as potential markers of this species in protein-based detection methods. To our knowledge, this is the first time a molecular method has been successfully applied to identify a wide range of prawn and shrimp species, including P. borealis, for either whole individuals or processed products. However, validation of the methods proposed here is required by applying them to a larger sample of individuals from different populations and geographic origins in order to avoid mainly false-negative results. PMID:22080038

Pascoal, Ananias; Ortea, Ignacio; Gallardo, José M; Cañas, Benito; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge; Calo-Mata, Pilar

2011-10-22

13

Physiological responses of a cold-water shrimp, Pandalus borealis to bacterial lipopolysaccharide and synthetic double-stranded RNA, poly I:C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of two pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), namely, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and double-stranded RNA, poly I:C on selected physiological response parameters in the hemolymph of a cold-water shrimp, Pandalus borealis were studied. Most of the tested immune factors were affected after intramuscular injection with the PAMPs. Total protein concentration in the hemolymph was significantly upregulated upon injection with the

Christopher Marlowe A. Caipang; Amod Kulkarni; Viswanath Kiron

14

Effect of modified atmosphere packaging on oxidative changes in frozen stored cold water shrimp ( Pandalus borealis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimps caught at sea were boiled in seawater, air blast or nitrogen frozen, glazed and then packed in plastic bags with a low oxygen transmission rate. The bags were either flushed with nitrogen (modified atmosphere packaging) or with atmospheric air before sealing. The shrimps were then stored for up to 12 months in a freezer cabinet at ?17°C with fluctuating

L. S Bak; A. B Andersen; E. M Andersen; G Bertelsen

1999-01-01

15

Biology of the Northern Shrimp, Pandalus borealis, in the Gulf of Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northern shrimp from offshore waters in the Gulf of Maine were studied to determine their occurrence and to learn some major features of their life history. The area sampled extends from Nova Scotia, Canada, to Long Island, New York. Northern shrimp were found only in the western portion of the Gulf of Maine, where they were present throughout the year,

Evan B. Haynes; Roland L. Wigley

1969-01-01

16

Temperature dependence of ionic and acid-base regulation in boreal and arctic Crangon crangon and Pandalus borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of temperature on intracellular pH were investigated in the abdominal muscle tissue of two latitudinally separated populations of the euryhaline and eurythermic common sand shrimp Crangon crangon and in the stenohaline and stenothermic deep water shrimp Pandalus borealis. The contribution of passive mechanisms (due to the physico-chemical responses of intracellular buffers) and active mechanisms (due to ion exchange)

F. J. Sartoris; H. O. Pörtner

1997-01-01

17

The Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) Stock in Skagerrak and the Norwegian Deep (ICES Divisions IIIa and IVa East)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian fisheries data used in the annual assessment of the shrimp stock in Skagerrak and the Norwegian Deep. Long term fluctuations\\/trends in landings and trends in national LPUE's are presented and described. Increasing gear efficiency has been taken into account in analyses of the Danish LPUE. Estimation of Swedish discards due to high

S. Munch-Petersen; O. Eigaard; G. Søvik; M. Ulmestrand

18

Effect of brine marination on survival and growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria during processing and subsequent storage of ready-to-eat shrimp (Pandalus borealis).  

PubMed

The effect of brine marination at chill temperatures on survival and growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria during processing and subsequent storage of ready-to-eat cold water shrimp was studied. Survival and growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were examined. The effect of brine composition and pH was determined in 12 screening experiments without addition of shrimp. Sixteen challenge tests with shrimp were then carried out to examine the effect of brine composition and storage temperature on survival and growth during processing and subsequent storage of brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Different brines with (i) acetic and lactic acids (AL) or (ii) benzoic, citric and sorbic acids (BCS) were studied. V. parahaemolyticus was inactivated in brine AL without shrimp whereas concentrations of all the examined microorganisms were reduced in brine BCS. A significant effect of brine pH on inactivation was observed and inactivation during chill marination of shrimp in brine was reduced compared to the effect of brine alone. This was explained by a relatively fast increase of pH in the brine during marination of shrimp. For shrimp in brine BCS, reductions were observed for V. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella, whereas inactivation in shrimp was only noticed for Salmonella in brine AL. The observed reductions were too small to be used in practise for decontamination of shellfish. None of the examined pathogens was able to grow at 7°C in brined and drained MAP shrimp that resembled commercial products. However, reducing the concentration of acetic and lactic acids by 50% resulted in relatively fast growth of L. monocytogenes in brined and drained MAP shrimp at 7°C. Growth of S. aureus and Salmonella was observed in similar products stored at 15°C. V. parahaemolyticus was reduced in brined and drained MAP shrimp stored at both 7 and 15°C. Based on the results of the present study, L. monocytogenes was identified as the greatest potential risk with respect to the safety of brined and drained MAP shrimp. The potential of L. sakei as spoilage bacterium in brined and drained MAP shrimp was confirmed. Importantly, growth rates of L. sakei and L. monocytogenes in brined and drained MAP shrimp were predicted accurately by available mathematical models. Thus, these models can be used for product development and establishment of shell-life for ready-to-eat shrimp taking into account both quality and safety aspects. PMID:22564452

Mejlholm, Ole; Devitt, Tina D; Dalgaard, Paw

2012-04-16

19

Preliminary Study of Trap Bycatch in the Gulf of Maine's Northern Shrimp Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp are one of the most economically valued and internationally traded fisheries products in the world, but there are persistent concerns over the environmental impact of shrimp fisheries, particularly the bycatch. In the Gulf of Maine (GOM), the northern shrimp Pandalus borealis are fished by two types of gear–trawls and traps. Bycatch rates for the trawl fishery were studied previously,

Cinamon Moffett; Yong Chen; Margaret Hunter

2012-01-01

20

Effects of trawling for ocean shrimp (Pandalus jordani) on macroinvertebrate abundance and diversity at four sites near Nehalem Bank, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys with a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) at four mud- habitat sites with different histories of ocean shrimp (Pandalus jordani) trawling showed measurable effects of trawling on macroinvertebrate abun- dance and diversity. Densities of the sea whip (Halipteris spp., P<0.01), the f lat mud star (Luidia foliolata, P<0.001), unidentified Asteroidea (P<0.05), and squat lobsters (unidenti- fied Galathoidea, P<0.001) were lower

Robert W. Hannah; Stephen A. Jones; William Miller; Jayme S. Knight

21

Some Effects of Temperature, Chlorine, and Copper on the Survival and Growth of the Coon Stripe Shrimp, Pandalus Danae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The CTM (Critical Thermal Maxima) values for coon stripe shrimp increase with an increase in shrimp size. The CTM values for coon strip shrimp increase with an increase in the rate at which the temperature is elevated. Coon stripe shrimp are more resistan...

C. I. Gibson T. O. Thatcher C. W. Apts

1975-01-01

22

New evidence for the presence of arsenocholine in shrimps (Pandalus borelais) by use of pyrolysis gas chromatography: atomic absorption spectrometry\\/mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical method for the structure elucidation of quarternary organoarsenic compounds in trace amounts in fish and crustaceans has been developed in this laboratory. The two major organoarsenicals found in shrimps have been separated by ion-exchange chromatography and their structure has been studied by the use of pyrolysis gas chromatography. Their degradation in the pyrolyzer unit has been studied by

H. Norin; R. Ryhage; A. Christakopoulos; M. Sandstroem

1983-01-01

23

Effect of Diet on Laboratory Culture of 'Pandalus platyceros' Larvae (Crustacea: Decapoda).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The genus Pandalus contains the most important commercial shrimp species in the North Pacific. Among them, the spot prawn (P. platyceros) is a promising cultivar because of its large size (254 mm total length), relatively rapid natural growth, and ease of...

E. F. Prentice K. X. Gores C. V. Mahnken H. S. Groninger

1984-01-01

24

A Provisional Assessment of the Shrimp Stock off West Greenland in 2006 by  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of the West Greenland Stock of Pandalus borealis was performed using an assessment framework adopted by STACFIS and Scientific Council in 2002. The assessment framework incorporates a logistic stock- recruitment model, indices of biomass from trawl survey and from commercial-fishery CPUE, catch data from records, and a model of cod predation including available series of cod biomass. The model

Michael C. S. Kingsley

25

Incidence, Growth, and Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in Cooked and Peeled Cold-Water Shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooked and peeled cold-water shrimp (Pandalus jordani) naturally contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes were obtained from a processor for a series of studies to determine the level of contamination and growth characteristics of this bacterium in the naturally contaminated product. L. monocytogenes was isolated from every 25-g sample of individually quick frozen (IQF) shrimp that was tested. The level of contamination

R. N. Paranjpye; M. E. Peterson; F. T. Poysky; M. W. Eklund

2008-01-01

26

Simulating the Aurora Borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm to simulate the aurora borealis, commonly known as the “northern lights”, a natural phenomenon of great visual beauty and considerable scientific interest. The algorithm is based on the current understanding of the physical origin of the aurora. This natural display is mainly caused by high-energy electrons originating in the Sun and entering the Earth's atmosphere in

Gladimir V. G. Baranoski; Peter Shirley; Jon G. Rokne; Trond Trondsen; Rui Bastos

2000-01-01

27

Photographing the Aurora Borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

I SHOULD be obliged if I might be permitted to state, with reference to the negative of the aurora borealis obtained by Mr. Tromholt in Christiania on March 15 (NATURE, vol. xxxi. p. 479)-the first ever obtained-that he now informs me that, although the plate was exposed for eight and a half minutes, the said impression is so faint and

Carl Siewers

1885-01-01

28

The Aurora Borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

THERE was a brilliant display of aurora borealis visible from this place on Sunday the 9th inst. I first noticed it about 10.45 P.M.; there was then a considerable luminosity in the N. W. with a magnificent red glow and streamers springing from the W. extending to within 20° of the eastern horizon, also radiation from other parts in the

W. J. B. Thompson

1871-01-01

29

The Aurora Borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

HAVING read the two accounts of Aurora Borealis in this week's number of NATURE, I hope the following brief account of the very beautiful one that occurred here may not prove uninteresting. On Friday, the 14th Oct. at 8.15 p.m., I noticed a bright appearance towards the north-west, somewhat resembling the moon rising, and on going to the front of

T. W. Philips

1870-01-01

30

The Aurora Borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ON the night of the 25th a most gorgeous aurora borealis was visible at North Shields. I first observed it about 6 P.M., when it formed a splendid boreal crown, of which the centre was about 25° south-east of the zenith. Rays of brilliant crimson converged to it from all directions, especially from N.E., S., and S.W. To the north

Henry R. Proctor

1870-01-01

31

Manganese Star Iota Coronae Borealis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An abundance analysis of the manganese star Iota Coronae Borealis is carried out in detail by making use of a model atmosphere with theta sub e = 0.458, log g = 3.7, N(He)/N(H) = 0.12. The energy distribution and H gamma profile are reproduced by this mod...

J. E. Ross L. H. Aller

1969-01-01

32

Aurora borealis lags during the Middle Ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dated observations of the Northern Lights from the 13th-18th centuries are analyzed in terms of the relationship between sunspot cycles and aurora borealis cycles. Aurora borealis was recorded in circumpolar latitudes south of the auroral oval surrounding the magnetic south pole on 1500 days during the epoch studied. The phase relationship by Fritz (1864) relating sunspot and auroral cycles is

L. Schlamminger

1992-01-01

33

Aurora borealis lag during the Maunder minimum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of 121 occurrences of the aurora borealis recorded in Central Europe from 1645 to 1712 C.E. are compared with known phase relationships between auroral activity and sunspot cycles in modern times. A remarkable analogy of the aurora borealis cycles during the Maunder minimum is found, both with respect to phase-dependent frequency and to delayed maxima, with aurorae during the

Ludwig Schlamminger

1991-01-01

34

Aurora Borealis: What Causes the Northern Lights?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This color brochure answers common questions about the aurora borealis, including its cause, as well as explanations of its colors, shapes, and location. It also lists resources for further study. The brochure may be downloaded in PDF format.

2011-05-20

35

Punching Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Legendary boxer Muhammad Ali used to brag that he could "float like a butterfly and sting like a bee." But to be a true champion, a prizefighter should really try to "punch like a mantis shrimp." This Science Update examines the research behind copying this mechanism for application to machinery design.

Science Update;

2004-06-28

36

Guide to Recreational Shrimping.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Shrimp biology and habits; Licenses and regulations; Types of shrimp trawls; Selecting a trawl net; Rigging the trawl net; Preparing the boat for trawling; Setting and towing the shrimp trawl; Hauling back the net; Culling and storing the catch;...

W. Wescott K. Hart

1986-01-01

37

Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment. Injury to Prince William Sound spot shrimp. Subtidal study number 5. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Since the grounding of the T/V Exxon Valdez caused an oil spill on March 24, 1989, four surveys have been conducted by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) to assess possible damage done by the oil spill to spot shrimp Pandalus platyceros. The surveys were conducted November 1989, March 1990, and November 1990 as Fish/Shellfish Study 15, then November 1991 as Subtidal Study 5. The report incorporates results of all surveys, but emphasizes November surveys and their analysis.

NONE

1992-12-01

38

Venezuelan Shrimp Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Venezuela's shrimp industry is dominated by its trawler fleet, which caught more than 8,600 metric tons of shrimp in 1989. In comparison, the shrimp culture industry harvests only small quantities. Various groups have been attempting to culture shrimp in ...

D. M. Weidner T. J. Revord

1991-01-01

39

The Aurora Borealis of September 9  

Microsoft Academic Search

I HAVE read, with much interest, in NATURE of September 15, the article concerning the aurora borealis of September 9, and it may be of interest to your readers to know that this beautiful phenomenon displayed its splendours the same evening in all parts of Finland territory.

N. Kaulbars

1898-01-01

40

Brine Shrimp 1: Hatching Brine Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Science NetLinks lesson, students will design a test to determine the optimum salinity for hatching brine shrimp. In the second brine shrimp lesson of the series, students will raise these brine shrimp, designing an artificial environment in which they can survive. This lesson relates to the idea that in any particular environment, the growth and survival of organisms depend on the physical conditions.

Science Netlinks;

2001-10-20

41

Guadeloupe Shrimp Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

France is promoting a shrimp culture industry in its Western Hemisphere Overseas Department, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique. They have focused almost exclusively on freshwater shrimp. The French have made considerable technical progress, althou...

D. M. Weidner

1991-01-01

42

Shrimps (Arthropoda: Crustacea: Penaeidae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pollution ecology of penaeid shrimps involving industrial organic chemicals, pesticides, petroleum, heavy metals, biological agents, and interactions of the above is discussed. Penaeid shrimps, within their geographic distribution, can serve as valid ...

J. A. Couch

1979-01-01

43

SHRIMPS (ARTHROPODA: CRUSTACEA: PENAEIDAE)  

EPA Science Inventory

The pollution ecology of penaeid shrimps involving industrial organic chemicals, pesticides, petroleum, heavy metals, biological agents, and interactions of the above is discussed. Penaeid shrimps, within their geographic distribution, can serve as valid indicators of the presenc...

44

Chilean Shrimp Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chile has not yet developed a shrimp aquaculture industry. A variety of factors suggest that the country has a limited potential to culture shrimp. Indigenous species are untried in pond culture. Climatic factors, especially low seasurface temperatures, a...

D. M. Weidner

1991-01-01

45

Aurora borealis lags during the Middle Ages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dated observations of the Northern Lights from the 13th-18th centuries are analyzed in terms of the relationship between sunspot cycles and aurora borealis cycles. Aurora borealis was recorded in circumpolar latitudes south of the auroral oval surrounding the magnetic south pole on 1500 days during the epoch studied. The phase relationship by Fritz (1864) relating sunspot and auroral cycles is considered, and it is shown that the cycles of normal solar activity were accompanied by a delayed maxima of auroral frequency. The relationship is less pronounced further in the past for the alternating epochs of reduced solar activity. The conclusion is that the phase-dependent frequency of aurora boreales is confirmed for some epochs of reduced and normal solar activity.

Schlamminger, L.

1992-08-01

46

Two Centuries of Observing R Coronæ Borealis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

R Coronæ Borealis was found to be variable in the year 1783, and was one of the first variable stars to be so identified. Its class, the R Coronæ Borealis (RCB) stars, are rare hydrogen-deficient carbon-rich supergiants. RCB stars undergo massive declines of up to 8 mag due to the formation of carbon dust at irregular intervals. The mechanism of dust formation around RCB stars is not well understood, but the dust is thought to form in or near the atmosphere of the star. Their rarity may stem from the fact that they are in an extremely rapid phase of the evolution, or are in an evolutionary phase that most stars do not undergo. Several evolutionary models have been suggested to account for the RCB stars, including a merger of two white dwarfs (WDs) or a final helium-shell flash (FF) in a PN central star. The large overabundance of 18O found in most of the RCB stars favours the WD merger model, while the presence of Li in the atmospheres of five RCB stars favours the FF one. In particular, the measured isotopic abundances imply that many, if not most, RCB stars are produced by WD mergers, which may be the low-mass counterparts of the more massive mergers thought to produce type Ia supernovæ. Understanding these enigmatic stars depends to a large extent on continuous monitoring to catch their irregular but rapid variations caused by dust formation, their variations due to stellar pulsations, and long-term changes that may occur over centuries. I will use observations of R Coronæ Borealis obtained over 200 years to demonstrate what kinds of monitoring are necessary for these and similar classes of variables.

Clayton, Geoffrey C.

2012-04-01

47

Shrimp Farming in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a project on culturing shrimp. Presents observational labs and the experimentation procedure. Provides general information about shrimp, their life span, optimum temperatures, and other important information. (YDS)|

Ruggiero, Lovelle

2000-01-01

48

Stream Sockets on SHRIMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an implementation of stream sockets for the SHRIMP multicomputer. SHRIMP supports protected, user-level data transfer, allows user-level code to perform its own buffer management, and separates data transfers from control transfers so that data transfers can be done without the interrupting the receiving node's CPU. Our sockets implementation exploits all of these features to provide high performance.

Stefanos N. Damianakis; Cezary Dubnicki; Edward W. Felten

1997-01-01

49

Latin American Shrimp Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Latin America is a leading world producer of cultured shrimp. Growers in the region reported major pond harvest increases during the 1980s. The 1990 regional cultured shrimp harvest was more than 100,000 metric tons, a 1,000 percent increase over the less...

1993-01-01

50

Diapause traits in Melanoplus sanguinipes and M. borealis (Orthoptera: Acrididae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A thorough understanding of diapause is needed for prediction of population responses to climate change, for realistic simulation models, and for the development of effective pest management. In Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius) and M. borealis (Fieber) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), diapause typically o...

51

Staubbildung in den Huellen von Kohlenstoffsternen: R Coronae Borealis (Dust Production in the Envelopes of Carbon Stars: R Coronae Borealis).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A quantitative, analytic model of darkening events of R Coronae Borealis, based on phenomenological models of light decline by soot formation, with focus on causal relation between the pulsating atmosphere and episodic condensation processes, is presented...

A. Goeres

1992-01-01

52

SZ effect from Corona Borealis supercluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Corona Borealis supercluster has been observed with the millimeter and infrared testa grigia observatory (MITO). Here we present the results of the observations together with a comparison with observations performed at 33 GHz with the very small array (VSA) interferometer. We have observed in the direction of the supercluster toward a cosmic microwave background (CMB) cold spot previously detected in a VSA temperature map. We claim a weak detection of a faint signal compatible with a SZ effect characterized at most by a comptonization parameter y=(7.8-4.4+5.3)×10 68% CL. The low level of confidence in the presence of a SZ signal invites us to study this sky region with higher sensitivity and angular resolution experiments such as already planned upgraded versions of VSA and MITO. This is the first millimetric evidence of unknown cluster/diffuse intra-supercluster gas (possibly warm hot intergalactic medium (WHIM)) interacting, via inverse Compton, scattering with the CMB.

Battistelli, E. S.; de Petris, M.; Lamagna, L.; Watson, R. A.; Rebolo, R.; Génova-Santos, R.; Luzzi, G.; de Gregori, S.; Rubiño-Martin, J. A.

2007-03-01

53

What Are the R Coronae Borealis Stars?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are rare hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich, supergiants, best known for their spectacular declines in brightness at irregular intervals. Efforts to discover more RCB stars have more than doubled the number known in the last few years and they appear to be members of an old, bulge population. Two evolutionary scenarios have been suggested for producing an RCB star, a double degenerate merger of two white dwarfs, or a final helium shell flash in a planetary nebula central star. The evidence pointing toward one or the other is somewhat contradictory, but the discovery that RCB stars have large amounts of 18O has tilted the scales towards the merger scenario. If the RCB stars are the product of white dwarf mergers, this would be a very exciting result since RCB stars would then be low-mass analogs of type Ia supernovae. The predicted number of RCB stars in the Galaxy is consistent with the predicted number of He/CO WD mergers. But, so far, only about sixty-five of the predicted 5,000 RCB stars in the Galaxy have been discovered. The mystery has yet to be solved.

Clayton, G. C.

2012-06-01

54

Socioeconomic impacts of shrimp culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmed shrimp contributed 27% of total world shrimp production in 1995 with a volume of 712 000 tonnes. Undoubtedly, the shrimp culture industry earns valuable foreign exchange for developing countries and generates jobs across the industry from fry gatherers to growers and processors. However, grave socio-economic consequences -including conversion, expropriation and privatization of mangroves and other lands; salinization of water

J. H. Primavera

1997-01-01

55

Disease Prevention Strategies for Penaeid Shrimp Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penaeid shrimp aquaculture expanded significantly over the past two decades. However, shrimp farmers have suffered significant economic losses because of viral diseases. Researchers from the U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Program (USMSFP) have developed novel approaches to mitigate the devastating impact of shrimp viruses, including the use of specific pathogen free (SPF) and specific pathogen resistant (SPR) shrimp, as well as

Shaun M. Moss; Steve M. Arce; Dustin R. Moss; Clete A. Otoshi

56

Assessment of Georgia's Shrimp and Crab Resources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

White shrimp, brown shrimp, pink shrimp and blue crabs together produce an annual average of 93% of the ex-vessel value of marine products landed in Georgia. Shrimp landings (mostly white shrimp) account for 82%, while blue crab landings account for 11%. ...

J. L. Music

1978-01-01

57

Some appearances of the aurora borealis in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Some observations of the aurora borealis in Greece are given with the sources from which they were taken. It was found that the appearances of this phenomenon are not exceptionally rare. These appearances coincide with the years of maximun of solar activity and especially 1–2 years after it, while in the years of minimum of solar activity or near

Leon N. Carapiperis

1956-01-01

58

Investigating Brine Shrimp.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a brine shrimp activity designed for students in grades 5-12 to foster authentic scientific inquiry in addition to providing an engaging and exciting avenue for student exploration. Emphasizes that inquiry should be a critical component in the science classroom. (KHR)|

Duran, Lena Ballone

2003-01-01

59

Alabama Cave Shrimp ('Palaemonias alabamae') Recovery Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Alabama cave shrimp, Palaemonias alabamae Smalley, is an albinistic troglobitic (cave-dwelling) shrimp known from five caves (three cave systems or three groundwater basins) in Madison County, Alabama. A member of the shrimp family Atyidae, it is one ...

P. Hartfield T. R. Jacobson

1997-01-01

60

A Xenopus borealis homeobox gene expressed preferentially in posterior ectoderm.  

PubMed

We have isolated a new homeobox-encoding gene (XhoxB.1) from Xenopus borealis which has a homeobox exon identical to that of the murine Hox1.7 gene, except for one amino acid. XhoxB.1 transcripts of 2.1 and 7.0 kb are first detected at the late gastrula stage, accumulate until the tailbud stage and are most abundant in the posterior third of the dorsal part of the embryo. PMID:1353047

Stickland, J E; Sharpe, C R; Turner, P C; Hames, B D

1992-07-15

61

Cytoskeletal actin gene families of Xenopus borealis and Xenopus laevis.  

PubMed

We have sequenced the coding and leader regions, as well as part of the 3' untranslated region, of a Xenopus borealis type 1 cytoskeletal actin gene [defined according to the arrangement of acidic residues at the N-terminus; Vandekerckhove et al. (1981) J Mol Biol 152:413-426]. The encoded amino acid sequence is the same as the avian and mammalian beta (type 1) cytoskeletal actins, except for an isoleucine at position 10 (as found in the mammalian gamma cytoskeletal actins), and an extra amino acid, alanine, after the N-terminal methionine. Five introns were found, in the same positions as those of the rat and chicken beta-actin genes. The 5' and 3' untranslated regions resemble those of the human gamma (type 8) cytoskeletal actin gene more closely than the mammalian beta genes. Primer extension showed that this type 1 gene is transcribed in ovary and tadpole. Sequencing of primer extension products demonstrated two additional mRNA species in X. borealis, encoding type 7 and 8 isoforms. This contrasts with the closely related species Xenopus laevis, where type 4, 5, and 8 isoforms have been found. The type 7 isoform has not previously been found in any other species. The mRNAs of the X. borealis type 1 and 8 and X. laevis type 5 and 8 isoforms contain highly homologous leaders. The X. borealis type 7 mRNA has no leader homology with the other mRNA species and, unlike them, has no extra N-terminal alanine codon. The evolutionary implications of these data are discussed. PMID:3133485

Cross, G S; Wilson, C; Erba, H P; Woodland, H R

1988-01-01

62

Aurorae: The earliest datable observation of the aurora borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Late Babylonian astronomical texts, discovered at the site of Babylon (32.5°N, 44.4°E) more than a century ago, contain what is probably the earliest reliable account of the aurora borealis. A clay tablet recording numerous celestial observations made by the official astronomers during the 37th year of King Nebuchadnezzar II (568\\/567 BC) describes an unusual ``red glow'' in the sky

F. Richard Stephenson; David M. Willis; Thomas J. Hallinan

2004-01-01

63

Electronic Shrimp Trawling Preliminary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project is to test, evaluate and document the effectiveness of electronic shrimp trawling in North Carolina's shrimp fishery. The principle of operation is that of establishing a predetermined D.C. voltage at a fixed frequency and di...

A. G. Chleborowicz

1973-01-01

64

Shrimp aquaculture: economic perspectives for policy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of shrimp aquaculture from the perspectives of economics. It is offered as a contribution to the on-going policy debate on this globally important industry. The paper is organised into four sections: the benefits of shrimp aquaculture, the problems of shrimp aquaculture, economic development perspectives on shrimp aquaculture, and conclusions. Four

Arthur E. Neiland; Neill Soley; Joan Baron Varley; David J. Whitmarsh

2001-01-01

65

A Minimum Crater Retention Age for the Proposed "Borealis Basin" on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crater retention age (CRA) for the Borealis Basin on Mars based on both N(300) CRAs of large basins and the N(1000) CRA of the area inside and outside Borealis suggests it formed before all the large impact basins now recognized, perhaps 4.3 BYA.

Frey, H. V.

2010-03-01

66

AURORA BOREALIS - European Research Icebreaker With Drilling Capability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polar oceans are the least known areas of the globe, in although they hold the key to many of our climate´s secrets. How does the sea ice coverage and the sea water properties change? How do plants and animals survive under the most extreme conditions of the earth? Which information of past climate change can be read from the sediments at the sea-floor and how can the future changing climate be predicted? In order to answer such and further questions, for the moment a hypermodern research vessel, the AURORA BOREALIS, is planned, which can handle the cool summers and freezing winters of the polar oceans and which can drill deep into the sea floor. AURORA BOREALIS will be the most advanced Research Icebreaker in the world with a multi-functional role of drilling in deep ocean basins and supporting climate/environmental research and decision support for stakeholder governments for the next 35-40 years. It will have a high icebreaking capacity to penetrate autonomously (single ship operation) into the central Arctic Ocean with more than 2.5 meters of ice cover, during all seasons of the year. The new technological features will include dynamic positioning in closed sea- ice cover, satellite navigation and ice-management support and the deployment and operation of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) from the twin moon-pools. A unique feature of the vessel is the deep-sea drilling rig, which will enable sampling of the ocean floor and sub-sea up to 5000 m water and 1000 m penetration at the most inhospitable places on earth. The drilling capability will be deployed in both Polar Regions on the long run and AURORA BOREALIS will be the only vessel worldwide that could undertake this type of scientific investigation.

Biebow, N.; Lembke-Jene, L.; Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Thiede, J.

2008-12-01

67

The evolutionary history of the R Coronae Borealis stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The RCB stars are hydrogen-deficient carbon stars which undergo large declines in brightness at irregular intervals due to the formation of dust. For about thirty years, there have been two scenarios suggested to explain the evolution of the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars. These are a double degenerate white dwarf (WD) merger and a final helium shell flash. The preponderance of observational evidence seems to support the WD merger although a few RCB stars may also be produced through the other channel.

Clayton, G.

68

Optical Spectroscopy at Deep Light Minimum of R Coronae Borealis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present optical spectroscopy late in a deep minimum for the quintessential hydrogen-deficient carbon star R Coronae Borealis. Starting 3.5 years into the current deep and long minimum, we have secured observations that reveal some of the oddest optical spectra ever obtained for any astronomical object. Helium emission lines from triplet transitions, strong Ca II H and K emission, and forbidden lines of oxygen and nitrogen are the only spectral features observed. The spectra can be interpreted as coming from a chromospheric-like region lying above a carbon shell ejection front combined with a large-scale nebular-like region surrounding the star.

Howell, Steve B.; Rector, Travis A.; Walter, Donald

2013-08-01

69

Science Nation: Disappearing Red Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Along the shore in Hawaii, the ponds imbedded in lava rocks contain organisms found only in that environment. Among the marine life in these pools are hundreds of tiny red shrimp. With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), molecular biologist Scott Santos and his team at Auburn University are studying how the shrimp, along with other organisms, thrive in harsh, brackish pools of water.

70

A comparison of host-defense peptides in skin secretions of female Xenopus laevis × Xenopus borealis and X. borealis × X. laevis F1 hybrids.  

PubMed

Peptidomic analysis was used to compare the diversity of host-defense peptides in norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from laboratory-generated female F1 hybrids of Xenopus laevis and Xenopus borealis (Pipidae). Skin secretions of hybrids with maternal X. laevis (XLB) contained 12 antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), comprising 8 from X. laevis and 4 from X. borealis. Magainin-B1, XPF-B1, PGLa-B1 CPF-B2, CPF-B3 and CPF-B4 from X. borealis and XPF-1, XPF-2, and CPF-6 from X. laevis were not detected and CPF-1 and CPF-7 were present in low concentration. The secretions contained caerulein and caerulein-B1 derived from both parents but lacked X. laevis xenopsin and X. borealis caerulein-B2. Skin secretions of hybrids with maternal X. borealis (XBL) contained 14 AMPs comprising 6 from X. borealis and 8 from X. laevis. Magainin-B1, XPF-B1, PGLa-B1, CPF-B2, XPF-1, CPF-5, and CPF-7 were absent and CPF-B3, CPF-B4, CPF-1 and CPF-6 were present only in low concentration. Xenopsin and caerulein were identified in the secretions but caerulein-B2 was absent and caerulein-B1 was present in low concentration. No peptides were identified in secretions of either XLB or XBL hybrids that were not present in the parental species. The data indicate that hybridization between X. laevis and X. borealis results in increased diversity of host-defense peptides in skin secretions but point to extensive AMP gene silencing compared with previously studied female X. laevis×X. muelleri F1 hybrids and no novel peptide expression. PMID:23624316

Mechkarska, Milena; Prajeep, Manju; Leprince, Jérôme; Vaudry, Hubert; Meetani, Mohammed A; Evans, Ben J; Conlon, J Michael

2013-04-25

71

The organisation and expression of histone genes from Xenopus borealis.  

PubMed

We have isolated genomic clones from Xenopus borealis representing 3 different types of histone gene cluster. We show that the major type (H1, H2B, H2A, H4, H3), present at about 60-70 copies per haploid genome (1), is tandemly reiterated with a repeat length of 15 kb. In situ hybridization to mitotic chromosomes shows that the majority of histone genes in Xenopus borealis are at one locus. This locus is on the long arm of one of the small sub-metacentric chromosomes. A minor cluster type with the gene order H1, H3, H4, H2A is present at about 10-15 copies. The genome also contains rare or unique cluster types present at less than 5 copies having other types of organisation. An isolate of this type had the gene order H1, H4, H2B, H2A, H1 (no H3 cloned). Microinjection of all of the clones into Xenopus laevis oocyte nuclei shows that most of the genes present are functional or potentially functional and a number of variant histone proteins have been observed. S1 mapping experiments confirm that the genes of the major cluster are expressed in all tissues and at all developmental stages examined. PMID:3375060

Turner, P C; Bagenal, E B; Vlad, M T; Woodland, H R

1988-04-25

72

???????????????????????????????????????????? Design and Development of Shrimp Straightening Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semi automatic shrimp straightening machine controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC) was designed and developed. The machine consisted of three main parts, a shrimp conveyor, a shrimp pressing straightening part and the controller. The machine had three operation steps. In the first step, a pneumatic cylinder retreated at the stroke of 5 cm to move the conveyor with

Prakarn Paemunkong

73

Experimental analysis of lens-forming capacity in Xenopus borealis larvae.  

PubMed

Previously, the only anuran amphibians known to have the capacity to regenerate a lens after lentectomy were Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis. This regeneration process occurs during the larval life through transdifferentiation of the outer cornea promoted by inductive factors produced by the retina and accumulated inside the vitreous chamber. However, the capacity of X. tropicalis to regenerate a lens is much lower than that of X. laevis. This study demonstrates that Xenopus borealis, a species more closely related to X. laevis than to X. tropicalis, is not able to regenerate a lens after lentectomy. Nevertheless, some morphological modifications corresponding to the first stages of lens regeneration in X. laevis were observed in the outer cornea of X. borealis. This suggested that in X borealis the regeneration process was blocked at early stages. Results from histological analysis of X. borealis and X. laevis lentectomized eyes and from implantation of outer cornea fragments into the vitreous and anterior chambers demonstrated that: (i) in X. borealis eye, the lens-forming competence in the outer cornea and inductive factors in the vitreous chamber are both present, (ii) no inhibiting factors are present in the anterior chamber, the environment where lens regeneration begins, (iii) the inability of X. borealis to regenerate a lens after lentectomy is due to an inhibiting action exerted by the inner cornea on the spreading of the retinal factor from the vitreous chamber towards the outer cornea. This mechanical inhibition is assured by two distinctive features of X. borealis eye in comparison with X. laevis eye: (i) a weaker and slower response to the retinal inducer by the outer cornea; (ii) a stronger and faster healing of the inner cornea. Unlike X. tropicalis and similar to X. laevis, in X. borealis the competence to respond to the retinal factor is not restricted to the corneal epithelium but also extends to the pericorneal epidermis. PMID:16703619

Filoni, Sergio; Bernardini, Sergio; Cannata, Stefano M

2006-07-01

74

Latin American Shrimp Culture Industry, 1986-90.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Latin America is a Leading world producer of cultured shrimp. Shrimp farmers in the region harvested over 50,000 metric tons (t) of shrimp in 1986, a 40 percent increase over the 37,000 t of shrimp cultured in 1985. Ecuador dominates the region's shrimp c...

D. Weidner

1988-01-01

75

Latin American Shrimp Culture Industry, 1986-90.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Latin America is a leading world producer of cultured shrimp. Shrimp farmers in the region harvested over 50,000 metric tons (t) of shrimp in 1986, a 40 percent increase over the 37,000 t of shrimp cultured in 1985. Ecuador dominates the region's shrimp c...

D. Weidner

1988-01-01

76

Snapping shrimp make flashing bubbles.  

PubMed

Snapping shrimp produce a loud crackling noise that is intense enough to disturb underwater communication. This sound originates from the violent collapse of a large cavitation bubble generated under the tensile forces of a high-velocity water jet formed when the shrimp's snapper-claw snaps shut (Fig. 1). Here we show that a short, intense flash of light is emitted as the bubble collapses, indicating that extreme pressures and temperatures of at least 5,000 K (ref. 4) must exist inside the bubble at the point of collapse. We have dubbed this phenomenon 'shrimpoluminescence' - the first observation, to our knowledge, of this mode of light production in any animal - because of its apparent similarity to sonoluminescence, the light emission from a bubble periodically driven by ultrasound. PMID:11586346

Lohse, D; Schmitz, B; Versluis, M

2001-10-01

77

A dynamical analysis of the Corona Borealis supercluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey we assess the current dynamical state of the Corona Borealis supercluster (CSC), a highly dense and compact supercluster at z ? 0.07. The Fundamental Plane relation is used to determine redshift-independent distances to six clusters in the densest region of the supercluster, with mean accuracy in the relative distance estimates of 4 per cent. Peculiar velocities determined from these distance estimates indicate that the clusters have broken from the Hubble flow, suggesting that the CSC likely contains two regions that have reached turnaround and are currently undergoing gravitational collapse. These results provide the strongest observational evidence to date that the CSC is a bound system similar to the much more extensive Shapley supercluster, which is the most extensive confirmed bound supercluster yet identified in the Universe. When compared with simulations of the CSC our results require substantially more mass than is contained within the clusters, possibly indicating a significant intercluster dark matter component. In order to facilitate comparison with studies for which spectroscopic data are not available, an alternative analysis of the dynamics is made using the Kormendy relation as a distance indicator. The results are generally consistent with those of the Fundamental Plane and suggest similar global dynamics, but we find that the relatively sparse sampling of the clusters makes the Kormendy relation less reliable overall and more susceptible to small systematic differences between the cluster samples.

Batiste, Merida; Batuski, David J.

2013-10-01

78

Millimetric observations of the SZE towards Corona Borealis Supercluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed the Corona Borealis Supercluster with the Millimeter and Infrared Testa grigia Observatory (MITO) at 143, 214, 272, and 353 GHz. We present a description of the measure- ments, data analysis, and results together with a comparison of observations performed at 33 GHz with the Very Small Array (VSA). Observations have been made in a region of the supercluster corresponding to one Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) cold spot previously detected in VSA temperature map. Observational strategy and data analysis are described, explaining the procedures used to disentangle primary and secondary anisotropies in the resulting maps. With a data analysis using map making and the maximum entropy method we claim a weak detection of a faint signal spectrally compatible with a SZ effect characterized at most by a Comptonization parameter y = (7.8-4.4) × 10-6 68% CL. The low level of confidence in the presence of a SZ si- gnal invites us to study this sky region with higher sensitivity and angular resolution experiments like the already planned upgraded versions of VSA and MITO.

Luzzi, Gemma

79

Aurorae: The earliest datable observation of the aurora borealis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Late Babylonian astronomical texts, discovered at the site of Babylon (32.5°N, 44.4°E) more than a century ago, contain what is probably the earliest reliable account of the aurora borealis. A clay tablet recording numerous celestial observations made by the official astronomers during the 37th year of King Nebuchadnezzar II (568/567 BC) describes an unusual ``red glow'' in the sky at night; the exact date of this observation corresponds to the night of 12/13 March in 567 BC. The most likely interpretation of the phenomenon is an auroral display. This event occurred several centuries before the first clearly identifiable observation of the aurora from elsewhere in the world, namely China in 193 BC. The Babylonian auroral observation is remarkable in the sense that it is one of a series of carefully recorded astronomical observations, for each of which the year, month and day are known precisely. This observation occurred at a time when the geomagnetic (dipole) latitude of Babylon was about 41°N compared with the present value of 27.5°N, suggesting a higher auroral incidence at Babylon in 567 BC than at present.

Stephenson, F. Richard; Willis, David M.; Hallinan, Thomas J.

2004-12-01

80

The Evolutionary History of the R Coronae Borealis Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are rare hydrogen-deficient carbon-rich supergiants, all apparently single stars which are consistent with being post-AGB stars. RCB stars undergo massive declines of up to 8 mag due to the formation of carbon dust at irregular intervals. The mechanism of dust formation around RCB stars is not well understood but the dust is thought to form in or near the atmosphere of the stars. Their rarity may stem from the fact that they are in an extremely rapid phase of the evolution or in an evolutionary phase that most stars do not undergo. Several evolutionary scenarios have been suggested to account for the RCB stars including, a merger of two white dwarfs (WDs), or a final helium shell flash in a PN central star. The large overabundance of 18O found in most of the RCB stars favors the WD merger scenario while the presence of Li in the atmospheres of four of the RCB stars favors the FF scenario. In particular, the measured isotopic abundances imply that many, if not most, RCB stars are produced by WD mergers, which may be the low-mass counterparts of the more massive mergers thought to produce type Ia supernovae. I will present recent visible and IR observations of various RCB stars obtained with HST, Spitzer and ground-based telescopes.

Clayton, Geoffrey

2009-11-01

81

Arsenic in shrimp from Kuwait  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic is ubiquitous in the environment and can accumulate in food via contaminated soil, water or air. It enters the food chain through dry and wet atmospheric deposition. Combustion of oil and coal, use of arsenical fertilizers and pesticides and smelting of ores contributes significantly to the natural background of arsenic in soils and sediments. The metal can be transferred from soil to man through plants. In spite of variation in acute, subacute, and chronic toxic effects to plants and animals, evidence of nutritional essentiality of arsenic for rats, goats, and guinea pigs has been suggested, but has not been confirmed for humans. Adverse toxic effects of arsenic as well as its widespread distribution in the environment raises concern about levels of arsenic in man`s diet. Higher levels of arsenic in the diet can result in a higher accumulation rate. Arsenic levels in marine organisms are influenced by species differences, size of organism, and human activities. Bottom dwellers such as shrimp, crab, and lobster accumulate more arsenic than fish due to their frequent contact with bottom sediments. Shrimp constitute approximately 30% of mean total seafood consumption in Kuwait. This study was designed to determine the accumulation of arsenic in the commercially important jinga shrimp (Metapenaeus affinis) and grooved tiger prawn (Penaeus semisulcatus). 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Bou-Olayan, A.H. [Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait); Al-Yakoob, S.; Al-Hossaini, M. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait)

1995-04-01

82

Parasites and Symbionts of Native and Cultured Shrimps from Yucatán, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of parasites and symbionts in various penaeid shrimps, including the native wild Farfantepenaeus aztecus (brown shrimp), F. duorarum (pink shrimp), and F. brasiliensis (pinkspotted shrimp) and the nonnative cultured Litopenaeus vannamei (Pacific white shrimp), along with those in the native wild Palaemonetes pugio (daggerblade grass shrimp), are reported. The native wild shrimp were collected from five sites on

Victor Manuel Vidal-Martínez; Ana María Jiménez-Cueto; Raúl Simá-Álvarez

2002-01-01

83

Complete mitochondrial genome of the boreal digging frog Kaloula borealis (Anura, Microhylidae).  

PubMed

We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome from the boreal digging frog Kaloula borealis. The genome sequence was 17,173 bp in size, and the gene order and contents were identical to those of previously reported amphibian mitochondrial genomes. Of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 5 genes (CO2, ATPase 6, CO3, ND3, and ND4) had incomplete stop codons. Also ND1 gene used GTG as a start codon, while CO1 and ND5 genes used AGG as a stop codon. The base composition of K. borealis mitogenome showed a strong anti-G bias (6.11%) on the 3rd position of PCGs. PMID:22708857

Hwang, Dae-Sik; Lee, Jae-Seong

2012-06-18

84

STUDY ON SORPTION ISOTHERMS OF SHRIMP BEADS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorption isotherms of shrimp heads ( adsorption and desorption ) were analyzed by the microclimate method as temperatures of 30, 45 and 60°C and conditions for shrimp heads conservation by drying were determined. Equilibrium time was reduced from normally 2–3 weeks to only 5–8 days by employing sulfuric acid at different concentrations and vacuum. The results were adjusted by Henderson

M. S. Salgado Cervantes; I. Andrade Gonzalez; K. N. Waliszewski Kubiak; M. A. Garcia Alvarado

1993-01-01

85

Mercury selection of allozyme genotypes in shrimps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effects of mercury pollution on the allozymic variation of 15 phosphoglucomutase (PGM) genotypes was tested in the Mediterranean shrimpPalaemon elegans in 79 laboratory tests involving 2765 shrimps, with 1560 survivors (767 test and 793 control). Our results indicate differential tolerance of genotypes in variable mercury concentrations, suggesting that they are adaptive. The genetic structure can possibly be explored

E. Nevo; T. Perl; A. Beiles; D. Wool

1981-01-01

86

Treat Shrimp Wastewater with Compound Photosynthetic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract—Shrimp Shrimp wastewater was was studied by by using using photosynthetic bacteria sludge method. method. The results results indicated that this method method got got better better effects effects than single sludge sludge or only only photosynthetic bacteria treatment. The removal removal removal of of the CODcr could could reach 63%, 63%, the removal of the the NH3-N could

Jin Hang; Zhao Yu; Lei Xiaochun; Xue Guoxin; Tang Yanjun; He Yixin

2011-01-01

87

Shrimp diseases and current diagnostic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In less than 30 yr, the penaeid shrimp culture industries of the world developed from their experimental beginnings into major industries providing hundreds of thousands of jobs, billions of U.S. dollars in revenue, and augmentation of the world's food supply with a high value crop. Concomitant with the growth of the shrimp culture industry has been the recognition of the

D. V Lightner; R. M Redman

1998-01-01

88

A Review of Probiotics in Shrimp Aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of shrimp aquaculture has been associated with increases in infectious diseases and environmental degradation. An effective alternative to chemicals and antibiotics used for the prevention of these problems is to administer probiotics into the rearing system. Three bacterial genera, Bacillus, Vibrio, and Pseudomonas, are commonly administered as probiotics in shrimp aquaculture. Candidate probiotics are species specific and need to

Ngo van Hai; Ravi Fotedar

2010-01-01

89

Resurfacing History of Vastitas Borealis, Mars: Early Amazonian Climate Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geologic mapping of the north polar plains of Mars (>60° N.), aka Vastitas Borealis, based on Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topography, reveals new insights into resurfacing events in the polar region during the Amazonian Period. Deposits making up the Vastitas Borealis Formation (VBF) were emplaced at the end of the Hesperian Period and covered this entire region except for lavas of northernmost Alba Patera. No evidence for a Hesperian polar plateau has been found, although Planum Boreum could bury such evidence. A plains deposit, the Scandia unit, ranges from 20 to 200 m thick and overlies the VBF between Alba Patera and Olympia Planitia. This unit is apparently friable, because it is preserved only as eroded remnants forming knobs and mesas, including those of Scandia Colles. The VBF and Scandia units both appear to be deformed by radial tilting and concentric folding of Alba Patera. Another deposit, the Boreum unit, forms the base of Planum Boreum and possibly high-standing knobs and mesas south of Chasma Boreale and underlies the evenly bedded polar layered deposits. MOC images and MOLA data reveal that this unit has irregular bedding, locally steep scarps, and a dark color and is interpreted by S. Byrne and B. Murray (personal commun.) as a frozen sand sea. The unit may be up to a kilometer thick along the margins of Chasma Boreale and thins out away from there, possibly underlying the northern, southward-sloping ejecta of a 24 km crater at 79° N., 299° W. Potentially, the Scandia and Boreum units could be remnants of a single deposit. Within Chasma Boreale, the chasma unit forms a tongue-shaped plateau as much as 350 m thick. This unit could be a lower section of the Boreum unit, but a lack of relict knobs or mesas on its surface suggests that the unit embays the Boreum unit instead. South of Olympia Planitia, the Scandia unit becomes difficult to trace, and volcanic-like forms possibly related to eruption of material and subsequent collapse and degradation occur. A north-facing, 800-km-long scarp cuts the VBF northeast of Alba Patera. A scenario that may explain these features is as follows. A polar plateau did not exist prior to the Amazonian. Northward tilting of Alba Patera, perhaps induced by lithospheric loading due to deposition of the VBF, caused shallow crustal volatiles (H2O and CO2) to migrate northward. The volatiles erupted out into the north polar basin, perhaps over multiple episodes, causing dispersal of VBF material that redeposited as the Scandia, Boreum, and chasma units. When this activity ceased, mantling of the Boreum unit and surrounding plains by the polar layered deposits and dune fields ensued. If the Boreum unit is volatile poor, then the release of substantial volumes of subsurface volatiles to the surface to carve the outflow channels and deposit the VBF was followed by a period in which polar ice-cap deposition did not occur. During this Early Amazonian episode, a warmer climate may have been supported by a thicker atmosphere.

Tanaka, K. L.

2001-12-01

90

R Coronae Borealis Stars formed from Double White Dwarf Mergers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are hydrogen-deficient variable stars that suddenly fade by several magnitudes at irregular intervals whereafter they gradually return to their original brightness over a period of some months. The origin of RCBs remain a mystery. It is often thought that they are the result of the merger of a He and a CO white dwarf, while the fading is thought to be due to the formation of dust blocking light from the star. We are working on revealing the secrets behind the origin of RCBs. Here we present the results of 3 dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the merger of a double white dwarf system where total mass is 0.9 M? and initial mass ratio is q=0.7. We use a zero-temperature plus ideal gas equation of state that allows for heating through shocks. These simulations allow us to follow the evolution of the system for 10-20 initial orbital periods (1000-2000 seconds), from the onset of mass-transfer to a point after merger when the combined object has settled into a nearly axisymmetric, rotationally flattened configuration. The final merged object from the hydrodynamics simulation is then used as input for a stellar evolution code where the object's evolution can be followed over a much longer (thermal and/or nuclear) timescale. A preliminary post-merger stellar evolution simulation shows how an initial configuration of a 0.7 CO WD surrounded by 0.3 M? of dynamically accreted He evolves on a time scale of 105 years to the location of the RCB stars in the H-R diagram at an effective temperature Teff<7000 K and log L 4. We acknowledge support from NASA Astrophysics Theory Program grant number NNX10AC72G.

Staff, Jan E.; Herwig, F.; Menon, A.; Even, W.; Tohline, J.; Clayton, G.; Motl, P.; Fryer, C.; Geballe, T.

2011-01-01

91

OXYGEN ISOTOPIC RATIOS IN COOL R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the relationship between R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars and hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) stars by measuring precise {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratios for five cool RCB stars. The {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratios are derived by spectrum synthesis from high-resolution (R {approx} 50, 000) K-band spectra. Lower limits to the {sup 16}O/{sup 17}O and {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratios as well as Na and S abundances (when possible) are also given. RCB stars in our sample generally display less {sup 18}O than HdC stars-the derived {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratios range from 3 to 20. The only exception is the RCB star WX CrA, which seems to be an HdC-like star with {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O = 0.3. Our result of a higher {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratio for the RCB stars must be accounted for by a theory of the formation and evolution of HdC and RCB stars. We speculate that a late dredge-up of products of He burning, principally {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O, may convert an {sup 18}O-rich HdC star into an {sup 18}O-poor RCB star as the H-deficient star begins its final evolution from a cool supergiant to the top of the white dwarf cooling track.

Garcia-Hernandez, D. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), C/Via Lactea s/n, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Lambert, David L. [W. J. McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin. 1 University Station, C1400. Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Rao, N. Kameswara [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Hinkle, Ken H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Eriksson, Kjell, E-mail: agarcia@iac.e, E-mail: dll@astro.as.utexas.ed, E-mail: nkrao@iiap.res.i, E-mail: hinkle@noao.ed, E-mail: Kjell.Eriksson@astro.uu.s [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 515, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

2010-05-01

92

Shrimp aquaculture: an analysis of its evolution and organization; and the development of a shrimp growth model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impetus for the development and subsequent rise of the shrimp aquaculture industry and continues by exploring a model that seeks to improve shrimp farmers' harvests by identifying specific variables affecting shrimp growth. Evidence reviewed from 1980 through today suggest that technological advancements, reduced prices, and increases in both the supply and demand for shrimp are positively

Adam Rana

1998-01-01

93

Phytophthora borealis and Phytophthora riparia, new species in Phytophthora ITS Clade 6.  

PubMed

Phytophthora borealis and Phytophthora riparia, identified in recent Phytophthora surveys of forest streams in Oregon, California and Alaska, are described as new species in Phytophthora ITS Clade 6. They are similar in growth form and morphology to P. gonapodyides and are predominantly sterile. They present unique DNA sequences, however, and differ in temperature/growth relations and geographic distribution. PMID:22778166

Hansen, Everett M; Reeser, Paul W; Sutton, Wendy

2012-07-09

94

Molecular evidence for distinct Antarctic lineages in the cosmopolitan terrestrial diatoms Pinnularia borealis and Hantzschia amphioxys.  

PubMed

Recent morphology-based studies indicate that freshwater diatom floras in the Antarctic comprise a significant share of endemics among a majority of apparently cosmopolitan species. Given the widespread (pseudo)cryptic species diversity in diatoms, we assessed the molecular divergence and temperature-dependent growth characteristics between Antarctic and non-Antarctic strains for two presumed species with a cosmopolitan distribution, namely Pinnularia borealis and Hantzschia amphioxys. Molecular phylogenies based on the plastid gene rbcL and the nuclear 28S rDNA (D1-D3 region) revealed that both taxa consist of multiple lineages, each including a distinct Antarctic lineage. A molecular clock estimates the origin of P. borealis at 35.8 (30-47) million years (Ma) ago, making this the oldest known diatom species complex. The Antarctic P. borealis lineage is estimated to have diverged 7.8 (2-15) Ma ago, after the geographical and thermal isolation of the Antarctic continent. Despite not being psychrophilic, the Antarctic lineages of P. borealis and H. amphioxys have a lower optimal growth temperature and upper lethal temperature than most lineages from more temperate regions, indicating niche differentiation. Together, this suggests that many presumed cosmopolitan Antarctic diatom species are in fact species complexes, possibly containing Antarctic endemics with low temperature preferences. PMID:22554828

Souffreau, Caroline; Vanormelingen, Pieter; Van de Vijver, Bart; Isheva, Tsvetelina; Verleyen, Elie; Sabbe, Koen; Vyverman, Wim

2012-05-02

95

VOCALIZATIONS OF THE SEI WHALE BALAENOPTERA BOREALIS OFF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the sounds produced by the Sei Whale Balaenoptera borealis and no recordings have been made in their presence in the Pacific Ocean. This research presents sounds recorded in the presence of Sei whales near the Hawaiian Islands in November, 2002. A total of 107 vocalizations, including two variations of low-frequency downswept calls, were measured. Two of

SHANNON RANKIN; JAY BARLOW

2007-01-01

96

The R Coronae Borealis stars - I. Infrared photometry and long-term variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive JHKL photometry is given for 12 R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars, covering periods of up to 23 years. Limited infrared observations of a few other RCB stars and five HdC stars are also reported. These data are used to study the long-term variations of the stars (at J) and of the circumstellar dust (at L). All of the RCB

M. W. Feast; B. S. Carter; G. Roberts; F. Marang; R. M. Catchpole

1997-01-01

97

The R Coronae Borealis stars - II. Further inferences from the infrared data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extensive infrared JHKL photometry of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) variables reported in Paper I is further discussed, especially in relation to the temperature and formation of circumstellar (carbon) particles. Evidence is given for a range of dust temperatures in the shell consistent with the random dust-puff model. The mean dust temperature is higher when the flux from the dust

M. W. Feast

1997-01-01

98

76 FR 6603 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-549-822] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Thailand. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Final Results and Final Partial...

2011-02-07

99

The R Coronae Borealis stars - atmospheres and abundances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An abundance analysis of the H-deficient and He- and C-rich R Coronae Borealis (R CrB) stars has been undertaken to examine the ancestry of the stars. The investigation is based on high-resolution spectra and line-blanketed H-deficient model atmospheres. The models successfully reproduce the flux distributions and all spectral features, both molecular bands and high-excitation transitions, with one important exception, the C i lines. Since photoionization of C i dominates the continuous opacity, the line strengths of C i are essentially independent of the adopted carbon abundance and stellar parameters. All predicted C i lines are, however, much too strong compared with observations, with a discrepancy in abundance corresponding to 0.6 dex with little star-to-star scatter. Various solutions of this ``carbon problem'' have been investigated. A possible solution is that classical model atmospheres are far from adequate descriptions of supergiants such as the R CrB stars. We can also not exclude completely, however, the possibility that the gf-values for the C i lines are in error. This is supported by the fact that the C ii, [C i] and C_2 lines are reproduced by the models with no apparent complications. In spite of the carbon problem, various tests suggest that abundance ratios are little affected by the uncertainties. Judging by chemical composition, the R CrB stars can be divided into a homogeneous majority group and a diverse minority, which is characterized by extreme abundance ratios, in particular as regards Si/Fe and S/Fe. All stars show evidence of H- and He-burning in different episodes as well as mild s-process enhancements. Four of the majority members are Li-rich, while overabundances of Na, Al, Si and S are attributes of all stars. An anti-correlation found between the H and Fe abundances of H-deficient stars remains unexplained. These enigmatic stars are believed to be born-again giants, formed either through a final He-shell flash in a post-AGB star or through a merger of two white dwarfs. Owing to a lack of theoretical predictions of the resulting chemical compositions, identification of the majority and minority groups with the two scenarios is unfortunately only preliminary. Furthermore, Sakurai's object and V854 Cen exhibit aspects of both majority and minority groups, which may suggest that the division into two groups is too simplistic.

Asplund, M.; Gustafsson, B.; Lambert, D. L.; Rao, N. K.

2000-01-01

100

Distribution and Catch Composition of Jonah Crab, 'Cancer borealis', and Rock Crab, 'Cancer irroratus', Near Boothbay Harbor, Maine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analysis of research and commercial catch data of Jonah crab, Cancer borealis, and rock crab, C. irroratus, collected near Boothbay Harbor, Maine, revealed dissimilarities in the distribution of the two species. Jonah crabs were more numerous at the deepe...

J. S. Krouse

1979-01-01

101

Signaling pathways regulating innate immune responses in shrimp.  

PubMed

The first line of defense against microbial infections in animals is innate immune response which triggers diverse humoral and cellular activities via signal transduction pathways. Toll, IMD and JAK/STAT pathways are regarded as the main pathways regulating the immune response of invertebrates. This paper reviews the main progress of the investigation on the immune response to pathogen's infection in shrimp and supposes that these three signal pathways exist in shrimp. Most of the components (proteins or genes) involved in Toll pathway of Drosophila have been cloned also in shrimp which suggested the existence of Toll pathway in shrimp. The data update shows that the Toll pathway of shrimp is responsive not only to Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, but also to WSSV. Challenge of WSSV can lead to the variation of transcription level of all identified components in shrimp Toll pathway, which supported that Toll pathway in shrimp played important roles during WSSV infection. Two major homologs to the components of IMD pathway of Drosophila, IMD and Relish, have been identified in shrimp, which indicated that IMD pathway should be existed in shrimp and might play important roles in regulating the immune response of shrimp to bacteria and virus infection. Relish in IMD pathway and dorsal in Toll pathway of shrimp were both involved in the immune response of shrimp to bacteria and virus infection, which implied that these two pathways are not completely separated during the immune response of shrimp. The transcription of STAT in shrimp was modulated after WSSV infection, which suggested that a putative JAK/STAT pathway might exist in shrimp and be very important to virus infection. Study on the signaling pathway regulating the immune response in shrimp could help us to understand the innate immune system, and would provide instructions to shrimp disease control. Obviously, to get more clear ideas about the innate immunological pathways in shrimp, more solid functional studies should be done in the future. PMID:22967763

Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

2012-08-28

102

Puget Sound Shrimp and Crab Management Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Major objectives of this study were to minimize the conflict between commercial and recreational user groups occurring in both the crab and shrimp fisheries; reduce potential damage to crab stocks through excessive handling by commercial and recreational ...

R. Bumgarner

1977-01-01

103

Workshop on Definition of Shrimp Recruitment Overfishing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council requested that the Southeast Fisheries Center (SEFC) convene a small group of shrimp specialists to undertake two tasks. These tasks were: (1) to draft scientific definitions of overfishing for each of the shr...

E. F. Klima J. M. Nance E. X. Martinez T. Leary

1990-01-01

104

Client-server computing on Shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological advances in network and processor speeds do not lead to equally large improvements in the performance of client-server systems. For instance, hardware performance improvements do not translate into faster user applications. This is primarily because software overhead dominates communication. The Shrimp project at Princeton University seeks solutions to this problem. Shrimp (Scalable High-Performance Really Inexpensive Multiprocessor) supports protected user-level

Stefanos N. Damianakis; A. Biles; Cezary Dubnicki; Edward W. Felten

1997-01-01

105

Microarray Analyses of Shrimp Immune Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp aquaculture is one of the major food-producing industries in the world. However, it is being impacted by several problems\\u000a including diseases, antibiotic use, and environmental factors. The extent of the effects of these problems in the immune system\\u000a of the shrimp at the molecular level is just beginning to be understood. Here, we review the gene expression profile of

Takashi Aoki; Han-Ching Wang; Sasimanas Unajak; Mudjekeewis D. Santos; Hidehiro Kondo; Ikuo Hirono

106

What Are the Hot R Coronae Borealis Stars?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the evolutionary status of four stars: V348 Sgr, DY Cen, and MV Sgr in the Galaxy and HV 2671 in the LMC. These stars have in common random deep declines in visual brightness, which are characteristic of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars. RCB stars are typically cool hydrogen-deficient supergiants. The four stars studied in this paper are hotter (Teff=15-20 kK) than the majority of RCB stars (Teff=5000-7000 K). Although these are commonly grouped together as the hot RCB stars they do not necessarily share a common evolutionary history. We present new observational data and an extensive collection of archival and previously published data that is reassessed to ensure internal consistency. We find temporal variations of various properties on different timescales that will eventually help us to uncover the evolutionary history of these objects. DY Cen and MV Sgr have typical RCB helium abundances, which exclude any currently known post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) evolutionary models. Moreover, their carbon and nitrogen abundances present us with further problems for their interpretation. V348 Sgr and HV 2671 are in general agreement with a born-again post-AGB evolution, and their abundances are similar to Wolf-Rayet central stars of planetary nebulae (PNs). The three Galactic stars in the sample have circumstellar nebulae, which produce forbidden line radiation (for HV 2671 we have no information). V348 Sgr and DY Cen have low-density, low-expansion velocity nebulae (resolved in the case of V348 Sgr), while MV Sgr has a higher density, higher expansion velocity nebula. All three stars, on the other hand, have split emission lines, which indicate the presence of an equatorial bulge but not of a Keplerian disk. In addition, the historical light curves for the three Galactic hot RCB stars show evidence for a significant fading in their maximum-light brightnesses of ~1 mag over the last 70 yr. From this we deduce that their effective temperatures increased by a few thousand degrees. If V348 Sgr is a born-again star, as we presume, this means that the star is returning from the born-again AGB phase to the phase of a central star of PN. Spectroscopically, no dramatic change is observed over the last 50 years for V348 Sgr and MV Sgr. However, there is some evidence that the winds of V348 Sgr and DY Cen have increased in strength in the last decade. HV 2671, located in the LMC, has not been analyzed in detail but at 5 Å resolution is almost identical to V348 Sgr. Through the bolometric correction derived for V348 Sgr and the known distance, we can estimate the absolute V magnitude of HV 2671 (MV=-3.0 mag) and its bolometric luminosity (~6000 Lsolar).

De Marco, Orsola; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Herwig, F.; Pollacco, D. L.; Clark, J. S.; Kilkenny, David

2002-06-01

107

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS IN TWO OREGON ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of Pacific estuarine tide flats, from British Columbia to Baja California. The spatial distribution of shrimp populations within estuaries has rarely been quantified because ...

108

Incidence and inactivation of Listeria spp. on frozen shrimp  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foodborne illness outbreaks occasionally occur as a result of microbiologically contaminated crustaceans, including shrimp. Foodborne pathogens occasionally found on shrimp include Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrios. In this study the microbiological qualit...

109

A VSA search for the extended Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect in the Corona Borealis Supercluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present interferometric imaging at 33 GHz of the Corona Borealis\\u000asupercluster, using the extended configuration of the Very Small Array. A total\\u000aarea of 24 deg^2 has been imaged, with an angular resolution of 11 arcmin and a\\u000asensitivity of 12 mJy\\/beam. The aim of these observations is to search for\\u000aSunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) detections from known clusters of galaxies

Ricardo Genova-Santos; Jose Alberto Rubino-Martin; Rafael Rebolo; Kieran Cleary; Rod D. Davies; Richard J. Davis; Clive Dickinson; Nelson Falcon; Carlos M. Gutierrez; Michael P. Hobson; Michael E. Jones; Rudiger Kneissl; Katy Lancaster; Carmen P. Padilla; Richard D. E. Saunders; Paul F. Scott; Angela C. Taylor; Robert A. Watson

2005-01-01

110

White Dwarf Mergers and the Origin of R Coronae Borealis Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a nucleosynthesis study of the merger of a 0.4 M? helium white dwarf with a 0.8 M? carbon-oxygen white dwarf, coupling the thermodynamic history of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics particles with a post-processing nucleosynthesis code. The resulting chemical abundance pattern, particularly for oxygen and fluorine, is in qualitative agreement with the observed abundances in R Coronae Borealis stars.

Lorén-Aguilar, P.; Longland, R.; José, J.; García-Berro, E.; Althaus, L. G.; Isern, J.

2012-07-01

111

Neuropeptidomic analysis of the brain and thoracic ganglion from the Jonah crab, Cancer borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass spectrometric methods were applied to determine the peptidome of the brain and thoracic ganglion of the Jonah crab (Cancer borealis). Fractions obtained by high performance liquid chromatography were characterized using MALDI-TOF MS and ESI-Q-TOF MS\\/MS. In total, 28 peptides were identified within the molecular mass range 750–3000Da. Comparison of the molecular masses obtained with MALDI-TOF MS with the calculated

Jurgen Huybrechts; Michael P Nusbaum; Luc Vanden Bosch; Geert Baggerman; Arnold De Loof; Liliane Schoofs

2003-01-01

112

Prediction of shelled shrimp weight by machine vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weight of shelled shrimp is an important parameter for grading process. The weight prediction of shelled shrimp by contour\\u000a area is not accurate enough because of the ignorance of the shrimp thickness. In this paper, a multivariate prediction model\\u000a containing area, perimeter, length, and width was established. A new calibration algorithm for extracting length of shelled\\u000a shrimp was proposed,

Peng-min Pan; Jian-ping Li; Gu-lai Lv; Hui Yang; Song-ming Zhu; Jian-zhong Lou

2009-01-01

113

Tadpole shrimp structure macroinvertebrate communities in playa lake microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory microcosms were used to assess whether tadpole shrimp, Triops sp., affect community structure of other native macroinvertebrates in playa lakes of the Southern High Plains of Texas. Removal of tadpole shrimp shortly after hatching reduced abundances of many taxa, and decreased subsequent taxonomic richness and diversity. For many invertebrates, the presence of tadpole shrimp in low numbers had a

Susan Harrell Yee; Michael R. Willig; Daryl L. Moorhead

2005-01-01

114

Water quality control using Spirulina platensis in shrimp culture tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cyanobacterium (Spirulina platensis) was co-cultured with black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) for water quality control. We evaluated the effects of: (1) three S. platensis trial conditions on inorganic nitrogen concentrations at one shrimp density (S. platensis trial conditions included: absent, nonharvested and semicontinuous harvesting) and (2) two shrimp densities on inorganic nitrogen concentrations, with and without S. platensis. Semicontinuous

Benjamas Chuntapa; Sorawit Powtongsook; Piamsak Menasveta

2003-01-01

115

21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. 102.55 Section 102.55...55 Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. (a) The common on usual...except that the food is made from comminuted shrimp and is not in raw frozen form, shall...

2013-04-01

116

21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section 161.176 Food and...Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of §...

2013-04-01

117

Distribution of marine red yeasts in shrimps and the environments of shrimp culture.  

PubMed

Populations of marine red yeast from shrimps and the environments of shrimp culture were investigated from various areas at Zhanjiang in China. All strains were studied for the production of biomass and carotenoids. We isolated 88 marine red yeast strains and the average populations of marine red yeast in seawater and the water from shrimp culture ponds were 70.0 and 172.4 CFU per 100 ml water, respectively. For shrimp samples, average populations of marine red yeast from gills, intestines, and stomachs were 178.0, 15.0, and 8.0 CFU per shrimp, respectively. The isolates were grouped into nine species belonging to three genera as follows: Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, and Sporidiobolus. R. sphaerocarpum had the highest average biomass yield (10.3 ± 0.88 g/l), followed by S. ruineniae (10.1 g/l) and Rh. mucilaginosa (9.9 ± 1.75 g/l). R. paludigenum had the highest average carotenoid yield (2.83 ± 0.589 mg/l), followed by S. pararoseus (2.72 mg/l) and R. sphaerocarpum (2.59 ± 0.454 mg/l). The results showed that marine red yeasts were normal microbial components in the environments of shrimp culture and shrimps, and carotenoids are abundant in these marine red yeast. PMID:21369806

Yang, Shi-Ping; Wu, Zao-He; Jian, Ji-Chang

2011-03-03

118

Viral diseases of penaeid shrimp with particular reference to four viruses recently found in shrimp from Queensland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The culture of penaeid shrimp world-wide is primarily dependent on wild-caught broodstock which has an enormous potential to introduce new pathogens, particularly viruses, into culture systems. Of the 13 viruses described for cultured penaeid shrimp, seven have been described within the past 5 years; the most devastating viral epidemics on record for cultured penaeid shrimp have also occurred within the

K. M. Spann; R. J. G. Lester

1997-01-01

119

Simulation of nitrogen dynamics and shrimp growth in an intensive shrimp culture system: effects of feed and feeding parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide increases in shrimp culture have caused concern about potential environmental impacts, particularly water pollution resulting from discharge of nitrogenous wastes from shrimp farms. This study describes development of a simulation model representing the effect of feed nutritional quality, feed physical characteristics, and feeding strategies on nitrogen dynamics and growth of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, in intensive systems

Ruby A. Montoya; A. L. Lawrence; W. E. Grant; M. Velaso

1999-01-01

120

Microbial quality of shrimp products of export trade produced from aquacultured shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriological quality of individually quick frozen (IQF) shrimp products produced from aquacultured tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) has been analysed in terms of aerobic plate count (APC), coliforms, Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive staphylococci, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes. Eight hundred forty-six samples of raw, peeled, and deveined tail-on (RPTO), 928 samples of cooked, peeled, and deveined tail-on (CPTO), 295 samples of headless, undeveined

A. A Mohamed Hatha; T. K Maqbool; S Suresh Kumar

2003-01-01

121

Breeding for disease resistance of Penaeid shrimps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diseases are a major constraint on the intensive production of shrimps. Conditions in production ponds favour disease development, and epidemics of several previously unreported diseases have occurred and caused severe losses. When elimination, eradication or cultural control is difficult, selective breeding for host resistance to the pathogen may be an attractive option for disease control. However, host resistance is not

James Cock; Thomas Gitterle; Marcela Salazar; Morten Rye

2009-01-01

122

COBALT-60 Gamma Irradiation of Shrimp.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meta- and ortho-tyrosine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in conjunction with electrochemical detection in shrimp irradiated using cobalt-60 gamma radiation in the absorbed dose range 0.8 to 6.0 kGy, in nonirradiated shrimp, and in bovine serum albumin (BSA) irradiated in dilute aqueous solution at 25.0 kGy. Ortho-tyrosine was measured in nonirradiated BSA. Para-, meta-, and ortho-tyrosine were measured using HPLC in conjunction with uv-absorption detection in dilute aqueous solutions of phenylalanine irradiated in the absorbed dose range 16.0 to 195.0 kGy. The measured yields of tyrosine isomers were approximately linear as a function of absorbed dose in shrimp, and in irradiated solutions of phenylalanine up to 37.0 kGy. The occurrence of meta- and ortho-tyrosine, which had formerly been considered unique radiolytic products, has not previously been reported in nonirradiated shrimp or BSA. The conventional hydrolyzation and analytical techniques used in the present study to measure meta- and ortho-tyrosine may provide the basis for a method to detect and determine the dose used in food irradiation.

Sullivan, Nancy L. B.

123

Cryptic Bioluminescence in a Midwater Shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mesopelagic shrimp Sergestes similis emits ventrally directed bioluminescence that closely matches the intensity of downward-directed illumination and is able to rapidly modify its light output to match changes in background intensity. Masking experiments show that the photoreceptors involved are the compound eyes or adjacent tissues. Light emission originates from modified portions of the hepatopancreas and is similar to oceanic

Jon A. Warner; Michael I. Latz; James F. Case

1979-01-01

124

Antibiotic resistance of bacteria from shrimp ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of antibiotic resistance was compared in bacteria isolated from pond water, pond sediment, water and sediment from the receiving environment (area where water from pond drains, which is 0 and 50 m away from the exit gate, in this study) and cultured shrimp from ponds that have not used any antimicrobials, ponds that have previously used antimicrobials and

Eleonor A Tendencia; Leobert D de la Peña

2001-01-01

125

Improved Method of Shrimp Fry Transport.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two hundred to three hundred shrimp fry per litre could be transported in plastic bag inflated with oxygen with 95% survival within 8 hours. A density of 500 to 600 fry per litre could still be transported within 24 hours with the same survival rate if th...

S. N. Hamid M. Mardjono

1979-01-01

126

Climatic controls of a keystone understory species, Sasamorpha borealis , and an impact assessment of climate change in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction\\u000a   The aims of this study were to identify the climatic conditions controlling the distribution of Sasamorpha borealis and to assess the impact of climate change on the species in Japan.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods\\u000a   The relationship between S. borealis distribution and climatic variables in the Japanese Archipelago was explored using classification tree analysis. Potential\\u000a habitat maps under the current and

Ikutaro Tsuyama; Katsuhiro Nakao; Tetsuya Matsui; Motoki Higa; Masahiro Horikawa; Yuji Kominami; Nobuyuki Tanaka

127

Chitosan Fibers Modified with HAp/?-TCP Nanoparticles.  

PubMed

This paper describes a method for preparing chitosan fibers modified with hydroxyapatite (HAp), tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP), and HAp/?-TCP nanoparticles. Fiber-grade chitosan derived from the northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and nanoparticles of tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) suspended in a diluted chitosan solution were used in the investigation. Diluted chitosan solution containing nanoparticles of Hap/?-TCP was introduced to a 5.16 wt% solution of chitosan in 3.0 wt% acetic acid. The properties of the spinning solutions were examined. Chitosan fibers modified with nanoparticles of HAp/?-TCP were characterized by a level of tenacity and calcium content one hundred times higher than that of regular chitosan fibers. PMID:22174598

Wawro, Dariusz; Pighinelli, Luciano

2011-10-25

128

Chitosan Fibers Modified with HAp/?-TCP Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a method for preparing chitosan fibers modified with hydroxyapatite (HAp), tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP), and HAp/?-TCP nanoparticles. Fiber-grade chitosan derived from the northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and nanoparticles of tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) suspended in a diluted chitosan solution were used in the investigation. Diluted chitosan solution containing nanoparticles of Hap/?-TCP was introduced to a 5.16 wt% solution of chitosan in 3.0 wt% acetic acid. The properties of the spinning solutions were examined. Chitosan fibers modified with nanoparticles of HAp/?-TCP were characterized by a level of tenacity and calcium content one hundred times higher than that of regular chitosan fibers.

Wawro, Dariusz; Pighinelli, Luciano

2011-01-01

129

AURORA BOREALIS - Icebreaker, Drilling Platform and Multi-Purpose Research Vessel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spite of the critical role of the Arctic Ocean in climate evolution, it is the only sub-basin of the world's oceans that has essentially not been sampled by the drill ships of the Deep-Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) or the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), and its long-term environmental history and tectonic structure is therefore poorly known. Exceptions are the ODP Leg 151 and the more recent very successful ACEX-expedition of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). This lack of data represents one of the largest gaps of information in modern Earth Science. Therefore, the new research icebreaker AURORA BOREALIS will be equipped with drilling facilities to fulfil the needs of the IODP for a -Mission-Specific Platform- to drill in deep, permanently ice-covered ocean basins. This icebreaker must be also powerful enough to maintain station against the drifting sea-ice cover and will have to be equipped with a dynamic positioning system. This new icebreaker would be conceived as an optimized science platform from the keel up and will allow conducting long, international and interdisciplinary expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean during all seasons of the year. In a long-term perspective the AURORA BOREALIS will also be used to address Antarctic research targets, both in its mode as a regular research vessel as well as a polar drill ship. The construction of AURORA BOREALIS requires several new technical implementations, such as advanced dynamic positioning and deep-sea drilling under a closed sea-ice cover and two moon pools (7 x 7 m), and will provide an extended technical potential and knowledge for marine technology. The scientific and technical details will be presented.

Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Biebow, N.; Lembke-Jene, L.; Thiede, J.; Egerton, P.

2007-12-01

130

The Hot R Coronae Borealis Star DY Centauri is a Binary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remarkable hot R Coronae Borealis (RCB) star DY Cen is revealed to be the first and only binary system to be found among the RCB stars and their likely relatives, including the extreme helium stars and the hydrogen-deficient carbon stars. Radial velocity determinations from 1982 to 2010 have shown that DY Cen is a single-lined spectroscopic binary in an eccentric orbit with a period of 39.67 days. It is also one of the hottest and most H-rich member of the class of RCB stars. The system may have evolved from a common envelope to its current form.

Kameswara Rao, N.; Lambert, David L.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Jeffery, C. Simon; Woolf, Vincent M.; McArthur, Barbara

2012-11-01

131

AURORA BOREALIS - Development of a New Research Icebreaker with Drilling Capability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polar research both on land and in the sea cannot achieve the needed progress without novel and state of the art technologies and infrastructure. In addition, we have the obligation to equip the upcoming young and courageous generation of polar researchers with the most modern and safest research platforms the 21st century can provide. This effort will require major investments, both in terms of generating new tools, as well as maintaining and renovating existing infrastructure. There are many different novel tools under development for polar research, we will concentrate on the presently largest one, the planning for a new type of research icebreaker, the AURORA BOREALIS with an all-season capability of operations in permanently ice-covered waters and with the possibility to carry out deep-sea drilling in ice-covered deep-sea basins. AURORA BOREALIS will be the most advanced Polar Research Vessel in the world with a multi-functional role of drilling in deep ocean basins and supporting climate and environmental research and decision support for stakeholder governments for the next 35 to 40 years. The vessel is planned as a large research icebreaker with 44,000 tons displacement and a length of up to 196 m, with about 50 Megawatt propulsion power. Advanced technological features will include azimuth propulsion systems, extensive instrumental and airborne ice- management support, and the routine operation of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) from two moon-pools. An unique feature of this icebreaker will be the drilling rig that will enable sampling of the ocean floor and sub-sea down to 5000 m water depth and 1000 m penetration at the most inhospitable places on earth. The possibility to flexibly equip the ship with laboratory and supply containers, and the variable arrangement of other modular infrastructure (in particular, winches, cranes, etc.), free deck- space, and separate protected deck areas, will allow the planned research vessel to cover the needs of most disciplines in marine research. aurora-borealis.eu/en/about_aurora_borealis/

Thiede, J.; Biebow, N.; Egerton, P.; Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Lembke-Jene, L.

2007-12-01

132

Are the R Coronae Borealis Stars Produced by White Dwarf Mergers?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are rare hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich supergiants. Two evolutionary scenarios have been suggested, a double degenerate merger of two white dwarfs (WDs), or a final helium shell flash in a PN central star. The evidence pointing toward a WD merger or a FF origin for RCB stars is contradictory. The population of RCB stars in the Galaxy may be consistent with the number of He/CO WD mergers. If so, this would be an exciting result since RCB stars may be low-mass analogs of Type Ia SNe.

Clayton, G. C.

2013-01-01

133

78 FR 33347 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Preliminary Negative Countervailing...of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Ecuador. The period of investigation is January...of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador,'' dated concurrently with this...

2013-06-04

134

75 FR 22370 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China...frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China...Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador, 69 FR 76913 (December 23,...

2010-04-28

135

76 FR 18782 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis...shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead...shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would not be likely...

2011-04-05

136

75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam...orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and...

2010-04-28

137

40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100...Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

138

40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100...Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The...

2009-07-01

139

40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100...Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

140

40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 ...SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 ...description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The...

2009-07-01

141

40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 ...SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 ...description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

142

Environmental impacts of shrimp farming with special reference to the situation in the continental United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp culture technology has resulted in development of a major shrimp farming industry worldwide. Without the shrimp farming\\u000a industry, increasing demands for shrimp by consumers could not be met, resulting in increased pressure on wild shrimp resources.\\u000a Unfortunately, there are realized and potential adverse environmental effects on estuarine ecosystems as a result of shrimp\\u000a farming. The effects can be categorized

J. Stephen Hopkins; Paul A. Sandifer; M. Richard DeVoe; A. Frederick Holland; Craig L. Browdy; Alvin D. Stokes

1995-01-01

143

Marine shrimp aquaculture and natural resource degradation in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising demand for shrimp in the developed nations has helped to foster a dramatic growth in marine shrimp aquaculture, particularly\\u000a in South America and South Asia. In Thailand, Marine shrimp aquaculture is now an important earmer of foreign exchange. The\\u000a growth in Production has been achieved through the expansion of the culture area and the adoption of intensive production\\u000a methods.

Mark Flaherty; Choomjet Karnjanakesorn

1995-01-01

144

Closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a new system of aquaculture, i.e., a closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture. The\\u000a culture system consisted of several shrimp ponds, a mollusk water-purifying pond and a reservoir. During the production cycle,\\u000a water circulated between the shrimp and mollusk ponds, and the reservoir compensated for water loss from seepage and evaporation.\\u000a Constricted tagelus,Sinonovacula constricta, was selected

Xiongfei Wu; Zhidong Zhao; Deshang Li; Kangmei Chang; Zhuanshang Tong; Liegang Si; Kaichong Xu; Bailin Ge

2005-01-01

145

Populations of the northern grasshopper, Melanoplus borealis (Orthoptera: Acrididae), in Alaska are rarely food limited.  

PubMed

In some systems, grasshoppers appear to be food limited in most years, whereas in other systems top down forces, for example, predators, are more often implicated in population regulation. Sustainable strategies to manage grasshopper populations through habitat management require knowledge of the forces that regulate grasshopper populations. This experiment was undertaken to determine whether populations of Melanoplus borealis (Fieber), a common pest species in Alaska, are food-limited in Alaska. Cages were set up in a fallow field near Delta Junction, AK, in 3 yr (2007-2009). In 2007 and 2008, fertilizer was added to half the plots to increase primary production, and, in all years, cages within each plot were stocked with 0, 5, 9, or 13 fourth-instar M. borealis (equivalent to 0, 20, 36, or 52 grasshoppers/m(2)). Grasshoppers in each cage were counted weekly. Near the end of the growing season, surviving female grasshoppers (?40% of the original number) were collected. Femur length was taken as a measure of adult size, and functional ovarioles were counted as a measure of current fecundity. If the grasshoppers were food limited, we expected to see significant effects of either density or fertilizer on grasshopper survival, size, or fecundity. The fertilizer treatment greatly increased primary production in both years. Neither fertilizer treatment nor grasshopper density had consistent effects on survival, size, or potential fecundity, leading us to conclude that food is seldom limiting to populations in the interior of Alaska at densities <50 m(-2). PMID:22251631

Fielding, Dennis J; Zhang, Mingchu

2011-06-01

146

Shrimp laminin receptor binds with capsid proteins of two additional shrimp RNA viruses YHV and IMNV.  

PubMed

Laminin receptor (Lamr) in shrimp was previously proposed to be a potential receptor protein for Taura syndrome virus (TSV) based on yeast two-hybrid assays. Since shrimp Lamr bound to the VP1 capsid protein of TSV, we were interested to know whether capsid/envelope proteins from other shrimp viruses would also bind to Lamr. Thus, capsid/envelope encoding genes from 5 additional shrimp viruses were examined. These were Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV), and yellow head virus (YHV). Protein interaction analysis using yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that Lamr specifically interacted with capsid/envelope proteins of RNA viruses IMNV and YHV but not MrNV and not with the capsid/envelope proteins of DNA viruses PstDNV and WSSV. In vitro pull-down assay also confirmed the interaction between Lamr and YHV gp116 envelope protein, and injection of recombinant Lamr (rLamr) protein produced in yeast cells protected shrimp against YHV in laboratory challenge tests. PMID:21414409

Busayarat, Nattaphon; Senapin, Saengchan; Tonganunt, Moltira; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Meemetta, Watcharachai; Unajak, Sasimanas; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Lo, Chu-Fang; Phongdara, Amornrat

2011-03-21

147

Cross-fertilisation in the monoecious Pellia borealis, n = 18, and spatial distribution of two peroxidase genotypes1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population of Pellia borealis, n = 18, from Diabli Skok reservation (north west Poland) is polymorphic with respect to two peroxidase alleles PX 1b and PX 2b (63 and 37 per cent respectively), the spatial distributions of which are non-random. Thalli growing in a close neighbourhood exhibit only one of the two mutually excluding alleles, as shown by analysis

Roman Zieli?ski

1986-01-01

148

Activity-Dependent Regulation of Potassium Currents in an Identified Neuron of the Stomatogastric Ganglion of the Crab Cancer borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identified neurons of the stomatogastric ganglion of the crab Cancer borealis were voltage-clamped, and the current densi- ties of three K 1 currents were measured. The current densities of each of the three K 1 currents varied twofold to fivefold in inferior cardiac (IC) neurons from different animals. Convention- ally, this degree of variability has been attributed to experimen- tal

Jorge Golowasch; L. F. Abbott; Eve Marder

149

Prosorhynchoides borealis Bartoli, Gibson & Bray, 2006 (Digenea: Bucephalidae) cercariae from Abra prismatica (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in Icelandic waters.  

PubMed

This paper reports the adult stage of Prosorhynchoides borealis (Digenea) from Lophius piscatorius in Icelandic waters and infections with the larval stages (sporocysts and cercariae) found for the first time in the bivalve Abra prismatica (Semelidae). The previously known first intermediate host was Abra alba (Semelidae). Ribosomal DNA sequencing studies on all three life stages of the parasite (cercariae, metacercariae, adults) were performed to confirm their identites. Morphometric measurements confirmed that the adult worms belong to the newly described species P. borealis. Prosorhynchoides borealis sporocysts filled with cercariae were found in 16% of A. prismatica bivalves sampled at depths between 34 and 93 m off South Iceland. Prevalence ranged from 0 to 44% between different localities. The parasite was found only in the larger bivalves. Extensive sporocyst infection in the haemocoel of the foot caused mechanical muscle damage with subsequent degeneration and necrosis. Other tissues, including the digestive gland, nephridia, gills and intestine, were less heavily infected. Only focal necrosis was observed in the digestive gland, nephridia and gills, and local atrophy in the intestine. Cercariae were also observed in the lumen of both the stomach and intestine. This is the first report of A. prismatica as an alternative first intermediate host for P. borealis. Ribosomal DNA sequence data reveals 100% homology in the data between cercariae, metacercariae and adult digeneans, supporting the morphological data suggesting that all stages belong to the same species. PMID:22217433

Eydal, M; Freeman, M A; Kristmundsson, Á; Bambir, S H; Jónsson, P M; Helgason, S

2012-01-05

150

Do brine shrimp diagnose cystic fibrosis?  

PubMed

The nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina are dependent upon the function of their salt gland to maintain osmotic pressure within narrow limits. A number of drugs interfere with this function and are lethal to the nauplii. Saliva and serum from normal persons, patients with cystic fibrosis, and obligate heterozygotes were tested for lethal effect against brine shrimp nauplii. At salt concentrations between 100 mM and 2.5 no difference was found among the phenotypes. At lower concentrations a difference was noted occasionally between some normal subjects and some individuals carrying one or two genes for cystic fibrosis. Data from an independent series of experiments indicate that the naupliar deaths result from distorted ratios of Na+/K+ and not from a specific gene product. No difference was noted in the O2 uptake of nauplii treated with saliva or serum obtained from normal subjects, patients with cystic fibrosis, or obligate heterozygotes. PMID:1187245

Hodes, M E; Thomas, J; Morgan, S; Merritt, A D

1975-11-01

151

Arabia Terra, Mars: A Partial Ring Structure Around the Borealis Basin and Implications for the Mechanism of Multi-Ring Basin Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of the topography of Arabia Terra with lunar and martian multiring basins suggests that Arabia Terra is a partial ring structure around the Borealis impact basin in the lowlands, and provides insight into the mechanism of ring formation.

J. C. Andrews-Hanna

2010-01-01

152

Breaking the Ice: Strategies for Future European Research in the Polar Oceans - The AURORA BOREALIS Concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research vessels dedicated to work in polar ice-covered waters have only rarely been built. Their history began with Fritjof Nansen's FRAM, which he used for his famous first crossing of the Arctic Ocean 1893-1896. She served as example for the first generation of polar research vessels, at their time being modern instruments planned with foresight. Ice breaker technology has developed substantially since then. However, it took almost 80 years until this technical advance also reached polar research, when the Russian AKADEMIK FEDEROV, the German POLARSTERN, the Swedish ODEN and the USCG Cutter HEALY were built. All of these house modern laboratories, are ice-breakers capable to move into the deep-Arctic during the summer time and represent the second generation of dedicated polar research vessels. Still, the increasing demand in polar marine research capacities by societies that call for action to better understand climate change, especially in the high latitudes is not matched by adequate facilities and resources. Today, no icebreaker platform exists that is permanently available to the international science community for year-round expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean or heavily ice-infested waters of the polar Southern Ocean around Antarctica. The AURORA BOREALIS concept plans for a heavy research icebreaker, which will enable polar scientists around the world to launch international research expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic continental shelf seas autonomously during all seasons of the year. The European Research Icebreaker Consortium - AURORA BOREALIS (ERICON-AB) was established in 2008 to plan the scientific, governance, financial, and legal frameworks needed for the construction and operation of this first multi-nationally owned and operated research icebreaker and polar scientific drilling platform. By collaborating together and sharing common infrastructures it is envisioned that European nations make a major contribution to tackle problems of high societal relevance beyond the scope of individual disciplines. It is planned to use part of the berthing capacity of AURORA BOREALIS for dedicated university education and teaching programmes in order to give future polar scientists the best training facilities available and enable a vital international exchange between educational centres. This aims at helping to vertically structure the new generation of young and well-trained students and playing a key role in the construction of an efficient research and innovation environment for future collaboration in polar research

Lembke-Jene, L.; Biebow, N.; Wolff-Boenisch, B.; Thiede, J.; European Research Icebreaker Consortium

2011-12-01

153

Gulf Coast Shrimp Data, January 1958 - December 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gulf Coast Shrimp Data is published monthly and includes an annual summary reported by depth and area of capture, species, size, number of trips, and days fished. The monthly issues contain two tables on the commercial shrimp landings by U.S. craft at U.S...

1978-01-01

154

Haemocytic defence in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical shrimp culture is one of the fastest growing aquaculture sectors in the world. Since this production sector is highly affected by infectious pathogens, disease control is nowadays a priority. Effective prevention methods can be developed more efficiently when quantitative assays for the evaluation and monitoring of the health status of shrimp are available. The defence mechanisms of crustaceans are

Braak van de C. B. T

2002-01-01

155

Cumulative environmental effects of low salinity shrimp farming in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cumulative environmental effects of low salinity shrimp farming in the Bangpakong River Basin, eastern Thailand, were investigated using a GIS-assisted approach. Water supply, water quality, and agricultural land use were used to represent key environmental resources. Shrimp farming is a major consumer of freshwater, but cumulative effects on water supplies are probably negligible because of ample rainfall and similar

Brian W. Szuster; Mark Flaherty

2002-01-01

156

Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Vietnam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper investigates the job satisfaction of small-scale shrimp trawl fishers in the vicinity of Camau National Park in southern Vietnam. The research sample consisted of 77 fishers who belong to a growing population of shrimp fishers in the region. The results suggest that 60% would change their fishing metier, 78% would leave fishing for…

Sinh, Le Xuan

2012-01-01

157

Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Chennai, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing metier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested metier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers…

Bavinck, Maarten

2012-01-01

158

Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Chennai, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing metier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested metier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers…

Bavinck, Maarten

2012-01-01

159

An Economical, Portable System for Hatching Brine Shrimp Artemia spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design and construction of a portable, inexpensive hatching system for brine shrimp Artemia spp. is described. The system design is based on batch culture methodology, which is easily customized to the feeding requirements of a larval system and optimizes the nutritional value of brine shrimp. This system can be set up quickly and provides stable temperature and aeration under a

Richard S. Fulford; D. Allen Rutherford

1998-01-01

160

Recovery of carotenoids from shrimp waste in organic solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp waste, which is produced in large quantities in the Indian seafood processing industries, is one of the important sources of natural carotenoids. Studies were carried out to assess the extractability of shrimp waste carotenoids in different organic solvents and solvent mixtures and to optimize the extraction conditions for maximum yield. A 50:50 mixture of isopropyl alcohol and hexane gave

N. M. Sachindra; N. Bhaskar; N. S. Mahendrakar

2006-01-01

161

Evaluation of biosecurity applications for intensive shrimp farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade, viral diseases have had a profound and global effect on commercial shrimp farming. Regional farming industries in both hemispheres have suffered economically significant and prolonged viral epidemics resulting in declining shrimp farm production and even collapse. Ozone applications have been extensively examined as a means of disinfection and general disease control in relatively small hatchery systems

Anthonie M. Schuur

2003-01-01

162

A critical review of shrimp pond culture in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews and evaluates shrimp pond culture in the Philippines and its ecological and socioeconomic effects. The intertwined histories of the country's mangrove forests and culture ponds are treated in depth; brackishwater aquaculture and the different shrimp culture systems are described. Intensive farming is discussed in terms of feed and water requirements, chemical inputs and waste production, and the

J. Honculada Primavera

1993-01-01

163

Shrimp monitor/locator for conservation of fuel. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A demonstration project of a new type Shrimp Detector/Monitor has been completed. The test project proved the efficiency of the Shrimp Monitor/Detector in detecting shrimp, in identifying the number and size, in real time, but indicated that improvement could be effected which would enhance the operation. Data obtained from the test cruises indicate significant savings in diesel fuel will occur for those trawlers using the Shrimp Monitor/Detector in place of the usual trynet operation; 25% savings for the series model number 400, (the prototype tested) and expected 35%+ if the advanced series model number 500 were used. Fabrication and operational costs for the Shrimp Monitor/Detector are reasonable and well within the financial abilities of the usual large offshore trawler. Research and testing during this program resulted in the design of an advanced model incorporating significant improvements, and fabrication was commenced but the extra cost involved beyond the set value of this contract made the further experiments non-viable. Recommendations have been submitted for an extended program to fabricate and test the advanced model series number 500 which may be of more value and interest, market use, to the operating offshore shrimp trawlers. A marketing/sales program will be instituted to place the Shrimp Monitor/Detector in the commercial area serving the shrimp fleet.

Not Available

1980-01-01

164

Nutrient budgets in intensive shrimp ponds: implications for sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serious production losses have occurred in shrimp producing countries around the world, principally due to poor rearing environments and pathogenic disease. In response to this, shrimp farmers are changing their culture methods. To understand the source and sink of nutrients which affect pondwater quality and effluent impact, the nitrogen, phosphorus and solids budget have been constructed for water exchange systems.

Simon J Funge-Smith; Matthew R. P Briggs

1998-01-01

165

Predictive models for penaeid shrimp abundance in the seas off Negombo and Hendala, Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation was undertaken to study the shrimp trawl fishery in the west coast of Sri Lanka with special emphasis on formulation of predictive models for shrimp abundance. The shrimp trawling in the shallow seas off west coast of Sri Lanka is the major fishing activity exploiting the parent population of the penaeid shrimps (comprised mainly of Metapenaeus dobsoni,

S. S. K. Haputhantri; P. A. A. T. Jayawardane

2006-01-01

166

Reproductive readiness of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei grown in a brackish water system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive readiness of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (formerly Penaeus vannamei) cultured in brackish water was characterized by applying morphological, physiological, and molecular tools. The shrimp were cultured on two commercial shrimp farms in brackish water that was pumped from artesian wells that tap into a geothermal aquifer. The shrimp populations exhibited a bimodal growth curve with the females

S. Parnes; E. Mills; C. Segall; S. Raviv; C. Davis; A. Sagi

2004-01-01

167

78 FR 50387 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The frozen warmwater shrimp...Penaeus indicus). Frozen shrimp and prawns...scope. In addition, food preparations (including...processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns...or thawed-from-frozen) and peeled shrimp...Comment 12: Income Tax Preference Under Chapter V...

2013-08-19

168

Improved Shrimp Growout Systems for Disease Prevention and Environmental Sustainability in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a large portion of the world's farmed shrimp is produced in Asia, shrimp culture operations do not succeed over the entire area. There have been several problems and impediments that are yet to be resolved. One of these problems is disease. Several shrimp diseases have threatened shrimp production, but the most devastating ones are the viral diseases, namely, yellow-head

Piamsak Menasveta

2002-01-01

169

Incidence of Vibrio spp. in shrimp caught off the south coast of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp is one of the most important fishery products of Persian Gulf coastal provinces of Iran. Sea foods are prone to bacterial contamination and could cause health risk to the consumers. To examine shrimp caught off the south coast of Iran, 770 samples of fresh shrimp collected from either sea or shrimp farm were tested for possible presence of Vibrio

Hedayat Hosseini; A. Majid Cheraghali; Rozbeh Yalfani; Vadood Razavilar

2004-01-01

170

Risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in shrimp farming in Mai Po Nature Reserve, Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ecological survey was carried out to determine the sediment concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish and shrimp including tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus×O. nilotica), grey mullet (Mugil cephalus), gei wai shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis) and caridean shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponensis) in the traditional tidal shrimp ponds (gei wais) of Mai Po Nature Reserve, Hong Kong. The

K. C. Cheung; M. H. Wong

2006-01-01

171

Shrimps remove ectoparasites from fishes in temperate waters  

PubMed Central

We have found that two very common species of North Atlantic shallow water shrimp, Palaemon adspersus and Palaemon elegans, remove and feed on ectoparasites on plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.). The relationship could be mutualistic, as we did not observe any attempts by the fishes to feed on the shrimps. The ectoparasites removed included monogenean worms (Gyrodactylus sp.) and sea lice (Lepeophtheirus pectoralis). An experiment showed that there were 65% more Gyrodactylus parasites on the fishes that had been apart from compared with those that had been together with shrimps for 48?h. Shrimps on coral reefs are known for cleaning fishes, but that shrimps in temperate waters show parasite-cleaning behaviour is, to our knowledge, a new observation.

Ostlund-Nilsson, Sara; Becker, Justine H.A; Nilsson, Goran E

2005-01-01

172

Shrimps remove ectoparasites from fishes in temperate waters.  

PubMed

We have found that two very common species of North Atlantic shallow water shrimp, Palaemon adspersus and Palaemon elegans, remove and feed on ectoparasites on plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.). The relationship could be mutualistic, as we did not observe any attempts by the fishes to feed on the shrimps. The ectoparasites removed included monogenean worms (Gyrodactylus sp.) and sea lice (Lepeophtheirus pectoralis). An experiment showed that there were 65% more Gyrodactylus parasites on the fishes that had been apart from compared with those that had been together with shrimps for 48h. Shrimps on coral reefs are known for cleaning fishes, but that shrimps in temperate waters show parasite-cleaning behaviour is, to our knowledge, a new observation. PMID:17148231

Ostlund-Nilsson, Sara; Becker, Justine H A; Nilsson, Göran E

2005-12-22

173

Diversity and multiple functions of lectins in shrimp immunity.  

PubMed

Lectins play important roles in many biological processes, including protein trafficking, cell signaling, pathogen recognition, as effector molecules, and so on, because of their capacity to bind carbohydrates. Presently, seven groups of lectins have been identified in shrimp: C-type, L-type, P-type, M-type, fibrinogen-like domain lectins, galectins, and calnexin/calreticulin. These lectins have different structures, diverse expression patterns, and multiple functions in the shrimp immune response. This review summarizes the research progress and analyzes the diversity of shrimp lectins, focusing mainly on the C-type lectin family. Shrimp C-type lectins show considerable diversity in their domain architectures, sugar substrates, tissue distributions, expression patterns responding to pathogen challenge and functions in shrimp immunity. PMID:22561073

Wang, Xian-Wei; Wang, Jin-Xing

2012-05-02

174

The changing nebula around the hot R Coronae Borealis star DY Centauri  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the distinguishing characteristics of the remarkable hot R Coronae Borealis star DY Centauri, which was recently found to be a spectroscopic binary, is the presence of nebular forbidden lines in its optical spectrum. A compilation of photometry from 1970 to the present suggests that the star has evolved to higher effective temperatures. A comparison of spectra from 2010 with earlier spectra has shown that between 2003 and 2010, the 6717 and 6730 Å emission lines of [S II] underwent a dramatic change in their fluxes. This suggests that there was an increase in the nebula's electron density from 290 to 3140 cm-3 between 1989 and 2010, while the stellar temperature increased from 19 500 to 25 000 K. The nebular radius is about 0.02 pc, which is 60 000 times larger than the semimajor axis of the DY Cen binary system. The rapid changes of stellar temperature and the nebula's response to these changes demonstrate stellar evolution in action.

Kameswara Rao, N.; Lambert, David L.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Manchado, Arturo

2013-05-01

175

The origin of the cold spot in the Corona Borealis supercluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Very Small Array (VSA) detected a cold spot in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) towardsthe Corona Borealis supercluster of galaxies. The origin of this spot remains unclear as itis not obviously associated to any known cluster of galaxies. We present here recent observationalresults (GTC, WHT, SDSS) and theoretical (N-body simulations) studies aimed to better understandthe origin of this anomalous spot.We carried out a near-IR survey (LIRIS@WHT) complemented with optical data (ACAM@WHT, OSIRIS@GTC and SDSS) in the line of sight of the core of this supercluster to search for new clusters of galaxies at a higher redshift. Using the Mare Nostrum Universe (an N-body SPH cosmological simulationby Yepes et al. 2007), we also study the potential of the different physical phases insuperclusters to produce similar thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich signals to the observed in the cold spot.

Flores-Cacho, I.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rebolo, R.

2011-11-01

176

The Aurora Borealis: a plasma physics and environmental laboratory in the sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The auroral Borealis is Nature's most colorful display of plasma physics = in the polar region. This talk will describe the free energy sources in = terms of particle precipitation and associated current in the polar magnetic = field responsible for such phenomena. A "High Power Auroral Stimulation" = (HIPAS) facility in Alaska has been used to actively probe this auroral region by exciting plasma resonances remotely. This laboratory without walls = allows large-scale controlled perturbations to be created and monitored. The auroral current and particle distribution can be the sources of = excitation or enhancement of plasma waves which are detected by satellites, lidars , holographic arrays, space-borne and ground-based optical and = electromagnetic sensors. The science and application of this active interaction method to environmental monitoring and remediation will be discussed. ^1. A.Y. Wong et al. Phys Rev Lett v63, 271 ( 1989). Work supported by ONR and NSF.

Wong, Alfred Y.

1997-04-01

177

The Aurora Borealis: a plasma physics and environmental laboratory in the sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The auroral Borealis is Nature's most colorful display of plasma physics in the polar region. This talk will describe the free energy sources in terms of particle precipitation and associated current in the polar magnetic field responsible for such phenomena. A "High Power Auroral Stimulation" (HIPAS) facility in Alaska has been used to actively probe this auroral region by exciting plasma resonances remotely. This laboratory without walls allows large-scale controlled perturbations to be created and monitored. The auroral current and particle distribution can be the sources of excitation or enhancement of plasma waves which are detected by satellites, lidars , holographic arrays, space-borne and ground-based optical and electromagnetic sensors. The science and application of this active interaction method to environmental monitoring and remediation will be discussed. ^1. A.Y. Wong et al. Phys Rev Lett v63, 271 ( 1989). Work supported by ONR and NSF.

Wong, Alfred Y.

1997-04-01

178

High-resolution spectroscopy of the R Coronae Borealis star V Coronae Australis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical high-resolution spectra of the R Coronae Borealis star V CrA at light maximum and during minimum light are discussed. Abundance analysis confirms previous results showing that V CrA has the composition of the small subclass of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars know as `minority' RCBs, i.e. the Si/Fe and S/Fe ratios are 100 times their solar values. A notable novel result for RCBs is the detection of the 1-0 Swan system 12C13C bandhead indicating that 13C is abundant: spectrum synthesis shows that 12C/13C is about 3-4. Absorption-line profiles are variable at maximum light with some lines showing evidence of splitting by about 10 kms-1. A spectrum obtained as the star was recovering from a deep minimum shows the presence of cool C2 molecules with a rotational temperature of about 1200K, a temperature suggestive of gas in which carbon is condensing into soot. The presence of rapidly outflowing gas is shown by blueshifted absorption components of the NaI D and KI 7698 Å resonance lines. Based on observations obtained with (1) The Blanco 4-m Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under contract to the National Science Foundation of USA and (2) The Harlan J. Smith Telescope of the W. J. McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin. E-mail: nkrao@iiap.res.in

Rao, N. Kameswara; Lambert, David L.

2008-02-01

179

Aurora Borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

WHAT was, probably, the termination of the aurora seen at Worcester and Dublin on May 14 was observed here, by me, between midnight and 1 a.m. of the morning of the 18th. At that time, and for some time after, I saw along the northwest horizon a strong, green, auroral glow. The evening of the 14th was bitterly cold; the

S. Maitland Baird Glennill

1882-01-01

180

Aurora Borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE auroral display mentioned by your two correspondents was particularly brilliant at Oldham on the evening of the 14th inst., at 11.10. I observed at 11.15 one very fine streamer reaching quite to the Pole Star; it was of a ruddy hue, dull, and changing to purple. The horizon was cloudy, the cloud being fringed with white light, changing to

W. Pullinger

1882-01-01

181

Aurora Borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A POLAR aurora of remarkable activity and brilliancy was observable here at 11.15 last night. The centre of energy at the time of origin was under Cassiopiea, a highly luminous streamer shooting upwards from the horizon, and covering, but not hiding the stars in that constellation. Brilliant white flickering streamers and rays, arising from the horizon, quickly spread towards the

1882-01-01

182

Changes in protein compositions and their effects on physical changes of shrimp during boiling in salt solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dried shrimp is a high-value fishery product of Thailand. Boiling shrimp in salt solution is an important step during the production of dried shrimp and affects significantly the quality of dried shrimp. However, not much information is so far available on the effects of various boiling parameters on the quality changes of shrimp, especially in terms of the changes of

Chalida Niamnuy; Sakamon Devahastin; Somchart Soponronnarit

2008-01-01

183

Limited mate availability decreases reproductive success of fragmented populations of Linnaea borealis, a rare, clonal self-incompatible plant  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Small populations of rare plant species are increasingly reported to have high levels of reproductive failure. The objective of this study was to understand the principal constraints on sexual reproduction in small fragmented populations of a rare clonal self-incompatible plant. Methods The pollinator spectrum, diversity of flower colour, natural pollination and fruit-set levels of L. borealis were examined in Scotland. Artificially crossed seed production was compared within and between different flower colour types and patches. Key Results Linnaea borealis was pollinated by a diverse spectrum of insect species and the principal pollinators were muscid, syrphid and empid flies which mostly moved only small distances (<0·25 m) between flowers when foraging. Natural pollination levels were high, indicating high pollinator effectiveness, but fruit set was very low in most patches. Flower colour diversity was low in most patches and only those with a diversity of flower colour types had high fruiting success. Pollination experiments showed L. borealis to be highly self-incompatible and artificial crosses within and between patches and flower colour types confirmed that low fruit success was the result of a lack of compatible mates and limited pollen movement between them. Evidence of isolation from pollen exchange was apparent at as little as 6 m and severe at 30 m and beyond. Conclusions Limited mate availability and isolation from pollen exchange compromise the reproductive success of fragmented populations of L. borealis in Scotland. A diversity of compatible mates situated within close proximity (<6 m) is the key requirement to ensure high natural fruiting success. This study emphasizes that an understanding of the breeding system, pollinator spectrum and potential for interconnectivity via pollinator movement are fundamental to identify isolation distances and to establish when conservation intervention is necessary for rare species.

Scobie, A. R.; Wilcock, C. C.

2009-01-01

184

A Very Small Array search for the extended Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in the Corona Borealis supercluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present interferometric imaging at 33 GHz of the Corona Borealis supercluster, using the extended configuration of the Very Small Array. A total area of 24 deg2 has been imaged, with an angular resolution of 11 arcmin and a sensitivity of 12 mJy beam-1. The aim of these observations is to search for Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) detections from known clusters of

Ricardo Génova-Santos; José Alberto Rubiño-Martín; Rafael Rebolo; Kieran Cleary; Rod D. Davies; Richard J. Davis; Clive Dickinson; Nelson Falcón; Keith Grainge; Carlos M. Gutiérrez; Michael P. Hobson; Michael E. Jones; Rüdiger Kneissl; Katy Lancaster; Carmen P. Padilla-Torres; Richard D. E. Saunders; Paul F. Scott; Angela C. Taylor; Robert A. Watson

2005-01-01

185

Transglutaminase regulates immune-related genes in shrimp.  

PubMed

Transglutaminase (TGase) is known to be involved in blood coagulation, a conserved defence mechanism among invertebrates. Gene silencing of TGase was previously shown to render shrimp susceptible to both bacterial and viral infections suggesting that TGase is an essential component of the shrimp immune system. Here, we examine the effects of the absence of TGase on the transcriptomic profile of kuruma shrimp by microarray analysis, focussing on genes that are involved in shrimp immunity. Total RNAs from shrimp haemocytes injected with dsRNA specific for TGase and control samples were isolated at 3 and 7 days p.i. and analyzed by microarray. Results revealed that TGase silencing affects the expression of genes in shrimp and caused significant down-regulation of the expressions of crustin and lysozyme. Furthermore, TGase-depleted samples were found to have lower haemocyte counts and higher total bacterial counts in their haemolymph. These results suggest that TGase is an important component of the shrimp immune response and is involved in the regulation of some immune-related genes particularly antimicrobial peptides. PMID:22306779

Fagutao, Fernand F; Maningas, Mary Beth B; Kondo, Hidehiro; Aoki, Takashi; Hirono, Ikuo

2012-01-24

186

Digestive toxicity in grass shrimp collected along an impact gradient.  

PubMed

Ingested pollutants may elicit digestive toxicity following incorporation into consumer tissues. This post-assimilatory toxicity may include tissue damage influencing synthesis of digestive enzymes, gut transit time and absorption of nutrients as well as pollutants by the gut epithelium. This study investigated impacts of chronic field exposure on gut residence time (GRT), feces elimination rate (FER), extracellular digestive protease activities and gut pH in grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. Adult shrimp were collected from differentially impacted sites within the New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and fed prepared meals containing fluorescent or near-infrared markers and analyzed for digestive toxicity. Relationships between digestive parameters and assimilation efficiencies (AE) for Cd, Hg and organic carbon reported previously were also analyzed. Minimum GRT did not vary significantly for field-collected shrimp, but was positively correlated with Cd, but not Hg or carbon, AE. FER was not impacted by field exposure. Digestive protease activities exhibited a marked decrease in grass shrimp from impacted field sites relative to reference shrimp. Relationships between the assimilation of elements and digestive physiology in field-collected shrimp suggest that digestive plasticity (increasing GRT) may be important in compensating for post-assimilatory digestive toxicity (reduced protease activities) in order to maintain nutrient assimilation. Stress-induced variability in digestive function among grass shrimp populations may, in turn, enhance the assimilation of non-essential elements, such as Cd. PMID:21946169

Seebaugh, David R; L'Amoreaux, William J; Wallace, William G

2011-08-27

187

Optimum cooking conditions for shrimp and Atlantic salmon.  

PubMed

The quality and safety of a cooked food product depends on many variables, including the cooking method and time-temperature combinations employed. The overall heating profile of the food can be useful in predicting the quality changes and microbial inactivation occurring during cooking. Mathematical modeling can be used to attain the complex heating profile of a food product during cooking. Studies were performed to monitor the product heating profile during the baking and boiling of shrimp and the baking and pan-frying of salmon. Product color, texture, moisture content, mass loss, and pressed juice were evaluated during the cooking processes as the products reached the internal temperature recommended by the FDA. Studies were also performed on the inactivation of Salmonella cocktails in shrimp and salmon. To effectively predict inactivation during cooking, the Bigelow, Fermi distribution, and Weibull distribution models were applied to the Salmonella thermal inactivation data. Minimum cooking temperatures necessary to destroy Salmonella in shrimp and salmon were determined. The heating profiles of the 2 products were modeled using the finite difference method. Temperature data directly from the modeled heating profiles were then used in the kinetic modeling of quality change and Salmonella inactivation during cooking. The optimum cooking times for a 3-log reduction of Salmonella and maintaining 95% of quality attributes are 100, 233, 159, 378, 1132, and 399 s for boiling extra jumbo shrimp, baking extra jumbo shrimp, boiling colossal shrimp, baking colossal shrimp, baking Atlantic salmon, and pan frying Atlantic Salmon, respectively. PMID:23387897

Brookmire, Lauren; Mallikarjunan, P; Jahncke, M; Grisso, R

2013-02-01

188

Improved methodology for the estimation of sulfur dioxide in shrimp  

SciTech Connect

A large portion of the shrimp harvested in the Gulf of Mexico are treated with sodium bisulfite to prevent melanosis. The Food and Drug Administration recognizes the need for this additive and regards a one minute dip in a 1.2% sodium bisulfite solution as current good manufacturing practice. Recently, sulfites have come under close scrutiny by regulatory authorities because they have been implicated as causing severe reaction in asthmatics. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, efficient method for determining SO/sub 2/ in shrimp and to determine the stability of SO/sub 2/ in shrimp during frozen storage.

DeWitt, B.J. III

1987-01-01

189

Sternal Spines as a Characteristic for Differentiating Between Females of Some Pandalidae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A life-history study of four commercially important species of pandalid shrimps in Alaska shows that with the exception of one species, a morphological characteristic is possessed that is useful in estimating age and survival of certain females. Pandalus ...

J. A. McCrary

1970-01-01

190

Predatory fishes affect trophic cascades and apparent competition in temperate reefs  

PubMed Central

We provide evidence for a trophic cascade involving apex predators and mesopredators of marine temperate reefs, lingcod and rockfish, respectively. We measured spatio-temporal variation in the relative abundance of lingcod, subadult rockfish and two shrimp groups eaten by rockfish (Pandalus sp. and three smaller-bodied genera aggregated). Lingcod had an indirect positive effect on shrimps, as mediated by the direct negative effects of lingcod on rockfish and of rockfish on shrimps. These top-down effects on shrimps, however, were stronger for Pandalus than for small-bodied shrimps. Further, abundances of Pandalus and small-bodied shrimps were negatively correlated and the latter had a stronger positive effect on rockfish, suggesting that rockfish mediated asymmetrical apparent competition between shrimps. Our results indicate mechanisms by which predatory fishes may influence the structure of marine communities.

Frid, Alejandro; Marliave, Jeff

2010-01-01

191

Predatory fishes affect trophic cascades and apparent competition in temperate reefs.  

PubMed

We provide evidence for a trophic cascade involving apex predators and mesopredators of marine temperate reefs, lingcod and rockfish, respectively. We measured spatio-temporal variation in the relative abundance of lingcod, subadult rockfish and two shrimp groups eaten by rockfish (Pandalus sp. and three smaller-bodied genera aggregated). Lingcod had an indirect positive effect on shrimps, as mediated by the direct negative effects of lingcod on rockfish and of rockfish on shrimps. These top-down effects on shrimps, however, were stronger for Pandalus than for small-bodied shrimps. Further, abundances of Pandalus and small-bodied shrimps were negatively correlated and the latter had a stronger positive effect on rockfish, suggesting that rockfish mediated asymmetrical apparent competition between shrimps. Our results indicate mechanisms by which predatory fishes may influence the structure of marine communities. PMID:20181555

Frid, Alejandro; Marliave, Jeff

2010-02-24

192

75 FR 34976 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limit for the Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limit for...certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Thailand covering the period February 1, 2008...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Preliminary Results of...

2010-06-21

193

76 FR 61668 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limits for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limits...frozen warmwater shrimp From India and Thailand covering the period February 1, 2010...Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...

2011-10-05

194

75 FR 62099 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limits for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limits...warmwater shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand covering the period February 1, 2009...Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...

2010-10-07

195

40 CFR 408.130 - Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory...Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

2009-07-01

196

40 CFR 408.130 - Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory...Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

2012-07-01

197

40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory...Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

2010-07-01

198

40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory...Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

2009-07-01

199

40 CFR 408.130 - Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory...Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

2010-07-01

200

COMPARISON OF CARBON AND NITROGEN FLUXES IN TIDEFLAT FOOD WEBS DOMINATED BY BURROWING SHRIMP OR BY CULTURED OYSTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Two species of indigenous, thalassinid burrowing shrimps are pests to the benthic culture of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) because deposition of sediment excavated by the shrimps buries or smothers the oysters. Carbaryl pesticide is used to reduce burrowing shrimp densitie...

201

Geologic support for the putative Borealis basin (Mega-Impact) on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of recent papers (all in Nature v. 453) using Martian gravity and topography [Andrews-Hanna et al., 2008], 3-D hydrodynamic simulations [Marinova et al., 2008], and 2-D hydrocode models [Nimmo et al., 2008] have eloquently reintroduced the single mega-impact hypothesis for the formation of the Martian hemispheric dichotomy boundary. Although geophysical models often return non-unique solutions, the coalition front presented by these three independent methods to test such a hypothesis lends credibility and demands further evaluation. The central tenet of these works is the proposition that an elliptical basin (long axis 10,600km, ellipticity 1.25) centered at 67N, 208E marks the pre-Tharsis crustal thickness transition and thus the real dichotomy boundary. Evaluation of this new boundary with respect to the geologic record offers new avenues, especially since geologic tests of the mega-impact hypothesis have mostly proved inconclusive because of Mars' multi-stage and multi-process geologic history. Within this survey, a slightly larger ellipse with a long axis of 12,500 km, ellipticity of 1.48, and centered at 65.3N, 250E expands the putative Borealis impact basin (which does not necessarily represent the transient or final impact cavity dimensions, but defines a potential 'affected zone') while maintaining agreement with the original observations with respect to gravity and topography. The 'affected zone' can be defined by basement structure that may become susceptible to later deformation, or it may in fact have been the paleo- topographic expression of the basin. By expanding the overall area (nearly twice the area of the original mega-impact basin proposed by Wilhelms and Squyres in 1984) several geologic features become significant in evaluating the mega-impact story. 1) Valles Marineris is concentric to the putative basin interior and parallels the ellipse margin suggesting that it is the structural manifestation of localized crustal relaxation of the Tharsis volcanic pile over pre-existing basement structure related to Borealis basin subsidence. The present day Valles Marineris may actually represent the 'missing portion' of the original crustal dichotomy trace underneath Tharsis. 2) The 'great faults' (Connerney et al., 2005) that offset the magnetic field pattern radiate from near the center of the putative basin, again suggesting basement structural control related to basin formation. 3) The mysterious Medusa Fossae Formation is completely enclosed within the basin margin and the units' southern contacts fall within 5 km of the same elliptical trace that bisects central Valles Marineris. 4) Chaos regions at the eastern end of Valles Marineris are wholly contained within the basin margin and suggest some kind of marginal control on their locations. 5) Valley network (channel) densities sharply increase outside the basin and are truncated by the Borealis ellipse. Integrating these and other geologic observations (still ongoing) with the newly formulated geophysical methods suggests that a single mega-impact is reemerging as a viable and perhaps preferred mechanism for dichotomy formation.

Bleamaster, L. F.

2008-12-01

202

DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATION TREATMENT OF GULF SHRIMP CANNERY WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This study reports on the operation of a plant scale dissolved air flotation system installed to define and evaluate attainable shrimp cannery wastewater treatment levels. The system was operated in all three modes of DAF pressurization. Destabilizing coagulants investigation inc...

203

INFECTIVITY OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE IN GRASS SHRIMP EMBRYOS  

EPA Science Inventory

Developing embryos of the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were exposed to Metarhizium anisopliae conidiospores. Attachment of conidiospores was often followed by germination and outgrowth on embryo surface. Penetration of the embryonic envelopes by M. anisopliae allow...

204

Economic Trade-Offs and the North Carolina Shrimp Fishery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The North Carolina shrimp resource consists of three major species, brown (Penaeus aztecus), pink (P. duorarum), and white (P. setiferus). Together, they comprise the state's most important fishery. Two of these species exist in Pamlico Sound, the princip...

J. R. Waters J. E. Easley L. E. Danielson

1980-01-01

205

Effect of Fucoidan on Disease Resistance of Black Tiger Shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral administration of crude fucoidan (CF) extracted from Sargassum polycystum can reduce the impact of White Spot Syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in Penaeus monodon. Crude fucoidan mixed with diet for shrimps weighing of 5–8 and 12–15 g was fed before and after WSSV infection. After 10 days of infection, the maximum survival rates of shrimps of 5–8 and 12–15 g

Wilaiwan Chotigeat; Suprapa Tongsupasupbsu; Kidchakan Supamataya; Amornrat Phongdara

2004-01-01

206

Antibiotic contaminants in coastal wetlands from Vietnamese shrimp farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose  Shrimp culture has been expanded rapidly in recent years in coastal wetland zone of Vietnam due to favorable natural conditions.\\u000a However, this industry has caused several negative impacts to the environment. One of the critical issues is the excessive\\u000a application of antibiotics including human medicines. These chemicals could be released from shrimp ponds and then accumulated\\u000a and contaminated

Hoang Thi Thanh Thuy; Le Phi Nga; Tu Thi Cam Loan

207

Structure of Penaeus stylirostris Densovirus, a Shrimp Pathogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), a pathogen of penaeid shrimp, causes significant damage to farmed and wild shrimp populations. In contrast to other parvoviruses, PstDNV probably has only one type of capsid protein that lacks the phospholipase A2 activity that has been implicated as a requirement during parvoviral host cell infection. The structure of recombinant virus-like particles, composed of 60 copies

Bärbel Kaufmann; Valorie D. Bowman; Yi Li; Jozsef Szelei; Peter J. Waddell; Peter Tijssen; Michael G. Rossmann

2010-01-01

208

Rice Paddy or Shrimp Pond: Tough Decisions in Rural Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thailand is the world’s largest producer of cultured shrimp. Despite problems with poor environmental conditions and outbreaks of disease that have led to the large-scale abandonment of culture areas along the coast, production has remained high. A primary factor has been the establishment of marine shrimp farming in Thailand’s rice growing Central Plain. This paper describes the development of inland

Paul Miller; Peter Vandergeest

1999-01-01

209

Costs and Returns Analysis for South Carolina Shrimp Trawlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document provides an explanation on how shrimp trawler owners\\/operators can analyze the effects of changing costs and ex-vessel prices on the profitability of operating a shrimp trawler. An Excel spreadsheet is provided with sample boat costs and revenues. The spreadsheet allows the trawler owner\\/operator to enter costs and revenues data for their own vessel. This can be used to

Mark S. Henry; Wilder N. Ferreira; David L. Barkley

2005-01-01

210

Diurnal and nocturnal catchability of Kuwait's commercial shrimps  

Microsoft Academic Search

In descending order of importance, the shrimps Penaeus semisulcatus De Haan, 1844; Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837); and Parapenaeopsis stylifera (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837) account for over 95% of Kuwait's commercial landings. Throughout its range, P. semisulcatus is nocturnal, but Kuwait trawlers are active 24h a day during season. Historically, all scientific shrimp surveys in Kuwait have been conducted during daylight

J. M. Bishop; Y. Ye; A. H. Alsaffar; H. M. Al-Foudari; S. Al-Jazzaf

2008-01-01

211

Occurrence and Activity of Microorganisms in Shrimp Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to determine the occurrence and respiration activity of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi in shrimp shell\\u000a waste and to evaluate the role of chitinolytic bacteria and fungi in its decomposition. The highest levels of bacteria were\\u000a found in shrimp heads sections and the lowest in exoskeletons. The level of fungi was much lower, with the highest proportion\\u000a present

Maria Swiontek Brzezinska; El?bieta Lalke-Porczyk; Wojciech Donderski; Maciej Walczak

2008-01-01

212

Antimicrobial peptides with therapeutic potential from skin secretions of the Marsabit clawed frog Xenopus borealis (Pipidae).  

PubMed

Nine peptides with differential growth inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of the tetraploid frog Xenopus borealis Parker, 1936 (Pipidae). Structural characterization of the peptides demonstrated that they were orthologous to magainin-2 (1 peptide), peptide glycine-leucine-amide, PGLa (2 peptides), caerulein-precursor fragments, CPF (4 peptides), and xenopsin-precursor fragments, XPF (2 peptides), previously isolated from Xenopus laevis and X. amieti. In addition, a second magainin-related peptide (G**KFLHSAGKFGKAFLGEVMIG) containing a two amino acid residue deletion compared with magainin-2 was identified that had only weak antimicrobial activity. The peptide with the greatest potential for development into a therapeutically valuable anti-infective agent was CPF-B1 (GLGSLLGKAFKIGLKTVGKMMGGAPREQ) with MIC=5 microM against E. coli, MIC=5 microM against S. aureus, and MIC=25 microM against Candida albicans, and low hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes (LC(50)>200 microM). This peptide was also the most abundant antimicrobial peptide in the skin secretions. CPF-B1 was active against clinical isolates of the nosocomial pathogens, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) with MIC values in the range 4-8 microM. PMID:20656059

Mechkarska, Milena; Ahmed, Eman; Coquet, Laurent; Leprince, Jérôme; Jouenne, Thierry; Vaudry, Hubert; King, Jay D; Conlon, J Michael

2010-07-23

213

A New Threat to Honey Bees, the Parasitic Phorid Fly Apocephalus borealis  

PubMed Central

Honey bee colonies are subject to numerous pathogens and parasites. Interaction among multiple pathogens and parasites is the proposed cause for Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a syndrome characterized by worker bees abandoning their hive. Here we provide the first documentation that the phorid fly Apocephalus borealis, previously known to parasitize bumble bees, also infects and eventually kills honey bees and may pose an emerging threat to North American apiculture. Parasitized honey bees show hive abandonment behavior, leaving their hives at night and dying shortly thereafter. On average, seven days later up to 13 phorid larvae emerge from each dead bee and pupate away from the bee. Using DNA barcoding, we confirmed that phorids that emerged from honey bees and bumble bees were the same species. Microarray analyses of honey bees from infected hives revealed that these bees are often infected with deformed wing virus and Nosema ceranae. Larvae and adult phorids also tested positive for these pathogens, implicating the fly as a potential vector or reservoir of these honey bee pathogens. Phorid parasitism may affect hive viability since 77% of sites sampled in the San Francisco Bay Area were infected by the fly and microarray analyses detected phorids in commercial hives in South Dakota and California's Central Valley. Understanding details of phorid infection may shed light on similar hive abandonment behaviors seen in CCD.

Core, Andrew; Runckel, Charles; Ivers, Jonathan; Quock, Christopher; Siapno, Travis; DeNault, Seraphina; Brown, Brian; DeRisi, Joseph; Smith, Christopher D.; Hafernik, John

2012-01-01

214

Millimeter Observation of the SZ Effect in the Corona Borealis Supercluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed the Corona Borealis supercluster with the Millimeter and Infrared Testa Grigia Observatory (MITO), located in the Italian Alps, at 143, 214, 272, and 353 GHz. We present a description of the measurements, data analysis, and results of the observations together with a comparison with observations performed at 33 GHz with the Very Small Array (VSA) interferometer situated at the Teide Observatory (Tenerife, Spain). Observations have been made in the direction of the supercluster toward a cosmic microwave background (CMB) cold spot previously detected in a VSA temperature map. Observational strategy and data analysis are described in detail, explaining the procedures used to disentangle primary and secondary anisotropies in the resulting maps. From a first level of data analysis, we find evidence in MITO data of primary anisotropy but still with room for the presence of secondary anisotropy, especially when VSA results are included. With a second level of data analysis using map making and the maximum entropy method, we claim a weak detection of a faint signal compatible with a SZ effect, characterized at most by a Comptonization parameter y=(7.8+5.3-4.4)×10-6 68% CL. The low level of confidence in the presence of a SZ signal invites us to study this sky region with higher sensitivity and angular resolution experiments such as the already-planned upgraded versions of VSA and MITO.

Battistelli, E. S.; De Petris, M.; Lamagna, L.; Watson, R. A.; Rebolo, R.; Melchiorri, F.; Génova-Santos, R.; Luzzi, G.; De Gregori, S.; Rubiño-Martin, J. A.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; Grainge, K.; Hobson, M. P.; Saunders, R. D. E.; Scott, P. F.

2006-07-01

215

Dust Around R Coronae Borealis Stars. II. Infrared Emission Features in an H-poor Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residual Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph spectra for a sample of 31 R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are presented and discussed in terms of narrow emission features superimposed on the quasi-blackbody continuous infrared emission. A broad ~6-10 ?m dust emission complex is seen in the RCBs showing an extreme H-deficiency. A secondary and much weaker ~11.5-15 ?m broad emission feature is detected in a few RCBs with the strongest ~6-10 ?m dust complex. The Spitzer infrared spectra reveal for the first time the structure within the ~6-10 ?m dust complex, showing the presence of strong C-C stretching modes at ~6.3 and 8.1 ?m as well as of other dust features at ~5.9, 6.9, and 7.3 ?m, which are attributable to amorphous carbonaceous solids with little or no hydrogen. The few RCBs with only moderate H-deficiencies display the classical "unidentified infrared bands (UIRs)" and mid-infrared features from fullerene-related molecules. In general, the characteristics of the RCB infrared emission features are not correlated with the stellar and circumstellar properties, suggesting that the RCB dust features may not be dependent on the present physical conditions around RCB stars. The only exception seems to be the central wavelength of the 6.3 ?m feature, which is blueshifted in those RCBs showing also the UIRs, i.e., the RCBs with the smallest H deficiency.

García-Hernández, D. A.; Kameswara Rao, N.; Lambert, D. L.

2013-08-01

216

Z Umi: A Critical Test of the formation path(s) of R Coronae Borealis Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We request 0.5 hours of time on NIRI/Gemini North to follow up on one key aspect of our discovery of extreme 18O enrichment in hydrogen-deficient carbon stars and R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars in the Galaxy (Clayton et al. 2005, 2007). The proposed observation would consist of a high S/N medium resolution GNIRS spectrum of the CO bands in the RCB star, Z UMi to confirm a previous marginal detection of a large abundance of 18O in it. Z UMi may be unique in possessing measurable amounts of both 18O and Li among the RCB stars. If an RCB star is found that has both a high Li abundance and a high 18O abundance, it would force a re-evaluation of the proposed scenarios for the formation of the RCB stars. The proposed Gemini observations will provide a definitive answer to whether an RCB star can have both Li and highly overabundant 18O.

Clayton, Geoffrey; Geballe, Tom

2011-02-01

217

A Photometric Analysis of R Coronae Borealis Stars in the Magellanic Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars exhibit a unique variability whereby they undergo enigmatic and rapid declines in brightness of up to several magnitudes. The period of a decline may take several weeks, whereas the recovery to maximum light may take months or even years. The accepted wisdom for the cause of these enigmatic declines is a phenomenon whereby dust is formed in the stellar atmosphere which reduces the brightness by as much as eight magnitudes (Clayton 1996). This is followed by dust dissipation which is known as the recovery phase. The photometric data used for this paper was collected at Mt John University Observatory (New Zealand), the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) and the Las Campanas Observatory (Chile). In this paper we present some results from our ongoing UBVRI} photomertic analysis of 19 RCB stars (14 in the Large Magellanic Cloud and 5 in the Small Magellanic Cloud), with particular emphasis on LMC100.6 48589 that exhibited six declines and subsequent recoveries over five years. The literature reveals that constructing various colour magnitude diagrams for these stars shows that the recovery to normal light occurs along a line with a gradient of 3.1. Continued work in this field will enable the information to be compared with that of a dust extinction curve allowing the size of the dust particles in the stellar atmosphere to be determined.

Woollands, R. M.; Cottrell, P. L.

2009-08-01

218

Do R Coronae Borealis Stars Form from Double White Dwarf Mergers?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A leading formation scenario for the irregular variable R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars invokes the merger of a degenerate Helium white dwarf with a Carbon-Oxygen white dwarf in a binary. The observed ratio of ^16O / ^18O for RCB stars is in the range of 0.3 - 20, much smaller than the solar value of 500. We report on our investigations into whether such a low oxygen isotope ratio can be obtained in simulations of double white dwarf mergers. We identify a ``shell of fire'' feature in the simulations surrounding the merged object where temperatures and densities are favorable for forming ^18O for binaries with initial mass ratios near 0.7. However, the accretion stream's impact dredges up ^16O from the Carbon-Oxygen white dwarf which forms a competing process that raises the oxygen isotope ratio. We present the most favorable scenarios we have identified for creating RCB stars in light of these competing processes and outline steps for future progress.

Motl, Patrick; Staff, Jan; Menon, Athira; Herwig, Falk; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris; Geballe, Tom; Pignatari, Marco; Clayton, Geoffrey; Tohline, Joel

2013-04-01

219

A new threat to honey bees, the parasitic phorid fly Apocephalus borealis.  

PubMed

Honey bee colonies are subject to numerous pathogens and parasites. Interaction among multiple pathogens and parasites is the proposed cause for Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a syndrome characterized by worker bees abandoning their hive. Here we provide the first documentation that the phorid fly Apocephalus borealis, previously known to parasitize bumble bees, also infects and eventually kills honey bees and may pose an emerging threat to North American apiculture. Parasitized honey bees show hive abandonment behavior, leaving their hives at night and dying shortly thereafter. On average, seven days later up to 13 phorid larvae emerge from each dead bee and pupate away from the bee. Using DNA barcoding, we confirmed that phorids that emerged from honey bees and bumble bees were the same species. Microarray analyses of honey bees from infected hives revealed that these bees are often infected with deformed wing virus and Nosema ceranae. Larvae and adult phorids also tested positive for these pathogens, implicating the fly as a potential vector or reservoir of these honey bee pathogens. Phorid parasitism may affect hive viability since 77% of sites sampled in the San Francisco Bay Area were infected by the fly and microarray analyses detected phorids in commercial hives in South Dakota and California's Central Valley. Understanding details of phorid infection may shed light on similar hive abandonment behaviors seen in CCD. PMID:22235317

Core, Andrew; Runckel, Charles; Ivers, Jonathan; Quock, Christopher; Siapno, Travis; Denault, Seraphina; Brown, Brian; Derisi, Joseph; Smith, Christopher D; Hafernik, John

2012-01-03

220

78 FR 54912 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Final)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations...the subject investigations concerning Indonesia (78 FR 50379) and Thailand (78 FR...concerning frozen warmwater shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand (investigation Nos....

2013-09-06

221

50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. 622...COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access....

2009-10-01

222

INFLUENCE OF AN INSECT GROWTH REGULATOR ON THE LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF AN ESTUARINE SHRIMP  

EPA Science Inventory

The influence of methoprene, an insect growth regulator used in mosquito control, on larval development of the estuarine grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) was examined in the laboratory. o grass shrimp larvae successfully completed metamorphosis when continuously exposed to 1000 ...

223

Configurations and Relative Efficiencies of Shrimp Trawls Employed in Southeastern United States Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Common shrimp trawl designs employed in the southeastern United States shrimp fishery are the flat, balloon, semiballoon, job, and super X-3. Recent innovations in trawl design and rigging, including the twin trawl rigging and tongue trawl design, have im...

J. W. Watson I. K. Workman C. W. Taylor A. F. Serra

1984-01-01

224

Relationship Between Environmental Factors and Brown Shrimp Production in Pamlico Sound, North Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model is developed that predicts brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, harvest in Pamlico Sound, NC, using environmental factors in late spring. Salinity and temperature conditions during April and May in the brown shrimp nursery areas are the most important p...

J. H. Hunt R. J. Carroll V. Chinchilli D. Frankenberg

1980-01-01

225

ENHANCED ORGANIC MATTER REMINERALIZATION AND NUTRIENT TURNOVER BY POPULATIONS OF BURROWING SHRIMP IN YAQUINA BAY, OR  

EPA Science Inventory

Burrowing, or thalassinid, shrimp structure large areas of intertidal habitat of Pacific Northwest estuaries. This field study utilized a combination of anoxic incubations, porewater dialysis peepers, and benthic chambers to quantify the role of burrowing shrimp species on OM dec...

226

Physiological and Histopathological Evaluation of Dithiocarbamate Toxicity to the Grass Shrimp, 'Palaemonetes Pugio'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the acute toxicity of dithiocarbamates (Aquatreat and Busan) to molting grass shrimp and the effects of these fungicides on regenerative limb growth in grass shrimp. Results indicate that both dithiocarbamate f...

K. R. Rao D. G. Doughtie P. J. Conklin

1983-01-01

227

75 FR 844 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary Results of Antidumping...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). This review covers the period February...

2010-01-06

228

75 FR 60730 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''), received on August 26, 2010, meets the...

2010-10-01

229

76 FR 36519 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the period February...

2011-06-22

230

78 FR 15699 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') for the period of review (``POR'')...

2013-03-12

231

78 FR 59650 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') meets the statutory and regulatory...

2013-09-27

232

77 FR 20358 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\1\\ We gave interested parties an...

2012-04-04

233

76 FR 16384 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''), received on February 28, 2011, meets...

2011-03-23

234

75 FR 55740 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary Results of Antidumping...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the period February...

2010-09-14

235

75 FR 47546 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of the First Five-year...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). On the basis of the notice of intent to...

2010-08-06

236

75 FR 27705 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final Results of Antidumping Duty New...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). This review covers the period February...

2010-05-18

237

Caerulein-and xenopsin-related peptides with insulin-releasing activities from skin secretions of the clawed frogs, Xenopus borealis and Xenopus amieti (Pipidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caerulein-related peptides were identified in norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of the tetraploid frog Xenopus borealis and the octoploid frog Xenopus amieti using negative ion electrospray mass spectrometry and their primary structures determined by positive ion tandem (MS\\/MS) mass spectrometry. X. borealis caerulein-B1 (pGlu-Gln-Asp-Tyr(SO3)-Gly-Thr-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe.NH2) contains an additional Gly5 residue compared with X. laevis caerulein and caerulein-B2 (pGlu-Asp-Tyr(SO3)-Thr-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe.NH2) contains a Gln2 deletion. X.

Osama K. Zahid; Milena Mechkarska; Opeolu O. Ojo; Yasser H. A. Abdel-Wahab; Peter R. Flatt; Mohammed A. Meetani; J. Michael Conlon

2011-01-01

238

Soil salinity and sodicity in a shrimp farming coastal area of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil salinity and sodicity are environmental problems in the shrimp farming areas of the Cai Nuoc district, Ca Mau province,\\u000a Vietnam. In 2000, farmers in the district switched en masse from rice cropping to shrimp culture. Due to recent failure in\\u000a shrimp farming, many farmers wish to revert to a rotational system with rice in the wet season and shrimps

Nguyen Tho; N. Vromant; Nguyen Thanh Hung; L. Hens

2008-01-01

239

Activation of the prophenoloxidase system of the brown shrimp Penaeus californiensis Holmes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prophenoloxidase (proPO) system of the brown shrimp Penaeus californiensis was activated using different preparations and inductors. In shrimp, this system is confined inside the hemocytes and can be obtained by lysing or centrifuging the cells. In both cases, the shrimp proPO system showed a high spontaneous activation because the proPO activating enzyme was also released. In addition, the shrimp

Jorge Hernández-López; Teresa Gollas-Galván; Francisco Vargas-Albores

1996-01-01

240

Effect of combined shrimp and rice farming on water and soil quality in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed water and soil quality and environmental impacts of shrimp farming in the southwestern coastal region\\u000a of Bangladesh. Shrimp farming in the region is very traditional in nature where two culture systems viz. shrimp–rice and shrimp-only\\u000a are being practiced, which are characterized by lower production, repeated stocking, irregular feeding, and fertilizing. Water\\u000a quality in both farming systems was

Yahya Khairun

241

Physical and physiological aspects of gear efficiency in North Sea brown shrimp fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In search of means to reduce the by-catch of juvenile flatfish in the shrimp fishery, vibrations and changes in current velocity\\u000a caused by shrimp trawls were investigated in the field and in the laboratory. Buried as well as emerged shrimps (Crangon crangon) exhibit tailflips 5–10 cm before being touched by the rollers of a shrimp gear approaching them at a

R. Berghahn; K. Wiese; K. Lüdemann

1995-01-01

242

Effect of water temperature on the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to Vibrio alginolyticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei held in 25‰ seawater at 27 °C or 28 °C were injected with TSB-grown Vibrio alginolyticus at 1×104 colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp?1 or 1×105 cfu shrimp?1, and then cultivated onward at water temperatures varying from 20 to 34 °C. Over 24–144 h, mortality of V. alginolyticus-injected shrimp held at 34 °C or 32 °C was significantly

Winton Cheng; Long-Uong Wang; Jiann-Chu Chen

2005-01-01

243

The sensitivity of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, embryos to organophosphate pesticide induced acetylcholinesterase inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grass shrimp, Palaemonetespugio, are common inhabitants of salt marshes along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of North America. Grass shrimp embryos are brooded externally on the abdomen of adult females for about 2 weeks prior to hatching. In South Carolina, the spring spawning period for grass shrimp coincides with the period of peak pesticide application on crops grown along the

Shannon A Lund; Michael H Fulton; Peter B Key

2000-01-01

244

Econometric analysis on economies of scale: An application to rice and shrimp production in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp production in Thailand has historically been undertaken in the saline and brackish waters of coastal mangroves. In recent years rising demand and prices for shrimp and falling productivity of mangrove areas have motivated an expansion of shrimp production into the fresh-water margins of river estuaries that were previously used for rice cultivation. Generalised additive models, which offer a comprehensive

Thamrong Mekhora

1999-01-01

245

Reconstituting Thailand's Technology-intensive Shrimp Farms Through Gendered Migration 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thai shrimp farm owners' cost efficiency goals complement the needs for a conjugal home and workplace by migrant couple workers from Laos, Myanmar and northeast Thailand, which in turn has created a 'migrant slot' among Surat Thani Province's shrimp farms. The conjugal workforce in shrimp farms is however differentiated by the creation of the female worker subject, publicly defined as

Bernadette P. Resurreccion; Edsel E. Sajor

246

Prevalence of Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella in a major shrimp production area in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1992 and 1993, a 7 months study was carried out in a major shrimp-producing area in Southern Thailand to study the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella. A total of 158 samples were examined including water, sediment, shrimp, pelleted feed, shrimp gut, and chicken manure. Salmonella was not recovered from any sample type studied. V. cholerae O1 was isolated

A. Dalsgaard; H. H. Huss; A. H-Kittikun; J. L. Larsen

1995-01-01

247

The red shrimp Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816) fishery and biology in the Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study updates the information on the red shrimp fishery in the waters of the Balearic Islands in the middle of the Western Mediterranean, from its beginning to the present. Also, the development of the fishery and the biology of the shrimp population exploited from 1992 to 1997 is analysed.The red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus) is one of the most

Aina Carbonell; Maria Carbonell; Montserrat Demestre; Antoni Grau; Sebastià Monserrat

1999-01-01

248

The post-Gulf-War shrimp fishery management in the territorial waters of Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kuwait has been self-sufficient to fulfill its requirement of shrimp consumption. Thirteen species of penaeid shrimp are known to occur in Kuwait waters. Two of the species, namely Penaeus semisulcatus and Metapenaeus affinis, are being caught in bulk. Approximately 3 Gg of shrimp have been caught annually by artisanal as well as industrial fishing units as 24 dhow boats and

M. S. Siddiqui; Khalid A. Al-Mubarak

1998-01-01

249

Reproduction in a simultaneous hermaphroditic shrimp, Lysmata wurdemanni : any two will do?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The caridean shrimp Lysmata wurdemanni (Gibbes) displays protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism with out-crossing, but not all males become simultaneous hermaphrodites (euhermaphrodites). In this laboratory study, we attempted to determine why some shrimp remain males. In our experiment, we grew L. wurdemanni from post-larvae to adults in several group sizes and observed their reproductive function. We found that all shrimp reared in

J. Lin; D. Zhang

2001-01-01

250

77 FR 32498 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping...on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the period of review (POR) of February...on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil. On April 2, 2012, the Department...

2012-06-01

251

COLONIZATION OF COASTAL ENVIRONMENTS BY FORAMINIFERA: INSIGHT FROM SHRIMP PONDS IN NEW CALEDONIA (SW PACIFIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to observe foraminiferal colonization patterns and behavior in shrimp ponds in New Caledonia during a shrimp-growing (farming) cycle. Weekly collecting at 10 stations in 8 shrimp ponds yielded a total of 170 samples accompanied by environmental data. Seawater pumped from the nearby ocean filled the ponds at the beginning of the growth cycle and

J.-P. Debenay; L. Della Patrona; H. Goguenheim

2009-01-01

252

Characterization of King Mackerel and Spanish Mackerel Bycatches of South Carolina Shrimp Trawlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile king mackerel Scomberomorus cavalla and Spanish mackerel S. maculatus are caught by commercial shrimp trawlers in South Carolina. Our study documented the extent and duration of this bycatch during the commercial shrimp trawling season in South Carolina waters. Sampling was conducted onboard commercial shrimp vessels based in McClellanville, South Carolina, during 1991 and on vessels based in McClellanville, Charleston,

Patrick J. Harris; John M. Dean

1998-01-01

253

Biocontrol of Vibrio harveyi in Shrimp Aquaculture with Host Specific Lytic Bacteriophage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current decline in shrimp farm production has been related to a variety of issues associated with survivability of shrimp grown in the aquaculture setting. The presence of Vibrio pathogens has been identified as a cause of high mortality in the post larval and juvenile shrimp in aquaculture. The use of bacteriophage to control infections has seen increased interest with

Lillian Barber

2012-01-01

254

Antibacterial activity in four marine crustacean decapods.  

PubMed

A search for antibacterial activity in different body-parts of Pandalus borealis (northern shrimp), Pagurus bernhardus (hermit crab), Hyas araneus (spider crab) and Paralithodes camtschatica (king crab) was conducted. Dried samples were extracted with 60% (v/v) acetonitrile, containing 0.1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid, and further extracted and concentrated on C18 cartridges. Eluates from the solid phase extraction were tested for antibacterial, lysozyme and haemolytic activity. Antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Vibrio anguillarum, Corynebacterium glutamicum and Staphylococcus aureus was detected in extracts from several tissues in all species tested, but mainly in the haemolymph and haemocyte extracts. V. anguillarum and C. glutamicum were generally the most sensitive micro-organisms. In P. borealis and P. bernhardus most of the active fractions were not affected by proteinase K treatment, while in H. araneus and P. camtschatica most fractions were sensitive to proteinase K treatment, indicating antibacterial factors of proteinaceous nature. In P. bernhardus the active fractions were generally heat labile, whereas in H. araneus the activities were resistant to heat. Differences between active extracts regarding hydrophobicity and sensitivity for heat and proteinase K treatment indicate that several compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activities detected. Lysozyme-like activity could be detected in some fractions and haemolytic activity against human red blood cells could be detected in haemolymph/haemocyte and exoskeleton extracts from all species tested. PMID:12194450

Haug, Tor; Kjuul, Anita K; Stensvåg, Klara; Sandsdalen, Erling; Styrvold, Olaf B

2002-05-01

255

Discovery of Bright Galactic R Coronae Borealis and DY Persei Variables: Rare Gems Mined from ACVS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a machine-learning (ML)-based search for new R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars and DY Persei-like stars (DYPers) in the Galaxy using cataloged light curves from the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) Catalog of Variable Stars (ACVS). RCB stars—a rare class of hydrogen-deficient carbon-rich supergiants—are of great interest owing to the insights they can provide on the late stages of stellar evolution. DYPers are possibly the low-temperature, low-luminosity analogs to the RCB phenomenon, though additional examples are needed to fully establish this connection. While RCB stars and DYPers are traditionally identified by epochs of extreme dimming that occur without regularity, the ML search framework more fully captures the richness and diversity of their photometric behavior. We demonstrate that our ML method can use newly discovered RCB stars to identify additional candidates within the same data set. Our search yields 15 candidates that we consider likely RCB stars/DYPers: new spectroscopic observations confirm that four of these candidates are RCB stars and four are DYPers. Our discovery of four new DYPers increases the number of known Galactic DYPers from two to six; noteworthy is that one of the new DYPers has a measured parallax and is m ? 7 mag, making it the brightest known DYPer to date. Future observations of these new DYPers should prove instrumental in establishing the RCB connection. We consider these results, derived from a machine-learned probabilistic classification catalog, as an important proof-of-concept for the efficient discovery of rare sources with time-domain surveys.

Miller, A. A.; Richards, J. W.; Bloom, J. S.; Cenko, S. B.; Silverman, J. M.; Starr, D. L.; Stassun, K. G.

2012-08-01

256

THE CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENT OF R CORONAE BOREALIS: WHITE DWARF MERGER OR FINAL-HELIUM-SHELL FLASH?  

SciTech Connect

In 2007, R Coronae Borealis (R CrB) went into a historically deep and long decline. In this state, the dust acts like a natural coronagraph at visible wavelengths, allowing faint nebulosity around the star to be seen. Imaging has been obtained from 0.5 to 500 {mu}m with Gemini/GMOS, Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2, Spitzer/MIPS, and Herschel/SPIRE. Several of the structures around R CrB are cometary globules caused by wind from the star streaming past dense blobs. The estimated dust mass of the knots is consistent with their being responsible for the R CrB declines if they form along the line of sight to the star. In addition, there is a large diffuse shell extending up to 4 pc away from the star containing cool 25 K dust that is detected all the way out to 500 {mu}m. The spectral energy distribution of R CrB can be well fitted by a 150 AU disk surrounded by a very large diffuse envelope which corresponds to the size of the observed nebulosity. The total masses of the disk and envelope are 10{sup -4} and 2 M{sub Sun }, respectively, assuming a gas-to-dust ratio of 100. The evidence pointing toward a white dwarf merger or a final-helium-shell flash origin for R CrB is contradictory. The shell and the cometary knots are consistent with a fossil planetary nebula. Along with the fact that R CrB shows significant lithium in its atmosphere, this supports the final-helium-shell flash. However, the relatively high inferred mass of R CrB and its high fluorine abundance support a white dwarf merger.

Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Andrews, J. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Sugerman, Ben E. K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Goucher College, 1021 Dulaney Valley Rd., Baltimore, MD 21204 (United States); Adam Stanford, S. [IGPP, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Whitney, B. A. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut St. Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Honor, J.; Babler, B. [Department of Astronomy, 475 North Charter St., University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Barlow, M. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Gordon, K. D.; Bond, Howard E.; Matsuura, M. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Geballe, T. R. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); De Marco, O. [Department of Physics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Lawson, W. A. [School of PEMS, University of New South Wales, ADFA, P.O. Box 7916, Canberra, ACT 2610 (Australia); Sibthorpe, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Olofsson, G. [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Polehampton, E. [Space Science and Technology Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Gomez, H. L.; Hargrave, P. C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, 5 The Parade, Cardiff, Wales CF24 3YB (United Kingdom); Ivison, R. J., E-mail: gclayton@phys.lsu.edu, E-mail: jandrews@phys.lsu.edu, E-mail: ben.sugerman@goucher.edu, E-mail: stanford@physics.ucdavis.edu, E-mail: bwhitney@spacescience.org, E-mail: jhonor@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: brian@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: mjb@star.ucl.ac.uk [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, ROE, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); and others

2011-12-10

257

DISCOVERY OF BRIGHT GALACTIC R CORONAE BOREALIS AND DY PERSEI VARIABLES: RARE GEMS MINED FROM ACVS  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a machine-learning (ML)-based search for new R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars and DY Persei-like stars (DYPers) in the Galaxy using cataloged light curves from the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) Catalog of Variable Stars (ACVS). RCB stars-a rare class of hydrogen-deficient carbon-rich supergiants-are of great interest owing to the insights they can provide on the late stages of stellar evolution. DYPers are possibly the low-temperature, low-luminosity analogs to the RCB phenomenon, though additional examples are needed to fully establish this connection. While RCB stars and DYPers are traditionally identified by epochs of extreme dimming that occur without regularity, the ML search framework more fully captures the richness and diversity of their photometric behavior. We demonstrate that our ML method can use newly discovered RCB stars to identify additional candidates within the same data set. Our search yields 15 candidates that we consider likely RCB stars/DYPers: new spectroscopic observations confirm that four of these candidates are RCB stars and four are DYPers. Our discovery of four new DYPers increases the number of known Galactic DYPers from two to six; noteworthy is that one of the new DYPers has a measured parallax and is m Almost-Equal-To 7 mag, making it the brightest known DYPer to date. Future observations of these new DYPers should prove instrumental in establishing the RCB connection. We consider these results, derived from a machine-learned probabilistic classification catalog, as an important proof-of-concept for the efficient discovery of rare sources with time-domain surveys.

Miller, A. A.; Richards, J. W.; Bloom, J. S.; Cenko, S. B.; Silverman, J. M.; Starr, D. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Stassun, K. G., E-mail: amiller@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

2012-08-20

258

Baryonic Matter at Supercluster Scales: The case of Corona Borealis II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent survey at 33 GHz for baryonic matter at large scales in the Corona Borealis Supercluster (CrB-SC) of galaxies (z = 0.07) using the Very Small Array interferometer (VSA), covering 24^2, two strongs decrements in temperature (CrB-B and CrB-H) near the centre of the supercluster were detected. The amplitudes are -157+/-27 and -230+/-23?K for decrements CrB-B and CrB-H respectively. There are no known clusters of galaxies coincident with the position of either of these decrements. Monte-Carlo simulations show that only CrB-B can be produced by primary anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. To explain the origen of CrB-H, a combination of both CMB perturbations and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) is required. We explore the possibility that this SZE could be produced by warm/hot gas on superclusters scales. ROSAT images do not show X-ray emission in these regions. We study the distribution of galaxies down to r ? 20 magnitudes in CrB-SC. Our analysis reveals in the region of CrB-H an overdensity of galaxies by a factor of two with respect to nearby control fields. No evidence for a new cluster is found, but the presece of a large number of galaxies in the intercluster region is suggestive that associated gas could be at least partially responsible for the observed temperature decrement in the CMB signal. We obtained spectroscopic redshifts for a sample of these galaxies and found first evidence for a substructure in the spot region extending from z = 0.07 - 0.09. This is suggestive of a dense filamentary structure of size several tens of Mpc.

Padilla-Torres, C.; Rebolo, R.; Gutiérrez, C.; Génova-Santos, R.; Rubiño-Martín, J.; Watson, R.

2009-05-01

259

DUST AROUND R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS. I. SPITZER/INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Spitzer/infrared spectrograph (IRS) spectra from 5 to 37 {mu}m for a complete sample of 31 R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) are presented. These spectra are combined with optical and near-infrared photometry of each RCB at maximum light to compile a spectral energy distribution (SED). The SEDs are fitted with blackbody flux distributions and estimates are made of the ratio of the infrared flux from circumstellar dust to the flux emitted by the star. Comparisons for 29 of the 31 stars are made with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) fluxes from three decades earlier: Spitzer and IRAS fluxes at 12 {mu}m and 25 {mu}m are essentially equal for all but a minority of the sample. For this minority, the IRAS to Spitzer flux ratio exceeds a factor of three. The outliers are suggested to be stars where formation of a dust cloud or dust puff is a rare event. A single puff ejected prior to the IRAS observations may have been reobserved by Spitzer as a cooler puff at a greater distance from the RCB. RCBs which experience more frequent optical declines have, in general, a circumstellar environment containing puffs subtending a larger solid angle at the star and a quasi-constant infrared flux. Yet, the estimated subtended solid angles and the blackbody temperatures of the dust show a systematic evolution to lower solid angles and cooler temperatures in the interval between IRAS and Spitzer. Dust emission by these RCBs and those in the LMC is similar in terms of total 24 {mu}m luminosity and [8.0]-[24.0] color index.

Anibal Garcia-Hernandez, D. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Kameswara Rao, N. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Lambert, David L., E-mail: agarcia@iac.es, E-mail: nkrao@iiap.res.in, E-mail: dll@astro.as.utexas.edu [W. J. McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States)

2011-09-20

260

Do R Coronae Borealis Stars Form from Double White Dwarf Mergers?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A leading formation scenario for R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars invokes the merger of degenerate He and CO white dwarfs (WDs) in a binary. The observed ratio of 16O/18O for RCB stars is in the range of 0.3-20 much smaller than the solar value of ~500. In this paper, we investigate whether such a low ratio can be obtained in simulations of the merger of a CO and a He WD. We present the results of five three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the merger of a double WD system where the total mass is 0.9 M ? and the initial mass ratio (q) varies between 0.5 and 0.99. We identify in simulations with q <~ 0.7 a feature around the merged stars where the temperatures and densities are suitable for forming 18O. However, more 16O is being dredged up from the C- and O-rich accretor during the merger than the amount of 18O that is produced. Therefore, on the dynamical timescale over which our hydrodynamics simulation runs, an 16O/18O ratio of ~2000 in the "best" case is found. If the conditions found in the hydrodynamic simulations persist for 106 s the oxygen ratio drops to 16 in one case studied, while in a hundred years it drops to ~4 in another case studied, consistent with the observed values in RCB stars. Therefore, the merger of two WDs remains a strong candidate for the formation of these enigmatic stars.

Staff, Jan. E.; Menon, Athira; Herwig, Falk; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L.; Motl, Patrick M.; Geballe, Tom; Pignatari, Marco; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Tohline, Joel E.

2012-09-01

261

Interactions among benthic insects, algae, and bacteria in a geothermally influenced stream. [Helicopsyche borealis (Hagen)  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation examines the interactions between benthic macroinvertebrates and microorganisms in stream habitats that were exposed to varying levels of geothermal contamination. Stream microcosms were used in situ to evaluate the separate effects of the thermal and chemical components of geothermal effluents on aquatic biota in Big Sulphur Creek, a third-order stream at the Geysers. The thermal component of those effluents had greater influence than the chemical component in determining benthic community structure. The effects of grazing by the herbivorous caddisfly Helicopsyche borealis (Hagen) on benthic algae and bacteria were experimentally studied in an undisturbed segment of Big Sulphur Creek. Exclusion of Helicopsyche larvae from introduced substrates resulted in high standing crops of algae and bacteria, but a low algal turnover rate. On substrate that was grazed by natural densities of Helicopsyche larvae, algal and bacterial standing crops were reduced by 83-98%, but the turnover rate of algae was substantially increased. Thus, grazing by Helicopsyche resulted in a low-biomass algal community that, because of a high turnover rate, was able to support a high biomass of consumers. These results emphasize the importance of consumer-producer interactions in stream ecosystems; disturbance of either component during geothermal development may result in substantial changes at other trophic levels as well. Complementary studies to those summarized above include (1) comparison of introduced and natural substrates for sampling benthic organisms, (2) distributional analysis of benthic biota along a geothermal gradient, and (3) evaluation of seasonal dynamics of suspended microorganisms in three streams that have different geothermal characteristics. This dissertation concludes with a review of primary consumption patterns in aquatic insects.

Lamberti, G.A.

1983-01-01

262

Hearing and hunting in red bats (Lasiurus borealis, Vespertilionidae): audiogram and ear properties.  

PubMed

We examined aspects of hearing in the red bat (Lasiurus borealis) related to its use of biosonar. Evoked potential audiograms, obtained from volume-conducted auditory brainstem responses, were obtained in two bats, and the sound pressure transformation of the pinna was measured in three specimens. Field-recorded echolocation signals were analysed for comparison. The fundamental sonar search calls sweep from 45 to 30 kHz (peak energy at 35 kHz), approach-phase calls sweep from 65 to 35 kHz (peak 40 kHz) and terminal calls sweep from 70 to 30 kHz (peak 45 kHz). The most sensitive region of the audiogram extended from 10 kHz to 45-55 kHz, with maximum sensitivity as low as 20 dB SPL occurring between 25 and 30 kHz. A relative threshold minimum occurred between 40 and 50 kHz. With increasing frequency, the acoustic axis of the pinna moves upwards and medially. The sound pressure transformation was noteworthy near 40-45 kHz; the acoustic axis was closest to the midline, the -3 dB acceptance angles showed local minima, and the pinna gain and interaural intensity difference were maximal. These results are related to the known echolocation and foraging behavior of this species and match the spectral components of approach- and final-phase calls. We conclude that co-evolution with hearing prey has put a higher selective pressure on optimizing localization and tracking of prey than on improving detection performance. PMID:9390945

Obrist, M K; Wenstrup, J J

1998-01-01

263

Growth and reproductive performance of broodstock shrimp reared in a biosecure recirculating aquaculture system versus a flow-through pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, viral pathogens have caused mass mortalities of farmed shrimp throughout the major shrimp farming regions of the world. In addition, the global shrimp farming industry has been criticized for negatively impacting coastal environments. These issues have raised concerns about the sustainability of traditional shrimp farming practices, and have prompted farmers and researchers to develop biosecure technologies

Clete A. Otoshi; Steve M. Arce; Shaun M. Moss

2003-01-01

264

Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp  

PubMed Central

The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

Walker, Peter J.; Winton, James R.

2010-01-01

265

Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Chennai, India.  

PubMed

Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing métier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested métier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers of Chennai (former Madras). Research took place in 2007 and 2008 (N = 137). Results suggest a general satisfaction with being in the fishery. However, a little over three-fifths of fishers said they would be willing to change fishing métier and about one-half said they would leave the occupation. About one-half also said they would not advise a young person to enter the occupation. The tendency to move away from the fishery is argued to reflect a growing pessimism about the future of the shrimp trawl fisheries, but also an increasing awareness of other economic opportunities. PMID:22997478

Bavinck, Maarten

2012-05-01

266

Shrimp oncoprotein nm23 is a functional nucleoside diphosphate kinase.  

PubMed

Biosynthesis of nucleoside triphosphates is critical for bioenergetics and nucleic acid replication, and this is achieved by nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK). As an emerging biological model and the global importance of shrimp culture, we have addressed the study of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) NDK. We demonstrated its activity and affinity towards deoxynucleoside diphosphates. Also, the quaternary structure obtained by gel filtration chromatography showed that shrimp NDK is a trimer. Affinity was in the micro-molar range for dADP, dGDP, dTDP and except for dCDP, which presented no detectable interaction by isothermal titration calorimetry, as described previously for Plasmodium falciparum NDK. This information is particularly important, as this enzyme could be used to test nucleotide analogs that can block white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) viral replication and to study its bioenergetics role during hypoxia and fasting. PMID:22528393

Quintero-Reyes, Idania E; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D; Sugich-Miranda, Rocio; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A; Velazquez-Contreras, Enrique F; Castillo-Yañez, Francisco J; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

2012-04-13

267

Bagasse-assisted bioremediation of ammonia from shrimp farm wastewater.  

PubMed

Development of new economically feasible ecofriendly products from agricultural wastes or byproducts for shrimp farm wastewater treatment is the objective of our continued research. Ammonia is a nitrogenous toxicant, which is commonly found in wastewater from shrimp farms. In the present study, we explored the possibility of the use of simply and inexpensively prepared bagasse products so that this abundant crop byproduct could be used to remove ammonia from shrimp farm wastewater. Bagasse, a natural highly fibrous lignocellulosic byproduct of sugarcane, was converted into five different products. Experimental results have shown that ammonia is efficiently removed from wastewater by four bagasse products with a dose of 1 to 6 g/L within 24 hours. The effect of bagasse products on other water quality parameters and growth kinetics of biofilm bacteria onto bagasse fiber have also been studied. Efficacies of products were compared by using statistical analysis. Products developed from bagasse are useful and economical. PMID:17120454

Krishnani, Kishore K; Parimala, V; Gupta, B P; Azad, I S; Meng, Xiaoguang; Abraham, M

2006-09-01

268

Functional difference between the sites of ribosomal 40S precursor 3' end formation in Xenopus laevis and Xenopus borealis.  

PubMed

In the ribosomal genes of X. laevis, the sequence GACTTGCNC is found about 60bp upstream of the gene promoter (T3) and is necessary and sufficient to cause termination of RNA polymerase I transcription. At the 3' end of the 40S precursor coding region (T2) a sequence differing by one nucleotide, GACTTGCNG, directs RNA 3' end formation but allows polymerase to transcribe on into the intergenic spacer (Labhart and Reeder, 1989, Genes and Dev. 4: 269-276). Sites corresponding to T2 and T3 are also found in a related species, X. borealis. Inspection of the T2 sequence in X. borealis reveals that it contains two copies of the terminator sequence, GACTTGCNC, located 15 and 96 bp downstream of the 3' end of the 40S precursor coding region. Here we present functional tests of those two T2 elements that show that, as predicted from the sequence, they both show termination activity and are functionally indistinguishable from the T3 site in X. laevis. These results suggest that X. laevis T2 is an example of a naturally occurring point mutation, and the inability to terminate transcription at T2 is an exception to the general pattern of ribosomal gene transcription in higher eukaryotes. PMID:2402447

Labhart, P; Reeder, R H

1990-09-11

269

Substance P-like immunoreactivity in the stomatogastric nervous systems of the crab Cancer borealis and the lobsters Panulirus interruptus and Homarus americanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of substance P-like immunoreactivity in the stomatogastric nervous systems of three decapod crustacean species, Cancer borealis, Homarus americanus, and Panulirus interruptus, was studied. The stomatogastric ganglion showed dense staining in the neuropil, but none in the somata. A single neuron stained in the esophageal ganglion. Lucifer yellow backfills and intracellular injections followed by incubation with the substance P

Diane Goldberg; Michael P. Nusbaum; Eve Marder

1988-01-01

270

Some radar observations of meteors and aurorae at 300 and 500 Mc\\/s using a large radio telescope--II Observations of the aurora borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar echoes from the aurora borealis have been obtained at frequencies of 300 and 500 Mc\\/s using a 250 ft radio telescope. Strong echoes detected during the afternoon hours originated from a layer of ionization at a mean height of 110 km and less than a few kilometres thick. Isolated weak echoes observed at other times originated from localized regions

D. Barber; H. K. Sutcliffe; C. D. Watkins

1962-01-01

271

Dust Properties of Hot R Coronae Borealis Stars and a Wolf-Rayet Central Star of a Planetary Nebula: In Search of the Missing Link.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present new Spitzer IIRS spectra of two hot R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars, one in the Galaxy,V348 Sgr, and one lying in the Large Magellanic Cloud, HV 2671. These two objects constitute a link between the RCB stars and the (WCL) class of central stars...

A. K. Speck B. Babler B. A. Whitney G. Sonneborn G. C. Clayton J. Nordhaus J. Roman-Duval J. S. Gallagher K. A. Camp K. A. Misselt M. Matsuura M. Meade M. Meixner M. J. Wolff O. De Marco W. A. Lawson W. R. Freeman

2012-01-01

272

Summary of studies on closed-polyculture of penaeid shrimp with fishes and moluscans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Closed-polyculture of Chinese penaeid shrimp, Taiwan red tilapia, and molluscans(constricted tagelus and bay scallop) was studied from 1995 to 1997 with the enclosure-experiment method, on a shrimp farm in Haiyang County, Shandong Province. Four structure-optimized closed-polyculture systems, i. e., the “shrimp-tagelus” system, the “shrimp-scallop” system, the “shrimp-tilapia” system and the “shrimp-tilapia-tagelus” system, were worked out. All these polyculture systems were superior to shrimp monoculture system in economic and ecological efficiencies. The order of these polyculture systems in efficiencies was “shrimptilapia-tagelus” > “shrimp-tagelus”>“shrimp-tilapia”>“shrimp-scallop”. The “shrimp-tilapia-tagelus” system raised the production by 28% and the utilization efficiency of input nitrogen by 85%. These closed-polyculture systems reduced the nitrogen discharge ratio to 6% 8%, instead of 40% 90% in the usual open culture systems. The ecological features of the systems were also investigated and many meaningful results have been obtained. The mechanism enhancing the efficiencies of these systems, the ways to enhance the efficiencies further and those to reuse the sedimented materials are disscussed.

Li, De-Shang; Dong, Shuang-Lin

2000-03-01

273

Polyculture of penaeid shrimp in ponds receiving brackish heated effluent from a power plant  

SciTech Connect

White shrimp Penaeus setiferus, were grown in monoculture or in polyculture with blue shrimp P. stylirostris, or striped mullet Mugil cephalus in 0.1-ha earthen ponds receiving heated effluent from the Houston Lighting and Power Company's Cedar Bayou Generating Station east of Baytown, Texas during 1978 and 1979. No detrimental effect of either species on white shrimp survival or yield was found. Blue shrimp was greater than that of white shrimp in the same ponds. Total yield was increased by polyculture. An experiment was performed in which blue shrimp were stocked conventionally into ponds, or stocked in three successive increments (staggered stocking study). A preliminary experiment was made in 1978, followed by a more expanded version in 1979. Staggered stocking increased pond yields compared to expected values from the control pond yields. There was no detrimental effect of staggered stocking on shrimp survival. Pond salinities were much lower in 1979 than in 1978, associated with lower shrimp growth, survival and yield. A distribution study performed in the staggered stocking study ponds revealed that blue shrimp in mixed-size culture tend to segregate by size, and that small shrimp show somewhat different distribution patterns and temporal activity patterns than large shrimp. All the organisms used also served as biological monitors of water quality. No detectable levels of pesticides were found in any of the cultured animals. The only heavy metal found in higher concentrations than in previous years at this site was chromium.

Ojeda, J.L.W.

1983-01-01

274

Metabolic profiles of penaied shrimp: dietary lipids and ovarian maturation.  

PubMed

The major impediment to the culture of penaeid shrimp in captivity in the United States has been an inability to obtain ovarian maturation and spawning. Lipid profiles of tissues (gonads, hepatopancreas, and tail muscle) of Penaeus setiferus caught at sea have shown that cholesterol is the dominant sterol and that polyunsaturated fatty acids known to be essential in man comprise a significant portion of the fatty acid fraction. A prioprietary marine ration contains cholesterol, but is devoid of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Ovarian maturation and spawning were obtained when the shrimp diet was supplemented with an annelid rich in lipids containing these compounds. The biochemical significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:7410512

Middleditch, B S; Missler, S R; Hines, H B; McVey, J P; Brown, A; Ward, D G; Lawrence, A L

1980-07-25

275

A feasability study of gamma irradiation on Thailand frozen shrimps (PENAEUS MONODON)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two lots of frozen precooked shrimps from Thaïland ``PENAEUS MONODON'' Black tiger variety were irradiated at 1.8 to 3.6 kGy. This way, it was hoped to compare the effects of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and the organoleptic properties of frozen precooked shrimps after transportation from Thailand to Canada. The results indicated that the extension of shelf-life based on mesophiles content was from 33 days for the control to more than 47 days for the irradiated shrimps stored at 3 +/- 1°C. The results of sensory evaluation gave slightly fresher odor for the control than the irradiated shrimps. On day one, this effect was more apparent. The results of hedonic tests showed that the irradiated shrimps were acceptable during storage. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the combined treatments (freezing plus irradiation) of precooked shrimps are useful for increasing the storage life of shrimps without affecting consumer acceptability.

Gagnon, M.; Lacroix, M. L.; Charbonneau, R.; Jobin, M.; Thibault, C.; Nouchpramool, K.; Charoen, S.

1995-02-01

276

Phylogeny and evolution of Indo-Pacific shrimp-associated gobies (Gobiiformes: Gobiidae).  

PubMed

Despite the ubiquity of obligate mutualisms on coral reef ecosystems, little is known about the evolution of many participating species. The shrimp gobies, known primarily from the coral reef habitats of the Indo-Pacific, are small benthic fishes that participate in a remarkable mutualism with alpheid shrimp. In this mutualism, the shrimp build and maintain a burrow that is guarded by the goby, and the shrimp and goby engage in an intricate tactile communication system. The mutualism is obligate for most shrimp gobies as participating species are highly vulnerable to predation when separated from a shrimp partner. We use phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data to infer evolutionary relationships among shrimp gobies, and between shrimp gobies and their non-mutualistic gobiid relatives. We show that the mutualist shrimp association has arisen twice among gobies, once in a clade composed of Amblyeleotris, Ctenogobiops, and Vanderhorstia, and a second time in a clade including Cryptocentrus, Mahidolia, Tomiamichthys and Stonogobiops. We then compare the evolution of traits within each shrimp goby clade and consider their intrarelationships. We document cryptic diversity among shrimp gobies, with three distinct clades delineated among Mahidolia mysticina specimens captured at the same locality, paired with the same shrimp species. Mahidolia is placed as sister to the Cryptocentrus species Cryptocentrus cinctus; both exhibit pronounced dichromatism, occurring in both brown and yellow (xanthic) forms. We additionally clarify species identities within Amblyeleotris, confirming that widespread similar species Amblyeleotris fasciata, Amblyeleotris steinitzi and Amblyeleotris wheeleri are all distinct. We hypothesize that the flexibility of gobiid gobies and alpheid shrimp to interact with mutualist partners, as well as the apparently highly beneficial nature of mutualism between them, has contributed to the dual evolution of shrimp-association among Indo-Pacific gobies. PMID:21315161

Thacker, Christine E; Thompson, Andrew R; Roje, Dawn M

2011-02-16

277

Tracking down R Coronae Borealis stars from their mid-infrared WISE colours  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) are hydrogen-deficient and carbon-rich supergiant stars. They are very rare, with only ~50 actually known in our Galaxy. Interestingly, RCBs are strongly suspected of being the evolved merger product of two white dwarfs and could therefore be an important tool for understanding supernovae type Ia in the double degenerate scenario. Constraints on the spatial distribution and the formation rate of such stars are needed to picture their origin and test it in the context of actual population synthesis results. Aims: It is crucial to increase the number of known RCBs significantly. With an absolute magnitude MV ~ -5 and a bright/hot circumstellar shell made of amorphous carbon grains, RCBs are so distinctive that we should nowadays be able to find them everywhere in our Galaxy using publicly available catalogues. In the optical, the search is difficult because RCBs are known to undergo unpredictable photometric declines; however, mono-epoch mid-infrared data can help us to discriminate RCBs among other dust-producing stars. The aim is to produce from the mid-infrared WISE and near-infrared 2MASS catalogues a new catalogue of reasonable size, enriched with RCB stars. Methods: Colour-colour cuts used on all stars detected are the main selection criteria. The selection efficiency was monitored using the 52 known RCBs located in the sky area covered by the WISE first preliminary data release. Results: It has been found that selection cuts in mid-infrared colour-colour diagrams are a very efficient method of distinguishing RCBs from other stars. An RCB enriched catalogue made of only 1602 stars was produced, with a high detection efficiency of about 77%. Spectral energy distributions of 49 known RCBs and 5 known HdCs are also presented with estimates of their photosphere and circumstellar shell temperatures. Conclusions: The newly released WISE all sky catalogue has proven to be a valuable resource in finding RCB stars. Actual scenarios predict that between 100 and 500 RCBs exist in our Galaxy. The newly created RCB enriched catalogue is an important step towards significantly increasing the number of known RCB stars and therefore better understanding their origin. Tables 3-5 ara available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFull Table 5 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/539/A51

Tisserand, P.

2012-03-01

278

What is the True Population of R Coronae Borealis Stars in the Galaxy?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are rare hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich supergiants. Two evolutionary scenarios have been suggested, a double degenerate merger of two white dwarfs (WDs), or a final helium shell flash in a PN central star. The evidence pointing toward a WD merger or a FF origin for RCB stars is contradictory. The distribution on the sky and radial velocities of the RCB stars tend toward those of the bulge population but a much larger sample of stars is needed to determine the true population. We need to discover RCB much more efficiently. In order to do this we are pursuing three lines of attack: 1. Light Curves: Using the traditional technique of identifying RCB stars from their characteristic large and irregular light variations, we have we have investigated the stars in the ASAS-3 south survey. We have discovered 21 new RCB stars. The different analysis applied allowed us to extend our detection efficiency to fainter magnitudes that would not have been easily accessible to classical analysis based on light-curve variability. 2. Color-Color Diagrams: All RCB stars have IR excesses. Using the recent release of the WISE All-Sky Catalog, a series of IR color-color cuts have produced a sample of candidates 1600) that may yield over 200 new RCB star identifications. A pilot project to get spectra of the 200 brighter candidates has yielded an unexpectedly high new discovery rate 20%) based on photometric colors alone. 3. Spectral Classification: We are attempting to develop a quantitative spectral classification system for the RCB stars so that they can perhaps be identified without an accompanying light curve. The cooler RCB stars look like carbon stars with strong C2 bands, but they can be differentiated from carbon stars by their extreme hydrogen deficiency and very low 13C/12C ratio. Also, the red CN bands are much weaker in RCB stars than in carbon stars. The number of RCB stars in the Galaxy may be consistent with the predicted number of He/CO WD mergers. Solving the mystery of how the RCB stars evolve would be a watershed event in the study of stellar evolution that will lead to a better understanding of other important types of stellar merger events such as Type Ia SNe.

Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Tisserand, P.; Welch, D. L.; Zhang, W.

2013-01-01

279

Baryonic Matter at Supercluster Scales: The Case of the Corona Borealis Supercluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a 24deg2 survey for baryonic matter at 33GHz in the Corona Borealis supercluster (CrB-SC) of galaxies (z=0.07), with the Very Small Array (VSA) interferometer (Génova-Santos et al. 2005, MNRAS 363, 79; 2008, arXiv: 0804.0199), we found a very strong temperature decrement in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). It has an amplitude of-230±23?K and is located near the center of the supercluster, in a position with no known galaxy clusters, and without a significant X-ray emission in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Monte-Carlo simulations discard the primordial CMB Gaussian field as a possible explanation for this decrement at a level of 99.6%. We therefore concluded that this could be indicative of a Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) effect produced either by a warm/hot gas distribution in the intercluster medium or by a farther unknown galaxy cluster. Here we present an optical study of the galaxy distribution in this region, aiming at elucidating whether it traces a possible warm/hot gas filamentary distribution or a galaxy cluster. First, we have studied the galaxy population down to r?20 magnitudes in the SDSS. This reveals an overdensity by a factor of 2 with respect to nearby control fields, but lower than in the galaxy clusters member of the CrB-SC. This indicates that the associated gas could at least be partially responsible for the observed CMB decrement. Second, we obtained spectroscopic redshifts, with the William Herschel Telescope (WHT), for a sample of galaxies in the region of the cold spot, and found evidence of a substructure with redshifts extending from 0.07 to 0.10. This suggests the existence of a dense filamentary structure with a length of several tens of Mpc. Finally, we investigated the presence of at least one farther cluster in the same line-of-sight, at z?0.11.

Padilla-Torres, Carmen Pilar; Rebolo, Rafael; Gutiérrez, Carlos M.; Génova-Santos, Ricardo; Rubiño-Martin, José Alberto

280

R Coronae Borealis Stars As The Result Of White Dwarf Mergers?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars have masses around a solar mass, are hydrogen-deficient variable stars that suddenly fade by several magnitudes at irregular intervals after which they gradually return to their original brightness over a period of some months. The fading is thought to be due to the formation of dust blocking light from the star. RCBs are often thought to be the result of the merger of a He and a CO white dwarfs. Here we present the results of 3 dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the merger of double white dwarf systems where total mass is 0.9 solar mass and initial mass ratios ranging between q=0.5 and q=1. We use a zero-temperature plus ideal gas equation of state that allows for heating through shocks. These simulations allow us to follow the evolution of the system for 10-20 initial orbital periods (1000-2000 seconds) to a point after merger when the combined object has settled into a nearly steady-state like configuration. A hot shell forms around the merged core in low q simulations, but not in the high q simulations. The conditions found in the steady state like configuration is used as input to a nucleosynthesis code. We are particularly interested in seeing how much 18O is formed, as observations of RCB stars often show a very high ratio of 18O to 16O of order unity. In the very best case scenario, we find a ratio of 1/12 in the hot shell. This work has been supported, in part, by grant OIA-0963375 from the U.S. National Science Foundation and, in part, by NASA/ATP grants NNX10AC72G. This research also has been made possible by grants of high-performance computing time on the TeraGrid (TG-AST090104), at LSU, and across LONI (Louisiana Optical Network Initiative), especially awards loni_astro08 and loni_astro09).

Staff, Jan E.; Menon, A.; Herwig, F.; Even, W.; Clayton, G.; Tohline, J.; Fryer, C. L.; Motl, P.; Geballe, T.

2012-01-01

281

The Fate of Outflow Channel Effluents in the Northern Lowlands of Mars: The Vastitas Borealis Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the morphology of the Northern Lowlands of Mars primarily with MGS MOLA data. Most of the Northern Lowlands is covered with the Vastitas Borealis Formation (VBF), which has a distinctive kilometer-scale roughness signature. It has sharp boundaries clearly seen in the map of kilometer-scale roughness. We suggest that the VBF was formed of sediments brought by the water floods responsible for the formation of the outflow channels. These sediments were deposited in the Late Hesperian over Early-Hesperian- or Late-Noachian-age substrate interpreted as ridged volcanic plains. The VBF roughness characteristics require at least 100 m thickness of sediments. The total inferred volume of the VBF material approximately corresponds to the volume of material removed from the outflow channels. The evolution of the water loaded with sediments after it left the channels includes three phases. (1) Violent emplacement of warm water followed by a short period of intensive evaporation from the surface and near-surface layer and intensive convection. During this phase the water maintained and redistributed its large suspended sediment load. Water vapor strongly influenced the climate, at least, for a geologically short time. When the temperature of the water reached ~277K, boiling and intensive convection ceased and the water deposited the sediments. (2) Geologically fast ( ~ 104 years) freezing accompanied by weak convective water movement. Solar tides in the large ice-covered seas could have eroding potential under some specific conditions. (3) Sublimation of the ice lasted longer than freezing. The rate and latitudinal dependence of the sublimation, as well as the locations of water vapor condensation crucially depend on the planetary obliquity, climate, and sediment veneering of the ice. The ice sheet underwent bombardment with relatively small meteorites. There is evidence for sequential outflow events that occurred before the ice sheet completely sublimed. There is also evidence for emplacement of lava flows on the ice-covered surface. The modern surface of the VBF is a residue of the final sublimation of this ice sheet. The modern polar cap is probably a result of relatively recent migration of water rather than a remnant of the VBF-forming ice sheet.

Kreslavsky, M. A.; Head, J. W.

2001-05-01

282

The ongoing pursuit of R Coronae Borealis stars: the ASAS-3 survey strikes again  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) are rare, hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich supergiant variable stars that are likely the evolved merger products of pairs of CO and He white dwarfs. Only 55 RCB stars have been found in our galaxy and their distribution on the sky is weighted heavily by microlensing survey field positions. A less biased wide-area survey would enable us to test competing evolutionary scenarios, understand the population or populations that produce RCBs, and constrain their formation rate. Aims: The ASAS-3 survey monitored the sky south of declination +28 deg between 2000 and 2010 to a limiting magnitude of V = 14. We searched ASAS-3 for RCB variables using several different methods to ensure that the probability of RCB detection was as high as possible and to reduce selection biases based on luminosity, temperature, dust production activity and shell brightness. Methods: Candidates whose light curves were visually inspected were pre-selected based on their infrared (IR) excesses due to warm dust in their circumstellar shells using the WISE and/or 2MASS catalogues. Criteria on light curve variability were also applied when necessary to minimise the number of objects. Initially, we searched for RCB stars among the ASAS-3 ACVS1.1 variable star catalogue, then among the entire ASAS-3 south source catalogue, and finally directly interrogated the light curve database for objects that were not catalogued in either of those. We then acquired spectra of 104 stars to determine their real nature using the SSO/WiFeS spectrograph. Results: We report 21 newly discovered RCB stars and 2 new DY Per stars. Two previously suspected RCB candidates were also spectroscopically confirmed. Our methods allowed us to extend our detection efficiency to fainter magnitudes that would not have been easily accessible to discovery techniques based on light curve variability. The overall detection efficiency is about 90% for RCBs with maximum light brighter than V ~ 13. Conclusions: With these new discoveries, 76 RCBs are now known in our Galaxy and 22 in the Magellanic Clouds. This growing sample is of great value to constrain the peculiar and disparate atmosphere composition of RCBs. Most importantly, we show that the spatial distribution and apparent magnitudes of Galactic RCB stars is consistent with RCBs being part of the Galactic bulge population.

Tisserand, P.; Clayton, G. C.; Welch, D. L.; Pilecki, B.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Kilkenny, D.

2013-03-01

283

Spectral tuning and the visual ecology of mantis shrimps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compound eyes of mantis shrimps (stomatopod crustaceans) include an unparalleled diversity of visual pigments and spectral receptor classes in retinas of each species. We compared the visual pigment and spectral receptor classes of 12 species of gonodactyloid stomatopods from a variety of photic environ- ments, from intertidal to deep water ( 4 50m), to learn how spectral tuning in

Thomas W. Cronin; N. Justin Marshall; Roy L. Caldwell

2000-01-01

284

Investigation of the identification of irradiated shrimps and codfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

From international colloquium: the identification of irradiated ; foodstuffs; Karlsruhe, Germany (24 Oct 1973). Type Crangon vulgaris shrimps were ; irradiated with 100, 250 and 500 krad of gamma rays several hours after the catch. ; It was found that, although spectropolarimetry given lower optical rotation ; values after irradiation, it can only be used for comparative studies. A ;

A. R. Deschreider; J. M. Vigneron

1973-01-01

285

Bringing Scientific Inquiry Alive Using Real Grass Shrimp Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ("Palaemonetes pugio") to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Education through the Living Marine…

Aultman, Terry; Curran, Mary Carla; Partridge, Michael

2010-01-01

286

Treatment of harvest discharge from intensive shrimp ponds by settling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluent from intensively managed shrimp ponds was examined during harvest when ponds were drained. Concentrations of nutrients and solids in effluents were significantly higher during the final 20 cm of discharge (16% of pond volume), but greatest increases occurred during the final 5 cm of discharge (3.9% of pond volume). When the final 20 cm of pond discharge was allowed

D. R. Teichert-Coddington; D. B. Rouse; A. Potts; C. E. Boyd

1999-01-01

287

Semi-Intensive Monoculture of the Tiger Shrimp.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The semi-intensive monoculture of the tiger shrimp was demonstrated in an earth pond of the Brackishwater Aquaculture Development Centre from 1 December 1979 to 31 March 1980. The size of the pond is 2500 sq m. Within four months rearing without the nurse...

B. Tiensongrusmee R. Manik

1980-01-01

288

MULTIPLE PATERNITY IN THE THALASSINIDEAN GHOST SHRIMP, CALLICHIRUS ISLAGRANDE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adult ghost shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Thalassinidea; Callichirus islagrande) live in burrows that can extend over a meter in depth. Mating presumably occurs in these burrows but has never been directly observed in C. islagrande or any other thalassinidean. A variety of possible mating systems is ...

289

Design Choices in the SHRIMP System: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SHRIMP cluster-computing system has progressed to a point of relative maturity; a variety of applications are running on a 16-node system. We have enough experience to understand what we did right and wrong in designing and building the system. In this paper we discuss some of the lessons we learned about computer architecture, and about the challenges involved in

Matthias A. Blumrich; Richard D. Alpert; Yuqun Chen; Douglas W. Clark; Stefanos N. Damianakis; Cezary Dubnicki; Edward W. Felten; Liviu Iftode; Kai Li; Margaret Martonosi; Robert A. Shillner

1998-01-01

290

Early Experience with Message-Passing on the SHRIMP Multicomputer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SHRIMP multicomputer provides virtual memory-mapped communication (VMMC), which supports protected, user-level message passing, allows user programs to perform their own buffer management, and separates data transfers from control transfers so that a data transfer can be done without the intervention of the receiving node CPU. An important question is whether such a mechanism can indeed deliver all of the

Edward W. Felten; Richard D. Alpert; Angelos Bilas; Matthias A. Blumrich; Douglas W. Clark; Stefanos N. Damianakis; Cezary Dubnicki; Liviu Iftode; Kai Li

1996-01-01

291

White spots? A loaded question for shrimp farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether clinical white spots in shrimp appear only because of white spot disease (WSD) is a question needed to be asked in the light of new causes for development of white spots. The answer is 'no'. In fact, white spots could be due to WSD caused by White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or bacterial disease or high water pH. Most

A. K. Sahoo; Prakash Patil; K. M. Shankar

292

Occurrence of toxigenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains in shrimp in Iran.  

PubMed

Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a common cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in people, is frequently isolated from a variety of seafood, including shrimp. The virulence of clinical V. parahaemolyticus strains is commonly associated with expression of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), which are encoded by the tdh and trh genes. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of total and toxigenic V. parahaemolyticus in shrimp caught off the south coast of Iran. Three hundred freshly caught shrimp from four different species, Penaeus monodon, Penaeus semisulcatus, Penaeus indicus, and Penaeus merguiensis, were collected in three provinces along Persian Gulf in the south coast of Iran. Shrimp were collected at the end of each month from July 2008 to July 2009. The samples were analyzed for the presence of V. parahaemolyticus and the occurrence of toxigenic strains. Using conventional bacteriological techniques, 29 V. parahaemolyticus isolates were identified in which 28 strains were confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the tlh gene of V. parahaemolyticus. Using polymerase chain reaction assays targeting the tdh and trh genes, five (1.7%) and two (0.7%) isolates were tdh positive and trh positive, respectively. The tdh-positive isolates were commonly detected in summer, whereas no toxigenic strain was isolated in winter. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first report of the presence of toxigenic tdh- and trh-positive V. parahaemolyticus strains in the seafood in Iran. PMID:20528175

Rahimi, Ebrahim; Ameri, Mehrdad; Doosti, Abbas; Gholampour, Ahmad Reza

2010-09-01

293

Adsorption of polychlorinated biphenyl (aroclor 1254) on shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), when discharged into a river or lake, accumulate on the sediment because of their low solubility, finally assuming relatively high concentrations. Thus there are numerous ways by which PCBs can find their way into marine food products. When shrimp were exposed to i00 ppb of Aroclor 125A for ~ hours, they accumulated 1300 ppb of PCBs in

Mahmood A. Khan; Ramu M. Rao; Arthur F. Novak

1976-01-01

294

Talking about Brine Shrimps: Three Ways of Analysing Pupil Conversations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Applies three distinct analyses to recorded and transcribed student conversations (n=240) about brine shrimps. The complementary analytic methods provide information on the content of pupils' conversations in terms of the observations made, the ways in which pupils make sense of their observations, and the ways in which students use conversation…

Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael J.

1999-01-01

295

Brine Shrimp and Their Habitat, An Environmental Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within the existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and students are encouraged to work at their own speed. The philosophy of the unit is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages independent student work. This unit explores the life cycle of brine shrimp and…

National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

296

Biocontrol of pathogens in shrimp hatcheries using bacteriophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microflora associated with larval stages of shrimp could affect the health and development of the larvae. Some bacteria such as luminous Vibrio harveyi cause serious mortalities. Consequent to the ban on use of most antibiotics in aquaculture, there is a need for alternate technologies for control of bacterial pathogens. Bacteriophages have a potential to control bacterial pathogens. This paper reports

Indrani Karunasagar; M. M. Shivu; S. K. Girisha; G. Krohne; Iddya Karunasagar

2007-01-01

297

Issues, impacts, and implications of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just beginning to be considered in Thailand, partial recirculating and integrated intensive farming systems are producing promising, if somewhat limited, results. By providing on-site treatment of the effluent from the shrimp growout ponds, there is less reliance on using outside water supplies, believed to be the source of the contamination. The explosion in the number of intensively operated shrimp farms has not only impacted the coastal zone of Thailand, but has also resulted in an unsustainable aquaculture industry. Abandonment of shrimp ponds due to either drastic, disease-caused collapses or more grandual, year-to-year reductions in the productivity of the pond is common. To move Thailand towards a more sustainable aquaculture industry and coastal zone environment, integrated aquaculture management is needed. Components of integrated aquaculture management are technical and institutional. The technical components involve deployment of wastewater treatment and minimal water-use systems aimed at making aquaculture operations more hydraulically closed. Before this is possible, technical and economic feasibility studies on enhanced nitrification systems and organic solids removal by oxidation between production cycles and/or the utilization of plastic pond liners need to be conducted. The integration of semi-intensive aquaculture within mangrove areas also should be investigated since mangrove losses attributable to shrimp aquaculture are estimated to be between 16 and 32% of the total mangrove area destroyed betweeen 1979 and 1993. Government policy needs to devote as much attention to sustainability issues as it has on promoting intensive pond culture. Such a balanced policy would include training and education monitoring and enforcement, rehabilitating abandoned ponds, managing land use within the coastal zone, more community involvement, and government reorganization to eliminate overlapping jurisdictions among agencies. As integrated aquaculture management becomes more the practice than the exception, less risk of crop failure to the industry and reduced discharge loadings from intensively managed shrimp ponds to receiving waters can be expected. Projected limitations on growing and marketing shrimp in the future, such as scarcity of land and broodstock, continued disease outbreaks, negative publicity, regulatory enforcement, water treatment and solids disposal costs, and increased competition from growers in other Asian countries will also drive the government and the industry towards adopting integrated aquaculture management.

Dierberg, Forrest E.; Kiattisimkul, Woraphan

1996-09-01

298

Microhabitat and shrimp abundance within a Norwegian cold-water coral ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold-water coral reefs are highly heterogeneous ecosystems comprising of a range of diverse microhabitats. In a typical European cold-water coral reef various biogenic habitats (live colonies of locally common coral species such as Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, dead coral structure, coral rubble) may be surrounded and intermixed with non-biogenic habitats (soft sediment, hardground, gravel/pebbles, steep walls). To date, studies of distribution of sessile fauna across these microhabitats have been more numerous than those investigating mobile fauna distribution. In this study we quantified shrimp densities associated with key CWC habitat categories at the Røst reef, Norway, by analysing image data collected by towed video sled. We also investigated shrimp distribution patterns on the local scale (<40 cm) and how these may vary with habitat. We found shrimp abundances at the Røst reef to be on average an order of magnitude greater in biogenic reef habitats than in non-biogenic habitats. Greatest shrimp densities were observed in association with live Paragorgia arborea habitats (43 shrimp m-2, SD = 35.5), live Primnoa resedaeformis habitats (41.6 shrimp m-2, SD = 26.1) and live Lophelia pertusa habitats (24.4 shrimp m-2, SD = 18.6). In non-biogenic habitats shrimp densities were <2 shrimp m-2. We conclude that CWC reef habitats clearly support greater shrimp densities than the surrounding non-biogenic habitats on the Norwegian margin.

Purser, A.; Ontrup, J.; Schoening, T.; Thomsen, L.; Tong, R.; Unnithan, V.; Nattkemper, T. W.

2013-02-01

299

Microhabitat and shrimp abundance within a Norwegian cold-water coral ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold-water coral (CWC) reefs are heterogeneous ecosystems comprising numerous microhabitats. A typical European CWC reef provides various biogenic microhabitats (within, on and surrounding colonies of coral species such as Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, or formed by their remains after death). These microhabitats may be surrounded and intermixed with non-biogenic microhabitats (soft sediment, hard ground, gravel/pebbles, steep walls). To date, studies of distribution of sessile fauna across CWC reefs have been more numerous than those investigating mobile fauna distribution. In this study we quantified shrimp densities associated with key CWC microhabitat categories at the Røst Reef, Norway, by analysing image data collected by towed video sled in June 2007. We also investigated shrimp distribution patterns on the local scale (<40 cm) and how these may vary with microhabitat. Shrimp abundances at the Røst Reef were on average an order of magnitude greater in biogenic reef microhabitats than in non-biogenic microhabitats. Greatest shrimp densities were observed in association with live Paragorgia arborea microhabitat (43 shrimp m-2, SD = 35.5), live Primnoa resedaeformis microhabitat (41.6 shrimp m-2, SD = 26.1) and live Lophelia pertusa microhabitat (24.4 shrimp m-2, SD = 18.6). In non-biogenic microhabitat, shrimp densities were <2 shrimp m-2. CWC reef microhabitats appear to support greater shrimp densities than the surrounding non-biogenic microhabitats at the Røst Reef, at least at the time of survey.

Purser, A.; Ontrup, J.; Schoening, T.; Thomsen, L.; Tong, R.; Unnithan, V.; Nattkemper, T. W.

2013-09-01

300

Fish and opossum shrimp entrainment in the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Power Plant  

SciTech Connect

Impacts of operating the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Power Plant on fish and opossum shrimp (mysis relicta) were investigated from 1981 to 1985 at Twin Lakes, Colorado to determine any negative effects on the Twin Lakes fishery. Daytime generation cycles entrained shrimp at densities averaging 0.05 to 0.23 shrimp/m/sup 3/ of discharge. Eight hour daytime generation cycles would entrain 50,000 to 300,000 shrimp at these rates. Generation cycles which occurred after dark entrained many times more shrimp with densities as high as 1.21 shrimp/m/sup 3/ of discharge. Entrainment density during nighttime pump-back cycles was much greater; averaging 2 to 17 shrimp/m/sup 3/ discharged. Six to 44 million shrimp were entrained during typical 8 h pump-back cycles. Differences between daytime and nighttime entrainment rates appeared to be caused by migration of shrimp into the water column at night making them more vulnerable to entrainment. Losses were estimated to have reduced Lower Twin Lake shrimp abundance by 39% in 1985.

Maiolie, M.A.

1987-01-01

301

Retention and tissue damage of PSP and NSP toxins in shrimp: Is cultured shrimp a potential vector of toxins to human population?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic microalgae outbreaks have caused significant economic losses in the Mexican aquaculture industry. Blooms that involve PSP and NSP phycotoxins are two of the most dangerous, causing harmful effects to the environment, economy and public health. The exact metabolic mechanism of these toxins in shrimp still remains unknown. Because shrimp consume microalgae their edible tissues are clearly possible vectors for

Jesús Pérez Linares; José Luis Ochoa; Ana Gago Martínez

2009-01-01

302

TRENDS TOWARD DECREASING SIZE OF BROWN SHRIMP, PENAEUSAZTECUS, AND WHITE SHRIMP, PENAEUSSETIFERUS, IN REPORTED ANNUAL CATCHES FROM TEXAS AND LOUISIANA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exponential model adequately characterized the size composition (expressed as a regression of transformed cumulative percentage ofweighton size category) ofreported annual catches ofbrown and white shrimp in Texas and Louisiana from 1959 to 1976. Louisiana catches contained considerably greater proportions of small shrimp than did Texas catches. For both species and States, there was a significant trend toward increase in

CHARLES W. CAILLOUET; FRANK J. PATELLA; WILUAM B. JACKSON

1980-01-01

303

Comparison of NIMS and MALDI platforms for neuropeptide and lipid mass spectrometric imaging in C. borealis brain tissue.  

PubMed

Nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS) is a recently developed matrix-free laser desorption/ionization technique that has shown promise for peptide analyses. It is also useful in mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) studies of small molecule drugs, metabolites, and lipids, minimizing analyte diffusion caused by matrix application. In this study, NIMS and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MSI of a crustacean model organism Cancer borealis brain were compared. MALDI was found to perform better than NIMS in these neuropeptide imaging experiments. Twelve neuropeptides were identified in MALDI MSI experiments whereas none were identified in NIMS MSI experiments. In addition, lipid profiles were compared using each ionization method. Both techniques provided similar lipid profiles in the m/z range 700 - 900. PMID:23544036

Sturm, Robert M; Greer, Tyler; Chen, Ruibing; Hensen, Broderick; Li, Lingjun

2013-01-29

304

Long Term Monitoring of Grass Shrimp Palaemonetes spp. Population Metrics at Sites with Agricultural Runoff Influences.  

PubMed

Rising concern over pesticide usage near estuarine systems and evidence of physical and physiological impacts on estuarine organisms have strengthened the need to better identify the ecological effects of nonpoint source runoff. Grass shrimp, Palaemonetes spp., are ecologically important and abundant marsh inhabitants that may be impacted by anthropogenic contamination. Populations of grass shrimp were sampled monthly, over a period of ten years, at four sites in South Carolina with varying upland land use characteristics. Spatial and temporal trends in grass shrimp densities were noted over time and between sites. Agricultural and golf course land usage corresponded with decreased grass shrimp population levels, overall shrimp size, and percentage of gravid females. Conservation methods, such as the use of best management practices (BMPs) and integrated pesticide management (IPM) at agricultural fields, corresponded with increased grass shrimp population density. PMID:21676755

Leight, Andrew K; Scott, Geoffrey I; Fulton, Michael H; Daugomah, James W

2005-01-01

305

Application of Nucleic-acid-based Therapeutics for Viral Infections in Shrimp Aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral infections are one of the major reasons for the huge economic losses in shrimp farming. The control of viral diseases\\u000a in shrimp remains a serious challenge for the shrimp aquacultural industry, with major pathogens, such as the white spot syndrome\\u000a virus, yellow head virus, Taura syndrome virus, hepatopancreatic parvovirus, and baculoviruses, being geographically widespread.\\u000a In the absence of a

Mudagandur S. Shekhar; Yuanan Lu

2009-01-01

306

Occurrence of Vibrio   parahaemolyticus and Its Specific Phages from Shrimp Ponds in East Coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a natural microflora of marine and coastal water bodies and associated with mortality of larval shrimp in penaeid shrimp\\u000a in ponds. Bacteriophages occur virtually in all places where their hosts exist. In this study, total distribution of V. parahaemolyticus and its phages were examined in shrimp ponds, seawater, estuary, animal surface, and tissues. Total vibrio count in sediments\\u000a of

K. M. Alagappan; B. Deivasigamani; S. T. Somasundaram; S. Kumaran

2010-01-01

307

Acute toxic effects of endosulfan sulfate on three life stages of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, the primary degradation product of the insecticide endosulfan, was determined in three life stages of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). After 96 h exposure to endosulfan sulfate, the grass shrimp adult LC50 was 0.86 ? g\\/L (95% CI 0.56–1.31), the grass shrimp larvae LC50 was 1.64 ? g\\/L (95% CI 1.09–2.47) and

Peter B. Key; Katy W. Chung; John J. Venturella; Brian Shaddrick; Michael H. Fulton

2009-01-01

308

Efficient decomposition of shrimp shell waste using Bacillus cereus and Exiguobacterium acetylicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two bacterial cultures were isolated and tested for degradation of shrimp shell waste. According to morphological examination,\\u000a physiological tests, and applied molecular techniques, isolates were identified as Bacillus cereus and Exiguobacterium acetylicum. Both strains were cultivated separately in flasks with 100 mL of shrimp shell waste broth (3% of washed, dried and ground\\u000a shrimp shell waste in tap water, pH 7.0)

Iryna Sorokulova; April Krumnow; Ludmila Globa; Vitaly Vodyanoy

2009-01-01

309

Determination of the infectious nature of the agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome affecting penaeid shrimp.  

PubMed

A new emerging disease in shrimp, first reported in 2009, was initially named early mortality syndrome (EMS). In 2011, a more descriptive name for the acute phase of the disease was proposed as acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome (AHPNS). Affecting both Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei and black tiger shrimp P. monodon, the disease has caused significant losses in Southeast Asian shrimp farms. AHPNS was first classified as idiopathic because no specific causative agent had been identified. However, in early 2013, the Aquaculture Pathology Laboratory at the University of Arizona was able to isolate the causative agent of AHPNS in pure culture. Immersion challenge tests were employed for infectivity studies, which induced 100% mortality with typical AHPNS pathology to experimental shrimp exposed to the pathogenic agent. Subsequent histological analyses showed that AHPNS lesions were experimentally induced in the laboratory and were identical to those found in AHPNS-infected shrimp samples collected from the endemic areas. Bacterial isolation from the experimentally infected shrimp enabled recovery of the same bacterial colony type found in field samples. In 3 separate immersion tests, using the recovered isolate from the AHPNS-positive shrimp, the same AHPNS pathology was reproduced in experimental shrimp with consistent results. Hence, AHPNS has a bacterial etiology and Koch's Postulates have been satisfied in laboratory challenge studies with the isolate, which has been identified as a member of the Vibrio harveyi clade, most closely related to V. parahemolyticus. PMID:23836769

Tran, Loc; Nunan, Linda; Redman, Rita M; Mohney, Leone L; Pantoja, Carlos R; Fitzsimmons, Kevin; Lightner, Donald V

2013-07-01

310

Penaeus monodon tropomyosin induces CD4 T-cell proliferation in shrimp-allergic patients.  

PubMed

Shellfish allergy affects approximately 2% of the population and can cause immediate hypersensitivity reactions such as urticaria, swelling, difficulty breathing, and, in some cases, anaphylaxis. Tropomyosin is the major shrimp allergen and binds IgE in two-thirds of patients. A total of 38 shrimp-allergic patients and 20 negative control subjects were recruited and evaluated on the basis of history, skin prick testing, specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation in response to shrimp tropomyosin or shrimp tropomyosin-derived peptides. Of the classically allergic patients by history, 59% tested positive for serum shrimp IgE antibodies. Of patients with shrimp-specific IgE in sera, 70% also had significant IgE levels specific for shrimp tropomyosin. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from classically shrimp-allergic patients proliferated in a dose-dependent manner in response to to tropomyosin. In addition, a T-cell line derived from a shrimp-allergic patient proliferated specifically in response to tropomyosin-derived peptides. These studies suggest a strategy for immunotherapy using a tropomyosin-derived T-cell epitope vaccination. PMID:22244920

Wang, Shuping; Delgado, Julio C; Ravkov, Eugene; Eckels, David D; Georgelas, Ann; Pavlov, Igor Y; Cusick, Matthew; Sebastian, Kate; Gleich, Gerald J; Wagner, Lori A

2011-12-28

311

Differences in the susceptibility of American white shrimp larval substages (Litopenaeus vannamei) to four vibrio species.  

PubMed

The rapid expansion of commercial culture of penaeid shrimp is threatened by Vibrio diseases affecting survival and growth. These opportunistic microorganisms are considered part of the normal ecosystem of penaeid shrimp and cause diseases only under conditions that favor them over the host. Shrimp larvae show different susceptibility to these pathogenic agents. In the present work, we report on a comparative study of the susceptibility of all American white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) larval substages to four potentially pathogenic Vibrio species (V. harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, and V. penaeicida). Strains of these bacterial species were used to infect nauplii, protozoea I-III, mysis I-III, and postlarvae 1 by immersion challenge at 10(3), 10(5), or 10(7) cfu mL(-1) for 30 min. V. alginolyticus infection had no significant effect on survival rate, compared to control, in all shrimp larvae and at all doses tested. Shrimp larvae infected with V. alginolyticus showed a high survival rate compared to other Vibrio species at the three dose levels. V. penaeicida produced a significant mortality effect (P < 0.01) in all shrimp substages and only in postlarvae 1 at low infection dose (10(3) cfu mL(-1)). V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus induced significant mortality rates (P < 0.01) only at high doses in shrimp larvae. In summary, shrimp larvae demonstrated an age susceptibility that depends on the Vibrio species and dose level. PMID:12009802

Aguirre-Guzmán, G; Vázquez-Juárez, R; Ascencio, F

2001-11-01

312

Physico-chemical characteristics of the Vellar estuary in relation to shrimp farming.  

PubMed

All the physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, LEC, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and nutrients like total phosphorus, inorganic phosphate, nitrite and silicate studied in relation to shrimp farming. There are as many as 42 shrimp farms situated on the banks of Vellar estuary. These farms discharge the used water into the estuary, which may influence the biota there. In the present study the physico-chemical feature in relation to shrimp farming were studied in 3 stations of the estuary. When compared with the previous data from Vellar estuary there was no much difference in physico-chemical characteristics due to shrimp farming. PMID:12974418

Rajasegar, M

2003-01-01

313

75 FR 16436 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern...

2010-04-01

314

77 FR 40574 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis), southern...

2012-07-10

315

Structure determination by MALDI-IRMPD mass spectrometry and exoglycosidase digestions of O-linked oligosaccharides from Xenopus borealis egg jelly.  

PubMed

Differences in the fertilization behavior of Xenopus borealis from X. laevis and X. tropicalis suggest differences in the glycosylation of the egg jellies. To test this assumption, O-linked glycans were chemically released from the egg jelly coat glycoproteins of X. borealis. Over 50 major neutral glycans were observed, and no anionic glycans were detected from the released O-glycan pool. Preliminary structures of ?30 neutral oligosaccharides were determined using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) infrared multiphoton dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (MS). The mass fingerprint of a group of peaks for the core-2 structure of O-glycans was conserved in the tandem mass spectra and was instrumental in rapid and efficient structure determination. Among the 29 O-glycans, 22 glycans contain the typical core-2 structure, 3 glycans have the core-1 structure and 2 glycans contained a previously unobserved core structure with hexose at the reducing end. There were seven pairs of structural isomers observed in the major O-linked oligosaccharides. To further elucidate the structures of a dozen O-linked glycans, specific and targeted exoglycosidase digestions were carried out and the products were monitored with MALDI-MS. Reported here are the elucidated structures of O-linked oligosaccharides from glycoproteins of X. borealis egg jelly coats. The structural differences in O-glycans from jelly coats of X. borealis and its close relatives may provide a better understanding of the structure-function relationships and the role of glycans in the fertilization process within Xenopodinae. PMID:21220250

Li, Bensheng; Russell, Scott C; Zhang, Jinhua; Hedrick, Jerry L; Lebrilla, Carlito B

2011-01-09

316

Methylation at CpG sequences does not influence histone H1 binding to a nucleosome including a Xenopus borealis 5 S rRNA gene.  

PubMed

We demonstrate that methylation of the 12 dinucleotide CpGs within a GC-rich DNA fragment containing a Xenopus borealis 5 S rRNA gene does not influence histone H1 binding to naked or nucleosomal 5 S DNA. Thus a simple mechanism in which histone H1 selectively associates with nucleosomes containing methylated CpG cannot explain the repressive effects of methylation on gene activity. PMID:7876175

Nightingale, K; Wolffe, A P

1995-03-01

317

Structure determination by MALDI-IRMPD mass spectrometry and exoglycosidase digestions of O-linked oligosaccharides from Xenopus borealis egg jelly  

PubMed Central

Differences in the fertilization behavior of Xenopus borealis from X. laevis and X. tropicalis suggest differences in the glycosylation of the egg jellies. To test this assumption, O-linked glycans were chemically released from the egg jelly coat glycoproteins of X. borealis. Over 50 major neutral glycans were observed, and no anionic glycans were detected from the released O-glycan pool. Preliminary structures of ?30 neutral oligosaccharides were determined using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) infrared multiphoton dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (MS). The mass fingerprint of a group of peaks for the core-2 structure of O-glycans was conserved in the tandem mass spectra and was instrumental in rapid and efficient structure determination. Among the 29 O-glycans, 22 glycans contain the typical core-2 structure, 3 glycans have the core-1 structure and 2 glycans contained a previously unobserved core structure with hexose at the reducing end. There were seven pairs of structural isomers observed in the major O-linked oligosaccharides. To further elucidate the structures of a dozen O-linked glycans, specific and targeted exoglycosidase digestions were carried out and the products were monitored with MALDI-MS. Reported here are the elucidated structures of O-linked oligosaccharides from glycoproteins of X. borealis egg jelly coats. The structural differences in O-glycans from jelly coats of X. borealis and its close relatives may provide a better understanding of the structure–function relationships and the role of glycans in the fertilization process within Xenopodinae.

Li, Bensheng; Russell, Scott C; Zhang, Jinhua; Hedrick, Jerry L; Lebrilla, Carlito B

2011-01-01

318

Shrimp lipids: a source of cancer chemopreventive compounds.  

PubMed

Shrimp is one of the most popular seafoods worldwide, and its lipids have been studied for biological activity in both, muscle and exoskeleton. Free fatty acids, triglycerides, carotenoids, and other lipids integrate this fraction, and some of these compounds have been reported with cancer chemopreventive activities. Carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied for chemopreventive properties, in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Their mechanisms of action depend on the lipid chemical structure and include antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-mutagenic, and anti-inflammatory activities, among others. The purpose of this review is to lay groundwork for future research about the properties of the lipid fraction of shrimp. PMID:24135910

López-Saiz, Carmen-María; Suárez-Jiménez, Guadalupe-Miroslava; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Burgos-Hernández, Armando

2013-10-16

319

Shrimp hemocytes release extracellular traps that kill bacteria.  

PubMed

Extracellular traps (ETs) are formed from the DNA, histones and cytoplasmic antimicrobial proteins that are released from a range of vertebrate immune-cells in response to pathogenic stimulation. This novel defense mechanism has not been demonstrated in invertebrates. In this study, we investigated the formation of ETs in the crustacean Litopenaeus vannamei. We found that stimulation of shrimp hemocytes with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and live Escherichia coli all led to the formation of the characteristic ET fibers made from host cell DNA. After E. coli stimulation, we found that histone proteins were co-localized with these extracellular DNA fibers. The results further showed that E. coli were trapped by these ET-like fibers and that some of the trapped bacteria were permeabilized. All of these results are characteristic of the ETs that are seen in vertebrates and we therefore conclude that shrimp are also capable of forming extracellular traps. PMID:23817142

Ng, Tze Hann; Chang, Sheng-Hsiung; Wu, Miao-Hsien; Wang, Han-Ching

2013-06-28

320

Caerulein-and xenopsin-related peptides with insulin-releasing activities from skin secretions of the clawed frogs, Xenopus borealis and Xenopus amieti (Pipidae).  

PubMed

Caerulein-related peptides were identified in norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of the tetraploid frog Xenopus borealis and the octoploid frog Xenopus amieti using negative ion electrospray mass spectrometry and their primary structures determined by positive ion tandem (MS/MS) mass spectrometry. X. borealis caerulein-B1 (pGlu-Gln-Asp-Tyr(SO(3))-Gly-Thr-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe.NH2) contains an additional Gly(5) residue compared with X. laevis caerulein and caerulein-B2 (pGlu-Asp-Tyr(SO(3))-Thr-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe.NH2) contains a Gln(2) deletion. X. amieti caerulein was identical to the X. laevis peptide. In addition, xenopsin, identical to the peptide from X. laevis, together with xenopsin-AM2 (pGlu-Gly-Arg-Arg-Pro-Trp-Ile- Leu) that contains the substitution Lys(3)?Arg were isolated from X. amieti secretions. X. borealis caerulein-B1, and X. amieti xenopsin and xenopsin-AM2 produced significant (P<0.05) and concentration-dependent stimulations of insulin release from the rat BRIN-BD11 clonal ? cell line at concentrations ?30nM. The peptides did not stimulate the release of lactate dehydrogenase at concentrations up to 3?M demonstrating that the integrity of the plasma membrane had been preserved. While their precise biological role is unclear, the caerulein- and xenopsin-related peptides may constitute a component of the animal's chemical defenses against predators. PMID:21458457

Zahid, Osama K; Mechkarska, Milena; Ojo, Opeolu O; Abdel-Wahab, Yasser H A; Flatt, Peter R; Meetani, Mohammed A; Conlon, J Michael

2011-03-31

321

Xenopus borealis and Xenopus laevis 28S ribosomal DNA and the complete 40S ribosomal precursor RNA coding units of both species.  

PubMed

We have determined the nucleotide sequence of Xenopus borealis 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and have revised the sequence of Xenopus laevis 28S rDNA (Ware et al., Nucl. Acids Res. 11, 7795-7817 (1983)). In the regions encoding the conserved structural core of 28S rRNA (2490 nucleotides) there are only four differences between the two species, each difference being a base substitution. In the variable regions, also called eukaryotic expansion segments (ca. 1630 nucleotides) there are some 61 differences, due to substitutions, mini-insertions and mini-deletions. Thus, evolutionary divergence in the variable regions has been at least 20-fold more rapid than in the conserved core. A search for intraspecies sequence variation has revealed minimal heterogeneity in X. laevis and none in X. borealis. At three out of four sites where heterogeneity was found in X. laevis (all in variable regions) the minority variant corresponded to the standard form in X. borealis. Intraspecies heterogeneity and interspecies divergence in the 28S variable regions are much less extensive than in the transcribed spacers. The 28S sequences are from the same clones that were used previously for sequencing the 18S genes and transcribed spacers. The complete sequences of the 40S precursor regions of the two reference clones are given. PMID:1682930

Ajuh, P M; Heeney, P A; Maden, B E

1991-07-22

322

Cloning and characterization of the tiger shrimp lysozyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysozymes are key proteins to invertebrates in the innate immune responses against bacterial infections. A lysozyme gene isolated\\u000a from tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, was cloned, sequenced and characterized. The cDNA consists of a signal peptide of 18 amino acids and a mature peptide of\\u000a 140 amino acids. The lysozyme is presumed to be a chicken-type lysozyme for it possesses two

Ye Xing; Gao Feng-Ying; Zheng Qing-Mei; Bai Jun-Jie; Wang Huan; Lao Hai-Hua; Jian Qing

2009-01-01

323

Issues, impacts, and implications of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface\\u000a salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable\\u000a when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond\\u000a sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just

Forrest E. Dierberg; Woraphan Kiattisimkul

1996-01-01

324

Virtual memory mapped network interface for the SHRIMP multicomputer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The network interfaces of existing multicomputers require a significant amount of software overhead to provide protection and to implement message passing protocols. This paper describes the design of a low-latency, high-bandwidth, virtual memory-mapped network interface for the SHRIMP multicomputer project at Princeton University. Without sacrificing protection, the network interface achieves low latency by using virtual memory mapping and write-latency hiding

Matthias A. Blumrich; Kai Li; Richard Alpert; Cezary Dubnicki; Edward W. Felten; Jonathan Sandberg

1998-01-01

325

Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Marine Shrimp Penaeus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolutionary relationships among 13 species representing all six subgenera of the shrimp genusPenaeuswere examined using 558 bp of mitochondrial (mt) DNA from the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Analyses of this sequence revealed high genetic divergence between species (d=8–24%), a finding which contrasts with previous work, which indicated that genetic diversity, based on electrophoretic analysis of allozymes, was extremely

John D. Baldwin; Anna L. Bass; Brian W. Bowen; Wallis H. Clark

1998-01-01

326

RISK ASSESSMENT OF A SHRIMP AQUACULTURE INVESTMENT IN FLORIDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stochastic simulation model was developed to examine the impact of risky economic variables on the profitability of a small-scale shrimp farm. Sources of risk included input and output prices, random-kill events, and hurricane damages. Success was measured using the probability distribution of the net present value (NPV). A baseline model that assumed capital costs of $493,993, a stocking density

Jennifer L. Clark; Richard N. Weldon; Charles M. Adams; Ferdinand F. Wirth

2010-01-01

327

Halogenated Contaminants in Farmed Salmon, Trout, Tilapia, Pangasius, and Shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-p-furans (PCDD\\/Fs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers (HBCDs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were analyzed in popular farmed fish such as salmon, trout, tilapia, and pangasius and in farmed shrimp. The samples originated from southeast Asia, Europe, and South America, Results show the following: (i) Carnivorous species contained higher contaminant concentrations

Leeuwen van S. P. J; M. J. M. van Velzen; C. P. Swart; Veen van der I; W. A. Traag; J. de Boer

2009-01-01

328

DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF BURROWING SHRIMP IN TWO OREGON ESTUARIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ESTUARINE-SCALE NITROGEN DYNAMICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of Pacific estuarine tide flats, from British Columbia to Baja California. The spatial distribution of shrimp populations within estuaries has rarely been quantified because ...

329

76 FR 35409 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to characterize catch and bycatch within the shrimp fisheries...information about the catch, bycatch, discards, and the ability to reduce bycatch for species taken by the shrimp...grouper, and require any sea turtles taken incidentally...

2011-06-17

330

IMPACT OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS ON C, N CYCLING AND WATER QUALITY IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN TEMPERATE ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (predominantly, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of tide flats in North American Pacific estuaries, from British Columbia to Baja California. Feeding, burrowing, and burrow irrigation by burrowing shrimp can ...

331

IMPACT OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS ON NITROGEN CYCLING AND WATER QUALITY IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN TEMPERATE ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (predominantly, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of tide flats in North American Pacific estuaries, from British Columbia to Baja California. Feeding, burrowing, and burrow irrigation by burrowing shrimp can ...

332

78 FR 57352 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Re...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Re-conducted...Review of Grobest & I-Mei Industrial (Vietnam) Co., Ltd. and Intent Not To Revoke...shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The period of...

2013-09-18

333

75 FR 49889 - Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review: Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Changed-Circumstances Review: Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Vietnam AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') in which it preliminarily determined that...

2010-08-16

334

77 FR 63786 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Court Decision...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony...Review of Grobest & I Mei Industrial (Vietnam) Co., Ltd., and Notice of Amended...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') for the period...

2012-10-17

335

76 FR 55350 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results...shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') to November 9, 2011. The period of...

2011-09-07

336

Effect of Shrimp Chitin and Shrimp Chitin Hydrolysate on the Freeze-Induced Denaturation, and on the Amount of Unfreezable Water of Wanieso Lizardfish Myofibrillar Protein  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of potential utilization of shrimp waste, shrimp chitin (SC) and shrimp chitin hydrolysate (SCH) were prepared from 3 kinds of shrimp species, namely: black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, endeavour shrimp Metapenaeus endeavouri and giant freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The effects of 5% SC and SCH (dry weight) on the state of water and on the denaturation of wanieso lizardfish Saurida wanieso myofibrillar protein (Mf) were evaluated based on changes in Mf Ca-ATPase activity and the amount of unfreezable water during frozen storage. Each effect was compared with those of Mf without additives (control) and Mf with glucose. The changes in Ca-ATPase activity of control and Mf with SC during frozen storage were exhibited biphasic pattern while those of SCH and glucose exhibited monophasic pattern. The amount of unfreezable water of Mf with SC was lower than that of control while those of Mf with SCH and glucose were higher than that of control. Present findings suggested that the preventive effect of SCH on freeze-induced denaturation of Mf is caused by the stabilizing the hydrated water molecule surrounding the Mf.

Somjit, Kingduean; Kongpun, Orawan; Osatomi, Kiyoshi; Hara, Kenji; Nozaki, Yukinori

337

White shrimp Penaeus vannamei culture in freshwater at three densities: Condition state based on length and weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercial culture of shrimp in low water salinities has been successfully achieved. However, there are no long-term studies on the growth response of shrimp culture in freshwater. In the present study white shrimp Penaeus vannamei was cultured in freshwater (0 ppt) at three densities (90, 130 and 180 shrimp m?2) and comparisons made of the resulting growth, length–weight relationship and

Marcelo Araneda; Eduardo P. Pérez; Eucario Gasca-Leyva

2008-01-01

338

These Squatters Are Not Innocent: The Evidence of Parasitism in Sponge-Inhabiting Shrimps  

PubMed Central

Marine sponges are frequently inhabited by a wide range of associated invertebrates, including caridean shrimps. Symbiotic shrimps are often considered to be commensals; however, in most cases, the relationship with sponge hosts remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that sponge-inhabiting shrimps are often parasites adapted to consumption of sponge tissues. First, we provide detailed examination of morphology and stomach contents of Typton carneus (Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae), a West Atlantic tropical shrimp living in fire sponges of the genus Tedania. Remarkable shear-like claws of T. carneus show evidence of intensive shearing, likely the result of crushing siliceous sponge spicules. Examination of stomach contents revealed that the host sponge tissue is a major source of food for T. carneus. A parasitic mode of life is also reflected in adaptations of mouth appendages, in the reproduction strategy, and in apparent sequestration of host pigments by shrimp. Consistent results were obtained also for congeneric species T. distinctus (Western Atlantic) and T. spongicola (Mediterranean). The distribution of shrimps among sponge hosts (mostly solitary individuals or heterosexual pairs) suggests that Typton shrimps actively prevent colonisation of their sponge by additional conspecifics, thus protecting their resource and reducing the damage to the hosts. We also demonstrate feeding on host tissues by sponge-associated shrimps of the genera Onycocaris, Periclimenaeus, and Thaumastocaris (Pontoniinae) and Synalpheus (Alpheidae). The parasitic mode of life appears to be widely distributed among sponge-inhabiting shrimps. However, it is possible that under some circumstances, the shrimps provide a service to the host sponge by preventing a penetration by potentially more damaging associated animals. The overall nature of interspecific shrimp-sponge relationships thus warrants further investigation.

Duris, Zdenek; Horka, Ivona; Juracka, Petr Jan; Petrusek, Adam; Sandford, Floyd

2011-01-01

339

Structure and expression of a shrimp prohormone convertase 2.  

PubMed

Although many crustacean neuroendocrine hormones have been reported, the enzymes responsible for post-translational modification of neuroendocrine hormones have rarely been characterized. A prohormone convertase 2 (PC2)-like enzyme has been isolated from the optic lobe of the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon and referred as PmPC2. The full length cDNA sequence of PmPC2 has been identified and found to resemble evolutionarily conserved PC2 enzymes of vertebrates and invertebrates. PmPC2 was expressed in all larval developmental stages and in neuroendrocrine cells in the adult optic lobe. Its expression was found to be negatively related with shrimp body weight by qPCR (P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry results using an anti-rPmPC2 antibody with adult shrimp revealed high staining intensity in specific neurosecretory cells including the sinus gland, the organ of Hanström (also referred to as the medullar terminalis X-organ) and the organ of Bellonci (also referred to as the sensory or X-organ). By using the yeast two hybrid technique, PmPC2 was found to bind with P. monodon hyperglycemic hormone (Pem-CHH1) that plays an important role in glucose metabolism. Since PmPC2 is a subtilisin-like serine proteinase, it is expected to cleave the synthetic substrate, pyr-RTKR-MCA, but the expressed recombinant catalytic domain of PmPC2 (rPmPC2-cat) showed no enzymatic activity as expected. In vivo injection of dsRNA-PmPC2 resulted in reduced transcripts for both PmPC2 and Pem-CHH1 on day 3 post injection, but there was no accompanying reduction of glucose level in the hemolymph. Taken together, PmPC2 localization, expression and activity suggest that it has a function(s) in the shrimp neuroendrocrine system and that it may not only activate Pem-CHH1 but also affect its expression. However, there is no obvious explanation for the negative correlation between PmPC2 expression level and shrimp body weight. PMID:22634957

Tangprasittipap, Amornrat; Chouwdee, Saisunee; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Laiphrom, Seansook; Senapin, Saengchan; Flegel, Timothy W; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

2012-05-23

340

Fluxes and mass balances of nutrients in a semi-intensive shrimp farm in north-western Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluxes of suspended solids, chlorophyll a and nutrients (phosphorus, nitrate, nitrite and ammonia) were estimated in a semi-intensive shrimp farm in north-west Mexico for two consecutive cycles of production encompassing both the dry and wet seasons. A mass balance model was developed for nitrogen and phosphorus and fluxes estimated included shrimp feed, fertilization, shrimp stocked, harvest, macrofauna associated, water exchange,

F. Páez-Osuna; S. R. Guerrero-Galván; A. C. Ruiz-Fernández; R. Espinoza-Angulo

1997-01-01

341

Effect of stocking densities on trace metal concentration in three tissues of the brown shrimp Penaeus californiensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of stocking density in tidal ponds on the concentration of trace metals and macroelements in three shrimp tissues was evaluated. Brown shrimps Penaeus californiensis were stocked in three 1 ha earthen-bottom tidal ponds at densities of 4, 8, and 10 shrimps per m2. After 4 months, the animals were collected, weighed, and dissected for metal determination (copper, cadmium,

Lia Méndez; Baudilio Acosta; Elena Palacios; Francisco Magallón

1997-01-01

342

Simulation of phosphorus dynamics in an intensive shrimp culture system: effects of feed formulations and feeding strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid expansion of shrimp culture has brought concern about potential environmental impacts caused by phosphorus wastes discharged from shrimp farms. This study describes development of a simulation model representing the effect of feed nutritional quality, feed physical characteristics, and feeding strategies on phosphorus dynamics in intensive Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) culture systems, receiving dry feeds in the absence

Ruby A. Montoya; A. L. Lawrence; M. Velasco

2000-01-01

343

Effectiveness of oral Elancoban™ and Avimix-ST™ against Nematopsis (Apicomplexa: Porosporidae) gametocyts infecting the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gregarines from Nematopsis genus are a common intestinal parasite infection in the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, that is cultured on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Slow growth and mortalities of white shrimp have been associated with gregarine infections. Control of gregarine infections in Mexican shrimp farms with antibiotics by empirical methods is becoming increasingly important. However, no effective chemotherapeutic control

Emma J. Fajer-Ávila; María Soledad Morales Covarrubias; Selene Abad-Rosales; Ana Roque; Pablo Meza-Bojórquez; Crisantema Hernández-González

2005-01-01

344

40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory...SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory...description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

2010-07-01

345

40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory...SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory...description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

2009-07-01

346

Antimicrobial resistance profile of Vibrio species isolated from marine shrimp farming environments ( Litopenaeus vannamei) at Ceará, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazilian shrimp culture industry has a great economic importance mainly to the northeast region. However, the accelerated development of this activity has resulted in the emergency of outbreaks of diseases from farming shrimp, and as a consequence the use of antimicrobial drugs to minimize the potential adverse effect under the shrimp production. The inappropriate use of antibiotics in aquaculture is

Rosa Helena Rebouças; Oscarina Viana de Sousa; Anahy Sousa Lima; Fabio Roger Vasconcelos; Patricia Barroso de Carvalho; Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes Vieira

2011-01-01

347

Virion composition and genomics of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its first discovery in Taiwan in 1992, White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused major economic damage to shrimp culture. The virus has spread rapidly through Asia and reached the Western Hemisphere in 1995 (Texas), where it continued its devastating effect further into Central- and South-America. In cultured shrimp WSSV infection can reach a cumulative mortality of up to

Hulten van M. C. W

2001-01-01

348

Migratory drift of larval freshwater shrimps in two tropical streams, Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Migratory shrimps are often major biotic components of tropical stream communities, yet spatial and temporal patterns of their migration have yet to be described. This information is of increasing importance given the continued fragmentation of tropical streams by damming and water abstraction\\/diversion, which can disrupt migratory life cycles. 2. Larval amphidromous shrimps are released by adult females in

J. G. M ARCH; J. P. B ENSTEAD; C. M. P RINGLE; F. N. S CATENA

349

Colony defense and behavioral differentiation in the eusocial shrimp Synalpheus regalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sponge-dwelling shrimp Synalpheus regalis and several congeners exhibit monogynous, eusocial colony structures, and field data suggest that these social species may have a competitive advantage in crowded environments. We explored mechanisms of colony defense, a likely contributor to such a social advantage, by measuring responses of resident shrimp to conspecific and heterospecific intruders in experimental nests. To test for

Emmett J. Duffy; Cheryl L. Morrison; Kenneth S. Macdonald

2002-01-01

350

Brine Shrimp Lethality Activity of Thai Medicinal Plants in the Family Meliaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brine shrimp larvae have been used as a bioassay for a variety of toxic substances. The method has also been applied to plant extracts in order to facilitate the isolation of biologically active compounds. In this study, the plants in the family Meliaceae have been selected to test for brine shrimp lethality activity based on taxonomic approach including Azedirachta indica,

Sirintorn Pisutthanana; Pinyupa Plianbangchang

351

FEEDING RATES OF THE MUD SHRIMP UPOGEBIA PUGETTENSIS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ESTUARINE PHYTOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The burrowing shrimp Upogebia pugettensis is an abundant inhabitant of Pacific Northwest bays and estuaries where it lives commensally with the clam Cryptomya californica. Suspension-feeding activities of the shrimp and its commensal clam, as well as particle settlement within t...

352

Isolation and characterization of infectious Vibrio sinaloensis strains from the Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae).  

PubMed

Infectious diseases especially those caused by bacterial and viral pathogens are serious loss factors in shrimp farming. In this study, bacteria were isolated from the gut and hepatopancreas of stressed shrimps obtained from a commercial farm. The isolates were screened on Thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose (TCBS) agar plates for the selection of Vibrio species. Presumptive vibrios were characterized through tests for hemolytic and enzymatic activity, hydrophobicity, growth and molecular identification. Three experimental infections were conducted in order to confirm the pathogenicity of selected bacterial strains VHPC18, VHPC23, VHPC24 and VIC30. In the third experimental challenge the LD50 was obtained, it lasted 10 days with 10 shrimp, weighing 6.9+1. Ig, per tank. The treatments in triplicate were: (1) saline solution (control group); (2) 2xl0(5)CFU/shrimp; (3) 4xl05CFU/shrimp; (4) 2x10(6)CFU/shrimp; (5) 4x10(6)CFU/shrimp, and (6) 8x10(6)CFU/shrimp. In all challenges, water parameters measured during the experimental period remained within optimum ranges. Pathogenicity tests confirmed that the mixture of four vibrio isolates, identified as Vibrio sinaloensis, was virulent for L. vannamei. The LD50 value was 1.178x10(5)CFU/g body weight. V sinaloensis may act as opportunistic pathogens for cultured L. vannamei. PMID:23894929

del Carmen Flores-Miranda, Ma; Luna-González, Antonio; Córdova, Angel I Campa; Fierro-Coronado, Jesús A; Partida-Arangure, Blanca O; Pintado, José; González-Ocampo, Héctor A

2012-06-01

353

Immunity enhancement in black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) by a probiont bacterium ( Bacillus S11)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival and growth of Penaeus monodon fed the probiont Bacillus S11 in two 90-day culture trials were increased compared with non-treated shrimp. Bacillus S11 also efficiently activated and increased the engulfment of foreign particles (phagocytic activity) as measured by % phagocytosis and phagocytic index (PI) in hemolymph. Phenoloxidase and antibacterial activities increased with age in all shrimp, but were even

Sirirat Rengpipat; Sombat Rukpratanporn; Somkiat Piyatiratitivorakul; Piamsak Menasaveta

2000-01-01

354

Genetic diversity of wild and cultured Black Tiger Shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) in the Philippines using microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six microsatellites were used to study (1) the genetic diversity of wild Penaeus monodon shrimp from four geographic regions (Palawan, Quezon, Capiz and Negros Occidental-W) in the Philippines, and (2) its association with the status of mangroves and intensity of shrimp culture systems in these regions. Two cultured populations (Negros Occidental-C and Antique) were used for comparison. All six microsatellite

Zhenkang Xu; Jurgenne H Primavera; Leobert D de la Pena; Priscilla Pettit; Jane Belak; Acacia Alcivar-Warren

2001-01-01

355

75 FR 49460 - Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...certain exporters have not sold subject...Shrimp from the People's Republic of...Receivers From the People's Republic of...Additionally, we have revised the wage...provided written arguments regarding this...margin.\\14\\ We have not received any...Shrimp From the People's Republic...

2010-08-13

356

STOCKING DENSITIES OF NILE TILAPIA IN SHRIMP PONDS UNDER DIFFERENT FEEDING STRATEGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, consisting of two experiments, was carried out at the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Thailand, to investigate the growth performance of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), water quality and nutrient budget in different stocking combinations of tilapia-shrimp polyculture. Both experiments were conducted in nine 200-m2 earthen ponds with three treatments in triplicate each, namely: a)

Yang Yi; Kevin Fitzsimmons; Wanwisa Saelee; Potjanee Clayden

357

The American brine shrimp as an exotic invasive species in the western Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypersaline environments and salterns present in the western Mediterranean region (including Italy, southern France, the\\u000a Iberian Peninsula and Morocco) contain autochthonous forms of the brine shrimp Artemia, with parthenogenetic diploid and tetraploid strains coexisting with the bisexual species A. salina. Introduced populations of the American brine shrimp A. franciscana have also been recorded in these Mediterranean environments since the

Francisco Amat; Francisco Hontoria; Olga Ruiz; Andy J. Green; Marta I. Sánchez; Jordi Figuerola; Francisco Hortas

2005-01-01

358

Constructed wetlands as recirculation filters in large-scale shrimp aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluent waters from shrimp aquaculture, which can contain elevated levels of phosphorus, ammonia, nitrate, and organics, must be managed properly if shrimp aquaculture is to achieve sustainability. Constructed wetlands are ecologically beneficial, low cost treatment alternatives proven capable of reducing suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals from wastewater of many sources. The goal of this

David Rogers Tilley; Harish Badrinarayanan; Ronald Rosati; Jiho Son

2002-01-01

359

MULTIRESIDUE DETERMINATION OF FLUOROQUINOLONE ANTIBIOTICS IN SHRIMP BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-FLUORESCENCE-MASS SPECTROMETRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An efficient multiresidue method for analysis of fluoroquinolones in shrimp has been developed in which quantitation by fluorescence and confirmation by MSn is achieved simultaneously. In this method, shrimp tissue is extracted with ammoniacal acetonitrile, the extract defatted, and then evaporated...

360

Response of blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Perez-Farfante & Kensley, 1997) to dietary cadaverine supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies on salmon and shrimp have shown that reduced feed intake and growth caused by the consumption of low-quality ¢sh meals, manufac- tured from spoiled ¢sh, were not due to the presence of biogenic amines. Moreover, an improvement in weight gain was seen in blue shrimp fed a diet supple- mented with cadaverine plus histamine. It was not clear,

Mireya Tapia-Salazar; Trevor K Smith; Andrew Harris; Lucia-Elizabeth Cruz-Suarez; Denis Ricque-Marie

2004-01-01

361

The Efficiency of a Bycatch Reduction Device Used in Skimmer Trawls in the Florida Shrimp Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of principal concern to those who regulate shrimp harvesting gear are the quantity and composition of nontargeted species (bycatch) harvested by any allowable gear type. The use of skimmer trawls in the Florida shrimp fishery is a contested issue, in part because little bycatch characterization data exist for this gear. We characterized skimmer trawl bycatch and evaluated the efficiency of

Daniel A. Warner; Anne L. McMillen-Jackson; Theresa M. Bert; Charles R. Crawford

2004-01-01

362

Export market influence on the development of the Pacific shrimp fishery of Sonora, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pacific shrimp fishery is the most economically important and ecologically impactful fishery in Mexico. Strong export markets have had a tremendous influence on the technological development and structure of this fishery. This article describes the historical development, current status, ecological impacts and management of the open ocean trawling component of the shrimp fishery in the Sonoran waters of the

Lorayne Meltzer; Jason Oliver Chang

2006-01-01

363

Deepwater Shrimp Resources in Vanuatu: A Preliminary Survey off Port Vila.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Baited traps were used to survey deepwater shrimps in Vanuatu in the Southwestern Pacific. Mean catch rates varied from 0.04 kg per trap in the 200-300 m depth range to 2.83 kg per trap in the 500-600 m depth range. Seven species of carid shrimp were prov...

M. G. King

1981-01-01

364

Discharge of Nutrients from Shrimp Farming to Coastal Waters of the Gulf of California  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work deals with phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) loads resulting from shrimp farming in the NW coast of Mexico and a mass balance model for N and P is presented. Using such a model and the feed coefficients obtained in the NW region, nutrient loads for all shrimp farms in each state were estimated. The P and N loads

Federico Páez-Osuna; Saúl R. Guerrero-Galván; Ana C. Ruiz-Fernández

1999-01-01

365

Toxicity of the Mosquito Control Pesticide Scourge® to Adult and Larval Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the toxicity of various concentrations of technical resmethrin and Scourge® on adult and larval Palaemonetespugio, a common grass shrimp species. Two types of tests were conducted for each of the resmethrin formulations using adult and larval grass shrimp life stages, a 96-h static renewal aqueous test without sediment, and a 24-h static nonrenewal aqueous test with sediment.

PETER KEY; MARIE DELORENZO; KRISTEN GROSS; KATY CHUNG; ALLAN CLUM

2005-01-01

366

Temperature and salinity effects on the toxicity of common pesticides to the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of increased temperature and salinity, two potential impacts of global climate change, on the toxicity of two common pesticides to the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. Larval and adult grass shrimp were exposed to the fungicide chlorothalonil and the insecticide Scourge® under standard toxicity test conditions, a 10°C increase in temperature, a 10 ppt increase

Marie E. DeLorenzo; Sarah C. Wallace; Loren E. Danese; Thomas D. Baird

2009-01-01

367

Frozen Commodity Shrimp: Potential Avenue for Introduction of White Spot Syndrome Virus and Yellow Head Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1992, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) have caused mortalities in cultured shrimp throughout Asia. By 1995, WSSV was detected in Texas and South Carolina, and the virus has also been recently reported in Central and South America (Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, Panama, Colombia, Peru, and Ecuador). The importation of live infected shrimp is the principal

S. V. Durand; K. F. J. Tang; D. V. Lightner

2000-01-01

368

Shrimp Antimicrobial Testing. I. In Vitro Susceptibility of Thirteen Gram-Negative Bacteria to Twelve Antimicrobials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) studies were conducted in vitro on eleven prospective antimicrobials and one reference antimicrobial. The compounds were tested against a standardized battery of 13 gram-negative bacterial isolates associated with shrimp disease. Two additional bacterial organisms not associated with shrimp, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were also tested as system controls. The compounds tested were chloramphenicol (reference),

Leone L. Mohney; Thomas A. Bell; Donald V. Lightner

1992-01-01

369

Purification and characterization of vitellin from the ovaries of the shrimp Metapenaeus ensis (Crustacea: Decapoda: Penaeidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitellin from the ovaries of the shrimp Metapenaeus ensis was isolated using gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. Gel filtration revealed the presence of three peaks in an extract of mature ovaries. Two of these peaks were hardly noticeable in ovaries from immature shrimp. One of these was identified to be vitellin based on the results of Sudan black B

Y. W. QIU; T. B. NG; K. H. CHU

1997-01-01

370

Alabama Cave Shrimp ('Palaemonias alabamae') 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Alabama cave shrimp is a rare, troglobitic cave shrimp that survives in only two of its three known locations. The population in its type locality, Shelta Cave, has not been seen since the early 1970s. Population levels in Bobcat Cave and the HGB (R. ...

2008-01-01

371

The effects of temperature changes on the oxygen consumption of juvenile Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis Osbeck  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of temperature changes on oxygen consumption of Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis Osbeck) were studied. The response of oxygen consumption to a temperature rise was conformed to partial metabolic compensation. No compensatory response was observed at lower temperature. A sudden temperature increase by 12 °C resulted an overshoot in oxygen consumption in shrimp adapted to 19 °C, while a

Xiangli Tian; Shuanglin Dong; Fang Wang; Lixin Wu

2004-01-01

372

Comparison of Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermentation with Acid Treatments for Chitosan Production from Shrimp Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional procedure for chitosan production involves use of a strong acid (HCl) for demineralization of chitin. This study reports application of a mixed culture of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus lactis) fermentation in demineralization of chitin for chitosan production from shrimp waste. Chitosan produced from shrimp waste with lactic acid bacteria fermentation at 30°C for

Sureerat Phuvasate; Yi-Cheng Su

2010-01-01

373

Little Shrimp, Big Results: A Model of an Integrative, Cross-Curricular Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This integrative, cross-curricular lab engages middle school biology students in an exercise involving ecology, arthropod biology, and mathematics. Students research the anatomy and behavioral patterns of a species of brine shrimp, compare the anatomy of adult and juvenile brine shrimp, and graph and interpret results. In this article, the…

Ackerson, Nicole; Piser, Carol; Walka, Keith

2010-01-01

374

Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic): Brown shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species profiles are literature summaries of the life history, distribution, and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates. Profiles are prepared to assist with environmental impact assessment. Brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) account for about one-third of the commercial shrimp harvest in the South Atlantic Region; the landing were worth $20 million in 1982. In the South Atlantic Region, commercially importance

S. C. Larson; M. J. Van Den Avyle; E. L. Jr. Bozeman

1989-01-01

375

Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic): Brown shrimp  

SciTech Connect

Species profiles are literature summaries of the life history, distribution, and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates. Profiles are prepared to assist with environmental impact assessment. Brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) account for about one-third of the commercial shrimp harvest in the South Atlantic Region; the landing were worth $20 million in 1982. In the South Atlantic Region, commercially importance brown shrimp fishing grounds extend from Fort Pierce, Florida, to Pamlico Sound and Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina. Most of the commercial harvest is taken inside the 10-fathom contour. Brown shrimp are omnivorous and eat food items ranging from detritus to small invertebrates and fishes. Many predators, including fishes and crustaceans, feed on brown shrimp. Brown shrimp survival is reduced by adverse temperature or salinities. Intertidal vegetation is an important characteristic of brown shrimp nursery areas. The suitability of some estuaries as nursery areas may be reduced by bulkheading, ditching, disposal of dredged materials, and drainage from agricultural and silvicultural areas. Existing estuarine areas must be preserved to ensure the continued production of brown shrimp. 57 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Larson, S.C.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.; Bozeman, E.L. Jr.

1989-01-01

376

MODELING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SHRIMP MARICULTURE AND WATER QUALITY IN THE RIO CHONE ESTUARY, ECUADOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The Rio Chone estuary in Ecuador has been heavily altered by the conversion of over 90% of the original mangrove forest to shrimp ponds. We carried out computational experiments using both hydrodynamic and shrimp pond models to investigate factors leading to declines in estuarine...

377

Viruses, biosecurity and specific pathogen-free stocks in shrimp aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greatest threat to the future of world shrimp aquaculture is disease, in particular the virulent untreatable viruses, infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), taura syndrome virus (TSV), yellow head virus (YHV), and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). To overcome these hazards, the industry of the future must be based on: (i) specific pathogen-free and genetically improved shrimp stocks;

J. M. Lotz

1997-01-01

378

50 CFR Figures 19a and 19b to Part... - Chauvin Shrimp Deflector Installation Details  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chauvin Shrimp Deflector Installation Details 19a Figures 19a and 19b to...223, Figs. 19 Figures 19a and 19b to Part 223âChauvin Shrimp Deflector Installation Details ER21MY12.003 [77 FR...

2012-10-01

379

Effect of gamma-irradiation on frozen shrimps for decontamination of pathogenic bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twelve samples of imported frozen shrimps were used in this study. The total aerobic bacteria were at 2 × 104 to 6 × 106 per gram. A few of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. mimicus, V. alginolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. fluvialis and Listeria monocytogenes were isolated from many samples. However, Salmonella was not detected in any of the samples. After exposure to 4-5 kGy of gamma-rays, the total aerobic bacteria in frozen shrimps were reduced by approximately 2-3 log cycles. The dose necessary to reduce the vibrio isolates and Aeromonas hydrophila at a level of below 10-4 per gram was about 3 kGy in frozen shrimps, whereas about 3.5 kGy was required for L. monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. In this study, unpleasant off-odor was clearly detected in the non-frozen shrimps irradiated at 2.5 kGy. On the other hand, off-odor was negligible in the frozen product below 5 kGy irradiation. No remarkable changes of peroxide values were also obtained up to 9 kGy of irradiation in the frozen shrimps. However peroxide values of non-frozen shrimps were clearly increased even irradiated at 4 kGy. Trimethylamine content was not changed at doses below 10 kGy in both of frozen and non-frozen shrimps. Shelf-life of defrosted shrimps were extended ca. 2 times under non-frozen market conditions.

Ito, Hitoshi; Rashid, Harun Or; Sangthong, Naruemon; Adulyatham, Pitaya; Rattagool, Pongpen; Ishigaki, Isao

1993-07-01

380

RECENT USMSFP ADVANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF BIOSECURE ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND SUPERINTENSIVE SHRIMP PRODUCTION SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interest in enclosed biosecure superintensive shrimp production systems has grown in response to disease problems, environmental concerns and an imperative to increase system productivity for increasingly competitive markets. The US Marine Shrimp Farming Program has maintained a long-term research a...

381

Oxytetracycline residues in cultivated marine shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931) (Crustacea, Decapoda) submitted to antibiotic treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp culture is a very important economic activity in the world and the fastest growing industry in Northeastern Brazil. Problems with diseases are common in aquaculture and at the least seven species of Vibrio bacteria have been documented infecting shrimps during different culture stages. Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been widely used against these pathogens. In the present study the distribution and

A. C. Nogueira-Lima; T. C. V. Gesteira; J. Mafezoli

2006-01-01

382

Growth overfishing in the brown shrimp fishery of Texas, Louisiana, and adjoining Gulf of Mexico EEZ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth overfishing in the brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus aztecus, fishery in inshore (estuarine) and offshore (Gulf of Mexico) territorial waters of Texas and Louisiana, and adjoining waters of the United States’ (U.S.) Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), and its potentially detrimental economic consequences to the harvesting sector, have not been among major concerns of Federal and State shrimp management agencies. Three possible

C CAILLOUETJR; R. A. Hart; J. M. Nance

2008-01-01

383

Suspended solids removal to improve shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) production and an evaluation of a plant-based feed in minimal-exchange, superintensive culture systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In minimal-exchange, superintensive culture systems, the flocculated (biofloc) particles that accumulate may provide benefits for cultured shrimp; however, excessive particle accumulation can hinder shrimp performance. Also, the shrimp aquaculture industry is reliant on marine fish-based feeds. Using these products can lead to exploitation of marine resources, the introduction of contaminants to cultured shrimp, and unstable production costs. This study examined

Andrew J. Ray; Beth L. Lewis; Craig L. Browdy; John W. Leffler

2010-01-01

384

ELABORACIÓN DE UN SAZONADOR A BASE DE HARINA DE CABEZAS DE CAMARÓN DE CULTIVO (Penaeus sp) ELABORATION OF A SEASONING FROM A CROP SHRIMP (Penaeus sp) HEADS FLOUR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flour of the shrimp is the waste of dry shrimp ground with good characteristics of conservation, obtaining itself from heads, abdomen or the whole shrimp according to the chemical characteristics of the product. A Seasoning was elaborated from a crop shrimp (Penaeus sp) heads flour a mixing process in a small scale, carried out in the Institute of Science

Ricardo D. ANDRADE; Everaldo J. MONTES; Milena M. CHÁVEZ

385

Evaluate of heavy metal concentration in shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) and crab (Portunus pelagicus) with INAA method.  

PubMed

The level of the heavy metal in green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) and crab (Portunus pelagicus) caught off the Persian Gulf near Bushehr province were investigated. This study was performed to evaluate instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to analyze heavy metal concentration in crab and shrimp whole body tissue. The order of the swimmer crab and shrimp heavy metal concentrations were Zn>Fe>As>Mn>Co and Fe>Zn>Mn>As>Co, respectively. The results showed swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) and shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) caught off Persian gulf, were contaminated with high level of As (21.38±3.31ppm and 8.28±2.82 ppm, respectively). High levels of As and Mn were noted in crabs and shrimp, respectively. PMID:23487484

Heidarieh, Marzieh; Maragheh, Mohammad Ghannadi; Shamami, Mehrdad Azizi; Behgar, Mehdi; Ziaei, Farhood; Akbari, Zahra

2013-02-28

386

Preparation and evaluation of two microbiological media from shrimp heads and hulls.  

PubMed Central

Two peptones were extracted from raw shrimp waste after autolytic digestion. Digests were derived from shrimp heads and shrimp hulls, both of which are by-products of the shrimp processing industry. Digests were evaluated for suitability in supporting growth of microorganisms by measuring the total cell mass produced by five genera of bacteria and five genera of fungi in broths formulated from the peptones. Comparison was made to five commercially available medium preparations and a catfish peptone. A 0.5% solution of the lyophilized shrimp head digest, heated at 121 C for 15 min, resulted in a cloudy suspension. However, the digest supported excellent growth of fungi and good growth of bacteria. A heated 0.5% solution of the hull digest was clear and supported good growth of both bacteria and fungi.

Stephens, N L; Bough, W A; Beuchat, L R; Heaton, E K

1976-01-01

387

Changes in the composition of Vibrio communities in pond water during tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) cultivation and in the hepatopancreas of healthy and diseased shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two batches of shrimp were cultivated in a total of 4 culture ponds from March 28 to June 13, and July 17 to September 11, 1997. Vibrio spp. were isolated from the pond water and the hepatopancreas of healthy and diseased shrimp using thiosulfate–citrate–bile salt–sucrose agar plate, and then identified using fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. In each culture

Hung-Hung Sung; Hai-Ching Li; Fu-Ming Tsai; Yun-Yuan Ting; Wei-Liang Chao

1999-01-01

388

Relationships between disease outbreak in cultured tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) and the composition of Vibrio communities in pond water and shrimp hepatopancreas during cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) larvae were first cultivated for 1 month in the same pond and then at postlarval 43 were transferred into three different culture ponds (E2, E4, and W4). Vibrio spp. from the pond water and shrimp hepatopancreas were isolated and identified using thiosulfate-citrate-bile salt-sucrose (TCBS) agar and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) analysis. For the initial 60

Hung-Hung Sung; Shi-Fang Hsu; Chih-Kun Chen; Yun-Yuan Ting; Wei-Liang Chao

2001-01-01

389

Enhancement of muscle contraction in the stomach of the crab Cancer borealis: a possible hormonal role for GABA.  

PubMed

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is best known as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. Here we show, however, that GABA has an excitatory effect on nerve-evoked contractions and on excitatory junctional potentials (EJPs) of the gastric mill 4 (gm4) muscle from the stomach of the crab Cancer borealis. The threshold concentration for these effects was between 1 and 10 micromol l(-1). Using immunohistochemical techniques, we found that GABA is colocalized with the vesicle-associated protein synapsin in nearby nerves and hence is presumably released there. However, since these nerves do not innervate the muscle directly, we conclude that these release sites are not the likely source of the GABA responsible for muscle modulation. We also extracted hemolymph from the crab pericardial cavity, which contains the pericardial organs, a major neurosecretory structure. Through reversed-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis we determined the concentration of GABA in the hemolymph to be 3.3 +/- 0.7 micromol l(-1), high enough to modulate the muscle. These findings suggest that the gm4 muscle could be modulated by GABA produced by and released from a distant neurohemal organ. PMID:20570852

Suljak, Steven W; Rose, Christopher M; Sabatier, Christelle; Le, Thuc; Trieu, Quoc; Verley, Derek R; Lewis, Alexandra M; Birmingham, John T

2010-06-01

390

Morpho-functional specialization of the branching sporocyst of Prosorhynchoides borealis Bartoli, Gibson & Bray, 2006 (Digenea, Bucephalidae).  

PubMed

Sporocysts of Prosorhynchoides borealis were obtained from the marine bivalves Abra prismatica and studied using transmission electron microscopy. The sporocyst body consists of a mass of branching and intertwining hollow tubules that ramify through the host's digestive gland and gonads. This study investigated the ultrastructure of the sporocyst branches which comprise alternate distended areas (brood chambers) with a relatively thin body wall, narrower portions with a thicker body wall (constricted areas) and terminal regions. Pronounced differences between these areas were revealed in the structure of their tegument and body cavity lining, as well as in the cellular composition of the subtegumental layers. Body wall composition in distended areas was consistent with the specialization for cercarial nurture in the brood chambers. The structure of the constrictions suggested a dual role of nutrient absorption and physical separation of adjacent brood chambers. Two types of terminal region were identified, one specialized for the investigation and penetration of host tissues and the other, in which the germinal cells are formed, for cercarial production. The overall structure of the sporocyst branches helps explain why this linear modular system, i.e. brood chambers and constrictions continuously growing into the host tissue, enables the sporocyst's long-term existence and can continuously produce cercariae in numbers comparable with those produced by rediae and/or daughter sporocyst infrapopulations in other digeneans. The origin of the nuclei in the outer tegumental layer of some branching bucephalid sporocysts is also discussed. PMID:21729391

Podvyaznaya, I M; Galaktionov, K V

2011-05-10

391

Determination of the sequence requirements for the expression of a Xenopus borealis embryonic/larval skeletal actin gene.  

PubMed

In this study, we demonstrate that all sequences necessary and sufficient for the expression of a Xenopus borealis alpha 3B embryonic/larval skeletal actin gene, reside in a 156-nucleotide fragment of the promoter that spans nucleotides -197 to -42. This region of the promoter contains three imperfect repeats of the CC(A/T)6GG (CArG) box motif that have been demonstrated to be important in the expression of other sarcomeric actin genes. Deletion of the actin promoter, using Xenopus microinjection techniques as a transient assay system for promoter activity, shows that the most distal CArG box (CArG box 3) is essential for the full expression of the gene. Under our assay conditions, the most proximal CArG box (CArG box 1) exhibits two binding activities using bandshift analysis. One of these binding activities contains components antigenically related to a serum-response factor (transcription factor), whilst the second does not. In contrast, CArG box3 produces only a single retarded band using electrophoretic mobility-shift analysis. Although the shifted complex coelectrophoreses with the CArG box 1/serum-response factor complex, the band produced by CArG box3 appears to be distinct from SRF. In addition to the CArG motifs, a further upstream regulatory element has been identified in the actin promoter between nucleotides -197 and -167. In the actin promoter, a downstream region can apparently fulfil this function. PMID:8513792

Lakin, N D; Boardman, M; Woodland, H R

1993-06-01

392

Transition mutations within the Xenopus borealis somatic 5S RNA gene can have independent effects on transcription and TFIIIA binding.  

PubMed

Base-pair changes were introduced into the Xenopus borealis somatic 5S RNA gene by treatment with sodium bisulfite. Mutants were screened by sequence determination. The collection of mutants permitted a detailed investigation of the fine structure of the intragenic control region that binds the transcription factor TFIIIA. Selected mutants were recloned in tandem with a somatic 5S RNA maxigene to permit sensitive measurement of their relative transcription activities. The transcription efficiencies of a number of mutations at the borders of the control region were correlated with TFIIIA binding by using DNase I protection (footprinting) assays. Mutations affecting transcription and TFIIIA binding extended from gene residues 46 to 91. The results reinforce a model in which the distal half of the protected region constitutes a tight binding domain for TFIIIA. A number of transitions in the 5' domain led to significant increases or decreases in transcription efficiency, but resulted in barely detectable changes in TFIIIA binding. Two mutants with C----T transitions at gene residues 52 and 53 were transcribed with increased efficiencies (up phenotype). These results suggest that TFIIIA must make appropriate contacts within the 5' domain of the control region to permit subsequent binding of other factors in stable transcription complexes. PMID:3561399

McConkey, G A; Bogenhagen, D F

1987-01-01

393

Reproductive steroids in the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus borealis). I. Seasonal changes in the female.  

PubMed

Seasonal changes of reproductive steroids in the female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus borealis) were investigated. 161 blood samples were collected from 77 does during 1971 through 1974 in Minnesota and were utilized to make a characterization of the estrogen and progesterone levels in pregnant and nonpregnant does. Progesterone levels (measured by radioimmunoassay) during December through February were similar for pregnant and nonpregnant does. Progesterone levels (measured by radioimmunoassay) during December through February were similar for pregnant and nonpregnant animals. However, the pregnant does had higher (p less than .01) progesterone levels during March through May. Progesterone levels during June to early November were low and similar for lactating and nonlactating animals. Estrogen levels during the year only changed during the period before parturition in the pregnant does when they were elevated. 2 nonpregnant adult does were sampled every 5 days from late January throught early March. Progesterone levels revealed a cyclic pattern of about 28 days duration while estrogen levels revealed no distinct pattern but tended to be inversely related to progesterone. These results suggest 1) that deer exhibit estrous cycles of about 25-30 days in length, 2) that estrous cycles recorred in nonpregnant does from November through early March, 3) that progesterone levels are similar for pregnant and the luteal phase of the estrous cycle, and 4) that late pregnancy is characterized by high estrogen levels as compared with early pregnancy and the estrous cycle. PMID:843560

Plotka, E D; Seal, U S; Schmoller, G C; Karns, P D; Keenlyne, K D

1977-04-01

394

Biology and life cycle of Natatolana borealis Lilj.1851, a scavenging isopod from the continental slope of the Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biology of Natatolana borealis, a deep-sea (-500 m) scavenging isopod that lives on the continental slope of Mediterranean canyons, was studied in the field and in the laboratory. Animals were collected at two stations using a baited trap. Whatever the site at which the animals were collected, a strong correlation was always found to exist between their length and weight, which shows variably marked seasonal variations. The growth pattern was modelled by fitting the Von Bertalanffy growth equation to the length of animals of various ages. The lifespan was estimated to be 6 years in the case of the largest animals collected. Sexual maturity is presumably reached at the age of 2.5 years. Not all the females were found to be sexually active at the same period of the year. A scheme of reproductive cycle is proposed for the mature females. It seems likely that each female may produce at least four broods during her lifetime. The emergence of offspring occurs at various times throughout the year, resulting in successive cohorts. At some periods in the year, some developmental stages were lacking in the samples, possibly owing to alimentary behaviour that helps to protect the animals from predators.

Kaïm-Malka, R. A.

1997-12-01

395

Studies on the immunomodulatory effect of extract of Cyanodon dactylon in shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and its efficacy to protect the shrimp from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).  

PubMed

The present study investigates the protection of shrimp Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using antiviral plant extract derived from Cyanodon dactylon and the modulation of the shrimp non-specific immunity. To determine the antiviral activity, the shrimp were treated by both in vitro (intramuscular injection) and in vivo (orally with feed) methods at the concentration of 2mg per animal and 2% of the plant extract incorporated with commercially available artificial pellet feed, respectively. The antiviral activity of C. dactylon plant extract was confirmed by PCR, bioassay and Western blot analysis. In the present study, anti-WSSV activity of C. dactylon plant extract by in vivo and in vitro methods showed strong antiviral activity and the immunological parameters such as proPO, O(2)(-), NO, THC and clotting time were all significantly (P<0.05) higher in the WSSV-infected shrimp treated with plant extract when compared to control groups. These results strongly indicate that in vivo and in vitro administration of C. dactylon plant extract enhances immunity of the shrimp. Based on the present data and the advantages of plant extract available at low price, we believe that oral administration of C. dactylon plant extract along with the pellet feed is a potential prophylactic agent against WSSV infection of shrimp. PMID:18834943

Balasubramanian, G; Sarathi, M; Venkatesan, C; Thomas, John; Hameed, A S Sahul

2008-09-13

396

Syrtis Major and Isidis Basin contact: Morphological and topographic characteristics of Syrtis Major lava flows and material of the Vastitas Borealis Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The floor of Isidis Basin is covered by materials of the Vastitas Borealis Formation (VBF) that appear to be emplaced essentially as a single unit. Along its western boundary, Isidis Basin is in contact with volcanic flows from Syrtis Major Planum. The contact between the Isidis unit and volcanic flows from Syrtis Major is sharp to gradational and in places is characterized by a high (~500 m) scarp or by a network of faults that separate pieces of lava plains off the main plateau of Syrtis. Clusters of knobs and mesas, sometimes arranged in flow-like features, are also typical features of the transition zone. Several important characteristics of the transition from Syrtis Major to Isidis Basin are documented. (1) The small-scale surface texture seen in MOC images appears to be the same for both the Syrtis lava plateau and the knobs and mesas that characterize the transition. (2) There is strong evidence for the breakup of the coherent surface of Syrtis Major where it is in contact with materials in Isidis Basin. (3) The plateau breakup (the knobby terrain) occurs basinward after the major break of slope of Syrtis Major where it enters the Isidis Basin. (4) There is no evidence for plateau breakup anywhere up on the slopes of Syrtis Major Planum. (5) The lavas of Syrtis remain morphologically intact where they are in contact with other units, such as the Noachian cratered terrain or where lava flows are stacked within Syrtis Major itself. These characteristic features of the transition zone from Syrtis to Isidis are readily explained if the zone of plateau breakup consists of relatively young lava flows that have been superimposed onto the surface of a volatile-rich substratum, such as the interior unit of Isidis Basin (the Vastitas Borealis Formation). Thus simple superposition of volcanic materials on top of volatile-bearing sediments can explain the key geological and topographic aspects of the transition zone from Syrtis Major to Isidis Basin. On the basis of our findings, we outline the following scenario for the evolution of this region. In the Early Hesperian, volcanic plains are emplaced in Syrtis Major (the lower part of the Syrtis Major Formation), and wrinkle ridges deform their surfaces soon thereafter. Concurrently, volcanic plains are emplaced on the floor of the Isidis Basin, and wrinkle ridges deform their surfaces soon thereafter. The apparent simultaneity of these units may mean that Syrtis Major was the source of many of the flows in the Isidis Basin. In the early part of the Upper Hesperian, subsequent to the formation of most of the wrinkle ridges, the Vastitas Borealis Formation was emplaced in the Isidis Basin and elsewhere in the northern lowlands. Following the emplacement of the Vastitas Borealis Formation, the upper part of the Syrtis Major Formation was emplaced, erupting from the eastern margins of Syrtis Major Planum and flowing down into the westernmost part of the Isidis Basin on top of the recently emplaced Vastitas Borealis Formation. Modification of the superposed lavas by degradation and evolution of the VBF formed the scarps and unusual morphology of the marginal areas. We found no compelling evidence for massive or sudden erosion from Syrtis Major to produce the plains currently on the surface of the floor of the Isidis Basin (the Vastitas Borealis Formation).

Ivanov, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.

2003-06-01

397

Ingestion of bacteria expressing dsRNA triggers specific RNA silencing in shrimp.  

PubMed

RNAi activation in shrimp through dsRNA injection has been well demonstrated but oral delivery of dsRNA remains controversial. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine whether RNAi was induced in shrimp by ingestion of bacteria expressing dsRNA. We fed shrimp, Penaeus monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei, with inactivated bacteria expressing dsRNA specific to the shrimp genes (Rab7 and STAT). Forty-eight hours after 6 day-continuous feeding, the level of the targeted gene transcript was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Significant reduction of Rab7 as well as STAT transcript was observed when compared to that of control shrimp fed with bacteria containing the empty vector or bacteria expressing non-related dsRNA (GFP). Moreover, the suppression was detected not only in the hepatopancreas but also in the gills indicating the successful systemic induction of RNAi via oral delivery of dsRNA. Our results suggested that RNAi in shrimp could be triggered by ingestion of dsRNA expressing bacteria. Therefore, oral feeding is a practical approach which can be used to deliver dsRNA for further viral inhibition in farmed shrimp. PMID:23201581

Attasart, Pongsopee; Namramoon, Orathai; Kongphom, Ukrit; Chimwai, Chaweewan; Panyim, Sakol

2012-11-29

398

Occurrence and recent long-distance dispersal of deep-sea hydrothermal vent shrimps  

PubMed Central

Deep-sea hydrothermal vents and methane seeps are extreme environments that have a high concentration of hydrogen sulphide. However, abundant unique invertebrates including shrimps of the family Bresiliidae have been found in such environments. The bresiliid shrimps are believed to have radiated in the Miocene (less than 20?Myr); however, the period when and the mechanisms by which they dispersed across the hydrothermal vents and cold seeps in oceans worldwide have not been clarified. In the present study, we collected the deep-sea blind shrimp Alvinocaris longirostris from the hydrothermal vent site in the Okinawa Trough and carried out the first investigation of the 18S rRNA gene of a bresiliid shrimp. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the bresiliid shrimp is situated at an intermediate lineage within the infraorder Caridea and shows monophyly with palaemonid shrimps, which live in shallow sea and freshwater. Furthermore, the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequences were analysed to determine the phylogenetic relationship with known bresiliid shrimps. A. longirostris of the Okinawa Trough had two haplotypes of the COI gene, one of which was identical to the Alvinocaris sp. of the cold seeps in Sagami Bay. These results indicate that a long-distance dispersal of A. longirostris occurred possibly within the last 100?000 years.

Tokuda, Gaku; Yamada, Akinori; Nakano, Kazuma; Arita, Nao; Yamasaki, Hideo

2005-01-01

399

Autolysis of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) meat: characterization and the effects of protein additives.  

PubMed

Autolytic activity of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) mince in the absence and in the presence of 2.5%NaCl was investigated. Pacific white shrimp mince exhibited the maximum autolytic activity at 35 and 40 degrees C in the absence and in the presence of 2.5%NaCl, respectively, as evidenced by the highest TCA-soluble peptide content and the greatest disappearance of myosin heavy chain (MHC). The autolysis was more pronounced in the acidic pH values, followed by alkaline pH ranges. Pepstatin A showed the highest inhibition toward autolysis in the acidic condition, revealing that aspartic proteinase was dominant in shrimp muscle. Nevertheless, soybean trypsin inhibitor effectively inhibited the autolysis at neutral and alkaline pH values, suggesting that serine proteinase was present in shrimp mince but contributed to autolysis at a lower extent in shrimp meat. Autolysis in shrimp meat could be inhibited partially by all protein additives, including bovine plasma protein (BPP), egg white (EW), and whey protein concentrate (WPC). The inhibition of autolysis increased when the level of protein additives increased with the concomitant increase in band intensity of MHC retained. WPC and BPP in the range of 2% to 3% exhibited the highest inhibition toward autolysis of shrimp mince. PMID:18298747

Eakpetch, P; Benjakul, S; Visessanguan, W; Kijroongrojana, K

2008-03-01

400

Risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in shrimp farming in Mai Po Nature Reserve, Hong Kong.  

PubMed

An ecological survey was carried out to determine the sediment concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish and shrimp including tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. nilotica), grey mullet (Mugil cephalus), gei wai shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis) and caridean shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponensis) in the traditional tidal shrimp ponds (gei wais) of Mai Po Nature Reserve, Hong Kong. The sediments collected from the landward sites contained higher nutrient contents, as well as zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) than those collected from the seaward sites, but vice versa for lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg). However, the concentrations of all metals were exceptionally high in the two sites located outside the reserve, suggesting that waters from Deep Bay might be the possible source of metal contamination affecting the reserve. All metals studied seemed to accumulate in the viscera of fish. Body size was the determining factor for the accumulation of heavy metals in caridean shrimp and gei wai shrimp but not fish. Concentrations of the metals studied in tissues of grey mullet and gei wai shrimp were found to be safe for human consumption. Concentrations of Cr in tilapia whole body (0.68-1.10 mg kg(-1) wet weight) were close to or over the guideline value of 1 mg kg(-1) set by the Food Adulteration (Metallic Contamination) Regulations of Hong Kong. Tilapia flesh and small caridean shrimp collected from gei wais were contaminated by Cr and Pb but still fit for human consumption. Caution is required if large caridean shrimp is to be consumed in large amounts continuously because the concentration of Pb exceeded the maximum permitted concentration (6 mg kg(-1)). The rather high Cr concentrations in tilapia whole body should not be overlooked as the fish will serve as a food source for migratory birds visiting the site. PMID:16528597

Cheung, K C; Wong, M H

401

Structure of Penaeus stylirostris Densovirus, a Shrimp Pathogen? †  

PubMed Central

Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), a pathogen of penaeid shrimp, causes significant damage to farmed and wild shrimp populations. In contrast to other parvoviruses, PstDNV probably has only one type of capsid protein that lacks the phospholipase A2 activity that has been implicated as a requirement during parvoviral host cell infection. The structure of recombinant virus-like particles, composed of 60 copies of the 37.5-kDa coat protein, the smallest parvoviral capsid protein reported thus far, was determined to 2.5-Å resolution by X-ray crystallography. The structure represents the first near-atomic resolution structure within the genus Brevidensovirus. The capsid protein has a ?-barrel “jelly roll” motif similar to that found in many icosahedral viruses, including other parvoviruses. The N-terminal portion of the PstDNV coat protein adopts a “domain-swapped” conformation relative to its twofold-related neighbor similar to the insect parvovirus Galleria mellonella densovirus (GmDNV) but in stark contrast to vertebrate parvoviruses. However, most of the surface loops have little structural resemblance to any of the known parvoviral capsid proteins.

Kaufmann, Barbel; Bowman, Valorie D.; Li, Yi; Szelei, Jozsef; Waddell, Peter J.; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G.

2010-01-01

402

Structure of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus, a shrimp pathogen.  

PubMed

Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), a pathogen of penaeid shrimp, causes significant damage to farmed and wild shrimp populations. In contrast to other parvoviruses, PstDNV probably has only one type of capsid protein that lacks the phospholipase A2 activity that has been implicated as a requirement during parvoviral host cell infection. The structure of recombinant virus-like particles, composed of 60 copies of the 37.5-kDa coat protein, the smallest parvoviral capsid protein reported thus far, was determined to 2.5-Å resolution by X-ray crystallography. The structure represents the first near-atomic resolution structure within the genus Brevidensovirus. The capsid protein has a ?-barrel "jelly roll" motif similar to that found in many icosahedral viruses, including other parvoviruses. The N-terminal portion of the PstDNV coat protein adopts a "domain-swapped" conformation relative to its twofold-related neighbor similar to the insect parvovirus Galleria mellonella densovirus (GmDNV) but in stark contrast to vertebrate parvoviruses. However, most of the surface loops have little structural resemblance to any of the known parvoviral capsid proteins. PMID:20702621

Kaufmann, Bärbel; Bowman, Valorie D; Li, Yi; Szelei, Jozsef; Waddell, Peter J; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G

2010-08-11

403

Nucleic acid-induced antiviral immunity in shrimp.  

PubMed

Vertebrates detect viral infection predominantly by sensing viral nucleic acids to produce type I interferon (IFN). In invertebrates, it has been believed that the IFN system is absent and RNA interference is a sequence-specific antiviral pathway. In this study, we found that injection of nucleic acid mimics poly(I:C), poly(C:G), CL097, poly C and CpG-DNA, afforded shrimp antiviral immunity, which is similar to the vertebrate IFN system. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method, 480 expression sequence tags were identified to be involved in the poly(I:C)-induced antiviral immunity of the model crustacean Litopenaeus vannamei, and 41% of them were new genes. In the SSH libraries, several IFN system-related genes such as dsRNA-dependent protein kinase PKR, Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and IFN?-inducible protein 30 were identified. L. vannamei IKK?, whose vertebrate homologs are central regulators of the IFN-producing pathway, could significantly activate IFN reporter genes in HEK293T cells. In crustacean databases, many genes homologous to genes of the vertebrate IFN response, such as IRFs, PKR, ADAR (adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific) and other interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) were discovered. These results suggest that shrimp may possess nucleic acid-induced antiviral immunity. PMID:23773856

Wang, Pei-Hui; Yang, Li-Shi; Gu, Zhi-Hua; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

2013-06-15

404

Estimation of the dietary vitamin A requirement of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon.  

PubMed

Two growth experiments were conducted to estimate the minimal dietary vitamin A requirement for juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon. In expt. 1, purified diets containing 0, 1,500, 3,000, 15, 000, 30,000, 45,000 and 60,000 retinol equivalent (RE)/kg (i.e., 0, 5,000, 10,000, 50,000, 100,000, 150,000, 200,000 IU/kg) of supplemental vitamin A (retinyl acetate) were fed to P. monodon (mean initial weight 0.97 +/- 0.01 g) for 8 wk. In expt. 2, diets with 0, 600, 1,200, 1,800, 2,400, 3,000, 3,600, and 4,500 RE/kg (i.e. , 0, 2,000, 4,000, 6,000, 8,000, 10,000, 12,000, 15,000 IU/kg) of supplemental vitamin A were fed to the shrimp (mean weight 0.68 +/- 0.01 g) for 6 wk. The basal unsupplemented diet contained 54 RE vitamin A/kg, and supplemental levels were confirmed by analysis. Each diet was fed to three replicate groups of shrimp. In expt. 1, shrimp fed diets supplemented with 300 RE vitamin A/kg had significantly greater weight gain (P < 0.05) than those fed the unsupplemented control diet and diets supplemented with >===" BORDER="0">30,000 RE vitamin A/kg. Survival rate was higher in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1,500-30,000 RE vitamin A/kg than shrimp fed the control diet. Highest blood triglyceride concentration and body lipid concentration were in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 45,000 and 60,000 RE vitamin A/kg, respectively. Eye vitamin A concentration and hepatopancreatic total lipid concentration in shrimp generally increased as dietary vitamin A supplementation increased. In expt. 2, feed efficiency was highest in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 2,400, 3,000, 3,600 and 4,500 RE vitamin A/kg, followed by shrimp fed diets with 600 and 1,200 RE vitamin A/kg and finally the unsupplemented control group. Shrimp fed diets supplemented with vitamin A had significantly higher survival percentages than those fed the unsupplemented control diet. Weight gain percentage of the shrimp analyzed by broken-line regression indicated that the minimal dietary vitamin A concentration in growing P. monodon is 2,511 RE/kg ( approximately 8, 400 IU/kg). PMID:10613772

Shiau, S Y; Chen, Y

2000-01-01

405

The spatial distribution of galaxies within the cosmic microwave background cold spot in the Corona Borealis supercluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the spatial distribution and colours of galaxies within the region covered by the cold spot in the cosmic microwave background recently detected by the Very Small Array interpherometer (VSA) towards the Corona Borealis supercluster (CrB-SC). The spot is in the northern part of a region with a radius ~1° (~5Mpc at the redshift of CrB-SC) enclosing the clusters Abell 2056, 2065, 2059 and 2073, and where the density of galaxies, excluding the contribution from those clusters, is approximately two times higher than the mean value in typical intercluster regions of the CrB-SC. Two of such clusters (Abell 2056 and 2065) are members of the CrB-SC, while the other two are in the background. This high-density intercluster region is quite inhomogeneous, being the most remarkable feature a large concentration of galaxies in a narrow filament running from Abell 2065 with a length of ~35 arcmin (~3Mpc at the redshift of CrB-SC) in the SW-NE direction. This intercluster population of galaxies probably results from the interaction of clusters Abell 2065 and 2056. The area subtended by the VSA cold spot shows an excess of faint (21 < r < 22) and red (1.1 < r - i < 1.3) galaxies as compared with typical values within the CrB-SC intercluster regions. This overdensity of galaxies shows a radial dependence and extends out to ~15 arcmin. This could be the signature of a previously unnoted cluster in the background.

Padilla-Torres, Carmen Pilar; Gutiérrez, Carlos M.; Rebolo, Rafael; Génova-Santos, Ricardo; Rubiño-Martin, José Alberto

2009-06-01

406

The Visual Orbit of the 1.1 Day Spectroscopic Binary ?2 Coronae Borealis from Interferometry at the Chara Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an updated spectroscopic orbit and a new visual orbit for the double-lined spectroscopic binary ?2 Coronae Borealis (CrB) based on radial velocity measurements at the Oak Ridge Observatory in Harvard, MA and interferometric visibility measurements at the Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) Array on Mount Wilson in California. ?2 CrB is composed of two Sun-like stars of roughly equal mass in a circularized orbit with a period of 1.14 days. The long baselines of the CHARA Array have allowed us to resolve the visual orbit for this pair, the shortest-period binary yet resolved interferometrically, enabling us to determine component masses of 1.137 ± 0.037 M sun and 1.090 ± 0.036 M sun. We have also estimated absolute V-band magnitudes of M V(primary) = 4.35 ± 0.02 and M V(secondary) = 4.74 ± 0.02. A comparison with stellar evolution models indicates a relatively young age of 0.1-3 Gyr, consistent with the high-Li abundance measured previously. This pair is the central component of a quintuple system, along with another similar-mass star, ?1 CrB, in a ~730-year visual orbit, and a distant M-dwarf binary, ? CrB C, at a projected separation of ~10'. We also present differential proper motion evidence to show that components C & D (ADS 9979C & D) listed for this system in the Washington Double Star Catalog are optical alignments that are not gravitationally bound to the ? CrB system.

Raghavan, Deepak; McAlister, Harold A.; Torres, Guillermo; Latham, David W.; Mason, Brian D.; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Baines, Ellyn K.; Williams, Stephen J.; Brummelaar, Theo A. ten; Farrington, Chris D.; Ridgway, Stephen T.; Sturmann, Laszlo; Sturmann, Judit; Turner, Nils H.

2009-01-01

407

Subaru/HDS Study of HE 1015-2050: Spectral Evidence of R Coronae Borealis Light Decline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen deficiency and a sudden optical light decline of about 6-8 mag are two principal characteristics of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars. The high latitude carbon star HE 1015-2050 was identified as a hydrogen-deficient carbon star from low-resolution spectroscopy. Photometric data of the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey gathered between 2006 February and 2012 May indicate that the object exhibits no variability. However, a high-resolution (R ~ 50, 000) optical spectrum of this object obtained with the 8.2 m Subaru telescope using High Dispersion Spectrograph on the 2012 January 13 offers sufficient spectral evidence that the object is a cool HdC star of RCB type undergoing light decline. In contrast to the Na I D broad absorption features seen in the low-resolution spectra on several occasions, the high-resolution spectrum exhibits Na I D2 and D1 features in emission. A few emission lines due to Mg I, Sc II, Ti I, Ti II, Fe II, and Ba I are also observed in the spectrum of this object for the first time. Such emission features combined with neutral and singly ionized lines of Ca, Ti, Fe, etc., in absorption are reportedly seen in RCBs spectra in the early stage of decline or during the recovery to maximum. Further, the light decline of RCBs is ascribed to the formation of a cloud of soot that obscures the visible photosphere. The presence of such circumstellar material is evident from the polarimetric observations with an estimated V-band percentage polarization of ~1.7% for this object.

Goswami, Aruna; Aoki, Wako

2013-02-01

408

Retention and tissue damage of PSP and NSP toxins in shrimp: Is cultured shrimp a potential vector of toxins to human population?  

PubMed

Toxic microalgae outbreaks have caused significant economic losses in the Mexican aquaculture industry. Blooms that involve PSP and NSP phycotoxins are two of the most dangerous, causing harmful effects to the environment, economy and public health. The exact metabolic mechanism of these toxins in shrimp still remains unknown. Because shrimp consume microalgae their edible tissues are clearly possible vectors for human toxic syndrome. This study examined and verified the toxicological effects for white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) exposed to different cell densities of Gymnodinium catenatum and Karenia brevis. Acute assays demonstrated good survival rates of shrimp at low densities of dinoflagellates (10(3) cell/L), while mortality and abnormal behavior were observed with higher densities (>10(4) cell/L). Chronic assays showed significant differences in survival rates, percentage of feed and weight gain of organisms exposed to the dinoflagellates with respect to controls. Furthermore, PSP and NSP toxins were detected in all the edible tissues. Gastric glands and muscle retained toxins for a longer period of time compared to other tissues, even after a depuration period. Histology damages were observed in the heart, gastric gland and brain. This study strongly supports that shrimp represent a potential risk for humans as unconventional vectors of phycotoxins. PMID:19028514

Pérez Linares, Jesús; Ochoa, José Luis; Gago Martínez, Ana

2008-11-06

409

78 FR 11221 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand...injured by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand...subsidized by the Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia,...

2013-02-15

410

78 FR 764 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand...retarded, by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand...subsidized by the Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia,...

2013-01-04

411

78 FR 50379 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Negative Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...in the Memorandum to Paul Piquado, Assistant Secretary for Import Administration, ``Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, People's Republic of China, Thailand, and Socialist Republic of Vietnam--Final...

2013-08-19

412

78 FR 35643 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand...reason of subsidized imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand...to be subsidized by the Governments of Ecuador and Indonesia. 1...

2013-06-13

413

78 FR 64009 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam Determinations...retarded by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam of frozen...subsidized by the Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and...

2013-10-25

414

The potential of Yucca schidigera extract to reduce the ammonia pollution from shrimp farming.  

PubMed

This study investigated the feasibility of using Yucca schidigera extract (YUPE) to reduce ammonia pollution resulting from shrimp farming. YUPE was added at ratios of 18, 36, and 72 mg L(-1) to effluent from an experimental shrimp culture system containing total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) of 0.592, 0.672, and 0.718 mg L(-1). TAN reduction increased with an increase in YUPE, and at 18 mg L(-1) reduced TAN by 71-72% and 86-87% at 6 and 24h, respectively. Shrimp feed containing YUPE at 300, 600, and 1200 mg kg(-1) was submerged, allowing the ammonia to leach out. The addition of YUPE in feed reduced TAN leaching by 50-83% compared with the control. The application of YUPE in water or feed could considerably reduce the accumulation of ammonia in waste water discharge during shrimp production, thereby providing a feasible solution to ammonia pollution in coastal environments. PMID:22440573

Santacruz-Reyes, Roberto A; Chien, Yew-Hu

2012-03-07

415

Studies on the Use of Sulfites to Control Shrimp Melanosis (Blackspot).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shrimp melanosis, commonly known as 'blackspot' is a harmless but objectionable surface dicoloration caused by polyphenoloxidase enzyme systems which remain active during refrigeration or ice storage. In the early 1950's sulfiting agents, particularily so...

1986-01-01

416

Assessment of Shrimp Industry Potentials and Conflicts. Volume 1. Reports 1 and 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides an update on the potentials and conflicts faced by the domestic shrimp industry with special attention directed toward future actions which may significantly impact respective segments of the industry. Volume One of Three analyses the ...

1983-01-01

417

50 CFR 654.24 - Shrimp/stone crab separation zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.24 Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. Five zones are...

2011-10-01

418

Shrimp pond effluent dominates foliar nitrogen in disturbed mangroves as mapped using hyperspectral imagery.  

PubMed

Conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds creates fragmentation and eutrophication. Detection of the spatial variation of foliar nitrogen is essential for understanding the effect of eutrophication on mangroves. We aim (i) to estimate nitrogen variability across mangrove landscapes of the Mahakam delta using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing (HyMap) and (ii) to investigate links between the variation of foliar nitrogen mapped and local environmental variables. In this study, multivariate prediction models achieved a higher level of accuracy than narrow-band vegetation indices, making multivariate modeling the best choice for mapping. The variation of foliar nitrogen concentration in mangroves was significantly influenced by the local environment: (1) position of mangroves (seaward/landward), (2) distance to the shrimp ponds, and (3) predominant mangrove species. The findings suggest that anthropogenic disturbances, in this case shrimp ponds, influence nitrogen variation in mangroves. Mangroves closer to the shrimp ponds had higher foliar nitrogen concentrations. PMID:24103095

Fauzi, Anas; Skidmore, Andrew K; Gils, Hein van; Schlerf, Martin; Heitkönig, Ignas M A

2013-10-05

419

Crassostrea gigas oysters as a shrimp farm bioindicator of white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

This study explored whether Crassostrea gigas oysters can be used as a bioindicator of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp farm water canals. Bioassays showed that C. gigas can accumulate WSSV in their gills and digestive glands but do not become infected, either by exposure to seawater containing WSSV or by cohabitation with infected shrimp. The use of a WSSV nested PCR to screen oysters placed in water canals at the entry of a shrimp farm allowed WSSV to be detected 16 d prior to the disease occurring. The finding that C. gigas can concentrate small amounts of WSSV present in seawater without being harmed makes it an ideal sentinel species at shrimp farms. PMID:22535870

Vazquez-Boucard, C; Escobedo-Fregoso, C; Duran-Avelar, Ma de J; Mercier, L; Llera-Herrera, R; Escobedo-Bonilla, C; Vibanco-Perez, N

2012-04-26

420

Little Shrimp, Big Results: A Model of an Integrative, Cross-Curricular Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This integrative, cross-curricular lab engages middle school biology students in an exercise involving ecology, arthropod biology, and mathematics. Students research the anatomy and behavioral patterns of a species of brine shrimp, compare the anatomy of

Piser, Carol; Walka, Keith; Ackerson, Nicole

2010-12-01

421

Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Atlantic). Brown Shrimp,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Species profiles are literature summaries of the life history, distribution, and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates. Profiles are prepared to assist with environmental impact assessment. Brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) account f...

E. L. Bozeman M. J. Van Den Avyle S. C. Larson

1989-01-01

422

Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Atlantic). Brown Shrimp.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Species profiles are literature summaries of the life history, distribution, and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates. Profiles are prepared to assist with environmental impact assessment. Brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) account f...

E. L. Bozeman M. J. Van Den Avyle S. C. Larson

1989-01-01

423

Inhibitory effect of mimosine on polyphenoloxidase from cephalothoraxes of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

PubMed

The inhibitory effect of mimosine on polyphenoloxidase (PPO) from the cephalothorax of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was studied. Mimosine showed inhibitory activity toward PPO from white shrimp with an apparent molecular weight of 210 kDa as evidenced by the decrease in the activity staining band, as compared to the control. An inhibition kinetic study revealed that mimosine exhibited the mixed type reversible inhibition on PPO from white shrimp with a Ki value of 3.7 mM. Mimosine showed copper (Cu2+) reduction and chelating capacity in a dose dependent manner. Mimosine could react with the intermediate browning product, thereby rendering lower red-brown color formation. Therefore, mimosine could inhibit PPO by different modes of inhibition and could be used to prevent melanosis formation in Pacific white shrimp. PMID:21863871

Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat

2011-09-02

424

Use of a Brine Shrimp Assay to Study Herbal Teas in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces a brine shrimp assay to demonstrate the effects of the biological activity of herbal remedies. Describes two protocols, one using aqueous extracts and the other using methanol extracts. (Contains 21 references.) (YDS)|

Opler, Annette; Mizell, Rebecca; Robert, Alexander; Cervantes-Cervantes, Miguel; Kincaid, Dwight; Kennelly, Edward J.

2002-01-01

425

76 FR 12054 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Shrimp Trade Action Committee members: Nancy Edens; Papa Inc., Carolina Seafoods...actual pricing records kept by Bangladeshi farmers, traders, depots, agents, and processors...actual pricing records kept by Bangladeshi farmers, traders, depots, agents, and...

2011-03-04

426

77 FR 13547 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Shrimp Trade Action Committee members: Nancy Edens; Papa Rod, Inc.; Carolina Seafoods...actual pricing records kept by Bangladeshi farmers, traders, depots, agents, and processors...actual pricing records kept by Bangladeshi farmers, traders, depots, agents, and...

2012-03-07

427

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN GRASS SHRIMP EXPOSED TO CHROMIUM, PENTACHLOROPHENOL AND DITHIOCARBAMATES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report deals with the histopathological/ultrastructural changes in various tissues of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) exposed to hexavalent chromium, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and two dithiocarbamate formulations: Aquatreat DNM-30 (15% sodium dimethyl dithiocarbamate plus 15...

428

Feeding hermit crabs to shrimp broodstock increases their risk of WSSV infection.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a serious shrimp pathogen that has spread globally to all major shrimp farming areas, causing enormous economic losses. Here we investigate the role of hermit crabs in transmitting WSSV to Penaeus monodon brooders used in hatcheries in Vietnam. WSSV-free brooders became PCR-positive for WSSV within 2 to 14 d, and the source of infection was traced to hermit crabs being used as live feed. Challenging hermit crabs with WSSV confirmed their susceptibility to infection, but they remained tolerant to disease even at virus loads equivalent to those causing acute disease in shrimp. As PCR screening also suggests that WSSV infection occurs commonly in hermit crab populations in both Vietnam and Taiwan, their use as live feed for shrimp brooders is not recommended. PMID:22535869

Chang, Yun-Shiang; Liu, Wang-Jing; Chen, Tsan-Chi; Chan, Tin-Yam; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Chuang, Jie-Cheng; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Lo, Chu-Fang; Wang, Han-Ching

2012-04-26

429

Assimilation and subcellular partitioning of elements by grass shrimp collected along an impact gradient.  

PubMed

Chronic exposure to polluted field conditions can impact metal bioavailability in prey and may influence metal transfer to predators. The present study investigated the assimilation of Cd, Hg and organic carbon by grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio, collected along an impact gradient within the New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary. Adult shrimp were collected from five Staten Island, New York study sites, fed (109)Cd- or (203)Hg-labeled amphipods or (14)C-labeled meals and analyzed for assimilation efficiencies (AE). Subsamples of amphipods and shrimp were subjected to subcellular fractionation to isolate metal associated with a compartment presumed to contain trophically available metal (TAM) (metal associated with heat-stable proteins [HSP - e.g., metallothionein-like proteins], heat-denatured proteins [HDP - e.g., enzymes] and organelles [ORG]). TAM-(109)Cd% and TAM-(203)Hg% in radiolabeled amphipods were approximately 64% and approximately 73%, respectively. Gradients in AE-(109)Cd% ( approximately 54% to approximately 75%) and AE-(203)Hg% ( approximately 61% to approximately 78%) were observed for grass shrimp, with the highest values exhibited by shrimp collected from sites within the heavily polluted Arthur Kill complex. Population differences in AE-(14)C% were not observed. Assimilated (109)Cd% partitioned to the TAM compartment in grass shrimp varied between approximately 67% and approximately 75%. (109)Cd bound to HSP in shrimp varied between approximately 15% and approximately 47%, while (109)Cd associated with metal-sensitive HDP was approximately 17% to approximately 44%. Percentages of assimilated (109)Cd bound to ORG were constant at approximately 10%. Assimilated (203)Hg% associated with TAM in grass shrimp did not exhibit significant variation. Percentages of assimilated (203)Hg bound to HDP ( approximately 47%) and ORG ( approximately 11%) did not vary among populations and partitioning of (203)Hg to HSP was not observed. Using a simplified biokinetic model of metal accumulation from the diet, it is estimated that site-specific variability in Cd AE by shrimp and tissue Cd burdens in field-collected prey (polychaetes Nereis spp.) could potentially result in up to approximately 3.2-fold differences in the dose of Cd assimilated by shrimp from a meal in the field. The results of this study also suggest that chronic field exposure can impact mechanisms of metal transport across the gut epithelium that do not influence carbon assimilation. Differences in the assimilation and subcellular partitioning of metal may have important implications for metal toxicity in impacted shrimp populations. PMID:19473712

Seebaugh, David R; Wallace, William G

2009-05-03

430

Hemolymph analysis and evaluation of newly formulated media for culture of shrimp cells ( Penaeus stylirostris )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Creation of a shirmp cell line has been an elusive goal. This failure may be due to the composition of the cell culture medium,\\u000a which may be inadequate to support primary cultured cells. Shrimp hemolymph should contain the nutritional components needed\\u000a to support cell growth and division. We report here the comprehensive biochemical analysis of hemolymph from the blue shrimp,Penaeus

Chisato Shimizu; Hiroko Shike; Kurt R. Klimpel; Jane C. Burns

2001-01-01

431

Visualizing Flow Diagrams in WebSphere Studio Using SHriMP Views (Visualizing Flow Diagrams)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper describes the integration of an information visualization tool, called SHriMPViews, with IBM WebSphere Studio Application Developer Integration Edition, whichwas developed with Eclipse technology. Although SHriMP was originally developedfor visualizing programs, it is content-independent. We have re-targeted SHriMP forvisualizing flow diagrams. Flow diagrams, as supported by WebSphere Studio ApplicationDeveloper Integration Edition, can be hierarchically composed, thus...

Derek Rayside; Marin Litoiu

432

Cytotoxicity of nitrite on haemocytes of the tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, using flow cytometric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at investigating the cytotoxicity of nitrite on haemocytes of the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Total haemocyte count (THC), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, DNA damaged cell ratio and apoptotic cell ratio of shrimp were determined after exposure to different concentrations of nitrite-N (0, 1, 10 and 20mgL?1) for 0, 6, 12, 24 and 48h. There

Jian-An Xian; An-Li Wang; Xiao-Dan Chen; Ni-Na Gou; Yu-Tao Miao; Shao-An Liao; Chao-Xia Ye

2011-01-01

433

Molecular cloning and mRNA expression of peroxiredoxin gene in black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The techniques of homology cloning and anchored PCR were used to clone the peroxiredoxin (Prx) gene from black tiger shrimp\\u000a (Penaeus monodon). The full length cDNA of black tiger shrimp Prx (PmPrx) contained a 5? untranslated region (UTR) of 51 bp, an ORF (open\\u000a reading frame) of 582 bp encoding a polypeptide of 193 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of

Lihua Qiu; Zhuojun Ma; Shigui Jiang; Weifang Wang; Falin Zhou; Jianhua Huang; Jianzhu Li; Qibin Yang

2010-01-01

434

Tolerance and behaviour of the mysid shrimp Tenagomysis novae?zealandiae to low dissolved oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estuarine hypoxia (<4.0 mg O2\\/litre) caused by eutrophication has been linked to mass mortality of fish and Crustacea. However, there is little information on the hypoxia tolerance of New Zealand's estuarine mysid shrimps and\\/or if these species exhibit behavioural and physiological responses to low dissolved oxygen. Laboratory experiments demonstrated the native mysid shrimp Tenagomysis novae?zealandiae was tolerant of dissolved oxygen

Gregory Larkin; Gerard P. Closs; Barrie Peake

2007-01-01

435

Shrimping as a source of suspended sediment in Corpus Christi Bay (Texas)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our field study showed that the total amount of sediment disturbed in Corpus Christi Bay each year by shrimp trawling is 10-100\\u000a times greater than that dredged in an average year for maintenance of shipping channels. The maximum concentrations of suspended\\u000a sediment measured in the trails of the shrimp boats were comparable of the dredge operating in the same area.

J. R. Schubel; H. H. Carter; W. M. Wise

1979-01-01

436

The chronic toxicity of fenoxycarb to larvae of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined effects of fenoxycarb, a carbamate insecticide, on larvae of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. In laboratory experiments, grass shrimp larvae were exposed to fenoxycarb from hatch to postlarval metamorphosis in a chronic, static renewal bio assay. LC50's ranged from 0.92 mg\\/L at 96 h to 0.35 mg\\/L at the end of the study (24 days). In assessing

Peter B. Key; Geoffrey I. Scott

1994-01-01

437

Prevalence of Microbial Load in Shrimp, Penaeus monodon and Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii from Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative studies regarding prevalence of microbial flora in the muscle of locally available tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and giant water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) have been analyzed in terms of aerobic plate count (APC), enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella-Shigella (SS) counts. The total counts ranged from 2.04x10 to 4.5x10 CFU\\/ml for shrimp and 1.08x10 to 1.2x10 CFU\\/ml for prawn. The total coliforms

Abu Hena Muhammad Yousuf; Sabina Yeasmin

438

Design and Implementation of NX Message Passing Using Shrimp Virtual Memory Mapped Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design, implementationand performance of the NX message-passing interfaceon the Shrimp multicomputer. Our implementationexploits Shrimp's virtual memory-mapped communicationfacility. Unlike traditional methods, our implementationperforms buffer management at user levelwithout using a special message-passing processor, andrequires no CPU intervention upon message arrivalin the common cases. For a four-byte message, ourimplementation achieves a user-to-user...

Richard Alpert; Cezary Dubnicki; Edward W. Felten; Kai Li

1996-01-01

439

Molecular Phylogeny and In Situ Detection of the Etiologic Agent of Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis in Shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (NHP) is a severe disease of farm-raised Penaeus vannamei that has been associated with mortality losses ranging from 20 to 95%. NHP was first recognized in Texas in 1985 (S. K. Johnson,p.16,inHandbookofShrimpDiseases,1989)andisaneconomicallyimportantdiseasethathaslimited the ability to culture shrimp in Texas. The putative cause of NHP is a gram-negative, pleomorphic, intracel- lular, rickettsia-like bacterium that remains uncultured in part because

JAMES K. LOY; FLOYD E. DEWHIRST; WILLIAM WEBER; PAUL F. FRELIER; THEODORE L. GARBAR; SERBAN I. TASCA; ANDJOE W. TEMPLETON

1996-01-01

440

Effects of a probiotic bacterium on black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon survival and growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus S11 bacterium isolated from black tiger shrimp habitats was added to shrimp feed as a probiotic in three forms: fresh cells, fresh cells in normal saline solution, and a lyophilized form. After a 100-day feeding trial with probiotic supplemented and non-supplemented (control) feeds, Penaeus monodon (from PL30) exhibited no significant difference (p>0.05) in growth, survival nor external appearance between

Sirirat Rengpipat; Wannipa Phianphak; Somkiat Piyatiratitivorakul; Piamsak Menasveta

1998-01-01

441

Rapid 13 C\\/ 12 C turnover during growth of brown shrimp ( Penaeus aztecus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using natural-abundance 13C\\/12C ratios as tracers, carbon turnover rates were determined for postlarval brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, in five laboratory growth experiments. Although tissue turnover in adult animals generally occurs during maintenance metabolism and is a function of time, turnover for young postlarval shrimp was accelerated during growth, and was primarily a function of weight gained rather than time. Metabolic

Brian Fry; Connie Arnold

1982-01-01

442

The application of SHRIMP to Phanerozoic geochronology; a critical appraisal of four zircon standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Derivation of Phanerozoic zircon 206Pb\\/238U ages by SHRIMP depends on calibration against an independently dated standard. The qualities of four different zircon standards (SL13, QGNG, AS3 and TEMORA 1) are assessed herein. Not all of these behave consistently on SHRIMP with respect to their ages as determined by IDTIMS. SL13, the most commonly used standard over the past decade and

Lance P Black; Sandra L Kamo; Ian S Williams; Roland Mundil; Donald W Davis; Russell J Korsch; Chris Foudoulis

2003-01-01

443

Evaluation of immune response and resistance to diseases in tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon fed with biofilm of Vibrio alginolyticus.  

PubMed

Immune response in juvenile tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon fed with biofilm (BF) and free cells (FC) of Vibrio alginolyticus was studied by evaluating the hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and antibacterial activity. The above immune responses were higher in BF fed shrimp than that in FC fed or control shrimp. Among the different doses of BF of V. alginolyticus tested, 10(9) cfu g(-1) shrimp day(-1) for two weeks could evoke higher immune response. BF fed shrimp were more resistant to injection challenge with V. alginolyticus and whitespot syndrome virus (WSSV) with significantly higher RPS compared to that with FC fed and control shrimp. Better resistance was also reflected by rapid clearance of V. alginolyticus and WSSV from the hemolymph as confirmed by immunodot and histopathology. PMID:20638481

Sharma, S R Krupesha; Shankar, K M; Sathyanarayana, M L; Sahoo, A K; Patil, Rajreddy; Narayanaswamy, H D; Rao, Suguna

2010-07-16

444

PROFILE: "Low-Salt" Shrimp Aquaculture in Thailand: Goodbye Coastline, Hello Khon Kaen!  

PubMed

/ Intensive shrimp culture has been confined to relatively narrow bands of land along the seashores of tropical developing nations due to the need for large volumes of saltwater for water exchange during the culture period. Recent developments in Thailand suggest, however, that this close association could soon be a thing of the past. Large numbers of Thai farmers are adopting low-salinity culture systems that rely upon sea or salt pan water that is trucked inland. This development greatly increases the potential for establishing shrimp cultivation much further from the coast than previously believed possible. The migration of intensive shrimp farming into freshwater environments, however, raises serious concerns over the disposal of pond effluents and the impact of saltwater intrusion on surrounding agricultural activities. In the absence of effective government regulation of the expansion and operation of the shrimp culture industry, supporting local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and community initiatives may be the only means of minimizing the negative impacts of shrimp farming on rural communities.KEY WORDS: Aquaculture; Shrimp; Salinity; Thailand PMID:9732512

FLAHERTY; VANDERGEEST

1998-11-01

445

The effects of a simulated refinery effluent on the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.  

PubMed

Duplicate static bioassays were conducted using a simulated refinery effluent on the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio, Hippolyte sp.) with the LC-50 values recorded at 4-, 8-, 24-, 48-, and 96-hr intervals. The stimulated refinery effluent contained phenol (0.10 mg/L), sulfide (0.17 mg/L), chromium (0.25 mg/L), ammonia (10 mg/L), No. 2 fuel oil (10 mg/L), and kaolinite (20 mg/L). This arbitrary reference mixture (ARM) contains approximately the concentration of compounds recommended by EPA for 1977. Of the six ARM components, No. 2 fuel oil was the most toxic followed in decreasing order by sulfide, ammonia, phenol, chromium, and kaolinite. Temperature was the most important environmental variable affecting short term toxicity of the ARM to the grass shrimp. Light intensity, photo-period, and salinity had no significant effect. There was no difference in sensitivity of grass shrimp collected from five locations along the gulf and eastern coasts of the United States. Similarly, there was no difference in the response of two grass shrimp genera, Palaemonetes and Hippolyte to the ARM and there was no differences among the three species of Palaemonetes tested. In comparing the sensitivities of the two genera of grass shrimp and the pinfish (Lagodon rhombroides) to the ARM, the grass shrimp were more sensitive. PMID:666364

Hall, L W; Buikema, A L; Cairns, J

1978-01-01

446

Cleaner shrimp use a rocking dance to advertise cleaning service to clients.  

PubMed

Signals transmit information to receivers about sender attributes, increase the fitness of both parties, and are selected for in cooperative interactions between species to reduce conflict [1, 2]. Marine cleaning interactions are known for stereotyped behaviors [3-6] that likely serve as signals. For example, "dancing" and "tactile dancing" in cleaner fish may serve to advertise cleaning services to client fish [7] and manipulate client behavior [8], respectively. Cleaner shrimp clean fish [9], yet are cryptic in comparison to cleaner fish. Signals, therefore, are likely essential for cleaner shrimp to attract clients. Here, we show that the yellow-beaked cleaner shrimp [10] Urocaridella sp. c [11] uses a stereotypical side-to-side movement, or "rocking dance," while approaching potential client fish in the water column. This dance was followed by a cleaning interaction with the client 100% of the time. Hungry cleaner shrimp, which are more willing to clean than satiated ones [12], spent more time rocking and in closer proximity to clients Cephalopholis cyanostigma than satiated ones, and when given a choice, clients preferred hungry, rocking shrimp. The rocking dance therefore influenced client behavior and, thus, appears to function as a signal to advertise the presence of cleaner shrimp to potential clients. PMID:15854910

Becker, Justine H A; Curtis, Lynda M; Grutter, Alexandra S

2005-04-26

447

The effect of three culture methods on intensive culture system of pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different culture methods may affect the intensive culture system of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) regarding water quality and growth and economic performance. This study evaluated the potential effects of three culture methods through cultivation of juvenile shrimps under consistent tank management conditions for 84 d. The three methods involved shrimp cultivation in different tanks, i.e., outdoor tanks with cement bottom (mode-C), greenhouse tanks with cement bottom (mode-G) and outdoor tanks with mud-substrate (mode-M). Results showed that water temperature was significantly higher in mode-G than that in mode-C ( P < 0.05). In contrast to the other two treatments, mode-M had stable pH after 50 d cultivation of shrimps. In the mid-late period, the average concentrations of TAN, NO2-N, DIP and COD were significantly lower in mode-M and mode-G compared with those in mode-C ( P < 0.05). Despite lack of differences in the final shrimp weight among different treatments ( P > 0.05), mode-M had significantly higher shrimp yield, survival rate and feed conversion rate ( P < 0.05) than other modes. There were significant differences in revenue and net return among different treatments ( P < 0.05). These demonstrated that the treatments of mode-G and mode-M were conductive to the intensive culture system of L. vannamei.

Ma, Zhen; Wan, Rong; Song, Xiefa; Gao, Lei

2013-09-01

448

In vitro gastric and intestinal digestions of pulsed light-treated shrimp extracts.  

PubMed

Pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV), a novel technology most commonly used for microbial inactivation, has recently been employed to effectively mitigate food allergens in peanuts, soybean, shrimp, and almond. Putative mechanisms for the efficacy of PUV in reducing allergen reactivity include photothermal, photochemical, and photophysical effects. To date, there are no published data highlighting the effects of in vitro simulated gastric and intestinal digestion on the stability of PUV reduced allergen reactivity of food. In this study, PUV-treated shrimp extracts were subjected to simulated gastric fluid containing pepsin and simulated intestinal fluid containing trypsin and chymotrypsin, and then tested for changes in allergen potency. SDS-PAGE showed no major band deviation between undigested and digested PUV-treated shrimp extracts. IgE binding to tropomyosin remained markedly decreased as seen in Western blot analysis. Total shrimp allergen reactivity remained unchanged following in vitro peptic digestion and was markedly reduced following in vitro intestinal digestion as illustrated in indirect ELISA. The PUV reduced shrimp allergens remained at a low level under the in vitro simulated digestive conditions. The results inferred that PUV could be a potential method to create less allergenic shrimp products that would remain at a low allergen level under human gastric and intestinal digestive conditions. PMID:22278049

Yang, Wade W; Shriver, Sandra K; Chung, Si-Yin; Percival, Susan; Correll, Melanie J; Rababah, Taha M

2012-01-26

449

Unruly women and invisible workers: the shrimp traders of Mazatlán, Mexico.  

PubMed

During the 1980s, a group of women from rural communities in the Mexican state of Sinaloa organized a grassroots social movement in order to gain legal access to the sale of shrimp. The movement reached its peak in 1984, with the formation of a shrimp traders union and the establishment of a shrimp marketplace in the tourist city of Mazatlán. Despite the long trajectory of the movement and the success of the shrimp market, these women and their work have been completely ignored by government agencies in charge of the development and management of the fishing industry. For the most part, one gets to read about the shrimp traders only in tourist-oriented brochures depicting them as a “local attraction,” something to be seen while one is touring the city on a private charter bus en route to the Archaeological Museum or to the upscale jewelry shops in the Golden Zone. In this article, I examine how women used their gender and their identity as rural workers to defy the state and its policies, overcome poverty, and take control of the local marketing of shrimp. Another objective of this article is to show why and how women engaged in collective action so they could be legitimized as workers and how gender shaped their individual experiences. PMID:22545273

Cruz-Torres, María L

2012-01-01

450

Effectiveness of bycatch-reduction devices in roller-frame trawls used in the Florida shrimp fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

High rates of fishery discards have been noted for penaeid shrimp fisheries worldwide and especially for the shrimp trawl fisheries of the southeastern U.S.A. Selective fishing gear, such as bycatch-reduction devices (BRDs), can significantly decrease bycatch and discards in shrimp trawl fisheries. The roller-frame trawl, a type of gear unique to Florida, is used in seagrass beds to harvest food

Charles R. Crawford; Philip Steele; Anne L. McMillen-Jackson; Theresa M. Bert

2011-01-01

451

The immune response of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and its susceptibility to Photobacterium damselae subsp . damselae under temperature stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon held in 25‰ seawater and 26 °C seawater were injected with Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae grown in TSB at a dose of 8.48×104 colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp?1, and then reared onward at water temperatures of 22, 26 (control), 30 and 34 °C. Over 24–96 h, the cumulative mortalities of P. damselae subsp. damselae-injected shrimp held in 22 and 34 °C

Feng-I Wang; Jiann-Chu Chen

2006-01-01

452

Clearance of Penaeus monodon densovirus in naturally pre-infected shrimp by combined ns1 and vp dsRNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV) is one of the major causes of stunted shrimp in Thailand and leads to considerable economic losses in overall shrimp production. Present study shows that the double-stranded RNA corresponding to the non-structural protein gene (ns1) and structural protein gene (vp) of PmDNV effectively inhibit viral propagation in naturally pre-infected shrimp. Multiple application of dsRNA was performed

Pongsopee Attasart; Rossukon Kaewkhaw; Chaweewan Chimwai; Ukrit Kongphom; Sakol Panyim

2011-01-01

453

Oxidative stress, DNA damage and osmolality in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to acute low temperature stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the genotoxic, physiological and immunological effects of short-term acute low temperature stress on the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, we rapidly transferred shrimp from tanks at 23±2°C to aquaria at the same temperature (controls) or 12±2°C for 12h. Changes in the shrimp hemocyte respiratory burst activity and DNA damage were examined during and after exposure to the temperature

Jun Qiu; Wei-Na Wang; Li-juan Wang; Yu-Feng Liu; An-Li Wang

2011-01-01

454

Abundance and seasonal migrations of the penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne-Edwards) within Iraqi waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migration of Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne-Edwards) from the Arabian Gulf to nursery grounds in the inland waters of Iraq extends from May\\/June to January\\/February. Shrimp ranging in size from 3–125 mm total length were found in inland waters. In the shallow waters of the Al-Assaflya small-sized shrimp only were caught, while in the Marshes large-sized shrimp were abundant. Maximum numbers

S. D. Salman; M. H. Ali; A. H. Y. Al-AdhubI

1990-01-01

455

Cation-dependent nutrient transport in shrimp digestive tract.  

PubMed

Purified epithelial brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were produced from the hepatopancreas of the Atlantic White shrimp, Litopeneaus setiferus, using standard methods originally developed for mammalian tissues and previously applied to other crustacean and echinoderm epithelia. These vesicles were used to study the cation dependency of sugar and amino acid transport across luminal membranes of hepatopancreatic epithelial cells. (3)H-D: -glucose uptake by BBMV against transient sugar concentration gradients occurred when either transmembrane sodium or potassium gradients were the only driving forces for sugar accumulation, suggesting the presence of a possible coupled transport system capable of using either cation. (3)H-L: -histidine transport was only stimulated by a transmembrane potassium gradient, while (3)H-L: -leucine uptake was enhanced by either a sodium or potassium gradient. These responses suggest the possible presence of a potassium-dependent transporter that accommodates either amino acid and a sodium-dependent system restricted only to L: -leucine. Uptake of (3)H-L: -leucine was significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) by several metallic cations (e.g., Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Mn(2+), Cd(2+), or Co(2+)) at external pH values of 7.0 or 5.0 (internal pH 7.0), suggesting a potential synergistic role of the cations in the transmembrane transfer of amino acids. (3)H-L: -histidine influxes (15 suptakes) were hyperbolic functions of external [zinc] or [manganese], following Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The apparent affinity constant (e.g., K (m)) for manganese was an order of magnitude smaller (K (m) = 0.22 ?M Mn) than that for zinc (K (m) = 1.80 ?M Zn), while no significant difference (P > 0.05) occurred between their maximal transport velocities (e.g., J (max)). These results suggest that a number of cation-dependent nutrient transport systems occur on the shrimp brush border membrane and aid in the absorption of these important dietary elements. PMID:21983793

Simmons, Tamla; Mozo, Julie; Wilson, Jennifer; Ahearn, Gregory A

2011-10-09

456

Peptidomic analysis of Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) hemolymph by magnetic bead-based MALDI-TOF MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peptides in shrimp hemolymph play an important role in the innate immune response. Analysis of hemolymph will help to detect and identify potential novel biomarkers of microbial infection. We used magnetic bead-based purification (ClinProt system) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to characterize shrimp hemolymph peptides. Shrimp serum and plasma were used as the source of samples for comparative analysis, and it was found that serum was more suitable for shrimp hemolymph peptidomic analysis. To screen potential specific biomarkers in serum of immune-challenged shrimps, we applied magnetic bead-based MALDI-TOF MS to serum samples from 10 immune-challenged and 10 healthy shrimps. The spectra were analyzed using FlexAnalysis 3.0 and ClinProTools 2.1 software. Thirteen peptide peaks significantly different between the two groups were selected as candidate biomarkers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-infection. The diagnostic model established by genetic algorithm using five of these peaks was able to discriminate LPS-challenged shrimps from healthy control shrimps with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 100%. Our approach in MALDITOF MS-based peptidomics is a powerful tool for screening bioactive peptides or biomarkers derived from hemolymph, and will help to enable a better understanding of the innate immune response of shrimps.

Wang, Baojie; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Zhang, Guofan; Wang, Lei

2013-03-01

457

The effect of dietary Panax ginseng polysaccharide extract on the immune responses in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

The immunostimulatory effects of orally administered Panax ginseng root or its polysaccharides (GSP) in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, were investigated in this study. Shrimp were fed a diet containing 0.4 g kg?¹ GSP over a period of 84 days, during which the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), acid phosphatase (ACP), and alkaline phosphatase (AKP), as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and expressions of cytosolic superoxide dismutase (cyt-SOD), CAT, GSH-Px, and peroxiredoxin (Prx) genes were determined in various tissues of the shrimp. Results showed that the shrimp fed the GSP diet had significantly increased ACP and AKP activities in the gills. The GSP-fed shrimp also displayed significantly increased T-SOD and GSH-Px activities in the gills and hepatopancreas of the shrimp; meanwhile there was enhanced CAT activity in the gills, but decreased MDA content in the gills, hepatopancreas and muscle. The mRNA expressions of cyt-SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and Prx were significantly elevated in the gills and hepatopancreas of the shrimp fed the GSP diet for 84 days, compared with that of the control. Therefore, GSP can be used as an immunostimulant for shrimp through dietary administration to increase immune enzyme activity and modify expression of immune genes in shrimp. PMID:21129487

Liu, Xiao-Long; Xi, Qian-Yun; Yang, Lin; Li, Hong-Yi; Jiang, Qing-Yan; Shu, Gang; Wang, Song-Bo; Gao, Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Tong; Zhang, Yong-Liang

2010-12-01

458

A Study on the contribution of different food sources to shrimp growth in an intensive Fenneropenaeus chinensis pond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotope methods can be used to determine the food sources and prey items of aquatic organisms accurately and reliably. This study examined the relative contribution of artificial foods (the formulated feed and Artemia) and natural foods to shrimp growth in an intensive Fenneropenaeus chinensis pond by using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. The results showed that the nutrition utilization efficiency of the harvested shrimp was low, only 33.18% of feed nitrogen and 21.73% of feed carbon being converted to shrimp flesh. Our stable isotope results showed that the shrimp obtained nutrition for maximum growth from artificial foods, whose contribution was 93.5%, with the remaining attributed to the natural foods. However, there was 0.94 t harvested shrimp derived from natural foods (the rest of 13.56 t harvested shrimp derived from artificial foods) in 1ha intensive pond with a shrimp production of 14.50 t ha-1. Therefore, unit area shrimp production can be increased by increasing the contribution proportion of natural foods in intensive shrimp farming.

Su, Yuepeng; Ma, Shen; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

2008-11-01

459

419 IGE-mediated Responses Towards Fish Parasite Anisakis, Crab and House Dust Mite in Norwegian Shrimp Allergic Individuals  

PubMed Central

Background The present study investigated to what extent shrimp allergic individuals were IgE-sensitized to anisakis, crab and house dust mite and whether tropomyosin was responsible for IgE cross-reactivity. Methods 29 Individuals with self reported shrimp allergy were recruited by advertisements in local and national news-papers in Norway. Anamnesis was taken, skin prick tests (SPT) were performed and positive responders to shrimp were studied further with basophile activation test (BAT), ImmunoCAP analyses and western blotting. Results Of the 29 persons studied, 10 (34%) had positive SPT against shrimp and house dust mite, 9 (31%) against shrimp tropomyosin and 3 (10%) against anisakis. Individuals with positive SPT to shrimp all showed positive basophilic responses to house dust mite, while 43% responded to shrimp, 25% to anisakis and 36% to crab in BAT. Moreover, SPT, BAT as well as ImmunoCAP analyses showed a positive correlation of IgE-reactivity between anisakis and shrimp, house dust mite and crab. Immunoblot studies indicated that these responses are not completely explained by cross-reactivity towards tropomyosin. Conclusions The current study indicates a positive correlation between IgE-mediated reactions to shrimp, anisakis, house dust mite and crab, which may not be completely explained by cross-reactivity against tropomyosin.

Dooper, Maaike; Myrset, Heidi; Egaas, Eliann; van Do, Thien; Florvaag, Erik

2012-01-01

460

Acidicapsa borealis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Acidicapsa ligni sp. nov., subdivision 1 Acidobacteria from Sphagnum peat and decaying wood.  

PubMed

Two strains of subdivision 1 Acidobacteria, a pink-pigmented bacterium KA1(T) and a colourless isolate WH120(T), were obtained from acidic Sphagnum peat and wood under decay by the white-rot fungus Hyploma fasciculare, respectively. Cells of these isolates were Gram-negative-staining, non-motile, short rods, which were covered by large polysaccharide capsules and occurred singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) were strictly aerobic mesophiles that grew between 10 and 33 °C, with an optimum at 22-28 °C. Both isolates developed under acidic conditions, but strain WH120(T) was more acidophilic (pH growth range 3.5-6.4; optimum, 4.0-4.5) than strain KA1(T) (pH growth range 3.5-7.3; optimum , 5.0-5.5). The preferred growth substrates were sugars. In addition, the wood-derived isolate WH120(T) grew on oxalate, lactate and xylan, while the peat-inhabiting acidobacterium strain KA1(T) utilized galacturonate, glucuronate and pectin. The major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0) and iso-C(17:1)?8c; the cells also contained significant amounts of 13,16-dimethyl octacosanedioic acid. The quinone was MK-8. The DNA G+C contents of strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) were 54.1 and 51.7 mol%, respectively. Strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) displayed 97.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to each other. The closest recognized relatives were Acidobacterium capsulatum and Telmatobacter bradus (93.4-94.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). These species differed from strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) by their ability to grow under anoxic conditions, the absence of capsules, presence of cell motility and differing fatty acid composition. Based on these differences, the two new isolates are proposed as representing a novel genus, Acidicapsa gen. nov., and two novel species. Acidicapsa borealis gen. nov., sp. nov. is the type species for the new genus with strain KA1(T) (=DSM 23886(T)=LMG 25897(T)=VKM B-2678(T)) as the type strain. The name Acidicapsa ligni sp. nov. is proposed for strain WH120(T) (=LMG 26244(T)=VKM B-2677(T)=NCCB 100371(T)). PMID:21856984

Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Kostina, Lilia A; Valásková, Vendula; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; de Boer, Wietse; Dedysh, Svetlana N

2011-08-19

461

A study of the galaxy redshift distribution towards the cosmic microwave background cold spot in the Corona Borealis supercluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of the spatial and redshift distributions of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies towards the position of CrB-H, a very deep and extended decrement in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), located within the Corona Borealis supercluster (CrB-SC). It was found in a survey with the Very Small Array (VSA) interferometer at 33 GHz, with a peak negative brightness temperature of -230?K, and deviates 4.4? from the Gaussian CMB (Génova-Santos et al.). Observations with the Millimeter and Infrared Testa Grigia Observatory (MITO) suggested that 25+21-18 per cent of this decrement may be caused by the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect (Battistelli et al.). Here, we investigate whether the galaxy distribution could be tracing either a previously unnoticed galaxy cluster or a warm/hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) filament that could build up this tSZ effect. We find that the projected density of galaxies outside Abell clusters and with redshifts 0.05 < z < 0.12 at the position of CrB-H is the highest in the area encompassed by the CrB-SC. Most of these galaxies are located around redshifts z = 0.07 and 0.11, but no clear connection in the form of a filamentary structure is appreciable in between. While the galaxy distribution at z = 0.07 is sparse, we find evidence at z = 0.11 of a galaxy group or a low-mass galaxy cluster. We estimate that this structure could produce a thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect of ~ -18?K. The remaining VSA signal of ~ -212?K is still a significant 4.1? deviation from the Gaussian CMB. However, the MITO error bar allows for a larger tSZ effect, which could be produced by galaxy clusters or superclusters beyond the sensitivity of the SDSS. Contributions from other possible secondary anisotropies associated with these structures are also discussed.

Génova-Santos, Ricardo; Padilla-Torres, Carmen Pilar; Rubiño Martín, José Alberto; Gutiérrez, Carlos M.; Rebolo, Rafael

2010-04-01

462

The Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect in superclusters of galaxies using gasdynamical simulations: the case of Corona Borealis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the thermal (tSZ) and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect associated with superclusters of galaxies using the MareNostrum (MNU) universe smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulation. In particular, we consider superclusters with characteristics (total mass, overdensity and number density of cluster members) similar to those of the Corona Borealis Supercluster (CrB-SC). This paper has been motivated by the detection at 33 GHz of a strong temperature decrement in the cosmic microwave background towards the core of this supercluster (Génova-Santos et al.). Multifrequency observations with Very Small Array (VSA) and Millimetre & Infrared Testa Grigia Observatory (MITO) suggest the existence of a tSZ effect component in the spectrum of this cold spot, with a Comptonization parameter value of y = 7.8+4.4-5.3 × 10-6 (Battistelli et al.), which would account for roughly 25 per cent of the total observed decrement. From the SPH simulation, we identify nine (50h-1Mpc)3 regions containing superclusters similar to CrB-SC, obtain the associated SZ maps and calculate the probability of finding such SZ signals arising from hot gas within the supercluster. Our results show that the warm/hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) lying in the intercluster regions within the supercluster produces a tSZ effect much smaller than the observed value by MITO/VSA. Neither can, summing the contribution of small clusters and galaxy groups (M < 5 × 1013h-1Msolar) in the region, explain the amplitude of the SZ signal. Our synthetic maps show peak y-values significantly below the observations. Less than 0.3 per cent are compatible at the lower end of the 1? level, even when considering privileged orientations in which the filamentary structures are aligned along the line of sight (LOS). When we take into account the actual posterior distribution from the observations, the probability that WHIM can cause a tSZ signal like the one observed in the CrB-SC is <1 per cent, rising up to a 3.2 per cent when the contribution of small clusters and galaxy groups is included. If the simulations provide a suitable description of the gas physics, then we must conclude that the tSZ component of the CrB spot most probably arises from an unknown galaxy cluster along the LOS. On the other hand, the simulations also show that the kSZ signal associated with the supercluster cannot provide an explanation for the remaining 75 per cent of the observed cold spot in CrB.

Flores-Cacho, I.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Luzzi, G.; Rebolo, R.; de Petris, M.; Yepes, G.; Lamagna, L.; de Gregori, S.; Battistelli, E. S.; Coratella, R.; Gottlöber, S.

2009-12-01

463

A Very Small Array search for the extended Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in the Corona Borealis supercluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present interferometric imaging at 33 GHz of the Corona Borealis supercluster, using the extended configuration of the Very Small Array. A total area of 24 deg2 has been imaged, with an angular resolution of 11 arcmin and a sensitivity of 12 mJy beam-1. The aim of these observations is to search for Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) detections from known clusters of galaxies in this supercluster and for a possible extended SZ decrement due to diffuse warm/hot gas in the intercluster medium. Hydrodynamical simulations suggest that a significant part of the missing baryons in the Local Universe may be located in superclusters. The maps constructed from these observations have a significant contribution from primordial fluctuations. We measure negative flux values in the positions of the 10 richest clusters in the region. Collectively, this implies a 3.0? detection of the SZ effect. For two of these clusters, A2061 and A2065, we find decrements of approximately 2? each. Our main result is the detection of two strong and resolved negative features at -70 +/- 12 mJy beam-1 (-157 +/- 27?K) and -103 +/- 10 mJy beam-1 (-230 +/- 23?K), respectively, located in a region with no known clusters, near the centre of the supercluster. We discuss their possible origins in terms of primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and/or SZ signals related either to unknown clusters or to a diffuse extended warm/hot gas distribution. Our analyses have revealed that a primordial CMB fluctuation is a plausible explanation for the weaker feature (probability of 37.82 per cent). For the stronger one, neither primordial CMB (probability of 0.38 per cent) nor SZ can account alone for its size and total intensity. The most reasonable explanation, then, is a combination of both primordial CMB and SZ signal. Finally, we explore what characteristics would be required for a filamentary structure consisting of warm/hot diffuse gas in order to produce a significant contribution to such a spot taking into account the constraints set by X-ray data.

Génova-Santos, Ricardo; Rubiño-Martín, José Alberto; Rebolo, Rafael; Cleary, Kieran; Davies, Rod D.; Davis, Richard J.; Dickinson, Clive; Falcón, Nelson; Grainge, Keith; Gutiérrez, Carlos M.; Hobson, Michael P.; Jones, Michael E.; Kneissl, Rüdiger; Lancaster, Katy; Padilla-Torres, Carmen P.; Saunders, Richard D. E.; Scott, Paul F.; Taylor, Angela C.; Watson, Robert A.

2005-10-01

464

LINKING HABITAT CHANGE AND NUTRIENT DYNAMICS: COMPARISON OF FOOD WEBS AND NITROGEN FLUXES IN BURROWING SHRIMP- AND OYSTER-DOMINATED HABITATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Endemic thalassinid burrowing shrimps are simultaneously dominant ecosystem engineering species and economic pests within Pacific estuaries. Dense populations of two shrimps (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) commonly occupy >75% of intertidal and shallow subti...

465

A precollaborative study of weight determination methods for quick frozen shrimp.  

PubMed

A precollaborative study compared the accuracy and precision of official AOAC methods with other selected methods for determining net weight of IQF-glazed shrimp and block-glazed shrimp, assessed the ruggedness of the methods with respect to changes in the levels of the factors under study, and selected candidate methods for use in a collaborative study. Methods tested for determining deglazed (frozen) net weight of IQF-glazed shrimp were (1) AOAC Method 963.18 and (2) the Water Bath Dip Method. Methods tested for determining thawed net weight of IQF-glazed shrimp were (1) AOAC Method 967.13, (2) Modified AOAC Method(mnb) 967.13, (3) Modified AOAC Method(pb) 967.13, (4) the Codex Method, (5) the Air Thaw Method, and (6) Modified AOAC Method 963.18. The same methods except Modified AOAC Method 963.18 were tested for determining thawed net weight of block-glazed shrimp. A total of 864 0.45 kg (1 lb), 0.90 kg (2 lb), and 1.35 kg (3 lb) IQF-glazed shrimp test samples and 234 2.25 kg (5 lb) block-glazed shrimp test samples were collected. During sample preparation, test samples were subjected to either water with or without sodium tripolyphosphate (STP). During deglazing (IQF-glazed shrimp only) and/or thawing, test samples were allocated in a factorial design to assess the effects of STP presence (no STP and STP), sieve mesh sizes (2.83 and 2.38 mm; 0.11 and 0.09 in.), and sieve diameters (20 and 30 cm; 8 and 12 in.). During weighing, test samples were further allocated to a sequence of weighing procedures designed to assess the effects of using sieve weights (dry and wet) in combination with paper towel use (no and yes) and tared pan weights when calculating determined net weights. On the basis of the results of this precollaborative study, Modified AOAC Method(pb) 967.13 and the Air Thaw Method seem to be the best methods to determine net weight of IQF-glazed and block-glazed shrimp. Therefore, to validate method choices in the collaborative study, the authors recommend analysis of IQF-glazed shrimp and block-glazed shrimp test samples, each prepared with or without STP, by Modified AOAC Method(pb) 967.13 and the Air Thaw Method. To fulfill AOAC requirements, IQF-glazed shrimp and block-glazed shrimp test samples, each prepared with or without STP, must be analyzed by official methods: AOAC Method 963.18 (IQF-glazed shrimp only) and AOAC Method 967.13. During testing, sieve mesh size will be either 2.83 or 2.38 mm (0.11 or 0.09 in.), sieve diameter will be limited to 30 cm (12 in.), and weighing procedure will be limited to tared pan. PMID:9477564

Dobson, J E; McClure, F D; Rainosek, A P

466

Alkaline proteases produced by Bacillus licheniformis RP1 grown on shrimp wastes: Application in chitin extraction, chicken feather-degradation and as a dehairing agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current increase in the amount of shrimp wastes produced by the shrimp industry has led to the need in finding new methods\\u000a for shrimp wastes disposal. In this study, Bacillus licheniformis RP1 was shown to produce proteases when grown in media containing shrimp wastes powder as a sole carbon and nitrogen source,\\u000a indicating that this bacteria could obtain its

Anissa Haddar; Noomen Hmidet; Olfa Ghorbel-Bellaaj; Nahed Fakhfakh-Zouari; Alya Sellami-Kamoun; Moncef Nasri

2011-01-01

467

A novel integrase-containing element may interact with Laem-Singh virus (LSNV) to cause slow growth in giant tiger shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  From 2001-2003 monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS) caused severe economic losses for Thai shrimp farmers who cultivated the\\u000a native, giant tiger shrimp, and this led them to adopt exotic stocks of the domesticated whiteleg shrimp as the species of\\u000a cultivation choice, despite the higher value of giant tiger shrimp. In 2008, newly discovered Laem-Singh virus (LSNV) was\\u000a proposed as a

Wattana Panphut; Saengchan Senapin; Siriporn Sriurairatana; Boonsirm Withyachumnarnkul; Timothy W Flegel

2011-01-01

468

An Oxidant and Solvent-Stable Protease Produced by Bacillus cereus SV1: Application in the Deproteinization of Shrimp Wastes and as a Laundry Detergent Additive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current increase in amount of shrimp wastes produced by the shrimp industry has led to the need in finding new methods\\u000a for shrimp wastes disposal. In this study, an extracellular organic solvent- and oxidant-stable metalloprotease was produced\\u000a by Bacillus cereus SV1. Maximum protease activity (5,900 U\\/mL) was obtained when the strain was grown in medium containing 40 g\\/L shrimp

Laila Manni; Kemel Jellouli; Olfa Ghorbel-Bellaaj; Rym Agrebi; Anissa Haddar; Alya Sellami-Kamoun; Moncef Nasri

2010-01-01

469

Additional random, single to multiple genome fragments of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus in the giant tiger shrimp genome have implications for viral disease diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scattered reports of viral inserts in shrimp and insect genomes led to the hypothesis that random, autonomous insertion of such sequences occurs in these organisms and leads to specific, heritable immunity. To test the prediction regarding random insertion of viral sequences into the shrimp genome, we examined the giant tiger shrimp for random genomic insertions of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (also

Vanvimon Saksmerprome; Sarocha Jitrakorn; Kanokporn Chayaburakul; Seansook Laiphrom; Khanittha Boonsua; Timothy W. Flegel

2011-01-01

470

Effects of omnivorous shrimp in a montane tropical stream: sediment removal, disturbance of sessile invertebrates and enhancement of understory algal biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater shrimp dominate the faunal biomass of many headwater tropical streams: however, their role in community organization is unclear. Enclosure\\/exclosure experiments in a montane Puerto Rican stream examined direct and indirect effects of two dominant taxa of atyid (Atyidae) shrimp, Atya lanipes Holthuis and Xiphocaris elongata Guerin-Meneville. Both shrimp taxa caused significant reductions in sediment cover on rock substrata, reducing

Catherine M. Pringle; Gail A. Blake; Alan P. Covich; Karen M. Buzby; Amy Finley

1993-01-01

471

An evolutionarily ancient NO synthase (NOS) in shrimp.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is a well known essential molecule that is involved in multiple functions such as neuron transduction, cardiac disease, immune responses, etc.; nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is a critical enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of it. A very few crustacean NOS molecules were biochemically characterized so far. In the present study, we cloned and characterized a NOS cDNA from haemocytes of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) (PmNOS). The full-length of PmNOS cDNA contained 3997 bp, including a 5'UTR of 249 bp, ORF of 3582 bp and a 3'UTR of 166 bp. The putative peptide was 1193 amino acid residues in length, with an estimated molecular weight of 134.7 kDa and pI 6.7. Structurally, PmNOS contained oxygenase and reductase domains at N-terminal and C-terminal, respectively, and connected with a calmodulin binding motif. The deduced amino acid sequence of PmNOS shared 98% identical to the Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) NOS. Phylogenetically, PmNOS clustered with invertebrate NOS, but not clustered with iNOS, eNOS or nNOS found in vertebrates. PmNOS mRNA was expressed in many tissues or organs including thoracic and ventral nerves, midgut, gill, eyestalk, haemocytes, subcuticular epithelium and heart, but not found in hepatopancreas, muscle and lymphoid organ. But there was no significant difference in PmNOS mRNA expression after stimulation with LPS either by different concentration or time course or against CpG-ODN 2006. The enzyme activities of rPmNOS or crude homogenates from different tissues were detected, and were shown its highest activity in thoracic and ventral nerves, moderate in midgut and haemocytes but the lowest activity were seen in muscle. The addition of NOS antibody against NADPH binding domain leads to less activity which suggested that NADPH was an essential cofactor for PmNOS catalytic activity. The calcium dependency of PmNOS was ascertained using calmodulin inhibitor, Trifluroperazine. To confirm the population of haemocyte which produce NOS, the florescence test was assayed, and it implicated that the production of NO was catalyzed by subset of granulocytic NOS. Since the MW range, inducible/noninducible transcript, calcium-dependent activity and tissue distribution, we suggest that PmNOS may recognize as an ancient NOS evolutionarily. PMID:23994281

Wu, Chun-Hung; Siva, Vinu S; Song, Yen-Ling

2013-08-30

472

Physical and physiological aspects of gear efficiency in North Sea brown shrimp fisheries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In search of means to reduce the by-catch of juvenile flatfish in the shrimp fishery, vibrations and changes in current velocity caused by shrimp trawls were investigated in the field and in the laboratory. Buried as well as emerged shrimps ( Crangon crangon) exhibit tailflips 5 10 cm before being touched by the rollers of a shrimp gear approaching them at a speed of 0.5 m·sec-1, as was revealed by slow motion video recordings in aquaria under artificial light. Hence, the signal effective in triggering escape must be attenuated strongly with increasing distance. Sediment vibration, commonly assumed to be an important signal in triggering escape of shrimps, was found to decrease by a factor 100·m-1. Signals from the rollers of a commercial shrimp gear in operation (towing speed 1 m·sec-1) were directly recorded with an accelerometer. Their frequency ranged from 50 to 500 Hz and reached an acceleration of 40 m·sec-2 on soft bottom or up to 100 m·sec-2 on hard substrate. Accelerometers, which had been buried right at the surface of a tidal sand flat during low tide, produced only one sharp signal of 100 Hz with an acceleration of 24 m·sec-2, when a shrimp gear swept them on the submerged tidal flats. However, in aquaria short sinusoidal signals (<5 m·sec-2; 20 to 300 Hz) made buried shrimps and flatfish ( Pleuronectes platessa, Solea solea, Microstomus kitt) hide rather than flee. The vibrations recorded directly at the rollers and the underlying jolting movements of the rollers induce corresponding pulses in the water surrounding the rollers in a layer of approximately 10 15 cm. Similar water displacement of high acceleration was experimentally produced by a spring loaded transparent lucite piston (7 cm in diameter) fitted to an accelerometer. Accelerating this piston (12 116 m·sec-2, 50 200 Hz range) from 5 cm above towards the shrimp produced escape responses in up to 94% of the tests. Arthropods are known to perceive medium displacement rather than pressure. Hence, strong and rapidly rising water currents caused by the rollers rather than sediment vibration are assumed to mainly trigger the escape reaction, which makes Crangon accessible to the gear.

Berghahn, R.; Wiese, K.; Lüdemann, K.

1995-03-01

473

A single high affinity binding site for histone H1 in a nucleosome containing the Xenopus borealis 5 S ribosomal RNA gene.  

PubMed

We have reconstituted nucleosomes containing the Xenopus borealis 5 S rRNA gene, a single histone octamer, and 1 or 2 molecules of histone H1. We determine that the 1st molecule of histone H1 to associate with the 5 S nucleosome binds with high affinity (KD approximately 2 nM), and the 2nd molecule of H1 binds with a reduced affinity (KD approximately 10 nM). This latter binding is comparable with the association of histone H1 with naked DNA. Neither molecule of histone H1 alters the helical periodicity of DNA in the nucleosome as revealed by hydroxyl radical cleavage. We conclude that although multiple molecules of histone H1 can associate with nucleosomal DNA, there is only a single high affinity binding site for histone H1 within the 5 S nucleosome. PMID:8636143

Nightingale, K P; Pruss, D; Wolffe, A P

1996-03-22

474

Effects of various ammonium salts, amines, polyamines and alpha-methylornithine on rRNA synthesis in neurula cells of Xenopus laevis and Xenopus borealis.  

PubMed

Xenopus neurula cells were cultured in a medium that contained ammonium salts, amines, polyamines or alpha-methylornithine, and their rRNA synthesis was examined. All the ammonium salts and amines, but not polyamines, were strong and selective inhibitors of rRNA synthesis at 1.25-5.0 mM. alpha-Methylornithine did not inhibit rRNA synthesis, although it inhibited ornithine decarboxylase, an enzyme claimed to be a direct stimulator of rRNA synthesis. During the treatment ammonium ions and monomethylamines were accumulated within the treated cells. However, monomethylamines did not induce the accumulation of ammonium ions, and vice versa. Ammonium salts and amines also selectively inhibited rRNA synthesis in Xenopus borealis neurula cells. PMID:3955659

Shiokawa, K; Kawazoe, Y; Tashiro, K; Yamana, K

1986-03-01

475

[Freshwater Pearl mussels of the genus Margaritifera (Mollusca: Bivalvia) described as M. elongata (Lamarck, 1819) and M. borealis (Westerlund, 1871) should be classified with M. margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758)].  

PubMed

The shells of Pearl mussels from the basins of the Solza, Keret', and Umba rivers flowing into the White Sea have been measured to determine the ratio of shell convexity to its maximum height. This ratio is the main character that, according to Bogatov et al. (2003), allows one to distinguish between three species of the genus Margaritifera: M. margaritifera, M. elongata, and M. borealis. It has been found that the above ratio gradually increases as the shell grows. Therefore, this character is unsuitable for species diagnosis, the more so that no hiatus in it between the three forms of pearl mussels has been revealed in any of the samples studied. On this basis, it may be concluded that Northern Europe, including Russia, is inhabited by only one species of pearl mussels, M. margaritifera. PMID:18491570

Sergeeva, I S; Bolotov, I N; Bespalaia, Iu V; Makhrov, A A; Bukhanova, A L; Artamonova, V S

476

Pink shrimp (P. brasiliensis and P. paulensis) residue: influence of extraction method on carotenoid concentration.  

PubMed

The main residue from the shrimp processing is formed by head and carapace and represents from 40 to 50% (w/w) of the integral shrimp. The recovery of the carotenoid fraction from this residue stands for an alternative to increase its aggregated value. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use the pink shrimp waste as raw material to obtain carotenoid enriched extracts, evaluating different pre-treatments and extraction methods. The shrimp waste was supplied by a local public market (Florianópolis, SC, Brazil). The investigation of the different pre-treatments applied to the raw material shows that cooking associated with milling and drying produced the extract richest in carotenoid fraction. The extraction methods considered in this work were Soxhlet, maceration and ultrasound by means of different organic solvents and also a vegetable oil as solvent. The extracts were evaluated in terms of yield, carotenoid profile, total carotenoid content (TCC), UV-Visible scanning spectrophotometry and mid-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicate that shrimp waste can provide carotenoid enriched extracts, particularly astaxanthin, in concentrations up to 252 ?g(astaxanthin)g(extract)(-1). The most adequate solvents were acetone and hexane: isopropanol (50:50, v/v) used in the maceration procedure. The UV-Vis results revealed the presence of carotenoids and flavonoids in the extracts while the FTIR spectroscopy indicated the existence of fatty acids, proteins, and phenolics. PMID:21807199

Mezzomo, Natália; Maestri, Bianca; dos Santos, Renata Lazzaris; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ferreira, Sandra R S

2011-06-17

477

The importance of supratidal habitats for wintering shorebirds and the potential impacts of shrimp aquaculture.  

PubMed

Intensive black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) aquaculture ponds have replaced significant areas of coastal wetlands throughout tropical Asia. Few studies have assessed potential impacts on avian foraging habitats. At Khao Sam Roi Yod National Park, Thailand, seminatural wetlands have been converted to either shrimp ponds or to salinization ponds that provide saline water for shrimp aquaculture. Although shorebirds cannot feed in aquaculture ponds, hypersaline ponds can provide productive foraging areas. Thus, the overall impact of the shrimp industry on shorebirds depends partly on the relative quality of the salt ponds compared to seminatural wetlands. In this study, we examined wintering shorebird use of tidal (N = 5 sites) and supratidal areas (four wetland sites, four salt pond sites) and compared the shorebird community (14 species), prey availability, profitability, and disturbance rates between wetlands and salt ponds. Two shorebird species fed in higher densities in wetlands, whereas seven species were more abundant in salt ponds. Large juvenile fish and dragonfly larvae were more abundant in wetlands, whereas there were more small Chironomid midge and fly larvae in salt ponds. We conclude that salt ponds might provide higher-quality foraging habitats compared to wetlands for small shorebirds species because of the abundance of small larvae. However, the shrimp aquaculture industry reduces habitat availability for shorebirds feeding on larger prey. This study demonstrates a comprehensive, multispecies approach to assess the impacts of a large-scale change in coastal habitats for wintering shorebirds. PMID:19189172

Yasué, M; Dearden, P

2009-02-03

478

Environmental mutagenicity and toxicity caused by sodium metabisulfite in sea shrimp harvesting in Piauí, Brazil.  

PubMed

Sodium metabisulfite is used in marine shrimp harvesting to prevent the occurrence of black spots. Shrimps are soaked in a sodium metabisulfite solution in ice, which is disposed of in sewages that run into marine canals, creating an environmental hazard. This study evaluates the toxicity and mutagenicity caused by sodium metabisulfite in sea waters and sediments collected in a shrimp farm in Cajueiro da Praia (Luis Correia), state of Piauí, Brazil, using the Allium cepa assay. Water and sediment samples were collected in the dry and in the rainy seasons, in three sites: upstream the shrimp farm (Site 1), at the point sodium metabisulfite is discharged (Site 2), and 100 m downstream the farm (Site 3). Three sample dilutions were used (50%, 25% and 10%) for all samples. A negative control (well water) and a positive control (copper sulfate 0.0006 mg mL?¹) were used in each experiment. At the end of the 72-h exposure period, onion roots were measured and removed. Mutagenicity analysis included the determination of mitotic index, chromosomal aberrations and the detection of micronuclei; analysis of root size and mitotic index were used as an index of toxicity. The A. cepa assay revealed that the water and sediments samples collected in the Piauí coast contaminated with sodium metabisulfite induce toxicity. The results demonstrate that the assay may be used as a regular tool in the analysis of water parameters in shrimp farms in the coast of Piauí state, and in strategies to preserve the region's marine ecosystem. PMID:21056453

da Costa Machado Matos Carvalho, Ivana Mara; Cavalcante, Ana Amélia Melo; Dantas, Alisson Ferreira; Pereira, Danilo Leôncio Aguiar; Rocha, Francisco Cézar Costa; Oliveira, Francisco Massal de; Da Silva, Juliana