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1

Deep-water shrimp ( Pandalus borealis, Krøyer 1838) as indicator organism for fish-farm waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feeding experiment was carried out with deep-water shrimp (Pandalus borealis), a common benthic inhabitant of Norwegian fjords. Shrimp were reared in tanks for three months, fed either salmon feed or cod, and the fatty acid profile of their muscle tissue was monitored. The salmon feed pellets and cod had completely different fatty acid compositions, with significant differences in most

Siri Aaserud Olsen; Arne Ervik; Otto Grahl-Nielsen

2009-01-01

2

Development and drift of northern shrimp larvae ( Pandalus borealis ) at West Greenland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first study of the West Greenland offshore population of Pandalus borealis in recent history that covers all larval stages. Shrimp larvae were sampled on the fishing banks off the west coast of Greenland from 63.5°N to 67°N in May, June and July. Abundances decreased during the summer as did cumulated mortality rates [0.06 day -1(ZI) to 0.04 day -1

L. Storm; S. A. Pedersen

2003-01-01

3

Effects of silage preservation on astaxanthin forms and fatty acid profiles of processed shrimp ( Pandalus borealis) waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid silage of shellfish processing waste has been reported to be a good and economical technique to protect these biomasses from bacterial decomposition. Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) by-products contain some value-added nutrients for the aquaculture industry such as carotenoid pigments (mainly astaxanthin) and n ? 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of ensiling

Alain Guillou; Michel Khalil; Lucien Adambounou

1995-01-01

4

Population structure of the deep-sea shrimp ( Pandalus borealis) in the north-east Atlantic based on allozyme variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to elucidate the population structure of the deep-sea shrimp (Pandalus borealis) in the NE Atlantic, 32 subsamples and 3?865 individuals were analysed for allozymic variation. They were caught at various locations in the Barents Sea, in waters off Svalbard, Jan Mayen and Iceland, and in fjords along the Norwegian coast. Only three enzymes (malate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucomutase and glucosephosphate

Asbjørn Drengstig; Svein-Erik Fevolden; Pierre E. Galand; Michaela M. Aschan

2000-01-01

5

Assessment of the International Fishery for Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) in Division 3M (Flemish Cap), 1993-2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the international shrimp (Pandalus borealis) fishery in NAFO Division 3M is described. Various indices show that even the stock is in high levels in 2006 and 2007 the lack of good recruitments in the last years and the progressive disappearance of the strong year classes 2001 and 2002 in the next years could lead to the stock

J. M. Casas

6

Size and temperature-dependent variations in intermolt duration and size increment at molt of Northern Shrimp, Pandalus borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of Pandalus borealis post-larval stages was measured in relation to size and temperature. Growth characteristics, including intermolt period (IP),\\u000a molt increment (MI) in size and mass, and tissue allocation in juvenile, male, and female shrimp, were evaluated at 2, 5,\\u000a and 8°C, the temperature range where this species is generally found in the Northwest Atlantic. Significant variations in\\u000a growth

Dounia Daoud; Yvan Lambert; Céline Audet; Denis Chabot

2010-01-01

7

The northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) offshore fishery in the Northeast Atlantic.  

PubMed

This chapter describes the development and current situation of the offshore shrimp fisheries in Iceland, Greenland, Svalbard, Jan Mayen and the Norwegian Barents Sea area, with information on the biology of Pandalus borealis and its relation to the environment. Some additional information about the inshore shrimp fisheries of Iceland and Greenland of relevance to this study is also included. The Icelandic offshore shrimp fishery started in 1975 and has formed between 68% and 94% of the annual catch of shrimp since 1984. Landings peaked at 66,000 tons in 1997. The offshore fleet increased threefold from 1983 to 1987, and catch per unit of effort doubled. The first signs of overfishing were detected in 1987, when the first total allowable catch (TAC) was set, and catches decreased during the next few years despite the discovery of new fishing grounds. Good recruitment allowed catches to rise steadily from 1990 to 1996. However, catches and stock index have decreased markedly since then, with a minimum catch for the period 1998-2003 of 21,500 tons in 2000. It has been suggested that predation by cod is an important factor affecting shrimp stock size, but mortality from predation is slightly lower than fishing mortality, so that the impact of fishing cannot be disregarded. The Greenland offshore shrimp fishery is one of the largest in the North Atlantic and it generates 90% of the export value of the country. The fishery started in 1970 in West Greenland with landings of 1200 tons, but since 1974 it has formed between 59% and 89% of the annual shrimp catch. In 2004, landings reached 113,000 tons and the fishable stock was estimated at 300,000 tons. The significant spatial expansion of the fishery from the original fishing grounds off the Disko Island area to all of the West coast south of 75 degrees N and the fleet improvement over the past three decades have made possible this spectacular growth. Other fishing grounds off the East coast have been fished since 1978, mostly by foreign vessels. Catches in this area oscillated between 5000 and 15,000 tons during the period 1980-2004. The main problem of the shrimp fishery in Greenland is its overlapping with nursery areas of redfish, Greenland halibut, cod and other groundfish species, some of which show declining trends of biomass and abundance. This led to the implementation in 2000 of sorting grids and laws that forbid fishing when the bycatch exceeds legal limits. However, it is likely that ecological processes only partially understood, such as the trophic web and hydrography of the area, greatly influence the stock abundance of the demersal community. The offshore Norwegian fishery started in 1973. The main fishing grounds are off Svalbard and in the Barents Sea. Catches at Jan Mayen have never exceeded 5% of the total annual catch of northern shrimp. Large fluctuations in catches and stock size are the main characteristic of this fishery. Stock size seems to be largely dependent on the annual hydrographic variability in the area and trends in abundance of predator species, especially cod. However, shrimp mortality due to predation has been estimated to be the same as fishing mortality, and therefore fishing probably accounts for part of the observed variability in stock size. Large populations of juvenile cod, haddock, redfish and Greenland halibut are often found on the shrimp fishing grounds. The implementation of sorting grids in 1991 and a bio-economical model in 1993 to estimate allowable maximum catches of the commercial bycatch species have not solved the bycatch problem. All the commercial fish species present on the shrimp grounds are currently below safe biological limits. This is the only fishery within the studied area that is not regulated by means of a TAC system. PMID:17298891

Garcia, Elena Guijarro

2007-01-01

8

Catch, survey and life-history data for shrimp ( Pandalus borealis) off Jan Mayen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jan Mayen area has an extreme environment with low temperatures and infrequent, but abrupt temperature changes. The shrimp population here is considered to be on its edge of distribution. The life-history parameters are in the same range as in other high-latitude shrimp populations and are characterized by slow growth, large size at maturation and extended longevity. Irregular and sporadic commercial exploitation limit fishing mortality and give the population life-history parameters not previously seen in other areas. The Jan Mayen shrimp are large compared to, e.g., the Barents Sea shrimp and can reach a maximum carapace length ( Lmax) of 37 mm and an age of 10-11 years. The large size at sex transformation ( L50, >24 mm) and analyses of length-frequency distributions indicate that the shrimp may be 6-7 years of age before changing sex. The change in Lmax and L50 observed during the study period is probably caused by increased natural mortality due to sudden temperature changes or due to increased predation, rather than increased growth rates. The life-history strategy of shrimp in the Jan Mayen area can be explained by factors such as depth, temperature and population density variations caused by fluctuation in recruitment and mortality. The shrimp fisheries in the Jan Mayen area began in the late 1970s and reached an annual landing of 2000 tonnes in 1985, and since then landings have oscillated around 500 tonnes depending on a combination of factors. The survey indices of stock biomass varied between 3000 and 6600 tonnes. For most years, the highest shrimp densities are at a depth of 200-299 m, while large shrimp (and therefore also female shrimp) are dominant at depths greater than 300 m. Fish community data were studied as the composition of the demersal fish community is an integrated response to environmental conditions and as predation affects the shrimp stock. Polar cod and capelin are the most abundant fish species in the study area. A high number of blue whiting was registered in 1979, but the number declined in 1980 and 1981 as temperature decreased. During the surveys in 1994 and 1995, no blue whiting was registered. A few individuals were found again in the 1999 samples. The number of Greenland halibut has declined from the beginning of the 1980s to the 1990s.

Nilssen, Einar M.; Aschan, Michaela M.

2009-10-01

9

Biopreservation of Brined Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) by Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

In brined shrimp (ca. 3% NaCl), the effects of three different lactic acid bacteria bacteriocins (crude [6.54 x 10(sup10) U of bacteriocin activity {BU}/g] and purified [8.13 x 10(sup23) BU/g] nisin Z, carnocin UI49 [2.32 x 10(sup4) BU/g], and crude bavaricin A [2.78 BU/g]) on bacterial growth and shelf life were compared with those of a benzoate-sorbate solution (0.1% each [wt/wt]) and a control with no preservatives. The shelf life of shrimp subjected to the control treatment was found to be 10 days. Carnocin UI49 did not extend the shelf life, while crude bavaricin A (a cell-free supernatant of Lactobacillus bavaricus MI 401) resulted in a shelf life of 16 days, as opposed to 31 days with nisin Z for both its crude and purified forms. The benzoate-sorbate solution preserved the brined shrimp for the whole storage period (59 days). In the control, carnocin UI49, and crude bavaricin A treatments, a gram-positive flora dominated towards the end of the storage period while in the nisin Z treatment a gram-negative flora was more pronounced.

Einarsson, H.; Lauzon, H. L.

1995-01-01

10

Temperature dependence of ionic and acid-base regulation in boreal and arctic Crangon crangon and Pandalus borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of temperature on intracellular pH were investigated in the abdominal muscle tissue of two latitudinally separated populations of the euryhaline and eurythermic common sand shrimp Crangon crangon and in the stenohaline and stenothermic deep water shrimp Pandalus borealis. The contribution of passive mechanisms (due to the physico-chemical responses of intracellular buffers) and active mechanisms (due to ion exchange)

F. J. Sartoris; H. O. Pörtner

1997-01-01

11

Definition and characterization of data needs to describe the potential effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on marine fisheries from the northeast Pacific Ocean. [Theragra chalcogramma; Clupea harengus pallasi; Pandalus borealis; Limanda aspera  

SciTech Connect

Four northeast Pacific region case study species were studied to determine individual fishery responses to climate change. These fishes (Alaska pollock, Theragra chalcogramma; Pacific herring, Clupea harengus pallasi; pink shrimp, Pandalus borealis; and yellowfin sole, Limanda aspera) represent a spectrum of habitats and life cycles among commercially important species, and the northeast Pacific (including the eastern Bering Sea) is relatively well-studied and representative of subpolar continental shelf areas that also are important in the North Atlantic. In addition to the general effects of climate, these fisheries have specific climate-related environmental sensitivities: (a) pollock sensitivity to ice extent, cannibalism, and bird and mammal predation in the Bering Sea, and to coastal currents in the Gulf of Alaska; (b) sensitivity of herring to waves, dessication, and probably currents in the immediate vicinity of discrete spawning beaches along the British Columbia coast; (c) the relative insensitivity of bottom-dwelling shrimp to temperature changes; and (d) the probable sensitivity of yellowfin sole to ice extent and to associated changes in food supply caused by alterations in plankton species composition. It is difficult to extrapolate from the results of the present case studies to other fisheries. These results are particularly inapplicable to other major categories of fisheries, including open-ocean, upwelling, and tropical and subtropical shelf fisheries. Such fisheries should be the focus of additional case studies. Possible temperature effects on the incidence of disease and parasitism in fish also should be investigated.

Strickland, R.M.; Grosse, D.J.; Stubin, A.I.; Ostrander, G.K.; Sibley, T.H.

1985-12-01

12

UV damage and photoreactivation potentials of larval shrimp, Pandalus platyceros , and adult euphausiids, Thysanoessa raschii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously reported thresholds for UV-B dose and dose-rate were determined under artificial light regimes using more than an order of magnitude less visible light than found naturally. Near-UV and\\/or visible light is needed for photoreactivation, and the accuracy of earlier findings may have been influenced by less than maximum photorepair in the laboratory. Experiments with shrimp larvae and adult euphausiids,

David M. Damkaer; Douglas B. Dey

1983-01-01

13

Aurora Borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

HAVE any of your readers observed the display of aurora borealis to-night (Wednesday)? I regret that insufficient knowledge of astronomical technicalities does not permit me to describe more exactly the size and position of the display. It appeared between 11 and 11.30 p.m., as white streaks or bands of light, varying in width and intensity, now shooting up a considerable

Warington Stock

1892-01-01

14

Cryoprotective effects of shrimp head protein hydrolysate on gel forming ability and protein denaturation of lizardfish surimi during frozen storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of shrimp head protein hydrolysate (SHPH) from three species of shrimp (northern pink shrimp [Pandalus eous], endeavour shrimp [Metapenaeus endeavouri], black tiger shrimp [Penaeus monodon]) on gel forming ability and protein denaturation of lizardfish surimi during frozen storage at ?25°C were evaluated. The\\u000a quality of lizardfish surimi with 5% (dried matter) of any of the three SHPH or

Yaowalux Ruttanapornvareesakul; Kingduean Somjit; Akinori Otsuka; Kenji Hara; Kiyoshi Osatomi; Kazufumi Osako; Orawan Kongpun; Yukinori Nozaki

2006-01-01

15

Effect of shrimp head protein hydrolysates on the state of water and denaturation of fish myofibrils during dehydration  

Microsoft Academic Search

To utilize fisheries waste products as food materials with functional properties, shrimp head protein hydrolysates (SHPH)\\u000a from three species of shrimp, that is, Northern pink shrimp (Pandalus eous). Endeavour shrimp (Metapenaeus endeavouri) and Black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), were produced by enzymatic hydrolysis using endopeptidase derived from Bacillus subtilis and exopeptidase derived from Aspergillus oryzae at a level of 0.1%

Yaowalux Ruttanapornvareesakul; Misako Ikeda; Kenji Hara; Kazufumi Osako; Orawan Kongpun; Yukinori Nozaki

2005-01-01

16

Large genomes among caridean shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent genome size estimates for Arctic amphipods have revealed the largest genomes known in the Crustacea. Here we provide additional data for 7 species of caridean shrimp collected from the Canadian Arctic and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Genome sizes were estimated by flow cytometry and haploid C-values ranged from 8.53 ± 0.30 pg in Pandalus montagui (Pandalidae) to 40.89

David J. Rees; Claude Belzile; Hélène Glémet; France Dufresne

2008-01-01

17

Simulating the Aurora Borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm to simulate the aurora borealis, commonly known as the “northern lights”, a natural phenomenon of great visual beauty and considerable scientific interest. The algorithm is based on the current understanding of the physical origin of the aurora. This natural display is mainly caused by high-energy electrons originating in the Sun and entering the Earth's atmosphere in

Gladimir V. G. Baranoski; Peter Shirley; Jon G. Rokne; Trond Trondsen; Rui Bastos

2000-01-01

18

Photographing the Aurora Borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

I SHOULD be obliged if I might be permitted to state, with reference to the negative of the aurora borealis obtained by Mr. Tromholt in Christiania on March 15 (NATURE, vol. xxxi. p. 479)-the first ever obtained-that he now informs me that, although the plate was exposed for eight and a half minutes, the said impression is so faint and

Carl Siewers

1885-01-01

19

The Aurora Borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ON the night of the 25th a most gorgeous aurora borealis was visible at North Shields. I first observed it about 6 P.M., when it formed a splendid boreal crown, of which the centre was about 25° south-east of the zenith. Rays of brilliant crimson converged to it from all directions, especially from N.E., S., and S.W. To the north

Henry R. Proctor

1870-01-01

20

The Aurora Borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

HAVING read the two accounts of Aurora Borealis in this week's number of NATURE, I hope the following brief account of the very beautiful one that occurred here may not prove uninteresting. On Friday, the 14th Oct. at 8.15 p.m., I noticed a bright appearance towards the north-west, somewhat resembling the moon rising, and on going to the front of

T. W. Philips

1870-01-01

21

The Aurora Borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

THERE was a brilliant display of aurora borealis visible from this place on Sunday the 9th inst. I first noticed it about 10.45 P.M.; there was then a considerable luminosity in the N. W. with a magnificent red glow and streamers springing from the W. extending to within 20° of the eastern horizon, also radiation from other parts in the

W. J. B. Thompson

1871-01-01

22

Aurora borealis lag during the Maunder minimum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of 121 occurrences of the aurora borealis recorded in Central Europe from 1645 to 1712 C.E. are compared with known phase relationships between auroral activity and sunspot cycles in modern times. A remarkable analogy of the aurora borealis cycles during the Maunder minimum is found, both with respect to phase-dependent frequency and to delayed maxima, with aurorae during the

Ludwig Schlamminger

1991-01-01

23

Aurora borealis lags during the Middle Ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dated observations of the Northern Lights from the 13th-18th centuries are analyzed in terms of the relationship between sunspot cycles and aurora borealis cycles. Aurora borealis was recorded in circumpolar latitudes south of the auroral oval surrounding the magnetic south pole on 1500 days during the epoch studied. The phase relationship by Fritz (1864) relating sunspot and auroral cycles is

L. Schlamminger

1992-01-01

24

Aurora Borealis: What Causes the Northern Lights?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This color brochure answers common questions about the aurora borealis, including its cause, as well as explanations of its colors, shapes, and location. It also lists resources for further study. The brochure may be downloaded in PDF format.

2011-05-20

25

Secretagogues and Growth Factors in Fish and Crustacean Protein Hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The search for new molecules in fish protein hydrolysates is of great interest in animal feeding as it is in aquaculture,\\u000a fertilizer, cosmetic, and pharmacologic domains. Different sources of hydrolysates such as shrimp waste (Pandalus borealis), cod (Gadus morhua) head, and head and viscera of sardine (Sardina pilchardus), obtained after hydrolysis or autolysis, were tested on fibroblast cell cultures

Isabelle Cancre; Rozenn Ravallec; Alain Van Wormhoudt; Even Stenberg; Asbjoern Gildberg; Yves Le Gal

1999-01-01

26

Mercury: Photomosaic of Borealis Quadrangle H-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

H-1 Computer Photomosaic of the Borealis Area of Mercury The Borealis Region, located in Mercury's northern hemisphere, was imaged by the Mariner 10 spacecraft during its initial approach to the planet. The north pole is visible at the top of the image. The Image Processing Lab at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory produced this photomosaic using computer software and techniques developed for use in processing planetary data. The images used to construct the Borealis photomosaic were taken during Mariner's flyby of Mercury. The Mariner 10 spacecraft imaged Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took 7,000 images of during its mission. The Mariner 10 mission was managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science.

2000-01-01

27

The Aurora Borealis of September 9  

Microsoft Academic Search

I HAVE read, with much interest, in NATURE of September 15, the article concerning the aurora borealis of September 9, and it may be of interest to your readers to know that this beautiful phenomenon displayed its splendours the same evening in all parts of Finland territory.

N. Kaulbars

1898-01-01

28

5. Aurora Borealis Pass over the United States at Night  

NASA Video Gallery

This video of the United States at night and the Aurora Borealis was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 on board the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken September 29, 2011...

29

Brine Shrimp 1: Hatching Brine Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Science NetLinks lesson, students will design a test to determine the optimum salinity for hatching brine shrimp. In the second brine shrimp lesson of the series, students will raise these brine shrimp, designing an artificial environment in which they can survive. This lesson relates to the idea that in any particular environment, the growth and survival of organisms depend on the physical conditions.

Science Netlinks;

2001-10-20

30

Brine Shrimp 2: Brine Shrimp Survival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is the second of two lessons on brine shrimp. In the first brine shrimp lesson, students determined the optimum salinity for hatching. In this lesson, students will raise brine shrimp, designing an artificial environment in which they can survive. This Science NetLinks lesson relates to the idea that in any particular environment, the growth and survival of organisms depend on the physical conditions.

Science Netlinks;

2001-10-20

31

Chilean Shrimp Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chile has not yet developed a shrimp aquaculture industry. A variety of factors suggest that the country has a limited potential to culture shrimp. Indigenous species are untried in pond culture. Climatic factors, especially low seasurface temperatures, a...

D. M. Weidner

1991-01-01

32

SZ effect from Corona Borealis supercluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Corona Borealis supercluster has been observed with the millimeter and infrared testa grigia observatory (MITO). Here we present the results of the observations together with a comparison with observations performed at 33 GHz with the very small array (VSA) interferometer. We have observed in the direction of the supercluster toward a cosmic microwave background (CMB) cold spot previously detected in a VSA temperature map. We claim a weak detection of a faint signal compatible with a SZ effect characterized at most by a comptonization parameter y=(7.8-4.4+5.3)×10-6 68% CL. The low level of confidence in the presence of a SZ signal invites us to study this sky region with higher sensitivity and angular resolution experiments such as already planned upgraded versions of VSA and MITO. This is the first millimetric evidence of unknown cluster/diffuse intra-supercluster gas (possibly warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM)) interacting, via inverse Compton, scattering with the CMB.

Battistelli, E. S.; De Petris, M.; Lamagna, L.; Watson, R. A.; Rebolo, R.; Génova-Santos, R.; Luzzi, G.; De Gregori, S.; Rubiño-Martin, J. A.

2007-03-01

33

Shrimp Farming in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project on culturing shrimp. Presents observational labs and the experimentation procedure. Provides general information about shrimp, their life span, optimum temperatures, and other important information. (YDS)

Ruggiero, Lovelle

2000-01-01

34

Some appearances of the aurora borealis in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Some observations of the aurora borealis in Greece are given with the sources from which they were taken. It was found that the appearances of this phenomenon are not exceptionally rare. These appearances coincide with the years of maximun of solar activity and especially 1–2 years after it, while in the years of minimum of solar activity or near

Leon N. Carapiperis

1956-01-01

35

Erratum: A Planet Orbiting the Star Rho Coronae Borealis:  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Letter, ``A Planet Orbiting the Star ? Coronae Borealis'' by Robert W. Noyes, Saurabh Jha, Sylvain G. Korzennik, Martin Krockenberger, Peter Nisenson, Timothy M. Brown, Edward J. Kennelly, and Scott D. Horner (ApJ, 483, L111 [1997]), a software error caused the sign of the reported radial velocity variations of ? Coronae Borealis to be reversed. This error has no effect on the period, amplitude, or eccentricity of the derived orbit and thus does not affect the main conclusion of the paper. However, the longitude ? of periastron reported in Table 1 is off by 180°, and the predicted time of a possible planetary transit Ttransit is off by approximately 1/2 period. The correct values are ? = 30° +/- 74° and Ttransit = 2,450,657.88 +/- 0.54 HJD.

Noyes, Robert W.; Jha, Saurabh; Korzennik, Sylvain G.; Krockenberger, Martin; Nisenson, Peter; Brown, Timothy M.; Kennelly, Edward J.; Horner, Scott D.

1997-10-01

36

Aurorae: The earliest datable observation of the aurora borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Late Babylonian astronomical texts, discovered at the site of Babylon (32.5°N, 44.4°E) more than a century ago, contain what is probably the earliest reliable account of the aurora borealis. A clay tablet recording numerous celestial observations made by the official astronomers during the 37th year of King Nebuchadnezzar II (568\\/567 BC) describes an unusual ``red glow'' in the sky

F. Richard Stephenson; David M. Willis; Thomas J. Hallinan

2004-01-01

37

Self?Sterility in the Understory Herb Clintonia borealis (Liliaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the understory perennial Clintonia borealis, self-pollination yields lower seed number per fruit than cross- pollination. To measure the magnitude of this partial self-sterility and identify the pre- and postzygotic mech- anisms on which it is based, we conducted self- and outcross-pollinations in 34 patches in a natural population and estimated the effects on seed and fruit production, frequency of

M. E. Dorken; B. C. Husband

1999-01-01

38

Defrosting Shrimp with Microwaves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory experiments and results lead to the conclusion that microwave defrosting is particularly suited to the defrosting of raw, headless shrimp for the following reasons: (1) Microwave defrosting would allow compliance with the present GMP guideline ...

A. Bezanson R. Learson W. Teich

1973-01-01

39

Draft Genome Sequence of Sclerotinia borealis, a Psychrophilic Plant Pathogenic Fungus  

PubMed Central

Sclerotinia borealis is a necrotrophic phytopathogenic fungus notable for its wide host range and environmental persistence. It grows at low temperatures, causing snow mold disease of crop plants. To understand the molecular mechanisms of its pathogenesis and adaptation to the psychrophilic lifestyle, we determined the 39.3-Mb draft genome sequence of S. borealis F-4128.

Beletsky, Alexey V.; Kadnikov, Vitaly V.; Ignatov, Alexander N.; Ravin, Nikolai V.

2014-01-01

40

Potential and realized rates of vegetative reproduction in Spirodela polyrhiza, Lemna minor, and Wolffia borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of vegetative propagule development was estimated in three duckweed (Lemnaceae) species, Spirodela polyrhiza, Lemna minor, and Wolffia borealis, by measuring the number of daughter fronds produced over the life span of mother fronds. Under the same constant environmental conditions, plants of L. minor lived the longest (31.3 days) and produced the most daughter fronds (14.0), yet W. borealis

Gordon D. Lemon; Usher Posluszny; Brian C. Husband

2001-01-01

41

Shrimp Farming in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In inquiry-based instruction, discovery and learning belong to the students. In this exploration, jumbo shrimp are the source of inspiration. The magic in this project lies not in successfully culturing these shrimp, known as Macrobrachium rosenbergii

Ruggiero, Lovelle

2000-01-01

42

AURORA BOREALIS - European Research Icebreaker With Drilling Capability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polar oceans are the least known areas of the globe, in although they hold the key to many of our climate´s secrets. How does the sea ice coverage and the sea water properties change? How do plants and animals survive under the most extreme conditions of the earth? Which information of past climate change can be read from the sediments at the sea-floor and how can the future changing climate be predicted? In order to answer such and further questions, for the moment a hypermodern research vessel, the AURORA BOREALIS, is planned, which can handle the cool summers and freezing winters of the polar oceans and which can drill deep into the sea floor. AURORA BOREALIS will be the most advanced Research Icebreaker in the world with a multi-functional role of drilling in deep ocean basins and supporting climate/environmental research and decision support for stakeholder governments for the next 35-40 years. It will have a high icebreaking capacity to penetrate autonomously (single ship operation) into the central Arctic Ocean with more than 2.5 meters of ice cover, during all seasons of the year. The new technological features will include dynamic positioning in closed sea- ice cover, satellite navigation and ice-management support and the deployment and operation of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) from the twin moon-pools. A unique feature of the vessel is the deep-sea drilling rig, which will enable sampling of the ocean floor and sub-sea up to 5000 m water and 1000 m penetration at the most inhospitable places on earth. The drilling capability will be deployed in both Polar Regions on the long run and AURORA BOREALIS will be the only vessel worldwide that could undertake this type of scientific investigation.

Biebow, N.; Lembke-Jene, L.; Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Thiede, J.

2008-12-01

43

STS-56 remote manipulator system (RMS) backdropped against Aurora Borealis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-56 remote manipulator system (RMS) arm is backdropped against the 'northern lights' (Aurora Borealis) in this view exposed from the crew cabin of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. The arm was used in operations with the Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy 201 (SPARTAN-201). Space Shuttle astronauts have the opportunity to observe auroral activity only on 57-degree inclination missions and only in the 'night' hemisphere. Astronaut hand-held photography is the only method which is capable of documenting the detailed structure of the auroral oval.

1993-01-01

44

Optical Spectroscopy at Deep Light Minimum of R Coronae Borealis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present optical spectroscopy late in a deep minimum for the quintessential hydrogen-deficient carbon star R Coronae Borealis. Starting 3.5 years into the current deep and long minimum, we have secured observations that reveal some of the oddest optical spectra ever obtained for any astronomical object. Helium emission lines from triplet transitions, strong Ca II H and K emission, and forbidden lines of oxygen and nitrogen are the only spectral features observed. The spectra can be interpreted as coming from a chromospheric-like region lying above a carbon shell ejection front combined with a large-scale nebular-like region surrounding the star.

Howell, Steve B.; Rector, Travis A.; Walter, Donald

2013-08-01

45

Vision in hydrothermal vent shrimp.  

PubMed

Bresiliid shrimp from hydrothermal vents on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge have non-imaging eyes adapted for photodetection in light environments of very low intensity. Comparison of retinal structures between both vent shrimp and surface-dwelling shrimp with imaging eyes, and between juvenile and adult vent shrimp, suggests that vent shrimp have evolved from ancestors that lived in a light environment with bright cyclic lighting. Whether the vent shrimp live in swarms and have large dorsal eyes or live in sparse groupings and have large anterior eyes, the basic retinal adaptations are the same across species. Retinal adaptations in adult vent shrimp include the loss of dioptrics, enlargement of both the rhabdomeral segment of the photoreceptors and the light-sensitive rhabdomere therein, attenuation of the arhabdomeral segment of the photoreceptors, reduction of black screening pigment, development of a white diffusing layer behind the photoreceptors, and the loss of rhabdom turnover. PMID:11079388

Chamberlain, S C

2000-09-29

46

Vision in hydrothermal vent shrimp.  

PubMed Central

Bresiliid shrimp from hydrothermal vents on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge have non-imaging eyes adapted for photodetection in light environments of very low intensity. Comparison of retinal structures between both vent shrimp and surface-dwelling shrimp with imaging eyes, and between juvenile and adult vent shrimp, suggests that vent shrimp have evolved from ancestors that lived in a light environment with bright cyclic lighting. Whether the vent shrimp live in swarms and have large dorsal eyes or live in sparse groupings and have large anterior eyes, the basic retinal adaptations are the same across species. Retinal adaptations in adult vent shrimp include the loss of dioptrics, enlargement of both the rhabdomeral segment of the photoreceptors and the light-sensitive rhabdomere therein, attenuation of the arhabdomeral segment of the photoreceptors, reduction of black screening pigment, development of a white diffusing layer behind the photoreceptors, and the loss of rhabdom turnover.

Chamberlain, S C

2000-01-01

47

The organisation and expression of histone genes from Xenopus borealis.  

PubMed Central

We have isolated genomic clones from Xenopus borealis representing 3 different types of histone gene cluster. We show that the major type (H1, H2B, H2A, H4, H3), present at about 60-70 copies per haploid genome (1), is tandemly reiterated with a repeat length of 15 kb. In situ hybridization to mitotic chromosomes shows that the majority of histone genes in Xenopus borealis are at one locus. This locus is on the long arm of one of the small sub-metacentric chromosomes. A minor cluster type with the gene order H1, H3, H4, H2A is present at about 10-15 copies. The genome also contains rare or unique cluster types present at less than 5 copies having other types of organisation. An isolate of this type had the gene order H1, H4, H2B, H2A, H1 (no H3 cloned). Microinjection of all of the clones into Xenopus laevis oocyte nuclei shows that most of the genes present are functional or potentially functional and a number of variant histone proteins have been observed. S1 mapping experiments confirm that the genes of the major cluster are expressed in all tissues and at all developmental stages examined. Images

Turner, P C; Bagenal, E B; Vlad, M T; Woodland, H R

1988-01-01

48

Investigating Brine Shrimp.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a brine shrimp activity designed for students in grades 5-12 to foster authentic scientific inquiry in addition to providing an engaging and exciting avenue for student exploration. Emphasizes that inquiry should be a critical component in the science classroom. (KHR)

Duran, Lena Ballone

2003-01-01

49

Alabama Cave Shrimp ('Palaemonias alabamae') Recovery Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Alabama cave shrimp, Palaemonias alabamae Smalley, is an albinistic troglobitic (cave-dwelling) shrimp known from five caves (three cave systems or three groundwater basins) in Madison County, Alabama. A member of the shrimp family Atyidae, it is one ...

P. Hartfield T. R. Jacobson

1997-01-01

50

Topographic and Roughness Characteristics of the Vastitas Borealis Formation on Mars Described by Fractal Statistics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The surface roughness of the Vastitas Borealis Formation on Mars was analyzed with fractal statistics. Root mean square slopes and fractal dimensions were calculated for 74 topographic profiles. Results have implications for radar scattering models.

Garneau, S.; Plaut, J. J.

2000-01-01

51

Variable Winds and Dust Formation in R Coronae Borealis Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed P-Cygni and asymmetric, blue-shifted absorption profiles in the He I ?10830 lines of 12 R Coronae Borealis stars over short (1 month) and long (3 yr) timescales to look for variations linked to their dust-formation episodes. In almost all cases, the strengths and terminal velocities of the line vary significantly and are correlated with dust formation events. Strong absorption features with blue-shifted velocities ~400 km s-1 appear during declines in visible brightness and persist for about 100 days after recovery to maximum brightness. Small residual winds of somewhat lower velocity are present outside of the decline and recovery periods. The correlations support models in which recently formed dust near the star is propelled outward at high speed by radiation pressure and drags the gas along with it.

Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Geballe, T. R.; Zhang, Wanshu

2013-08-01

52

Monoculture of Fresh Water Shrimps (Macrobranchium Species)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sole reliance on wild catches of shrimps to meet the increasing demand globally can cause over fishing and destruction of shrimp fishery, pronounced by catch problem and habitat destruction. Freshwater shrimps of the genus Macrobrachium is found in West African waters and is widely distributed in Nigerian waters. These shrimps are more manageable than their marine relative where coastland

S. O. Ayoola

53

AURORA BOREALIS: a polar-dedicated European Research Platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polar research and in particular the properties of northern and southern high latitude oceans are currently a subject of intense scientific debate and investigations, because they are subject to rapid and dramatic climatic variations. Polar regions react more rapidly and intensively to global change than other regions of the earth. A shrinking of the Arctic sea-ice cover, potentially leading to an opening of sea passages to the north of North America and Eurasia, on the long to a "blue" Arctic Ocean would additionally have a strong impact on transport, commerce and tourism bearing potential risk for humans and complex ecosystems in the future. In spite of their critical role processes and feedbacks, especially in winter but not exclusively, are virtually unknown: The Arctic Ocean for example, it is the only basin of the world's oceans that has essentially not been sampled by the drill ships of the Deep-Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) or the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and its long-term environmental history and tectonic structure is therefore poorly known. Exceptions are the ODP Leg 151 and the more recent very successful ACEX-expedition of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) in 2004. To help to address the most pressing questions regarding climate change and related processes, a Pan-European initiative in the field of Earth system science has been put in place: AURORA BOREALIS is the largest environmental research infrastructure on the ESFRI roadmap of the European Community. AURORA BOREALIS is a very powerful research icebreaker, which will enable year-round operations in the Arctic and the Antarctic as well as in the adjacent ocean basins. Equipped with its drilling rig, the vessel is also capable to explore the presently completely unknown Arctic deep-sea floor. Last but not least, the ship is a floating observatory and mobile monitoring platform that permits to measure on a long-term basis comprehensive time series in all research fields relevant to global climate change. Chances and challenges rest in securing the construction and operation costs that need a dedicated consortium of interested countries and institutions to help tackling the biggest challenges of the next decades.

Wolff-Boenisch, Bonnie; Egerton, Paul; Thiede, Joern; Roberto, Azzolini; Lembke-Jene, Lester

2010-05-01

54

Sasa borealis extract exerts an antidiabetic effect via activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase  

PubMed Central

Leaf of Sasa borealis, a species of bamboo, has been reported to exhibit anti-hyperglycemic effect. However, its antidiabetic mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we examined whether an extract of S. borealis activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and exerts anti-hyperglycemic effects. Treatment with the S. borealis extract increased insulin signaling and phosphorylation of AMPK and stimulated the expression of its downstream targets, including PPAR?, ACO, and CPT-1 in C2C12 cells and PPAR? in HepG2 cells. However, inhibition of AMPK activation attenuated insulin signaling and prevented the stimulation of AMPK target genes. The S. borealis extract increased glucose uptake in C2C12 cells and suppressed expression of the gluconeogenic gene, PEPCK in HepG2 cells. The extract significantly reduced blood glucose and triglyceride levels in STZ-induced diabetic mice. The extract enhanced AMPK phosphorylation and increased Glut-4 expression in the skeletal muscle of the mice. These findings demonstrated that the S. borealis extract exerts its anti-hyperglycemic effect through activation of AMPK and enhancement of insulin signaling.

Nam, Jung Soo; Chung, Hee Jin; Jang, Min Kyung; Jung, In Ah; Park, Seong Ha; Cho, Su In

2013-01-01

55

Oxygen Isotopic Ratios in Cool R Coronae Borealis Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the relationship between R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars and hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) stars by measuring precise 16O/18O ratios for five cool RCB stars. The 16O/18O ratios are derived by spectrum synthesis from high-resolution (R ~ 50, 000) K-band spectra. Lower limits to the 16O/17O and 14N/15N ratios as well as Na and S abundances (when possible) are also given. RCB stars in our sample generally display less 18O than HdC stars—the derived 16O/18O ratios range from 3 to 20. The only exception is the RCB star WX CrA, which seems to be an HdC-like star with 16O/18O = 0.3. Our result of a higher 16O/18O ratio for the RCB stars must be accounted for by a theory of the formation and evolution of HdC and RCB stars. We speculate that a late dredge-up of products of He burning, principally 12C and 16O, may convert an 18O-rich HdC star into an 18O-poor RCB star as the H-deficient star begins its final evolution from a cool supergiant to the top of the white dwarf cooling track.

García-Hernández, D. A.; Lambert, David L.; Kameswara Rao, N.; Hinkle, Ken H.; Eriksson, Kjell

2010-05-01

56

The Corona Borealis Supercluster - II: Mass Estimation & Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Pearson & Batuski (2013) found that there should be little chance of finding extended bound structure in the Corona Borealis supercluster (CSC) if most of the mass is contained within the clusters themselves. However, Batiste & Batuski (2013) found evidence for CSC being in a state of collapse through a Fundamental Plane (FP) analysis. The contradiction of the results suggests strongly that there is a substantial matter component outside of the clusters. Using methods developed by Small et al. 1998, Reisenegger et al. 2000, Dünner et al. 2007, as well as a method we developed ourselves based on the spherical collapse model, we find evidence for between 1.91 and 13.9×1016 h-1 M? in the CSC region. The lower end of this mass range would mean there is about twice as much mass outside of the clusters than within the clusters themselves, similar to the finding of Proust et al. 2006 for the Shapley supercluster (SSC). Assuming an inter-cluster matter component of 3.8 × 1016 h-1 M? (Small et al. 1998), and line-of-sight peculiar velocities implied by the FP at present, our simulations show that there is a ~70% chance of the entire supercluster being gravitationally bound.

Pearson, David; Batiste, M.; Batuski, D. J.

2014-01-01

57

A dynamical analysis of the Corona Borealis supercluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey we assess the current dynamical state of the Corona Borealis supercluster (CSC), a highly dense and compact supercluster at z ? 0.07. The Fundamental Plane relation is used to determine redshift-independent distances to six clusters in the densest region of the supercluster, with mean accuracy in the relative distance estimates of 4 per cent. Peculiar velocities determined from these distance estimates indicate that the clusters have broken from the Hubble flow, suggesting that the CSC likely contains two regions that have reached turnaround and are currently undergoing gravitational collapse. These results provide the strongest observational evidence to date that the CSC is a bound system similar to the much more extensive Shapley supercluster, which is the most extensive confirmed bound supercluster yet identified in the Universe. When compared with simulations of the CSC our results require substantially more mass than is contained within the clusters, possibly indicating a significant intercluster dark matter component. In order to facilitate comparison with studies for which spectroscopic data are not available, an alternative analysis of the dynamics is made using the Kormendy relation as a distance indicator. The results are generally consistent with those of the Fundamental Plane and suggest similar global dynamics, but we find that the relatively sparse sampling of the clusters makes the Kormendy relation less reliable overall and more susceptible to small systematic differences between the cluster samples.

Batiste, Merida; Batuski, David J.

2013-12-01

58

Millimetric observations of the SZE towards Corona Borealis Supercluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed the Corona Borealis Supercluster with the Millimeter and Infrared Testa grigia Observatory (MITO) at 143, 214, 272, and 353 GHz. We present a description of the measure- ments, data analysis, and results together with a comparison of observations performed at 33 GHz with the Very Small Array (VSA). Observations have been made in a region of the supercluster corresponding to one Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) cold spot previously detected in VSA temperature map. Observational strategy and data analysis are described, explaining the procedures used to disentangle primary and secondary anisotropies in the resulting maps. With a data analysis using map making and the maximum entropy method we claim a weak detection of a faint signal spectrally compatible with a SZ effect characterized at most by a Comptonization parameter y = (7.8-4.4) × 10-6 68% CL. The low level of confidence in the presence of a SZ si- gnal invites us to study this sky region with higher sensitivity and angular resolution experiments like the already planned upgraded versions of VSA and MITO.

Luzzi, Gemma

59

Aurorae: The earliest datable observation of the aurora borealis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Late Babylonian astronomical texts, discovered at the site of Babylon (32.5°N, 44.4°E) more than a century ago, contain what is probably the earliest reliable account of the aurora borealis. A clay tablet recording numerous celestial observations made by the official astronomers during the 37th year of King Nebuchadnezzar II (568/567 BC) describes an unusual ``red glow'' in the sky at night; the exact date of this observation corresponds to the night of 12/13 March in 567 BC. The most likely interpretation of the phenomenon is an auroral display. This event occurred several centuries before the first clearly identifiable observation of the aurora from elsewhere in the world, namely China in 193 BC. The Babylonian auroral observation is remarkable in the sense that it is one of a series of carefully recorded astronomical observations, for each of which the year, month and day are known precisely. This observation occurred at a time when the geomagnetic (dipole) latitude of Babylon was about 41°N compared with the present value of 27.5°N, suggesting a higher auroral incidence at Babylon in 567 BC than at present.

Stephenson, F. Richard; Willis, David M.; Hallinan, Thomas J.

2004-12-01

60

Will R Coronae Borealis Ever Return to Maximum Light?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

R Coronae Borealis (R CrB) has been in a deep decline for almost 7 years. Before that, it spent 6 uninterrupted years at maximum light. R CrB is the prototype of its eponymous class of stars, which are very rare, and have many unusual characteristics including extreme hydrogen deficiency, and large, sudden declines in brightness of 8 magnitudes or more. These declines are caused by clouds of carbon dust forming near the atmospheres of the stars, which are later dissipated by radiation pressure. The RCB stars are true irregular variables in that the timing of their declines cannot be predicted, but several RCB stars are also known to begin their declines at a particular phase of their pulsations. There is a wide range of dust formation activity among these stars, as well as as a wide variation in the level of activity for an individual star over time. Long Time Domain observations of the RCB stars are necessary to understand the frequency of their declines, and to give clues about how and when the dust forms around these enigmatic stars.

Clayton, Geoffrey C.

2014-06-01

61

Substrate Selection by Ghost Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this experiment is to determine if ghost shrimp show a preference for a particular substrate surface under artificial conditions. Ghost shrimp are geographically widespread. They are an important source of food for many fish, mammals, and birds. Ghost shrimp are omnivorous, seldom predaceous. Their preferred food is aquatic vegetation. Ecologically, they are considered scavengers. Therefore, they contribute to an efficient flow of energy within aquatic habitats. Economically, they have become a favorite source of live food for aquarium fish and are sold in pet stores and are harvested for bait for sport fishing.

Ms. Sue Diggs (Monterey High School)

2000-07-01

62

Organization and expression of cloned histone gene clusters from Xenopus laevis and X. borealis.  

PubMed Central

We have isolated several clones containing Xenopus histone genes from genomic libraries of X. laevis and X. borealis DNA. Each genomic clone has been mapped and the positions of 26 histone genes in seven laevis clones and 5 histone genes in one borealis clone have been determined. In laevis, the histone gene clusters show considerable variation in gene order within a single individual. When the cloned DNAs were microinjected into the nucleus of Xenopus oocytes, expression of cloned genes at the transcriptional and translational level was readily detectable. Previously unknown histone variants were revealed by the microinjection experiments. Images

Old, R W; Woodland, H R; Ballantine, J E; Aldridge, T C; Newton, C A; Bains, W A; Turner, P C

1982-01-01

63

Shrimp Canning Waste Treatment Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wastewater surveys were performed at several Gulf shrimp canneries over a period of three canning seasons. Water used for each process within the plant was metered and the wastewater was tested for biological, chemical and physical characteristics. Pilot ...

A. F. Mauldin A. J. Szabo

1974-01-01

64

Science Nation: Disappearing Red Shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Along the shore in Hawaii, the ponds imbedded in lava rocks contain organisms found only in that environment. Among the marine life in these pools are hundreds of tiny red shrimp. With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), molecular biologist Scott Santos and his team at Auburn University are studying how the shrimp, along with other organisms, thrive in harsh, brackish pools of water.

65

Shrimp Landings, January 1977-December 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report, Current Fisheries Statistics for Shrimp Landings has been compiled for January 1977 through December 1978. The Annual Summary issues for 1977 and 1978 are included. Data includes commercial shrimp landings by type and region, specified periods...

1978-01-01

66

BOREALIS team flies Cosmic Dust Capture Experiment on NASA's High Altitude Student Platform (HASP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Montana Space Grant Consortium's (MSGC) BOREALIS high-altitude ballooning team's proposal to NASA to fly a Cosmic Dust Capture experiment on HASP was selected for flight, and was successfully launched from the Ft. Sumner, NM NASA Scientific Ballooning facility on Sept. 2, just 24 hours after the peak of the Aurigid meteor shower, which is of particular interest in the

Jayson Nissen

67

Field evidence that shrimp predation regulates meiofauna  

Microsoft Academic Search

The grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio, a suspected predator\\/disturber on meiofauna, and other large natant forms (>2 mm) were selectively excluded from microecosystem tanks for nine months during which time replicability between the tanks was established. Subsequently, shrimp were reintroduced into one of the four tanks via an aquarium and the meiofauna populations monitored in the “shrimp” and control tanks. In

Susan S. Bell; Bruce C. Coull

1978-01-01

68

Japan's Frozen Shrimp Imports: 1973.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

India was Japan's principal supplier of frozen shrimp in 1973 with 21,903 tons, regaining the lead from Indonesia which came in second with 18,764 tons. Thailand's exports of 9,884 tons ranked that country third. Mexico was fourth in 1973 with 8,839 tons,...

W. B. Folsom

1974-01-01

69

Scientific ballooning on a shoestring budget: The Montana Space Grant Consortium's BOREALIS program  

Microsoft Academic Search

High altitude ballooning using Latex weather balloons provides frequent and low cost opportunities to carry small meaningful scientific payloads to well in excess of 100,000 feet. Maximizing payload scientific capability requires utilization of the newest available miniature, low-power, light-weight technologies to minimize system mass and size. The Balloon Outreach, Research, Exploration And Land Imaging System (BOREALIS) program of the Montana

D. Klumpar; S. Kirn; W. Hiscock

2004-01-01

70

Sparing effect of pond water on vitamins in shrimp diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 10-wk experiment was conducted to determine whether shrimp pond water has a sparing effect on vitamins, trace minerals, and protein levels in diets fed to juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Twenty-four 52-L aquaria were stocked with 0.7-g shrimp at a density of 24 shrimp\\/aquaria (100 shrimp\\/m2 equivalent). Shrimp were exposed to flow-through seawater from one of two sources: clear

Shaun M. Moss; Ian P. Forster; Albert G. J. Tacon

2006-01-01

71

Shrimp diseases and current diagnostic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In less than 30 yr, the penaeid shrimp culture industries of the world developed from their experimental beginnings into major industries providing hundreds of thousands of jobs, billions of U.S. dollars in revenue, and augmentation of the world's food supply with a high value crop. Concomitant with the growth of the shrimp culture industry has been the recognition of the

D. V Lightner; R. M Redman

1998-01-01

72

Function of shrimp STAT during WSSV infection.  

PubMed

JAK/STAT signaling pathway plays key roles in the antiviral immunity of mammals, fish and insect. However, limited knowledge is known about the function of JAK/STAT signaling pathway in the antiviral immunity of shrimp although virus disease has caused severe mortality in shrimp aquaculture. In order to understand the function of JAK/STAT signaling pathway in the antiviral immunity of shrimp, dsRNA interfering technique was used to silence the expression of STAT gene in Litopenaeus vannamei, and the mortality of shrimp was detected after WSSV infection. Furthermore, the expressions of some potential target genes regulated by STAT or genes related to RNA interfering pathway were detected in STAT silenced shrimp during WSSV infection. The WSSV copy number in STAT silenced shrimp was 10(2)-10(3) copies/ng DNA which was much lower than that in the control. The mortality in STAT silenced shrimp caused by WSSV infection decreased very significantly compared to their controls. The function of STAT was verified in vitro cultured cells of hematopoietic tissue of crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus by adding specific inhibitor of STAT3(S3I-201), and the cultured cells treated with S3I-201 showed much less WSSV copy number than their controls, which further suggested that STAT might be helpful for the replication of WSSV. Expression analysis on the potential STAT target genes and genes in RNA interfering pathway provide important information for understanding the functional mechanism of STAT in antiviral immunity of shrimp. PMID:24727196

Wen, Rong; Li, Fuhua; Li, Shihao; Xiang, Jianhai

2014-06-01

73

An Examination of the Shrimp Futures Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The only two seafood commodities traded in futures markets are frozen white and black tiger shrimps on the Minneapolis Grain Exchange (MGE). These two contracts, however, have failed to attract the expected trade volume based on the underlying shrimp cash market flow. First, we investigate the hedging effectiveness of these contracts. Then we also try to determine the adequacy of

Josué Martínez-Garmendia; James L. Anderson

74

Drilling Polar Oceans with the European Research Icebreaker AURORA BOREALIS: the IODP Context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polar oceans are characterized by extreme environmental conditions for humans and materials, and have remained the least accessible regions to scientists of the IODP. DSDP and ODP have for long faced specific technical and logistical problems when attempting to drill in ice-covered polar deep-sea basins. The Arctic Ocean and large areas of the high-latitude Southern Ocean remained largely un-sampled by ODP and remain one of the major scientific and technological challenges for IODP. Drilling in these regions has been discussed and anticipated for decades and the scientific rationales are reflected in the science plans of the international Nansen Arctic Drilling Program (NAD) or the Arctic Program Planning Group (APPG) of ODP/IODP, amongst others. More recently, the rationale to investigate the polar oceans in a holistic approach has been outlined by workshops, leading to strategic assessments of the scientific potential and new drilling proposals. The European Polar Board took the initiative to develop a plan for a novel and dedicated research icebreaker with technical capabilities hitherto unrealised. This research icebreaker will enable autonomous operations in the central Arctic Ocean and the Southern Ocean, even during the severest ice conditions in the deep winter, serving all marine disciplines of polar research including scientific drilling: The European Research Icebreaker and Deep-Sea Drilling Vessel AURORA BOREALIS. AURORA BOREALIS is presently planned as a multi-purpose vessel. The ship can be deployed as a research icebreaker in all polar waters during any season of the year, as it shall meet the specifications of the highest ice-class attainable (IACS Polar Code 1) for icebreakers. During the times when it is not employed for drilling, it will operate as the most technically advanced multi-disciplinary research vessel in the Arctic or polar Southern Ocean. AURORA BOREALIS will be a "European scientific flagship facility" (fully open to non-European partners), a multidisciplinary platform for studies ranging from the sub-seafloor into the atmosphere. AURORA BOREALIS was planned for her role in deep-sea drilling in consultation with engineers and technical experts familiar with the program and the operation of these vessels. All techniques currently deployed on IODP expeditions can be implemented onboard the vessel under polar weather and ice conditions, including the full range of re-entry, casing and cementing, and instrumentation options and the entire suite of downhole logging tools. Due to sufficient laboratory space, a full analytical workflow can be easily established comparable to existing permanent platforms, including clean rooms, diverse scanning and logging or incubation facilities. While the vessel is equipped with a dedicated deep-sea drilling rig, other coring and drilling techniques can be employed if needed (e.g. Rockdrill, MEBO, large diameter Kasten cores). AURORA BOREALIS is fitted to operate a CALYPSO Piston Coring System in polar waters. Future mud-return systems under consideration and testing for IODP to provide controlled borehole conditions in difficult facies are compatible with the layout of AURORA BOREALIS. The berthing capacity of 120 personnel total (scientists, technical support and crew) allows to accommodate a sufficient number of science party members offshore. The present scientific implementation documents plan for about one polar scientific drilling expedition per year in a to-be-determined configuration. As the vessel is a multi-dsiciplinary platform, operations for the entire year are not dependant on drilling operations alone. While principal access to the vessel will be based on a competitive proposal review and evaluation system, the allocation of timeslots specifically for drilling would preferably be given over to IODP handling and planning systems in a cooperative mode using the strengths and capacitites of the future program. Depending on interests and needs of the scientific communities a preferential focus in non-drilling expedition planning could be e

Lembke-Jene, Lester; Wolff-Boenisch, Bonnie; Azzolini, Roberto; Thiede, Joern; Biebow, Nicole; Eldholm, Olav; Egerton, Paul

2010-05-01

75

AURORA BOREALIS - Icebreaker, Drilling Platform and Multi-Purpose Research Vessel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spite of the critical role of the Arctic Ocean in climate evolution, it is the only sub-basin of the world's oceans that has essentially not been sampled by the drill ships of the Deep-Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) or the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), and its long-term environmental history and tectonic structure is therefore poorly known. Exceptions are the ODP Leg 151 and the more recent very successful ACEX-expedition of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). This lack of data represents one of the largest gaps of information in modern Earth Science. Therefore, the new research icebreaker AURORA BOREALIS will be equipped with drilling facilities to fulfil the needs of the IODP for a -Mission-Specific Platform- to drill in deep, permanently ice-covered ocean basins. This icebreaker must be also powerful enough to maintain station against the drifting sea-ice cover and will have to be equipped with a dynamic positioning system. This new icebreaker would be conceived as an optimized science platform from the keel up and will allow conducting long, international and interdisciplinary expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean during all seasons of the year. In a long-term perspective the AURORA BOREALIS will also be used to address Antarctic research targets, both in its mode as a regular research vessel as well as a polar drill ship. The construction of AURORA BOREALIS requires several new technical implementations, such as advanced dynamic positioning and deep-sea drilling under a closed sea-ice cover and two moon pools (7 x 7 m), and will provide an extended technical potential and knowledge for marine technology. The scientific and technical details will be presented.

Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Biebow, N.; Lembke-Jene, L.; Thiede, J.; Egerton, P.

2007-12-01

76

Hydrologic activity during late Noachian and Early Hesperian downwarping of Borealis Basin, Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pronounced global volcanism as well as fracturing and erosion along the highland/lowland boundary (HLB) during the Late Noachian (LN) and Early Hesperian (EH) led McGill and Dimitriou to conclude that the Borealis basin formed tectonically during this period. This scenario provides a basis for interpretation of the initiation and mode of formation of erosional and collapse features along the HLB. The interpretation, in turn, is integral to hypotheses regarding the development of ancient lakes (or an ocean) and their impact on the climate history of Mars. Hydrologic features of Mars are discussed along with their implications for paleolakes and climate history.

Tanaka, Kenneth L.

1991-06-01

77

Hydrologic activity during late Noachian and Early Hesperian downwarping of Borealis Basin, Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pronounced global volcanism as well as fracturing and erosion along the highland/lowland boundary (HLB) during the Late Noachian (LN) and Early Hesperian (EH) led McGill and Dimitriou to conclude that the Borealis basin formed tectonically during this period. This scenario provides a basis for interpretation of the initiation and mode of formation of erosional and collapse features along the HLB. The interpretation, in turn, is integral to hypotheses regarding the development of ancient lakes (or an ocean) and their impact on the climate history of Mars. Hydrologic features of Mars are discussed along with their implications for paleolakes and climate history.

Tanaka, Kenneth L.

1991-01-01

78

Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases.

Lakshmi, Bestha; Sai Gopal, D. V. R.

2013-01-01

79

76 FR 6603 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-549-822] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Thailand. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Final Results and Final Partial...

2011-02-07

80

Histone gene number and organisation in Xenopus: Xenopus borealis has a homogeneous major cluster.  

PubMed Central

Using a Xenopus laevis H4 cDNA clone as a probe we have determined that the numbers of H4 histone genes in Xenopus laevis and Xenopus borealis are approximately the same. These numbers are dependent on the hybridization stringency and we measure about 90 H4 genes per haploid genome after a 60 degrees C wash in 3 X SSC. Using histone probes from both Xenopus and sea urchin we have studied the genomic organization of histone genes in these two species. In all of the X.borealis individuals analyzed about 70% of the histone genes were present in a very homogeneous major cluster. These genes are present in the order H1, H2B, H2A, H4 and H3, and the minimum length of the repeated unit is 16kb. In contrast, the histone gene clusters in X.laevis showed considerable sequence variation. However two major cluster types with different gene orders seem to be present in most individuals. The differences in histone gene organization seen in species of Xenopus suggest that even in closely related vertebrates the major histone gene clusters are quite fluid structures in evolutionary terms. Images

Turner, P C; Woodland, H R

1983-01-01

81

Aflatoxin contamination in shrimp feed and effects of aflatoxin addition to feed on shrimp production.  

PubMed

One hundred fifty samples of shrimp feed were collected from the eastern and southern regions of Thailand, and aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2) in them were analyzed. AFB1 contamination ranged from a nondetectable level (< 0.003 ppb) to 0.651 ppb. Metabolites of AFB1 were less abundant than AFB1. To study the effects of aflatoxin in feed on shrimp production, black tiger shrimp were divided into four groups of 30 shrimp per group, tested in triplicate, and fed diets containing 0 (control), 5, 10, or 20 ppb of AFB1 for 10 consecutive days. After 7 or 10 days of consumption on each diet, the shrimp were weighed and sacrificed for laboratory examination. AFB1 and its metabolites were not detected in shrimp muscle. The mortality rate was slightly higher in the AFB1-treated groups than in the control group. The body weight of the surviving shrimp was decreased to 46 to 59% of the initial body weight in the AFB1-treated groups but not in the control group. Histopathological findings indicated hepatopancreatic damage by AFB1 with biochemical changes of the hemolymph. These results show that aflatoxin contamination in shrimp feed may cause economic losses by lowering the production of shrimp. Feed contaminated at the level of 20 ppb or lower (i.e., at the observed natural contamination level) may pose a very low risk, if any, to human health. PMID:12747701

Bintvihok, A; Ponpornpisit, A; Tangtrongpiros, J; Panichkriangkrai, W; Rattanapanee, R; Doi, K; Kumagai, S

2003-05-01

82

PAST AND PRESENT DISTRIBUTIONOF THE RED-COCKADED WOODPECKER PICOIDES BOREALIS AND ITS HABITATIN THE OUACHITA MOUNTAINS, ARKANSAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the past 15 years, at least 41 and probably more active cavity tree clusters (or colonies) of Red- cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) have existedin remnant, mature shortleafpine (Pinus echina- ta) woodlandsin the Ouachita Mountainsof Arkansas. These clusters were located on both private timberlands and in the OuachitaNational Forest. Fewer than half of thisnumber were still active in early 1991,

Poteau Ranger District

1991-01-01

83

Husbandry Helps Harvests of Healthy Shrimp.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comparison is presented of the relative role of husbandry or control of environmental conditions, and diseases in the fluctuations of abundance in populations of marine animals. Emphasis is placed on cultured animals such as shrimp. The University of Mi...

G. E. Krantz E. S. Iverson

1973-01-01

84

Thermal and Microwave Energy for Shrimp Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gulf Coast shrimp were processed by 2450 MHz microwave energy and conventional boiling to determine if differences existed in organoleptic evaluation and vitamin retention. Since no satisfactory method was available for measuring the temperature of produc...

M. R. R. Roa A. F. Novak

1975-01-01

85

Characterization of shrimp Drosha in virus infection.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by microRNA (miRNA) is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of posttranscriptional gene regulation in all eukaryotes, involving in natural antiviral immunity. The RNAase III Drosha is a key component for miRNA maturation. To date, however, the roles of Drosha in virus infection remain to be addressed. In this study, the Drosha was characterized in Marsupenaeus japonicus shrimp. The sequence analysis revealed that the shrimp Drosha gene encoded a 1081-amino-acid peptide, which comprised two tandem ribonuclease III C terminal domains and a double-stranded RNA binding motif. The shrimp Drosha was homologous with those of other animal species. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the Drosha gene was highly expressed in lymphoid organ and was significantly up-regulated in response to WSSV challenge, suggesting that the Drosha was involved in the antiviral immunity of shrimp. The results showed that the knock down of Drosha gene led to the defect of miRNA maturation, and subsequent higher virus loads in shrimp. Our study presented that Drosha played important roles in the antiviral defense of shrimp. PMID:22796424

Huang, Tianzhi; Xu, Dandan; Zhang, Xiaobo

2012-09-01

86

Breaking the Ice: Strategies for Future European Research in the Polar Oceans - The AURORA BOREALIS Concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research vessels dedicated to work in polar ice-covered waters have only rarely been built. Their history began with Fritjof Nansen's FRAM, which he used for his famous first crossing of the Arctic Ocean 1893-1896. She served as example for the first generation of polar research vessels, at their time being modern instruments planned with foresight. Ice breaker technology has developed substantially since then. However, it took almost 80 years until this technical advance also reached polar research, when the Russian AKADEMIK FEDEROV, the German POLARSTERN, the Swedish ODEN and the USCG Cutter HEALY were built. All of these house modern laboratories, are ice-breakers capable to move into the deep-Arctic during the summer time and represent the second generation of dedicated polar research vessels. Still, the increasing demand in polar marine research capacities by societies that call for action to better understand climate change, especially in the high latitudes is not matched by adequate facilities and resources. Today, no icebreaker platform exists that is permanently available to the international science community for year-round expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean or heavily ice-infested waters of the polar Southern Ocean around Antarctica. The AURORA BOREALIS concept plans for a heavy research icebreaker, which will enable polar scientists around the world to launch international research expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic continental shelf seas autonomously during all seasons of the year. The European Research Icebreaker Consortium - AURORA BOREALIS (ERICON-AB) was established in 2008 to plan the scientific, governance, financial, and legal frameworks needed for the construction and operation of this first multi-nationally owned and operated research icebreaker and polar scientific drilling platform. By collaborating together and sharing common infrastructures it is envisioned that European nations make a major contribution to tackle problems of high societal relevance beyond the scope of individual disciplines. It is planned to use part of the berthing capacity of AURORA BOREALIS for dedicated university education and teaching programmes in order to give future polar scientists the best training facilities available and enable a vital international exchange between educational centres. This aims at helping to vertically structure the new generation of young and well-trained students and playing a key role in the construction of an efficient research and innovation environment for future collaboration in polar research

Lembke-Jene, L.; Biebow, N.; Wolff-Boenisch, B.; Thiede, J.; European Research Icebreaker Consortium

2011-12-01

87

Chitosan fibers modified with HAp/?-TCP nanoparticles.  

PubMed

This paper describes a method for preparing chitosan fibers modified with hydroxyapatite (HAp), tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP), and HAp/?-TCP nanoparticles. Fiber-grade chitosan derived from the northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and nanoparticles of tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) suspended in a diluted chitosan solution were used in the investigation. Diluted chitosan solution containing nanoparticles of Hap/?-TCP was introduced to a 5.16 wt% solution of chitosan in 3.0 wt% acetic acid. The properties of the spinning solutions were examined. Chitosan fibers modified with nanoparticles of HAp/?-TCP were characterized by a level of tenacity and calcium content one hundred times higher than that of regular chitosan fibers. PMID:22174598

Wawro, Dariusz; Pighinelli, Luciano

2011-01-01

88

Chitosan Fibers Modified with HAp/?-TCP Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a method for preparing chitosan fibers modified with hydroxyapatite (HAp), tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP), and HAp/?-TCP nanoparticles. Fiber-grade chitosan derived from the northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and nanoparticles of tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) suspended in a diluted chitosan solution were used in the investigation. Diluted chitosan solution containing nanoparticles of Hap/?-TCP was introduced to a 5.16 wt% solution of chitosan in 3.0 wt% acetic acid. The properties of the spinning solutions were examined. Chitosan fibers modified with nanoparticles of HAp/?-TCP were characterized by a level of tenacity and calcium content one hundred times higher than that of regular chitosan fibers.

Wawro, Dariusz; Pighinelli, Luciano

2011-01-01

89

Observations on Cleaner Shrimps of the genus 'Periclimenes'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study indicates that the abundance of reef fishes in the Virgin Islands may be indirectly related to the occurrence of the anemone, Bartholomea annulata (Le Sueur), to which cling the two most abundant shrimps, the Pederson cleaning shrimp Periclimene...

C. Mahken

1972-01-01

90

'Pleistophora' SP. (Microsporidia: Nosematidae): A New Parasite of Shrimp.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

White (Penaeus setiferus) and brown (P. aztecus) shrimp from Galveston Bay were observed to be infected with Pleistophora sp. (Microsporidia, Nosematidae). Heavily infected shrimp had a blue-black discoloration of the body. Cysts with 40 or more spores we...

R. H. Rigdon C. Hanna K. N. Baxter

1970-01-01

91

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS IN TWO OREGON ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of Pacific estuarine tide flats, from British Columbia to Baja California. The spatial distribution of shrimp populations within estuaries has rarely been quantified because ...

92

What is the True Population of the R Coronae Borealis Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are rare hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich supergiants. Two evolutionary scenarios have been suggested, a double degenerate merger of two white dwarfs (WDs), or a final helium shell flash (FF) in a PN central star. The evidence pointing toward a WD merger or a FF origin for RCB stars is contradictory. Therefore, determining the population of RCB stars is very important. Predictions of the number of RCB stars in the Galaxy range as high as 5,000 but very few RCB stars are known. The discovery rate for RCB stars has been accelerated by the use of WISE IR colors and the ASAS-3 lightcurves. The number of Milky Way RCB stars identified has doubled in just a few years to about 100 and may double again soon.

Clayton, G.

2014-04-01

93

Spectroscopic orbits for symbiotic stars. I - The recurrent nova T Coronae Borealis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors report new radial-velocity measurements of the giant component in the recurrent nova T Coronae Borealis. These data have been combined with existing observations to derive a new orbital solution and confirm previous estimates for the component masses. The orbital data and recent optical and ultraviolet spectra provide new support for a model in which a lobe-filling gM3 star loses material to a main-sequence companion star at a rate of ?10-6M_sun;yr-1. T CrB appears to be at the onset of runaway case C mass exchange, and the authors expect an increase in the luminosity of the hot object over the next few decades.

Kenyon, S. J.; Garcia, M. R.

1986-01-01

94

The Aurora Borealis: a plasma physics and environmental laboratory in the sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The auroral Borealis is Nature's most colorful display of plasma physics = in the polar region. This talk will describe the free energy sources in = terms of particle precipitation and associated current in the polar magnetic = field responsible for such phenomena. A "High Power Auroral Stimulation" = (HIPAS) facility in Alaska has been used to actively probe this auroral region by exciting plasma resonances remotely. This laboratory without walls = allows large-scale controlled perturbations to be created and monitored. The auroral current and particle distribution can be the sources of = excitation or enhancement of plasma waves which are detected by satellites, lidars , holographic arrays, space-borne and ground-based optical and = electromagnetic sensors. The science and application of this active interaction method to environmental monitoring and remediation will be discussed. ^1. A.Y. Wong et al. Phys Rev Lett v63, 271 ( 1989). Work supported by ONR and NSF.

Wong, Alfred Y.

1997-04-01

95

The Aurora Borealis: a plasma physics and environmental laboratory in the sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The auroral Borealis is Nature's most colorful display of plasma physics in the polar region. This talk will describe the free energy sources in terms of particle precipitation and associated current in the polar magnetic field responsible for such phenomena. A "High Power Auroral Stimulation" (HIPAS) facility in Alaska has been used to actively probe this auroral region by exciting plasma resonances remotely. This laboratory without walls allows large-scale controlled perturbations to be created and monitored. The auroral current and particle distribution can be the sources of excitation or enhancement of plasma waves which are detected by satellites, lidars , holographic arrays, space-borne and ground-based optical and electromagnetic sensors. The science and application of this active interaction method to environmental monitoring and remediation will be discussed. ^1. A.Y. Wong et al. Phys Rev Lett v63, 271 ( 1989). Work supported by ONR and NSF.

Wong, Alfred Y.

1997-04-01

96

Aurora Borealis: stochastic cellular automata simulations of the excited-state dynamics of oxygen atoms.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions from the 1S and 1D excited states of atomic oxygen play a prominent role in creating the dramatic light displays (aurora borealis) seen in the skies over polar regions of the Northern Hemisphere. A probabilistic asynchronous cellular automaton model described previously has been applied to the excited-state dynamics of atomic oxygen. The model simulates the time-dependent variations in ground (3P) and excited-state populations that occur under user-defined probabilistic transition rules for both pulse and steady-state conditions. Although each trial simulation is itself an independent "experiment", deterministic values for the excited-state emission lifetimes and quantum yields emerge as limiting cases for large numbers of cells or large numbers of trials. Stochastic variations in the lifetimes and emission yields can be estimated from repeated trials.

Seybold, P. G.; Kier, L. B.; Cheng, C.-K.

1999-12-01

97

Shrimp Farms and Mangroves, Gulf of Fonseca  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For decades, astronauts on space missions have documented land use changes around the world. In this pair of images, astronauts track the development of shrimp farming along the Honduran coastline of the Gulf of Fonseca between 1989 and 2001. Mariculture, primarily shrimp farming, has become a leading agricultural effort in Honduras. The regional transformation of large tracts of coastal swamps into shrimp farms blossomed throughout the 1990s. The top image was taken with color infrared film in 1989. Dense vegetation, like the coastal mangrove swamps and the forested slopes of Volcan Cosiguina show up as dark red. The bottom image, taken with color visible film by the crew of the most recent Space Shuttle mission in December 2001 shows that hundreds of square kilometers of coastal swamp, primarily in Honduras, have been converted to shrimp ponds. These appear as the light-colored, rectilinear land use pattern. The Honduras shrimp farms were hit hard by flooding after Hurricane Mitch in 1998, and a devastating virus in 1999-2000. It is not known how many of the ponds in this view are still functional. A vigorous debate continues about the sustainability of the shrimp farms and the impacts to the environment and coastal ecosystem due to mangrove clearing and mariculture waste production. Apart from the shrimp farms, the other prominent feature on these images is the impressive volcano Cosiguina, which erupted explosively in 1859 (the largest recorded eruption in the Western Hemisphere). Photograph STS-108-717-85 was taken in the December 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 108 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. Photograph STS030-93-15 was taken in May 1989 using a Hasselblad camera and color infrared film. Both images are provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

98

Scientific ballooning on a shoestring budget: The Montana Space Grant Consortium's BOREALIS program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High altitude ballooning using Latex weather balloons provides frequent and low cost opportunities to carry small meaningful scientific payloads to well in excess of 100,000 feet. Maximizing payload scientific capability requires utilization of the newest available miniature, low-power, light-weight technologies to minimize system mass and size. The Balloon Outreach, Research, Exploration And Land Imaging System (BOREALIS) program of the Montana Space Grant Consortium has provided for undergraduate student teams to build payload systems up to 5.4 kg to conduct high altitude flight experiments. In the university setting such a program provides direct experience to students in the fabrication and operation of (near)space flight systems and payloads, and subsequent analysis of the scientific data. Over the course of the past three years 19 successful balloon flights have been conducted, with full payload recovery, reaching altitudes in excess of 110,000 feet, providing rewarding and exciting developmental test flights for satellite subsystems and mini-science missions to the edge of space. Missions have included measurement of Ozone altitude profiles, UV and Cosmic Ray fluxes, and atmospheric temperature and pressure soundings. In addition to providing hands on training at our colleges and universities for future scientists and engineers; by involving the public, a much larger audience is exposed to the scientific research process. In this paper we describe our methodologies and program accomplishments, including the design of a payload support system utilizing commercially available subsystems. More information may be found at http://spacegrant.montana.edu/borealis/index.asp

Klumpar, D.; Kirn, S.; Hiscock, W.

99

Some Recent Issues and Innovations in Marine Shrimp Pond Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

World cultured shrimp production increased from 0.4 million metric tons (MMT) in 1990 to about 0.8 MMT in 1999, or about 25 to 30% of total shrimp supply. Increased production was well below 1.2 MMT predicted 10 years earlier. The primary reason for this shortfall was shrimp disease, which effected shrimp yields worldwide. The most serious diseases were viral, for

Arlo W. Fast; Piamsak Menasveta

2000-01-01

100

Prediction of shelled shrimp weight by machine vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weight of shelled shrimp is an important parameter for grading process. The weight prediction of shelled shrimp by contour\\u000a area is not accurate enough because of the ignorance of the shrimp thickness. In this paper, a multivariate prediction model\\u000a containing area, perimeter, length, and width was established. A new calibration algorithm for extracting length of shelled\\u000a shrimp was proposed,

Peng-min Pan; Jian-ping Li; Gu-lai Lv; Hui Yang; Song-ming Zhu; Jian-zhong Lou

2009-01-01

101

Penaeid shrimp polyploidy: Global status and future direction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In those shrimp species comprehensively studied, polyploidy is currently the only known technique that can achieve the dual outcomes of reproductive sterility for genetic protection and skewing sex ratios towards a high proportion of females, which are larger than males in all of the penaeid shrimp. This review article aims to collate the scientific knowledge and global shrimp industries experience,

M. J. Sellars; F. Li; N. P. Preston; J. Xiang

2010-01-01

102

21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...forms of shrimp are: (1) Fantail or butterfly: Prepared by splitting the shrimp...tail fins may be left attached. (2) Butterfly, tail off: Prepared by splitting the...Breaded fantail shrimp.â The word âbutterflyâ may be used in lieu of...

2009-04-01

103

21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...forms of shrimp are: (1) Fantail or butterfly: Prepared by splitting the shrimp...tail fins may be left attached. (2) Butterfly, tail off: Prepared by splitting the...Breaded fantail shrimp.â The word âbutterflyâ may be used in lieu of...

2010-04-01

104

Economic impacts of TEDs on the shrimp production sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic impact of the effects of the Turtle Excluder Devices (TEDs) used in the Gulf of Mexico to control the numbers of turtles caught in shrimp trawl nets is analyzed. This is a major concern to the shrimp fishing economy due to the potential loss of shrimp. A simulation modeling technique is used which estimates the changes in landings,

Wade L. Griffin; Deborah Tolman; Chris Oliver

1993-01-01

105

Burrowing shrimp as foundation species in NE Pacific estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

My talk will be about the my research to characterize the role that burrowing shrimp play as foundation/engineering species in Pacific NW estuaries. My research has focused on measuring the abundance & distribution of two species (ghost shrimp & mud shrimp) at ecosystem scales, ...

106

Water quality control using Spirulina platensis in shrimp culture tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cyanobacterium (Spirulina platensis) was co-cultured with black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) for water quality control. We evaluated the effects of: (1) three S. platensis trial conditions on inorganic nitrogen concentrations at one shrimp density (S. platensis trial conditions included: absent, nonharvested and semicontinuous harvesting) and (2) two shrimp densities on inorganic nitrogen concentrations, with and without S. platensis. Semicontinuous

Benjamas Chuntapa; Sorawit Powtongsook; Piamsak Menasveta

2003-01-01

107

Shrimp molecular responses to viral pathogens.  

PubMed

From almost negligible amounts in 1970, the quantity of cultivated shrimp (~3 million metric tons in 2007) has risen to approach that of the capture fishery and it constitutes a vital source of export income for many countries. Despite this success, viral diseases along the way have caused billions of dollars of losses for shrimp farmers. Desire to reduce the losses to white spot syndrome virus in particular, has stimulated much research since 2000 on the shrimp response to viral pathogens at the molecular level. The objective of the work is to develop novel, practical methods for improved disease control. This review covers the background and limitations of the current work, baseline studies and studies on humoral responses, on binding between shrimp and viral structural proteins and on intracellular responses. It also includes discussion of several important phenomena (i.e., the quasi immune response, viral co-infections, viral sequences in the shrimp genome and persistent viral infections) for which little or no molecular information is currently available, but is much needed. PMID:20393775

Flegel, T W; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

2011-08-01

108

Aurora Borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

WHAT was, probably, the termination of the aurora seen at Worcester and Dublin on May 14 was observed here, by me, between midnight and 1 a.m. of the morning of the 18th. At that time, and for some time after, I saw along the northwest horizon a strong, green, auroral glow. The evening of the 14th was bitterly cold; the

S. Maitland Baird Glennill

1882-01-01

109

Aurora Borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE auroral display mentioned by your two correspondents was particularly brilliant at Oldham on the evening of the 14th inst., at 11.10. I observed at 11.15 one very fine streamer reaching quite to the Pole Star; it was of a ruddy hue, dull, and changing to purple. The horizon was cloudy, the cloud being fringed with white light, changing to

W. Pullinger

1882-01-01

110

Rythme Circadien endogène d'émergence et d'activité natatoire chez i'isopode profond Cirolana borealis lilljeborg  

Microsoft Academic Search

L'Isopode profond Cirolana borealis présente en milieu expérimental un rythme circadien endogène net d'émergence du sédiment, de géonégativité, et d'activité natatoire. Le rythme a pu être enregistré durant plus de 60 jours consécutifs en obscurité constante. Il se manifeste chez les animaux conditionnés à un éclairement de surface (100 à 10 ?W.cm), chez ceux conditionnés à éclairement très réduit (10

1994-01-01

111

The Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect in superclusters of galaxies using gasdynamical simulations: the case of Corona Borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the thermal (tSZ) and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect associated with superclusters of galaxies using the MareNostrum (MNU) universe smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulation. In particular, we consider superclusters with characteristics (total mass, overdensity and number density of cluster members) similar to those of the Corona Borealis Supercluster (CrB-SC). This paper has been motivated by the detection at 33

I. Flores-Cacho; J. A. Rubiño-Martín; G. Luzzi; R. Rebolo; M. de Petris; G. Yepes; L. Lamagna; S. de Gregori; E. S. Battistelli; R. Coratella; S. Gottlöber

2009-01-01

112

AURORA BOREALIS - Icebreaking Deep-Sea Drilling Platform and Multi-Purpose Research Vessel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future breakthroughs in scientific deep-sea drilling critically depend on our ability to perform field expeditions with state-of-the-art technologies and modern infrastructures. This will require major investments, both in terms of generating new, as well as maintaining and renovating existing infrastructure. Diverse models for science operations are presently projected, also within the context of scientific needs after the current phase of the IODP will come to an end. In spite of its critical role in global climate and tectonic evolution, the Arctic Ocean is one of the most unexplored ocean basins of the world, its geologic and paleo-environmental history remaining largely unknown. Restricted by circulating sea ice, scientific drilling has been slow to arrive in the Arctic Ocean. This lack of data remains and represents one of the largest gaps of information in modern Earth Science. We here report on the finalised technical planning of a new European research icebreaker and deep-sea drilling vessel, the AURORA BOREALIS, designed with an all-season capability of endurance in permanently ice-covered waters. The icebreaker will be able to carry out deep-sea drilling in ice-covered deep-sea basins primarily during the more favorable summer seasons in order to fulfill the needs of the IODP or its eventual successor as a Mission-Specific Platform. AURORA BOREALIS will be the most advanced polar research vessel in the world with a multi-functional role of drilling in deep ocean basins and supporting climate and environmental research and decision support for stakeholder governments within the next 35-40 years. It will feature the highest attainable icebreaker classification, considerably surpassing in performance all currently operating research icebreakers. New technological features to be implemented include a novel hull design and specialized dynamic positioning systems for operations under closed sea-ice cover conditions with up to 2.5 m ice thickness, combined with advanced ice-forecasting support. The vessel is planned to operate routinely without ice management support by additional icebreakers, thus reducing operational costs for scientific drilling in polar regions considerably. Two moon-pools (7x7 m each) will allow routine deployment of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) in ice conditions. A dedicated deep-sea drilling rig with full weather protection will enable sampling of the ocean floor in water depths between 100 and 5000 m with more than 1000 m penetration under polar conditions. The modular arrangement of science space with hangars, the possibility to flexibly equip the ship with laboratory or supply containers and with helicopters, addresses the needs of diverse disciplines in marine research. This icebreaker will allow to stage long international, interdisciplinary drilling expeditions in the central Arctic. In a long-term perspective, AURORA BOREALIS will also be used to address Antarctic research targets, both in its mode as a regular research and a scientific drilling vessel.

Lembke-Jene, L.; Biebow, N.; Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Thiede, J.; Egerton, P.; Azzolini, R.

2009-04-01

113

Probiotics in shrimp aquaculture: avenues and challenges.  

PubMed

As an alternative strategy to antibiotic use in aquatic disease management, probiotics have recently attracted extensive attention in aquaculture. However, the use of terrestrial bacterial species as probiotics for aquaculture has had limited success, as bacterial strain characteristics are dependent upon the environment in which they thrive. Therefore, isolating potential probiotic bacteria from the marine environment in which they grow optimally is a better approach. Bacteria that have been used successfully as probiotics belong to the genus Vibrio and Bacillus, and the species Thalassobacter utilis. Most researchers have isolated these probiotic strains from shrimp culture water, or from the intestine of different penaeid species. The use of probiotic bacteria, based on the principle of competitive exclusion, and the use of immunostimulants are two of the most promising preventive methods developed in the fight against diseases during the last few years. It also noticed that probiotic bacteria could produce some digestive enzymes, which might improve the digestion of shrimp, thus enhancing the ability of stress resistance and health of the shrimp. However, the probiotics in aquatic environment remain to be a controversial concept, as there was no authentic evidence / real environment demonstrations on the successful use of probiotics and their mechanisms of action in vivo. The present review highlights the potential sources of probiotics, mechanism of action, diversity of probiotic microbes and challenges of probiotic usage in shrimp aquaculture. PMID:19514908

Ninawe, A S; Selvin, Joseph

2009-01-01

114

CO? efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.  

PubMed

The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO?) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO? efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO? efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO? m?² y?¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO? m?² y?¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO? emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y?¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO? emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO? released to atmosphere. PMID:23755306

Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E

2013-01-01

115

Cryptic Bioluminescence in a Midwater Shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mesopelagic shrimp Sergestes similis emits ventrally directed bioluminescence that closely matches the intensity of downward-directed illumination and is able to rapidly modify its light output to match changes in background intensity. Masking experiments show that the photoreceptors involved are the compound eyes or adjacent tissues. Light emission originates from modified portions of the hepatopancreas and is similar to oceanic

Jon A. Warner; Michael I. Latz; James F. Case

1979-01-01

116

Streptomyces graminisoli sp. nov. and Streptomyces rhizophilus sp. nov., isolated from bamboo (Sasa borealis) rhizosphere soil.  

PubMed

Four strains of actinomycete, designated strains JR-19T, JR-12, JR-29 and JR-41T were isolated from bamboo (Sasa borealis) rhizosphere soil. Phylogenetic, morphological, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analysis demonstrated that the four strains belong to the genus Streptomyces. Microscopic observation revealed that the four strains produced spirales spore chains with spiny surfaces. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of the four strains contained ll-diaminopimelic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and glycine. Whole-cell hydrolysates mainly contained glucose and ribose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that these strains and the members of the genus Streptomyces exhibited moderately high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 98.3-99.3%, with the most closely related strains being Streptomyces shenzhenensis 172115T and Streptomyces gramineus JR-43T. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic data, the four strains are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the names Streptomyces graminisoli sp. nov. [to accommodate strains JR-19T (type strain; =KACC 16472T=NBRC 108883T), JR-12 (=KACC 16471) and JR-29 (=KACC 16473)] and Streptomyces rhizophilus sp. nov. [for strain JR-41T (=KACC 16580T=NBRC 108885T)] are proposed. PMID:24478213

Lee, Hyo-Jin; Whang, Kyung-Sook

2014-05-01

117

Interferometric Observations of the Extrasolar Planetary System ? Corona Borealis with the CHARA Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The star ? Coronae Borealis (? CrB, HR 5968, HD 143761, type G0 V) was discovered by Noyes et al. (ApJ, 483, L111, 1997) to contain a low-amplitude radial velocity variation that they attributed to a Jupiter-mass companion. On the basis of ground-based and HIPPARCOS astrometry, Gatewood, Han & Black (ApJ, 548, L61, 2001) concluded that the companion is more likely a late M dwarf star orbiting in a nearly face-on orbit. We report observations of ? CrB made with the Georgia State University Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) Array, a six-element optical/infrared interferometer located on Mount Wilson, California. The star was observed using the 156-m E2/W2 baseline on 2005 March 12, June 29 and July 3 along with the calibrator star HD 143393 (K2 III, V = +7.1) at an angular distance of 3.9 degrees from the target star using the standard Calibrator-Target-Calibrator bracketing for calibration purposes. All data were obtained with the "CHARA Classic" beam combiner in the K'-band infrared. These data shed new light on the nature of the companion.

Baines, Ellyn K.; McAlister, H. A.; Gies, D. R.

2006-06-01

118

Dust Around R Coronae Borealis Stars. II. Infrared Emission Features in an H-poor Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residual Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph spectra for a sample of 31 R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are presented and discussed in terms of narrow emission features superimposed on the quasi-blackbody continuous infrared emission. A broad ~6-10 ?m dust emission complex is seen in the RCBs showing an extreme H-deficiency. A secondary and much weaker ~11.5-15 ?m broad emission feature is detected in a few RCBs with the strongest ~6-10 ?m dust complex. The Spitzer infrared spectra reveal for the first time the structure within the ~6-10 ?m dust complex, showing the presence of strong C-C stretching modes at ~6.3 and 8.1 ?m as well as of other dust features at ~5.9, 6.9, and 7.3 ?m, which are attributable to amorphous carbonaceous solids with little or no hydrogen. The few RCBs with only moderate H-deficiencies display the classical "unidentified infrared bands (UIRs)" and mid-infrared features from fullerene-related molecules. In general, the characteristics of the RCB infrared emission features are not correlated with the stellar and circumstellar properties, suggesting that the RCB dust features may not be dependent on the present physical conditions around RCB stars. The only exception seems to be the central wavelength of the 6.3 ?m feature, which is blueshifted in those RCBs showing also the UIRs, i.e., the RCBs with the smallest H deficiency.

García-Hernández, D. A.; Kameswara Rao, N.; Lambert, D. L.

2013-08-01

119

The R Coronae Borealis stars: carbon abundances from forbidden carbon lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectra of several R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars at maximum light have been examined for the [CI] 9850- and 8727-Åabsorption lines. The 9850-Åline is variously blended with an FeII and CN lines, but positive identifications of the [CI] line are made for RCrB and SUTau. The 8727-Åline is detected in the spectrum of the five stars observed in this wavelength region. Carbon abundances are derived from the [CI] lines using the model atmospheres and atmospheric parameters used by Asplund et al. Although the observed strength of a CI line is constant from cool to hot RCB stars, the strength is lower than predicted by an amount equivalent to a factor of 4 reduction of the gf-value of a line. Asplund et al. dubbed this `the carbon problem' and discussed possible solutions. The [CI] 9850-Åline seen clearly in RCrB and SUTau confirms the magnitude of the carbon problem revealed by the CI lines. The [CI] 8727-Åline measured in five stars shows an enhanced carbon problem. The gf-value required to fit the observed [CI] 8727-Åline is a factor of 15 less than the well-determined theoretical gf-value. We suggest that the carbon problem for all lines may be alleviated to some extent by a chromospheric-like temperature rise in these stars. The rise far exceeds that predicted by our non-local thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, and requires a substantial deposition of mechanical energy.

Pandey, Gajendra; Lambert, David L.; Rao, N. Kameswara; Gustafsson, Bengt; Ryde, Nils; Yong, David

2004-09-01

120

Sasa borealis stem extract attenuates hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.  

PubMed

The aim of the current study is to examine the improving effect of Sasa borealis stem (SBS) extract extracts on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis in rats. To determine the hepatoprotective effect of SBS, we fed rats a normal regular diet (ND), HFD, and HFD supplemented with 150 mg/kg body weight (BW) SBS extracts for five weeks. We found that the body weight and liver weight of rats in the HFD + SBS group were significantly lower than those in the HFD group. Significantly lower serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations were observed in the SBS-supplemented group compared with the HFD group. We also found that the HFD supplemented with SBS group showed dramatically reduced hepatic lipid accumulation compared to the HFD alone group, and administration of SBS resulted in dramatic suppression of TG, TC in the HFD-induced fatty liver. In liver gene expression within the SBS treated group, PPAR? was significantly increased and SREBP-1c was significantly suppressed. SBS induced a significant decrease in the hepatic mRNA levels of PPAR?, FAS, ACC1, and DGAT2. In conclusion, SBS improved cholesterol metabolism, decreased lipogenesis, and increased lipid oxidation in HFD-induced hepatic steatosis in rats, implying a potential application in treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:24905748

Song, Yuno; Lee, Soo-Jung; Jang, Sun-Hee; Ha, Ji Hee; Song, Young Min; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Kim, Hong-Duck; Min, Wongi; Kang, Suk Nam; Cho, Jae-Hyeon

2014-06-01

121

A New Threat to Honey Bees, the Parasitic Phorid Fly Apocephalus borealis  

PubMed Central

Honey bee colonies are subject to numerous pathogens and parasites. Interaction among multiple pathogens and parasites is the proposed cause for Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a syndrome characterized by worker bees abandoning their hive. Here we provide the first documentation that the phorid fly Apocephalus borealis, previously known to parasitize bumble bees, also infects and eventually kills honey bees and may pose an emerging threat to North American apiculture. Parasitized honey bees show hive abandonment behavior, leaving their hives at night and dying shortly thereafter. On average, seven days later up to 13 phorid larvae emerge from each dead bee and pupate away from the bee. Using DNA barcoding, we confirmed that phorids that emerged from honey bees and bumble bees were the same species. Microarray analyses of honey bees from infected hives revealed that these bees are often infected with deformed wing virus and Nosema ceranae. Larvae and adult phorids also tested positive for these pathogens, implicating the fly as a potential vector or reservoir of these honey bee pathogens. Phorid parasitism may affect hive viability since 77% of sites sampled in the San Francisco Bay Area were infected by the fly and microarray analyses detected phorids in commercial hives in South Dakota and California's Central Valley. Understanding details of phorid infection may shed light on similar hive abandonment behaviors seen in CCD.

Core, Andrew; Runckel, Charles; Ivers, Jonathan; Quock, Christopher; Siapno, Travis; DeNault, Seraphina; Brown, Brian; DeRisi, Joseph; Smith, Christopher D.; Hafernik, John

2012-01-01

122

Millimeter Observation of the SZ Effect in the Corona Borealis Supercluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed the Corona Borealis supercluster with the Millimeter and Infrared Testa Grigia Observatory (MITO), located in the Italian Alps, at 143, 214, 272, and 353 GHz. We present a description of the measurements, data analysis, and results of the observations together with a comparison with observations performed at 33 GHz with the Very Small Array (VSA) interferometer situated at the Teide Observatory (Tenerife, Spain). Observations have been made in the direction of the supercluster toward a cosmic microwave background (CMB) cold spot previously detected in a VSA temperature map. Observational strategy and data analysis are described in detail, explaining the procedures used to disentangle primary and secondary anisotropies in the resulting maps. From a first level of data analysis, we find evidence in MITO data of primary anisotropy but still with room for the presence of secondary anisotropy, especially when VSA results are included. With a second level of data analysis using map making and the maximum entropy method, we claim a weak detection of a faint signal compatible with a SZ effect, characterized at most by a Comptonization parameter y=(7.8+5.3-4.4)×10-6 68% CL. The low level of confidence in the presence of a SZ signal invites us to study this sky region with higher sensitivity and angular resolution experiments such as the already-planned upgraded versions of VSA and MITO.

Battistelli, E. S.; De Petris, M.; Lamagna, L.; Watson, R. A.; Rebolo, R.; Melchiorri, F.; Génova-Santos, R.; Luzzi, G.; De Gregori, S.; Rubiño-Martin, J. A.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; Grainge, K.; Hobson, M. P.; Saunders, R. D. E.; Scott, P. F.

2006-07-01

123

A new threat to honey bees, the parasitic phorid fly Apocephalus borealis.  

PubMed

Honey bee colonies are subject to numerous pathogens and parasites. Interaction among multiple pathogens and parasites is the proposed cause for Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a syndrome characterized by worker bees abandoning their hive. Here we provide the first documentation that the phorid fly Apocephalus borealis, previously known to parasitize bumble bees, also infects and eventually kills honey bees and may pose an emerging threat to North American apiculture. Parasitized honey bees show hive abandonment behavior, leaving their hives at night and dying shortly thereafter. On average, seven days later up to 13 phorid larvae emerge from each dead bee and pupate away from the bee. Using DNA barcoding, we confirmed that phorids that emerged from honey bees and bumble bees were the same species. Microarray analyses of honey bees from infected hives revealed that these bees are often infected with deformed wing virus and Nosema ceranae. Larvae and adult phorids also tested positive for these pathogens, implicating the fly as a potential vector or reservoir of these honey bee pathogens. Phorid parasitism may affect hive viability since 77% of sites sampled in the San Francisco Bay Area were infected by the fly and microarray analyses detected phorids in commercial hives in South Dakota and California's Central Valley. Understanding details of phorid infection may shed light on similar hive abandonment behaviors seen in CCD. PMID:22235317

Core, Andrew; Runckel, Charles; Ivers, Jonathan; Quock, Christopher; Siapno, Travis; Denault, Seraphina; Brown, Brian; Derisi, Joseph; Smith, Christopher D; Hafernik, John

2012-01-01

124

Sasa borealis Stem Extract Attenuates Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-induced Obese Rats  

PubMed Central

The aim of the current study is to examine the improving effect of Sasa borealis stem (SBS) extract extracts on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis in rats. To determine the hepatoprotective effect of SBS, we fed rats a normal regular diet (ND), HFD, and HFD supplemented with 150 mg/kg body weight (BW) SBS extracts for five weeks. We found that the body weight and liver weight of rats in the HFD + SBS group were significantly lower than those in the HFD group. Significantly lower serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations were observed in the SBS-supplemented group compared with the HFD group. We also found that the HFD supplemented with SBS group showed dramatically reduced hepatic lipid accumulation compared to the HFD alone group, and administration of SBS resulted in dramatic suppression of TG, TC in the HFD-induced fatty liver. In liver gene expression within the SBS treated group, PPAR? was significantly increased and SREBP-1c was significantly suppressed. SBS induced a significant decrease in the hepatic mRNA levels of PPAR?, FAS, ACC1, and DGAT2. In conclusion, SBS improved cholesterol metabolism, decreased lipogenesis, and increased lipid oxidation in HFD-induced hepatic steatosis in rats, implying a potential application in treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Song, Yuno; Lee, Soo-Jung; Jang, Sun-Hee; Ha, Ji Hee; Song, Young Min; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Kim, Hong-Duck; Min, Wongi; Kang, Suk Nam; Cho, Jae-Hyeon

2014-01-01

125

The largest gravitationally bound structures: the Corona Borealis supercluster - mass and bound extent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent simulations of the densest portion of the Corona Borealis supercluster (A2061, A2065, A2067, and A2089) have shown virtually no possibility of extended gravitationally bound structure without inter-cluster matter. In contrast, recent analyses of the dynamics found that the clusters had significant peculiar velocities towards the supercluster centroid. In this paper we present the results of a thorough investigation of the CSC: we determine redshifts and virial masses for all eight clusters associated with the CSC; repeat the analysis of Batiste & Batuski with the inclusion of A2056 and CL1529+29; estimate the mass of the supercluster by applying the virial theorem on the supercluster scale, the caustics method, and a new procedure using the spherical collapse model (SCM) with the results of the dynamical analysis (SCM+FP); and perform a series of simulations to assess the likelihood of the CSC being a gravitationally bound supercluster. We find that the mass of the CSC is between 0.6 and 12 × 1016 h-1 M?. The dynamical analysis, caustics method and the SCM+FP indicate that the structure is collapsing, with the latter two both indicating a turn around radius of ˜12.5 h-1 Mpc. Lastly, the simulations show that with a reasonable amount of inter-cluster mass, there is likely extended bound structure in the CSC. Our results suggest that A2056, A2061, A2065, A2067, and A2089 form a gravitationally bound supercluster.

Pearson, David W.; Batiste, Merida; Batuski, David J.

2014-06-01

126

Population structure of red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in south Florida: RAPDs revisited  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Six south Florida populations of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) were sampled to examine genetic diversity and population structure in the southernmost portion of the species' range relative to 14 previously sampled populations from throughout the species range. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses were used to evaluate the populations (n= 161 individuals, 13 primers, one band/primer). Results suggested that south Florida populations have significant among-population genetic differentiation (FST= 0.17, P < 0.000), although gene flow may be adequate to offset drift (Nm= 1.26). Comparison of Florida populations with others sampled indicated differentiation was less in Florida (FST for all populations = 0.21). Cluster analyses of all 20 populations did not reflect complete geographical predictions, although clustering of distant populations resulted in a significant correlation between genetic distance and geographical distance. Overall, results suggest populations in south Florida, similar to the remainder of the species, have low genetic diversity and high population fragmentation. Exact clustering of distant populations supports the ability of RAPDs to differentiate populations accurately. Our results further support past management recommendations that translocations of birds among geographically proximate populations is preferable to movement of birds between distant populations.

Haig, Susan M.; Bowman, R.; Mullins, Thomas D.

1996-01-01

127

EROS 2 photometry of probable R Coronae Borealis stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EROS 2 (Expérience de Recherche d'Objets Sombres) conducted a survey of the SMC between July 1996 and February 2003 in two EROS broad-band colours, VE and RE. The photometric data of 4.2 million stars have been searched for behaviour typical of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) candidates such as drastic changes in magnitude. Five objects have been found, four of them being catalogued in the Simbad database as RAW 21, RAW 233, RAW 476, and [MH95] 431 with confirmed carbon-rich atmospheres, characteristic of RCB. From the EROS 2 light curve of RAW 21 and its spectrum reported by \\citet{2003MNRAS.344..325M}, we confirm that it is the first RCB to be found in the SMC. The other objects are new RCB candidates with absolute luminosity and colour close to those found for RCBs in the LMC. We propose that 2 of them are DY Per-like RCBs. Based on observations made with the CNRS/INSU MARLY telescope at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.

Tisserand, P.; Marquette, J. B.; Beaulieu, J. P.; de Laverny, P.; Lesquoy, É.; Milsztajn, A.; Afonso, C.; Albert, J. N.; Andersen, J.; Ansari, R.; Aubourg, É.; Bareyre, P.; Bauer, F.; Blanc, G.; Charlot, X.; Coutures, C.; Derue, F.; Ferlet, R.; Fouqué, P.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Goldman, B.; Gould, A.; Graff, D.; Gros, M.; Haissinski, J.; Hamadache, C.; de Kat, J.; Lasserre, T.; Le Guillou, L.; Loup, C.; Magneville, C.; Mansoux, B.; Maurice, É.; Maury, A.; Moniez, M.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perdereau, O.; Prévot, L.; Rahal, Y.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Spiro, M.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Vigroux, L.; Zylberajch, S.

2004-09-01

128

Long-term Spatial and Temporal Variations of Aurora Borealis Events in the Period 1700 - 1905  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catalogues and other records of aurora-borealis events were used to study the long-term spatial and temporal variation of these phenomena in the period from 1700 to 1905 in the Northern Hemisphere. For this purpose, geographic and geomagnetic coordinates were assigned to approximately 27 000 auroral events with more than 80 000 observations. They were analyzed separately in three large-scale areas: i) Europe and North Africa, ii) North America, and iii) Asia. There was a clear need to fill some gaps existing in the records so as to have a reliable proxy of solar activity, especially during the 18th century. In order to enhance the long-term variability, an 11-year smoothing window was applied to the data. Variations in the cumulative numbers of auroral events with latitude (in both geographic and geomagnetic coordinates) were used to discriminate between the two main solar sources: coronal mass ejections and high-speed streams from coronal holes. The characteristics of the associated auroras correlate differently with the solar-activity cycle.

Vázquez, M.; Vaquero, J. M.; Gallego, M. C.

2013-11-01

129

76 FR 18782 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis...shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead...shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would not be likely...

2011-04-05

130

An Economic and Financial Analysis of Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Vessels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is intended for financial institutions, shrimp vessel owners and prospective shrimp vessel owners who want economic information associated with operating shrimp vessels of various sizes. Cost and return estimates in this publication are based o...

W. A. Hayenga R. D. Lacewell W. L. Griffin

1974-01-01

131

50 CFR 622.201 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. 622.201 Section...Atlantic Region § 622.201 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. (a) Commercial Vessel Permits for Rock Shrimp (South Atlantic EEZ)....

2013-10-01

132

75 FR 22370 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic...of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic...Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910 (December 23,...

2010-04-28

133

78 FR 50387 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...investigation does not include brine-frozen shrimp.\\4\\ We have addressed this...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia...Memorandum Regarding Onboard Brine-Frozen Shrimp,'' which is hereby...

2013-08-19

134

78 FR 50379 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Negative Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...investigation does not include brine-frozen shrimp.\\4\\ We have addressed this...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia...Memorandum Regarding Onboard Brine-Frozen Shrimp'' (Scope Memorandum),...

2013-08-19

135

78 FR 50385 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...investigation does not include brine-frozen shrimp.\\4\\ We have [[Page 50386...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia...Memorandum Regarding Onboard Brine-Frozen Shrimp,'' which is hereby...

2013-08-19

136

78 FR 50381 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Malaysia: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...investigation does not include brine-frozen shrimp.\\4\\ We have addressed this...Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia...Memorandum Regarding Onboard Brine-Frozen Shrimp'' (Scope Memorandum),...

2013-08-19

137

Development of the brine shrimp Artemia is accelerated during spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developmentally arrested brine shrimp cysts have been reactivated during orbital spaceflight on two different Space Shuttle missions (STS-50 and STS-54), and their subsequent development has been compared with that of simultaneously reactivated ground controls. Flight and control brine shrimp do not significantly differ with respect to hatching rates or larval morphology at the scanning and transmission EM levels. A small percentage of the flight larvae had defective nauplier eye development, but the observation was not statistically significant. However, in three different experiments on two different flights, involving a total of 232 larvae that developed in space, a highly significant difference in degree of flight to control development was found. By as early as 2.25 days after reactivation of development, spaceflight brine shrimp were accelerated, by a full instar, over ground control brine shrimp. Although developing more rapidly, flight shrimp grew as long as control shrimp at each developmental instar or stage.

Spooner, B. S.; Metcalf, J.; DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Noren, W.; Guikema, J. A.

1994-01-01

138

Marine shrimp aquaculture and natural resource degradation in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising demand for shrimp in the developed nations has helped to foster a dramatic growth in marine shrimp aquaculture, particularly\\u000a in South America and South Asia. In Thailand, Marine shrimp aquaculture is now an important earmer of foreign exchange. The\\u000a growth in Production has been achieved through the expansion of the culture area and the adoption of intensive production\\u000a methods.

Mark Flaherty; Choomjet Karnjanakesorn

1995-01-01

139

Risk of spread of penaeid shrimp viruses in the Americas by the international movement of live and frozen shrimp.  

PubMed

Within the past decade, viral diseases have emerged as serious economic impediments to successful shrimp farming in many of the shrimp-farming countries of the world. In the western hemisphere, the viral agents of Taura syndrome (TS) and infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis have caused serious disease epizootics throughout the shrimp-growing regions of the Americas and Hawaii, while in Asia the viral agents of white spot syndrome (WSS) and yellow head (YH) have caused pandemics with catastrophic losses. The international transfer of live shrimp for aquaculture purposes is an obvious mechanism by which the viruses have spread within and between regions in which they have occurred. Shrimp-eating gulls, other seabirds and aquatic insects may also be factors in the spread of shrimp viruses between and within regions. Another potentially important mechanism for the international spread of these pathogens is the trade in frozen commodity shrimp, which may contain viruses exotic to the importing countries. The viral agents of WSS, YH and TS have been found, and demonstrated to be infectious, in frozen shrimp imported into the United States market. Mechanisms identified for the potential transfer of virus in imported frozen products to domestic populations of cultured or wild penaeid shrimp stocks include: the release of untreated liquid or solid wastes from shrimp importing and processing plants directly into coastal waters, improper disposal of solid waste from shrimp importing and processing plants in landfills so that the waste is accessible to gulls and other seabirds, and the use of imported shrimp as bait by sports fishermen. PMID:9329114

Lightner, D V; Redman, R M; Poulos, B T; Nunan, L M; Mari, J L; Hasson, K W

1997-04-01

140

DO R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS FORM FROM DOUBLE WHITE DWARF MERGERS?  

SciTech Connect

A leading formation scenario for R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars invokes the merger of degenerate He and CO white dwarfs (WDs) in a binary. The observed ratio of {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O for RCB stars is in the range of 0.3-20 much smaller than the solar value of {approx}500. In this paper, we investigate whether such a low ratio can be obtained in simulations of the merger of a CO and a He WD. We present the results of five three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the merger of a double WD system where the total mass is 0.9 M{sub Sun} and the initial mass ratio (q) varies between 0.5 and 0.99. We identify in simulations with q {approx}< 0.7 a feature around the merged stars where the temperatures and densities are suitable for forming {sup 18}O. However, more {sup 16}O is being dredged up from the C- and O-rich accretor during the merger than the amount of {sup 18}O that is produced. Therefore, on the dynamical timescale over which our hydrodynamics simulation runs, an {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratio of {approx}2000 in the 'best' case is found. If the conditions found in the hydrodynamic simulations persist for 10{sup 6} s the oxygen ratio drops to 16 in one case studied, while in a hundred years it drops to {approx}4 in another case studied, consistent with the observed values in RCB stars. Therefore, the merger of two WDs remains a strong candidate for the formation of these enigmatic stars.

Staff, Jan. E.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Tohline, Joel E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Menon, Athira; Herwig, Falk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P5C2 (Canada); Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Motl, Patrick M. [Department of Science, Mathematics and Informatics, Indiana University Kokomo, Kokomo, IN 46904-9003 (United States); Geballe, Tom [Gemini Observatory, 670 North A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Pignatari, Marco [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

2012-09-20

141

The Corona Borealis Supercluster - I: Observational Analysis of the Inter-Cluster Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a dynamical analysis of the core of the Corona Borealis Supercluster (CSC), a highly dense and compact supercluster at z ? 0.07. Expanding on work presented in a recent paper (Batiste & Batuski, 2013), we use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to assess the current dynamical state of the core of the CSC. The Fundamental Plane relation for early-type galaxies is used to determine redshift independent distances to seven clusters in the densest portion of the CSC, with mean accuracy in the relative distance estimates of 4%. Peculiar velocities for each of the seven clusters, determined using these distance estimates, indicate significant extended bound structure in the CSC. We find evidence for two collapsing regions, with some indication that these regions are not dynamically isolated but are in fact bound to each other. Comparing our results with simulations of the core of the CSC (Pearson & Batuski, 2013), we find that significantly more mass is required to bind the structure than is present in the clusters, suggesting a large inter-cluster matter component. We assess the likelihood that this additional mass could be accounted for by field galaxies, and investigate the possibility of an inter-cluster dark matter component as an explanation of our observations. Comparison of the observational analysis with these simulations suggests that the two bound regions identified in our analysis are likely bound to each other, and that the core of the CSC consists of at least five clusters, and has likely reached turnaround and is in collapse.

Batiste, Merida; Pearson, D.; Batuski, D. J.

2014-01-01

142

THE CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENT OF R CORONAE BOREALIS: WHITE DWARF MERGER OR FINAL-HELIUM-SHELL FLASH?  

SciTech Connect

In 2007, R Coronae Borealis (R CrB) went into a historically deep and long decline. In this state, the dust acts like a natural coronagraph at visible wavelengths, allowing faint nebulosity around the star to be seen. Imaging has been obtained from 0.5 to 500 {mu}m with Gemini/GMOS, Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2, Spitzer/MIPS, and Herschel/SPIRE. Several of the structures around R CrB are cometary globules caused by wind from the star streaming past dense blobs. The estimated dust mass of the knots is consistent with their being responsible for the R CrB declines if they form along the line of sight to the star. In addition, there is a large diffuse shell extending up to 4 pc away from the star containing cool 25 K dust that is detected all the way out to 500 {mu}m. The spectral energy distribution of R CrB can be well fitted by a 150 AU disk surrounded by a very large diffuse envelope which corresponds to the size of the observed nebulosity. The total masses of the disk and envelope are 10{sup -4} and 2 M{sub Sun }, respectively, assuming a gas-to-dust ratio of 100. The evidence pointing toward a white dwarf merger or a final-helium-shell flash origin for R CrB is contradictory. The shell and the cometary knots are consistent with a fossil planetary nebula. Along with the fact that R CrB shows significant lithium in its atmosphere, this supports the final-helium-shell flash. However, the relatively high inferred mass of R CrB and its high fluorine abundance support a white dwarf merger.

Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Andrews, J. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Sugerman, Ben E. K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Goucher College, 1021 Dulaney Valley Rd., Baltimore, MD 21204 (United States); Adam Stanford, S. [IGPP, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Whitney, B. A. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut St. Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Honor, J.; Babler, B. [Department of Astronomy, 475 North Charter St., University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Barlow, M. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Gordon, K. D.; Bond, Howard E.; Matsuura, M. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Geballe, T. R. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); De Marco, O. [Department of Physics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Lawson, W. A. [School of PEMS, University of New South Wales, ADFA, P.O. Box 7916, Canberra, ACT 2610 (Australia); Sibthorpe, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Olofsson, G. [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Polehampton, E. [Space Science and Technology Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Gomez, H. L.; Hargrave, P. C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, 5 The Parade, Cardiff, Wales CF24 3YB (United Kingdom); Ivison, R. J., E-mail: gclayton@phys.lsu.edu, E-mail: jandrews@phys.lsu.edu, E-mail: ben.sugerman@goucher.edu, E-mail: stanford@physics.ucdavis.edu, E-mail: bwhitney@spacescience.org, E-mail: jhonor@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: brian@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: mjb@star.ucl.ac.uk [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, ROE, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); and others

2011-12-10

143

Using 16O/18O to Determine the Evolutionary History of the R Coronae Borealis Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All of the Galactic hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) and R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars for which oxygen isotopic ratios can be measured, show 16O/18O < 5, values that are orders of magnitude lower than measured in other stars (the Solar value is 500). This suggests that most if not all HdC and RCB stars are highly enriched in 18O. This is an important clue to determining the evolutionary pathways of HdC and RCB stars, for which two models have been proposed: the double degenerate (white dwarf (WD) merger), and the final helium-shell flash (FF). No overproduction of 18O is expected in the FF scenario. However, some RCB stars also show characteristics, such as 13C and Lithium, seen in FF stars. Therefore, we are conducting a survey of all the RCB stars in the LMC and SMC for the characteristics of a WD merger or a FF. Most of the stars have been surveyed for 13C already, and we are also planning to survey them for Lithium. But no RCB star in the Magellanic Clouds has been observed for 18O. The Magellanic Clouds provide an unbiased, relatively complete sample of RCB stars which are at a known distance so their bolometric luminosities can be used in our stellar evolution models. This proposal is to use Gemini/Flamingos-2 to survey all of the Magellanic Cloud stars, which are cool enough to show CO bands, for the presence of 18O near 2.3 micron. This survey, combined with our stellar evolution models, will reveal the true fraction of RCB stars formed by each of the proposed scenarios.

Clayton, Geoffrey; Geballe, Tom; Welch, Douglas; Tisserand, Patrick

2014-08-01

144

DUST AROUND R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS. I. SPITZER/INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Spitzer/infrared spectrograph (IRS) spectra from 5 to 37 {mu}m for a complete sample of 31 R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) are presented. These spectra are combined with optical and near-infrared photometry of each RCB at maximum light to compile a spectral energy distribution (SED). The SEDs are fitted with blackbody flux distributions and estimates are made of the ratio of the infrared flux from circumstellar dust to the flux emitted by the star. Comparisons for 29 of the 31 stars are made with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) fluxes from three decades earlier: Spitzer and IRAS fluxes at 12 {mu}m and 25 {mu}m are essentially equal for all but a minority of the sample. For this minority, the IRAS to Spitzer flux ratio exceeds a factor of three. The outliers are suggested to be stars where formation of a dust cloud or dust puff is a rare event. A single puff ejected prior to the IRAS observations may have been reobserved by Spitzer as a cooler puff at a greater distance from the RCB. RCBs which experience more frequent optical declines have, in general, a circumstellar environment containing puffs subtending a larger solid angle at the star and a quasi-constant infrared flux. Yet, the estimated subtended solid angles and the blackbody temperatures of the dust show a systematic evolution to lower solid angles and cooler temperatures in the interval between IRAS and Spitzer. Dust emission by these RCBs and those in the LMC is similar in terms of total 24 {mu}m luminosity and [8.0]-[24.0] color index.

Anibal Garcia-Hernandez, D. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Kameswara Rao, N. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Lambert, David L., E-mail: agarcia@iac.es, E-mail: nkrao@iiap.res.in, E-mail: dll@astro.as.utexas.edu [W. J. McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States)

2011-09-20

145

R Coronae Borealis stars in the Galactic bulge discovered by EROS-2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: Rare types of variable stars may provide unique insight into short-lived stages of stellar evolution. The systematic monitoring of millions of stars and advanced light curve analysis techniques of microlensing surveys make them ideal for discovering such rare variable stars. One example is the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars, a rare type of evolved carbon-rich supergiant. Aims: We have conducted a systematic search of the EROS-2 database for the Galactic catalogue Bulge and spiral arms to find Galactic RCB stars. Methods: The light curves of ~100 million stars, monitored for 6.7 years (from July 1996 to February 2003), have been analysed to search for the main signature of RCB stars, large and rapid drops in luminosity. Follow-up spectroscopy has been used to confirm the photometric candidates. Results: We have discovered 14 new RCB stars, all in the direction of the Galactic Bulge, bringing the total number of confirmed Galactic RCB stars to about 51. Conclusions: After reddening correction, the colours and absolute magnitudes of at least 9 of the stars are similar to those of Magellanic RCB stars. This suggests that these stars are in fact located in the Galactic Bulge, making them the first RCB stars discovered in the Bulge. The localisation of the 5 remaining RCBs is more uncertain: 4 are either located behind the Bulge at an estimated maximum distance of 14 kpc or have an unusual thick circumstellar shell; the other is a DY Per RCB which may be located in the Bulge, even if it is fainter than the known Magellanic DY Per. From the small scale height found using the 9 new Bulge RCBs, 61

Tisserand, P.; Marquette, J. B.; Wood, P. R.; Lesquoy, É.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Milsztajn, A.; Hamadache, C.; Afonso, C.; Albert, J. N.; Andersen, J.; Ansari, R.; Aubourg, É.; Bareyre, P.; Charlot, X.; Coutures, C.; Ferlet, R.; Fouqué, P.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Goldman, B.; Gould, A.; Gros, M.; Haissinski, J.; de Kat, J.; Le Guillou, L.; Loup, C.; Magneville, C.; Maurice, É.; Maury, A.; Moniez, M.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perdereau, O.; Rahal, Y.; Rich, J.; Spiro, M.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Zylberajch, S.

2008-04-01

146

Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.  

PubMed

Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus) were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ?T*?4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times. PMID:24244273

Hess, David; Brücker, Christoph; Hegner, Franziska; Balmert, Alexander; Bleckmann, Horst

2013-01-01

147

Vortex Formation with a Snapping Shrimp Claw  

PubMed Central

Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus) were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ?T*?4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times.

Hess, David; Brucker, Christoph; Hegner, Franziska; Balmert, Alexander; Bleckmann, Horst

2013-01-01

148

Closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with a new system of aquaculture, i.e., a closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture. The culture system consisted of several shrimp ponds, a mollusk water-purifying pond and a reservoir. During the production cycle, water circulated between the shrimp and mollusk ponds, and the reservoir compensated for water loss from seepage and evaporation. Constricted tagelus, Sinonovacula constricta, was selected as the cultured mollusk, and Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, as the cultured shrimp. The main managing measures during the production cycle were: setting and using the aerators; introducting the probiotic products timely into the shrimp ponds; adopting a “pen-closing” method for controlling shrimp viral epidemics; setting the flow diversion barriers in the mollusk pond to keep the circulating water flowing through the pond along a sine-like curve and serve as substrate for biofilm; no direct feeding was necessary for the cultured mollusk until the co-cultured shrimp was harvested; natural foods in the water from the shrimp ponds was used for their foods. Two sets of the system were used in the experiment in 2002 and satisfactory results were achieved. The average yield of the shrimp was 11 943.5 kg/hm2, and that of the mollusk was 16 965 kg/hm2. After converting the mollusk yield into shrimp yield at their market price ratio, the food coefficient of the entire system averaged at as low as 0.81. The water quality in the ponds was maintained at a desirable level and no viral epidemics were discovered during the production cycle.

Wu, Xiongfei; Zhao, Zhidong; Li, Deshang; Chang, Kangmei; Tong, Zhuanshang; Si, Liegang; Xu, Kaichong; Ge, Bailin

2005-12-01

149

Biology, genome organization, and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp.  

PubMed

As shrimp aquaculture has evolved from a subsistent farming activity to an economically important global industry, viral diseases have also become a serious threat to the sustainable growth and productivity of this industry. Parvoviruses represent an economically important group of viruses that has greatly affected shrimp aquaculture. In the early 1980s, an outbreak of a shrimp parvovirus, infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), led to the collapse of penaeid shrimp farming in the Americas. Since then, considerable progress has been made in characterizing the parvoviruses of shrimp and developing diagnostic methods aimed to preventing the spread of diseases caused by these viruses. To date, four parvoviruses are known that infect shrimp; these include IHHNV, hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), spawner-isolated mortality virus (SMV), and lymphoid organ parvo-like virus. Due to the economic repercussions that IHHNV and HPV outbreaks have caused to shrimp farming over the years, studies have been focused mostly on these two pathogens, while information on SMV and LPV remains limited. IHHNV was the first shrimp virus to be sequenced and the first for which highly sensitive diagnostic methods were developed. IHHNV-resistant lines of shrimp were also developed to mitigate the losses caused by this virus. While the losses due to IHHNV have been largely contained in recent years, reports of HPV-induced mortalities in larval stages in hatchery and losses due to reduced growth have increased. This review presents a comprehensive account of the history and current knowledge on the biology, diagnostics methods, genomic features, mechanisms of evolution, and management strategies of shrimp parvoviruses. We also highlighted areas where research efforts should be focused in order to gain further insight on the mechanisms of parvoviral pathogenicity in shrimp that will help to prevent future losses caused by these viruses. PMID:24751195

Dhar, Arun K; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Saksmerprome, Vanvimon; Lakshman, Dilip K

2014-01-01

150

Geometric Comparisons of Selected Small Topographically Fresh Volcanoes in the Borealis and Elysium Planitia Volcanic Fields, Mars: Implications for Eruptive Styles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MOLA (Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter) data from small, topographically fresh volcanoes from the Elysium and Borealis regions were gridded and analyzed using GMT (Generic Mapping Tools) programs. Results compare eruptive styles of the two regions, and draw conclusions about the different volcanic regions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Taylor, K.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Mitchell, D.

2002-01-01

151

Some radar observations of meteors and aurorae at 300 and 500 Mc\\/s using a large radio telescope--II Observations of the aurora borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar echoes from the aurora borealis have been obtained at frequencies of 300 and 500 Mc\\/s using a 250 ft radio telescope. Strong echoes detected during the afternoon hours originated from a layer of ionization at a mean height of 110 km and less than a few kilometres thick. Isolated weak echoes observed at other times originated from localized regions

D. Barber; H. K. Sutcliffe; C. D. Watkins

1962-01-01

152

Albertonykus borealis, a new alvarezsaur (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Maastrichtian of Alberta, Canada: implications for the systematics and ecology of the Alvarezsauridae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new alvarezsaur, Albertonykus borealis, is described from the Lower Maastrichtian of the Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada. Forelimb and hindlimb elements from at least two individuals were recovered from the Albertosaurus bonebed at Dry Island Provincial Park, along with pedal phalanges from nearby localities. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Albertonykus is the sister taxon of the Asian clade Mononykinae, consistent

Nicholas R. Longrich; Philip J. Currie

2009-01-01

153

Effects of harvesting callianassid (ghost) shrimps on subtropical benthic communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of harvesting of callianassid shrimp (Trypaea australiensis) on the abundance and composition of macrobenthic assemblages in unvegetated sediments of a subtropical coastal embayment in Queensland, Australia were examined using a combination of sampling and manipulative experiments. First, the abundance and composition of the benthic infauna in an area regularly used for the collection of shrimp for bait by

Greg A. Skilleter; Yuri Zharikov; Bronwyn Cameron; Daryl P. McPhee

2005-01-01

154

Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Chennai, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing metier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested metier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers…

Bavinck, Maarten

2012-01-01

155

Effect of organic acids on shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

Shrimp farming accounts for more than 40% of the world shrimp production. Luminous vibriosis is a shrimp disease that causes major economic losses in the shrimp industry as a result of massive shrimp kills due to infection. Some farms in the South Asia use antibiotics to control Vibrio harveyi, a responsible pathogen for luminous vibriosis. However, the antibiotic-resistant strain was found recently in many shrimp farms, which makes it necessary to develop alternative pathogen control methods. Short-chain fatty acids are metabolic products of organisms, and they have been used as food preservatives for a long time. Organic acids are also commonly added in feeds in animal husbandry, but not in aquaculture. In this study, growth inhibitory effects of short-chain fatty acids, namely formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, on V. harveyi were investigated. Among four acids, formic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effect followed by acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.035% formic acid suppressed growth of V. harveyi. The major inhibitory mechanism seems to be the pH effect of organic acids. The effective concentration 50 (EC50) values at 96 h inoculation for all organic acids were determined to be 0.023, 0.041, 0.03, and 0.066% for formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, respectively. The laboratory study results are encouraging to formulate shrimp feeds with organic acids to control vibrio infection in shrimp aquaculture farms. PMID:21479932

Mine, Saori; Boopathy, Raj

2011-07-01

156

An Economical, Portable System for Hatching Brine Shrimp Artemia spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design and construction of a portable, inexpensive hatching system for brine shrimp Artemia spp. is described. The system design is based on batch culture methodology, which is easily customized to the feeding requirements of a larval system and optimizes the nutritional value of brine shrimp. This system can be set up quickly and provides stable temperature and aeration under a

Richard S. Fulford; D. Allen Rutherford

1998-01-01

157

CUTICULAR LESIONS INDUCED IN GRASS SHRIMP EXPOSED TO HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

Adult grass shrimp were exposed to four concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 ppm) of hexavalent chromium for 38 days. At the end of the exposure period, over 50% of the surviving shrimp possessed cuticular lesions that had many of the gross characteristics of 'shell disease.' Th...

158

A critical review of shrimp pond culture in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews and evaluates shrimp pond culture in the Philippines and its ecological and socioeconomic effects. The intertwined histories of the country's mangrove forests and culture ponds are treated in depth; brackishwater aquaculture and the different shrimp culture systems are described. Intensive farming is discussed in terms of feed and water requirements, chemical inputs and waste production, and the

J. Honculada Primavera

1993-01-01

159

Haemocytic defence in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical shrimp culture is one of the fastest growing aquaculture sectors in the world. Since this production sector is highly affected by infectious pathogens, disease control is nowadays a priority. Effective prevention methods can be developed more efficiently when quantitative assays for the evaluation and monitoring of the health status of shrimp are available. The defence mechanisms of crustaceans are

Braak van de C. B. T

2002-01-01

160

Illustrated Key to Penaeoid Shrimps of Commerce in the Americas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The commercially important species of penaeoid shrimps comprise 4 families, 12 genera, and 37 species in the Americas. The key is supported by 49 figures including lateral views of whole shrimps in 10 of the 12 genera and detailed figures of male (petasma...

I. P. Farfante

1988-01-01

161

Improved Shrimp Growout Systems for Disease Prevention and Environmental Sustainability in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a large portion of the world's farmed shrimp is produced in Asia, shrimp culture operations do not succeed over the entire area. There have been several problems and impediments that are yet to be resolved. One of these problems is disease. Several shrimp diseases have threatened shrimp production, but the most devastating ones are the viral diseases, namely, yellow-head

Piamsak Menasveta

2002-01-01

162

Valuation of shrimp ecosystem services – a case study in Leizhou City, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic valuation of ecosystem services is an effective way to understand the multiple benefits provided. Effluent and other environmental problems must be properly managed if shrimp aquaculture is to achieve sustainability. Evaluation of shrimp ecosystems can facilitate voluntary improvements in the environmental performance of shrimp farms. This study evaluated shrimp ecosystem services in Leizhou City, Guangdong Province, using the

Ya-Yan Liu; Wei-Na Wang; Chun-Xiao Ou; Jin-Xuan Yuan; An-Li Wang; Hai-Sheng Jiang; Ruyong Sun

2010-01-01

163

Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Ghost shrimp and blue mud shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. The profiles are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessments. The ghost shrimp (Callianassa californiensis) and blue mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis) are common residents of intertidal mudflats of the Pacific Northwest, as well as of the entire West Coast of the

S. Horning; A. Sterling; S. D. Smith

1989-01-01

164

A Survey for 18O in Hydrogen-Deficient-Carbon Stars and R Coronae Borealis Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We recently discovered a uniquely large excess of 18O in the hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) star, HD 137613, based on a spectrum of the first overtone bands of CO at 2.3-2.4 microns in which three strong absorption bands of 12C18O are clearly present. Bands of 12C16O also are present in HD 137613, but no bands of 13C16O or 12C17O are seen. We estimate an isotopic ratio 16O/18O 1. The Solar value of this ratio is 500. Neither He-core burning nor He-shell flash burning can produce the isotopic ratios of oxygen and carbon observed in HD 137613. However, a remarkable similarity exists between the observed abundances and those found in the outer layers of the broad He-shell of early-AGB stars, soon after the end of He-core burning. It is not known how the outer envelope down to the He-shell could be lost but some mechanism of enhanced mass loss must be involved. HD 137613 may be a post-early-AGB star with the outer layers of the former He-burning shell as its photosphere. The unusual elemental abundances of the extremely rare Hydrogen Deficient Carbon (HdC) stars are known to resemble those of the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars (although HdC stars do not produce clouds of dust that produce deep declines in brightness) and thus it is believed that the two classes of stars are closely related. We thus propose to obtain high S/N spectra of a small sample of HdC and RCB stars with Gemini/GNIRS to investigate the range of 18O and other oxygen and carbon isotopic abundances in these stars. Understanding the RCB and HdC stars is a key test for any theory that aims to explain hydrogen deficiency in post-AGB stars.

Clayton, Geoffrey

2005-08-01

165

An XMM-Newton Study of the Coronae of ?2 Coronae Borealis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of XMM-Newton Guaranteed Time observations of the RS CVn binary ?2 Coronae Borealis. The spectra obtained with the Reflection Grating Spectrometers and the European Photon Imaging Camera MOS2 were simultaneously fitted with collisional ionization equilibrium plasma models to determine coronal abundances of various elements. Contrary to the solar first ionization potential (FIP) effect, in which elements with a low FIP are overabundant in the corona compared to the solar photosphere, and contrary to the ``inverse'' FIP effect observed in several active RS CVn binaries, coronal abundance ratios in ?2 CrB show a complex pattern, as supported by similar findings in the Chandra HETGS analysis of ?2 CrB with a different methodology by Osten and coworkers in 2003. Low-FIP elements (<10 eV) have abundance ratios relative to Fe that are consistent with the solar photospheric ratios, whereas high-FIP elements have abundance ratios that increase with increasing FIP. We find that the coronal Fe abundance is consistent with the stellar photospheric value, indicating that there is no metal depletion in ?2 CrB. However, we obtain a higher Fe absolute abundance than Osten and coworkers did. Except for Ar and S, our absolute abundances are about 1.5 times larger than those reported by Osten and coworkers. However, a comparison of their model with our XMM-Newton data (and vice versa) shows that both models work adequately in general. We find, therefore, no preference for one methodology over the other for deriving coronal abundances. Despite the systematic discrepancy in absolute abundances, our abundance ratios are very close to those obtained by Osten and coworkers. Finally, we confirm the measurement of a low density in O VII (<4×1010 cm-3) but could not confirm the higher densities measured in spectral lines formed at higher temperatures that were derived by other studies of ?2 CrB due to the lower spectral resolution of the XMM-Newton grating spectrometers.

Suh, Jin A.; Audard, Marc; Güdel, Manuel; Paerels, Frederik B. S.

2005-09-01

166

A study of binary stars: Absolute properties of the eclipsing binary star RT Coronae Borealis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis examines the significance of binary stars and their evolutionary status, with particular emphasis on RT Coronae Borealis, a member of the RS Canis Venticorum type. The dissertation is primarily broken down into two parts: a general description of binary stars and a detailed examination of the RS CVn phenomenon. We present an analysis of existing photometric observations in U, B, and V, and a new light curve in V, as well as spectroscopic observations of the 5.1 day- period, double-lined main-sequence eclipsing binary RT CrB. From the analysis of the light curves and radial velocity curves, we have determined the masses and radii of the components: 1.343 +/- 0.010 [Special characters omitted.] and 2.615 +/- 0.04 [Special characters omitted.] for the primary (hotter) component, 1.359 +/- 0.009 [Special characters omitted.] and 2.946 +/- 0.05 [Special characters omitted.] for the secondary (cooler) component. The formal uncertainties in the masses are both less than 1%, and the formal uncertainties in the radii are both less than 2%. Based on the analyzed light curves as well as the combined absolute photometry of the system, we estimate effective temperatures of 5781 +/- 100 K for the primary component and 5134 +/- 100 K for the secondary component, corresponding to the spectral types of G5 and K0, respectively. Projected rotational velocities ( v sin i ) from the spectrograms are measured as 25 +/- 2 km s -1 for the primary component and 33 +/- 3 km s -1 for the secondary component, and are consistent with rotation that is synchronous with the orbital motion. Evolutionary tracks from the current models are in good agreement with the observations for a system of about age 3.5 x 10 9 yr with a slightly non-solar chemical composition. We also report an approximate D P/P = 3.0 x 10 -6 decrease in the orbital period over 37-years.

Sabby, Jeffrey Allen

2004-12-01

167

Tracking down R Coronae Borealis stars from their mid-infrared WISE colours  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) are hydrogen-deficient and carbon-rich supergiant stars. They are very rare, with only ~50 actually known in our Galaxy. Interestingly, RCBs are strongly suspected of being the evolved merger product of two white dwarfs and could therefore be an important tool for understanding supernovae type Ia in the double degenerate scenario. Constraints on the spatial distribution and the formation rate of such stars are needed to picture their origin and test it in the context of actual population synthesis results. Aims: It is crucial to increase the number of known RCBs significantly. With an absolute magnitude MV ~ -5 and a bright/hot circumstellar shell made of amorphous carbon grains, RCBs are so distinctive that we should nowadays be able to find them everywhere in our Galaxy using publicly available catalogues. In the optical, the search is difficult because RCBs are known to undergo unpredictable photometric declines; however, mono-epoch mid-infrared data can help us to discriminate RCBs among other dust-producing stars. The aim is to produce from the mid-infrared WISE and near-infrared 2MASS catalogues a new catalogue of reasonable size, enriched with RCB stars. Methods: Colour-colour cuts used on all stars detected are the main selection criteria. The selection efficiency was monitored using the 52 known RCBs located in the sky area covered by the WISE first preliminary data release. Results: It has been found that selection cuts in mid-infrared colour-colour diagrams are a very efficient method of distinguishing RCBs from other stars. An RCB enriched catalogue made of only 1602 stars was produced, with a high detection efficiency of about 77%. Spectral energy distributions of 49 known RCBs and 5 known HdCs are also presented with estimates of their photosphere and circumstellar shell temperatures. Conclusions: The newly released WISE all sky catalogue has proven to be a valuable resource in finding RCB stars. Actual scenarios predict that between 100 and 500 RCBs exist in our Galaxy. The newly created RCB enriched catalogue is an important step towards significantly increasing the number of known RCB stars and therefore better understanding their origin. Tables 3-5 ara available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFull Table 5 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/539/A51

Tisserand, P.

2012-03-01

168

Consumer method to control Salmonella and Listeria species in shrimp.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the current consumer method of boiling shrimp until floating and pink in color is adequate for destroying Listeria and Salmonella. Shrimp samples were submerged in bacterial suspensions of Listeria and Salmonella for 30 min and allowed to air dry for 1 h under a biosafety cabinet. Color parameters were then measured with a spectrophotometer programmed with the CIELAB system. Twenty-four shrimp samples were divided into groups (days 0, 1, or 2) and stored at 4°C. The samples were treated by placing them in boiling water (100°C) on days 0, 1, and 2. The shrimp were immediately removed from the boiling water once they floated to the surface, and color parameters were measured. Bacterial counts were determined, and the log CFU per gram was calculated. The effect of sodium tripolyphosphate on the color change of cooked shrimp also was determined. Initial bacterial counts on shrimp after air drying were 5.31 ± 0.14 log CFU/g for Salmonella Enteritidis, 5.24 ± 0.31 log CFU/g for Salmonella Infantis, 5.40 ± 0.16 log CFU/g for Salmonella Typhimurium, 3.91 + 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria innocua, 4.45 ± 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria monocytogenes (1/2a), and 3.70 ± 0.22 log CFU/g for Listeria welshimeri. On days 0, 1, and 2, all bacterial counts were reduced to nondetectable levels for shrimp samples that floated. The average time for shrimp to float was 96 ± 8 s. The bacterial counts remained at nondetectable levels (<10 log CFU/g) during refrigerated (4°C) storage of cooked shrimp for 2 days. The redness, yellowness, and lightness were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) for the cooked shrimp than for the uncooked shrimp on all days tested. The standard deviation for redness in the cooked shrimp was large, indicating a wide range of pink coloration on all days tested. The results suggest that boiling shrimp until they float will significantly reduce Listeria and Salmonella contamination, but color change is not a good indication of reduction of these pathogens because of the wide natural color variation. PMID:23317857

Edwards, Genevieve; Janes, Marlene; Lampila, Lucina; Supan, John

2013-01-01

169

Optimum cooking conditions for shrimp and Atlantic salmon.  

PubMed

The quality and safety of a cooked food product depends on many variables, including the cooking method and time-temperature combinations employed. The overall heating profile of the food can be useful in predicting the quality changes and microbial inactivation occurring during cooking. Mathematical modeling can be used to attain the complex heating profile of a food product during cooking. Studies were performed to monitor the product heating profile during the baking and boiling of shrimp and the baking and pan-frying of salmon. Product color, texture, moisture content, mass loss, and pressed juice were evaluated during the cooking processes as the products reached the internal temperature recommended by the FDA. Studies were also performed on the inactivation of Salmonella cocktails in shrimp and salmon. To effectively predict inactivation during cooking, the Bigelow, Fermi distribution, and Weibull distribution models were applied to the Salmonella thermal inactivation data. Minimum cooking temperatures necessary to destroy Salmonella in shrimp and salmon were determined. The heating profiles of the 2 products were modeled using the finite difference method. Temperature data directly from the modeled heating profiles were then used in the kinetic modeling of quality change and Salmonella inactivation during cooking. The optimum cooking times for a 3-log reduction of Salmonella and maintaining 95% of quality attributes are 100, 233, 159, 378, 1132, and 399 s for boiling extra jumbo shrimp, baking extra jumbo shrimp, boiling colossal shrimp, baking colossal shrimp, baking Atlantic salmon, and pan frying Atlantic Salmon, respectively. PMID:23387897

Brookmire, Lauren; Mallikarjunan, P; Jahncke, M; Grisso, R

2013-02-01

170

SHRIMP SI- New Capabilities for in situ Stable Isotope Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SHRIMP SI is the latest generation of SHRIMP ion microprobe that has been optimised for light stable isotope analysis. The initial configuration has been set for Cs+ primary ion beam (ca. 15kV) and negative secondary extraction (ca. 10kV). The specific design inherits features from both SHRIMP I, and SHRIMP II instruments, but also has lens configurations that are unique. The primary column has two modes: a configuration allowing Kohler illumination, and a critical illumination system allowing spot sizes down to under a micrometer. The secondary extraction system utilizes an intermediate extraction lens to transfer the secondary ion beam to a separate beam matching chamber containing three quadrupole lenses. SHRIMP SI uses the same proven mass analyser design of the other forward geometry SHRIMPs.The collector has been designed around a minimum unit spacing at approximately mass 40 enabling large ETP multipliers to be used, or standard large dimension Faraday cups. The construction phase is now complete and SHRIMP SI is undergoing initial performance evaluation.

Ireland, T. R.; Clement, S.; Foster, J.

2010-12-01

171

Freshwater shrimp-sponge association from an ancient lake.  

PubMed

Shrimp-sponge associations occur frequently in marine ecosystems, serving as model systems for the evolution of eusociality. Here, we describe the first known instance of such association in freshwater from an ancient lake in Indonesia. The shrimp Caridina spongicola forms an exclusive and probably commensal association with a yet undescribed spongillinid sponge. Phylogenetic and ecological data suggest a comparatively recent origin of both taxa. Climatic fluctuations may have facilitated speciation and occasional hybridization of the shrimp species, which is derived from a rock-dwelling ancestor. Their extremely localized occurrence in an increasingly disturbed area makes both taxa a conservation priority. PMID:17347103

Rintelen, Kristina von; Rintelen, Thomas von; Meixner, Martin; Lüter, Carsten; Cai, Yixiong; Glaubrecht, Matthias

2007-06-22

172

Comparison of NIMS and MALDI platforms for neuropeptide and lipid mass spectrometric imaging in C. borealis brain tissue  

PubMed Central

Nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS) is a recently developed matrix-free laser desorption/ionization technique that has shown promise for peptide analyses. It is also useful in mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) studies of small molecule drugs, metabolites, and lipids, minimizing analyte diffusion caused by matrix application. In this study, NIMS and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MSI of a crustacean model organism Cancer borealis brain were compared. MALDI was found to perform better than NIMS in these neuropeptide imaging experiments. Twelve neuropeptides were identified in MALDI MSI experiments whereas none were identified in NIMS MSI experiments. In addition, lipid profiles were compared using each ionization method. Both techniques provided similar lipid profiles in the m/z range 700 – 900.

Sturm, Robert M; Greer, Tyler; Chen, Ruibing; Hensen, Broderick; Li, Lingjun

2013-01-01

173

Two Centuries of Observing R Coronae Borealis. What Will the Role of the AAVSO be in the Next Century?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(Abstract only) R Coronae Borealis was found to be variable in the year 1783, and was one of the first variable stars to be identified. Its class, the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars, are rare hydrogen-deficient carbon-rich supergiants. RCB stars undergo massive declines of up to 8 mag due to the formation of carbon dust at irregular intervals. Their rarity may stem from the fact that they are in an extremely rapid phase of the evolution or in an evolutionary phase that most stars do not undergo. Several evolutionary scenarios have been suggested to account for the RCB stars including, a merger of two white dwarfs (WDs), or a final helium shell flash in a PN central star. The large overabundance of the rare isotope, oxygen-18, found in most of the RCB stars favors the WD merger scenario while the presence of Lithium in the atmospheres of five of the RCB stars favors the FF scenario. In particular, the measured isotopic abundances imply that many, if not most, RCB stars are produced by WD mergers, which may be the low-mass counterparts of the more massive mergers thought to produce type Ia supernovae. Understanding these enigmatic stars depends to a large extent on continuous monitoring to catch their irregular but rapid variations due to dust formation, their variations due to stellar pulsations, and longterm changes that may occur over centuries. The AAVSO has been instrumental in this monitoring for over a century, but how will this change in the era of all-sky surveys?

Clayton, G. C.

2014-06-01

174

EFFECTS OF GROUND ULV (ULTRA-LOW VOLUME) APPLICATIONS OF FENTHION ON ESTUARINE BIOTA. 3. RESPONSE OF CAGED PINK SHRIMP AND GRASS SHRIMP  

EPA Science Inventory

Estuarine grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum) were deployed in floating cages to determine if fenthion, in an actual-use application in the field, affected shrimp survival. After four ultra-low-volume ground applications (equivalent to llg/ha or 0...

175

76 FR 61668 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limits for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limits...frozen warmwater shrimp From India and Thailand covering the period February 1, 2010...Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...

2011-10-05

176

75 FR 62099 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limits for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limits...warmwater shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand covering the period February 1, 2009...Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...

2010-10-07

177

76 FR 30034 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery Off the Southern...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Reopening of Commercial Penaeid Shrimp Trawling Off South Carolina AGENCY: National...NMFS reopens commercial penaeid shrimp trawling, i.e., for brown, pink, and white...previously closed commercial penaeid shrimp trawling in the EEZ off South Carolina on...

2011-05-24

178

COMPARISON OF CARBON AND NITROGEN FLUXES IN TIDEFLAT FOOD WEBS DOMINATED BY BURROWING SHRIMP OR BY CULTURED OYSTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Two species of indigenous, thalassinid burrowing shrimps are pests to the benthic culture of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) because deposition of sediment excavated by the shrimps buries or smothers the oysters. Carbaryl pesticide is used to reduce burrowing shrimp densitie...

179

GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF A BURROWING SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Ghost shrimp, (Neotypaea californiensis) are burrowers, whose bioturbation and sediment destabilizations have a negative effect on mariculture of the commercially important oyster (Crassostrea gigas). Oyster farmers in Washington and Oregon estuaries have been poisoning these shr...

180

Dissolved Air Flotation Treatment of Gulf Shrimp Cannery Wastewater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study reports on the operation of a plant scale dissolved air flotation system installed to define and evaluate attainable shrimp cannery wastewater treatment levels. The system was operated in all three modes of DAF pressurization. Destabilizing coa...

A. J. Szabo F. R. Wilson L. F. LaFleur

1979-01-01

181

Utilization and Disposal of Crab and Shrimp Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The shellfish waste problem in Alaska (Nature of the wastes, Effects of wastes on natural waters, Pollution, The Alaska water quality standards); By-products (Crab and shrimp meal, Whole shells, Chitin, Protein concentrates, Meat recovery, Produ...

V. Mendenhall

1971-01-01

182

Shoreline as a controlling factor in commercial shrimp production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. An ecological model was developed that relates marsh detritus export and shrimp production. It was based on the hypothesis that the shoreline is a controlling factor in the production of shrimp through regulation of detritus export from the marsh. LANDSAT data were used to develop measurement of shoreline length and areas of marsh having more than 5.0 kilometers of shoreline per square kilometer of area for the Louisiana coast, demonstrating the capability of remote sensing to provide important geographic information. These factors were combined with published tidal ranges and salinities to develop a mathematical model that predicted shrimp production for nine geographic units of the Louisiana coast, as indicated by the long term average commercial shrimp yield.

Faller, K. H. (principal investigator)

1979-01-01

183

Dental erosion protection by fermented shrimp paste in acidic food.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which fermented shrimp paste (which has a high calcium concentration) reduces dental erosion in vitro. In experiment 1, enamel specimens were exposed to various concentrations of shrimp paste in tamarind juice for 15 min, once a day, for a total of 29 days. In experiment 2, pre-softened enamel specimens were exposed to different concentrations of shrimp paste in water, using an exposure method similar to experiment 1. Profilometry and a microhardness test were used to assess changes in enamel loss and softening. The results showed that shrimp paste can reduce the erosive potential of tamarind juice and re-harden softened enamel. PMID:20068304

Chuenarrom, C; Benjakul, P

2010-01-01

184

Experimental design and testing: Hatching and development in brine shrimp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains information for instructing a laboratory exercise in biology. This exercise serves as an example of how both content knowledge and process can be integrated in an investigative laboratory design using brine shrimp.

Leona Truchan (Alverno College;); Ingrith Deyrup-Olsen (University of Washington;)

1993-06-01

185

Isolation and purification of calmodulin from the shrimp, Crangon crangon.  

PubMed

Calmodulin was isolated and purified from shrimp abdominal muscle by heat precipitation, ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The purified calmodulin was homogeneous when evaluated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A still remaining contaminant was eliminated by high performance liquid chromatography on a phenyl column. The biological and physicochemical properties of shrimp calmodulin such as amino acid composition, molecular weight and the ability to activate calmodulin-deficient bovine heart phosphodiesterase were compared to those of other invertebrate calmodulins. PMID:1333028

Michael, R H; Pipkorn, R; Willig, A; Jaros, P P

1992-01-01

186

Enhanced Cellular Immunity in Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) after 'Vaccination'  

PubMed Central

It has long been viewed that invertebrates rely exclusively upon a wide variety of innate mechanisms for protection from disease and parasite invasion and lack any specific acquired immune mechanisms comparable to those of vertebrates. Recent findings, however, suggest certain invertebrates may be able to mount some form of specific immunity, termed ‘specific immune priming’, although the mechanism of this is not fully understood (see Textbox S1). In our initial experiments, either formalin-inactivated Vibrio harveyi or sterile saline were injected into the main body cavity (haemocoel) of juvenile shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Haemocytes (blood cells) from V. harveyi-injected shrimp were collected 7 days later and incubated with a 1?1 mix of V. harveyi and an unrelated Gram positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. Haemocytes from ‘vaccinated’ shrimp showed elevated levels of phagocytosis of V. harveyi, but not B. subtilis, compared with those from saline-injected (non-immunised) animals. The increased phagocytic activity was characterised by a significant increase in the percentage of phagocytic cells. When shrimp were injected with B. subtilis rather than vibrio, there was no significant increase in the phagocytic activity of haemocytes from these animals in comparison to the non-immunised (saline injected) controls. Whole haemolymph (blood) from either ‘immunised’ or non-immunised’ shrimp was shown to display innate humoral antibacterial activity against V. harveyi that was absent against B. subtilis. However, there was no difference in the potency of antibacterial activity between V. harveyi-injected shrimp and control (saline injected) animals showing that ‘vaccination’ has no effect on this component of the shrimp's immune system. These results imply that the cellular immune system of shrimp, particularly phagocytosis, is capable of a degree of specificity and shows the phenomenon of ‘immune priming’ reported by other workers. However, in agreement with other studies, this phenomenon is not universal to all potential pathogens.

Roberts, Emily C.; Shields, Robin J.; Wardle, Robin; Rowley, Andrew F.

2011-01-01

187

Diurnal and nocturnal catchability of Kuwait's commercial shrimps  

Microsoft Academic Search

In descending order of importance, the shrimps Penaeus semisulcatus De Haan, 1844; Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837); and Parapenaeopsis stylifera (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837) account for over 95% of Kuwait's commercial landings. Throughout its range, P. semisulcatus is nocturnal, but Kuwait trawlers are active 24h a day during season. Historically, all scientific shrimp surveys in Kuwait have been conducted during daylight

J. M. Bishop; Y. Ye; A. H. Alsaffar; H. M. Al-Foudari; S. Al-Jazzaf

2008-01-01

188

Induction of Shrimp Tropomyosin-Specific Hypersensitivity in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Shellfish hypersensitivity is amongst the most common food allergies. The major shellfish allergen was identified as tropomyosin. Here, we investigated the immediate hypersensitivity responses, IgE and cell-mediated immune response in mice sensitized with recombinant shrimp tropomyosin. Methods: Shrimp tropomyosin was cloned and expressed as a His-tagged fusion recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. Three- to 4-week-old BALB\\/c mice were sensitized

Patrick S. C. Leung; Yuen Shan Lee; Chi Yan Tang; Wing Yee Kung; Ya-Hui Chuang; Bor-Luen Chiang; Ming Chiu Fung; Ka Hou Chu

2008-01-01

189

Decline and local extinction of Caribbean eusocial shrimp.  

PubMed

The tropical shrimp genus Synalpheus includes the only eusocial marine animals. In much of the Caribbean, eusocial species have dominated the diverse fauna of sponge-dwelling shrimp in coral rubble for at least the past two decades. Here we document a recent, dramatic decline and apparent local extinction of eusocial shrimp species on the Belize Barrier Reef. Our collections from shallow reefs in central Belize in 2012 failed to locate three of the four eusocial species formerly abundant in the area, and showed steep declines in colony size and increases in frequency of queenless colonies prior to their disappearance. Concordant with these declines, several nonsocial, pair-forming Synalpheus species increased in frequency. The decline in eusocial shrimp is explained in part by disappearance of two sponge species on which they specialize. Eusocial shrimp collections from Jamaica in 2012 showed similar patterns of decline in colony size and increased queenlessness compared with prior Jamaican collections. The decline and local extinction of eusocial shrimp happened against a backdrop of changes in coral assemblages during recent decades, and may reflect changes in abundance and quality of dead coral substratum and succession of the diverse cryptic organisms living within it. These changes document potentially worrisome declines in a unique taxon of eusocial marine animals. PMID:23418429

Duffy, J Emmett; Macdonald, Kenneth S; Hultgren, Kristin M; Chak, Tin Chi Solomon; Rubenstein, Dustin R

2013-01-01

190

Shrimp and redfish studies, bryan mound brine disposal site off Freeport, Texas, 1979-1981. Volume IV. Interview sampling survey of shrimp catch and effort. Technical memo  

SciTech Connect

An interview sampling survey of shrimp catch and fishing effort was conducted at specified ports along the Texas coast to strengthen the information base required to determine the effect of the disposal of brine from the Bryan Mound salt dome off Freeport, Texas on commercial brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) and white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) populations in the Gulf of Mexico. The data recorded included port number, vessel name, official vessel number, shrimp dealer number, date of landing, area fished, depth of capture, days fished, and pounds of shrimp caught by species and size categories.

Johnson, M.F.

1981-06-01

191

Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Ghost Shrimp and Blue Mud Shrimp,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. The profiles are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessments. The ghost shrimp (Callianassa c...

A. Sterling S. Horning S. D. Smith

1989-01-01

192

Structure determination by MALDI-IRMPD mass spectrometry and exoglycosidase digestions of O-linked oligosaccharides from Xenopus borealis egg jelly  

PubMed Central

Differences in the fertilization behavior of Xenopus borealis from X. laevis and X. tropicalis suggest differences in the glycosylation of the egg jellies. To test this assumption, O-linked glycans were chemically released from the egg jelly coat glycoproteins of X. borealis. Over 50 major neutral glycans were observed, and no anionic glycans were detected from the released O-glycan pool. Preliminary structures of ?30 neutral oligosaccharides were determined using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) infrared multiphoton dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (MS). The mass fingerprint of a group of peaks for the core-2 structure of O-glycans was conserved in the tandem mass spectra and was instrumental in rapid and efficient structure determination. Among the 29 O-glycans, 22 glycans contain the typical core-2 structure, 3 glycans have the core-1 structure and 2 glycans contained a previously unobserved core structure with hexose at the reducing end. There were seven pairs of structural isomers observed in the major O-linked oligosaccharides. To further elucidate the structures of a dozen O-linked glycans, specific and targeted exoglycosidase digestions were carried out and the products were monitored with MALDI-MS. Reported here are the elucidated structures of O-linked oligosaccharides from glycoproteins of X. borealis egg jelly coats. The structural differences in O-glycans from jelly coats of X. borealis and its close relatives may provide a better understanding of the structure–function relationships and the role of glycans in the fertilization process within Xenopodinae.

Li, Bensheng; Russell, Scott C; Zhang, Jinhua; Hedrick, Jerry L; Lebrilla, Carlito B

2011-01-01

193

Prospection alimentaire du puffin cendré Calonectris diomedea borealis de Selvagem Grande (30°09?N, 15°52?W) pendant l'incubation, par télémétrie satellitaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea borealis of Selvagem Grande (30°09?N, 15°52?W) during incubation forage mostly in the Canary Current, along the Moroccan coast where, owing to the enrichment of the surface waters by the upwelling of deep cold waters, productivity is high. The birds reach the Moroccan coasts approximately 36 h after leaving their breeding grounds, having travelled about 400

Jean-Louis Mougin; Christian Jouanin

1997-01-01

194

DNaseI-hypersensitive sites at promoter-like sequences in the spacer of Xenopus laevis and Xenopus borealis ribosomal DNA.  

PubMed Central

We have detected a DNAseI hypersensitive site in the ribosomal DNA spacer of Xenopus laevis and Xenopus borealis. The site is present in blood and embryonic nuclei of each species. In interspecies hybrids, however, the site is absent in unexpressed borealis rDNA, but is present normally in expressed laevis rDNA. Hypersensitive sites are located well upstream (over lkb) of the pre-ribosomal RNA promoter. Sequencing of the hypersensitive region in borealis rDNA, however, shows extensive homology with the promoter sequence, and with the hypersensitive region in X. laevis. Of two promoter-like duplications in each spacer, only the most upstream copy is associated with hypersensitivity to DNAaseI. Unlike DNAaseI, Endo R. MspI digests the rDNA of laevis blood nuclei at a domain extending downstream from the hypersensitive site to near the 40S promoter. Since the organisation of conserved sequence elements within this "proximal domain" is similar in three Xenopus species whose spacers have otherwise evolved rapidly, we conclude that this domain plays an important role in rDNA function. Images

La Volpe, A; Taggart, M; McStay, B; Bird, A

1983-01-01

195

Determination of storage conditions for shrimp extracts: analysis of specific IgE-allergen profiles.  

PubMed

The consumption of shrimp is a common cause of food hypersensitivity reactions. Shrimp allergy is diagnosed using a skin prick test (SPT) as well as by food challenges. Due to the lack of a wide variety of commercial shrimp extracts for SPTs, we selected various shrimp species for the preparation of local shrimp extracts. However, optimal storage conditions for the shrimp extracts which also maintains allergenic potency has not yet been identified. The objective of the present study was to determine the potency of the shrimp extracts under different storage conditions and durations. Specific IgE-allergen profiles of eight shrimp-allergic patients were investigated by using sera incubated with extracts prepared from lyophilized raw or boiled shrimp, which were stored at 4 degress C or -20 degress C for up to 4 weeks. When stored at -20 degress C, most allergens were preserved after 4 weeks. However, storage at 4 degress C results in few allergens remaining after 2 weeks. Boiled-shrimp extracts stored at 4 degree C and -20 degress C contained higher amounts of IgE-allergen complexes than raw-shrimp extracts. Moreover, in both raw and boiled shrimp extracts, the IgE bound 36-40 kDa allergens constituted the major proteins since they were observed in all IgE-allergen profiles. In conclusion, we recommend that shrimp extracts are stored at -20 degress C for 4 weeks to prevent the loss of allergens. PMID:20527516

Piboonpocanun, Surapon; Boonchoo, Siribangon; Pariyaprasert, Wipada; Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai

2010-03-01

196

Configurations and Relative Efficiencies of Shrimp Trawls Employed in Southeastern United States Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Common shrimp trawl designs employed in the southeastern United States shrimp fishery are the flat, balloon, semiballoon, job, and super X-3. Recent innovations in trawl design and rigging, including the twin trawl rigging and tongue trawl design, have im...

J. W. Watson I. K. Workman C. W. Taylor A. F. Serra

1984-01-01

197

RESPONSE OF GHOST SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS) BIOTURBATION TO ORGANIC MATTER ENRICHMENT OF ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Populations of burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia p;ugettensis) are the dominant invertebrate fauna on Pacific estuarine tide flats, occupying >80% of intertidal area in some estuaries. Burrowing shrimp are renowned for their bioturbation of intertidal sedi...

198

Extraction of Shrimp Ponds Using Object Oriented Classification vis-a- vis Pixel Based Classification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rapid expansion of coastal aquaculture/shrimp farming in several countries has necessitated the inventory and monitoring of shrimp farms. These are essential tools for decision making with regard to aquaculture development, including regulatory laws, envi...

N. K. Tripathi R. Chauhan S. R. Chowdhury

2004-01-01

199

ENHANCED ORGANIC MATTER REMINERALIZATION AND NUTRIENT TURNOVER BY POPULATIONS OF BURROWING SHRIMP IN YAQUINA BAY, OR  

EPA Science Inventory

Burrowing, or thalassinid, shrimp structure large areas of intertidal habitat of Pacific Northwest estuaries. This field study utilized a combination of anoxic incubations, porewater dialysis peepers, and benthic chambers to quantify the role of burrowing shrimp species on OM dec...

200

Physiological and Histopathological Evaluation of Dithiocarbamate Toxicity to the Grass Shrimp, 'Palaemonetes Pugio'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the acute toxicity of dithiocarbamates (Aquatreat and Busan) to molting grass shrimp and the effects of these fungicides on regenerative limb growth in grass shrimp. Results indicate that both dithiocarbamate f...

K. R. Rao D. G. Doughtie P. J. Conklin

1983-01-01

201

Leatherback Sea Turtles and Offshore Shrimp Trawling Activity in North Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document examined data from the South Atlantic Shrimp File collected under the North Carolina State/Federal Cooperative Statistics agreement to evaluate potential shrimp trawling interactions with leatherback sea turtles (Dermacohelys coriacea) in No...

J. Braun S. P. Epperly

2008-01-01

202

MORE THAN JUST BAIT: BURROWING SHRIMP AS ECOSYSTEM ENGINEERS IN OREGON ESTUARIES - SEPTEMBER 2006  

EPA Science Inventory

Burrowing shrimp may be most widely known as excellent fishing bait, but they also play important roles in estuaries of the Pacific Northwest. These shrimps strongly affect carbon and nutrient cycling, phytoplankton abundance, food web structure and dynamics, sediment stability,...

203

The Environmental Impact of Shrimp Aquaculture: Causes, Effects, and Mitigating Alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attracted by the demand for shrimp in the developed countries, shrimp aquaculture has expanded rapidly, mainly in the subtropical\\u000a and tropical lowlands of America and Asia. This work provides a global review and viewpoint on the environmental impacts of\\u000a shrimp aquaculture, considering the causes and effects of the siting and operation of shrimp ponds and abandonment of farm\\u000a facilities. Additionally,

FEDERICO PÁEZ-OSUNA

2001-01-01

204

77 FR 73619 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with...surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product...

2012-12-11

205

75 FR 52718 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with...surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product...

2010-08-27

206

Biocontrol of Vibrio harveyi in Shrimp Aquaculture with Host Specific Lytic Bacteriophage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current decline in shrimp farm production has been related to a variety of issues associated with survivability of shrimp grown in the aquaculture setting. The presence of Vibrio pathogens has been identified as a cause of high mortality in the post larval and juvenile shrimp in aquaculture. The use of bacteriophage to control infections has seen increased interest with

Lillian Barber

2012-01-01

207

Expression analysis of selected haemocyte transcripts from black tiger shrimp infected with yellow head virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow head virus (YHV) is a lethal Penaeid shrimp virus that has caused significant losses to aquaculture farms raising black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). In order to probe some of the underlying molecular events occurring in P. monodon cells in response to YHV infection, we investigated the response of 96 selected shrimp haemocyte transcripts from 90 distinct genes at 24

Lerdchai Chintapitaksakul; Apinunt Udomkit; Duncan R. Smith; Sakol Panyim

2008-01-01

208

Mangroves as filters of shrimp pond effluent: predictions and biogeochemical research needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary estimates of the ratio of mangrove forest: shrimp pond area necessary to remove nutrients from shrimp pond effluent are made using budgets of nitrogen and phosphorus output for semi-intensive and intensive shrimp ponds combined with estimates of total net primary production in Rhizophora-dominated mangrove forests in tropical coastal areas. If effluent is delivered directly to mangrove forest plots, it

A. I. Robertson; M. J. Phillips

1995-01-01

209

The Effect on Growth and Protein Digestibility of Shrimp Penaeus stylirrostris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Giant squid meal from two drying processes: high-heat (from commercial flamedried) (HHSM) and low-heat (labor ator y made) (LHSM), were evaluated as protein source for shrimp Penaeus stylirrostrisin two feeding experiments. Trial I consisted of wild shrimp fed HHSM at different rates. Shrimp survival was negatively affected by commercial squid meal and no difference was found in growth performance. Trial

Julio Humberto Cordova Murueta; Fernando L. Garcia Carreno

2001-01-01

210

Occurrence of Deferribacterales and Entomoplasmatales in the deep-sea Alvinocarid shrimp Rimicaris exoculata gut  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic diversity of the gut microbial population of the hydrothermal shrimp Rimicaris exoculata was determined. The presence of micro-organisms in the hindgut of the shrimp was determined, and their morphology illustrated for the first time by transmission electron microscopy. DNA was extracted from the fore-, mid- and hindgut of shrimps collected at the Rainbow site, at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge,

Magali Zbinden; Marie-Anne Cambon-Bonavita

2003-01-01

211

PenBase, the shrimp antimicrobial peptide penaeidin database: Sequence-based classification and recommended nomenclature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial peptides play a major role in innate immunity. The penaeidins, initially characterized from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, are a family of antimicrobial peptides that appear to be expressed in all penaeid shrimps. As of recent, a large number of penaeid nucleotide sequences have been identified from a variety of penaeid shrimp species and these sequences currently reside in several

Yannick Gueguen; Julien Garnier; Lorenne Robert; Marie-Paule Lefranc; Isabelle Mougenot; Julien de Lorgeril; Michael Janech; Paul S. Gross; Gregory W. Warr; Brandon Cuthbertson; Margherita A. Barracco; Philippe Bulet; André Aumelas; Yinshan Yang; Dong Bo; Jianhai Xiang; Anchalee Tassanakajon; David Piquemal; Evelyne Bachère

2006-01-01

212

50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. 622.19 Section...Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. Link to an amendment...For a person aboard a vessel to fish for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off...

2009-10-01

213

Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses  

PubMed Central

Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerly known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus), their impacts were greatly diminished after the introduction of tolerant stocks of P. vannamei. Less important viruses are Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV; formerly called hepatopancreatic parvovirus), and Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV; previously called monodon baculovirus). For freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus are considered important viral pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the shrimp viruses described above have been generated and used as an alternative tool in various immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Some of these MAbs were further developed into immunochromatographic strip tests for the detection of WSSV, YHV, IMNV and PemoNPV and into a dual strip test for the simultaneous detection of WSSV/YHV. The strip test has the advantages of speed, as the result can be obtained within 15 min, and simplicity, as laboratory equipment and specialized skills are not required. Therefore, strip tests can be used by shrimp farmers for the pond-side monitoring of viral infection.

Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

2014-01-01

214

Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp  

PubMed Central

The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

Walker, Peter J.; Winton, James R.

2010-01-01

215

Offshore Observations of Eastern Red Bats (Lasiurus borealis) in the Mid-Atlantic United States Using Multiple Survey Methods  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the migration and movements of migratory tree-roosting bat species in North America, though anecdotal observations of migrating bats over the Atlantic Ocean have been reported since at least the 1890s. Aerial surveys and boat-based surveys of wildlife off the Atlantic Seaboard detected a possible diurnal migration event of eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis) in September 2012. One bat was sighted approximately 44 km east of Rehoboth Beach, Delaware during a boat-based survey. Eleven additional bats were observed between 16.9 and 41.8 km east of New Jersey, Delaware, and Virginia in high definition video footage collected during digital aerial surveys. Observations were collected incidentally as part of a large baseline study of seabird, marine mammal, and sea turtle distributions and movements in the offshore environment. Digital survey methods also allowed for altitude estimation for several of these bats at >100 m above sea level. These observations provide new evidence of bat movements offshore, and offer insight into their flight heights above sea level and the times of day at which such migrations may occur.

Hatch, Shaylyn K.; Connelly, Emily E.; Divoll, Timothy J.; Stenhouse, Iain J.; Williams, Kathryn A.

2013-01-01

216

First Observations of an R Coronae Borealis Star with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph: RY Sagittarii near Maximum Light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the far-UV (1140-1740 Å) spectrum of the hydrogen-deficient R Coronae Borealis (RCB) star RY Sgr, obtained near maximum light (pulsational phase ~0.1) by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on Hubble Space Telescope. The far-UV spectrum shows a photospheric continuum rising steeply toward longer wavelengths and two prominent emission features at the shorter wavelengths: C II ?1335 and Cl I ?1351 (the latter is radiatively fluoresced by the 10 times stronger C II multiplet). We also find evidence for CO A-X 4th-positive system absorption band heads and possible weak CO fluorescent emissions pumped by C II ?1335, but the inferred column densities are low (~few times 1016 cm-2), consistent with formation in a warm (~5000 K) atmospheric layer. The detection of CO molecules, if confirmed, would be significant, because they are thought to play a key role in the dust ejection episodes of RCB stars through the initiation of ``molecular cooling catastrophes.'' Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by STScI for the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Ayres, T. R.; Lawson, Warrick A.; Drilling, John S.; Woitke, P.; Asplund, Martin

1999-04-01

217

Apron heights around stepped massifs in the Cydonia Mensae region: Do they record the local paleobathymetry of Oceanus Borealis?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of photoclinometry and shadow measurements to determine the basin volume without linking the measurements to a global datum is described. Since the boundary, or shoreline, of the basin cannot be tied to the datum and typically has no useful local relative height to measure, what is needed is a number of measurements of the height of the paleoshorelines distributed across the basin. Photoclinometric profiles are being compiled from Viking Orbiter images of the Cydonia Mensae region, which includes images with high sun elevations, necessary to avoid shadows, and images with low sun elevations, to enable the use of shadow measurements as an independent check, at high resolution (40 to 100 m/pixel). Both asymmetric and symmetric photoclinometric profile models are being used, and the results cross checked with one another to minimize errors. An apron-height map, potentially a paleobathymetric map of part of the margin of Oceanus Borealis, can be compiled from this data to determine whether variations in apron height are consistent with a lacustrine interpretation.

Parker, T. J.; Gorsline, D. S.

1993-01-01

218

Neuropilar Projections of the Anterior Gastric Receptor Neuron in the Stomatogastric Ganglion of the Jonah Crab, Cancer Borealis  

PubMed Central

Sensory neurons provide important feedback to pattern-generating motor systems. In the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system (STNS), feedback from the anterior gastric receptor (AGR), a muscle receptor neuron, shapes the activity of motor circuits in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) via polysynaptic pathways involving anterior ganglia. The AGR soma is located in the dorsal ventricular nerve posterior to the STG and it has been thought that its axon passes through the STG without making contacts. Using high-resolution confocal microscopy with dye-filled neurons, we show here that AGR from the crab Cancer borealis also has local projections within the STG and that these projections form candidate contact sites with STG motor neurons or with descending input fibers from other ganglia. We develop and exploit a new masking method that allows us to potentially separate presynaptic and postsynaptic staining of synaptic markers. The AGR processes in the STG show diversity in shape, number of branches and branching structure. The number of AGR projections in the STG ranges from one to three simple to multiply branched processes. The projections come in close contact with gastric motor neurons and descending neurons and may also be electrically coupled to other neurons of the STNS. Thus, in addition to well described long-loop pathways, it is possible that AGR is involved in integration and pattern regulation directly in the STG.

Goeritz, Marie L.; Bowers, Matthew R.; Slepian, Brian; Marder, Eve

2013-01-01

219

New R Coronae Borealis and DY Persei Star Candidates and Other Related Objects Found in Photometric Surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have carried out a search for new R Coronae Borealis (RCB) variables using the publicly accessible data from various photometric sky surveys and -- whenever available -- AAVSO visual data. Candidates were selected from Tisserand's "Catalogue enriched with R CrB stars" and by a visual inspection of light curves from the ASAS-3, MACHO, NSVS and OGLE surveys. We have identified two new RCB stars, four RCB candidates, and one DY Persei (DYPer) star candidate. Our identification was based mainly on photometric variability, color-color diagrams, and further information drawn from various catalogue sources; spectroscopic classifications were also reported in our analysis whenever available. Additionally, we present a sample of interesting stars which -- although showing similar photometric variability -- can be ruled out as RCB and DYPer stars or have been rejected as such on spectroscopic grounds in recent studies. Although not useful in the investigation of the aforementioned groups of variables, these objects defy an easy classification and might be interesting targets for follow-up studies which we encourage for all stars presented in this paper.

Otero, S.; Hümmerich, S.; Bernhard, K.; Sozynski, I.

2014-06-01

220

Sexing Live Pupae and Adults of Two Wax Blooming Beetles, Colposcelis microderoides microderoides and Anatolica polita borealis  

PubMed Central

The wax blooming beetles Colposcelis microderoides microderoides Reitter and Anatolica polita borealis Kaszab (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) are small, flightless beetles living in the Guerbantonggut desert in the northwestern region of China. These beetles were recently found to have wax blooms, and their short life cycle and ease of rearing under laboratory conditions make them excellent models for advanced studies on desert adaptation. To date, dissection has been used for sex identification in these species, whereas a nondestructive method is needed for further studies on sexual dimorphism. Microscopic examinations of pupae and adults revealed distinct differences between the sexes in the 8th abdominal sternites, including the presence of a setose cleft in adult males that is not visible in females, in which the 8th sternite forms a single semicircular plate. The female pupae have a pair of tan papillae and a tan genital orifice, which are absent on the male 8th sternite. These two sexual characteristics can be used to sex live adults and pupae. These methods are simple, nondestructive, 100% accurate, and useful for sex differentiation of dead beetles and some other tenebrionid species (including some pests) in both the field and the laboratory.

Wang, Yan; Zhang, Fuchun; Ma, Ji

2013-01-01

221

Herstellung von Chitosan und einige Anwendungen  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Die Deacetylierung von crabshell - Chitosan führte gleichzeitig zu einem drastischen Abfall der mittleren viscosimetrischen Molmasse ( Mv), insbesondere wenn die Temperatur und die Konzentration an NaOH erhöht werden. Diese Parameter beeinflussten jedoch nicht den Grad der Deacetylierung (DD). Wichtig ist jedoch die Quelle des Ausgangsmaterials: Chitin aus Pandalus borealis ist ein guter Rohstoff für die Herstellung von Chitosan

Marcin Henryk Struszczyk

2001-01-01

222

Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Chennai, India.  

PubMed

Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing métier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested métier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers of Chennai (former Madras). Research took place in 2007 and 2008 (N = 137). Results suggest a general satisfaction with being in the fishery. However, a little over three-fifths of fishers said they would be willing to change fishing métier and about one-half said they would leave the occupation. About one-half also said they would not advise a young person to enter the occupation. The tendency to move away from the fishery is argued to reflect a growing pessimism about the future of the shrimp trawl fisheries, but also an increasing awareness of other economic opportunities. PMID:22997478

Bavinck, Maarten

2012-10-01

223

Microprobe analysis of brine shrimp grown on meteorite extracts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear microprobe methods have been used to investigate the uptake and distribution of various elements by brine shrimps and their unhatched eggs when grown in extracts of the Murchison and Allende carbonaceous meteorites, which were selected as model space resources. Measurements were carried out using a focussed 2 MeV proton beam raster scanned over the samples in order to obtain the average elemental concentrations. Line scans across the egg and shrimp samples show uptake of elements such as Mg, Ni, S and P which are present in the meteorites. The results confirmed that carbonaceous chondrite materials can provide nutrients, including high levels of the essential nutrient phosphate. The concentrations of these elements varied significantly between shrimp and eggs grown in extracts of the two meteorite types, which can help in identifying optimal growth media. Our results illustrate that nuclear microprobe techniques can determine elemental concentrations in organisms exposed to meteorite derived media and thus help in identifying useful future resources.

Kennedy, J.; Mautner, M. N.; Barry, B.; Markwitz, A.

2007-07-01

224

Issues, Impacts, and Implications of Shrimp Aquaculture in Thailand  

PubMed

Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just beginning to be considered in Thailand, partial recirculating and integrated intensive farming systems are producing promising, if somewhat limited, results. By providing on-site treatment of the effluent from the shrimp growout ponds, there is less reliance on using outside water supplies, believed to be the source of the contamination.The explosion in the number of intensively operated shrimp farms has not only impacted the coastal zone of Thailand, but has also resulted in an unsustainable aquaculture industry. Abandonment of shrimp ponds due to either drastic, disease-caused collapses or more grandual, year-to-year reductions in the productivity of the pond is common. To move Thailand towards a more sustainable aquaculture industry and coastal zone environment, integrated aquaculture management is needed. Components of integrated aquaculture management are technical and institutional. The technical components involve deployment of wastewater treatment and minimal water-use systems aimed at making aquaculture operations more hydraulically closed. Before this is possible, technical and economic feasibility studies on enhanced nitrification systems and organic solids removal by oxidation between production cycles and/or the utilization of plastic pond liners need to be conducted. The integration of semi-intensive aquaculture within mangrove areas also should be investigated since mangrove losses attributable to shrimp aquaculture are estimated to be between 16 and 32 % of the total mangrove area destroyed betweeen 1979 and 1993.Government policy needs to devote as much attention to sustainability issues as it has on promoting intensive pond culture. Such a balanced policy would include training and education monitoring and enforcement, rehabilitating abandoned ponds, managing land use within the coastal zone, more community involvement, and government reorganization to eliminate overlapping jurisdictions among agencies.As integrated aquaculture management becomes more the practice than the exception, less risk of crop failure to the industry and reduced discharge loadings from intensively managed shrimp ponds to receiving waters can be expected. Projected limitations on growing and marketing shrimp in the future, such as scarcity of land and broodstock, continued disease outbreaks, negative publicity, regulatory enforcement, water treatment and solids disposal costs, and increased competition from growers in other Asian countries will also drive the government and the industry towards adopting integrated aquaculture management.KEY WORDS: Shrimp aquaculture; Thailand; Historical practices; Environmental impacts; Sustainability; Integrated management; Water treatment; Institutional aspects PMID:8703103

Dierberg; Kiattisimkul

1996-09-01

225

NC State University-Science Junction: The Brine Shrimp Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by NCSU Science Junction, this website contains The Brine Shrimp Project, a lesson plan created by educator April J. Cleveland. The goal of this project is for students to "design and conduct a laboratory investigation to determine how different factors may affect the hatching and development of brine shrimp eggs." Although it was "field tested with 10th grade biology students," this project is adaptable for use with elementary, middle, and high school students, and furthermore "supports the National Science Content Standards A and C for grades" K-12. The website clearly outlines the 7-day project including instructions, work sheets for students, and a comprehensive evaluation sheet.

Cleveland, April J.

226

Summary of studies on closed-polyculture of penaeid shrimp with fishes and moluscans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Closed-polyculture of Chinese penaeid shrimp, Taiwan red tilapia, and molluscans(constricted tagelus and bay scallop) was studied from 1995 to 1997 with the enclosure-experiment method, on a shrimp farm in Haiyang County, Shandong Province. Four structure-optimized closed-polyculture systems, i. e., the “shrimp-tagelus” system, the “shrimp-scallop” system, the “shrimp-tilapia” system and the “shrimp-tilapia-tagelus” system, were worked out. All these polyculture systems were superior to shrimp monoculture system in economic and ecological efficiencies. The order of these polyculture systems in efficiencies was “shrimptilapia-tagelus” > “shrimp-tagelus”>“shrimp-tilapia”>“shrimp-scallop”. The “shrimp-tilapia-tagelus” system raised the production by 28% and the utilization efficiency of input nitrogen by 85%. These closed-polyculture systems reduced the nitrogen discharge ratio to 6% 8%, instead of 40% 90% in the usual open culture systems. The ecological features of the systems were also investigated and many meaningful results have been obtained. The mechanism enhancing the efficiencies of these systems, the ways to enhance the efficiencies further and those to reuse the sedimented materials are disscussed.

Li, De-Shang; Dong, Shuang-Lin

2000-03-01

227

A feasability study of gamma irradiation on Thailand frozen shrimps (PENAEUS MONODON)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two lots of frozen precooked shrimps from Thaïland ``PENAEUS MONODON'' Black tiger variety were irradiated at 1.8 to 3.6 kGy. This way, it was hoped to compare the effects of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and the organoleptic properties of frozen precooked shrimps after transportation from Thailand to Canada. The results indicated that the extension of shelf-life based on mesophiles content was from 33 days for the control to more than 47 days for the irradiated shrimps stored at 3 +/- 1°C. The results of sensory evaluation gave slightly fresher odor for the control than the irradiated shrimps. On day one, this effect was more apparent. The results of hedonic tests showed that the irradiated shrimps were acceptable during storage. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the combined treatments (freezing plus irradiation) of precooked shrimps are useful for increasing the storage life of shrimps without affecting consumer acceptability.

Gagnon, M.; Lacroix, M. L.; Charbonneau, R.; Jobin, M.; Thibault, C.; Nouchpramool, K.; Charoen, S.

1995-02-01

228

A feasibility study of gamma irradiation on Thailand frozen shrimps ( PENEAUS MONODON)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two lots of frozen precooked shrimps from Thaïland "PENAEUS MONODON" Black tiger variety were irradiated at 1.8 to 3.6 kGy. This way, it was hoped to compare the effects of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and the organoleptic properties of frozen precooked shrimps after transportation from Thailand to Canada. The results indicated that the extension of shelf-life based on mesophiles content was from 33 days for the control to more than 47 days for the irradiated shrimps stored at 3 ± 1 °C. The results of sensory evaluation gave slightly fresher odor for the control than the irradiated shrimps. On day one, this effect was more apparent. The results of hedonic tests showed that the irradiated shrimps were acceptable during storage. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the combined treatments (freezing plus irradiation) of precooked shrimps are useful for increasing the storage life of shrimps without affecting consumer acceptability.

Lacroix, M. L.; Charbonneau, R.; Jobin, M.; Thibault, C.; Nouchpramool, K.; Charoen, S.; Gagnon, M.

229

Syrtis Major and Isidis Basin contact: Morphological and topographic characteristics of Syrtis Major lava flows and material of the Vastitas Borealis Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The floor of Isidis Basin is covered by materials of the Vastitas Borealis Formation (VBF) that appear to be emplaced essentially as a single unit. Along its western boundary, Isidis Basin is in contact with volcanic flows from Syrtis Major Planum. The contact between the Isidis unit and volcanic flows from Syrtis Major is sharp to gradational and in places is characterized by a high (~500 m) scarp or by a network of faults that separate pieces of lava plains off the main plateau of Syrtis. Clusters of knobs and mesas, sometimes arranged in flow-like features, are also typical features of the transition zone. Several important characteristics of the transition from Syrtis Major to Isidis Basin are documented. (1) The small-scale surface texture seen in MOC images appears to be the same for both the Syrtis lava plateau and the knobs and mesas that characterize the transition. (2) There is strong evidence for the breakup of the coherent surface of Syrtis Major where it is in contact with materials in Isidis Basin. (3) The plateau breakup (the knobby terrain) occurs basinward after the major break of slope of Syrtis Major where it enters the Isidis Basin. (4) There is no evidence for plateau breakup anywhere up on the slopes of Syrtis Major Planum. (5) The lavas of Syrtis remain morphologically intact where they are in contact with other units, such as the Noachian cratered terrain or where lava flows are stacked within Syrtis Major itself. These characteristic features of the transition zone from Syrtis to Isidis are readily explained if the zone of plateau breakup consists of relatively young lava flows that have been superimposed onto the surface of a volatile-rich substratum, such as the interior unit of Isidis Basin (the Vastitas Borealis Formation). Thus simple superposition of volcanic materials on top of volatile-bearing sediments can explain the key geological and topographic aspects of the transition zone from Syrtis Major to Isidis Basin. On the basis of our findings, we outline the following scenario for the evolution of this region. In the Early Hesperian, volcanic plains are emplaced in Syrtis Major (the lower part of the Syrtis Major Formation), and wrinkle ridges deform their surfaces soon thereafter. Concurrently, volcanic plains are emplaced on the floor of the Isidis Basin, and wrinkle ridges deform their surfaces soon thereafter. The apparent simultaneity of these units may mean that Syrtis Major was the source of many of the flows in the Isidis Basin. In the early part of the Upper Hesperian, subsequent to the formation of most of the wrinkle ridges, the Vastitas Borealis Formation was emplaced in the Isidis Basin and elsewhere in the northern lowlands. Following the emplacement of the Vastitas Borealis Formation, the upper part of the Syrtis Major Formation was emplaced, erupting from the eastern margins of Syrtis Major Planum and flowing down into the westernmost part of the Isidis Basin on top of the recently emplaced Vastitas Borealis Formation. Modification of the superposed lavas by degradation and evolution of the VBF formed the scarps and unusual morphology of the marginal areas. We found no compelling evidence for massive or sudden erosion from Syrtis Major to produce the plains currently on the surface of the floor of the Isidis Basin (the Vastitas Borealis Formation).

Ivanov, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.

2003-06-01

230

Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp.  

PubMed

The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

Walker, Peter J; Winton, James R

2010-01-01

231

Phylogeny and evolution of Indo-Pacific shrimp-associated gobies (Gobiiformes: Gobiidae).  

PubMed

Despite the ubiquity of obligate mutualisms on coral reef ecosystems, little is known about the evolution of many participating species. The shrimp gobies, known primarily from the coral reef habitats of the Indo-Pacific, are small benthic fishes that participate in a remarkable mutualism with alpheid shrimp. In this mutualism, the shrimp build and maintain a burrow that is guarded by the goby, and the shrimp and goby engage in an intricate tactile communication system. The mutualism is obligate for most shrimp gobies as participating species are highly vulnerable to predation when separated from a shrimp partner. We use phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data to infer evolutionary relationships among shrimp gobies, and between shrimp gobies and their non-mutualistic gobiid relatives. We show that the mutualist shrimp association has arisen twice among gobies, once in a clade composed of Amblyeleotris, Ctenogobiops, and Vanderhorstia, and a second time in a clade including Cryptocentrus, Mahidolia, Tomiamichthys and Stonogobiops. We then compare the evolution of traits within each shrimp goby clade and consider their intrarelationships. We document cryptic diversity among shrimp gobies, with three distinct clades delineated among Mahidolia mysticina specimens captured at the same locality, paired with the same shrimp species. Mahidolia is placed as sister to the Cryptocentrus species Cryptocentrus cinctus; both exhibit pronounced dichromatism, occurring in both brown and yellow (xanthic) forms. We additionally clarify species identities within Amblyeleotris, confirming that widespread similar species Amblyeleotris fasciata, Amblyeleotris steinitzi and Amblyeleotris wheeleri are all distinct. We hypothesize that the flexibility of gobiid gobies and alpheid shrimp to interact with mutualist partners, as well as the apparently highly beneficial nature of mutualism between them, has contributed to the dual evolution of shrimp-association among Indo-Pacific gobies. PMID:21315161

Thacker, Christine E; Thompson, Andrew R; Roje, Dawn M

2011-04-01

232

Biocontrol of pathogens in shrimp hatcheries using bacteriophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microflora associated with larval stages of shrimp could affect the health and development of the larvae. Some bacteria such as luminous Vibrio harveyi cause serious mortalities. Consequent to the ban on use of most antibiotics in aquaculture, there is a need for alternate technologies for control of bacterial pathogens. Bacteriophages have a potential to control bacterial pathogens. This paper reports

Indrani Karunasagar; M. M. Shivu; S. K. Girisha; G. Krohne; Iddya Karunasagar

2007-01-01

233

Treatment of harvest discharge from intensive shrimp ponds by settling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluent from intensively managed shrimp ponds was examined during harvest when ponds were drained. Concentrations of nutrients and solids in effluents were significantly higher during the final 20 cm of discharge (16% of pond volume), but greatest increases occurred during the final 5 cm of discharge (3.9% of pond volume). When the final 20 cm of pond discharge was allowed

D. R. Teichert-Coddington; D. B. Rouse; A. Potts; C. E. Boyd

1999-01-01

234

Selective preservation of chitin during the decay of shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preservation potential of chitin in the marine environment is a matter of debate. To determine the relative survival of chitin and other organic components, the shrimp Crangon was decayed under different laboratory conditions. Solid state 13 C NMR and Curie point pyrolysis-gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry demonstrated that slightly transformed chitin represents the major component of the remaining biomass

M. Baas; D. E. G. Briggs; J. D. H. van Heemst; A. J. Kear; J. W. de Leeuw

1995-01-01

235

The Phylogenetic Characterization of a Bioluminescent Bacterium Isolated From Shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioluminescence, the biological production of light, is an unusual characteristic that is observed in certain members of the genera Vibrio, Photobacterium, Photorhabdus, and Shewanella. The bioluminescence system is composed of a group of proteins, including luciferase the main enzyme responsible for light pro- duction. I have isolated a bioluminescent strain of gram negative cocci from marine shrimp. All known bioluminescent

Jason Johnston

236

POLYCYCLIC MUSK FRAGRANCES IN SEDIMENTS AND SHRIMP TISSUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic musk fragrances are widely used as ingredients in personal care products, shampoos, lotions, and household cleaning agents. These chemicals have relatively high octanol-water partition coefficients, and therefore tend to accumulate in sediments, sludge, and biological tissues. We analyzed shrimp and sediment samples for the presence of synthetic musks. Samples were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction. Gel permeation chromatography and

Yelena Sapozhnikova; Dan Liebert; Edward Wirth; Michael Fulton

2010-01-01

237

CO2 Efflux from Shrimp Ponds in Indonesia  

PubMed Central

The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored ‘blue’ carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO2 efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO2 efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO2 m?2 y?1 from the walls and 1.60 kg CO2 m?2 y?1 from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y?1. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO2 emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO2 released to atmosphere.

Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E.

2013-01-01

238

Talking about Brine Shrimps: Three Ways of Analysing Pupil Conversations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applies three distinct analyses to recorded and transcribed student conversations (n=240) about brine shrimps. The complementary analytic methods provide information on the content of pupils' conversations in terms of the observations made, the ways in which pupils make sense of their observations, and the ways in which students use conversation…

Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael J.

1999-01-01

239

Brine Shrimp and Their Habitat, An Environmental Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within the existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and students are encouraged to work at their own speed. The philosophy of the unit is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages independent student work. This unit explores the life cycle of brine shrimp and…

National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

240

What Environmental Conditions Lead to the Hatching of Brine Shrimp?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this investigation is to determine the best environmental conditions for the hatching and growth of brine shrimp. This level 4 inquiry activity was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÃÂs 2010 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

Ms. Margaret Mauntel (Dubois Middle School)

2011-04-01

241

The relative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on population genetic variation in the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis).  

PubMed

The relative influence of habitat loss, fragmentation and matrix heterogeneity on the viability of populations is a critical area of conservation research that remains unresolved. Using simulation modelling, we provide an analysis of the influence both patch size and patch isolation have on abundance, effective population size (N(e)) and F(ST). An individual-based, spatially explicit population model based on 15 years of field work on the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) was applied to different landscape configurations. The variation in landscape patterns was summarized using spatial statistics based on O-ring statistics. By regressing demographic and genetics attributes that emerged across the landscape treatments against proportion of total habitat and O-ring statistics, we show that O-ring statistics provide an explicit link between population processes, habitat area, and critical thresholds of fragmentation that affect those processes. Spatial distances among land cover classes that affect biological processes translated into critical scales at which the measures of landscape structure correlated best with genetic indices. Therefore our study infers pattern from process, which contrasts with past studies of landscape genetics. We found that population genetic structure was more strongly affected by fragmentation than population size, which suggests that examining only population size may limit recognition of fragmentation effects that erode genetic variation. If effective population size is used to set recovery goals for endangered species, then habitat fragmentation effects may be sufficiently strong to prevent evaluation of recovery based on the ratio of census:effective population size alone. PMID:20618895

Bruggeman, Douglas J; Wiegand, Thorsten; Fernández, Néstor

2010-09-01

242

Subaru/HDS Study of HE 1015-2050: Spectral Evidence of R Coronae Borealis Light Decline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen deficiency and a sudden optical light decline of about 6-8 mag are two principal characteristics of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars. The high latitude carbon star HE 1015-2050 was identified as a hydrogen-deficient carbon star from low-resolution spectroscopy. Photometric data of the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey gathered between 2006 February and 2012 May indicate that the object exhibits no variability. However, a high-resolution (R ~ 50, 000) optical spectrum of this object obtained with the 8.2 m Subaru telescope using High Dispersion Spectrograph on the 2012 January 13 offers sufficient spectral evidence that the object is a cool HdC star of RCB type undergoing light decline. In contrast to the Na I D broad absorption features seen in the low-resolution spectra on several occasions, the high-resolution spectrum exhibits Na I D2 and D1 features in emission. A few emission lines due to Mg I, Sc II, Ti I, Ti II, Fe II, and Ba I are also observed in the spectrum of this object for the first time. Such emission features combined with neutral and singly ionized lines of Ca, Ti, Fe, etc., in absorption are reportedly seen in RCBs spectra in the early stage of decline or during the recovery to maximum. Further, the light decline of RCBs is ascribed to the formation of a cloud of soot that obscures the visible photosphere. The presence of such circumstellar material is evident from the polarimetric observations with an estimated V-band percentage polarization of ~1.7% for this object.

Goswami, Aruna; Aoki, Wako

2013-02-01

243

Issues, impacts, and implications of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just beginning to be considered in Thailand, partial recirculating and integrated intensive farming systems are producing promising, if somewhat limited, results. By providing on-site treatment of the effluent from the shrimp growout ponds, there is less reliance on using outside water supplies, believed to be the source of the contamination. The explosion in the number of intensively operated shrimp farms has not only impacted the coastal zone of Thailand, but has also resulted in an unsustainable aquaculture industry. Abandonment of shrimp ponds due to either drastic, disease-caused collapses or more grandual, year-to-year reductions in the productivity of the pond is common. To move Thailand towards a more sustainable aquaculture industry and coastal zone environment, integrated aquaculture management is needed. Components of integrated aquaculture management are technical and institutional. The technical components involve deployment of wastewater treatment and minimal water-use systems aimed at making aquaculture operations more hydraulically closed. Before this is possible, technical and economic feasibility studies on enhanced nitrification systems and organic solids removal by oxidation between production cycles and/or the utilization of plastic pond liners need to be conducted. The integration of semi-intensive aquaculture within mangrove areas also should be investigated since mangrove losses attributable to shrimp aquaculture are estimated to be between 16 and 32% of the total mangrove area destroyed betweeen 1979 and 1993. Government policy needs to devote as much attention to sustainability issues as it has on promoting intensive pond culture. Such a balanced policy would include training and education monitoring and enforcement, rehabilitating abandoned ponds, managing land use within the coastal zone, more community involvement, and government reorganization to eliminate overlapping jurisdictions among agencies. As integrated aquaculture management becomes more the practice than the exception, less risk of crop failure to the industry and reduced discharge loadings from intensively managed shrimp ponds to receiving waters can be expected. Projected limitations on growing and marketing shrimp in the future, such as scarcity of land and broodstock, continued disease outbreaks, negative publicity, regulatory enforcement, water treatment and solids disposal costs, and increased competition from growers in other Asian countries will also drive the government and the industry towards adopting integrated aquaculture management.

Dierberg, Forrest E.; Kiattisimkul, Woraphan

1996-09-01

244

Survival of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Shrimp Tissue Under Various Environmental Conditions1  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus culture O from Gulf Coast shrimp was inoculated into whole shrimp and shrimp homogenate to determine its survival at various temperatures and pH values. Although large decreases in viable population occurred during storage for 2 days at 10 to -18 C, survivors were present even after 8 days. No significant differences were observed in the population changes of inoculated whole shrimp as compared with shrimp homogenates. Low populations (5 × 102 per ml) of V. parahaemolyticus were destroyed by heating shrimp homogenates at 60, 80, and 100 C for 1 min. With larger populations (2 × 105 per ml), some survivors were present after heating at 60 and 80 C for 15 min. None survived 1 min at 100 C. V. parahaemolyticus was very sensitive to pH values below 6.0. Cells survived for several hours in the contents of the porcine gastrointestinal tract.

Vanderzant, C.; Nickelson, R.

1972-01-01

245

The Shrimp Caridina nilotica in Lake Victoria (East Africa), Before and After the Nile Perch Increase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shrimp Caridina nilotica is a major prey of the introduced Nile perch in Lake Victoria. In spite of heavy predation, the density of shrimps increased\\u000a after the Nile perch boom and the concomitant disappearance of the haplochromine cichlids. In the same period, the mean size\\u000a of gravid shrimps and the size at first maturity declined. This seems to indicate

Frans Witte; Jan H. Wanink

2006-01-01

246

Spawning and Larval Survival of the Pink Shrimp, Penaeus duorarum, in a Small Culture Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eye-enucleated pink shrimp, Penaeus duorarum, were successfully matured, mated, and spawned in 1.23-m diameter tanks. Broodstock of five to six female shrimp spawned, on average, 50% of days during which expanded ovaries were observed. Average daily spawn of viable eggs ranged from 2,750 (September) to 11,026 (March). In a preliminary experiment, shrimp fed the bloodworm, Glycera dibranchiata, as well as

Geraldine M. Cripe

1997-01-01

247

Application of Nucleic-acid-based Therapeutics for Viral Infections in Shrimp Aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral infections are one of the major reasons for the huge economic losses in shrimp farming. The control of viral diseases\\u000a in shrimp remains a serious challenge for the shrimp aquacultural industry, with major pathogens, such as the white spot syndrome\\u000a virus, yellow head virus, Taura syndrome virus, hepatopancreatic parvovirus, and baculoviruses, being geographically widespread.\\u000a In the absence of a

Mudagandur S. Shekhar; Yuanan Lu

2009-01-01

248

Ecological limitations and appropriation of ecosystem support by shrimp farming in Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shrimp farming in mangrove areas has grown dramatically in Asia and Latin America over the past decade. As a result, demand for resources required for farming, such as feed, seed, and clean water, has increased substantially. This study focuses on semiintensive shrimp culture as practiced on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. We estimated the spatial ecosystem support that is required to produce the food inputs, nursery areas, and clean water to the shrimp farms, as well as to process wastes. We also made an estimate of the natural and human-made resources necessary to run a typical semiintensive shrimp farm. The results show that a semiintensive shrimp farm needs a spatial ecosystem support—the ecological footprint—that is 35-190 times larger than the surface area of the farm. A typical such shrimp farm appropriates about 295 J of ecological work for each joule of edible shrimp protein produced. The corresponding figure for industrial energy is 40:1. More than 80% of the ecological primary production required to feed the shrimps is derived from external ecosystems. In 1990 an area of 874-2300 km2 of mangrove was required to supply shrimp postlarvae to the farms in Colombia, corresponding to a total area equivalent to about 20-50% of the country’s total mangrove area. The results were compared with similar estimates for other food production systems, particularly aquacultural ones. The comparison indicates that shrimp farming ranks as one of the most resource-intensive food production systems, characterizing it as an ecologically unsustainable throughput system. Based on the results, we discuss local, national, and regional appropriation of ecological support by the semiintensive shrimp farms. Suggestions are made for how shrimp farming could be transformed into a food production system that is less environmentally degrading and less dependent on external support areas.

Larsson, Jonas; Folke, Carl; Kautsky, Nils

1994-09-01

249

The Importance of Supratidal Habitats for Wintering Shorebirds and the Potential Impacts of Shrimp Aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) aquaculture ponds have replaced significant areas of coastal wetlands throughout tropical Asia. Few studies have assessed\\u000a potential impacts on avian foraging habitats. At Khao Sam Roi Yod National Park, Thailand, seminatural wetlands have been\\u000a converted to either shrimp ponds or to salinization ponds that provide saline water for shrimp aquaculture. Although shorebirds\\u000a cannot feed

M. Yasué; P. Dearden

2009-01-01

250

Visualizing Flow Diagrams in WebSphere Studio Using SHriMP Views  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the integration of an information visualization tool, called SHriMP Views, with IBM WebSphere Studio Application Developer Integration Edition, which was developed with Eclipse technology. Although SHriMP was originally developed for visualizing programs, it is content-independent. We have re-targeted SHriMP for visualizing flow diagrams. Flow diagrams, as supported by WebSphere Studio Appli- cation Developer Integration Edition, can be

Derek Rayside; Marin Litoiu; Margaret-anne D. Storey; Casey Best; Robert Lintern

2003-01-01

251

Carotenoids in Solonocera indica and Aristeus alcocki, Deep-Sea Shrimp from Indian Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenoids are the major pigments responsible for the color of crustaceans like shrimp. Quantitative and qualitative distribution of carotenoids in different body components of deep-sea shrimp Solonocera indica and Aristeus alcocki, from Indian waters were assessed. The yield of waste (head and carapace) from processing of these shrimp ranged from 62.6–65.6%. Carotenoid content was higher in A. alcocki and the

Sachindra Nakkarike Manjabhat; Bhaskar Narayan; Mahendrakar Namdev Subbanna

2006-01-01

252

The visibility of 350 °C black-body radiation by the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata and man  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eye of the 'eyeless' shrimp Rimicaris exoculata is unusual in having no image-forming optics and a high concentration of rhodopsin1. The shrimps swarm around 350 °C hydrothermal 'black smoker' vents in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge2. There is no other known source of visible light in the shrimp's environment. The spectral sensitivity of rhodopsin is well matched to typical spectra of

Denis G. Pelli; Steven C. Chamberlain

1989-01-01

253

A freshwater shrimp (Paratya compressa improvisa) as a sensitive test organism to pesticides.  

PubMed

The susceptibility of 2-week-old individuals of the freshwater shrimp, Paratya compressa improvisa, to five kinds of insecticide and five kinds of herbicide was examined in comparison with that of two species of Cladocera, Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa. The shrimp was especially sensitive to two organophosphorus insecticides. The 48-h LC50 values for fenitrothion and fenthion to the shrimp were 1.15 and 1.04 microg litre(-1) (mean value, n=2), in contrast with 37.8 and 35.3 microg litre(-1) in the case of M. macrocopa, and more than 50 microg litre(-1) with D. magna. The shrimp also showed the higher susceptibility to other insecticides, diazinon, carbaryl (NAC) and BPMC, apart from D. magna to diazinon and NAC. The shrimp also showed higher susceptibility to herbicides. The 48-h LC50 values of CNP, benthiocarb, oxadiazon, butachlor, and symetryne to the shrimp were two to eight times lower than those of two species of Cladocera, except for the LC50 value of oxadiazon to M. macrocopa, which was very slightly higher. However, the shrimp showed a somewhat lower susceptibility to heavy metals than the two species of Cladocera, especially to copper, and to cadmium and zinc in comparison with D. magna. A bioassay using the shrimp with river water, collected from the river adjacent to the paddy field, showed clearly the high mortality of the shrimp following the aerial spraying with pesticides. PMID:15092400

Hatakeyama, S; Sugaya, Y

1989-01-01

254

The environmental impact of shrimp aquaculture: causes, effects, and mitigating alternatives.  

PubMed

Attracted by the demand for shrimp in the developed countries, shrimp aquaculture has expanded rapidly, mainly in the subtropical and tropical lowlands of America and Asia. This work provides a global review and viewpoint on the environmental impacts of shrimp aquaculture, considering the causes and effects of the siting and operation of shrimp ponds and abandonment of farm facilities. Additionally, mitigating alternatives are discussed. To date, approximately 1-1.5 million ha of coastal lowlands have been converted into shrimp ponds, comprising mainly salt flats, mangrove areas, marshes, and agricultural lands. The impact of shrimp farming of most concern is the destruction of mangroves and salt marshes for pond construction. Compatibility with other users, the presence of buffer zones, maintaining an acceptable balance between mangroves and shrimp pond area, improved pond design, reduction of water exchange, and an improved residence time of water, size and capacity to assimilate effluents of the water body, are examples of ways to mitigate the adverse effects. The use of mangroves and halophytes as biofilters of shrimp pond effluents offers an attractive tool for reducing the impact in those regions where mangrove wetlands and appropriate conditions for halophyte plantations exist. Healthy seed supply, good feed with the use of prophylactic agents (including probiotics), good water quality, and lower stocking densities are examples of actions suggested to control disease in shrimp farming. Finally, in the context of integrated management, research priorities are suggested. PMID:11436996

Páez-Osuna, F

2001-07-01

255

Alterations in prey capture and induction of metallothioneins in grass shrimp fed cadmium-contaminated prey  

SciTech Connect

The aquatic oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri from a Cd-contaminated cove on the Hudson River, Foundry Cove, New York, USA, has evolved Cd resistance. Past studies have focused on how the mode of detoxification of Cd by these Cd-resistant worms influences Cd trophic transfer to the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. In the present study, the authors investigate reductions in prey capture in grass shrimp fed Cd-contaminated prey. They also investigate the induction of metal-binding proteins, metallothioneins, in these Cd-exposed shrimp. Grass shrimp were fed field-exposed Cd-contaminated Foundry Cove oligochaetes or laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated Artemia salina. Following these exposures, the ability of Cd- dosed and control shrimp to capture live A. salina was compared. Results show that shrimp fed laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated A. salina for 2 weeks exhibit significant reductions in their ability to successfully capture prey (live A. salina). Reductions in prey capture were also apparent, though not as dramatic in shrimp fed for 1 week on field-exposed Cd-contained Foundry Cove oligochaetes. Shrimp were further investigated for their subcellular distribution of Cd to examine if alterations in prey capture could be linked to saturation of Cd-metallothionein. Cd-dosed shrimp produced a low molecular weight CD-binding metallothionein protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Most importantly, successful prey capture decreased with increased Cd body burdens and increased Cd concentration bound to high molecular weight proteins.

Wallace, W.G.; Hoexum Brouwer, T.M.; Brouwer, M.; Lopez, G.R.

2000-04-01

256

Liquid chromatographic determination of the processing aid 4-hexylresorcinol in shrimp.  

PubMed

A rapid, sensitive, liquid chromatographic (LC) method has been developed for determination of residuals of the processing aid, 4-hexylresorcinol, on shrimp meat. An aqueous homogenate of shrimp meat is extracted with ethyl acetate followed by precolumn preparation on a silica Sep-Pak cartridge. LC determination is preformed with a Nova-Pak C18 column, with UV detection at 214 nm. Sensitivity was 0.006 micrograms, and recovery from shrimp meat samples of known 4-hexylresorcinol addition was 94%. Shrimp treated with 4-hexylresorcinol under the recommended dip protocol had mean residuals of 1.18 ppm, with a standard deviation of 0.13 ppm. PMID:1757407

King, J M; McEvily, A J; Iyengar, R

1991-01-01

257

Acidicapsa borealis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Acidicapsa ligni sp. nov., subdivision 1 Acidobacteria from Sphagnum peat and decaying wood.  

PubMed

Two strains of subdivision 1 Acidobacteria, a pink-pigmented bacterium KA1(T) and a colourless isolate WH120(T), were obtained from acidic Sphagnum peat and wood under decay by the white-rot fungus Hyploma fasciculare, respectively. Cells of these isolates were Gram-negative-staining, non-motile, short rods, which were covered by large polysaccharide capsules and occurred singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) were strictly aerobic mesophiles that grew between 10 and 33 °C, with an optimum at 22-28 °C. Both isolates developed under acidic conditions, but strain WH120(T) was more acidophilic (pH growth range 3.5-6.4; optimum, 4.0-4.5) than strain KA1(T) (pH growth range 3.5-7.3; optimum , 5.0-5.5). The preferred growth substrates were sugars. In addition, the wood-derived isolate WH120(T) grew on oxalate, lactate and xylan, while the peat-inhabiting acidobacterium strain KA1(T) utilized galacturonate, glucuronate and pectin. The major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0) and iso-C(17:1)?8c; the cells also contained significant amounts of 13,16-dimethyl octacosanedioic acid. The quinone was MK-8. The DNA G+C contents of strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) were 54.1 and 51.7 mol%, respectively. Strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) displayed 97.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to each other. The closest recognized relatives were Acidobacterium capsulatum and Telmatobacter bradus (93.4-94.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). These species differed from strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) by their ability to grow under anoxic conditions, the absence of capsules, presence of cell motility and differing fatty acid composition. Based on these differences, the two new isolates are proposed as representing a novel genus, Acidicapsa gen. nov., and two novel species. Acidicapsa borealis gen. nov., sp. nov. is the type species for the new genus with strain KA1(T) (=DSM 23886(T)=LMG 25897(T)=VKM B-2678(T)) as the type strain. The name Acidicapsa ligni sp. nov. is proposed for strain WH120(T) (=LMG 26244(T)=VKM B-2677(T)=NCCB 100371(T)). PMID:21856984

Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Kostina, Lilia A; Valásková, Vendula; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; de Boer, Wietse; Dedysh, Svetlana N

2012-07-01

258

A study of the galaxy redshift distribution towards the cosmic microwave background cold spot in the Corona Borealis supercluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of the spatial and redshift distributions of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies towards the position of CrB-H, a very deep and extended decrement in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), located within the Corona Borealis supercluster (CrB-SC). It was found in a survey with the Very Small Array (VSA) interferometer at 33 GHz, with a peak negative brightness temperature of -230?K, and deviates 4.4? from the Gaussian CMB (Génova-Santos et al.). Observations with the Millimeter and Infrared Testa Grigia Observatory (MITO) suggested that 25+21-18 per cent of this decrement may be caused by the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect (Battistelli et al.). Here, we investigate whether the galaxy distribution could be tracing either a previously unnoticed galaxy cluster or a warm/hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) filament that could build up this tSZ effect. We find that the projected density of galaxies outside Abell clusters and with redshifts 0.05 < z < 0.12 at the position of CrB-H is the highest in the area encompassed by the CrB-SC. Most of these galaxies are located around redshifts z = 0.07 and 0.11, but no clear connection in the form of a filamentary structure is appreciable in between. While the galaxy distribution at z = 0.07 is sparse, we find evidence at z = 0.11 of a galaxy group or a low-mass galaxy cluster. We estimate that this structure could produce a thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect of ~ -18?K. The remaining VSA signal of ~ -212?K is still a significant 4.1? deviation from the Gaussian CMB. However, the MITO error bar allows for a larger tSZ effect, which could be produced by galaxy clusters or superclusters beyond the sensitivity of the SDSS. Contributions from other possible secondary anisotropies associated with these structures are also discussed.

Génova-Santos, Ricardo; Padilla-Torres, Carmen Pilar; Rubiño Martín, José Alberto; Gutiérrez, Carlos M.; Rebolo, Rafael

2010-04-01

259

The Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect in superclusters of galaxies using gasdynamical simulations: the case of Corona Borealis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the thermal (tSZ) and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect associated with superclusters of galaxies using the MareNostrum (MNU) universe smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulation. In particular, we consider superclusters with characteristics (total mass, overdensity and number density of cluster members) similar to those of the Corona Borealis Supercluster (CrB-SC). This paper has been motivated by the detection at 33 GHz of a strong temperature decrement in the cosmic microwave background towards the core of this supercluster (Génova-Santos et al.). Multifrequency observations with Very Small Array (VSA) and Millimetre & Infrared Testa Grigia Observatory (MITO) suggest the existence of a tSZ effect component in the spectrum of this cold spot, with a Comptonization parameter value of y = 7.8+4.4-5.3 × 10-6 (Battistelli et al.), which would account for roughly 25 per cent of the total observed decrement. From the SPH simulation, we identify nine (50h-1Mpc)3 regions containing superclusters similar to CrB-SC, obtain the associated SZ maps and calculate the probability of finding such SZ signals arising from hot gas within the supercluster. Our results show that the warm/hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) lying in the intercluster regions within the supercluster produces a tSZ effect much smaller than the observed value by MITO/VSA. Neither can, summing the contribution of small clusters and galaxy groups (M < 5 × 1013h-1Msolar) in the region, explain the amplitude of the SZ signal. Our synthetic maps show peak y-values significantly below the observations. Less than 0.3 per cent are compatible at the lower end of the 1? level, even when considering privileged orientations in which the filamentary structures are aligned along the line of sight (LOS). When we take into account the actual posterior distribution from the observations, the probability that WHIM can cause a tSZ signal like the one observed in the CrB-SC is <1 per cent, rising up to a 3.2 per cent when the contribution of small clusters and galaxy groups is included. If the simulations provide a suitable description of the gas physics, then we must conclude that the tSZ component of the CrB spot most probably arises from an unknown galaxy cluster along the LOS. On the other hand, the simulations also show that the kSZ signal associated with the supercluster cannot provide an explanation for the remaining 75 per cent of the observed cold spot in CrB.

Flores-Cacho, I.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Luzzi, G.; Rebolo, R.; de Petris, M.; Yepes, G.; Lamagna, L.; de Gregori, S.; Battistelli, E. S.; Coratella, R.; Gottlöber, S.

2009-12-01

260

Clues to the Evolution of the R Coronae Borealis Stars from their Unique 16O/18O ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report new spectroscopic observations of the CO bands near 2.3 micron in order to measure the 16O/18O isotopic ratio in the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars using IRTF/SpeX. These observations of ten additional stars confirm the remarkable discovery made a few years ago that the hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) and RCB stars have 16O/18O ratios that are close to and in some cases less than unity, values that are orders of magnitude smaller than measured in other stars (the Solar value is 500). The RCB stars are a small group of carbon-rich supergiants. Only about 100 RCB stars are known in the Galaxy. Their defining characteristics are hydrogen deficiency and unusual variability - RCB stars undergo massive declines of up to 8 mag due to the formation of carbon dust at irregular intervals. The six known HdC stars are very similar to the RCB stars spectroscopically, but do not show declines or IR excesses. Two scenarios have been proposed for the origin of an RCB star: the double degenerate and the final helium-shell flash models. The former involves the merger of a CO- and a He-white dwarf. In the latter, a star evolving into a planetary nebula central star expands to supergiant size by a final, helium-shell flash. Greatly enhanced 18O is evident in every HdC and RCB we have measured that is cool enough to have detectable CO bands. This discovery is important evidence to help distinguish between the proposed evolutionary pathways of HdC and RCB stars. No overproduction of 18O is expected in a final flash, so we are investigating the merger scenario. We are working to reproduce the observed 16O/18O ratios by performing hydrodynamical simulations of the merger of CO- and He-WDs to investigate the formation of RCB stars. We are also using the MESA stellar evolution and NuGrid nucleosynthesis codes to construct post-merger 1D spherical models and follow their evolution into the region of the HR diagram where RCB stars are located.

Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Montiel, Edward J.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Welch, Douglas L.; Tisserand, Patrick

2014-06-01

261

Selective preservation of chitin during the decay of shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preservation potential of chitin in the marine environment is a matter of debate. To determine the relative survival of chitin and other organic components, the shrimp Crangon was decayed under different laboratory conditions. Solid state 13C NMR and Curie point pyrolysis-gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry demonstrated that slightly transformed chitin represents the major component of the remaining biomass after

M. Baas; D. E. G. Briggs; J. D. H. Van Heemst; A. J. Kear; J. W. De Leeuw

1995-01-01

262

Issues, impacts, and implications of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface\\u000a salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable\\u000a when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond\\u000a sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just

Forrest E. Dierberg; Woraphan Kiattisimkul

1996-01-01

263

Physicochemical and functional characteristics of radiation-processed shrimp chitosan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of gamma irradiation on chitosan samples were determined in terms of physicochemical and functional properties. Shrimp chitosan was extracted from shell using a chemical process involving demineralization, deproteinization, decolorization and deacetylation. Commercial snow chitosan was also used. Samples (in a solid state) were given irradiation dose of 25kGy at a dose rate of 1.1013kGy\\/h in air and 0kGy

F. C. K. Ocloo; E. T. Quayson; A. Adu-Gyamfi; E. A. Quarcoo; D. Asare; Y. Serfor-Armah; B. K. Woode

2011-01-01

264

Virtual memory mapped network interface for the SHRIMP multicomputer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The network interfaces of existing multicomputers require a significant amount of software overhead to provide protection and to implement message passing protocols. This paper describes the design of a low-latency, high-bandwidth, virtual memory-mapped network interface for the SHRIMP multicomputer project at Princeton University. Without sacrificing protection, the network interface achieves low latency by using virtual memory mapping and write-latency hiding

Matthias A. Blumrich; Kai Li; Richard Alpert; Cezary Dubnicki; Edward W. Felten; Jonathan Sandberg

1994-01-01

265

Water Diagnosis in Shrimp Aquaculture based on Neural Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many countries, the shrimp aquaculture has not advanced computational systems to supervise the artificial habitat of the farms and laboratories. A computational system of this type helps significantly to improve the environmental conditions and to elevate the production and its quality. The main idea of this study is the creation of a system using an artificial neural network (ANN), which can help to recognize patterns of problems and their evolution in shrimp aquaculture, and thus to respond with greater rapidity against the negative effects. Bad control on the shrimp artificial habitat produces organisms with high stress and as consequence losses in their defenses. It generate low nutrition, low reproduction or worse still, they prearrange to acquire lethal diseases. The proposed system helps to control this problem. Environmental variables as pH, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and turbidity have an important effect in the suitable growth of the shrimps and influence in their health. However, the exact mathematical model of this relationship is unspecified; an ANN is useful for establishing a relationship between these variables and to classify a status that describes a problem into the farm. The data classification is made to recognize and to quantify two states within the pool: a) Normal: Everything is well. b) Risk: One, some or all environmental variables are outside of the allowed interval, which generates problems. The neural network will have to recognize the state and to quantify it, in others words, how normal or risky it is, which allows finding trend of the water quality. A study was developed for designing a software tool that allows recognizing the status of the water quality and control problems for the environment into the pond.

Carbajal Hernández, J. J.; Sánchez Fernández, L. P.

2007-05-01

266

Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Shrimp Head Waste: Functional and Biochemical Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp head of Penaeus kerathurus obtained from industrial processing, were hydrolyzed by commercial trypsin (0.1%). Hydrolysis reaction was terminated by heat inactivation of the enzyme (95°C) followed by centrifugation. The produced protein hydrolysates were characterized by biochemical analysis for protein content, total free amino acids (FAA), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and electrophoresis SDS-PAGE profile. Functional properties such as emulsifying

Zouhour Limam; Saloua Sadok; Amor El Abed

2008-01-01

267

DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF BURROWING SHRIMP IN TWO OREGON ESTUARIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ESTUARINE-SCALE NITROGEN DYNAMICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of Pacific estuarine tide flats, from British Columbia to Baja California. The spatial distribution of shrimp populations within estuaries has rarely been quantified because ...

268

IMPACT OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS ON C, N CYCLING AND WATER QUALITY IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN TEMPERATE ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (predominantly, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of tide flats in North American Pacific estuaries, from British Columbia to Baja California. Feeding, burrowing, and burrow irrigation by burrowing shrimp can ...

269

IMPACT OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS ON NITROGEN CYCLING AND WATER QUALITY IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN TEMPERATE ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (predominantly, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of tide flats in North American Pacific estuaries, from British Columbia to Baja California. Feeding, burrowing, and burrow irrigation by burrowing shrimp can ...

270

75 FR 20548 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-AY58 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Revisions...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf FMP) and the Fishery...

2010-04-20

271

77 FR 1045 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-BB61 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Revisions...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf FMP) and the Fishery...

2012-01-09

272

75 FR 28760 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-AY58 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Revisions...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf FMP) and the Fishery...

2010-05-24

273

These Squatters Are Not Innocent: The Evidence of Parasitism in Sponge-Inhabiting Shrimps  

PubMed Central

Marine sponges are frequently inhabited by a wide range of associated invertebrates, including caridean shrimps. Symbiotic shrimps are often considered to be commensals; however, in most cases, the relationship with sponge hosts remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that sponge-inhabiting shrimps are often parasites adapted to consumption of sponge tissues. First, we provide detailed examination of morphology and stomach contents of Typton carneus (Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae), a West Atlantic tropical shrimp living in fire sponges of the genus Tedania. Remarkable shear-like claws of T. carneus show evidence of intensive shearing, likely the result of crushing siliceous sponge spicules. Examination of stomach contents revealed that the host sponge tissue is a major source of food for T. carneus. A parasitic mode of life is also reflected in adaptations of mouth appendages, in the reproduction strategy, and in apparent sequestration of host pigments by shrimp. Consistent results were obtained also for congeneric species T. distinctus (Western Atlantic) and T. spongicola (Mediterranean). The distribution of shrimps among sponge hosts (mostly solitary individuals or heterosexual pairs) suggests that Typton shrimps actively prevent colonisation of their sponge by additional conspecifics, thus protecting their resource and reducing the damage to the hosts. We also demonstrate feeding on host tissues by sponge-associated shrimps of the genera Onycocaris, Periclimenaeus, and Thaumastocaris (Pontoniinae) and Synalpheus (Alpheidae). The parasitic mode of life appears to be widely distributed among sponge-inhabiting shrimps. However, it is possible that under some circumstances, the shrimps provide a service to the host sponge by preventing a penetration by potentially more damaging associated animals. The overall nature of interspecific shrimp-sponge relationships thus warrants further investigation.

Duris, Zdenek; Horka, Ivona; Juracka, Petr Jan; Petrusek, Adam; Sandford, Floyd

2011-01-01

274

Chronic toxicity of nitrate to Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei: Impacts on survival, growth, antennae length, and pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic toxicity of nitrate (NO3?) has not been well documented in the culture of penaeid shrimp. To interpret this problem, lab-scale research was conducted in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) to determine the long-term impacts of nitrate on shrimp growth, survival, total mass of shrimp per system (shrimp biomass), antennae length, and tissue pathology. The first experiment, Trial (A), was performed

David D. Kuhn; Stephen A. Smith; Gregory D. Boardman; Matthew W. Angier; Lori Marsh; George J. Flick

2010-01-01

275

Effects of Clam Shrimp on Production of Walleye and Northern Pike, and a Review of Clam Shrimp Control Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of clam shrimp, Caenestheriella belfragei, populations in fish culture ponds were studied to evaluate their effect on yield of fingerling northern pike, Esox lucius, or walleye, Stizostedion vitreum. The studies were carried out on twenty-three 0.64-ha ponds during the culture season for northern pike and on 19 of the same ponds during the season for walleye. Ponds were

James M. Luzier; Robert C. Summerfelt

1996-01-01

276

Comparison of heat-shock responses between the hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata and the related coastal shrimp Palaemonetes varians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deep-sea vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata is believed to occur at the hot end of the hydrothermal biotope in order to provide essential elements to its epibiosis. Because it is found close to hot venting water, R. exoculata lives in a highly fluctuating environment where temperature (2–40°C in the swarms) can exceed its critical maximal temperature (33–38.5±2°C). In order to

Delphine Cottin; Bruce Shillito; Thomas Chertemps; Sven Thatje; Nelly Léger; Juliette Ravaux

2010-01-01

277

News from a small island – first record of a freshwater shrimp (Decapoda, Atyidae, Caridina) from Peleng, Banggai Islands, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indonesian island Sulawesi is well known for its fascinating fauna. Among the atyid and palaemonid freshwater shrimps described from Sulawesi are also a number of endemic species. In contrast, freshwater shrimps have never been reported from the nearby and smaller Peleng Island. Here we describe Caridina thomasi sp. nov. as a first record of an atyid freshwater shrimp from

Kristina von Rintelen; Andreas Karge; Werner Klotz

2008-01-01

278

Effect of Low-Dose gamma Irradiation on the Shelf-Life and Quality of Frozen Shrimp (Penaeus Merquiensis).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of low-dose gamma irradiation on the shelf-life and quality of frozen shrimp (Penaeus merquiensis) has been studied. Fresh peeled shrimp and shell on headless shrimp were frozen and irradiated at doses of 2 and 4 kGy and held at -18 degC for s...

K. Nouchpramool S. Songprasertchai S. Pungsilpa

1983-01-01

279

Studies on the Toxicity of Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) Fed Diets Dosed with Aflatoxin B1 to Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the potential for transmission of aflatoxin B1 to humans through consumption of shrimp contaminated with this toxin. Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) were fed diets dosed with three levels of afaltoxin B1 (300, 400, and 900 ppb) in an 8 week indoor aquarium feeding trial. The shrimp were analyzed for residues of

S. Divakaran; Albert G. J. Tacon

2000-01-01

280

[Freshwater Pearl mussels of the genus Margaritifera (Mollusca: Bivalvia) described as M. elongata (Lamarck, 1819) and M. borealis (Westerlund, 1871) should be classified with M. margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758)].  

PubMed

The shells of Pearl mussels from the basins of the Solza, Keret', and Umba rivers flowing into the White Sea have been measured to determine the ratio of shell convexity to its maximum height. This ratio is the main character that, according to Bogatov et al. (2003), allows one to distinguish between three species of the genus Margaritifera: M. margaritifera, M. elongata, and M. borealis. It has been found that the above ratio gradually increases as the shell grows. Therefore, this character is unsuitable for species diagnosis, the more so that no hiatus in it between the three forms of pearl mussels has been revealed in any of the samples studied. On this basis, it may be concluded that Northern Europe, including Russia, is inhabited by only one species of pearl mussels, M. margaritifera. PMID:18491570

Sergeeva, I S; Bolotov, I N; Bespalaia, Iu V; Makhrov, A A; Bukhanova, A L; Artamonova, V S

2008-01-01

281

A redescription of two atyid shrimps (Decapoda: Caridina) from Central Sulawesi, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two atyid shrimp species Caridina buehleri and Caridina appendiculata have not been reported since their first description many years ago. Based on new material from the Luwuk Peninsula in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, we here redescribe these poorly known species and provide a discussion of their taxonomic status. In addition, we give a brief review of the atyid shrimp known

W. KLOTZ; A. KARGE; K. VON RINTELEN

2007-01-01

282

Toxicant effects on reproduction and disruption of the egg-length relationship in grass shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grass shrimp have been used extensively for acute toxicity tests with pesticides, metals, chlorine, simulated effluents, radiation, and others. Their use in acute toxicity tests has been recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for effluents (PELTIER 1978),hazardous materials (USEPA 1975), premanufacture notification (USEPA 1979), and ocean disposal (TYLER-SCHROEDER 1978b, c). This broad use of grass shrimp in

A. L. Buikema; B. R. Niederlehner; J. Cairns

1980-01-01

283

Velocity Measurements of a Pistol Shrimp's Micro Water Jet Using High Speed PIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pistol shrimp generates a high speed micro water jet that was studied experimentally using time resolved particle image velocimetry. The pistol shrimp, with an average size of about 5.5 cm, is considered to be one of the loudest animals in the world. The sound generated can reach intensity levels as high as 200 db. In the past, it was

J. Torres; S. Wong; M. Zarzecki; Y. Cheng; F. J. Diez

2007-01-01

284

Estimating density of intertidal ghost shrimps using counts of burrow openings. Is the method reliable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether surface hole counts could be used as a reliable estimate of density of the ghost shrimps Trypaea australiensis Dana 1852 and Biffarius arenosus Poore 1975 (Decapoda, Thalassinidea) in south eastern Australia. The relationship between the number of holes and the number\\u000a of ghost shrimps was explored in two ways. Resin casts were used to document any

Sarah Butler; Fiona L. Bird

2007-01-01

285

A Study of the Bacterial Spoilage Patterns in Iced 'Penaeus' Shrimp.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the numbers and types of bacteria developing on ice stored shrimp has been conducted. Pseudomonas species were studied as the predominant bacterial type present on shrimp at the onset of spoilage, comprising greater than 95% of the population p...

D. W. Cook

1970-01-01

286

Detection of yellowhead virus and Chinese baculovirus in penaeid shrimp by the Western blot technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuing threat posed by viral diseases in cultured shrimp calls for the development of detection technologies for monitoring the animals, especially broodstock. Two of the most highly pathogenic viruses of penaeid shrimp are the yellow-head virus (YHV) and Chinese baculovirus (CBV, also called white spot baculovirus). A Western blot (WB) protocol capable of detecting YHV and CBV in the

Elpidio Cesar B. Nadala; Lourdes M. Tapay; Shurong Cao; Philip C. Loh

1997-01-01

287

BIOACCUMULATION OF KEPONE BY GRASS SHRIMP (PALAEMONETIS PUGIO): IMPORTANCE OF DIETARY ACCUMULATION AND INGESTION RATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The relative extent of dietary accumulation and bioconcentration of Kepone by grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) was quantitatively evaluated at food rations of 4 and of the average wet weight of the shrimp. 14C]Kepone was utilized to determine bioconcentration and dietary accumul...

288

On the Spinicaudata (Branchiopoda) from Lake Cuitzeo, Michoacán, México: First report of a clam shrimp fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuitzeo is the second largest lake in México (ca. 425 km2). Indigenous people collect clam shrimp (locally known as `conchilla') and sell them dry as pets' food; the income is important for the local economy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a clam shrimp fishery. Two conchilla species co-occur: Eocyzicus digueti (Richard) and Leptestheria compleximanus (Packard). They

María Araceli Martínez-Pantoja; Javier Alcocer; Alejandro M. Maeda-Martínez

2002-01-01

289

The U.S. Shrimp Industry: Past Trends and Prospects for the 1970's.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. shrimp industry has expanded rapidly during the last two decades and is expected to continue growing during the 1970's. Production has grown in recent years because of rapidly increasing catches of northern shrimp. Total production likely will co...

D. R. Whitaker

1973-01-01

290

50 CFR 622.208 - Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida. 622.208 Section 622.208 Wildlife...applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida. (a) The minimum mesh size for the...the South Atlantic EEZ off Georgia and Florida is 17/8 inches (4.8...

2013-10-01

291

Bioaccumulation of Kepone by Grass Shrimp ('Palaemonetes pugio'): Importance of Dietary Accumulation and Food Ration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relative extent of dietary accumulation and bioconcentration of Kepone by grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) was quantitatively evaluated at food rations of 4 and 8% of the average wet weight of the shrimp. (14)C-Kepone was utilized to determine biocon...

D. J. Fisher J. R. Clark

1990-01-01

292

Hydraulic activities by ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis induce oxic-anoxic oscillations in sediments  

EPA Science Inventory

We applied porewater pressure sensing, time-lapse photography and planar optode imaging of oxygen to investigate hydraulic behaviors of the Thalassinidean ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis and the associated dynamics of oxygen in and around their burrows. Ghost shrimp were h...

293

MODELING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SHRIMP MARICULTURE AND WATER QUALITY IN THE RIO CHONE ESTUARY, ECUADOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The Rio Chone estuary in Ecuador has been heavily altered by the conversion of over 90% of the original mangrove forest to shrimp ponds. We carried out computational experiments using both hydrodynamic and shrimp pond models to investigate factors leading to declines in estuarine...

294

The American brine shrimp as an exotic invasive species in the western Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypersaline environments and salterns present in the western Mediterranean region (including Italy, southern France, the\\u000a Iberian Peninsula and Morocco) contain autochthonous forms of the brine shrimp Artemia, with parthenogenetic diploid and tetraploid strains coexisting with the bisexual species A. salina. Introduced populations of the American brine shrimp A. franciscana have also been recorded in these Mediterranean environments since the

Francisco Amat; Francisco Hontoria; Olga Ruiz; Andy J. Green; Marta I. Sánchez; Jordi Figuerola; Francisco Hortas

2005-01-01

295

Constructed wetlands as recirculation filters in large-scale shrimp aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluent waters from shrimp aquaculture, which can contain elevated levels of phosphorus, ammonia, nitrate, and organics, must be managed properly if shrimp aquaculture is to achieve sustainability. Constructed wetlands are ecologically beneficial, low cost treatment alternatives proven capable of reducing suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals from wastewater of many sources. The goal of this

David Rogers Tilley; Harish Badrinarayanan; Ronald Rosati; Jiho Son

2002-01-01

296

The Efficiency of a Bycatch Reduction Device Used in Skimmer Trawls in the Florida Shrimp Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of principal concern to those who regulate shrimp harvesting gear are the quantity and composition of nontargeted species (bycatch) harvested by any allowable gear type. The use of skimmer trawls in the Florida shrimp fishery is a contested issue, in part because little bycatch characterization data exist for this gear. We characterized skimmer trawl bycatch and evaluated the efficiency of

Daniel A. Warner; Anne L. McMillen-Jackson; Theresa M. Bert; Charles R. Crawford

2004-01-01

297

FEEDING RATES OF THE MUD SHRIMP UPOGEBIA PUGETTENSIS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ESTUARINE PHYTOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The burrowing shrimp Upogebia pugettensis is an abundant inhabitant of Pacific Northwest bays and estuaries where it lives commensally with the clam Cryptomya californica. Suspension-feeding activities of the shrimp and its commensal clam, as well as particle settlement within t...

298

Water Management to Control Clam Shrimp, Cyzicus morsie in Walleye, Stizostedion vitreum, Production Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clam shrimp, Cyzicus morsie , can occur in hatchery ponds in such dense numbers that they interfere with production of fish. Hatchery ponds are frequently left dry during the fall and winter and are filed in spring or early summer, simulating the vernal pools where clam shrimp naturally occur. Ponds left dry over winter and ponds that were full over

James M. Czarnezki; Ernest J. Hamilton; Bruce A. Wagner

1994-01-01

299

Genetic diversity of wild and cultured Black Tiger Shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) in the Philippines using microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six microsatellites were used to study (1) the genetic diversity of wild Penaeus monodon shrimp from four geographic regions (Palawan, Quezon, Capiz and Negros Occidental-W) in the Philippines, and (2) its association with the status of mangroves and intensity of shrimp culture systems in these regions. Two cultured populations (Negros Occidental-C and Antique) were used for comparison. All six microsatellite

Zhenkang Xu; Jurgenne H Primavera; Leobert D de la Pena; Priscilla Pettit; Jane Belak; Acacia Alcivar-Warren

2001-01-01

300

USE OF THE GRASS SHRIMP 'PALAEMONETES PUGIO' IN A LIFE-CYCLE TOXICITY TEST  

EPA Science Inventory

A methodology for using the estuarine grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) in life-cycle toxicity tests was successfully developed. Life-cycle exposures of juvenile shrimp (12 to 19 mm in rostrum-telson length) to the chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide endrin were begun in November 1...

301

50 CFR 654.24 - Shrimp/stone crab separation zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. 654.24 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.24 Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. Five...

2009-10-01

302

50 CFR 654.24 - Shrimp/stone crab separation zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. 654.24 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.24 Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. Five...

2010-10-01

303

Review of the Rock Shrimp Fishery off the East Coast of the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report represents a summary of landings and effort data for south Atlantic rock shrimp during the eleven year period from 1981 through 1991. The majority of the rock shrimp landed from the east coast of the United States are Sicyonia brevirostris. The...

J. M. Nance

1993-01-01

304

The deep sea shrimp fishery off Brazil (Decapoda: Aristeidae): development and present status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a deep-sea fishery for aristeid shrimps off Brazil is reviewed from its early days in 2002. Descriptive data were collected by observers on board 75 directed fishing trips conducted in the study period, with a total of over 15,000 monitored trawls. An incipient fishing phase took place between No- vember 2000 and October 2002, when aristeid shrimps

Rodrigo Dallagnolo; Jose Angel Alvarez Perez; Paulo Ricardo Pezzuto; Roberto Wahrlich

2009-01-01

305

Arsenic speciation in shrimp and mussel from the Mid-Atlantic hydrothermal vents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specimens of shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and mussel (Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis) were collected 3500 m below the ocean surface at the hydrothermal vents of the mid-Atlantic Ridge (TAG and Snake Pit sites, respectively). Arsenic, a potentially toxic element, is among the substances emitted by the hydrothermal vents. The hydrothermal vent shrimp, which are known to be a primary consumer of the primary

Erik H. Larsen; Christophe R. Quétel; Riansares Munoz; Aline Fiala-Medioni; Olivier F. X. Donard

1997-01-01

306

Tomography of Bacteria-Mineral Associations Within the Deep sea Hydrothermal Vent Shrimp Rimicaris exoculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical and temperature conditions around deep sea hydrothermal vents are both dynamic and extreme, yet the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata flourishes around these environments on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) . The epibiotic bacteria and minerals found within the branchial chamber of the shrimp are of great interest in the search for a chemical model for the Rainbow MAR hydrothermal vent

L. Anderson; J. Lechaire; G. Frebourg; T. Boudier; M. Zbinden; F. Gaill

2005-01-01

307

Ir on oxide deposits associated with the ectosymbiotic bacteria in the hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rimicaris exoculata shrimp is considered as a primary consumer that dominates the fauna of most Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) hydrothermal ecosystems. These shrimps harbour in their gill chambers an important ec- tosymbiotic community of chemoautotrophic bacteria asso- ciated with iron oxide deposits. The structure and elemen- tal composition of the mineral concretions associated with these bacteria have been investigated by

L. Corbari; M.-A. Cambon-Bonavita; G. J. Long; F. Grandjean; M. Zbinden; F. Gaill

2008-01-01

308

Iron oxide deposits associated with the ectosymbiotic bacteria in the hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rimicaris exoculata shrimp is considered a primary consumer that dominates the fauna of most Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) hydrothermal ecosystems. These shrimps harbour in their gill chambers an important ectosymbiotic community of chemoautotrophic bacteria associated with iron oxide deposits. The structure and elemental composition of the minerals associated with these bacteria have been investigated by using X-ray microanalyses, light microscopy,

L. Corbari; M.-A. Cambon-Bonavita; G. J. Long; F. Grandjean; M. Zbinden; F. Gaill; P. Compère

2008-01-01

309

Effect of gamma-irradiation on frozen shrimps for decontamination of pathogenic bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twelve samples of imported frozen shrimps were used in this study. The total aerobic bacteria were at 2 × 10 4 to 6 × 10 6 per gram. A few of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. mimicus, V. alginolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. fluvialis and Listeria monocytogenes were isolated from many samples. However, Salmonella was not detected in any of the samples. After exposure to 4-5 kGy of gamma-rays, the total aerobic bacteria in frozen shrimps were reduced by approximately 2-3 log cycles. The dose necessary to reduce the vibrio isolates and Aeromonas hydrophila at a level of below 10 -4 per gram was about 3 kGy in frozen shrimps, whereas about 3.5 kGy was required for L. monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. In this study, unpleasant off-odor was clearly detected in the non-frozen shrimps irradiated at 2.5 kGy. On the other hand, off-odor was negligible in the frozen product below 5 kGy irradiation. No remarkable changes of peroxide values were also obtained up to 9 kGy of irradiation in the frozen shrimps. However peroxide values of non-frozen shrimps were clearly increased even irradiated at 4 kGy. Trimethylamine content was not changed at doses below 10 kGy in both of frozen and non-frozen shrimps. Shelf-life of defrosted shrimps were extended ca. 2 times under non-frozen market conditions.

Ito, Hitoshi; Rashid, Harun Or; Sangthong, Naruemon; Adulyatham, Pitaya; Rattagool, Pongpen; Ishigaki, Isao

1993-07-01

310

Evidence of an active laccase-like enzyme in deepwater pink shrimp ( Parapenaeus longirostris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates the presence of an active laccase-like enzyme from deepwater pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This enzyme was found in all anatomical parts of the deepwater pink shrimp, but particularly in the cephalothorax, and became active during the course of storage. Gel staining with laccase-specific substrates such as ADA, DMP and DAB was used to

Oscar Martínez-Alvarez; Pilar Montero; Carmen Gómez-Guillén

2008-01-01

311

Contrast enhancement through structural variations in the rhabdoms of oplophorid shrimps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhabdom morphology in oplophorid shrimps varies both interspecifically and also within the eye of an individual, particularly with respect to the relative sizes of distal and proximal rhabdoms. We have combined published data on anatomical measurements, visual pigment absorption, and underwater light distribution to model the absorptance of light from different sources by the rhabdoms in these shrimps. In Systellaspis

E. Gaten; P. M. J. Shelton; M. S. Nowel

2004-01-01

312

Spectral Sensitivity of Vision and Bioluminescence in the Midwater Shrimp Sergestes similis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the oceanic midwater environment, many fish, squid, and shrimp use luminescent countershading to remain cryptic to silhouette-scanning predators. The mid- water penaeid shrimp, Sergestes similis Hansen, responds to downward-directed light with a dim bioluminescence that dynamically matches the spectral radiance of oceanic down- welling light at depth. Although the sensory basis of lumi- nescent countershading behavior is visual, the

S. M. LINDSAY; T. M. FRANK; J. KENT; J. C. PARTRIDGE; M. I. LATZ

313

78 FR 33350 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand,'' dated concurrently with...Public Co., Ltd./Thai Union Seafood Co., Ltd. (TUF/TUS...Ltd./Thai Union 2.09. Seafood Co., Ltd...entries of frozen shrimp from Thailand that are entered, or...

2013-06-04

314

Comparing the efficiency of chitosan with chlorine for reducing Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thailand is one of the leading exporters of frozen shrimp to many countries. Chlorine is the decontaminating agent most frequently used in the frozen shrimp industries to kill potential pathogens. However, long time contact to chlorine causes severe respiratory tract damage. In this study, chitosan was compared to chlorine for reducing Vibrio parahaemolyticus. In vitro investigation, chitosan could reduce more

S. Chaiyakosa; W. Charernjiratragul; K. Umsakul; V. Vuddhakul

2007-01-01

315

Evolution of mantis shrimps (Stomatopoda, Malacostraca) in the light of new Mesozoic fossils  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We describe new specimens of Mesozoic mantis shrimps (Stomatopoda, Malacostraca) that exhibit morphological and developmental information previously unknown. RESULTS: Specimens assigned to the taxon Sculda exhibit preserved pleopods, thoracopods including all four raptorial limbs as well as details of antennae and antennulae. The pleopods and the antennulae resemble those of the modern mantis shrimps, but the raptorial limbs are

Joachim T Haug; Carolin Haug; Andreas Maas; Verena Kutschera; Dieter Waloszek

2010-01-01

316

Little Shrimp, Big Results: A Model of an Integrative, Cross-Curricular Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This integrative, cross-curricular lab engages middle school biology students in an exercise involving ecology, arthropod biology, and mathematics. Students research the anatomy and behavioral patterns of a species of brine shrimp, compare the anatomy of adult and juvenile brine shrimp, and graph and interpret results. In this article, the authors…

Ackerson, Nicole; Piser, Carol; Walka, Keith

2010-01-01

317

EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON THE SHRIMPS, 'PENAEUS DUORARUM', 'PALAEMONETES PUGIO' AND 'PALAEMONETES VULGARIS'  

EPA Science Inventory

Data from this experiment show that grass shrimp, Palaemonetes vulgaris, were acutely and chronically more sensitive to cadmium than the pink shrimp, Penaeus duorarum. Bioaccumulation of cadmium from water occurred at concentrations as low as 2 micrograms/l in P. duorarum and 7.9...

318

Growth overfishing in the brown shrimp fishery of Texas, Louisiana, and adjoining Gulf of Mexico EEZ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth overfishing in the brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus aztecus, fishery in inshore (estuarine) and offshore (Gulf of Mexico) territorial waters of Texas and Louisiana, and adjoining waters of the United States’ (U.S.) Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), and its potentially detrimental economic consequences to the harvesting sector, have not been among major concerns of Federal and State shrimp management agencies. Three possible

C CAILLOUETJR; R. A. Hart; J. M. Nance

2008-01-01

319

Virion composition and genomics of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its first discovery in Taiwan in 1992, White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused major economic damage to shrimp culture. The virus has spread rapidly through Asia and reached the Western Hemisphere in 1995 (Texas), where it continued its devastating effect further into Central- and South-America. In cultured shrimp WSSV infection can reach a cumulative mortality of up to

Hulten van M. C. W

2001-01-01

320

Identification of Continuous, Allergenic Regions of the Major Shrimp Allergen Pen a 1 (Tropomyosin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Crustaceans and mollusks are a frequent cause of allergic reactions. The only major allergen identified in shrimp is the muscle protein tropomyosin; at least 80% of shrimp-allergic subjects react to tropomyosin. Furthermore, tropomyosin is an important allergen in other crustaceans such as lobsters, crabs and mollusks, as well as other arthropods such as house dust mites and cockroaches, and

R. Ayuso; S. B. Lehrer; G. Reese

2002-01-01

321

Evaluate of heavy metal concentration in shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) and crab (Portunus pelagicus) with INAA method.  

PubMed

The level of the heavy metal in green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) and crab (Portunus pelagicus) caught off the Persian Gulf near Bushehr province were investigated. This study was performed to evaluate instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to analyze heavy metal concentration in crab and shrimp whole body tissue. The order of the swimmer crab and shrimp heavy metal concentrations were Zn>Fe>As>Mn>Co and Fe>Zn>Mn>As>Co, respectively. The results showed swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) and shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) caught off Persian gulf, were contaminated with high level of As (21.38±3.31ppm and 8.28±2.82 ppm, respectively). High levels of As and Mn were noted in crabs and shrimp, respectively. PMID:23487484

Heidarieh, Marzieh; Maragheh, Mohammad Ghannadi; Shamami, Mehrdad Azizi; Behgar, Mehdi; Ziaei, Farhood; Akbari, Zahra

2013-12-01

322

Predation by dipteran larvae on fairy shrimp (Crustacea: Anostraca) in Utah rock pools  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A series of experiments examined how ecological factors affect notonectid foraging success on fairy shrimp. Variation in pond depth over natural ranges had no direct effect on notonectid ability to capture fairy shrimp. Decreases in water clarity over natural ranges led to decreased notonectid ability to capture fairy shrimp. This corresponds with the observation that six weeks after the fairy shrimp hatched they were more likely to be present in cloudy ponds than in ponds containing clearer water. If correct, this is a situation where physical factors have a major effect on how a biological interaction influences the local distribution of species. It appears water depth indirectly affects notonectid foraging rates, as shallow ponds are apparently made cloudy by wind-driven waves disturbing the bottom mud. These results suggest the notonectid-fairy shrimp interaction will not be a constant for any given pond, but will depend on abiotic factors like amount of rainfall and frequency of windy conditions.

Graham, T. B.

1994-01-01

323

[Cholesterol oxidation products in fresh and frozen shrimps, raw and grilled].  

PubMed

Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) have been related to different toxic effects, being the atherosclerotic process one of the best known. The presence of cholesterol oxides in freshly and frozenly commercialised shrimps, both raw and grilled, was studied. The determination was made by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). Fresh shrimps showed significant amounts of all analysed COPs, except for 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol, accounting in total for 33.15 microg COPs/g fat. In contrast, in frozen commercialised shrimps only 7-ketocholesterol and 7beta-hydroxycholesterol were detected. These results point out the great effectiveness of the commercialisation of this type of products under freezing, in terms of to the minimisation of the COPs formation. The cooking method (grilling) increased the COPs content in both types of shrimps, reaching 55.43 microg COPs/g fat in fresh shrimps and only 13.06 microg COPs/g fat in frozen ones. PMID:16045132

Echarte, M; Conchillo, A; Ansoren, D; Astiasarán, I

2005-01-01

324

Scanning electron microscope observations of brine shrimp larvae from space shuttle experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brine shrimp are encysted as gastrula stage embryos, and may remain dehydrated and encysted for years without compromising their viability. This aspect of brine shrimp biology is desirable for studying development of animals during space shuttle flight, as cysts placed aboard a spacecraft may be rehydrated at the convenience of an astronaut, guaranteeing that subsequent brine shrimp development occurs only on orbit and not on the pad during launch delays. Brine shrimp cysts placed in 5 ml syringes were rehydrated with salt water and hatched during a 9 day space shuttle mission. Subsequent larvae developed to the 8th larval stage in the sealed syringes. We studied the morphogenesis of the brine shrimp larvae and found the larvae from the space shuttle experiments similar in rate of growth and extent of development, to larvae grown in sealed syringes on the ground. Extensive differentiation and development of embryos and larvae can occur in a microgravity environment.

DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Spooner, B.

1992-01-01

325

A multi-biomarker approach to assess the impact of farming systems on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).  

PubMed

This study examined the advantages of the use of biomarkers as an early warning system by applying it to different shrimp farming systems in Soctrang and Camau provinces, main shrimp producers in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp were collected at 15 different farms divided into four different farming systems: three farms were converted from originally rice paddies into intensive shrimp farming systems (IS1, IS2, IS3); three farms were rice-shrimp integrated farming systems (RS4, RS5, RS6); three farms were intensive farming systems (IS7, IS8, IS9); six farms were extensive shrimp farming systems (From ES1 to ES6). Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total glutathione (GSH) were measured as well as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase activities (ACHE). Organ specificity was observed between gills and hepatopancreas with generally higher activity of GST in gills (GSTG) whereas the contrary was observed for LPO level in gills (LPOG). Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis clearly indicated that shrimp reared in extensive culture system formed a distinct group from those reared in intensive or rice-shrimp integrated systems. CAT in gills (CATG), GPX in gills (GPXG) and hepatopancreas (GPXHP) and ACHE in muscle (ACHEM) of shrimp collected in extensive farms showed a general higher level than those in intensively farmed shrimp. On the contrary, we observed clear high levels of GSTG and GST in hepatopancreas (GSTHP) and LPOG and hepatopancreas (LPOHP) of shrimp sampled in intensive and rice-shrimp integrated systems. Thus, we propose that LPO and CAT, GPX, GST and ACHE can be used as a set of biomarkers for the assessment of health condition and can discriminate between shrimp cultivated in different farming systems. These findings provide the usefulness of integrating a set of biomarkers to define the health status of shrimp in different shrimp culture systems. PMID:20943254

Tu, Huynh Thi; Silvestre, Frederic; Wang, Neil; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Kestemont, Patrick

2010-11-01

326

Do Penaeid Shrimps have a Preference for Mangrove Habitats? Distribution Pattern Analysis on Inhaca Island, Mozambique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific information on how penaeid shrimps are distributed within mangrove ecosystems is scarce, which presents an obstacle for fisheries as well as mangrove management. This study investigated the prime nursery microhabitats for the two major commercial species in Mozambique— Penaeus indicus and Metapenaeus monoceros. Stake net enclosures were used to sample shrimps living among unvegetated shallows and mangroves at Inhaca Island, Mozambique, during three consecutive spring tide periods. Four microhabitats were sampled: (1) sand flat; (2) fringe Avicennia marina on sandy substrate; (3) fringe A. marina on muddy substrate; and (4) interior A. marina adjacent to the supratidal terrestrial margin. P. indicus had a significant preference for fringe mangroves over the adjacent sand flat ( P<0·001 and P=0·05). Postlarval shrimps only occupied the sand flat, whereas the mangrove was utilized by postlarval, juvenile and sub-adult life stages. Within the fringe mangrove, there was no correlation between shrimp abundance and organic content of sediment (5·7-11·6 shrimps m -2). Shrimps utilized the most interior margin of the mangroves (0·35 shrimps m -2), although catch rates were significantly lower than in the mangrove fringe ( P<0·001). M. monoceros was significantly ( P<0·01), more abundant in the sand flat (0·44-2·1 shrimps m -2) than in the mangrove fringe (0·04-0·61 shrimps m -2), although this habitat preference was not evident for juvenile and sub-adult life stages. The results demonstrate the extensive use of mangrove habitats by penaeid shrimps. The confinement to mangroves for P. indicus, but not for M. monoceros, is discussed in the context of habitat characteristics and predation avoidance behaviour. Methodological considerations of the stake net technique are also outlined.

Rönnbäck, P.; Macia, A.; Almqvist, G.; Schultz, L.; Troell, M.

2002-09-01

327

The Aurora Borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ON Saturday, the 15th inst., a remarkably fine aurora was to be seen here towards the N.N.W. It was first observed at 8.45, and continued from then shining brightly till 9 P.M., when it made its disappearance. At first it formed a complete rose-coloured arch, in which flickering rays of bright white light were occasionally to be seen. During its

F. J. B

1871-01-01

328

The Aurora Borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

COLLINS, in his ``Superstitions of the Highlands'' has these lines:- As Boreas threw his young Aurora forth In the first year of the first George's reign, And battles raged in welkin of the North, They mourned in air, fell, fell rebellion slain!

C. Pocklington

1870-01-01

329

Purification and Biochemical Characterization of Digestive Lipase in Whiteleg Shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penaeus vannamei lipase was purified from midgut gland of whiteleg shrimp. Pure lipase (E.C. 3.1.1.3) was obtained after Superdex 200 gel\\u000a filtration and Resource Q anionic exchange. The pure lipase, which is a glycosylated molecule, is a monomer having a molecular\\u000a mass of about 44.8 kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE analysis. The lipase hydrolyses short and long-chain triacylglycerols and\\u000a naphthol derivates

Crisalejandra Rivera-Pérez; Fernando L. García-Carreño; Reinhard Saborowski

2011-01-01

330

Effects of process parameters on quality changes of shrimp during drying in a jet-spouted bed dryer.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of various parameters, that is, concentration of salt solution (2%, 3%, 4%[w/v]), boiling time (3, 5, 7 min), drying air temperature (80, 100, 120 degrees C), and size of shrimp, on the kinetics of drying and various quality attributes of shrimp, namely, shrinkage, rehydration ability, texture, colors, and microstructure, during drying in a jet-spouted bed dryer. In addition, the effects of these processing parameters on the sensory attributes of dried shrimp were also investigated. Small shrimp (350 to 360 shrimp/kg) and large shrimp (150 to 160 shrimp/kg) were boiled and then dried until their moisture content was around 25% (d.b.). It was found that the degree of color changes, toughness, and shrinkage of shrimp increased while the rehydration ability decreased with an increase in the concentration of salt solution and boiling time. Size of shrimp and drying temperature significantly affected all quality attributes of dried shrimp. The conditions that gave the highest hedonic scores of sensory evaluation for small dried shrimp are the concentration of salt solution of 2% (w/v), boiling time of 7 min, and drying air temperature of 120 degrees C. On the other hand, the conditions that gave the highest hedonic scores of sensory evaluation for large dried shrimp are the concentration of salt solution of 4% (w/v), boiling time of 7 min, and drying air temperature of 100 degrees C. The quality attributes of dried shrimp measured by instruments correlated well with the sensory attributes, especially the color of dried shrimp. PMID:18034725

Niamnuy, C; Devahastin, S; Soponronnarit, S

2007-11-01

331

Autolysis of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) meat: characterization and the effects of protein additives.  

PubMed

Autolytic activity of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) mince in the absence and in the presence of 2.5%NaCl was investigated. Pacific white shrimp mince exhibited the maximum autolytic activity at 35 and 40 degrees C in the absence and in the presence of 2.5%NaCl, respectively, as evidenced by the highest TCA-soluble peptide content and the greatest disappearance of myosin heavy chain (MHC). The autolysis was more pronounced in the acidic pH values, followed by alkaline pH ranges. Pepstatin A showed the highest inhibition toward autolysis in the acidic condition, revealing that aspartic proteinase was dominant in shrimp muscle. Nevertheless, soybean trypsin inhibitor effectively inhibited the autolysis at neutral and alkaline pH values, suggesting that serine proteinase was present in shrimp mince but contributed to autolysis at a lower extent in shrimp meat. Autolysis in shrimp meat could be inhibited partially by all protein additives, including bovine plasma protein (BPP), egg white (EW), and whey protein concentrate (WPC). The inhibition of autolysis increased when the level of protein additives increased with the concomitant increase in band intensity of MHC retained. WPC and BPP in the range of 2% to 3% exhibited the highest inhibition toward autolysis of shrimp mince. PMID:18298747

Eakpetch, P; Benjakul, S; Visessanguan, W; Kijroongrojana, K

2008-03-01

332

Occurrence and recent long-distance dispersal of deep-sea hydrothermal vent shrimps  

PubMed Central

Deep-sea hydrothermal vents and methane seeps are extreme environments that have a high concentration of hydrogen sulphide. However, abundant unique invertebrates including shrimps of the family Bresiliidae have been found in such environments. The bresiliid shrimps are believed to have radiated in the Miocene (less than 20?Myr); however, the period when and the mechanisms by which they dispersed across the hydrothermal vents and cold seeps in oceans worldwide have not been clarified. In the present study, we collected the deep-sea blind shrimp Alvinocaris longirostris from the hydrothermal vent site in the Okinawa Trough and carried out the first investigation of the 18S rRNA gene of a bresiliid shrimp. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the bresiliid shrimp is situated at an intermediate lineage within the infraorder Caridea and shows monophyly with palaemonid shrimps, which live in shallow sea and freshwater. Furthermore, the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequences were analysed to determine the phylogenetic relationship with known bresiliid shrimps. A. longirostris of the Okinawa Trough had two haplotypes of the COI gene, one of which was identical to the Alvinocaris sp. of the cold seeps in Sagami Bay. These results indicate that a long-distance dispersal of A. longirostris occurred possibly within the last 100?000 years.

Tokuda, Gaku; Yamada, Akinori; Nakano, Kazuma; Arita, Nao; Yamasaki, Hideo

2005-01-01

333

Occurrence and recent long-distance dispersal of deep-sea hydrothermal vent shrimps.  

PubMed

Deep-sea hydrothermal vents and methane seeps are extreme environments that have a high concentration of hydrogen sulphide. However, abundant unique invertebrates including shrimps of the family Bresiliidae have been found in such environments. The bresiliid shrimps are believed to have radiated in the Miocene (less than 20 Myr); however, the period when and the mechanisms by which they dispersed across the hydrothermal vents and cold seeps in oceans worldwide have not been clarified. In the present study, we collected the deep-sea blind shrimp Alvinocaris longirostris from the hydrothermal vent site in the Okinawa Trough and carried out the first investigation of the 18S rRNA gene of a bresiliid shrimp. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the bresiliid shrimp is situated at an intermediate lineage within the infraorder Caridea and shows monophyly with palaemonid shrimps, which live in shallow sea and freshwater. Furthermore, the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequences were analysed to determine the phylogenetic relationship with known bresiliid shrimps. A. longirostris of the Okinawa Trough had two haplotypes of the COI gene, one of which was identical to the Alvinocaris sp. of the cold seeps in Sagami Bay. These results indicate that a long-distance dispersal of A. longirostris occurred possibly within the last 100,000 years. PMID:17148377

Tokuda, Gaku; Yamada, Akinori; Nakano, Kazuma; Arita, Nao; Yamasaki, Hideo

2006-06-22

334

Characterization of intestinal bacteria in wild and domesticated adult black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).  

PubMed

The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp. PMID:24618668

Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

2014-01-01

335

Risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in shrimp farming in Mai Po Nature Reserve, Hong Kong.  

PubMed

An ecological survey was carried out to determine the sediment concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish and shrimp including tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. nilotica), grey mullet (Mugil cephalus), gei wai shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis) and caridean shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponensis) in the traditional tidal shrimp ponds (gei wais) of Mai Po Nature Reserve, Hong Kong. The sediments collected from the landward sites contained higher nutrient contents, as well as zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) than those collected from the seaward sites, but vice versa for lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg). However, the concentrations of all metals were exceptionally high in the two sites located outside the reserve, suggesting that waters from Deep Bay might be the possible source of metal contamination affecting the reserve. All metals studied seemed to accumulate in the viscera of fish. Body size was the determining factor for the accumulation of heavy metals in caridean shrimp and gei wai shrimp but not fish. Concentrations of the metals studied in tissues of grey mullet and gei wai shrimp were found to be safe for human consumption. Concentrations of Cr in tilapia whole body (0.68-1.10 mg kg(-1) wet weight) were close to or over the guideline value of 1 mg kg(-1) set by the Food Adulteration (Metallic Contamination) Regulations of Hong Kong. Tilapia flesh and small caridean shrimp collected from gei wais were contaminated by Cr and Pb but still fit for human consumption. Caution is required if large caridean shrimp is to be consumed in large amounts continuously because the concentration of Pb exceeded the maximum permitted concentration (6 mg kg(-1)). The rather high Cr concentrations in tilapia whole body should not be overlooked as the fish will serve as a food source for migratory birds visiting the site. PMID:16528597

Cheung, K C; Wong, M H

2006-01-01

336

Structure of Penaeus stylirostris Densovirus, a Shrimp Pathogen  

SciTech Connect

Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), a pathogen of penaeid shrimp, causes significant damage to farmed and wild shrimp populations. In contrast to other parvoviruses, PstDNV probably has only one type of capsid protein that lacks the phospholipase A2 activity that has been implicated as a requirement during parvoviral host cell infection. The structure of recombinant virus-like particles, composed of 60 copies of the 37.5-kDa coat protein, the smallest parvoviral capsid protein reported thus far, was determined to 2.5-{angstrom} resolution by X-ray crystallography. The structure represents the first near-atomic resolution structure within the genus Brevidensovirus. The capsid protein has a {beta}-barrel 'jelly roll' motif similar to that found in many icosahedral viruses, including other parvoviruses. The N-terminal portion of the PstDNV coat protein adopts a 'domain-swapped' conformation relative to its twofold-related neighbor similar to the insect parvovirus Galleria mellonella densovirus (GmDNV) but in stark contrast to vertebrate parvoviruses. However, most of the surface loops have little structural resemblance to any of the known parvoviral capsid proteins.

Kaufmann, Bärbel; Bowman, Valorie D.; Li, Yi; Szelei, Jozsef; Waddell, Peter J.; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G. (INRS); (Purdue)

2010-11-16

337

Chitin extraction from shrimp shell waste using Bacillus bacteria.  

PubMed

The ability of six protease-producing Bacillus species (Bacillus pumilus A1, Bacillus mojavencis A21, Bacillus licheniformis RP1, Bacillus cereus SV1, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6 and Bacillus subtilis A26) to ferment media containing only shrimp shell waste, for chitin extraction, was investigated. More than 80% deproteinization was attained by all the strains tested. However, demineralization rates not exceeding 67% were registered. Cultures conducted in media containing shrimp shell waste supplemented with 5% (w/v) glucose were found to remarkably promote demineralization efficiency, without affecting deproteinization rates. The antioxidant activities of hydrolysates, at different concentrations, produced during fermentation in medium supplemented with glucose, were determined using different tests: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging method, reducing power assay and chelating activity. All hydrolysates showed varying degrees of antioxidant activity. Hydrolysate produced by B. pumilus A1 exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, with an IC(50) value of 0.3 mg/ml. Highest reducing power (DO 700 nm=1.55 at 1.5 mg/ml) and metal chelating activity (98% at 5mg/ml) were obtained with B. pumilus A1 and B. licheniformis RP1 hydrolysates, respectively. PMID:22981824

Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Younes, Islem; Maâlej, Hana; Hajji, Sawssen; Nasri, Moncef

2012-12-01

338

Nucleic acid-induced antiviral immunity in shrimp.  

PubMed

Vertebrates detect viral infection predominantly by sensing viral nucleic acids to produce type I interferon (IFN). In invertebrates, it has been believed that the IFN system is absent and RNA interference is a sequence-specific antiviral pathway. In this study, we found that injection of nucleic acid mimics poly(I:C), poly(C:G), CL097, poly C and CpG-DNA, afforded shrimp antiviral immunity, which is similar to the vertebrate IFN system. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method, 480 expression sequence tags were identified to be involved in the poly(I:C)-induced antiviral immunity of the model crustacean Litopenaeus vannamei, and 41% of them were new genes. In the SSH libraries, several IFN system-related genes such as dsRNA-dependent protein kinase PKR, Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and IFN?-inducible protein 30 were identified. L. vannamei IKK?, whose vertebrate homologs are central regulators of the IFN-producing pathway, could significantly activate IFN reporter genes in HEK293T cells. In crustacean databases, many genes homologous to genes of the vertebrate IFN response, such as IRFs, PKR, ADAR (adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific) and other interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) were discovered. These results suggest that shrimp may possess nucleic acid-induced antiviral immunity. PMID:23773856

Wang, Pei-Hui; Yang, Li-Shi; Gu, Zhi-Hua; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

2013-09-01

339

Ovarian primary tissue culture of the kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus.  

PubMed

Cell growth in ovarian primary culture of the kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus, was examined under various culture conditions. The best growth of ovarian cells was obtained in a culture system consisting of double strength of Leibovitz-15 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, glucose (1 g/L), proline (0.1 g/L), TC-Yeastolate (1 g/L), and lactalbumin hydrolysate (1 g/L). The cells survived in this medium at 25 degrees C for 45 d. The epithelial-like cells predominated in 10-d-old cultures, covering >80% of the surface area on the bottom of flask. Cells in mitosis were often observed. Cell proliferation was monitored by incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), an analog of thymidine. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-associated cells accounted for 11.5 and 35.0% of cell populations at 2 and 24 h, respectively, after BrdU treatment. Our results provide an improved culture technique for ovarian tissue of the kuruma shrimp. PMID:14613332

Maeda, Minoru; Mizuki, Eiichi; Itami, Toshiaki; Ohba, Michio

2003-01-01

340

One-solvent extraction of astaxanthin from lactic acid fermented shrimp wastes.  

PubMed

Free astaxanthin one-solvent extractions with ethanol, acetone, and liquid 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane from raw and lactic acid fermented (ensilaged) shrimp residues were investigated. The total carotenoid recovery from ensilaged shrimp wastes was higher than that from non-ensilaged ones as assessed by HPLC analyses. Acetone gave the highest extraction yields of free astaxanthin with up to 115 microg/g of material. Moreover, liquid tetrafluoroethane is reported for the first time in a successful one-solvent extraction of carotenoids from shrimp. PMID:18020413

Gimeno, Miquel; Ramírez-Hernández, Jessica Yesemite; Mártinez-Ibarra, César; Pacheco, Neith; García-Arrazola, Roeb; Bárzana, Eduardo; Shirai, Keiko

2007-12-12

341

A Brine Shrimp Bioassay for Measuring Toxicity and Remediation of Chemicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A bioassay using Artemia franciscana (brine shrimp) was adapted to measure the toxicity of household chemicals. One project is described in which students collect dose-response curves for seven commercial flea-killing products. Next, groups of students researched the insecticidal ingredients of the flea products. On the basis of the structures of the active ingredients, they chose remediation methods to make the flea product less toxic to brine shrimp; procedures included copper-catalyzed hydrolysis, adsorption onto activated charcoal, bleach treatment, and photodegradation. No special equipment or supplies are necessary for the bioassay other than the brine shrimp eggs, which can be obtained at any aquarium store.

Lieberman, Marya

1999-12-01

342

Phylogenetic community ecology and the role of social dominance in sponge-dwelling shrimp.  

PubMed

When functional traits are evolutionarily conserved, phylogenetic relatedness can serve as a proxy for ecological similarity to examine whether functional differences among species mediate community assembly. Using phylogenetic- and trait-based analyses, we demonstrate that sponge-dwelling shrimp (Synalpheus) assemblages are structured by size-based habitat filtering, interacting with competitive exclusion mediated by social system. Most shrimp communities were more closely related and/or more similar in size than randomized communities, consistent with habitat filtering facilitated by phylogenetically conserved body size. Those sponges with greater space heterogeneity hosted shrimp communities with greater size diversity, corroborating the importance of size in niche use. However, communities containing eusocial shrimp - which cooperatively defend territories - were less phylogenetically related and less similar in size, suggesting that eusociality enhances competitive ability and drives competitive exclusion. Our analyses demonstrate that community assembly in this diverse system occurs via traits mediating niche use and differential competitive ability. PMID:22548770

Hultgren, Kristin M; Duffy, J Emmett

2012-07-01

343

77 FR 37647 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Public Hearing Notification  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 223 RIN 0648-BC10 Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Public Hearing Notification AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

2012-06-22

344

77 FR 38266 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Public Hearing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 223 RIN 0648-BC10 Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Public Hearing AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

2012-06-27

345

77 FR 48106 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp and Summer Flounder Trawling Requirements; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...50 CFR Part 223 [Docket No. 120427423-2423-02] RIN 0648-AW93 Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp and Summer Flounder Trawling Requirements; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

2012-08-13

346

75 FR 16436 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-04-01

347

75 FR 51756 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Changed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-08-23

348

76 FR 51940 - Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, white-leg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2011-08-19

349

77 FR 40574 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2012-07-10

350

75 FR 54847 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Final Results and Partial Rescission of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-09-09

351

75 FR 13492 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2010-03-22

352

78 FR 33344 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2013-06-04

353

78 FR 33347 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2013-06-04

354

78 FR 50391 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii),...

2013-08-19

355

Bioaccumulation of cyanuric acid in edible tissues of shrimp following experimental feeding.  

PubMed

Due to concerns that cyanuric acid (CYA)-contaminated feed had been used in aquaculture and could enter the human food chain, a method to quantify CYA residues in the edible tissues of fish and shrimp was previously developed and validated. This paper provides further data on the deliberate feeding of CYA to shrimp to determine the extent of residue accumulation in edible tissue. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed for the analysis of CYA in shrimp tissue. Edible tissue of shrimp fed 1666 or 3333 mg kg?¹ CYA in their diet (approximately 55 and 124 mg kg?¹ body weight) contained 0.767 and 0.406 mg kg?¹ CYA, respectively. The residue levels are below the World Health Organization (WHO) tolerable daily intake level for CYA and are generally considered unlikely to pose a human health risk. PMID:20936555

Karbiwnyk, Christine M; Williams, Rodney R; Andersen, Wendy C; Turnipseed, Sherri B; Madson, Mark R; Miller, Keith E; Reimschuessel, Renate

2010-12-01

356

75 FR 33375 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-2031, Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's...DS form number, information collection title, and OMB control number in the subject...conditions a government official of the exporting country. The DS-2031 Form...

2010-06-11

357

75 FR 10338 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-2031, Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's...applicable), information collection title, and OMB control number in any correspondence...conditions a government official of the exporting country. The DS-2031 Form...

2010-03-05

358

Studies on the Use of Sulfites to Control Shrimp Melanosis (Blackspot).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shrimp melanosis, commonly known as 'blackspot' is a harmless but objectionable surface dicoloration caused by polyphenoloxidase enzyme systems which remain active during refrigeration or ice storage. In the early 1950's sulfiting agents, particularily so...

1986-01-01

359

Commercial Brown, White and Pink Shrimp Tail Size: Total Size Conversions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Equations for converting tail length to total length and tail weight to total weight and vice versa were obtained for white, brown and pink shrimp (Penaeus setiferus, Penaeus aztecus and Penaeus duorarum, respectively), using linear regression analyses. T...

S. L. Brunenmeister

1980-01-01

360

Tail Length to Tail Weight Relationships for Louisiana White Shrimp in 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples of white shrimp Penaeus setiferus collected in July to December 1977 were used to study length to weight relations. Some conclusions are: Sexual differences in length-weight curves are not of practical significance: there are significant differenc...

P. L. Phares

1980-01-01

361

Discovery of immune molecules and their crucial functions in shrimp immunity.  

PubMed

Several immune-related molecules in penaeid shrimps have been discovered, most of these via the analysis of expressed sequence tag libraries, microarray studies and proteomic approaches. These immune molecules include antimicrobial peptides, serine proteinases and inhibitors, phenoloxidases, oxidative enzymes, clottable protein, pattern recognition proteins, lectins, Toll receptors, and other humoral factors that might participate in the innate immune system of shrimps. These molecules have mainly been found in the hemolymph and hemocytes, which are the main sites where immune reactions take place, while some are found in other immune organs/tissues, such as the lymphoid organs, gills and intestines. Although the participation of some of these immune molecules in the shrimp innate immune defense against invading pathogens has been demonstrated, the functions of many molecules remain unclear. This review summarizes the current status of our knowledge concerning the discovery and functional characterization of the immune molecules in penaeid shrimps. PMID:23059654

Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Supungul, Premruethai; Tang, Sureerat

2013-04-01

362

Science Sampler: Bringing scientific inquiry alive using real grass shrimp research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ( Palaemonetes pugio ) to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the Nat

Curran, Mary C.; Partridge, Michael; Aultman, Terry

2010-03-01

363

78 FR 15686 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Department selected for individual examination are Marine Gold Products Limited (Marine Gold), and Thai Union Frozen Products Public Co...shrimp from Thailand produced and exported by Marine Gold. Finally, the Department also preliminarily...

2013-03-12

364

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN GRASS SHRIMP EXPOSED TO CHROMIUM, PENTACHLOROPHENOL AND DITHIOCARBAMATES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report deals with the histopathological/ultrastructural changes in various tissues of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) exposed to hexavalent chromium, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and two dithiocarbamate formulations: Aquatreat DNM-30 (15% sodium dimethyl dithiocarbamate plus 15...

365

Toxic Effect of Certain Marine Blue-Green Algae to Penaeid Shrimp.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hemocytic enteritis (HE) was found to be a disease of cultured marine penaeid shrimp and of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The principal lesion of HE disease is a necrosis and intense cellular inflammation of the mucosa of those portions...

D. V. Lightner

1982-01-01

366

Little Shrimp, Big Results: A Model of an Integrative, Cross-Curricular Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This integrative, cross-curricular lab engages middle school biology students in an exercise involving ecology, arthropod biology, and mathematics. Students research the anatomy and behavioral patterns of a species of brine shrimp, compare the anatomy of

Piser, Carol; Walka, Keith; Ackerson, Nicole

2010-12-01

367

Use of a Brine Shrimp Assay to Study Herbal Teas in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a brine shrimp assay to demonstrate the effects of the biological activity of herbal remedies. Describes two protocols, one using aqueous extracts and the other using methanol extracts. (Contains 21 references.) (YDS)

Opler, Annette; Mizell, Rebecca; Robert, Alexander; Cervantes-Cervantes, Miguel; Kincaid, Dwight; Kennelly, Edward J.

2002-01-01

368

Comparison of methods for sampling populations of ghost shrimp, Trypaea australiensis (Decapoda: Thalassinidea: Callianassidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coring and pumping methods, commonly used to determine the abundance and population parameters of burrowing ghost shrimp, were assessed in three widely separated south-eastern Australian estuaries. First, a comparison of two sizes of coring tube (0.04 and 0.07m2) revealed no significant differences in catches of the ghost shrimp Trypaea australiensis Dana, nor differences in precision. However, the smaller sized core

Douglas Rotherham; Ronald J West

2003-01-01

369

Effects of a probiotic bacterium on black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon survival and growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus S11 bacterium isolated from black tiger shrimp habitats was added to shrimp feed as a probiotic in three forms: fresh cells, fresh cells in normal saline solution, and a lyophilized form. After a 100-day feeding trial with probiotic supplemented and non-supplemented (control) feeds, Penaeus monodon (from PL30) exhibited no significant difference (p>0.05) in growth, survival nor external appearance between

Sirirat Rengpipat; Wannipa Phianphak; Somkiat Piyatiratitivorakul; Piamsak Menasveta

1998-01-01

370

Ultrastructure of a spirochete found in tissues of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A spirochete which occurs in tissues of the brine shrimp,Artemia salina, was studied by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A total of seven infected shrimps were encountered.2.Under darkfield illumination, most spirochete cells inArtemia blood were 6–13 µ long and 0.3–0.4 µ wide. Coiling was variable and often irregular.3.When tissues of the maxillary gland (kidney) and nearby organs were examined

Greta E. Tyson

1974-01-01

371

Ecological limitations and appropriation of ecosystem support by shrimp farming in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp farming in mangrove areas has grown dramatically in Asia and Latin America over the past decade. As a result, demand\\u000a for resources required for farming, such as feed, seed, and clean water, has increased substantially. This study focuses on\\u000a semiintensive shrimp culture as practiced on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. We estimated the spatial ecosystem support that\\u000a is required

Jonas Larsson; Carl Folke; Nils Kautsky

1994-01-01

372

Protein and lipid sources affect cholesterol concentrations of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone).  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of protein and lipid sources on cholesterol, AA, and fatty acid content, and on biological performance of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone). In Exp. 1, seven isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were prepared using fish meal; soybean meal; casein; fish meal + soybean meal; fish meal + casein; soybean meal + casein; and fish meal + soybean meal + casein. In Exp. 2, seven isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were prepared using fish oil; soy oil; poultry fat; fish oil + soy oil; fish oil + poultry fat; soy oil + poultry fat; and fish oil + soy oil + poultry fat. Nine shrimp (average BW 570 mg) were stocked per 60-L tank, with three tanks per diet in each experiment. Shrimp were fed to apparent satiation twice daily for 28 d. Protein sources affected shrimp cholesterol, feed consumption, feed efficiency, protein consumption, protein efficiency ratio, and crude body fat (P < or = 0.05), but not weight gain, survival, hepatosomatic index, body protein, ash, and AA composition. Body (without hepatopancreas) cholesterol concentrations were the highest in shrimp fed the diet containing fish meal (0.81%), lowest for those fed the casein diet (0.64%), and intermediate in the other dietary treatment groups (range 0.71 to 0.74%). Lipid source also affected shrimp body cholesterol, body fatty acid profiles, and fatty acid profiles in the hepatopancreas (P < or = 0.05), but not growth performance, body protein, fat, ash, and cholesterol concentrations in the hepatopancreas. Shrimp fed the fish oil diet had the highest body cholesterol (0.75%), whereas those fed the soy oil or poultry fat diets were lowest (0.66 and 0.65%, respectively). Results indicate that by replacing fish meal and fish oil with soybean meal and soy oil, shrimp growth performance is not affected, but body cholesterol concentration is reduced. PMID:15080336

Cheng, Z J; Hardy, R W

2004-04-01

373

cDNA cloning of the lysozyme of the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysozyme, an antibacterial protein, has been implicated in innate immunity in invertebrates, but its activity in shrimp remained to be determined. We cloned the white shrimp lysozyme cDNA using a PCR strategy and detected its activity in haemocytes using a lytic-zone assay against Micrococcus luteus. The cloning was based on a reported EST (dbEST BE18831). The deduced amino acid sequence

Rogerio R. Sotelo-Mundo; Maria A. Islas-Osuna; Enrique de-la-Re-Vega; Jorge Hernández-López; Francisco Vargas-Albores; Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia

2003-01-01

374

Prediction of shrimp growth using an artificial neural network and regression models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncertainty and lack of information about the future make it difficult for shrimp farmers to develop and plan harvesting schedules.\\u000a To do this effectively, farmers should be able to predict shrimp growth. A reliable prediction of growth and survival would\\u000a also give farmers a better insight into future productivity and profitability. Linear and nonlinear regression models have\\u000a been used to

Abdoulkarim Esmaeili; Mohammad Hassan Tarazkar

375

The chronic toxicity of fenoxycarb to larvae of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined effects of fenoxycarb, a carbamate insecticide, on larvae of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. In laboratory experiments, grass shrimp larvae were exposed to fenoxycarb from hatch to postlarval metamorphosis in a chronic, static renewal bio assay. LC50's ranged from 0.92 mg\\/L at 96 h to 0.35 mg\\/L at the end of the study (24 days). In assessing

Peter B. Key; Geoffrey I. Scott

1994-01-01

376

Survival of Deep-Sea Shrimp ( Alvinocaris sp.) During Decompression and Larval Hatching at Atmospheric Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report successful larval hatching of deep-sea shrimp after decompression to atmospheric pressure. Three specimens of deep-sea shrimp were collected from an ocean depth of 1157 m at cold-seep sites off Hatsushima Island in Sagami Bay, Japan, using a pressure-stat aquarium system. Phylogenetic analysis of Alvinocaris sp. based on cytochrome c oxidase subunit gene sequences confirmed that these species were

Sumihiro Koyama; Takahiko Nagahama; Noriyuki Ootsu; Tomoji Takayama; Masae Horii; Satoshi Konishi; Tetsuya Miwa; Yoichi Ishikawa; Masuo Aizawa

2005-01-01

377

SocioEconomic Structure of the Deep Water Pink Shrimp Fisheries in the Marmara Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was done to be determined the socio-economic structure of shrimp fishery in the Marmara sea. The main material of this research is the original data which has been obtained by face-to-face interviewing with the vessel owners via using questionnaires during 2003-2004 shrimp fishery season. In the questionnaires the fallowing data has been taken places which are given respectively

H. Güngör; G. Güngör

378

Tomography of bacteria–mineral associations within the deep-sea hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rimicaris exoculata flourishes around deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Epibiotic bacteria and minerals found within the branchial chamber of the shrimp are of interest in the search for the metabolic energy pathways sustaining shrimp swarms at the Rainbow vent site (MAR). Here we examine the three-dimensional (3D) relationships between epibionts and their associated minerals. The morphology

Louise Anderson; Sébastien Halary; Jean-Pierre Lechaire; Thomas Boudier; Ghislaine Frébourg; Sergio Marco; Magali Zbinden; Françoise Gaill

2008-01-01

379

A novel eye in 'eyeless' shrimp from hydrothermal vents of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rimicaris exoculata1 is a shrimp that swarms over high-temperature (350 °C) sulphide chimneys at Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal fields (3,600 m)1-7. This shrimp lacks an externally differentiated eye1, having instead a pair of large organs within the cephalothorax immediately beneath the dorsal surface of the transparent carapace, connected by large nerve tracts to the supraesophageal ganglion. These organs contain a visual

Cindy Lee Van Dover; Ete Z. Szuts; Steven C. Chamberlain; J. R. Cann

1989-01-01

380

Identification of differentially expressed genes in the hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata exposed to heat stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deep-sea vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata dominates the vagile megafauna at most vent sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This shrimp swarms around the hot end of the hydrothermal biotope where temperature can exceed its critical maximal temperature (33–38.5±2°C). It may therefore be subjected to a thermal regime that is assumed to be stressful for animals. In this study, we used

Delphine Cottin; Bruce Shillito; Thomas Chertemps; Arnaud Tanguy; Nelly Léger; Juliette Ravaux

2010-01-01

381

Isolation and characterization of Noctiluca killing bacteria from a shrimp aquaculture pond in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

To control harmful algal blooms (HABs), in particular dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans, which causes damage to shrimp production, algicidal bacteria were isolated from shrimp pond water and screened for their\\u000a killing effect against N. scintillans under laboratory condition. Among 260 bacterial isolates, 10 showed killing effects on N. scintillans. Out of 5 strains showing relatively stronger killing activity, 4 strains belonged to the

Teeyaporn Keawtawee; Kimio Fukami; Putth Songsangjinda; Pensri Muangyao

382

Freshwater shrimp ( Palaemonetes australis ) as a potential bioindicator of crustacean health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palaemonetes australis is a euryhaline shrimp found in southwestern Australian estuaries. To determine if P. australis is a suitable bioindicator species for monitoring the health of estuarine biota, they were exposed to measured concentrations\\u000a of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) at 0.01, 0.1, or 1 ppm for 14 days under laboratory conditions. At the end of exposure the shrimp were sacrificed

Diane Webb

2011-01-01

383

Optimization of the production of shrimp waste protein hydrolysate using microbial proteases adopting response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein hydrolysates were produced from shrimp waste mainly comprising head and shell of Penaeus monodon by enzymatic hydrolysis for 90 min using four microbial proteases (Alcalase, Neutrase, Protamex, Flavourzyme) where PR(%)\\u000a and DH (%) of respective enzymes were compared to select best of the lot. Alcalase, which showed the best result, was used\\u000a to optimize hydrolysis conditions for shrimp waste hydrolysis

Satya S. Dey; Krushna Chandra Dora

384

Deepest exposed crust of Brazil-SHRIMP establishes three events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deepest exposed crust of Brazil is in the western portion of the exposed Precambrian shield of southernmost Rio Grande do Sul State and comprises a bimodal sequence of mafic garnet granulites and metatrondhjemites, intercalated with smaller volumes of metamorphosed pyroxenites, anorthosites, sillimanite gneisses, and banded iron formation. As determined by zircon U/Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP), this granulite terrain accreted from the mantle at the end of the Archean (ca. 2.55 Ga) and was deformed in high-pressure granulite facies metamorphic conditions in the Paleoproterozoic (ca. 2.02 Ga). A younger event, possibly ca. 900 Ma, caused local amphibolite facies retrogression in the complex. Zircons from a metabasalt and a metatrondhjemite show external morphologies typical of high-grade metamorphic rocks, whereas backscattered electron images reveal internal oscillatory zoning of their igneous precursors. Spot ages from zircon agree well with previous model Nd and Sm/Nd mineral isochron ages.

Hartmann, Léo A.; Leite, Jayme A. D.; McNaughton, Neal J.; Santos, João Orestes S.

1999-10-01

385

[Bacterial community structure in intestine of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei].  

PubMed

The composition of bacterial community in the intestine of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei under laboratory culture condition was determined using the 16S rDNA clone library. 16s rRNA gene was amplified and a library was constructed by using the genomic DNA extracted from the bacteria in the shrimp intestine as template. 12 different RFLP patterns of the clones were obtained by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using Afa I and Msp I. Compared with the published sequences in GenBank database, sequencing results of cloned 16S rDNA amplicons revealed a diverse community including gamma-proteobacteria and Firmicutes in the intestine of artificial diet-fed shrimp. Results showed that the Firmicutes group can be a dominant component (75.4%) in the shrimp intestinal microflora and other clones belong to gamma-proteobacteria (24.6%) which were identified as Shewanella sp., Pantoea sp., Aranicola sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Vibrio sp., respectively. These results provide the first comprehensive description of microbial diversity of the white shrimp intestine and suggest that most of the bacteria associated with shrimp intestine are uncultured and novel species. PMID:17944366

Li, Ke; Zheng, Tian-ling; Tian, Yun; Yuan, Jian-jun

2007-08-01

386

Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical, microbial quality and shelf life of shrimp  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study the combined effect of gamma irradiation (1, 3 and 5 kGy) and storage at two temperatures: refrigeration (+4 °C) and frozen (-18 °C), on the shelf-life extension of fresh shrimp meat was investigated. The study was based on microbiological and physicochemical changes occuring in the shrimp samples. Total volatile base nitrogen values and trimethylamine values for irradiated shrimp samples were significantly lower than non-irradiated samples at both storage temperatures, and the rate of decrease was more pronounced in samples irradiated at the higher dose (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid values for irradiated shrimp samples were significantly higher than non-irradiated samples at both storage temperatures (p<0.05). pH values of shrimp samples were affected significantly by both irradiating dose and storage temperatures (p<0.05). Microbial counts for non-irradiated shrimp samples were higher than the respective irradiated samples at both storage temperatures (p<0.05). The results revealed that irradiation at high dose (5 kGy) might enhance lipid oxidation, although the growth of microorganisms and protein oxidation was inhibited.

Hocao?lu, Asl?; Sükrü Demirci, Ahmet; Gümüs, Tuncay; Demirci, Mehmet

2012-12-01

387

In vitro gastric and intestinal digestions of pulsed light-treated shrimp extracts.  

PubMed

Pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV), a novel technology most commonly used for microbial inactivation, has recently been employed to effectively mitigate food allergens in peanuts, soybean, shrimp, and almond. Putative mechanisms for the efficacy of PUV in reducing allergen reactivity include photothermal, photochemical, and photophysical effects. To date, there are no published data highlighting the effects of in vitro simulated gastric and intestinal digestion on the stability of PUV reduced allergen reactivity of food. In this study, PUV-treated shrimp extracts were subjected to simulated gastric fluid containing pepsin and simulated intestinal fluid containing trypsin and chymotrypsin, and then tested for changes in allergen potency. SDS-PAGE showed no major band deviation between undigested and digested PUV-treated shrimp extracts. IgE binding to tropomyosin remained markedly decreased as seen in Western blot analysis. Total shrimp allergen reactivity remained unchanged following in vitro peptic digestion and was markedly reduced following in vitro intestinal digestion as illustrated in indirect ELISA. The PUV reduced shrimp allergens remained at a low level under the in vitro simulated digestive conditions. The results inferred that PUV could be a potential method to create less allergenic shrimp products that would remain at a low allergen level under human gastric and intestinal digestive conditions. PMID:22278049

Yang, Wade W; Shriver, Sandra K; Chung, Si-Yin; Percival, Susan; Correll, Melanie J; Rababah, Taha M

2012-03-01

388

Protection of yellow head virus infection in shrimp by feeding of bacteria expressing dsRNAs.  

PubMed

Although prevention of shrimp mortality from yellow head virus (YHV) infection via dsRNA injection has been well demonstrated for many years, it has not yet been applied in a farm culture because of its impracticality. Hence, oral administration of dsRNA becomes an alternative and desirable approach. This study is the first to demonstrate that oral feeding of Escherichia coli expressing shrimp Rab7 gene (dsRab7) or YHV protease gene (dsYHV) could inhibit YHV replication and lowered shrimp mortality. E. coli HT115 expressing dsRab7 or dsYHV or a combination of these dsRNAs were embedded in agar and used to feed vannamei shrimp at early juvenile stage before YHV challenge. After 4 days of continuous feeding of dsRNAs, strong inhibitory effect on shrimp mortality was observed in which dsRab7 gave the highest effect (70% reduction from the control) whereas dsYHV showed a 40% reduction. Our results reveal the potential of anti-YHV strategy via orally delivered dsRNA for application in the shrimp farm industry. PMID:24637372

Sanitt, Poohrawind; Attasart, Pongsopee; Panyim, Sakol

2014-06-10

389

Acquisition of epibiotic bacteria along the life cycle of the hydrothermal shrimp Rimicaris exoculata  

PubMed Central

The caridean shrimp Rimicaris exoculata dominates the fauna at several Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent sites. This shrimp has an enlarged gill chamber, harboring a dense ectosymbiotic community of chemoautotrophic bacteria associated with mineral oxide deposits. Until now, their acquisition is not fully understood. At three hydrothermal vent sites, we analyzed the epibionts diversity at different moult stages and also in the first stages of the shrimp life (eggs, hatched eggs (with larvae) and juveniles). Hatched eggs associated with young larvae were collected for the first time directly from gravid females at the Logachev vent site during the Serpentine cruise. An approach using 16S rRNA clone libraries, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescent in situ hybridization was used. Molecular results and microscope observations indicated a switch in the composition of the bacterial community between early R. exoculata life cycle stage (egg libraries dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria) and later stages (juvenile/adult libraries dominated by the Epsilonproteobacteria). We hypothesized that the epibiotic phylotype composition could vary according to the life stage of the shrimp. Our results confirmed the occurrence of a symbiosis with Gammaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria, but more complex than previously assumed. We revealed the presence of active type-I methanotrophic bacteria colonizing the cephalothorax of shrimps from the Rainbow site. They were also present on the eggs from the Logachev site. This could be the first ‘epibiotic' association between methanotrophic bacteria and hydrothermal vent crustacean. We discuss possible transmission pathways for epibionts linked to the shrimp life cycle.

Guri, Mathieu; Durand, Lucile; Cueff-Gauchard, Valerie; Zbinden, Magali; Crassous, Philippe; Shillito, Bruce; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne

2012-01-01

390

CNO Abundances of Hydrogen-Deficient Carbon and R Coronae Borealis Stars: A View of the Nucleosynthesis in a White Dwarf Merger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present high-resolution (R ~ 50, 000) observations of near-IR transitions of CO and CN of the five known hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) stars and four R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars. We perform an abundance analysis of these stars by using spectrum synthesis and state-of-the-art MARCS model atmospheres for cool hydrogen-deficient stars. Our analysis confirms reports by Clayton and colleagues that those HdC stars exhibiting CO lines in their spectrum and the cool RCB star S Aps are strongly enriched in 18O (with 16O/18O ratios ranging from 0.3 to 16). Nitrogen and carbon are in the form of 14N and 12C, respectively. Elemental abundances for CNO are obtained from C I, C2, CN, and CO lines. Difficulties in deriving the carbon abundance are discussed. Abundances of Na from Na I lines and S from S I lines are obtained. Elemental and isotopic CNO abundances suggest that HdC and RCB stars may be related objects, and that they probably formed from a merger of an He white dwarf with a C-O white dwarf.

García-Hernández, D. A.; Hinkle, K. H.; Lambert, David. L.; Eriksson, K.

2009-05-01

391

Abundance and seasonal migrations of the penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne-Edwards) within Iraqi waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migration of Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne-Edwards) from the Arabian Gulf to nursery grounds in the inland waters of Iraq extends from May\\/June to January\\/February. Shrimp ranging in size from 3–125 mm total length were found in inland waters. In the shallow waters of the Al-Assaflya small-sized shrimp only were caught, while in the Marshes large-sized shrimp were abundant. Maximum numbers

S. D. Salman; M. H. Ali; A. H. Y. Al-AdhubI

1990-01-01

392

Marination of deep-water pink shrimp with rosemary extract and the determination of its shelf-life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the antioxidant activity of rosemary extract on marinated deep-water pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris Lucas, 1846) stored at 1°C was investigated. Chemical, physical, instrumental, microbiological and sensory analyses were performed to investigate the quality changes and to determine the shelf-life of marinated shrimps. Chemical composition of the shrimp was determined and no significant difference (P>0.05) was found between

Asli Cadun; Duygu K??la; ?ükran Çakl?

2008-01-01

393

Molecular systematics of shrimp (Decapoda: Bresiliidae) from deep-sea hydrothermal vents, I: Enigmatic "small orange" shrimp from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are juvenile Rimicaris exoculata.  

PubMed

Independent species descriptions of a "small orange" caridean shrimp found at deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge have created the synonymous names Iorania concordia Vereshchaka 1996b and Rimicaris aurantiaca Martin et al. 1997. Our genetic analyses involving allozymes and mitochondrial DNA sequences reveal that the "small orange" shrimp described in these studies are a juvenile form of Rimicaris exoculata Williams and Rona, a species commonly found at these sites. In light of this result, we reconsider the life history and ecologic characteristics of juvenile and adult stages of Rimicaris exoculata. PMID:9628005

Shank, T M; Lutz, R A; Vrijenhoek, R C

1998-06-01

394

A Study on the contribution of different food sources to shrimp growth in an intensive Fenneropenaeus chinensis pond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotope methods can be used to determine the food sources and prey items of aquatic organisms accurately and reliably. This study examined the relative contribution of artificial foods (the formulated feed and Artemia) and natural foods to shrimp growth in an intensive Fenneropenaeus chinensis pond by using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. The results showed that the nutrition utilization efficiency of the harvested shrimp was low, only 33.18% of feed nitrogen and 21.73% of feed carbon being converted to shrimp flesh. Our stable isotope results showed that the shrimp obtained nutrition for maximum growth from artificial foods, whose contribution was 93.5%, with the remaining attributed to the natural foods. However, there was 0.94 t harvested shrimp derived from natural foods (the rest of 13.56 t harvested shrimp derived from artificial foods) in 1ha intensive pond with a shrimp production of 14.50 t ha-1. Therefore, unit area shrimp production can be increased by increasing the contribution proportion of natural foods in intensive shrimp farming.

Su, Yuepeng; Ma, Shen; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

2008-11-01

395

Peptidomic analysis of Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) hemolymph by magnetic bead-based MALDI-TOF MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peptides in shrimp hemolymph play an important role in the innate immune response. Analysis of hemolymph will help to detect and identify potential novel biomarkers of microbial infection. We used magnetic bead-based purification (ClinProt system) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to characterize shrimp hemolymph peptides. Shrimp serum and plasma were used as the source of samples for comparative analysis, and it was found that serum was more suitable for shrimp hemolymph peptidomic analysis. To screen potential specific biomarkers in serum of immune-challenged shrimps, we applied magnetic bead-based MALDI-TOF MS to serum samples from 10 immune-challenged and 10 healthy shrimps. The spectra were analyzed using FlexAnalysis 3.0 and ClinProTools 2.1 software. Thirteen peptide peaks significantly different between the two groups were selected as candidate biomarkers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-infection. The diagnostic model established by genetic algorithm using five of these peaks was able to discriminate LPS-challenged shrimps from healthy control shrimps with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 100%. Our approach in MALDITOF MS-based peptidomics is a powerful tool for screening bioactive peptides or biomarkers derived from hemolymph, and will help to enable a better understanding of the innate immune response of shrimps.

Wang, Baojie; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Zhang, Guofan; Wang, Lei

2013-03-01

396

Immunocytochemical identification of structures containing putative red pigment-concentrating hormone in two species of decapod crustaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

By use of an antiserum raised against the Nterminal sequence pGlu-Leu-Asn-Phe..., common to red pigment-concentrating hormone (RPCH) of Pandalus borealis and three structurally similar insect neuropeptides, putative RPCH-immunopositive structures were revealed in the eyestalks of Carcinus maenas and Orconectes limosus and in the brain and thoracic ganglion (TG) of C. maenas. In the eyestalks, complete neurosecretory pathways were demonstrated, consisting

Sigrid Mangerich; Rainer Keller; Heinrich Dircksen

1986-01-01

397

A precollaborative study of weight determination methods for quick frozen shrimp.  

PubMed

A precollaborative study compared the accuracy and precision of official AOAC methods with other selected methods for determining net weight of IQF-glazed shrimp and block-glazed shrimp, assessed the ruggedness of the methods with respect to changes in the levels of the factors under study, and selected candidate methods for use in a collaborative study. Methods tested for determining deglazed (frozen) net weight of IQF-glazed shrimp were (1) AOAC Method 963.18 and (2) the Water Bath Dip Method. Methods tested for determining thawed net weight of IQF-glazed shrimp were (1) AOAC Method 967.13, (2) Modified AOAC Method(mnb) 967.13, (3) Modified AOAC Method(pb) 967.13, (4) the Codex Method, (5) the Air Thaw Method, and (6) Modified AOAC Method 963.18. The same methods except Modified AOAC Method 963.18 were tested for determining thawed net weight of block-glazed shrimp. A total of 864 0.45 kg (1 lb), 0.90 kg (2 lb), and 1.35 kg (3 lb) IQF-glazed shrimp test samples and 234 2.25 kg (5 lb) block-glazed shrimp test samples were collected. During sample preparation, test samples were subjected to either water with or without sodium tripolyphosphate (STP). During deglazing (IQF-glazed shrimp only) and/or thawing, test samples were allocated in a factorial design to assess the effects of STP presence (no STP and STP), sieve mesh sizes (2.83 and 2.38 mm; 0.11 and 0.09 in.), and sieve diameters (20 and 30 cm; 8 and 12 in.). During weighing, test samples were further allocated to a sequence of weighing procedures designed to assess the effects of using sieve weights (dry and wet) in combination with paper towel use (no and yes) and tared pan weights when calculating determined net weights. On the basis of the results of this precollaborative study, Modified AOAC Method(pb) 967.13 and the Air Thaw Method seem to be the best methods to determine net weight of IQF-glazed and block-glazed shrimp. Therefore, to validate method choices in the collaborative study, the authors recommend analysis of IQF-glazed shrimp and block-glazed shrimp test samples, each prepared with or without STP, by Modified AOAC Method(pb) 967.13 and the Air Thaw Method. To fulfill AOAC requirements, IQF-glazed shrimp and block-glazed shrimp test samples, each prepared with or without STP, must be analyzed by official methods: AOAC Method 963.18 (IQF-glazed shrimp only) and AOAC Method 967.13. During testing, sieve mesh size will be either 2.83 or 2.38 mm (0.11 or 0.09 in.), sieve diameter will be limited to 30 cm (12 in.), and weighing procedure will be limited to tared pan. PMID:9477564

Dobson, J E; McClure, F D; Rainosek, A P

1998-01-01

398

The effect of heating conditions on polyphenol oxidase, proteases and melanosis in pre-cooked Pacific white shrimp during refrigerated storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-cooked Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is an important shrimp product. However melanosis, especially in the cephalothorax including carapace and internal organs, is more likely caused by the remaining polyphenol oxidase (PPO) after pre-cooking. Thus, PPO from carapace and proteases from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp were characterised and the remaining activities of both enzymes were monitored in pre-cooked shrimp

Kusaimah Manheem; Soottawat Benjakul; Kongkarn Kijroongrojana; Wonnop Visessanguan

399

Alkaline proteases produced by Bacillus licheniformis RP1 grown on shrimp wastes: Application in chitin extraction, chicken feather-degradation and as a dehairing agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current increase in the amount of shrimp wastes produced by the shrimp industry has led to the need in finding new methods\\u000a for shrimp wastes disposal. In this study, Bacillus licheniformis RP1 was shown to produce proteases when grown in media containing shrimp wastes powder as a sole carbon and nitrogen source,\\u000a indicating that this bacteria could obtain its

Anissa Haddar; Noomen Hmidet; Olfa Ghorbel-Bellaaj; Nahed Fakhfakh-Zouari; Alya Sellami-Kamoun; Moncef Nasri

2011-01-01

400

The effects of temperature, chlorine and acids on the survival of Listeria and Salmonella strains associated with uncooked shrimp carapace and cooked shrimp flesh.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of the association of Listeria and Salmonella with shrimp surfaces on the effects of temperature, chlorine and acids on their survival. Planktonic, attached and colonized cells of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, L. monocytogenes V7, Salmonella Senftenberg 1734b and S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 were challenged with high (50 degrees , 60 degrees and 70 degrees C) and low (4 degrees C) temperature, 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite solution, and acetic, hydrochloric and lactic acids (pH 4.0). Attached and colonized Listeria and Salmonella showed significantly greater (p < 0.05) resistance to heat ( approximately 1.3-2.6 fold increase in D-values), hypochlorite ( approximately 6.6 >or= 40.0 fold) and acids ( approximately 4.0-9.0 fold) than their planktonic counterparts. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the survival of planktonic, attached or colonized cells of Listeria and Salmonella stored under refrigerated conditions. The association of Listeria and Salmonella with shrimp surfaces enhances their resistance to heat, chlorine and acids. Both attachment to, and subsequent colonization of, shrimp surfaces by pathogens may reduce the efficacy of methods used in their control. Strategies to reduce attachment of these pathogens to shrimp are required to assure safety of this product. PMID:20141943

Wan Norhana, M N; Poole, Susan E; Deeth, Hilton C; Dykes, Gary A

2010-04-01

401

Effect of ante-mortem hypoxia on the physicochemical and functional properties of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) muscle stored on ice.  

PubMed

The effect of ante-mortem hypoxia on the physicochemical and functional properties of raw and cooked white shrimp was studied. Hue angle was greater (p???0.05) for stressed raw shrimp compared to control (greener color); whereas a lower angle was detected for cooked stressed shrimp (redder/orange coloration). In addition, hue angle increased (p???0.05) over the ice storage period for control and stressed shrimp (raw and/or cooked). Muscle hardness and shear force showed no differences when comparing control and stressed shrimp (raw and/or cooked). However, during ice storage, shear force increased (p???0.05) by 22% and 9% for control and stressed raw shrimp, respectively; in contrast, shear force and muscle hardness decreased for cooked shrimp (p???0.05). Control showed more (p???0.05) elasticity than stressed cooked shrimp. Stressed raw shrimp showed a water holding capacity 10.8% lower (p???0.05) than control. However, during the storage, water holding capacity increased (p???0.05) reaching similar values to control after day 4. Muscle protein solubility of stressed shrimp was 31% lower than control; however, no differences (p?>?0.05) were observed after the second day. The thermal stability of myosin (T max) showed differences (p???0.05) among control and stressed shrimp, whereas no differences for ?H were observed. Results showed the influence of ante-mortem hypoxia on the physicochemical and functional properties of white shrimp muscle. PMID:23685566

García-Sifuentes, Celia Olivia; Pacheco-Aguilar, Ramón; Scheuren-Acevedo, Susana María; Carvallo-Ruiz, Gisela; Garcia-Sanchez, Guillermina; Gollas-Galván, Teresa; Hernández-López, Jorge

2013-06-01

402

Fate of outflow channel effluents in the northern lowlands of Mars: The Vastitas Borealis Formation as a sublimation residue from frozen ponded bodies of water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the fate of the Hesperian-aged outflow channel effluents emplaced into the northern lowlands of Mars. We have modeled the evolution of these effluents under the assumption that they were emplaced under a range of atmospheric conditions comparable to those of today and thought to have prevailed in the Hesperian. Under these conditions we find that the evolution of the sediment-loaded water after it left the channels includes three phases. Phase 1: Emplacement and intensive cooling: Violent emplacement of water followed by a short period of intensive evaporation from the surface and near-surface layer, and intensive convection. During this phase the water maintained and redistributed its large suspended sediment load. Water vapor strongly influenced the climate, at least for a geologically short time. When the temperature of the water reached the temperature of the maximum density or the freezing point, boiling and intensive convection ceased and the water deposited the sediments. Phase 2: Freezing solid: Geologically rapid freezing of the water body accompanied by weak convective water movement occurred over a period of the order of ~104 years. Phase 3: Sublimation and loss: This period involved sublimation of the ice and lasted longer than the freezing phase. The rate and latitudinal dependence of the sublimation, as well as the location of water vapor condensation, crucially depend on the planetary obliquity, climate, and sedimentary veneering of the ice. Phase 3 would have been very short geologically (~105-106 years) if an insulating sedimentary layer did not build up rapidly. If such an insulating layer did form rapidly, sublimation could cease and residual ice hundreds of meters thick could remain below the surface today. The northern lowlands of Mars are largely covered by the Late Hesperian-aged Vastitas Borealis Formation (VBF), which has sharp boundaries clearly seen in the map of kilometer-scale roughness, and a distinctive kilometer-scale roughness signature. We examine detrended topography data and find evidence that the VBF is underlain at very shallow depths by an Early Hesperian ridged volcanic plains substrate, rather than frozen water deposits remaining from the outflow channel events. Analysis of the VBF roughness characteristics suggests at least 100 m thickness of sediments on top of the underlying volcanic ridged plains. The total inferred volume of the VBF material approximately corresponds to the volume of material removed from the outflow channels. These results support a model in which the Vastitas Borealis Formation predominantly represents the sedimentary residue remaining after the sediment-laden water effluents of the outflow channels ponded in the northern lowlands and rapidly froze solid and sublimed. The distinctive facies of the VBF are interpreted to be related to the freezing, sublimation, and residue of the outflow channel effluents. Ridged facies are dominantly marginal and are interpreted to be related to ice sheet lateral retreat. Knobby facies occur throughout and are interpreted to be due to a variety of causes, including dewatering, de-icing and brine-related processes, and kame-like ice residues. Grooved facies are interpreted to represent postsublimation uplift and fracturing due to load removal. The mottled facies may represent bright ejecta whose albedo is related to buried sedimentary or evaporitic residues. Presently, the most likely sites to find frozen remnants of the Hesperian ocean are below the floors of stealth craters underlying the VBF. On the basis of these findings and interpretations, we make predictions for the fate of the outflow channel water vapor and the nature of the Martian hydrologic cycle during the Hesperian. If Noachian-aged oceans existed, conditions at that time would be similar to those described for a Hesperian ocean as soon as a global cryosphere was formed. If any residual deposits remain in the northern lowlands from a proposed Noachian ocean, they would lie below both the VBF and the underlying sequence of Hesperian ridged plains.

Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.

2002-12-01

403

Physical and physiological aspects of gear efficiency in North Sea brown shrimp fisheries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In search of means to reduce the by-catch of juvenile flatfish in the shrimp fishery, vibrations and changes in current velocity caused by shrimp trawls were investigated in the field and in the laboratory. Buried as well as emerged shrimps ( Crangon crangon) exhibit tailflips 5 10 cm before being touched by the rollers of a shrimp gear approaching them at a speed of 0.5 m·sec-1, as was revealed by slow motion video recordings in aquaria under artificial light. Hence, the signal effective in triggering escape must be attenuated strongly with increasing distance. Sediment vibration, commonly assumed to be an important signal in triggering escape of shrimps, was found to decrease by a factor 100·m-1. Signals from the rollers of a commercial shrimp gear in operation (towing speed 1 m·sec-1) were directly recorded with an accelerometer. Their frequency ranged from 50 to 500 Hz and reached an acceleration of 40 m·sec-2 on soft bottom or up to 100 m·sec-2 on hard substrate. Accelerometers, which had been buried right at the surface of a tidal sand flat during low tide, produced only one sharp signal of 100 Hz with an acceleration of 24 m·sec-2, when a shrimp gear swept them on the submerged tidal flats. However, in aquaria short sinusoidal signals (<5 m·sec-2; 20 to 300 Hz) made buried shrimps and flatfish ( Pleuronectes platessa, Solea solea, Microstomus kitt) hide rather than flee. The vibrations recorded directly at the rollers and the underlying jolting movements of the rollers induce corresponding pulses in the water surrounding the rollers in a layer of approximately 10 15 cm. Similar water displacement of high acceleration was experimentally produced by a spring loaded transparent lucite piston (7 cm in diameter) fitted to an accelerometer. Accelerating this piston (12 116 m·sec-2, 50 200 Hz range) from 5 cm above towards the shrimp produced escape responses in up to 94% of the tests. Arthropods are known to perceive medium displacement rather than pressure. Hence, strong and rapidly rising water currents caused by the rollers rather than sediment vibration are assumed to mainly trigger the escape reaction, which makes Crangon accessible to the gear.

Berghahn, R.; Wiese, K.; Lüdemann, K.

1995-03-01

404

A cDNA microarray, UniShrimpChip, for identification of genes relevant to testicular development in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)  

PubMed Central

Background Poor reproductive maturation in captive male broodstock of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is one of the serious problems to the farming industries. Without genome sequence, EST libraries of P. monodon were previously constructed to identify transcripts with important biological functions. In this study, a new version of cDNA microarray, UniShrimpChip, was constructed from the Peneaus monodon EST libraries of 12 tissues, containing 5,568 non-redundant cDNA clones from 10,536 unique cDNA in the P. monodon EST database. UniShrimpChip was used to study testicular development by comparing gene expression levels of wild brooders from the West and East coasts of Thailand and domesticated brooders with different ages (10-, 14-, 18-month-old). Results The overall gene expression patterns from the microarray experiments revealed distinct transcriptomic patterns between the wild and domesticated groups. Moreover, differentially expressed genes from the microarray comparisons were identified, and the expression patterns of eight selected transcripts were subsequently confirmed by reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Among these, expression levels of six subunits (CSN2, 4, 5, 6, 7a, and 8) of the COP9 signalosome (CSN) gene family in wild and different ages of domesticated brooders were examined by RT-qPCR. Among the six subunits, CSN5 and CSN6 were most highly expressed in wild brooders and least expressed in the 18-month-old domesticated group; therefore, their full-length cDNA sequences were characterized. Conclusions This study is the first report to employ cDNA microarray to study testicular development in the black tiger shrimp. We show that there are obvious differences between the wild and domesticated shrimp at the transcriptomic level. Furthermore, our study is the first to investigate the feasibility that the CSN gene family might have involved in reproduction and development of this economically important species.

2011-01-01

405

Observations on the Activity and Life History of the Scavenging Isopod Natatolana borealisLilljeborg (Isopoda: Cirolanidae) from Loch Fyne, Scotland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activity and life history of the cirolanid isopod Natatolana borealisLilljeborg has been studied using (primarily) fish-baited traps deployed at a deep-water station (190 m) in Loch Fyne, Scotland. A voracious scavenger, it burrows into soft mud, emerging to feed when suitable food odours are detected in the water. Isopods were attracted significantly to baited vs. non-baited traps. Underwater video observations revealed that most animals were active in the vicinity of traps, that capture efficiency was low, but retention complete. Only traps on the sea-bed captured mancas or juveniles in any numbers. Any seasonal pattern in catch rate through the year was confounded by high variability. Only one (manca-)brooding female was ever caught in a trap (in April). It is assumed that brooding females desist from feeding. The sex ratio of isopods in most trap collections was thus significantly male dominated. Mancas were trapped during February to August. Growth rate was slowest in adults and was similar for males and females. The maximum growth rate occurred during autumn associated with the seasonal cycle in bottom water temperatures. Longevity was estimated (by following peaks in the size-frequency distributions with time) to be c. 2·5 years, with sexual maturity (based on oostegites/spurred appendix masculinae) achieved after c. 19 months. Semelparity is suggested. A low incidence of an unnamed epicaridean parasite is reported from the Clyde population. Natatolana borealisalso carried peritrich ciliate epizoites on their antennae. Possible predators are swimming crabs and gadid fish, e.g. whiting and cod.

Wong, Y. M.; Moore, P. G.

1996-02-01

406

The Fall and Rise of V854 Centauri: Long-Term Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of a Highly Active R Coronae Borealis Star  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine long-term low-dispersion International Ultraviolet Explorer SWP and LWP spectroscopy of the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) star V854 Cen, obtained across the deep (DeltaV>6 mag) 1991, 1992-1993, and 1994 declines. We also report the optical light curve for the star in the interval 1987-1998, including multicolor photometry obtained during 1989-1998. The light curve includes at least eight major declines where the amplitude exceeds 5 mag, many of which appear to be multiple decline events. Analysis of the UV emission-line spectra indicates most lines decay during the deep declines on characteristic timescales comparable to that reported for optical features. Fe, Mg, and neutral C lines decay on timescales of typically 50-100 days. Other lines, notably ionized C lines, decay on longer timescales (>200 days) or appear to be unaffected by the declines. The general nature of the UV emission lines and other UV features during the declines is consistent with the E1/E2/BL line region model developed from the behavior of optical spectral features during declines. However, the detailed line behavior indicates large intrinsic variability between decline events inconsistent with the simple E1/E2/BL model. Limited temporal coverage prevents detailed examination of the geometry of the emission-line region or the obscuring dust. We also report the first detection of the transition-region line C IV] lambda1550 in the spectrum of an RCB star. We fit the onset times of all declines from maximum light within the 1987-1998 interval, irrespective of decline amplitude, with a 43.23 day linear solution, thus improving the decline ephemeris. The linear term is probably the pulsation period of V854 Cen, further supporting the suspected link between radial pulsations and mass loss in these types of stars.

Lawson, Warrick A.; Maldoni, Marco M.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Valencic, Lynne; Jones, Albert F.; Kilkenny, David; van Wyk, Francois; Roberts, Greg; Marang, Fred

1999-06-01

407

The Dust Properties of Hot R Coronae Borealis Stars and a Wolf-Rayet Central Star of a Planetary Nebula: In Search of the Missing Link  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present new Spitzer IIRS spectra of two hot R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars, one in the Galaxy,V348 Sgr, and one lying in the Large Magellanic Cloud, HV 2671. These two objects constitute a link between the RCB stars and the [WCL] class of central stars of planetary nebula (CSPNe) that has little or no hydrogen in their atmospheres such as CPD -560 8032. HV 2671 and V348 Sgr are members of a rare subclass that has significantly higher effective temperatures than most RCB stars, but sharing the traits of hydrogen deficiency and dust formation that define the cooler RCB stars. The [WC] CSPNe star, CPD -560 8032, displays evidence for dual-dust chemistry showing both PAHs and crystalline silicates in its mid-IR spectrum. HV 2671 shows strong PAH emission but shows no sign of having crystalline silicates. The spectrum of V348 Sgr is very different from those of CPD -56deg 8032 and HV 2671. The PAH emission seen strongly in the other two stars is only weakly present. Instead, the spectrum is dominated by a broad emission centered at about 8.5 microns. This feature is not identified with either PAHs or silicates. Several other novae and post-asymptotic giant branch stars show similar features in their IR spectra. The mid-IR spectrum of CPD -56deg 8032 shows emission features associated with C60 . The other two stars do not show evidence for C60. The nature of the dust around these stars does not help us in establishing further links that may indicate a common origin.

Clayton, Geoffrey C.; De Marco, O.; Whitney, B. A.; Babler, B.; Gallagher, J. S.; Nordhaus, J.; Speck, A. K.; Wolff, M. J.; Freeman, W. R.; Camp, K. A.; Lawson, W. A.; Roman-Duval, J.; Misselt, K. A.; Meade, M.; Sonneborn, G.; Matsuura, M.; Meixner, M.

2012-01-01

408

The Importance of Supratidal Habitats for Wintering Shorebirds and the Potential Impacts of Shrimp Aquaculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) aquaculture ponds have replaced significant areas of coastal wetlands throughout tropical Asia. Few studies have assessed potential impacts on avian foraging habitats. At Khao Sam Roi Yod National Park, Thailand, seminatural wetlands have been converted to either shrimp ponds or to salinization ponds that provide saline water for shrimp aquaculture. Although shorebirds cannot feed in aquaculture ponds, hypersaline ponds can provide productive foraging areas. Thus, the overall impact of the shrimp industry on shorebirds depends partly on the relative quality of the salt ponds compared to seminatural wetlands. In this study, we examined wintering shorebird use of tidal ( N = 5 sites) and supratidal areas (four wetland sites, four salt pond sites) and compared the shorebird community (14 species), prey availability, profitability, and disturbance rates between wetlands and salt ponds. Two shorebird species fed in higher densities in wetlands, whereas seven species were more abundant in salt ponds. Large juvenile fish and dragonfly larvae were more abundant in wetlands, whereas there were more small Chironomid midge and fly larvae in salt ponds. We conclude that salt ponds might provide higher-quality foraging habitats compared to wetlands for small shorebirds species because of the abundance of small larvae. However, the shrimp aquaculture industry reduces habitat availability for shorebirds feeding on larger prey. This study demonstrates a comprehensive, multispecies approach to assess the impacts of a large-scale change in coastal habitats for wintering shorebirds.

Yasué, M.; Dearden, P.

2009-06-01

409

Accumulation of trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and N-acetylsulfamethoxazole in fish and shrimp fed medicated Artemia franciscana.  

PubMed Central

In a previous paper (H.J. Nelis, P. Léger, P. Sorgeloos, and A. P. De Leenheer, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35:2486-2489, 1991) it was reported that two selected antibacterial agents, i.e., trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, can be efficiently bioencapsulated in nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana for administration to fish. This follow-up study showed that larvae of the sea bass and the turbot as well as postlarvae of the white shrimp accumulate the therapeutic agents in high quantities when fed medicated A. franciscana. To monitor their levels as a function of time, the liquid chromatographic method originally developed for the analysis of A. franciscana was modified with respect to chromatography, internal standardization, and sample pretreatment. The levels of trimethoprim ranged from 1 to 7 micrograms/g (sea bass), 1 to 13 micrograms/g (turbot), and 4 to 38 micrograms/g (white shrimp). The corresponding values for sulfamethoxazole were 0.3 to 4 micrograms/g (sea bass), 1 to 42 micrograms/g (turbot), and 4 to 35 micrograms/g (white shrimp). Only the two fish species, unlike the shrimp, metabolized the latter to N-acetylsulfamethoxazole (concentration range, 1 to 10 micrograms/g). These data suggest the potential of the bioencapsulation of therapeutic agents in live food as a tool to control infectious diseases in aquaculture. A preliminary challenge test also confirmed the in vivo efficacy of this approach.

Chair, M; Nelis, H J; Leger, P; Sorgeloos, P; de Leenheer, A P

1996-01-01

410

Growing backwards: an inverted role for the shrimp ortholog of vertebrate myostatin and GDF11.  

PubMed

Myostatin (MSTN) and growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF11) are closely related proteins involved in muscle cell growth and differentiation as well as neurogenesis of vertebrates. Both MSTN and GDF11 negatively regulate their functions. Invertebrates possess a single ortholog of the MSTN/GDF11 family. In order to understand the role of MSTN/GDF11 in crustaceans, the gene ortholog was identified and characterized in the penaeid shrimp Penaeus monodon. The overall protein sequence and specific functional sites were highly conserved with other members of the MSTN/GDF11 family. Gene transcripts of pmMstn/Gdf11, assessed by real-time PCR, were detected in a variety of tissue types and were actively regulated in muscle across the moult cycle. To assess phenotypic function in shrimp, pmMstn/Gdf11 gene expression was downregulated by tail-muscle injection of sequence-specific double-stranded RNA. Shrimp with reduced levels of pmMstn/Gdf11 transcripts displayed a dramatic slowing in growth rate compared with control groups. Findings from this study place the MSTN/GDF11 gene at the centre of growth regulation in shrimp, but suggest that, compared with higher vertebrates, this gene has an opposite role in invertebrates such as shrimp, where levels of gene expression may positively regulate growth. PMID:21795562

De Santis, Christian; Wade, Nicholas M; Jerry, Dean R; Preston, Nigel P; Glencross, Brett D; Sellars, Melony J

2011-08-15

411

Occurrence of Deferribacterales and Entomoplasmatales in the deep-sea Alvinocarid shrimp Rimicaris exoculata gut.  

PubMed

Abstract The phylogenetic diversity of the gut microbial population of the hydrothermal shrimp Rimicaris exoculata was determined. The presence of micro-organisms in the hindgut of the shrimp was determined, and their morphology illustrated for the first time by transmission electron microscopy. DNA was extracted from the fore-, mid- and hindgut of shrimps collected at the Rainbow site, at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and the sequences of the small-subunit rRNA (16S rDNA) were analyzed. Seven different bacterial phylotypes were identified from the 90 clones screened. The sequences were affiliated to three major groups: epsilon-Proteobacteria (48,8%), Entomoplasmatales (23.3%) and representatives of the new phylum Deferribacteres (26.6%). These results show that the diversity in the shrimp gut is very low compared to that of the surrounding medium. Furthermore, the presence of groups that are not found in the external medium (Spiroplasma sp. and Geovibrio sp.) suggests the existence of a local microflora. The potential roles of these bacteria are discussed, involving the shrimp diet and metal bioremediation. PMID:19719579

Zbinden, Magali; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne

2003-10-01

412

Functional analysis on immune deficiency (IMD) homolog gene in Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis.  

PubMed

IMD pathway is an important signaling pathway in regulating the innate immunity of invertebrate. IMD is regarded as a key adaptor to link the extracellular signals and intracellular signals. In the present study, a full-length cDNA encoding an IMD homolog (FcIMD) was isolated from Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. It consists of 767 bp with a 483 bp open reading frame encoding 160 amino acids. A death domain was predicted which is crucial to the immune function of IMD. Tissue expression analysis showed that FcIMD mRNA had different expression level in different tissues. The transcriptional expression of FcIMD in shrimp was significantly induced at early stage (1 h) after stimulation by Vibrio or Micrococcus which suggested its important role in the immunity of shrimp to bacterium infection. The expressions of shrimp antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were affected when FcIMD was silenced by dsRNA interference. Through analyzing the expression of FcRelish, FcDorsal and FcJNK in FcIMD silenced shrimp at 1 h post Vibrio injection, we deduced that IMD was involved in Relish regulated signaling pathway, not in Dorsal or JNK regulated signaling pathway. PMID:24390318

Feng, Ningning; Wang, Dongdong; Wen, Rong; Li, Fuhua

2014-03-01

413

Melanosis and quality changes of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) treated with catechin during iced storage.  

PubMed

Melanosis, microbiological, chemical, and physical changes of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) treated with catechin were monitored during iced storage of 10 days. Whole shrimp treated with catechin solution (0.05 or 0.1%) had retarded growth of psychrophilic bacteria and spoilage microorganisms including H(2)S-producing bacteria and enterobacteriaceae throughout storage in comparison with the control and those treated with 1.25% sodium metabisilfite (SMS) (P < 0.05). The lower increases in pH and total volatile base (TVB) content were obtained in the shrimp treated with catechin solution at both levels, compared with those of other samples (P < 0.05). Lipid oxidation, loss in freshness and melanosis were lowered by catechin treatment. In general, the efficacy of catechin in lowering melanosis and quality losses increased with increasing levels used. Additionally, catechin (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1% (w/v)) showed inhibitory activity toward polyphenoloxidase (PPO) of Pacific white shrimp in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, catechin can be used as a promising melanosis inhibitor as well as an antimicrobial and an antioxidant in ice-stored shrimp. PMID:19309075

Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat

2009-05-13

414

Cholesterol oxidation and astaxanthin degradation in shrimp during sun drying and storage.  

PubMed

Dried salted shrimps are made from raw shrimps, which are cooked and dried under direct sunlight. The preparation and storage include treatments and conditions that can promote oxidative changes in different components. The aim of this study was to monitor the formation of major cholesterol oxidation products and the changes in the astaxanthin content and fatty acid profile in dried salted shrimp during cooking, sun drying and storage. During sun drying, most of the astaxanthin (75%) was degraded in cooked shrimp, while cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) showed a dramatic increase (8.6-fold), reaching a total concentration of 372.9 ± 16.3 ?g/g of lipids. Further storage favoured both astaxanthin degradation (83%) and COPs formation (886.6 ± 97.9 ?g/g of lipids after 90 days of storage). The high degradation of astaxanthin and the elevated formation of COPs during sun drying and storage indicate the necessity to re-evaluate the processing and storage conditions of salted dried shrimp. PMID:24128553

Hernández Becerra, Josafat A; Ochoa Flores, Angélica A; Valerio-Alfaro, Gerardo; Soto-Rodriguez, Ida; Rodríguez-Estrada, María T; García, Hugo S

2014-02-15

415

Haemocyte apoptosis of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon exposed to cadmium.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of ambient Cadmium (Cd) on haemocyte apoptosis of the shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Cellular response was determined in Cd-exposed (0, 0.05, 0.5 and 5 mg L(-1)) shrimp. Results showed that 0.05 mg L(-1) Cd(2+) had no significant effect on the haemocyte parameters during the 48 h exposure. Cadmium at doses of 0.5 and 5 mg L(-1) depressed the total haemocyte count (THC), and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis ratio in haemocytes. Esterase activity increased in shrimp exposed to 0.5 mg L(-1) Cd(2+) for 6 h, and decreased to the initial level later. Depressed esterase activity could be observed in shrimp after 24 and 48 h exposure to 5 mg L(-1) Cd(2+). These results demonstrated that Cd(2+) modified esterase activity and induced ROS generation, which led to haemocyte apoptosis and THC reduction. Oxidative stress is one of the induction mechanisms for Cd-caused apoptosis of shrimp haemocytes. PMID:24374743

Xian, Jian-An; Li, Bin; Guo, Hui; Miao, Yu-Tao; Ye, Jian-Min; Feng, Li-Na; Ye, Chao-Xia; Pan, Xun-Bin; Wang, An-Li; Hao, Xuan-Ming

2014-05-01

416

Protozoan ciliate epibionts on the freshwater shrimp Caridina (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae) from the Malili lake system on Sulawesi (Indonesia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protozoan ciliate epibionts on the freshwater shrimp Caridina (Decapoda, Atyidae), in particular from the ancient Malili lake system on Sulawesi (Indonesia), were studied. These ciliates belong to the following genera: the suctorian Acineta, and the peritrichs Thuricola, Cothurnia, Vorticella, Opercularia, and Zoothamnium. The ciliates were located on diverse areas of the surface and appendages of the shrimp. Morphological and taxonomical

Kristina Zitzler; Regina Gabilondo

2006-01-01

417

Emigration of penaeid shrimp from the once-through cooling lake of Cedar Bayou Steam Electric Generating Station, Baytown, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Migration and distribution of two decapod shrimp, Penaeus setiferus and P. aztecus, in the cooling-water system of a power plant on the Texas coast were investigated, with emphasis on the seaward emigration from the cooling lake. Samples were collected every two weeks for a year by straining water leaving the lake over a drop structure, trawling in the cooling lake, and flushed from the intake screen. Shrimp catches at the drop structure were positively correlated with the standing population in the cooling lake. Significantly more shrimp passed over the drop structure nocturnally than diurnally. Shrimp caught at the drop structure diurnally averaged either smaller or similar in size to the shrimp taken there at night. The passage of a cold front enhanced migration and initially increased and then reduced the mean size of shrimp passing the drop structure. Higher percentages of the shrimp population in the cooling lake emigrated near new moon than full moon. The moon-phase effects appeared to be due to the moon cycle itself rather than to the intinsity of moon light. Significantly more shrimp of both species emigrated during the hours of ebbing than incoming tide. As the lake surface was above high tide level, an endogenous timing mechanism rather than evironmental factors associated with tidal rhythms controlled this emigration pattern. A temperature drop of up to 0.23 C/hour significantly increased P. aztecus emigration.

Chen, Y.L.

1983-01-01

418

Extraction of astaxanthin from giant tiger ( Panaeus monodon) shrimp waste using palm oil: Studies of extraction kinetics and thermodynamic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of extraction of astaxanthin from giant tiger (Panaeus monodon) shrimp waste using palm oil was conducted to determine the extraction kinetics and thermodynamic parameters. Two extraction models were proposed: mass transfer kinetic model and reaction kinetic model. It was found that both of mass transfer and reaction kinetic control the extraction of astaxanthin from shrimp waste using palm oil.

Akdes Dewi Handayani; Sutrisno; Nani Indraswati; Suryadi Ismadji

2008-01-01

419

Cathepsin B from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: cDNA sequence analysis, tissues-specific expression and biological activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cathepsin B is a cystein proteinase scarcely studied in crustaceans. Its function has not been clearly described in shrimp species belonging to the sub-order Dendrobranchiata, which includes the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and other species from the Penaeidae family. Studies on vertebrates suggest that these lysosomal enzymes intracellularly hydrolize protein, as other cystein proteinases. However, the expression of the gene

A. Stephens; L. Rojo; S. Araujo-Bernal; F. Garcia-Carreño; A. Muhlia-Almazan

420

ASPECTS OF THE HOST - COMMENSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A PALAEMONID SHRIMP ('PONTONIA DOMESTICA') AND THE PEN SHELL ('ATRINA RIGIDA')  

EPA Science Inventory

Sixty pen shells (Atrina rigida), were collected and examined to determine the prevalence and morphometrics of the commensal shrimp (Pontonia domestica). The spatial and sexual distribution within the shell of the host, and the reproductive states of the shrimp were also investig...

421

Comparative Embryonic and Larval Developmental Responses of Estuarine Shrimp ( Palaemonetes pugio ) to the Juvenile Hormone Agonist Fenoxycarb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grass shrimp ( Palaemonetes pugio) were reared separately through both embryonic and total larval development during exposure to fenoxycarb at measured concentrations of ?1. A fenoxycarb concentration of 888 ?g L ?1 significantly ( p ?1 had no significant ( p > 0.05) effect on complete embryonic development. Significantly fewer shrimp successfully metamorphosed to postlarvae when exposed through complete larval

C. L. McKenney; G. M. Cripe; S. S. Foss; S. R. Tuberty; M. Hoglund

2004-01-01

422

Deep-water penaeid shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) from off the Portuguese continental slope: an alternative future resource?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional crustacean fishery along the continental shelf and slope off Portugal mainly targets the Rose shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris, Lucas, 1846), Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus, Linnaeus, 1758) and its associated species, Red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus, Risso, 1816). In recent years, the commercial trawl fishery has been intensive and has resulted in an overexploitation of these species, down to depths of

Maria José Figueiredo; Ivone Figueiredo; Pedro Bordalo Machado

2001-01-01

423

Effect of temporal variation, gender and size on cuticle polyphenol oxidase activity in deep-water rose shrimp ( Parapenaeus longirostris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal changes and physiological factors related to sex, size and spawning period may alter polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in crustacean decapods. Given the undesirable effects that the enzyme has on the marketability of shrimps, the cuticles of the valuable deep-water rose shrimp were examined. Monthly measurements of PPO activity in cuticles of juvenile and adult males and females were recorded

Gioacchino Bono; Cinzia Badalucco; Antonino Corrao; Salvatore Cusumano; Luigi Mammina; Giovanni B. Palmegiano

2010-01-01

424

Energy Filtering Transmission Electron Tomography (EFTET) of Bacteria-Mineral Associations within the Deep sea Hydrothermal Vent Shrimp Rimicaris exoculata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical and temperature conditions around deep sea hydrothermal vents are both dynamic and extreme, yet the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata flourishes around these environments on the Mid--Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Epibiotic bacteria and minerals found within the branchial chamber (BC) of the shrimp are of great interest in the search for a chemical model for the Rainbow MAR hydrothermal vent site.

L. M. Anderson; S. Halary; J. Lechaire; G. Frébourg; T. Boudier; M. Zbinden; J. Laval; S. Marco; F. Gaill

2007-01-01

425

Bacterial symbionts and mineral deposits in the branchial chamber of the hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata: relationship to moult cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata is considered a primary consumer that dominates the fauna of most Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal ecosystems. The shrimps harbour in their gill chamber an important ectosymbiotic community of chemoautotrophic bacteria associated with iron oxide deposits. The settlement and development of this ectosymbiosis was investigated using micro- scopy techniques (light microscopy, LM; and scanning, transmission and environmental scanning

Laure Corbari; Magali Zbinden; Marie-Anne Cambon-Bonavita; Françoise Gaill; Philippe Compère

2008-01-01

426

77 FR 21679 - Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Revisions of Bycatch Reduction Device...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-BB61 Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Revisions...Plan for the Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf FMP) and the Fishery Management...devices (BRDs) for use in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) and South Atlantic...

2012-04-11

427

Retardation of quality changes of Pacific white shrimp by green tea extract treatment and modified atmosphere packaging during refrigerated storage.  

PubMed

The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality changes of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) treated with or without green tea extract (1g/L; GTE) in combination with or without ascorbic acid (0.05g/L; AA) during refrigerated storage of 10days was investigated. Shrimp without treatment stored under MAP had lowered psychrotrophic bacteria, enterobacteriaceae and H(2)S-producing bacteria count (P<0.05) but similar lactic acid bacteria count (P>0.05), in comparison with shrimp stored in air (control). The coincidental lowered rate of increase in pH, total volatile base (TVB) content and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were obtained in shrimp stored under MAP (P<0.05). However, MAP slightly lowered melanosis formation and improved likeness score to some extent. When shrimp were treated with GTE and stored under MAP, the lower microbiological and chemical changes as well as the lowest melanosis formation were observed, compared to shrimp kept under MAP without treatment and the control (P<0.05). GTE treatment in combination with MAP could retard chemical changes and melanosis formation, regardless of AA incorporation (P>0.05). Nevertheless, GTE in combination with AA had higher inhibition on microbial growth and yielded the shrimp with higher likeness, compared with the other treatments (P<0.05). Therefore, shrimp treated with GTE in combination with AA prior to MAP had the lowest losses in quality during refrigerated storage. PMID:21798614

Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat

2011-10-01

428

Phylogenetic relationships within the snapping shrimp genus Synalpheus (Decapoda: Alpheidae).  

PubMed

The snapping shrimp genus Synalpheus (Alpheidae) is one of the most speciose decapod genera, with over 160 described species worldwide. Most species live in symbiotic relationships with other marine organisms, such as sponges, corals and crinoids, and some sponge-dwelling species have a highly organized, social structure. The present study is the first worldwide molecular phylogenetic analysis of Synalpheus, based on >2200bp of sequence data from two mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and two nuclear (PEPCK and 18S) loci. Our molecular data show strong support for monophyly of three out of six traditionally recognized morphology-based species groups: the S. brevicarpus, S. comatularum and S. gambarelloides groups. The remaining three species groups (S. paulsoni, S. neomeris and S. coutierei groups) are non-monophyletic in their current composition and will need to be either abandoned or taxonomically redefined. We also identified potential cryptic species of Synalpheus in our dataset, using intraspecific and interspecific sequence variation in COI from the taxonomically well-studied S. gambarelloides group to establish a genetic divergence threshold. We then used both genetic divergence and tree-based criteria (reciprocal monophyly) to identify potential cryptic species in the remaining taxa of the genus. Our results suggest the presence of multiple cryptic lineages in Synalpheus, underlining the need for more integrative taxonomic studies-including morphological, ecological, molecular, and color pattern data-in this biologically interesting genus. PMID:24680914

Hultgren, Kristin M; Hurt, Carla; Anker, Arthur

2014-08-01

429

Physicochemical and functional characteristics of radiation-processed shrimp chitosan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of gamma irradiation on chitosan samples were determined in terms of physicochemical and functional properties. Shrimp chitosan was extracted from shell using a chemical process involving demineralization, deproteinization, decolorization and deacetylation. Commercial snow chitosan was also used. Samples (in a solid state) were given irradiation dose of 25 kGy at a dose rate of 1.1013 kGy/h in air and 0 kGy samples were used as controls. Results showed that moisture contents were between 8.690% and 13.645%. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in the degree of deacetylation of the chitosan samples. Significant differences ( P<0.05) were observed in the viscosity and viscosity-average molecular weight of the chistosan samples. Viscosity and molecular weight decreased when the samples were given the irradiation dose of 25 kGy. Chitosan samples had low antioxidant activity compared with BHT. Water binding capacity ranged from 582.40% to 656.75% and fat binding capacity was between 431.00% and 560.55%. Irradiation had a major effect on the viscosity and the viscosity-average molecular weight of the chitosan samples.

Ocloo, F. C. K.; Quayson, E. T.; Adu-Gyamfi, A.; Quarcoo, E. A.; Asare, D.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Woode, B. K.

2011-07-01

430

Oceanobacillus kapialis sp. nov., from fermented shrimp paste in Thailand.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, strictly aerobic, spore-forming, moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain SSK2-2T, was isolated from fermented shrimp paste (ka-pi) produced in Thailand. It contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone and meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The isolate grew at 8-43 degrees C, pH 6-9 and in 0.5-24% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 6-14% NaCl). The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. Phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol were the major polar lipid components. The DNA G+C content was 39.7 mol%. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed that strain SSK2-2T was most closely related to Oceanobacillus picturae KCTC 3821T with 98.7% sequence similarity. Based on phenotypic and molecular features combined with DNA-DNA hybridization results (

Namwong, Sirilak; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Lee, Keun Chul; Lee, Jung-Sook

2009-09-01

431

Spectral tuning and the visual ecology of mantis shrimps.  

PubMed

The compound eyes of mantis shrimps (stomatopod crustaceans) include an unparalleled diversity of visual pigments and spectral receptor classes in retinas of each species. We compared the visual pigment and spectral receptor classes of 12 species of gonodactyloid stomatopods from a variety of photic environments, from intertidal to deep water (> 50 m), to learn how spectral tuning in the different photoreceptor types is modified within different photic environments. Results show that receptors of the peripheral photoreceptors, those outside the midband which are responsible for standard visual tasks such as spatial vision and motion detection, reveal the well-known pattern of decreasing lambdamax with increasing depth. Receptors of midband rows 5 and 6, which are specialized for polarization vision, are similar in all species, having visual lambdamax-values near 500nm, independent of depth. Finally, the spectral receptors of midband rows 1 to 4 are tuned for maximum coverage of the spectrum of irradiance available in the habitat of each species. The quality of the visual worlds experienced by each species we studied must vary considerably, but all appear to exploit the full capabilities offered by their complex visual systems. PMID:11079411

Cronin, T W; Marshall, N J; Caldwell, R L

2000-09-29

432

[Preparation of a spread from shrimp by-catch fish].  

PubMed

The composition of shrimp by-catch fish from the Central-Western region of Venezuela at different periods of the year was studied, as well as mean size and weight of same, and the yields obtained during processing, until the edible portion (pulp) was reached. The pulp was also analyzed from the physical, chemical and microbiological (pH, basic volatile N, trimethylamine, thiobarbituric acid test, moisture, fat, protein, ashes content and mesophyll and psychrophilic counts) points of view. The purpose of these studies was to determine its quality and freshness, since said pulp was utilized for the preparation of a canned and sterilized bread spread. Results obtained indicated the pulp to have an acceptable freshness, a fact which reflected in a final product with adequate characteristics. The bread spread was also analyzed from the physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory viewpoints (objective analyses of color and texture, pH, rancidity and sterility tests, moisture, fat protein, ashes, carbohydrates, sodium chloride contents, and sensory evaluation). In addition, these analyses were repeated monthly during the three-month storage period at two temperatures. On the basis of the above-mentioned findings, it was possible to determine that the bread spread had adequate acceptability and stability during storage. Furthermore, raw material variations did not affect the final product characteristics, which resulted in a product with commercial potential. PMID:3154297

Sena, C; Bello, R A

1988-12-01

433

Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of protein-bound residues in shrimp dosed with nitrofurans.  

PubMed

An analytical method was developed for the determination of bound residues of the nitrofuran drugs furazolidone, nitrofurazone, furaltadone, and nitrofurantoin with a sensitivity of 1 ppb in shrimp. In this procedure, shrimp tissue is prewashed with solvents followed by overnight acid hydrolysis, during which the side chains of the bound residues are released and simultaneously derivatized with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde. After liquid-liquid extraction cleanup, the derivatives are detected and quantitated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface. The method was validated using control shrimp fortified with each side-chain analyte at 1, 2, and 4 ppb. Method accuracies were >80% with coefficients of variation of <20% for all four analytes. Tissues from dosed shrimp were assayed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method for recovering bound residues of nitrofurans. In shrimp dosed with nitrofurans, nitrofurantoin exhibited the lowest level of bound residues. PMID:16277385

Chu, Pak-Sin; Lopez, Mayda I

2005-11-16

434

An immersion of Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract improves the immunity and survival of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei challenged with white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

The innate immunity and resistance against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received the Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract were examined. Shrimp immersed in seawater containing the extract at 0 (control), 400 and 600 mg L(-1) for 3 h were challenged with WSSV at 2 × 10(4) copies shrimp(-1). Shrimp not exposed to the extract and not received WSSV challenge served as unchallenged control. The survival rate of shrimp immersed in 400 mg L(-1) or 600 mg L(-1) extract was significantly higher than that of challenged control shrimp over 24-120 h. The haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase activity, and lysozyme activity of shrimp immersed in 600 mg L(-1) extract were significantly higher than those of unchallenged control shrimp at 6, 6, 6, 6, and 6-24 h post-challenge. In another experiment, shrimp which had received 3 h immersion of 0, 400, 600 mg L(-1) extract were challenged with WSSV. The shrimp were then received a booster (3 h immersion in the same dose of the extract), and the immune parameters were examined at 12-120 h post-challenge. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg L(-1) extract, and then received a booster at 9, 21, and 45 h were significantly higher than those of unchallenged control shrimp at 12-48 h post-challenge. In conclusion, shrimp which had received the extract exhibited protection against WSSV as evidenced by the higher survival rate and higher values of immune parameters. Shrimp which had received the extract and infected by WSSV showed improved immunity when they received a booster at 9, 21, and 45 h post-WSSV challenge. The extract treatment caused less decrease in PO activity, and showed better performance of lysozyme activity and antioxidant response in WSSV-infected shrimp. PMID:21802517

Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Li, Chang-Che; Chen, Li-Li; Cheng, Ann-Chang; Chen, Jiann-Chu

2011-12-01

435

Effect of dandelion polysaccharides on the retardation of the quality changes of white shrimp.  

PubMed

Dandelion polysaccharides (DPs) have antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In this study, investigated were the effects of the DPs on preservation of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) during refrigerated storage. Shrimp samples were untreated or soaked in the DPs solution, and then they were stored under refrigerated conditions. Samples were taken periodically and evaluated for total viable count, pH value, total volatile basic nitrogen, and overall acceptability score. Treatment of the DPs effectively retarded bacterial growth and pH increasing, reduced total volatile basic nitrogen, and increased overall acceptability score of white shrimp (P. vannamei) during refrigerated storage. The results show that the DPs treatment could prolong shelf life for up to 10 days. PMID:24820151

Wang, Hong-Bin

2014-07-01

436

Influence of probiotics on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of white Pacific shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of Bacillus probiotics on the digestive enzyme activity and the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei were determined in this study. The shrimp was treated with five percentages (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5) of probiotics ( Bacillus spp.) supplemented to the feed and cultured for 45d. The growth measured as the weight gain at the end of culturing was significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimps than that of the control (without receiving probiotics). Activities of protease and amylase, two digestive enzymes of the midgut gland and the intestine were significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimp than in the control.

Gómez, R. Geovanny D.; Shen, M. A.

2008-05-01

437

Ultraviolet irradiation and gradient temperature assisted autolysis for protein recovery from shrimp head waste.  

PubMed

A novel autolysis method using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and gradient temperature was investigated to efficiently recover proteins from the head of the shrimp Penaeus vannamei. The proteolytic activity of shrimp head subjected to 30W UV irradiation for 20min was increased by 62%, compared with that of untreated samples. After irradiation, the enzymes remained active across a wide range of temperatures (45-60°C) and pH (7-10). An orthogonal design was used to optimize autolysis condition. After 5h autolysis, protein recovery from the UV-heat treated samples was up to 92.1%. These results indicate the potential of using UV irradiation in combination with gradient temperatures to improve recovery of proteins from shrimp head waste. PMID:24996316

Cao, Wenhong; Tan, Caiyun; Zhan, Xiaojian; Li, Huiyi; Zhang, Chaohua

2014-12-01

438

Determination of hydroxytryptophan isomers in gamma-irradiated egg white, chicken meat, and shrimps.  

PubMed

The radiation induced products of tryptophan (TRP) were determined in gamma-irradiated egg white, chicken meat and shrimps using RP-HPLC and electrochemical detection. A two-step hydrolysis with proteinase K and carboxypeptidase A was developed to release the radiation products from egg white and chicken meat and with proteinase K and pronase E from shrimps. The four hydroxytryptophan isomers (OH-Trp) were identified and quantified as radiation products in all samples. The amounts ranged between 0.02 and 1.97 mg/kg protein. A significant difference between irradiated and unirradiated samples was found for irradiation doses of more than 3 kGy for egg white and chicken meat. For shrimps no significant increase of OH-Trp isomers was measured up to a radiation dose of 5 kGy. PMID:10721119

Kleeberg, K K; van Wickern, B; Simat, T J; Steinhart, H

1999-01-01

439

Distribution of hydrothermal Alvinocaridid shrimps: effect of geomorphology and specialization to extreme biotopes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to review of our knowledge about distribution of recently known species of vent shrimps and to analyze factors influencing distribution patterns. Analyses are based upon (1) original material taken during eight cruises in the Atlantic Ocean (a total of 5861 individuals) and (2) available literature data from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Vent shrimps have two patterns of the species ranges: local (single vent site) and regional (three--six vent sites). Pacific species ranges are mainly of the local type and the Atlantic species ranges are of the regional type. The regional type of species ranges may be associated with channels providing easy larval dispersal (rift valleys, trenches), while the local type is characteristic for other areas. Specialization of a shrimp genus to extreme vent habitats leads to two effects: (1) an increase in the number of vent fields inhabited by the genus and (2) a decrease of species number within the genus. PMID:24676215

Lunina, Anastasia A; Vereshchaka, Alexandr L

2014-01-01

440

Determination of chloramphenicol residues in shrimps by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A liquid chromatographic method with mass spectrometric detection and identification (LC-MS) is presented for the determination of chloramphenicol (CAP) in shrimp tissues. Homogenized shrimp samples were extracted with phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). Clean-up was carried out on a C(18) SPE cartridge. Chloramphenicol was determined by LC-MS-ESI in negative mode. The column used was a Symmetry Shield with a mixture of acetonitrile-water (25:75) as mobile phase. Shrimp samples were fortified at CAP levels between 0.2 and 50 ng g(-1) with 5D-CAP as internal standard. At these levels, accuracies lay between 101 and 110% and between-day reproducibilities were lower than 7.1%, expressed as the variation coefficient of the mean. Limit of decision (CCalpha) was 0.02 ng g(-1). Limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.2 ng g(-1). PMID:12798162

Ramos, M; Muñoz, P; Aranda, A; Rodriguez, I; Diaz, R; Blanca, J

2003-07-01

441

Survival of deep-sea shrimp (Alvinocaris sp.) during decompression and larval hatching at atmospheric pressure.  

PubMed

We report successful larval hatching of deep-sea shrimp after decompression to atmospheric pressure. Three specimens of deep-sea shrimp were collected from an ocean depth of 1157 m at cold-seep sites off Hatsushima Island in Sagami Bay, Japan, using a pressure-stat aquarium system. Phylogenetic analysis of Alvinocaris sp. based on cytochrome c oxidase subunit gene sequences confirmed that these species were a member of the genus Alvinocaris. All 3 specimens survived to reach atmospheric pressure conditions after stepwise 63-day decompression. Two of the specimens contained eggs, which hatched after 10 and 16 days, respectively, of full decompression. Although no molting of the shrimp larvae was observed during 74 days of rearing under atmospheric pressure, the larvae developed conventional dark-adapted eyes after 15 days. PMID:15942807

Koyama, Sumihiro; Nagahama, Takahiko; Ootsu, Noriyuki; Takayama, Tomoji; Horii, Masae; Konishi, Satoshi; Miwa, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Aizawa, Masuo

2005-01-01

442

Heat-shock response and temperature resistance in the deep-sea vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata.  

PubMed

The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata swarms around hydrothermal black smoker chimneys at most vent sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This species maintains close proximity to the hydrothermal fluid, where temperatures can reach 350 degrees C and steep thermal and chemical gradients are expected. We performed in vivo experiments in pressurized aquaria to determine the upper thermal limit [critical thermal maximum (CT(max))] of R. exoculata and to investigate some characteristics of the shrimp stress response to heat exposure. These experiments showed that the shrimp does not tolerate sustained exposure to temperatures in the 33-37 degrees C range (CT(max)). A heat-inducible stress protein belonging to the hsp70 family was identified in R. exoculata, and its synthesis threshold induction temperature is below 25 degrees C. The R. exoculata optimal thermal habitat may thus be restricted to values lower than previously expected (<25 degrees C). PMID:12796451

Ravaux, Juliette; Gaill, Françoise; Le Bris, Nadine; Sarradin, Pierre-Marie; Jollivet, Didier; Shillito, Bruce

2003-07-01

443

Distribution of Hydrothermal Alvinocaridid Shrimps: Effect of Geomorphology and Specialization to Extreme Biotopes  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to review of our knowledge about distribution of recently known species of vent shrimps and to analyze factors influencing distribution patterns. Analyses are based upon (1) original material taken during eight cruises in the Atlantic Ocean (a total of 5861 individuals) and (2) available literature data from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Vent shrimps have two patterns of the species ranges: local (single vent site) and regional (three - six vent sites). Pacific species ranges are mainly of the local type and the Atlantic species ranges are of the regional type. The regional type of species ranges may be associated with channels providing easy larval dispersal (rift valleys, trenches), while the local type is characteristic for other areas. Specialization of a shrimp genus to extreme vent habitats leads to two effects: (1) an increase in the number of vent fields inhabited by the genus and (2) a decrease of species number within the genus.

Lunina, Anastasia A.; Vereshchaka, Alexandr L.

2014-01-01

444

An Integrin from Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Mediated Microbial Agglutination and Cell Proliferation  

PubMed Central

Background Integrins are a family of adhesion receptors which regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, leukocyte migration, and complement receptor-dependent phagocytosis. In invertebrates, as a cell adhesion receptor, ? integrins play an important role for the balanced activation of immune defense responses especially during the encounter of infections. The present study attempts to characterize the immune functions of shrimp integrin (LvIntegrin) to have better understanding on the immune system and its regulation mechanisms in shrimps. Methodology A shrimp integrin was identified from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (designated as LvIntegrin). Its full-length cDNA was of 2621 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2439 bp encoding a polypeptide of 812 amino acids. The mRNA expression of LvIntegrin was significantly up-regulated at 3, 6 and 12 h after Listonella anguillarum challenge. The cDNA fragment encoding ? integrin domains (?A and hybrid domain) of LvIntegrin was recombined and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)-pLysS. The recombinant protein (rLvIntegrin) could significantly agglutinate the tested microbe including E. coli JM109, L. anguillarum, Micrococcus luteus and Candida dattiladattila in the presence of divalent cations. Moreover, when NIH3T3 cells were cultured with rLvIntegrin, the proliferation rate increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions LvIntegrin, a shrimp ? integrin was identified from L. vannamei, shared several highly conserved features. LvIntegrin exhibited broad-spectrum agglutination activity towards both bacteria and fungi and could improve the proliferation of NIH3T3 cells, indicating that LvIntegrin is involved in the immune response against microbe challenge and regulation of cell proliferation as a cell adhesion receptor in shrimp.

Zhang, Ying; Wang, Leilei; Wang, Lingling; Wu, Ning; Zhou, Zhi; Song, Linsheng

2012-01-01

445

Molecular phylogeny and in situ detection of the etiologic agent of necrotizing hepatopancreatitis in shrimp.  

PubMed Central

Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (NHP) is a severe disease of farm-raised Penaeus vannamei that has been associated with mortality losses ranging from 20 to 95%. NHP was first recognized in Texas in 1985 (S. K. Johnson, p. 16, in Handbook of Shrimp Diseases, 1989) and is an economically important disease that has limited the ability to culture shrimp in Texas. The putative cause of NHP is a gram-negative, pleomorphic, intracellular, rickettsia-like bacterium that remains uncultured in part because of the absence of established shrimp cell lines. The inability to culture the NHP bacterium necessitated the use of molecular methods for phylogenetic placement of the NHP bacterium. The gene encoding the 16S rRNA (16S rDNA) of this shrimp pathogen was amplified by PCR, cloned, and sequenced. Sequence analysis of the cloned 16S rDNA indicates that the NHP bacterium is a member of the alpha subclass of the Proteobacteria. Within the alpha subclass, the NHP bacterium is shown to be most closely related to bacterial endosymbionts of protozoa, Caedibacter caryophila and Holospora obtusa. Also, the NHP bacterium is distinct from but related to members of the typhus group (Rickettsia typhi and R. prowazekii) and spotted fever group (R. rickettsii) of the family Rickettsiaceae. Fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide DNA probes that bind to variable regions (V2, V6, and V8) of 16S rRNA of the NHP bacterium were used to detect the bacterium in infected shrimp by in situ hybridization. This technique provided direct visual evidence that the 16S rDNA that was amplified, cloned, and sequenced was derived from the intracellular bacterium that infects the hepatopancreas of farm-raised P. vannamei shrimp.

Loy, J K; Dewhirst, F E; Weber, W; Frelier, P F; Garbar, T L; Tasca, S I; Templeton, J W

1996-01-01

446

Real-time assessment of the microbial quality of retail shrimp using CO2 evolution rate.  

PubMed

A real-time CO(2) evolution rate (CER) method together with conventional cultural and sensory techniques were utilized to determine the microbial quality and shelf life of several types of shrimp products: chloramphenicol (CAP) treated, imported farm raised, and domestic wild caught. Treatment with CAP was used to create different bacterial loads in shrimp samples to demonstrate the ability and sensitivity of the CER method for differentiating the bacterial activity in samples. Samples were divided into control (nontreated) and 0, 10, and 30 ppm of CAP treatment groups and stored at 4°C. The CER was recorded with a microrespirometer, and aerobic plate counts (APCs), olfactory sensory analyses, and pH measurements were recorded daily until spoilage occurred. The real-time CER results were highly correlated with the APCs (R(2) = 0.93) and readily distinguished the onset of spoilage in each of the treatment groups. CAP treatment at 10 and 30 ppm increased the sample shelf life by 2 and 3 days, respectively, compared with the nontreated samples. Untreated domestic wild-caught shrimp had a shelf life 1 day longer than that of the untreated imported farm-raised shrimp. No pattern of change in pH was noted throughout the storage period. When the olfactory sensory scores reached the marginally acceptable level, the mean CER was 27.23 ?l/h/g and the mean APC was 5.78 log CFU/g. A cutoff CER of 25.0 ?l/h/g was therefore selected to define acceptable raw shrimp. The CER method was a highly effective and sensitive real-time method for determining the microbial quality of raw shrimp. PMID:23212016

Alderees, Fahad; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy

2012-12-01

447

Acquisition of epibiotic bacteria along the life cycle of the hydrothermal shrimp Rimicaris exoculata.  

PubMed

The caridean shrimp Rimicaris exoculata dominates the fauna at several Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent sites. This shrimp has an enlarged gill chamber, harboring a dense ectosymbiotic community of chemoautotrophic bacteria associated with mineral oxide deposits. Until now, their acquisition is not fully understood. At three hydrothermal vent sites, we analyzed the epibionts diversity at different moult stages and also in the first stages of the shrimp life (eggs, hatched eggs (with larvae) and juveniles). Hatched eggs associated with young larvae were collected for the first time directly from gravid females at the Logachev vent site during the Serpentine cruise. An approach using 16S rRNA clone libraries, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescent in situ hybridization was used. Molecular results and microscope observations indicated a switch in the composition of the bacterial community between early R. exoculata life cycle stage (egg libraries dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria) and later stages (juvenile/adult libraries dominated by the Epsilonproteobacteria). We hypothesized that the epibiotic phylotype composition could vary according to the life stage of the shrimp. Our results confirmed the occurrence of a symbiosis with Gammaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria, but more complex than previously assumed. We revealed the presence of active type-I methanotrophic bacteria colonizing the cephalothorax of shrimps from the Rainbow site. They were also present on the eggs from the Logachev site. This could be the first 'epibiotic' association between methanotrophic bacteria and hydrothermal vent crustacean. We discuss possible transmission pathways for epibionts linked to the shrimp life cycle. PMID:21993397

Guri, Mathieu; Durand, Lucile; Cueff-Gauchard, Valérie; Zbinden, Magali; Crassous, Philippe; Shillito, Bruce; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne

2012-03-01

448

Edible mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) extract inhibits melanosis in Kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus).  

PubMed

This study compared the potential of an aqueous extract of an edible mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) to prevent melanosis in cultured Kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) with other antimelanosic compounds in vivo. The mushroom extract contained 9.1 mg/mL ergothioneine (ESH). Immersion of live full-grown shrimp in a 0.5% w/v solution of mushroom extract significantly reduced PPO activity in shrimp hemolymph. In addition, expression of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) gene decreased in hemocytes, suggesting that the extract blocked the activation of the proPO cascade. Consequently, the development of melanosis in the treated shrimp was significantly suppressed during ice storage. Treatment with a 0.05% w/v solution of sodium ascorbate and 4-hexyl-1,3-benzenediol had the same effect. In vitro experiments showed that ESH effectively inhibited PPO activity and activation of the proPO cascade in hemocyte lysate supernatant. This study suggests that in vivo application of F. velutipes mushroom extract is an effective natural alternative to synthetic antimelanosic agents to inhibit postmortem melanosis in shrimp. Practical Application: The extract of an edible mushroom (F. velutipes) containing ergothioneine can be a promising natural alternative to synthetic antimelanosic agents used to prevent postharvest melanosis in shrimp and other crustaceans. Furthermore, utilization of the mushroom trimmings could also help address the growing concerns on the disposal of such agricultural wastes and instead use it into a novel purpose as a source of antimelanosic and antioxidants for food and industrial application. PMID:21535653

Encarnacion, Angel B; Fagutao, Fernand; Hirayama, Jinto; Terayama, Makoto; Hirono, Ikuo; Ohshima, Toshiaki

2011-01-01

449

Assessing Ecological Impacts of Shrimp and Sewage Effluent: Biological Indicators with Standard Water Quality Analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite evidence linking shrimp farming to several cases of environmental degradation, there remains a lack of ecologically meaningful information about the impacts of effluent on receiving waters. The aim of this study was to determine the biological impact of shrimp farm effluent, and to compare and distinguish its impacts from treated sewage effluent. Analyses included standard water quality/sediment parameters, as well as biological indicators including tissue nitrogen (N) content, stable isotope ratio of nitrogen (? 15N), and amino acid composition of inhabitant seagrasses, mangroves and macroalgae. The study area consisted of two tidal creeks, one receiving effluent from a sewage treatment plant and the other from an intensive shrimp farm. The creeks discharged into the western side of Moreton Bay, a sub-tropical coastal embayment on the east coast of Australia. Characterization of water quality revealed significant differences between the creeks, and with unimpacted eastern Moreton Bay. The sewage creek had higher concentrations of dissolved nutrients (predominantly NO-3/NO-2 and PO3-4, compared to NH+4 in the shrimp creek). In contrast, the shrimp creek was more turbid and had higher phytoplankton productivity. Beyond 750 m from the creek mouths, water quality parameters were indistinguishable from eastern Moreton Bay values. Biological indicators detected significant impacts up to 4 km beyond the creek mouths (reference site). Elevated plant ? 15N values ranged from 10·4-19·6‰ at the site of sewage discharge to 2·9-4·5‰ at the reference site. The free amino acid concentration and composition of seagrass and macroalgae was used to distinguish between the uptake of sewage and shrimp derived N. Proline (seagrass) and serine (macroalgae) were high in sewage impacted plants and glutamine (seagrass) and alanine (macroalgae) were high in plants impacted by shrimp effluent. The ? 15N isotopic signatures and free amino acid composition of inhabitant flora indicated that sewage N extended further from the creek mouths than shrimp N. The combination of physical/chemical and biological indicators used in this study was effective in distinguishing the composition and subsequent impacts of aquaculture and sewage effluent on the receiving waters.

Jones, A. B.; O'Donohue, M. J.; Udy, J.; Dennison, W. C.

2001-01-01

450

Environmental Impact Assessment of Shrimp Culture Practice in Southwest Coastal Region of Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid unplanned expansion of coastal aquaculture in Bangladesh poses risks in degrading environment. The unsustainable aquaculture practices are suspected to impart significant nutrient load to the ecosystem. Nevertheless, shrimp production is very less and susceptible to sever mortality. For this, the study aimed to understand the management practices and nutrient flux from some represented shrimp ponds in southwest coastal region of Bangladesh. A comprehensive study from 2002 to 2004 was done in an aquatic system comprising a river (Semi diurnal tidal system), a canal and 10 shrimp ponds along with wider area survey to verify the issues under a DFID-funded research project involving Nautilus Consultants Ltd. (UK). In the study area (Dumuria under the district Khulna) shrimp culture practices were mostly improved extensive. Shrimp were being produced without proper pond preparation, fry nursing, stocking or feed management due to lack of technical somehow and the risks involved with higher levels of investment. Consequently production rates were very low, averaging only 191 Kg/ha. Very high mortality of shrimp was reported in some of the farms using shallow ponds immediately after heavy rainfall. This may due to the sudden fluctuation of water pH and/or water temperature and salinity. The water quality in shrimp ponds during grow out period was in acceptable range except lower trend of DO and ammonia nitrogen. Year round water quality observations indicated that there were no major differences among the river, canal and pond water that might be due to the high water flushing rate (468%). The nutrient dynamics estimation indicates that 48.7 kg/ha/cycle of nitrogen and 28.96 kg/ha/cycle of phosphorus were added to the pond as an input mostly from fertilizer and feed. Among the inputs, only 33.4% of nitrogen and 6% of phosphorus were removed as harvested form. A large portion, 39.1% N and 92% P were remained in the sediments and unaccounted for. Average intake of nutrients through supply water was slightly higher than nutrient discharged through water outlet, which indicates a net retention of nutrients in the pond ecosystems. A large portion of this sediment nutrient eventually finds its routes into the wider aquatic system every year during pond preparation. Though the aquatic environment is able to accommodate the load from the present level of aquaculture practice, the assimilative power of aquatic environment is in danger of being degraded with the unplanned intensification of shrimp culture areas. In planning aquaculture and future development all the issues and impacts must be considered.

Islam, M. M.; Rouf, M. A.; Hambrey, J.

2008-12-01

451

The brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) as encapsulation organism for prophylactic chemotherapy of fish and prawn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) which had ingested three water-insoluble antibacterial drugs i.e. sulfadiazine(SD), oxytetracycline (OTC) and erythromycin estolate (ERY-Es) were fed to Tilapia and Mysis III of Penaeus orientalis K. The drug contents in the predators were then determined. After administration of drugs to Tilapia and Mysis III, through the bio-encapsulation of the brine shrimp, efficacious therapeutical concentration of OTC and ERY-Es (but not SD) in the predators could be reached and maintained for more than 8 hours.

Cao, Ji-Xiang; Bian, Bo-Zhong; Li, Ming-Ren

1996-06-01

452

The Brine Shrimp Artemia: Adapted to Critical Life Conditions  

PubMed Central

The brine shrimp Artemia is a micro-crustacean, well adapted to the harsh conditions that severely hypersaline environments impose on survival and reproduction. Adaptation to these conditions has taken place at different functional levels or domains, from the individual (molecular-cellular-physiological) to the population level. Such conditions are experienced by very few equivalent macro-planktonic organisms; thus, Artemia can be considered a model animal extremophile offering a unique suite of adaptations that are the focus of this review. The most obvious is a highly efficient osmoregulation system to withstand up to 10 times the salt concentration of ordinary seawater. Under extremely critical environmental conditions, for example when seasonal lakes dry-out, Artemia takes refuge by producing a highly resistant encysted gastrula embryo (cyst) capable of severe dehydration enabling an escape from population extinction. Cysts can be viewed as gene banks that store a genetic memory of historical population conditions. Their occurrence is due to the evolved ability of females to “perceive” forthcoming unstable environmental conditions expressed by their ability to switch reproductive mode, producing either cysts (oviparity) when environmental conditions become deleterious or free-swimming nauplii (ovoviviparity) that are able to maintain the population under suitable conditions. At the population level the trend is for conspecific populations to be fragmented into locally adapted populations, whereas species are restricted to salty lakes in particular regions (regional endemism). The Artemia model depicts adaptation as a complex response to critical life conditions, integrating and refining past and present experiences at all levels of organization. Although we consider an invertebrate restricted to a unique environment, the processes to be discussed are of general biological interest. Finally, we highlight the benefits of understanding the stress response of Artemia for the well-being of human populations.

Gajardo, Gonzalo M.; Beardmore, John A.

2012-01-01

453

The Dust Properties of Two Hot R Coronae Borealis Stars and a Wolf-Rayet Central Star of a Planetary Nebula: In Search of a Possible Link  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new Spitzer/IRS spectra of two hot R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars, one in the Galaxy, V348 Sgr, and one lying in the Large Magellanic Cloud, HV 2671. These two objects may constitute a link between the RCB stars and the late Wolf-Rayet ([WCL]) class of central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNe), such as CPD -56° 8032, that has little or no hydrogen in their atmospheres. HV 2671 and V348 Sgr are members of a rare subclass that has significantly higher effective temperatures than most RCB stars, but shares the traits of hydrogen deficiency and dust formation that define the cooler RCB stars. The [WC] CSPN star, CPD -56° 8032, displays evidence of dual-dust chemistry showing both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and crystalline silicates in its mid-IR spectrum. HV 2671 shows strong PAH emission but no sign of having crystalline silicates. The spectrum of V348 Sgr is very different from that of CPD -56° 8032 and HV 2671. The PAH emission seen strongly in the other two stars is not present. Instead, the spectrum is dominated by a broad emission centered at about 8.2 ?m. This feature is not identified with either PAHs or silicates. Several other cool RCB stars, novae, and post-asymptotic giant branch stars show similar features in their IR spectra. The mid-IR spectrum of CPD -56° 8032 shows emission features that may be associated with C60. The other two stars do not show evidence of C60. The different nature of the dust around these stars does not help us in establishing further links that may indicate a common origin. HV 2671 has also been detected by Herschel/PACS and SPIRE. V348 Sgr and CPD -56° 8032 have been detected by AKARI/Far-Infrared Surveyor. These data were combined with Spitzer, IRAS, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and other photometry to produce their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from the visible to the far-IR. Monte Carlo radiative transfer modeling was used to study the circumstellar dust around these stars. HV 2671 and CPD -56° 8032 require both a flared inner disk with warm dust and an extended diffuse envelope with cold dust to fit their SEDs. The SED of V348 Sgr can be fit with a much smaller disk and envelope. The cold dust in the extended diffuse envelopes inferred around HV 2671 and CPD -56° 8032 may consist of interstellar medium swept up during mass-loss episodes.

Clayton, Geoffrey C.; De Marco, O.; Whitney, B. A.; Babler, B.; Gallagher, J. S.; Nordhaus, J.; Speck, A. K.; Wolff, M. J.; Freeman, W. R.; Camp, K. A.; Lawson, W. A.; Roman-Duval, J.; Misselt, K. A.; Meade, M.; Sonneborn, G.; Matsuura, M.; Meixner, M.

2011-08-01

454

Comprehensive proteomics approach in characterizing and quantifying allergenic proteins from northern shrimp: toward better occupational asthma prevention.  

PubMed

Occupational asthma is a major chronic health dilemma among workers involved in the seafood industry. Several proteins notoriously known to cause asthma have been reported in different seafood. This work involves the application of an allergenomics strategy to study the most potent allergens of northern shrimp. The proteins were extracted from shrimp tissue and profiled by gel electrophoresis. Allergenic proteins were identified based on their reactivity to patient sera and were structurally identified using tandem mass spectrometry. Northern shrimp tropomyosin, arginine kinase, and sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein were found to be the most significant allergens. Multiple proteolytic enzymes enabled 100% coverage of the sequence of shrimp tropomyosin by tandem mass specrometry. Only partial sequence coverage was obtained, however, for the shrimp allergen arginine kinase. Signature peptides, for both tropomyosin and arginine kinase, were assigned and synthesized for use in developing the multiple reaction monitoring tandem mass spectrometric method. Subsequently, air samples were collected from a shrimp processing plant and two aerosolized proteins quantified using tandem mass specrometry. Allergens were detected in all areas of the plant, reaching levels as high as 375 and 480 ng/m(3) for tropomyosine and arginine kinase, respectively. Tropomyosine is much more abundant than arginine kinase in shrimp tissues, so the high levels of arginine kinase suggest it is more easily aerosolized. The present study shows that mass spectrometric analysis is a sensitive and accurate tool in identifying and quantifying aerosolized allergens. PMID:23268739

Abdel Rahman, Anas M; Kamath, Sandip D; Gagné, Sébastien; Lopata, Andreas L; Helleur, Robert

2013-02-01