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Sample records for shrimps pandalus borealis

  1. Cuticular proteins from the shrimp, Pandalus borealis.

    PubMed

    Andersen, S O

    1991-01-01

    1. The percentages of mineral salts, chitin, and urea-extractable and non-extractable proteins were determined in pieces of cuticle from selected body regions of the shrimp, Pandalus borealis. 2. Two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis of the urea-extractable proteins shows that a large number of different proteins are present. Identical protein patterns are obtained from the various cuticular regions. 3. A fractionation scheme is presented, which is suitable for obtaining the major proteins in quantities sufficient for further characterization. The amino acid compositions are reported for several of the proteins. PMID:1764926

  2. Microbiological quality of Icelandic cooked-peeled shrimp (Pandalus borealis).

    PubMed

    Valdimarsson, G; Einarsson, H; Gudbjörnsdottir, B; Magnusson, H

    1998-12-01

    Iceland is a major producer of cold water shrimp, Pandalus borealis. In recent years considerable attention has been given to improve hygiene in the factories producing cooked, peeled and frozen shrimp. To keep track of the bacteriological status of the end product, shrimp from most of the factories is routinely analysed bacteriologically by the request of shrimp exporters. This paper reports on the results of a bacteriological analysis of 7913 samples of shrimp from 26 Icelandic factories over a 6-year period. The results showed that the geometric mean of APC (at 35 degrees C) was 1718 per g and 57% of the samples had APC under 1000 per g. Some 70% of the samples had less than one coliform per g and 99.9% of the samples had less than one faecal coliform per g. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in less than 0.2% of the samples. The results show improvement in bacterial profiles, mainly total coliforms, over the 6-year period. Overall, the results show acceptable bacterial numbers in the finished product, indicating a high level of hygiene. Listeria spp. were, however, found in 270 of 3331 samples examined or 8.1%. Species identification was done on 49 of the 270 positive samples. The proportion of L. monocytogenes was found to be 26.5%. PMID:9924947

  3. Sterols of the lobster (Homarus americanus) and the shrimp (Pandalus borealis).

    PubMed

    Gagosian, R B

    1975-08-15

    In this study we have analyzed the sterol compositions of two continental shelf species of crustacea, the lobster (Homarus americanus) and the shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Cholesterol was found to be the most abundant sterol in these two species with smaller amounts of desmosterol, 24-methylcholesterol, 24-ethylcholesterol, 24-methylenecholesterol and 22-dehydrocholesterol. PMID:1157841

  4. Structure of a light-adapting hormone from the shrimp, Pandalus borealis.

    PubMed

    Fernlund, P

    1976-07-19

    The structure of a light-adapting hormone of the shrimp, Pandalus borealis, has been determined. The hormone, which had been isolated from Pandalus eyestalks and which adapts the shrimp to brighter light conditions by causing the pigment in the distal retinal pigment cells of the eye to move into a more proximal position, is the peptide: Asn-Ser-Gly-Met-Ile-Asn-Ser-Ile-Leu-Gly-Ile-Pro-Arg-Val-Met-Thr-Glu-Ala-NH2. The structure was obtained by sequence analysis by the dansyl-Edman method of the intact hormone and of isolated tryptic and thermolytic peptides. PMID:952951

  5. Amino acid sequence determination of a protein purified from the shell of the shrimp, Pandalus borealis.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, S L; Andersen, S O; Højrup, P

    1994-01-01

    One of the urea-extractable proteins in the shell of the shrimp Pandalus borealis has been purified, and the complete amino acid sequence has been determined by the combined use of mass spectrometry and Edman degradation of the intact protein as well as of enzymatically derived peptides. Characteristic features of the sequence are discussed and compared to sequences from insect cuticular proteins and other structural proteins. PMID:7553342

  6. Thermolabile alkaline phosphatase from Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis): protein and cDNA sequence analyses.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, I W; Øverbø, K; Olsen, R L

    2001-07-01

    Sequence analysis of short fragments resulting from trypsin digestion of the thermolabile shrimp alkaline phosphatase (SAP) from Northern shrimp Pandalus borealis formed the basis for amplification of its encoding cDNA. The predicted protein sequence was recognized as containing the consensus alkaline phosphatase motif comprising the active site of this protein family. Protein sequence homology searches identified several eukaryote alkaline phosphatases with which the 475-amino acid SAP polypeptide revealed shares 45% amino acid sequence identity. Residues for potential metal binding seem to be conserved in these proteins. The predicted 54-kDa molecular mass of SAP is smaller than previously reported, but is consistent with our recent SDS-PAGE analysis of the native protein. Compared to its homologs, the shrimp enzyme has a surplus of negatively charged amino acids, while the relative number of prolines is lower and the frequency of aromatic residues is higher than in mesophilic counterparts. PMID:11435140

  7. Microbiological evaluation of cold-water shrimp (Pandalus borealis).

    PubMed

    Zapatka, F A; Bartolomeo, B

    1973-06-01

    A bacteriological survey of the Maine shrimp industry was conducted to investigate the conditions associated with the production of frozen, raw, peeled shrimp. In-plant samples and finished product units were collected from seven plants. The most probable number of Escherichia coli, coliforms, and coagulase-positive staphylococci, as well as aerobic plate counts (APC), were determined. Freshly harvested shrimp collected from fishing vessels had an APC geometric mean of 510/g, and E. coli, coliforms, and coagulase-positive staphylococci were absent. Subsequent storage and insanitary practices during processing increased the APC and introduced coliforms. However, the low air temperatures (18 to 45 F) in the plants and the large volumes of cold water (34 F) used during processing inhibited significant bacterial buildup in the finished product. PMID:4577485

  8. Effects of ocean acidification on early life stages of shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and mussel (Mytilus edulis).

    PubMed

    Bechmann, Reneé Katrin; Taban, Ingrid Christina; Westerlund, Stig; Godal, Brit Fjone; Arnberg, Maj; Vingen, Sjur; Ingvarsdottir, Anna; Baussant, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) resulting from anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) has already lowered and is predicted to further lower surface ocean pH. There is a particular need to study effects of OA on organisms living in cold-water environments due to the higher solubility of CO(2) at lower temperatures. Mussel larvae (Mytilus edulis) and shrimp larvae (Pandalus borealis) were kept under an ocean acidification scenario predicted for the year 2100 (pH 7.6) and compared against identical batches of organisms held under the current oceanic pH of 8.1, which acted as a control. The temperature was held at a constant 10°C in the mussel experiment and at 5°C in the shrimp experiment. There was no marked effect on fertilization success, development time, or abnormality to the D-shell stage, or on feeding of mussel larvae in the low-pH (pH 7.6) treatment. Mytilus edulis larvae were still able to develop a shell in seawater undersaturated with respect to aragonite (a mineral form of CaCO(3)), but the size of low-pH larvae was significantly smaller than in the control. After 2 mo of exposure the mussels were 28% smaller in the pH 7.6 treatment than in the control. The experiment with Pandalus borealis larvae ran from 1 through 35 days post hatch. Survival of shrimp larvae was not reduced after 5 wk of exposure to pH 7.6, but a significant delay in zoeal progression (development time) was observed. PMID:21391089

  9. Microbial changes and growth of Listeria monocytogenes during chilled storage of brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis).

    PubMed

    Mejlholm, Ole; Kjeldgaard, Jette; Modberg, Anne; Vest, Mette Bohn; Bøknaes, Niels; Koort, Joanna; Björkroth, Johanna; Dalgaard, Paw

    2008-06-10

    Thirteen storage trials and ten challenge tests were carried out to examine microbial changes, spoilage and the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Shrimp in brine as well as brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were produced and studied. Different recipes were used to study the effect of preserving parameters (organic acids, pH and NaCl) on growth of microorganisms and shelf life at 7-8 degrees C or 12 degrees C. Particularly, brines with different concentrations of (i) benzoic, citric and sorbic acids or (ii) acetic, citric and lactic acids were studied. Furthermore, the effect of adding diacetate to brined shrimp was evaluated. A single batch of cooked and peeled shrimp was used to study both industrially and manually processed brined shrimp with respect to the effect of process hygiene on microbial changes and the shelf life of products. Concentrations of microorganisms on newly produced brined shrimp from an industrial scale processing line were 1.0-2.3 log (CFU g(-1)) higher than comparable concentrations in manually processed samples. This resulted in a substantially shorter shelf life and a more diverse spoilage microflora of the industrially processed brined shrimp. In addition, shelf life of brined shrimp was affected by the types and concentrations of organic acids and by the storage temperature as expected. The effect of MAP was less pronounced. Eighty-two isolates from the spoilage microflora of brined shrimp were identified and they included 53 lactic acid bacteria, 6 coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp., 18 Pseudomonas fluorescens and 5 yeast isolates. After storage at 7 degrees C, P. fluorescens, Enterococcus-like isolates, E. malodoratus, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. and Lactobacillus sakei constituted the dominating microflora of shrimp in brines that contained benzoic, citric and sorbic acids as preservatives. L. sakei dominated the spoilage microflora of brined and drained MAP shrimp, and of brined shrimp preserved using acetic, citric and lactic acids, irrespective of packaging conditions. Shrimp in brine with benzoic, citric and sorbic acids prevented growth of L. monocytogenes during more than 40 days at 7 degrees C when the preserving parameters resembled those of commercial products. However, small changes in the preserving parameters and, particularly, reduced concentrations of benzoic acid led to growth of L. monocytogenes in brined shrimp. The present study provides significant new information on microbial changes, shelf life and growth of L. monocytogenes in brined shrimp. This information can facilitate development of new and safe brined shrimp products. PMID:18456355

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of cathepsin B from the hepatopancreas of northern shrimp Pandalus borealis.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Hitoshi; Ahsan, Md Nazmul; Watabe, Shugo

    2003-04-01

    We cloned a cDNA encoding cathepsin B from the hepatopancreas of northern shrimp Pandalus borealis (NsCtB). Nucleotide sequence of the isolated clone encoded a preproenzyme of 328 amino acids, comprising a 15-residue putative signal peptide, a 60-residue propeptide and the 253-residue mature enzyme. The mature NsCtB was 53% identical to human cathepsin B and conserved all the structural features characteristic of cysteine protease. The presence of an occluding loop in the mature region, a unique feature of cathepsin B, suggested the shrimp protein to be cathepsin B. Northern blot analysis revealed expression of NsCtB transcripts exclusively in the hepatopancreas tissues, suggesting a possible digestive role of this enzyme. An interesting feature of NsCtB was its remarkably high negative charge in comparison with other cysteine proteases, which was predicted to effectively locate and guide the positively charged residues of a substrate into the binding cleft. We also observed a repertoire of cysteine protease activities in the acidic milieu of shrimp hepatopancreas using synthetic substrates specific to various cathepsins. The activity profile revealed cathepsin B as the single most dominant enzyme with a specific activity comparable to that attributable to combined activities of other cathepsins. This activity could be blocked by E-64, a cysteine protease inhibitor, but not by Z-Phe-Tyr (t-Bu)-CHN(2), a specific inhibitor of cathepsin L. PMID:12670793

  11. Effects of inorganic mercury on the respiration and the swimming activity of shrimp larvae, Pandalus borealis.

    PubMed

    St-Amand, L; Gagnon, R; Packard, T T; Savenkoff, C

    1999-01-01

    In order to test the sensitivity of respiration (physiological and potential) to mercury (Hg) contamination, larval shrimp Pandalus borealis were exposed to inorganic Hg (0-160 ppb) for 27 h in the laboratory. Oxygen consumption rates (RO2), potential respiration (determined by respiratory electron transfer system activity, ETSA), protein content, and swimming activity for zoeae III and zoeae V stages were measured. For both zoeae stages, ETSA and protein content remained constant after 27 h exposure to 160 ppb Hg whereas RO2 and swimming activity decreased. This study revealed the impact of different Hg levels and different exposure times on RO2 of shrimp larvae. After 10 h exposure to 160 ppb Hg, the RO2 decreased by 43 and 49% in zoeae III and zoeae V stages, respectively. Exposure time of 27 h to 80 ppb Hg and higher, induced paralysis in nearly 100% larvae. Surprisingly, the paralysed larvae displayed almost 50% of the control's RO2. The results showed that Hg disturbs a part of the respiration process without modifying the maximum activity of the enzymes involved in the ETSA assay. Therefore, the ETSA assay can not be used as a sublethal bioanalytic probe to detect Hg in short-term exposures. The decline of the RO2/ETSA ratios reported here, indicates an inability of contaminated larvae to adapt their metabolism to physiological stress caused by Hg. PMID:10190026

  12. The northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) offshore fishery in the Northeast Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Elena Guijarro

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes the development and current situation of the offshore shrimp fisheries in Iceland, Greenland, Svalbard, Jan Mayen and the Norwegian Barents Sea area, with information on the biology of Pandalus borealis and its relation to the environment. Some additional information about the inshore shrimp fisheries of Iceland and Greenland of relevance to this study is also included. The Icelandic offshore shrimp fishery started in 1975 and has formed between 68% and 94% of the annual catch of shrimp since 1984. Landings peaked at 66,000 tons in 1997. The offshore fleet increased threefold from 1983 to 1987, and catch per unit of effort doubled. The first signs of overfishing were detected in 1987, when the first total allowable catch (TAC) was set, and catches decreased during the next few years despite the discovery of new fishing grounds. Good recruitment allowed catches to rise steadily from 1990 to 1996. However, catches and stock index have decreased markedly since then, with a minimum catch for the period 1998-2003 of 21,500 tons in 2000. It has been suggested that predation by cod is an important factor affecting shrimp stock size, but mortality from predation is slightly lower than fishing mortality, so that the impact of fishing cannot be disregarded. The Greenland offshore shrimp fishery is one of the largest in the North Atlantic and it generates 90% of the export value of the country. The fishery started in 1970 in West Greenland with landings of 1200 tons, but since 1974 it has formed between 59% and 89% of the annual shrimp catch. In 2004, landings reached 113,000 tons and the fishable stock was estimated at 300,000 tons. The significant spatial expansion of the fishery from the original fishing grounds off the Disko Island area to all of the West coast south of 75 degrees N and the fleet improvement over the past three decades have made possible this spectacular growth. Other fishing grounds off the East coast have been fished since 1978, mostly by foreign vessels. Catches in this area oscillated between 5000 and 15,000 tons during the period 1980-2004. The main problem of the shrimp fishery in Greenland is its overlapping with nursery areas of redfish, Greenland halibut, cod and other groundfish species, some of which show declining trends of biomass and abundance. This led to the implementation in 2000 of sorting grids and laws that forbid fishing when the bycatch exceeds legal limits. However, it is likely that ecological processes only partially understood, such as the trophic web and hydrography of the area, greatly influence the stock abundance of the demersal community. The offshore Norwegian fishery started in 1973. The main fishing grounds are off Svalbard and in the Barents Sea. Catches at Jan Mayen have never exceeded 5% of the total annual catch of northern shrimp. Large fluctuations in catches and stock size are the main characteristic of this fishery. Stock size seems to be largely dependent on the annual hydrographic variability in the area and trends in abundance of predator species, especially cod. However, shrimp mortality due to predation has been estimated to be the same as fishing mortality, and therefore fishing probably accounts for part of the observed variability in stock size. Large populations of juvenile cod, haddock, redfish and Greenland halibut are often found on the shrimp fishing grounds. The implementation of sorting grids in 1991 and a bio-economical model in 1993 to estimate allowable maximum catches of the commercial bycatch species have not solved the bycatch problem. All the commercial fish species present on the shrimp grounds are currently below safe biological limits. This is the only fishery within the studied area that is not regulated by means of a TAC system. PMID:17298891

  13. Sonication-assisted extraction of chitin from North Atlantic shrimps (Pandalus borealis).

    PubMed

    Kjartansson, Gunnar T; Zivanovic, Svetlana; Kristbergsson, Kristberg; Weiss, Jochen

    2006-08-01

    The influence of sonication during extraction of chitin from North Atlantic shrimp (NAS) shells (Pandalus borealis) on chitin yield, purity, and crystallinity was investigated. Shells were peeled, washed, lyophilized, ground, and suspended for 4 h in 0.25 M HCl (1:40) at 40 degrees C followed by ultrasonication at 41 W/cm(2) for 0, 1, and 4 h, respectively. Demineralized shells were lyophilized, resuspended in 0.25 M NaOH (1:40), and ultrasonicated at 41 W/cm(2) for 0, 1, and 4 h to remove proteins. The yield and mineral and protein contents were determined after each processing step. The purity of extracted chitin was determined from the total amount of glucosamine. The crystallinity index and size of crystals were calculated from wide-angle X-ray scattering measurements. Scanning electron microscope images were recorded to evaluate morphological changes in samples. The yield of chitin from NAS decreased from 16.5 to 11.4% for 0 and 1 h sonicated samples, respectively, which was attributed to increased concentrations of depolymerized materials in the wash water. Sonication did not enhance the removal of minerals. The application of ultrasound enhanced the removal of proteins from 39.8 to 10.6, 8.3, and 7.3% after 0, 1, and 4 h of sonication treatments. The crystallinity index of chitin decreased from 87.6 to 79.1 and 78.5% after 1 and 4 h of sonication, yielding chitosans with crystallinity indices of 76.7, 79.5, and 74.8% after deacetylation, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy scans indicated that the degree of acetylation of chitins was unaffected by sonication. Comparison of the extraction results of NAS with that from freshwater prawns indicated that more impurities were left in NAS chitin, suggesting that composition and structural arrangement of chitin in shells influence the efficiency of ultrasound-assisted extraction. PMID:16881692

  14. Seasonal changes in migratory and predatory activity of two species of gadoid preying on inshore northern shrimp Pandalus borealis.

    PubMed

    Björnsson, B; Reynisson, P; Solmundsson, J; Valdimarsson, H

    2011-04-01

    The interaction between two species of gadoid and a shrimp stock was studied in a 40 km long two-armed fjord in north-west Iceland. On the basis of acoustic and trawl surveys in 2005 and 2006, immature cod Gadus morhua and haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus were found to migrate to the inner part of the fjord in late summer, concurrent with rising temperatures. At the same time, the local northern shrimp Pandalus borealis stock retreated into the north-east arm of the fjord. Vertical distribution of acoustic targets indicated that a significant and temporally variable fraction of the gadoids was inaccessible to the trawl. Shrimp was a significant part of the diet of immature G. morhua, except in June 2006 when euphausiids comprised most of the diet of both G. morhua and M. aeglefinus. Shrimp was only a minor part of the diet of M. aeglefinus. An on-off relationship was observed in the catches of gadoids and shrimp. In hauls with large catches of gadoids, few shrimp were found and vice versa, indicating avoidance reaction at this spatial scale. The cooling in winter may have driven the gadoids to the outer parts of the fjord, which in turn may have aided in the dispersal of the shrimp stock in the following months. PMID:21463310

  15. Species identification of the Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Pascoal, Ananias; Ortea, Ignacio; Gallardo, José M; Cañas, Benito; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge; Calo-Mata, Pilar

    2012-02-01

    Genomic and proteomic techniques for species identification of meat and seafood products are being widely used. In this study, a genomic approach was used to differentiate Pandalus borealis (the Northern shrimp), which belongs to the superfamily Pandaloidea, from 30 crustaceans consisting of 19 commercially relevant prawns/shrimps species that belong to the superfamily Penaeoidea, which include the families Penaeidae and Solenoceridae, and 11 other crustacean species, including prawns, shrimps, lobsters, and crabs. For this purpose, a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was designed based on the amplification of the 16S rRNA/tRNA(Val)/12S rRNA mitochondrial regions using the primers 16S-CruF and 16S-CruR. The 966-bp PCR products were produced and cleaved with the restriction enzymes AluI, TaqI, and HinfI, which provided species-specific restriction patterns. In addition, a proteomic approach, based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and electrospray ionization-ion trap (ESI-IT) mass spectrometry, was used to identify and characterize new P. borealis-specific peptides that could be useful as potential markers of this species in protein-based detection methods. To our knowledge, this is the first time a molecular method has been successfully applied to identify a wide range of prawn and shrimp species, including P. borealis, for either whole individuals or processed products. However, validation of the methods proposed here is required by applying them to a larger sample of individuals from different populations and geographic origins in order to avoid mainly false-negative results. PMID:22080038

  16. Characterization of Shrimp Oil from Pandalus borealis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and High Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Guangling; Hui, Joseph P M; Burton, Ian W; Thibault, Marie-Hélène; Pelletier, Claude; Boudreau, Josée; Tchoukanova, Nadia; Subramanian, Balaji; Djaoued, Yahia; Ewart, Stephen; Gagnon, Jacques; Ewart, Kathryn Vanya; Zhang, Junzeng

    2015-06-01

    Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) oil, which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, was recovered from the cooking water of shrimp processing facilities. The oil contains significant amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in triglyceride form, along with substantial long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). It also features natural isomeric forms of astaxanthin, a nutritional carotenoid, which gives the oil a brilliant red color. As part of our efforts in developing value added products from waste streams of the seafood processing industry, we present in this paper a comprehensive characterization of the triacylglycerols (TAGs) and astaxanthin esters that predominate in the shrimp oil by using HPLC-HRMS and MS/MS, as well as 13C-NMR. This approach, in combination with FAME analysis, offers direct characterization of fatty acid molecules in their intact forms, including the distribution of regioisomers in TAGs. The information is important for the standardization and quality control, as well as for differentiation of composition features of shrimp oil, which could be sold as an ingredient in health supplements and functional foods. PMID:26096274

  17. Characterization of Shrimp Oil from Pandalus borealis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Guangling; Hui, Joseph P. M.; Burton, Ian W.; Thibault, Marie-Hélène; Pelletier, Claude; Boudreau, Josée; Tchoukanova, Nadia; Subramanian, Balaji; Djaoued, Yahia; Ewart, Stephen; Gagnon, Jacques; Ewart, Kathryn Vanya; Zhang, Junzeng

    2015-01-01

    Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) oil, which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, was recovered from the cooking water of shrimp processing facilities. The oil contains significant amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in triglyceride form, along with substantial long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). It also features natural isomeric forms of astaxanthin, a nutritional carotenoid, which gives the oil a brilliant red color. As part of our efforts in developing value added products from waste streams of the seafood processing industry, we present in this paper a comprehensive characterization of the triacylglycerols (TAGs) and astaxanthin esters that predominate in the shrimp oil by using HPLC-HRMS and MS/MS, as well as 13C-NMR. This approach, in combination with FAME analysis, offers direct characterization of fatty acid molecules in their intact forms, including the distribution of regioisomers in TAGs. The information is important for the standardization and quality control, as well as for differentiation of composition features of shrimp oil, which could be sold as an ingredient in health supplements and functional foods. PMID:26096274

  18. Molecular and enzymatic properties of a cathepsin L-like proteinase with distinct substrate specificity from northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis).

    PubMed

    Aoki, H; Ahsan, M N; Watabe, S

    2004-01-01

    We purified a cathepsin L-like proteinase to homogeneity from the hepatopancreas of northern shrimp Pandalus borealis by several chromatographic procedures. The purified proteinase showed the highest specificity for leucine residue at P2, a specificity pattern similar to cathepsins S and K whereas proline and arginine residues were not suitable as P2 substrates. However, unlike these proteinases, it accepted valine almost equally to the phenylalanine residue at P2. The shrimp cathepsin was strongly inhibited by E-64, leupeptin and antipain, while benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Tyr(t-Bu)-CHN2, a specific inhibitor of cathepsin L, remained largely ineffective. Next, we determined the primary structure of the shrimp enzyme by molecular cloning and investigated the residues constituting the S2 subsite, which is possibly involved in its unusual substrate specificity. The deduced amino acid sequence of the shrimp proteinase shared the highest identity of 65% with a cathepsin L-like proteinase from lobster, but its identity to the well-characterized mammalian cathepsins S, L, and K fell within narrower ranges of 52-55%. However, the shrimp proteinase differed from these cathepsins in some key residues including, for example, the unique occurrence of cysteine and glutamine residues at the structurally important S2 subsite. Interestingly, transcripts of this proteinase were exclusively detected in the shrimp gut coinciding with its broad pH activity and stability profiles, which is also unusual as a cysteine proteinase. These results suggest that the shrimp enzyme is homologous to mammalian cathepsins S, L, and K, but is distinct from each of these proteinases in both enzymatic and structural properties. PMID:14574613

  19. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of crustapain: a distinct cysteine proteinase with unique substrate specificity from northern shrimp Pandalus borealis.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Hitoshi; Ahsan, Md Nazmul; Watabe, Shugo

    2003-06-01

    A cDNA clone encoding a cysteine proteinase of the papain superfamily has been isolated from the hepatopancreas of northern shrimp Pandalus borealis (NsCys). NsCys shares the highest identity of 64% with a cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase from lobster, and its identity to the well-characterized mammalian cathepsins S, L, and K falls within a narrow range of 54-59%. However, it differs from each of these cathepsins in certain key residues including, for example, the unique occurrence of tryptophan and cysteine residues at the structurally important S2 subsite. Consequently, NsCys produced in Pichia pastoris appears to be distinct in various physicokinetic properties. The recombinant enzyme is active and stable over a wide range of pH values, and its substrate specificity is unusual, as demonstrated by its poor affinity for phenylalanine residues. Instead, it shows the highest specificity for proline residues, a property similar to cathepsin K. Unlike cathepsin K, however, NsCys cleaves valine residues more efficiently than leucine. Similar results were obtained with the natural peptide substrate glucagon. The shrimp proteinase is further distinguished by its potent collagenolytic activity, resulting in a cleavage pattern reminiscent of bacterial collagenase. To distinguish such unique structural and enzymatic properties, we propose the trivial name "crustapain" for the shrimp proteinase, indicating that it is a papain-like cysteine proteinase from a crustacean species. PMID:12869537

  20. Calcium carbonate crystallization in the α-chitin matrix of the shell of pink shrimp, Pandalus borealis, during frozen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelsen, A.; Engelsen, S. B.; Hansen, H. C. B.; Larsen, O.; Skibsted, L. H.

    1997-05-01

    Calcium carbonate precipitates in the shell of pink shrimp, Pandalus borealis, during frozen storage (investigated for temperatures above - 30°C), and as a result white spots appear in the shell. During continued frozen storage the white spots grow in size and eventually cover the entire, originally transparent, shell. Material isolated from shrimp shells was dried and subjected to infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and EDX analyses. It was found that the white spots were composed of crystalline calcium carbonate in the two crystal forms of calcite and vaterite, and of amorphous α-chitin. It is proposed that α-chitin plays an important role in the crystallization process of white spots, as an integral part of the white spots. It is shown that the relative w/w-concentrations of α-chitin and calcium carbonate in white spots were constant (0.34 : 0.66), and it did not depend on chemical treatments comparable to those in use by the fishing industry for production of raw and frozen shrimps. However, the ratio of the polymorphic forms of calcium carbonate varied.

  1. Genetically distinct populations of northern shrimp, Pandalus borealis, in the North Atlantic: adaptation to different temperatures as an isolation factor.

    PubMed

    Jorde, Per Erik; Søvik, Guldborg; Westgaard, Jon-Ivar; Albretsen, Jon; André, Carl; Hvingel, Carsten; Johansen, Torild; Sandvik, Anne Dagrun; Kingsley, Michael; Jørstad, Knut Eirik

    2015-04-01

    The large-scale population genetic structure of northern shrimp, Pandalus borealis, was investigated over the species' range in the North Atlantic, identifying multiple genetically distinct groups. Genetic divergence among sample localities varied among 10 microsatellite loci (range: FST = -0.0002 to 0.0475) with a highly significant average (FST = 0.0149; P < 0.0001). In contrast, little or no genetic differences were observed among temporal replicates from the same localities (FST = 0.0004; P = 0.33). Spatial genetic patterns were compared to geographic distances, patterns of larval drift obtained through oceanographic modelling, and temperature differences, within a multiple linear regression framework. The best-fit model included all three factors and explained approximately 29% of all spatial genetic divergence. However, geographic distance and larval drift alone had only minor effects (2.5-4.7%) on large-scale genetic differentiation patterns, whereas bottom temperature differences explained most (26%). Larval drift was found to promote genetic homogeneity in parts of the study area with strong currents, but appeared ineffective across large temperature gradients. These findings highlight the breakdown of gene flow in a species with a long pelagic larval phase (up to 3 months) and indicate a role for local adaptation to temperature conditions in promoting evolutionary diversification and speciation in the marine environment. PMID:25782085

  2. The Enzyme and the cDNA Sequence of a Thermolabile and Double-Strand Specific DNase from Northern Shrimps (Pandalus borealis)

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, Inge W.; Øverbø, Kersti; Jensen Havdalen, Linda; Elde, Morten; Gjellesvik, Dag Rune; Lanes, Olav

    2010-01-01

    Background We have previously isolated a thermolabile nuclease specific for double-stranded DNA from industrial processing water of Northern shrimps (Pandalus borealis) and developed an application of the enzyme in removal of contaminating DNA in PCR-related technologies. Methodology/Principal Findings A 43 kDa nuclease with a high specific activity of hydrolysing linear as well as circular forms of DNA was purified from hepatopancreas of Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis). The enzyme displayed a substrate preference that was shifted from exclusively double-stranded DNA in the presence of magnesium to also encompass significant activity against single-stranded DNA when calcium was added. No activity against RNA was detected. Although originating from a cold-environment animal, the shrimp DNase has only minor low-temperature activity. Still, the enzyme was irreversibly inactivated by moderate heating with a half-life of 1 min at 65°C. The purified protein was partly sequenced and derived oligonucleotides were used to prime amplification of the encoding cDNA. This cDNA sequence revealed an open reading frame encoding a 404 amino acid protein containing a signal peptide. By sequence similarity the enzyme is predicted to belong to a family of DNA/RNA non-specific nucleases even though this shrimp DNase lacks RNase activity and is highly double-strand specific in some respects. These features are in agreement with those previously established for endonucleases classified as similar to the Kamchatka crab duplex-specific nuclease (Par_DSN). Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses confirmed that the Northern shrimp nuclease resembles the Par_DSN-like nucleases and displays a more distant relationship to the Serratia family of nucleases. Conclusions/Significance The shrimp nuclease contains enzyme activity that may be controlled by temperature or buffer compositions. The double-stranded DNA specificity, as well as the thermolabile feature, strengthens its potential for in vitro applications. PMID:20421970

  3. Isolation and characterization of the novel lipophilic protein, Pb CP-12.7, from the shell of the pink shrimp, Pandalus borealis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Okamori, M; Katsuzaki, H; Komiya, T; Imai, K

    2001-05-01

    Past research on diapause-inducing substances of the silkworm has isolated an extremely lipophilic peptide and demonstrated its unique characteristics. In the present work, similar lipophilic proteins were searched for in the shell of the shrimp, Pandalus borealis, and one novel protein, Pb CP-12.7, was isolated. Its structure comprising 126 amino acids was revealed by a combination of a sequence analysis and the enzymic fragmentation technique. Pb CP-12.7 is unique in that it was insoluble in neutral-slightly basic water, but highly soluble in some organic solvents. It contained an abundance of hydrophobic amino acids and repeating sequences. In addition, it was adsorbed to chitin, a major component of the shell of the shrimp. PMID:11440115

  4. Recruitment of shrimp ( Pandalus borealis) in the Barents Sea related to spawning stock and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschan, Michaela; Ingvaldsen, Randi

    2009-10-01

    The shrimp spawn in autumn, and the females carry their eggs as out roe until spring when the larvae hatch. Within a period of 2 months the shrimp larvae settle to the bottom. It has been claimed that the year-class strength probably is determined during the larval phase. Today's assessment and forecast of the shrimp stock productivity and potential fishing yields are weak. This is partly due to poor knowledge on population dynamics from hatching until the shrimp are caught in the fishery at the age of 3 or 4 years. We, therefore, here identify the most important abiotic and biotic factors that affect recruitment in addition to spawning stock biomass. Since 1995, a net attached to the underbelly of the survey trawl used at the annual cruise in the Barents Sea has caught juvenile shrimp. The abundance of settled shrimp larvae varies in time and space. The recruitment to the fishery has been quite stable with the exception of the 1996 year-class, which was observed as 1-year-olds but has not been registered since. The temporal pattern of the three youngest year-classes is studied in relation to abiotic factors such as sea temperature, ice index and North Atlantic Oscillation, as well as biotic factors such as spawning stock biomass and presence of copepods, euphausiids and predating cod. Recruitment indices and factors identified by the Spearmann correlation to be significantly correlated with recruitment were used as input in a principal component analysis (PCA) and a generalized additive model (GAM) was applied. Abundance of 1-year-old shrimp is positively correlated to spawning stock biomass the previous year and to temperature of the previous winter, and negatively correlated with the number of 1-year-old cod. Two-year-old shrimp show significant correlation with temperature, whereas there is a strong negative correlation with euphausiids. Three-year-old shrimp are significantly correlated with the number of 2-year-old shrimp the previous year but negatively correlated to temperature at sampling time. This is probably due to less overlap with the main predator cod when cold. Ricker functions indicate an increased density-dependent mortality with age. When predicting the recruitment of shrimp to the fishery, the spawning stock biomass, the abundance of cod and euphausiids, as well as the temperature should be included.

  5. Catch, survey and life-history data for shrimp ( Pandalus borealis) off Jan Mayen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilssen, Einar M.; Aschan, Michaela M.

    2009-10-01

    The Jan Mayen area has an extreme environment with low temperatures and infrequent, but abrupt temperature changes. The shrimp population here is considered to be on its edge of distribution. The life-history parameters are in the same range as in other high-latitude shrimp populations and are characterized by slow growth, large size at maturation and extended longevity. Irregular and sporadic commercial exploitation limit fishing mortality and give the population life-history parameters not previously seen in other areas. The Jan Mayen shrimp are large compared to, e.g., the Barents Sea shrimp and can reach a maximum carapace length ( Lmax) of 37 mm and an age of 10-11 years. The large size at sex transformation ( L50, >24 mm) and analyses of length-frequency distributions indicate that the shrimp may be 6-7 years of age before changing sex. The change in Lmax and L50 observed during the study period is probably caused by increased natural mortality due to sudden temperature changes or due to increased predation, rather than increased growth rates. The life-history strategy of shrimp in the Jan Mayen area can be explained by factors such as depth, temperature and population density variations caused by fluctuation in recruitment and mortality. The shrimp fisheries in the Jan Mayen area began in the late 1970s and reached an annual landing of 2000 tonnes in 1985, and since then landings have oscillated around 500 tonnes depending on a combination of factors. The survey indices of stock biomass varied between 3000 and 6600 tonnes. For most years, the highest shrimp densities are at a depth of 200-299 m, while large shrimp (and therefore also female shrimp) are dominant at depths greater than 300 m. Fish community data were studied as the composition of the demersal fish community is an integrated response to environmental conditions and as predation affects the shrimp stock. Polar cod and capelin are the most abundant fish species in the study area. A high number of blue whiting was registered in 1979, but the number declined in 1980 and 1981 as temperature decreased. During the surveys in 1994 and 1995, no blue whiting was registered. A few individuals were found again in the 1999 samples. The number of Greenland halibut has declined from the beginning of the 1980s to the 1990s.

  6. Biopreservation of Brined Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) by Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Einarsson, H; Lauzon, H L

    1995-02-01

    In brined shrimp (ca. 3% NaCl), the effects of three different lactic acid bacteria bacteriocins (crude [6.54 x 10(sup10) U of bacteriocin activity {BU}/g] and purified [8.13 x 10(sup23) BU/g] nisin Z, carnocin UI49 [2.32 x 10(sup4) BU/g], and crude bavaricin A [2.78 BU/g]) on bacterial growth and shelf life were compared with those of a benzoate-sorbate solution (0.1% each [wt/wt]) and a control with no preservatives. The shelf life of shrimp subjected to the control treatment was found to be 10 days. Carnocin UI49 did not extend the shelf life, while crude bavaricin A (a cell-free supernatant of Lactobacillus bavaricus MI 401) resulted in a shelf life of 16 days, as opposed to 31 days with nisin Z for both its crude and purified forms. The benzoate-sorbate solution preserved the brined shrimp for the whole storage period (59 days). In the control, carnocin UI49, and crude bavaricin A treatments, a gram-positive flora dominated towards the end of the storage period while in the nisin Z treatment a gram-negative flora was more pronounced. PMID:16534936

  7. Changes in antioxidative capacity of saithe (Pollachius virens) and shrimp (Pandalus borealis) during in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Ida-Johanne; Abrahamsen, Hogne; Maehre, Hanne K; Elvevoll, Edel O

    2009-11-25

    The health effects of seafood have primarily been linked to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3). These omega-3 fatty acids are highly susceptible to oxidation. Peptides exhibiting antioxidative capacity (AOC) are encrypted in seafood muscle proteins. Such components may protect the fatty acids during digestion and uptake, as well as exhibit antioxidative effects in general. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay were used to study the changes in AOC of fish and shrimp muscle and their aqueous fractions, referred to as press juice (PJ), during a simulated in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion. Blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), well-known for its AOC, was included for comparison. During digestion the AOC increased in all samples. After digestion the AOC of muscle of both autumn saithe and shrimp were higher (130-165 micromol/g), and winter saithe comparable (110 micromol/g) to digested blueberry when measured by ORAC. The AOC of PJ was low in general (5-20 micromol/g). When measured by FRAP, blueberry exhibited ten times the AOC of seafood muscle. Antioxidative compounds in seafood increased significantly during digestion, and may offer protection of other beneficial food components such as EPA and DHA. PMID:19845349

  8. Contamination of cooked peeled shrimp (Pandalus borealis) by Listeria monocytogenes during processing at two processing plants.

    PubMed

    Gudmundsdóttir, Sigrún; Gudbjörnsdóttir, Birna; Einarsson, Hjörleifur; Kristinsson, Karl G; Kristjansson, Már

    2006-06-01

    Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes contamination was evaluated in cooked peeled shrimp (final or semifinal product, 82 samples) and the shrimp-processing environment (two plants, 613 samples) in eight surveys conducted from 1998 through 2001. Listeria was detected in 12.5% (78) of the 695 samples (11.2% of the samples were positive for L. monocytogenes), but none of the samples of final product contained Listeria. One hundred seventy-two L. monocytogenes isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Cleavage with macrorestriction enzymes AscI and ApaI yielded 14 different pulsotypes in the plants; two types were dominant, one in each plant. Sixty-three of the 106 isolates in plant A and 43 of the 66 isolates in plant B were of the dominant types. Certain strains, mainly of serotypes 1/2c and 4b and pulsotypes 1A and 2H, were persistent for long periods in both plants. Adaptation of good hygienic practices in the processing plants, including strict rules concerning traffic of staff and equipment, and existing hygienic requirements appeared to be effective in preventing contamination between areas within plants and in the final product. The persistence of Listeria strains in these two processing plants indicates the importance of detecting the places in the processing environment (e.g., transporters, equipment, floors, and drains) where L. monocytogenes can survive so that cleaning and disinfection efforts can be directed to such niches. PMID:16786850

  9. [Quality changes in iced shrimps (Pandalus borealis). III. Indole and pH in shrimps caught in the Barents Sea compared with shrimps caught in the Far East (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Solberg, T; Nesbakken, T

    1981-01-01

    The content of indole and the pH have been determined post mortem in shrimps (Pandalus borealis) caught in the Barents Sea and in shrimps caught outside Malaysia, India and Taiwan. These two criteria were compared with organoleptic assessment and the contents of volatile nitrogen bases (ammonia, trimethylamine) and living bacteria. For shrimps caught in the Barents Sea, both raw shrimps stored in ice and processed (broiled, peeled and single-frozen) shrimps were investigated. The results showed that only low levels of indole had been formed during ice-storage. Not until an advanced state of spoilage could a distinct increase in the indole content in raw and in boiled, peeled shrimps be discerned. pH increased slowly and varied in the area between acceptable and not acceptable quality. Neither the indole content nor the pH seems therefore to be a useful criterion for quality assessment either of raw shrimps caught in the Barents Sea or of such shrimps after processing (boiling and peeling). Most of the samples of boiled, peeled shrimps from the Far East were assessed organoleptically as less good-spoiled, and bacterial growth was significant. The content of trimethylamine oxide and volatile nitrogen was low, while the content of indole was high and exceeded 25 microgram/100 g in 8 or 14 samples. This is the upper limit for import in USA. The content of indole seems to be an important quality criterion for shrimps caught in warmer countries. The content of indole exceeded 25 microgram/100 g in some samples which were assessed organoleptically as acceptable. The pH was lower in brine-treated shrimps than in the others. PMID:7329786

  10. Cross-reactivity of some antibodies to human epitopes with shrimp Pandalus borealis proteins: a possible aid in validation and characterization of crustacean cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lyons-Alcantara, Maria; Lambkin, Helen A; Nordmo, Rolf; Lyng, Fiona; Mothersill, Carmel

    2002-09-01

    Cell characterization of primary cultures in vertebrates is well established but not in marine invertebrates. This fact is hampering advances in the development of tissue cultures from this species. In the present study, a panel of antibodies to structural proteins, stress proteins, oncogenes and proliferation antigens, developed against mammalian antigens, were tested in paraffin sections of the crustacean Pandalus borealis tissues. Several tissues were analysed: hepatopancreas, gills, ovaries, epithelium under the cuticle and abdominal muscle. Specific antibodies to crustacean proteins are not commercially available. The immunocytochemical results show that antibodies to human epitopes cross-react with antigens in the crustacean Pandalus borealis indicating that some cellular proteins are highly conserved in evolution. Cytokeratin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, ras and p-glycoprotein were detected by immunocytochemistry in Pandalus borealis. No immunoreactivity for Ki-67 and metallothionein was observed. This system can help in validation and characterization of invertebrate cultures. PMID:12125102

  11. [Quality changes in iced shrimps (Pandalus borealis). I. Changes in the contents of trimethylamine oxide and volatile nitrogen bases and bacteria in raw shrimps after different storage periods compared with organoleptic examinations (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Nesbakken, T; Solberg, T

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of two experiments on the storage of raw shrimps (Pandalus borealis) in ice and on samples taken out from different trawlers after different days at sea, we have attempted to find the criteria of choice for the lower limit of quality of raw shrimps which are meant for further processing for human consumption. A content of TVN of approximately 50 mg/100 g peeled shrimp and a content of TMA-N of approximately 10 mg/100 g peeled shrimp probably represent such an objective lower limit if a comparison with organoleptic assessment is made. Assuming suitable storage conditions, this corresponds to a maximum period of 7 days. In this paper we have also attempted to find the content of TMAO in fresh raw shrimps from different fishing grounds in the Barents sea and off the Eastern coast of Greenland. The content of TMA-N was found to vary from 166 to 211 mg/100 g peeled shrimp. PMID:7033925

  12. Identification and quantification of astaxanthin esters in shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and in a microalga (Haematococcus pluvialis) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using negative ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    PubMed

    Breithaupt, Dietmar E

    2004-06-16

    Negative ion liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry [negative ion LC-(APCI)MS] was used for the identification of astaxanthin esters in extracts of commercial shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and dried microalga (Haematococcus pluvialis) samples. A cleanup step using a normal phase solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge was applied prior to analysis. Recovery experiments with astaxanthin oleate as model compound proved the applicability of this step (98.5 +/- 7.6%; n = 4). The assignment of astaxanthin esters in negative ion LC-(APCI)MS was based on the detection of the molecular ion (M*-) and the formation of characteristic fragment ions, resulting from the loss of one or two fatty acids. Quantification of individual astaxanthin esters was performed using an astaxanthin calibration curve, which was found to be linear over the required range (1-51 micromol/L; r2 = 0.9996). Detection limits, based on the intensity of M*-, a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1, and an injection volume of 20 microL, were estimated to be 0.05 microg/mL (free astaxanthin), 0.28 microg/mL (astaxanthin-C16:0), and 0.78 microg/mL (astaxanthin-C16:0/C16:0), respectively. This LC-(APCI)MS method allows for the first time the characterization of native astaxanthin esters in P. borealis and H. pluvialis without using time-consuming isolation steps with subsequent gas chromatographic analyses of fatty acid methyl esters. The results suggest that the pattern of astaxanthin-bound polyunsaturated fatty acids of P. borealis does not reflect the respective fatty acid pattern found in triacylglycerides. Application of the presented LC-(APCI)MS technique in common astaxanthin ester analysis will forestall erroneous xanthophyll ester assignment in natural sources. PMID:15186109

  13. Effect of brine marination on survival and growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria during processing and subsequent storage of ready-to-eat shrimp (Pandalus borealis).

    PubMed

    Mejlholm, Ole; Devitt, Tina D; Dalgaard, Paw

    2012-06-15

    The effect of brine marination at chill temperatures on survival and growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria during processing and subsequent storage of ready-to-eat cold water shrimp was studied. Survival and growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were examined. The effect of brine composition and pH was determined in 12 screening experiments without addition of shrimp. Sixteen challenge tests with shrimp were then carried out to examine the effect of brine composition and storage temperature on survival and growth during processing and subsequent storage of brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Different brines with (i) acetic and lactic acids (AL) or (ii) benzoic, citric and sorbic acids (BCS) were studied. V. parahaemolyticus was inactivated in brine AL without shrimp whereas concentrations of all the examined microorganisms were reduced in brine BCS. A significant effect of brine pH on inactivation was observed and inactivation during chill marination of shrimp in brine was reduced compared to the effect of brine alone. This was explained by a relatively fast increase of pH in the brine during marination of shrimp. For shrimp in brine BCS, reductions were observed for V. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella, whereas inactivation in shrimp was only noticed for Salmonella in brine AL. The observed reductions were too small to be used in practise for decontamination of shellfish. None of the examined pathogens was able to grow at 7°C in brined and drained MAP shrimp that resembled commercial products. However, reducing the concentration of acetic and lactic acids by 50% resulted in relatively fast growth of L. monocytogenes in brined and drained MAP shrimp at 7°C. Growth of S. aureus and Salmonella was observed in similar products stored at 15°C. V. parahaemolyticus was reduced in brined and drained MAP shrimp stored at both 7 and 15°C. Based on the results of the present study, L. monocytogenes was identified as the greatest potential risk with respect to the safety of brined and drained MAP shrimp. The potential of L. sakei as spoilage bacterium in brined and drained MAP shrimp was confirmed. Importantly, growth rates of L. sakei and L. monocytogenes in brined and drained MAP shrimp were predicted accurately by available mathematical models. Thus, these models can be used for product development and establishment of shell-life for ready-to-eat shrimp taking into account both quality and safety aspects. PMID:22564452

  14. [Quality changes in iced shrimps (Pandalus borealis). II Changes in the contents of trimethylamine oxide and volatile nitrogen bases during automatic boiling and peeling (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Solberg, T; Nesbakken, T

    1981-01-01

    Post mortem trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) in marine animals is reduced to trimethylamine (TMA), and the degradation of proteins causes an increase in the ammonia (NH3) content. During ice-storage NH3 and TMA usually make up the major part of the total content of volatile nitrogen bases (TVN) which are formed during the degradation process. The formation of TMA and NH3 is probably caused mainly by bacterial enzymes. The contents of TMA and TVN in marine fish and shrimps are important objective criteria in supporting organoleptic examinations of such raw materials. During automatic boiling, peeling and rinsing processes in shrimp factories, some of these water-soluble and volatile compounds will be extracted by the boiling water and possibly evaporated. In this investigation we have attempted to estimate the loss of TMAO, TMA and TVN in shrimp muscle during this automatic processing. The investigation includes experiments in the laboratory (Table I, Figure 1) and in two factories (Table II-III, Figure 2-3). The results show that about 50% of the contents of TMAO-N, TMA-N and TVN probably will be lost from the shrimps during automatic processing. Adding approximately 100% TMA-N and TVN to the analysed contents in boiled, peeled and rinsed shrimps will therefore probably give the same level of these compounds as that found in the raw shrimps used. An accurate measurement of the TMA- and TVN-content in shrimp produced under known condition in North-Norwegian shrimps factories could give an objective indication of the quality of the raw shrimps used. In accordance with Norwegian shrimp regulations, only the fresh, healthy shrimps are allowed to be produced. PMID:7322865

  15. Chronic exposure of adults and embryos of Pandalus borealis to oil causes PAH accumulation, initiation of biomarker responses and an increase in larval mortality.

    PubMed

    Bechmann, Renée Katrin; Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Taban, Ingrid Christina; Hellgren, Lars I; Møller, Per; Sanni, Steinar

    2010-11-01

    Adult shrimps (Pandalus borealis) and their embryos were exposed to an oil-water dispersion (OWD) at concentrations of 0.015, 0.06 and 0.25 mg/L using a continuous flow system. Lysosomal membrane stability was analysed in haemocytes using the neutral red retention assay and an alkaline unwinding assay was used to measure DNA damage in hepatopancreas tissue. Exposure to oil induced concentration and time dependent biomarker responses in adult shrimps together with the accumulation of PAH in their tissues. Oil exposure of shrimp embryos caused increased mortality in the resultant larvae, even if the larvae were kept in clean water after hatching. There were minor differences observed in larval stage development times in the first part of the experiments. The fatty acid composition of embryos exposed to oil was different to that of non-exposed larvae. PAH tissue concentration and biomarker responses correlated to the reduced survival of the shrimp larvae. PMID:20800854

  16. The organization of the lamina ganglionaris of the prawn, Pandalus borealis (Kröyer).

    PubMed

    Nässel, D R

    1975-11-19

    The Lamina ganglionaris (first optic neuropile) of the decapod crustacean Pandalus borealis has its optic cartridges (synaptic compartments) arranged in horizontal rows. Each optic cartridge contains seven receptor axon terminals and the branching axis fibres of five monopolar second order neurons. Four types of monopolar neurons are classified. Their cell bodies are arranged in two layers. The inner layer contains the cell bodies of exclusively one of these types, and each cartridge is invaded by two neurons of this neuron type (type M 1:a and M 1:b). The outer layer contains the cell bodies of the remaining three types (M 2, M3 and M4). One gives rise to a large radially branched axis fibre in the centre of the cartridge. The other two have wide branches which may make inter-cartridge contacts, one proximally and the other distally in the plexiform layer, which is clearly bistratified. The receptor axons terminate in two levels corresponding to these strata. Two sets of tangenital fibres form networks in the proximal and the mid-portion of the lamina. Both networks have fibres with primary branches in the vertical plane and secondary branches in the horizontal plane. The fibres of the networks are derived from axons that pass from the second optic neuropile, the medulla externa. PMID:1201587

  17. Definition and characterization of data needs to describe the potential effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on marine fisheries from the northeast Pacific Ocean. [Theragra chalcogramma; Clupea harengus pallasi; Pandalus borealis; Limanda aspera

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, R.M.; Grosse, D.J.; Stubin, A.I.; Ostrander, G.K.; Sibley, T.H.

    1985-12-01

    Four northeast Pacific region case study species were studied to determine individual fishery responses to climate change. These fishes (Alaska pollock, Theragra chalcogramma; Pacific herring, Clupea harengus pallasi; pink shrimp, Pandalus borealis; and yellowfin sole, Limanda aspera) represent a spectrum of habitats and life cycles among commercially important species, and the northeast Pacific (including the eastern Bering Sea) is relatively well-studied and representative of subpolar continental shelf areas that also are important in the North Atlantic. In addition to the general effects of climate, these fisheries have specific climate-related environmental sensitivities: (a) pollock sensitivity to ice extent, cannibalism, and bird and mammal predation in the Bering Sea, and to coastal currents in the Gulf of Alaska; (b) sensitivity of herring to waves, dessication, and probably currents in the immediate vicinity of discrete spawning beaches along the British Columbia coast; (c) the relative insensitivity of bottom-dwelling shrimp to temperature changes; and (d) the probable sensitivity of yellowfin sole to ice extent and to associated changes in food supply caused by alterations in plankton species composition. It is difficult to extrapolate from the results of the present case studies to other fisheries. These results are particularly inapplicable to other major categories of fisheries, including open-ocean, upwelling, and tropical and subtropical shelf fisheries. Such fisheries should be the focus of additional case studies. Possible temperature effects on the incidence of disease and parasitism in fish also should be investigated.

  18. An investigation into mechanical strength of exoskeleton of hydrothermal vent shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and shallow water shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Verma, Devendra; Tomar, Vikas

    2015-04-01

    This investigation reports a comparison of the exoskeleton mechanical strength of deep sea shrimp species Rimicaris exoculata and shallow water shrimp species Pandalus platyceros at temperatures ranging from 25C to 80C using nanoindentation experiments. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations suggest that both shrimp exoskeletons have the Bouligand structure. Differences in the structural arrangement and chemical composition of both shrimps are highlighted by SEM and EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray) analyses. The variation in the elastic moduli with temperature is found to be correlated with the measured compositional differences. The reduced modulus of R. exoculata is 8.260.89GPa at 25C that reduces to 7.610.65GPa at 80C. The corresponding decrease in the reduced modulus of P. platyceros is from 27.382.3GPa at 25C to 24.581.71GPa at 80C. The decrease in reduced moduli as a function of temperature is found to be dependent on the extent of calcium based minerals in exoskeleton of both types of shrimp exoskeletons. PMID:25686945

  19. An investigation into environment dependent nanomechanical properties of shallow water shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Verma, Devendra; Tomar, Vikas

    2014-11-01

    The present investigation focuses on understanding the influence of change from wet to dry environment on nanomechanical properties of shallow water shrimp exoskeleton. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) based measurements suggest that the shrimp exoskeleton has Bouligand structure, a key characteristic of the crustaceans. As expected, wet samples are found to be softer than dry samples. Reduced modulus values of dry samples are found to be 24.90 ± 1.14 GPa as compared to the corresponding values of 3.79 ± 0.69 GPa in the case of wet samples. Hardness values are found to be 0.86 ± 0.06 GPa in the case of dry samples as compared to the corresponding values of 0.17 ± 0.02 GPa in the case of wet samples. In order to simulate the influence of underwater pressure on the exoskeleton strength, constant load creep experiments as a function of wet and dry environments are performed. The switch in deformation mechanism as a function of environment is explained based on the role played by water molecules in assisting interface slip and increased ductility of matrix material in wet environment in comparison to the dry environment. PMID:25280717

  20. Shrimp processing assessed by low field nuclear magnetic resonance, near infrared spectroscopy, and physicochemical measurements--the effect of polyphosphate content and length of prebrining on shrimp muscle.

    PubMed

    Gudjónsdóttir, María; Jónsson, Ásbjörn; Bergsson, Arnljótur Bjarki; Arason, Sigurjón; Rustad, Turid

    2011-05-01

    The effect of using polyphosphates during prebrining and the effect of prebrining time of cold water shrimp (Pandalus borealis) was studied with low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) transverse relaxation time measurements (benchtop and unilateral) and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with the aim of improving shrimp processing. Strong calibrations were obtained for moisture content and water-holding capacity (WHC) using the NIR technique. Multivariate analysis indicated significant correlations between benchtop NMR parameters and moisture content and WHC, as measured with physicochemical methods and NIR spectroscopy. Significant correlations were also observed between NMR parameters and muscle pH, protein content, and phosphate content. The study showed that LF-NMR contribute to improved understanding of the shrimp brining process and to improved process control on-line or at-line, especially in combination with NIR measurements. However, optimization of the unilateral device is necessary. PMID:22417356

  1. Chemical fractionation of shrimp extracts inducing bottom food search behavior in cod (Gadus morhua L.).

    PubMed

    Ellingsen, O F; Døving, K B

    1986-01-01

    The bottom food search (BFS) feeding behavior in cod (Gadus morhua L.), has been used in a bioassay for chemical isolation of the feeding stimulant substances present in shrimp (Pandalus borealis). An aqueous methanol extract of ground shrimp was separated into acidic, neutral, and amphoteric/basic fractions by ion-exchange chromatography and into single components by preparative high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Of the isolated single components, the amino acid glycine was most potent, followed by alanine. Two unidentified substances were also highly potent. There was a synergistic effect between glycine, alanine, proline, and arginine. These four amino acids were more potent than the total amino acid pool found in the shrimp extract, indicating that there may be amino acids in this pool having an antagonistic effect. PMID:24306405

  2. Basin-scale coherence in phenology of shrimps and phytoplankton in the North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Koeller, P; Fuentes-Yaco, C; Platt, T; Sathyendranath, S; Richards, A; Ouellet, P; Orr, D; Skúladóttir, U; Wieland, K; Savard, L; Aschan, M

    2009-05-01

    Climate change could lead to mismatches between the reproductive cycles of marine organisms and their planktonic food. We tested this hypothesis by comparing shrimp (Pandalus borealis) egg hatching times and satellite-derived phytoplankton bloom dynamics throughout the North Atlantic. At large spatial and long temporal (10 years or longer) scales, hatching was correlated with the timing of the spring phytoplankton bloom. Annual egg development and hatching times were determined locally by bottom water temperature. We conclude that different populations of P. borealis have adapted to local temperatures and bloom timing, matching egg hatching to food availability under average conditions. This strategy is vulnerable to interannual oceanographic variability and long-term climatic changes. PMID:19423827

  3. Utility of Stable Isotope and Cytochrome Oxidase I Gene Sequencing Analyses in Inferring Origin and Authentication of Hairtail Fish and Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heejoong; Kumar, K Suresh; Hwang, Seung Yong; Kang, Byeong-Chul; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2015-06-10

    Mislabeling of fishery products continues to be a serious threat to the global market. Consequently, there is an urgent necessity to develop tools for authenticating and establishing their true origin. This investigation evaluates the suitability of stable isotopes and cytochrome oxidase I (COI) sequencing in identifying and tracing the origin of hairtail fish and shrimp. By use of COI sequencing, the hairtail fish samples were identified as Trichiurus japonicus and Trichiurus lepturus, while the shrimp samples were identified as Pandalus borealis, Marsupenaeus japonicus, Fenneropenaeus chinensis, Litopenaeus vannamei, Penaeus monodon, and Solenocera crassicornis. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of stable isotopes further categorized the individuals of the same species based on the country of origin. Natural and farmed shrimp (from the same country) were distinctly differentiated on the basis of stable isotope values. Therefore, these two methods could be cooperatively utilized to identify and authenticate fishery products, the utilization of which would enhance transparency and fair trade. PMID:25980806

  4. Cross-reactivity of IgE-binding components between boiled Atlantic shrimp and German cockroach.

    PubMed

    Crespo, J F; Pascual, C; Helm, R; Sanchez-Pastor, S; Ojeda, I; Romualdo, L; Martin-Esteban, M; Ojeda, J A

    1995-11-01

    IgE-antibody reactivity to boiled Atlantic shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and German cockroach (Blattella germanica) of sera from 89 patients, sensitive to one or the other, was investigated with an enzymatic immunoassay for specific IgE detection (CAP-FEIA System, Pharmacia, Sweden). IgE serum levels to both antishrimp and anticockroach allergens were found to be positive in 76 of the 89 (85.4%) tested sera. A positive anticockroach IgE was very rare in the absence of detectable antishrimp IgE (five of 89 sera). Linear regression analysis on antishrimp and anti-German cockroach IgE levels-log plot revealed a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.73. Inhibition experiments showed that boiled Atlantic shrimp extract inhibited CAP with German cockroach, and vice versa. Immunoblotting showed the strongest IgE binding for both allergenic extracts between 30 and 43 kDa. By blot inhibition, the binding capacity of German cockroach was totally abolished by Atlantic shrimp extract, while German cockroach extract only partially IgE binding to Atlantic shrimp. Cross-reactivity exists between shrimp, an important food allergen, and German cockroach, which has an increasing role in allergic asthma. It could be important to determine the clinical significance of cross-allergy to both allergens, in which exposures occur in different ways. PMID:8748725

  5. Corona Borealis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Northern Crown; abbrev. CrB, gen. Coronae Borealis; area 179 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Boötes and Hercules, and culminates at midnight in mid-May. It represents the crown that in Greek mythology was made by Hephaestus, god of fire, and worn by Princess Ariadne of Crete. Its brightest stars were cataloged by Ptolemy (c. AD 100-175) in the Almagest....

  6. Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) and legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in halibut and shrimp from coastal areas in the far north of Norway: Small survey of important dietary foodstuffs for coastal communities.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Pernilla; Crosse, John D; Halsall, Crispin; Evenset, Anita; Heimstad, Eldbjørg S; Harju, Mikael

    2016-04-15

    Halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) and shrimps (Pandalus borealis) are regular foodstuffs for communities in northern Norway and important species for the coastal fishing industry. This is the first study to present a comprehensive overview of the contaminant status of these species, with emphasis on unregulated perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS). The contaminant concentrations were low and within tolerable levels for human dietary exposure. Median Σpolychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were 4.9 and 2.5ng/g ww for halibut and unpeeled shrimps, respectively. Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) - the most abundant PFASs - were 0.9 and 2.7ng/g ww in halibut and shrimp, respectively. The halibut fillets were dominated by PCBs, which contributed to 50% of the total POPs load, followed by ΣDDTs; 26% and PFASs (18%), whereas shrimps were dominated by PFASs (74%). ΣPBDEs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) contributed to 1-4% of the total POP load. Local sources are not contributing significantly to the contaminant burden in these species. PMID:26948293

  7. Spatial distribution of extractable organohalogens in northern pink shrimp in the north Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Bottaro, C S; Kiceniuk, J W; Chatt, A

    1999-01-01

    Extractable organohalogens (EOX) are organic compounds that contain chlorine, bromine and/or iodine, which can be separated from the matrix by liquid/liquid or liquid/solid extraction. A combination of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and solvent extraction methods has been developed for the determination of EOX from the shrimp Pandalus borealis. Levels of EOX were evaluated for spatial trends for shrimp caught in several areas off the Labrador coast, off the coast of Nova Scotia, and off the coast of Maine. Muscle contained 1.09-6.05 micrograms EOCl/g tissue and 105-498 micrograms extractable organochlorine (EOCl)/g lipid; 0.0607-0.288 microgram extractable organobromine (EOB)r/g tissue and 4.74-10.5 micrograms EOBr/g lipid; and 0.014-0.048 microgram extractable organoiodine (EOI)/g tissue and 1.03-1.76 micrograms EOI/g lipid, respectively. The levels of EOCl in roe were 1.60-12.34 micrograms/g tissue and 39.0-146 micrograms/g lipid. In roe, the EOBr levels were 0.707-1.03 micrograms/g tissue and 6.96-13.5 micrograms/g lipid; and EOI levels were 0.123-0.349 microgram/g tissue and 1.42-4.11 micrograms/g lipid. The EOCl, EOBr, and EOI levels in roe increased noticeably from north to south along the coast of Labrador. Samples taken from the coast of Maine and from Canso Hole were typically higher in EOCl levels than those taken from Labrador. The results for EOBr and EOI were in the same range as those from Labrador. PMID:10676489

  8. Heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris and single-step purification of a cysteine proteinase from northern shrimp.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Hitoshi; Nazmul Ahsan, Md; Watabe, Shugo

    2003-10-01

    A distinct cysteine proteinase (NsCys) of northern shrimp Pandalus borealis belonging to cathepsin L subgroup of the papain superfamily has been overexpressed as a precursor form (proNsCys) in Pichia pastoris. We adopted a simple and quick procedure to generate an expression cassette by constructing a donor vector harboring proNsCys followed by recombination with an acceptor vector in a way so that the proNsCys gene was placed downstream of the methanol-inducible AOX1 promoter and alpha-mating factor signal sequence gene. In addition, we used glycerol complex medium that supported high growth of yeast before induction while induction was carried out in minimal methanol medium thereby facilitating the secreted protein to be purified with a single size-exclusion chromatography. The recombinant enzyme was purified in two enzymatically active fractions: both corresponding to mature NsCys with, however, the major one comprising two molecular species of NsCys which had their severed prodomain non-covalently attached. The overall yield was about 100 mg of crude or 60 mg of purified recombinant enzyme comprising both mature and prodomain-attached forms of NsCys per liter of yeast culture. The recombinant NsCys was biologically active as observed by gelatin zymography and its ability to cleave Z-Phe-Arg-MCA, a synthetic substrate for cathepsin L. The development of the system reported here provides a cost-effective and easy to manipulate expression system to obtain large quantities of fully functional shrimp enzyme that will enable the functional characterization of this unique enzyme for both research and industrial purposes. PMID:14550639

  9. Validation of the name Wolffia borealis (Lemnaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Problems with the valid publication of the species name Wolffia borealis, thought to have been published in 1977 for a duckweed from the United States and Canada, are discussed. The varietal name upon which W. borealis was presumably based, “W. brasiliensis var. borealis Engelm.”, did not exist in ...

  10. Diapause traits in Melanoplus sanguinipes and M. borealis (Orthoptera: Acrididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A thorough understanding of diapause is needed for prediction of population responses to climate change, for realistic simulation models, and for the development of effective pest management. In Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius) and M. borealis (Fieber) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), diapause typically o...

  11. Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment. Injury to Prince William Sound spot shrimp. Subtidal study number 5. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-01

    Since the grounding of the T/V Exxon Valdez caused an oil spill on March 24, 1989, four surveys have been conducted by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) to assess possible damage done by the oil spill to spot shrimp Pandalus platyceros. The surveys were conducted November 1989, March 1990, and November 1990 as Fish/Shellfish Study 15, then November 1991 as Subtidal Study 5. The report incorporates results of all surveys, but emphasizes November surveys and their analysis.

  12. Discovering New R Coronae Borealis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Tisserand, Patrick; Welch, Douglas L.; LeBleu, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are rare hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich supergiants. Two evolutionary scenarios have been suggested, a double degenerate merger of two white dwarfs, or a final helium shell flash in a PN central star. The evidence pointing toward a white-dwarf merger or a final-flash origin for RCB stars is contradictory. The distribution on the sky and radial velocities of the RCB stars tend toward those of the bulge population but a much larger sample of stars is needed to determine the true population. We need to discover RCB stars much more efficiently. In order to do this, we have used a series of IR color-color cuts, using the recent release of the WISE All-Sky Catalog, to produce a sample of 2200 candidates that may yield over 200 new RCB star identifications. Most of these candidates do not have lightcurves, the traditional technique of identifying RCB stars from their characteristic large and irregular light variations. We have obtained optical spectra of several hundred candidates and have confirmed over 40 new RCB stars in the Galaxy. We are attempting to develop a quantitative spectral classification system for the RCB stars so that they can be identified without an accompanying light curve. The cooler RCB stars look like carbon stars with strong C2 bands, but they can be differentiated from carbon stars by their extreme hydrogen deficiency and very low 13C/12C ratio. Also, the red CN bands are much weaker in RCB stars than in carbon stars. The number of RCB stars in the Galaxy may be consistent with the predicted number of He/CO white-dwarf mergers. Solving the mystery of how the RCB stars evolve would be a watershed event in the study of stellar evolution that will lead to a better understanding of other important types of stellar merger events such as Type Ia SNe.

  13. Zinc uptake and regulation by the sublittoral prawn Pandalus montagui (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugegoda, D.; Rainbow, P. S.

    1988-06-01

    The sublittoral decapod crustacean Pandalus montagui Leach in artificial seawater at 10°C regulates the total body zinc concentration to a constant level in dissolved zinc concentrations up to ca. 22 μg Zn l -1, beyond which there is net accumulation of body zinc. This threshold of zinc regulation breakdown is lower than that in the littoral decapods Palaemon elegans (ca. 93 μg Zn l -1) and Palaemonetes varians (ca. 190 μg Zn l -1) under the same physico-chemical conditions. Correspondingly, zinc uptake rates of the three species of decapods decrease in the order P. montagui > P. elegans > P. varians. It is concluded that regulation of total body zinc concentration is more efficient in decapods adapted to the fluctuating environments of littoral habitats, possibly as a result of changes in permeability of uptake surfaces in combination with improved zinc excretion systems. The moult cycle is important in determining the ability of an individual prawn to regulate zinc. Body zinc in Pandalus montagui consists of at least two pools of zinc exchanging at different rates which the environment. Zinc and copper are not evenly distributed in the tissues of P. montagui.

  14. Chromatographic, NMR and vibrational spectroscopic investigations of astaxanthin esters: application to "Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil" obtained from processing of Nordic shrimps.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, B; Thibault, M-H; Djaoued, Y; Pelletier, C; Touaibia, M; Tchoukanova, N

    2015-11-01

    Astaxanthin (ASTX) is a keto carotenoid, which possesses a non-polar linear central conjugated chain and polar β-ionone rings with ketone and hydroxyl groups at the extreme ends. It is well known as a super anti-oxidant, and recent clinical studies have established its nutritional benefits. Although it occurs in several forms, including free molecule, crystalline, aggregates and various geometrical isomers, in nature it exists primarily in the form of esters. Marine animals accumulate ASTX from primary sources such as algae. Nordic shrimps (P. borealis), which are harvested widely in the Atlantic Ocean, form a major source of astaxanthin esters. "Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil" was developed as a novel product in a shrimp processing plant in Eastern Canada. A compositional analysis of the shrimp oil was performed, with a view to possibly use it as a nutraceutical product for humans and animals. Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil contains 50% MUFAs and 22% PUFAs, of which 20% are omega-3. In addition, the shrimp oil contains interesting amounts of EPA and DHA, with 10%/w and 8%/w, respectively. Astaxanthin concentrations varied between 400 and 1000 ppm, depending on the harvesting season of the shrimp. Astaxanthin and its esters were isolated from the oil and analysed by NMR, FTIR and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. Astaxanthin mono- and diesters were synthesized and used as standards for the analysis of astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil. NMR and vibrational spectroscopy techniques were successfully used for the rapid characterization of monoesters and diesters of astaxanthin. Raman spectroscopy provided important intermolecular interactions present in the esterified forms of astaxanthin molecules. Also discussed in this paper is the use of NMR, FTIR and Micro-Raman spectroscopy for the detection of astaxanthin esters in shrimp oil. PMID:26393239

  15. SHRIMPS (ARTHROPODA: CRUSTACEA: PENAEIDAE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pollution ecology of penaeid shrimps involving industrial organic chemicals, pesticides, petroleum, heavy metals, biological agents, and interactions of the above is discussed. Penaeid shrimps, within their geographic distribution, can serve as valid indicators of the presenc...

  16. Crustacean color-change hormone: amino acid sequence and chemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fernlund, P; Josefsson, L

    1972-07-14

    The blanching hormone of the prawn, Pandalus borealis, is pGlu-Leu-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Gly-Trp-NH(2). Its structure was settled by a combination of mass spectrometry and Edman-dansyl analysis of a thermolysin fragment. Confirmation of the structure was obtained by chemical synthesis from amino acids. This neurosecreted hormone is active in picogram amounts when tested in shrimps. PMID:5041363

  17. Antioxidant flavone glycosides from the leaves of Sasa borealis.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Suk; Lim, Ju Hee; Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Hyun Jin; Lee, Ik-Soo

    2007-02-01

    Sasa borealis (Poaceae) is a perennial medicinal plant which is a major source of bamboo leaves in Korea. The n-BuOH extract of S. borealis leaves exhibited significant antioxidant activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and a cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in HepG2 cells. Bioactivity-guided fractionation by column chromatography led to the isolation of two antioxidative flavonoid C-glycoside derivatives, isoorientin (2) and isoorientin 2"-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (4) along with tricin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and apigenin 6-C-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-8-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3). Their structures were identified on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods. The radical scavenging activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage of all the isolated compounds were also evaluated. Isoorientin (2) and isoorientin 2-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (4) showed potent free radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 9.5 and 34.5 microM, respectively, and strong cytoprotective effects against t-BOOH-induced oxidative damage in HepG2 cells, at very low concentrations of 1.1 microM isoorientin and 0.8 microM isoorientin 2-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside. This is the first report of the isolation and antioxidant activity of compounds 2 and 4 from S. borealis. PMID:17366736

  18. Shrimp Farming in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggiero, Lovelle

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project on culturing shrimp. Presents observational labs and the experimentation procedure. Provides general information about shrimp, their life span, optimum temperatures, and other important information. (YDS)

  19. What were the effects of the formation of the Borealis basin, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    The progress that has been made in the study of the Borealis basin in the Northern Hemisphere of Mars is presented in this two page report. The effect of the runoff of ground water into the Borealis basin on the climate of Mars is discussed.

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF SHRIMP BACULOVIRUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research undertaken involved the partial characterization of a baculovirus of the pink shrimp, Penaeus duorarum. The significance of the study is related to the fact that the shrimp baculovirus is morphologically similar to insect vaculoviruses which were considered unique to...

  1. AURORA BOREALIS - European Research Icebreaker With Drilling Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biebow, N.; Lembke-Jene, L.; Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Thiede, J.

    2008-12-01

    The polar oceans are the least known areas of the globe, in although they hold the key to many of our climate´s secrets. How does the sea ice coverage and the sea water properties change? How do plants and animals survive under the most extreme conditions of the earth? Which information of past climate change can be read from the sediments at the sea-floor and how can the future changing climate be predicted? In order to answer such and further questions, for the moment a hypermodern research vessel, the AURORA BOREALIS, is planned, which can handle the cool summers and freezing winters of the polar oceans and which can drill deep into the sea floor. AURORA BOREALIS will be the most advanced Research Icebreaker in the world with a multi-functional role of drilling in deep ocean basins and supporting climate/environmental research and decision support for stakeholder governments for the next 35-40 years. It will have a high icebreaking capacity to penetrate autonomously (single ship operation) into the central Arctic Ocean with more than 2.5 meters of ice cover, during all seasons of the year. The new technological features will include dynamic positioning in closed sea- ice cover, satellite navigation and ice-management support and the deployment and operation of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) from the twin moon-pools. A unique feature of the vessel is the deep-sea drilling rig, which will enable sampling of the ocean floor and sub-sea up to 5000 m water and 1000 m penetration at the most inhospitable places on earth. The drilling capability will be deployed in both Polar Regions on the long run and AURORA BOREALIS will be the only vessel worldwide that could undertake this type of scientific investigation.

  2. On the Inner Circumstellar Envelopes of R Coronae Borealis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leão, I. C.; Bright, S. N.; Chesneau, O.

    2015-12-01

    We present different analyses of Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) data to interpret the inner circumstellar envelope (CSE) morphology of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars. Three objects were considered: RY Sgr, V CrA, and V854 Cen. Chi-squared maps of different geometrical models allow to identify a reasonable description of these CSEs, which can be further studied in radiative transfer codes. Overall, the inner CSE morphology of these RCB stars are consistent with a central star surrounded by a dusty shell with at least a bright clump (or a dust cluster).

  3. Organic cation secretion by Cancer borealis urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.S.; Holliday, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    In the crab, Cancer borealis, initial clearance studies showed a potent renal excretory system for the model organic cation, tetraethylammonium (TEA). (/sup 14/C)-TEA clearance averaged 145 +/- 32 ml/day, which was 18 times the paired polyethylene glycol clearance. TEA uptake by slices of urinary bladder was concentrative, saturable, inhibitable by N/sup 1/-methylnicotinamide chloride, and dependent on glycolytic, but not oxidative, metabolism. When mounted in flux chambers, bladders exhibited a large net secretory flux. For 0.1 mM TEA, the ratio of secretory to reabsorptive fluxes was 65. Urinary bladders from another crab, Cancer irroratus, and a lobster, Homarus americanus, also exhibited net TEA secretion. In C. borealis bladder, secretory transport was concentrative, saturable, and nearly abolished by addition of 1 mM quinine to the serosol bath. Reabsorptive transport was not concentrative and was not reduced by luminal quinine. The data are consistent with a secretory pathway that is transcellular and mediated by carriers at both the serosal and luminal membranes.

  4. Topographic and Roughness Characteristics of the Vastitas Borealis Formation on Mars Described by Fractal Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garneau, S.; Plaut, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    The surface roughness of the Vastitas Borealis Formation on Mars was analyzed with fractal statistics. Root mean square slopes and fractal dimensions were calculated for 74 topographic profiles. Results have implications for radar scattering models.

  5. 5. Aurora Borealis Pass over the United States at Night - Duration: 21 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video of the United States at night and the Aurora Borealis was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 on board the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken September 29, 2011...

  6. VARIABLE WINDS AND DUST FORMATION IN R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Zhang Wanshu; Geballe, T. R. E-mail: wzhan21@lsu.edu

    2013-08-01

    We have observed P-Cygni and asymmetric, blue-shifted absorption profiles in the He I {lambda}10830 lines of 12 R Coronae Borealis stars over short (1 month) and long (3 yr) timescales to look for variations linked to their dust-formation episodes. In almost all cases, the strengths and terminal velocities of the line vary significantly and are correlated with dust formation events. Strong absorption features with blue-shifted velocities {approx}400 km s{sup -1} appear during declines in visible brightness and persist for about 100 days after recovery to maximum brightness. Small residual winds of somewhat lower velocity are present outside of the decline and recovery periods. The correlations support models in which recently formed dust near the star is propelled outward at high speed by radiation pressure and drags the gas along with it.

  7. Aurora Borealis Experiment (ABX): A Planeterrella for Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNulty, Michael; Carpe, Andy; Zwicker, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    The Planeterrella is an experiment invented by Jean Lilensten of the Laboratoire de Planetologie de Grenoble in France designed to simulate aurorae of various planets. It is done by placing two differently sized aluminum spheres in a bell jar with a pressure of approximately 75 mTorr. Each sphere has magnets inside and is electrically biased. An electrode with the opposite electrical bias is inserted into the bell jar so that the voltage between them is on the order of 300 V. A plasma is then created and an aurora is formed around the magnetic poles of the spheres or near the edge of the electrode. We have made a modified version of the planeterrella, called the Aurora Borealis Experiment (ABX), based upon Lilensten's plans. We will present the technical details of the experiment and preliminary results of its use with a variety of different audiences.

  8. ES Aquilae Is an R Coronae Borealis Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Hammond, D.; Lawless, J.; Kilkenny, D.; Evans, T. Lloyd; Mattei, J.; Landolt, A. U.

    2002-08-01

    ES Aql, initially classified as a semiregular variable, is now believed to be a member of the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) class of stars, a small group of carbon-rich supergiants that undergo dramatic declines in brightness at irregular intervals. We present photometry of ES Aql going back as far as 1893 using plates from the Harvard College Observatory as well as more recent photoelectric and visual observations. ES Aql displays the typical behavior of an RCB star, consisting of sharp declines at irregular intervals. The spectrum of ES Aql is also typical of a cool (Teff~5000 K) RCB star, showing strong absorption bands of C2 and CN, along with weak hydrogen and no detectable 13C. ES Aql is also an IRAS source indicating the presence of dust. Based on these data, we conclude that ES Aql is indeed an RCB star.

  9. NPOI Observations of the Exoplanet Host Kappa Coronae Borealis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, Ellyn K.; Armstrong, J. T.; van Belle, G.

    2014-01-01

    Kappa Coronae Borealis is a "retired A star", otherwise known as a former A-type dwarf that is now a K-type subgiant. It is a particularly fascinating target because of its unusual configuration of companions and dust rings. It hosts at least one exoplanet and perhaps two, and features a single wide dust ring or two narrow ones. We observed the star interferometrically in order to characterize the main star and the environment in which the planet(s) and dust ring(s) reside. We determined a variety of fundamental parameters for kappa CrB: the limb-darkened angular diameter, physical size, effective temperature, luminosity, mass, age, and the extent of the habitable zone range. We combined our mass with the orbital parameters from four sources from the literature to calculate the planet's mass as well.

  10. Mid-infrared variations of R Coronae Borealis stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. Kameswara; Lambert, David L.

    2015-03-01

    Mid-infrared (IR) photometry of R Coronae Borealis stars obtained from various satellites from Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) to Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has been utilized in studying the variations of the circumstellar dust's contributions to the spectral energy distribution of these stars. The variation of the fractional coverage (R) of dust clouds and their blackbody temperatures (Td) have been used in trying to understand the dust cloud evolution over the three decades spanned by the satellite observations. In particular, it is shown that a prediction R ? T_d^4 developed in the paper is satisfied, especially by those stars for which a single collection of clouds dominates the IR fluxes.

  11. Mantis shrimp allergy.

    PubMed

    Alonso, R Eiró; Zavala, B Bartolomé; Escoda, J M Soler

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 25-year-old female who experienced two immediate episodes of labial, lingual and larynx angiodema after eating fried mantis shrimp (Squilla empusa), a crustacean belonging to the Squillidae family, and a third episode after eating shellfish pudding. Prick by prick tests to mantis shrimp and to other crustacean were positive. Serum specific IgE showed higher values than 0.35 kU/L to extracts from mantis shrimp shell, prawn, large prawn and crab. Serum specific IgE against large prawn tropomyosin were below 0.35 kU/L. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electropheresis (SDS-PAGE) immunoblotting results with raw mantis shrimp shell revealed IgE-binding bands of 46 kDa and 25 kDa, in non reducing and reducing conditions, respectively. Cross-reactivity studies using the enzyme allergo sorbent test (EAST)-inhibition and Immunoblotting-inhibition methods showed the existence of significant cross-reactivity between the IgE-binding proteins present in mantis shrimp and those from prawn, large prawn and small crab. PMID:17153890

  12. AURORA BOREALIS: a polar-dedicated European Research Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff-Boenisch, Bonnie; Egerton, Paul; Thiede, Joern; Roberto, Azzolini; Lembke-Jene, Lester

    2010-05-01

    Polar research and in particular the properties of northern and southern high latitude oceans are currently a subject of intense scientific debate and investigations, because they are subject to rapid and dramatic climatic variations. Polar regions react more rapidly and intensively to global change than other regions of the earth. A shrinking of the Arctic sea-ice cover, potentially leading to an opening of sea passages to the north of North America and Eurasia, on the long to a "blue" Arctic Ocean would additionally have a strong impact on transport, commerce and tourism bearing potential risk for humans and complex ecosystems in the future. In spite of their critical role processes and feedbacks, especially in winter but not exclusively, are virtually unknown: The Arctic Ocean for example, it is the only basin of the world's oceans that has essentially not been sampled by the drill ships of the Deep-Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) or the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and its long-term environmental history and tectonic structure is therefore poorly known. Exceptions are the ODP Leg 151 and the more recent very successful ACEX-expedition of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) in 2004. To help to address the most pressing questions regarding climate change and related processes, a Pan-European initiative in the field of Earth system science has been put in place: AURORA BOREALIS is the largest environmental research infrastructure on the ESFRI roadmap of the European Community. AURORA BOREALIS is a very powerful research icebreaker, which will enable year-round operations in the Arctic and the Antarctic as well as in the adjacent ocean basins. Equipped with its drilling rig, the vessel is also capable to explore the presently completely unknown Arctic deep-sea floor. Last but not least, the ship is a floating observatory and mobile monitoring platform that permits to measure on a long-term basis comprehensive time series in all research fields relevant to global climate change. Chances and challenges rest in securing the construction and operation costs that need a dedicated consortium of interested countries and institutions to help tackling the biggest challenges of the next decades.

  13. Investigating Brine Shrimp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Lena Ballone

    2003-01-01

    Presents a brine shrimp activity designed for students in grades 5-12 to foster authentic scientific inquiry in addition to providing an engaging and exciting avenue for student exploration. Emphasizes that inquiry should be a critical component in the science classroom. (KHR)

  14. How Many R Coronae Borealis Stars are There Really?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.

    2014-05-01

    The R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are rare hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich supergiants. Two evolutionary scenarios have been suggested, a double degenerate merger of two white dwarfs (WDs), or a final helium shell flash in a planetary nebula central star. Only about 100 of the predicted 3000 RCB stars in the Galaxy have been discovered. But the pace of discovery of new RCB stars in the Milky Way has been accelerating. We recently discovered over 20 new RCB stars by examining ASAS-3 lightcurves. Using the recent release of the WISE All- Sky Catalog, a series of IR color-color cuts have produced a sample of candidates that may yield over 200 new RCB stars. We are trying to obtain spectra of these stars to confirm their identifications. The evidence pointing toward a WD merger or a final-flash origin for RCB stars is contradictory. Increasing the sample of known RCB stars, so that we can better study their spatial distribution in the Galaxy, can give us clues to their origins. Their number and distribution may be consistent with WD mergers. If so this would be an exciting result since RCB stars may be low-mass analogs of Type Ia SNe.

  15. How Many R Coronae Borealis Stars Are There Really? (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    (Abstract only) The R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are rare hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich supergiants. Two evolutionary scenarios have been suggested, a double degenerate merger of two white dwrfs (WDs), or a final helium shell flash in a planetary nebula central star. Only about 100 of the predicted 3,000 RCB stars in the Galaxy have been discovered. But the pace of discovery of new RCB stars in the Milky Way has been accelerating. We recently discovered over twenty new RCB stars by examining ASAS-e light curves. Using the recent release of the WISE All-Sky Catalog, a series of IR color-color cuts have produced a sample of candidates that may yield over 200 new RCB stars. We are trying to obtain spectra of these stars to confirm their identifications. The evidence pointing toward a WD merger or a final-flash origin for RCB stars is contradictory. Increasing the sample of known RCB stars, so that we can better study their spatial distribution in the Galaxy, can give us clues to their origins. Their number and distribution may be consistent with WD mergers. If so, this would be an exciting result since RCB stars may be low-mass analogs of Type Ia supernovae.

  16. The grand aurorae borealis seen in Colombia in 1859

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárdenas, Freddy Moreno; Sánchez, Sergio Cristancho; Domínguez, Santiago Vargas

    2016-01-01

    On Thursday, September 1, 1859, the British astronomer Richard Carrington, for the first time ever, observes a spectacular gleam of visible light on the surface of the solar disk, the photosphere. The Carrington Event, as it is nowadays known by scientists, occurred because of the high solar activity that had visible consequences on Earth, in particular reports of outstanding aurorae activity that amazed thousands of people in the western hemisphere during the dawn of September 2. The geomagnetic storm, generated by the solar-terrestrial event, had such a magnitude that the auroral oval expanded towards the equator, allowing low latitudes, like Panama's 9°N, to catch a sight of the aurorae. An expedition was carried out to review several historical reports and books from the northern cities of Colombia allowed the identification of a narrative from Montería, Colombia (8° 45‧N), that describes phenomena resembling those of an aurorae borealis, such as fire-like lights, blazing and dazzling glares, and the appearance of an immense S-like shape in the sky. The very low latitude of the geomagnetic north pole in 1859, the lowest value in over half a millennia, is proposed to have allowed the observations of auroral events at locations closer to the equator, and supports the historical description found in Colombia. The finding of such chronicle represents one of the most complete descriptions of low-latitude sightings of aurorae caused by the Carrington Event.

  17. Mining R Coronae Borealis stars from Catalina surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.-H.

    2015-03-01

    Aims: R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) are rare carbon stars that lack of hydrogen in their photospheresand are most likely products of white dwarf mergers. A census of RCBs can shed light on the progenitors of SNe Ia in the context of a double degenerate scenario. Methods: Traditionally, RCBs are identified by their unpredictable photometric variation with dimmings up to 9 mag, and thus discoveries of RCBs are heavily biased to the limited regions monitored by long-term microlensing experiments. However, recent studies of galactic RCBs have shown that they exhibit distinct mid-infrared colors originating from their cool circumstellar shells, and the all-sky WISE survey facilitates the identification of RCB candidates. Therefore, combining the WISE colors with large area time-domain surveys will enable us to discover more RCBs. Results: This study presents the results of 26 RCB candidates from the Catalina surveys, where five of them are spectroscopically confirmed RCBs and seven of them are previously known carbon stars. This demonstrates the efficacy of this kind of an approach and the potential to discover uncharted RCBs in ongoing and future synoptic surveys.

  18. The Corona Borealis Supercluster - II: Mass Estimation & Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, David; Batiste, M.; Batuski, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Pearson & Batuski (2013) found that there should be little chance of finding extended bound structure in the Corona Borealis supercluster (CSC) if most of the mass is contained within the clusters themselves. However, Batiste & Batuski (2013) found evidence for CSC being in a state of collapse through a Fundamental Plane (FP) analysis. The contradiction of the results suggests strongly that there is a substantial matter component outside of the clusters. Using methods developed by Small et al. 1998, Reisenegger et al. 2000, Dünner et al. 2007, as well as a method we developed ourselves based on the spherical collapse model, we find evidence for between 1.91 and 13.9×1016 h-1 M⊙ in the CSC region. The lower end of this mass range would mean there is about twice as much mass outside of the clusters than within the clusters themselves, similar to the finding of Proust et al. 2006 for the Shapley supercluster (SSC). Assuming an inter-cluster matter component of 3.8 × 1016 h-1 M⊙ (Small et al. 1998), and line-of-sight peculiar velocities implied by the FP at present, our simulations show that there is a ~70% chance of the entire supercluster being gravitationally bound.

  19. Aurorae: The earliest datable observation of the aurora borealis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, F. Richard; Willis, David M.; Hallinan, Thomas J.

    2004-12-01

    The Late Babylonian astronomical texts, discovered at the site of Babylon (32.5°N, 44.4°E) more than a century ago, contain what is probably the earliest reliable account of the aurora borealis. A clay tablet recording numerous celestial observations made by the official astronomers during the 37th year of King Nebuchadnezzar II (568/567 BC) describes an unusual ``red glow'' in the sky at night; the exact date of this observation corresponds to the night of 12/13 March in 567 BC. The most likely interpretation of the phenomenon is an auroral display. This event occurred several centuries before the first clearly identifiable observation of the aurora from elsewhere in the world, namely China in 193 BC. The Babylonian auroral observation is remarkable in the sense that it is one of a series of carefully recorded astronomical observations, for each of which the year, month and day are known precisely. This observation occurred at a time when the geomagnetic (dipole) latitude of Babylon was about 41°N compared with the present value of 27.5°N, suggesting a higher auroral incidence at Babylon in 567 BC than at present.

  20. Sasa borealis extract exerts an antidiabetic effect via activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Nam, Jung Soo; Chung, Hee Jin; Jang, Min Kyung; Jung, In Ah; Park, Seong Ha; Cho, Su In; Jung, Myeong Ho

    2013-02-01

    Leaf of Sasa borealis, a species of bamboo, has been reported to exhibit anti-hyperglycemic effect. However, its antidiabetic mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we examined whether an extract of S. borealis activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and exerts anti-hyperglycemic effects. Treatment with the S. borealis extract increased insulin signaling and phosphorylation of AMPK and stimulated the expression of its downstream targets, including PPARα, ACO, and CPT-1 in C2C12 cells and PPARα in HepG2 cells. However, inhibition of AMPK activation attenuated insulin signaling and prevented the stimulation of AMPK target genes. The S. borealis extract increased glucose uptake in C2C12 cells and suppressed expression of the gluconeogenic gene, PEPCK in HepG2 cells. The extract significantly reduced blood glucose and triglyceride levels in STZ-induced diabetic mice. The extract enhanced AMPK phosphorylation and increased Glut-4 expression in the skeletal muscle of the mice. These findings demonstrated that the S. borealis extract exerts its anti-hyperglycemic effect through activation of AMPK and enhancement of insulin signaling. PMID:23423690

  1. Sasa borealis extract exerts an antidiabetic effect via activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Jung Soo; Chung, Hee Jin; Jang, Min Kyung; Jung, In Ah; Park, Seong Ha; Cho, Su In

    2013-01-01

    Leaf of Sasa borealis, a species of bamboo, has been reported to exhibit anti-hyperglycemic effect. However, its antidiabetic mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we examined whether an extract of S. borealis activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and exerts anti-hyperglycemic effects. Treatment with the S. borealis extract increased insulin signaling and phosphorylation of AMPK and stimulated the expression of its downstream targets, including PPARα, ACO, and CPT-1 in C2C12 cells and PPARα in HepG2 cells. However, inhibition of AMPK activation attenuated insulin signaling and prevented the stimulation of AMPK target genes. The S. borealis extract increased glucose uptake in C2C12 cells and suppressed expression of the gluconeogenic gene, PEPCK in HepG2 cells. The extract significantly reduced blood glucose and triglyceride levels in STZ-induced diabetic mice. The extract enhanced AMPK phosphorylation and increased Glut-4 expression in the skeletal muscle of the mice. These findings demonstrated that the S. borealis extract exerts its anti-hyperglycemic effect through activation of AMPK and enhancement of insulin signaling. PMID:23423690

  2. [Shrimp as an allergen source].

    PubMed

    Múnera, Marlon; Gómez, Luis; Puerta, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Allergy to shellfish is one of the most prevalent food allergies in several countries, especially the one induced by consuming or having contact with shrimp. Several shrimp species are known to induce allergy diseases. However, the whole spectrum of allergens they contain is unknown and few of them have been completely characterized. This study was done in order to know the recent advances in the characterization of shrimp allergens and its relationship with allergens from other arthropods of importance in allergic diseases. We emphasize the species Litopenaeus vannamei , the most consumed shrimp in Colombia. Well characterized shrimp allergens are named following an official classification; nevertheless, they are better known according to the biological function associated with them. Tropomiosin, the main and most studied allergen in different shrimp species, is involved in crossreactivity among shrimp and other arthropods like domestic mites. The other characterized allergens seem to have a minor participation in this cross-reactivity. The allergenic potential of L. vannamei is not well known and few of its allergens have been characterized, whilst others that were recently identified such as the hemocyanin and the fatty acid binding proteins are beginning to be studied. Preliminary results suggest that these allergens are involved in the cross-reactivity between shrimp and domestic mites, which deserves further evaluation. The molecular and immunological characterization of all allergens present in shrimp would help understanding its allergenic role. PMID:24652126

  3. OXYGEN ISOTOPIC RATIOS IN COOL R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.; Rao, N. Kameswara; Hinkle, Ken H.; Eriksson, Kjell E-mail: dll@astro.as.utexas.ed E-mail: hinkle@noao.ed

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the relationship between R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars and hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) stars by measuring precise {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratios for five cool RCB stars. The {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratios are derived by spectrum synthesis from high-resolution (R {approx} 50, 000) K-band spectra. Lower limits to the {sup 16}O/{sup 17}O and {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratios as well as Na and S abundances (when possible) are also given. RCB stars in our sample generally display less {sup 18}O than HdC stars-the derived {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratios range from 3 to 20. The only exception is the RCB star WX CrA, which seems to be an HdC-like star with {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O = 0.3. Our result of a higher {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratio for the RCB stars must be accounted for by a theory of the formation and evolution of HdC and RCB stars. We speculate that a late dredge-up of products of He burning, principally {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O, may convert an {sup 18}O-rich HdC star into an {sup 18}O-poor RCB star as the H-deficient star begins its final evolution from a cool supergiant to the top of the white dwarf cooling track.

  4. Archaeorhizomyces borealis sp. nov. and a sequence-based classification of related soil fungal species.

    PubMed

    Menkis, Audrius; Urbina, Hector; James, Timothy Y; Rosling, Anna

    2014-12-01

    The class Archaeorhizomycetes (Taphrinomycotina, Ascomycota) was introduced to accommodate an ancient lineage of soil-inhabiting fungi found in association with plant roots. Based on environmental sequencing data Archaeorhizomycetes may comprise a significant proportion of the total fungal community in soils. Yet the only species described and cultivated in this class is Archaeorhizomyces finlayi. In this paper, we describe a second species from a pure culture, Archaeorhizomyces borealis NS99-600(T) (=CBS138755(ExT)) based on morphological, physiological, and multi-locus molecular characterization. Archaeorhizomyces borealis was isolated from a root tip of a Pinus sylvestris seedling grown in a forest nursery in Lithuania. Analysis of Archaeorhizomycete species from environmental samples shows that it has a Eurasian distribution and is the most commonly observed species. Archaeorhizomyces borealis shows slow growth in culture and forms yellowish creamy colonies, characteristics that distinguish A. borealis from its closest relative A. finlayi. Here we also propose a sequence-based taxonomic classification of Archaeorhizomycetes and predict that approximately 500 species in this class remain to be isolated and described. PMID:25457942

  5. Evolution and variability of the R Coronae Borealis stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplund, M.

    1997-06-01

    The R Coronae Borealis (RCrB) stars are characterized by their severe hydrogen-deficiency and drastic visual variability. This thesis is devoted to both these issues using theoretical, numerical and observational investigations. A large sample of the stars has been analysed to determine their elemental abundances, which trace both their ancestry and the history of stellar nucleosynthesis. For the purpose, line-blanketed, hydrogen-deficient model atmospheres have been constructed. The peculiar compositions of the stars indicate that they are in fact born-again giants, for which two explanations have been proposed: either a merger of two white dwarfs or a final He-shell flash in a post-AGB star, which briefly re-inflates the star back to giant dimensions. According to their composition, the stars can be divided into a homogeneous majority group and a diverse minority, which might reflect two different evolutionary backgrounds or the effect of dust-gas separation. The atmospheres bear witness of H- and He-burning in different phases as well as s-processing, but the high Si/Fe and S/Fe ratios of in particular the minority remain unexplained. The inability of the models to reproduce the CI lines suggests that standard model atmospheres are far from adequate descriptions of supergiants such as the RCrB stars. An analysis of Sakurai's object, which has likely recently experienced a final He-shell flash, reveals similarities with the RCrB stars as regards chemical composition. More spectacular, the star shows evidence of very rapid evolution and nucleosynthesis, most notably a decrease in the H abundance and an increase in the Li and s-element contents within only five months. The star represents an impressively fast case of stellar evolution very rarely encountered. The variability of the stars with fadings of up to 8 magnitudes is unique and not yet explained. It is probably due to obscuration events of the stars by newly formed dust clouds. Possible instabilities due to large radiative forces in the stellar atmospheres, which could be the unknown trigger mechanism for the variability by ejecting condensible material, are searched for. A connection between such instabilities and the declines is supported by the proximity of the stars to the theoretical opacity-modified Eddington limit.

  6. Expression and localization of an ice nucleating protein from a soil bacterium, Pseudomonas borealis.

    PubMed

    Vanderveer, Tara L; Choi, Julie; Miao, Denian; Walker, Virginia K

    2014-08-01

    An ice nucleating protein (INP) coding region with 66% sequence identity to the INP of Pseudomonas syringae was previously cloned from P. borealis, a plant beneficial soil bacterium. Ice nucleating activity (INA) in the P. borealis DL7 strain was highest after transfer of cultures to temperatures just above freezing. The corresponding INP coding sequence (inaPb or ina) was used to construct recombinant plasmids, with recombinant expression visualized using a green fluorescent protein marker (gfp encoding GFP). Although the P. borealis strain was originally isolated by ice-affinity, bacterial cultures with membrane-associated INP-GFP did not adsorb to pre-formed ice. Employment of a shuttle vector allowed expression of ina-gfp in both Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas cells. At 27 °C, diffuse fluorescence appeared throughout the cells and was associated with low INA. However, after transfer of cultures to 4 °C, the protein localized to the poles coincident with high INA. Transformants with truncated INP sequences ligated to either gfp, or an antifreeze protein-gfp fusion showed that the repetitive ice-nucleation domain was not necessary for localization. Such localization is consistent with the flanking residues of the INP associating with a temperature-dependent secretion apparatus. A polar location would facilitate INP-INP interactions resulting in the formation of larger aggregates, serving to increase INA. Expression of INPs by P. borealis could function as an efficient atmospheric dispersal mechanism for these soil bacteria, which are less likely to use these proteins for nutrient procurement, as has been suggested for P. syringae. PMID:24930584

  7. Does the Corona Borealis Supercluster form a giant binary-like system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiesi Pillastrini, Giovanni C.

    2016-05-01

    The distribution of local gravitational potentials generated by a complete volume-limited sample of galaxy groups and clusters filling the Corona Borealis region has been derived to search for new gravitational hints in the context of clustering analysis unrevealed by alternative methodologies. Mapping such a distribution as a function of spatial positions, the deepest potential wells in the sample trace unambiguously the locations of the densest galaxy cluster clumps providing the physical keys to bring out gravitational features connected to the formation, composition and evolution of the major clustered structures filling that region. As expected, the three deepest potential wells found at Equatorial coordinates: (˜230°, ˜28°, z ˜ 0.075), (˜240°, ˜27°, z ˜ 0.09) and, (227°, 5.8°, z ˜ 0.0788) correspond to massive superclusters of galaxy groups and clusters identified as the Corona Borealis, A2142 and Virgo-Serpent, respectively. However, the deepest isopotential contours around the Corona Borealis and A2142 superclusters seem to suggest a gravitational feature similar to a giant binary-like system connected by a filamentary structure. To a first approximation, it seems unlikely that this hypothesized system could be gravitationally bound.

  8. Shrimp Farms, Ecuador

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In many parts of the world, wetlands are being converted to shrimp ponds in order to farm these crustaceans for food and sale. One example is on the west coast of Ecuador, south of Guayaquil. The 1991 Landsat image on top shows a coastal area where 143 square kilometers of wetlands were converted to shrimp ponds. By the time ASTER acquired the bottom image in 2001, 243 square kilometers had been converted, eliminating 83% of the wetlands. These scenes cover an area of 30 x 31 km, and are centered near 3.4 degrees south latitude and 80.2 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 30 by 31 kilometers (18.6 by 19.2 miles) Location: 3.4 degrees South latitude, 80.2 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: Landsat bands 4,3 and 2; ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: Landsat 30 meters (24.6 feet); ASTER 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: Landsat: April 29, 1991; ASTER March 31, 2001

  9. Polarization signals in mantis shrimps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, Thomas W.; Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Caldwell, Roy L.; Roberts, Nicholas; Marshall, Justin

    2009-08-01

    While color signals are well known as a form of animal communication, a number of animals communicate using signals based on patterns of polarized light reflected from specialized body parts or structures. Mantis shrimps, a group of marine crustaceans, have evolved a great diversity of such signals, several of which are based on photonic structures. These include resonant scattering devices, structures based on layered dichroic molecules, and structures that use birefringent layers to produce circular polarization. Such biological polarizers operate in different spectral regions ranging from the near-UV to medium wavelengths of visible light. In addition to the structures that are specialized for signal production, the eyes of many species of mantis shrimp are adapted to detect linearly polarized light in the ultraviolet and in the green, using specialized sets of photoreceptors with oriented, dichroic visual pigments. Finally, a few mantis shrimp species produce biophotonic retarders within their photoreceptors that permit the detection of circularly polarized light and are thus the only animals known to sense this form of polarization. Mantis shrimps use polarized light in species-specific signals related to mating and territorial defense, and their means of manipulating light's polarization can inspire designs for artificial polarizers and achromatic retarders.

  10. Opportunities for training in shrimp diseases.

    PubMed

    Lightner, D V; Redman, R M

    2007-01-01

    Opportunities for formal training in shrimp diseases were not available 30 years ago. This was because the shrimp farming industry was in its infancy with few significant disease issues and even fewer shrimp disease specialists investigating the causes of production losses. In 2006, more than two million metric tons of the marine penaeid shrimp were farmed, accounting for more than half of the world's supply. With most of the world's shrimp fisheries at maximum sustainable yields, the ratio of farmed to fished shrimp appears likely to continue to increase. The remarkable growth of sustainable shrimp farming was made possible through the development of methods to diagnose and manage disease in the world's shrimp farms. This occurred as the result of the development of training opportunities in shrimp disease diagnosis and control methods and the application of that knowledge, by an ever increasing number of shrimp diseases specialists, to disease management at shrimp farms. The first type of formal training to become generally available to the industry was in the form of special short courses and workshops. The first of these, which was open to international participants, was given at the University of Arizona in 1989. Since that first course several dozen more special short courses and workshops on shrimp diseases have been given by the University of Arizona. Dozens more special courses and workshops on shrimp diseases have been given by other groups, including other universities, industry cooperatives, governments and international aid agencies, in a wide range of countries (and languages) where shrimp farming constitutes an important industry. In parallel, graduate study programs leading to post graduate degrees, with shrimp disease as the research topic, have developed while formal courses in shrimp diseases have not become widely available in veterinary or fisheries college curricula in the USA and Europe, such courses are appearing in university programs located in some of the shrimp farming countries of SE Asia. The trend towards more formal training programs in shrimp diseases and disease management is likely to continue as the industry continues to mature and become increasingly sustainable. PMID:18306527

  11. Common protein sequence signatures associate with Sclerotinia borealis lifestyle and secretion in fungal pathogens of the Sclerotiniaceae

    PubMed Central

    Badet, Thomas; Peyraud, Rémi; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Fungal plant pathogens produce secreted proteins adapted to function outside fungal cells to facilitate colonization of their hosts. In many cases such as for fungi from the Sclerotiniaceae family the repertoire and function of secreted proteins remains elusive. In the Sclerotiniaceae, whereas Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are cosmopolitan broad host-range plant pathogens, Sclerotinia borealis has a psychrophilic lifestyle with a low optimal growth temperature, a narrow host range and geographic distribution. To spread successfully, S. borealis must synthesize proteins adapted to function in its specific environment. The search for signatures of adaptation to S. borealis lifestyle may therefore help revealing proteins critical for colonization of the environment by Sclerotiniaceae fungi. Here, we analyzed amino acids usage and intrinsic protein disorder in alignments of groups of orthologous proteins from the three Sclerotiniaceae species. We found that enrichment in Thr, depletion in Glu and Lys, and low disorder frequency in hot loops are significantly associated with S. borealis proteins. We designed an index to report bias in these properties and found that high index proteins were enriched among secreted proteins in the three Sclerotiniaceae fungi. High index proteins were also enriched in function associated with plant colonization in S. borealis, and in in planta-induced genes in S. sclerotiorum. We highlight a novel putative antifreeze protein and a novel putative lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase identified through our pipeline as candidate proteins involved in colonization of the environment. Our findings suggest that similar protein signatures associate with S. borealis lifestyle and with secretion in the Sclerotiniaceae. These signatures may be useful for identifying proteins of interest as targets for the management of plant diseases. PMID:26442085

  12. Common protein sequence signatures associate with Sclerotinia borealis lifestyle and secretion in fungal pathogens of the Sclerotiniaceae.

    PubMed

    Badet, Thomas; Peyraud, Rémi; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Fungal plant pathogens produce secreted proteins adapted to function outside fungal cells to facilitate colonization of their hosts. In many cases such as for fungi from the Sclerotiniaceae family the repertoire and function of secreted proteins remains elusive. In the Sclerotiniaceae, whereas Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are cosmopolitan broad host-range plant pathogens, Sclerotinia borealis has a psychrophilic lifestyle with a low optimal growth temperature, a narrow host range and geographic distribution. To spread successfully, S. borealis must synthesize proteins adapted to function in its specific environment. The search for signatures of adaptation to S. borealis lifestyle may therefore help revealing proteins critical for colonization of the environment by Sclerotiniaceae fungi. Here, we analyzed amino acids usage and intrinsic protein disorder in alignments of groups of orthologous proteins from the three Sclerotiniaceae species. We found that enrichment in Thr, depletion in Glu and Lys, and low disorder frequency in hot loops are significantly associated with S. borealis proteins. We designed an index to report bias in these properties and found that high index proteins were enriched among secreted proteins in the three Sclerotiniaceae fungi. High index proteins were also enriched in function associated with plant colonization in S. borealis, and in in planta-induced genes in S. sclerotiorum. We highlight a novel putative antifreeze protein and a novel putative lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase identified through our pipeline as candidate proteins involved in colonization of the environment. Our findings suggest that similar protein signatures associate with S. borealis lifestyle and with secretion in the Sclerotiniaceae. These signatures may be useful for identifying proteins of interest as targets for the management of plant diseases. PMID:26442085

  13. AURORA BOREALIS - Icebreaker, Drilling Platform and Multi-Purpose Research Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Biebow, N.; Lembke-Jene, L.; Thiede, J.; Egerton, P.

    2007-12-01

    In spite of the critical role of the Arctic Ocean in climate evolution, it is the only sub-basin of the world's oceans that has essentially not been sampled by the drill ships of the Deep-Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) or the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), and its long-term environmental history and tectonic structure is therefore poorly known. Exceptions are the ODP Leg 151 and the more recent very successful ACEX-expedition of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). This lack of data represents one of the largest gaps of information in modern Earth Science. Therefore, the new research icebreaker AURORA BOREALIS will be equipped with drilling facilities to fulfil the needs of the IODP for a -Mission-Specific Platform- to drill in deep, permanently ice-covered ocean basins. This icebreaker must be also powerful enough to maintain station against the drifting sea-ice cover and will have to be equipped with a dynamic positioning system. This new icebreaker would be conceived as an optimized science platform from the keel up and will allow conducting long, international and interdisciplinary expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean during all seasons of the year. In a long-term perspective the AURORA BOREALIS will also be used to address Antarctic research targets, both in its mode as a regular research vessel as well as a polar drill ship. The construction of AURORA BOREALIS requires several new technical implementations, such as advanced dynamic positioning and deep-sea drilling under a closed sea-ice cover and two moon pools (7 x 7 m), and will provide an extended technical potential and knowledge for marine technology. The scientific and technical details will be presented.

  14. Hydrologic activity during late Noachian and Early Hesperian downwarping of Borealis Basin, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    Pronounced global volcanism as well as fracturing and erosion along the highland/lowland boundary (HLB) during the Late Noachian (LN) and Early Hesperian (EH) led McGill and Dimitriou to conclude that the Borealis basin formed tectonically during this period. This scenario provides a basis for interpretation of the initiation and mode of formation of erosional and collapse features along the HLB. The interpretation, in turn, is integral to hypotheses regarding the development of ancient lakes (or an ocean) and their impact on the climate history of Mars. Hydrologic features of Mars are discussed along with their implications for paleolakes and climate history.

  15. THE HOT R CORONAE BOREALIS STAR DY CENTAURI IS A BINARY

    SciTech Connect

    Kameswara Rao, N.; Lambert, David L.; McArthur, Barbara; Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.; Woolf, Vincent M. E-mail: dll@astro.as.utexas.edu

    2012-11-20

    The remarkable hot R Coronae Borealis (RCB) star DY Cen is revealed to be the first and only binary system to be found among the RCB stars and their likely relatives, including the extreme helium stars and the hydrogen-deficient carbon stars. Radial velocity determinations from 1982 to 2010 have shown that DY Cen is a single-lined spectroscopic binary in an eccentric orbit with a period of 39.67 days. It is also one of the hottest and most H-rich member of the class of RCB stars. The system may have evolved from a common envelope to its current form.

  16. AURORA BOREALIS - Development of a New Research Icebreaker with Drilling Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiede, J.; Biebow, N.; Egerton, P.; Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Lembke-Jene, L.

    2007-12-01

    Polar research both on land and in the sea cannot achieve the needed progress without novel and state of the art technologies and infrastructure. In addition, we have the obligation to equip the upcoming young and courageous generation of polar researchers with the most modern and safest research platforms the 21st century can provide. This effort will require major investments, both in terms of generating new tools, as well as maintaining and renovating existing infrastructure. There are many different novel tools under development for polar research, we will concentrate on the presently largest one, the planning for a new type of research icebreaker, the AURORA BOREALIS with an all-season capability of operations in permanently ice-covered waters and with the possibility to carry out deep-sea drilling in ice-covered deep-sea basins. AURORA BOREALIS will be the most advanced Polar Research Vessel in the world with a multi-functional role of drilling in deep ocean basins and supporting climate and environmental research and decision support for stakeholder governments for the next 35 to 40 years. The vessel is planned as a large research icebreaker with 44,000 tons displacement and a length of up to 196 m, with about 50 Megawatt propulsion power. Advanced technological features will include azimuth propulsion systems, extensive instrumental and airborne ice- management support, and the routine operation of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) from two moon-pools. An unique feature of this icebreaker will be the drilling rig that will enable sampling of the ocean floor and sub-sea down to 5000 m water depth and 1000 m penetration at the most inhospitable places on earth. The possibility to flexibly equip the ship with laboratory and supply containers, and the variable arrangement of other modular infrastructure (in particular, winches, cranes, etc.), free deck- space, and separate protected deck areas, will allow the planned research vessel to cover the needs of most disciplines in marine research. aurora-borealis.eu/en/about_aurora_borealis/

  17. Hydrologic activity during late Noachian and Early Hesperian downwarping of Borealis Basin, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    1991-06-01

    Pronounced global volcanism as well as fracturing and erosion along the highland/lowland boundary (HLB) during the Late Noachian (LN) and Early Hesperian (EH) led McGill and Dimitriou to conclude that the Borealis basin formed tectonically during this period. This scenario provides a basis for interpretation of the initiation and mode of formation of erosional and collapse features along the HLB. The interpretation, in turn, is integral to hypotheses regarding the development of ancient lakes (or an ocean) and their impact on the climate history of Mars. Hydrologic features of Mars are discussed along with their implications for paleolakes and climate history.

  18. Populations of the northern grasshopper, Melanoplus borealis (Orthoptera: Acrididae), in Alaska are rarely food limited.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Dennis J; Zhang, Mingchu

    2011-06-01

    In some systems, grasshoppers appear to be food limited in most years, whereas in other systems top down forces, for example, predators, are more often implicated in population regulation. Sustainable strategies to manage grasshopper populations through habitat management require knowledge of the forces that regulate grasshopper populations. This experiment was undertaken to determine whether populations of Melanoplus borealis (Fieber), a common pest species in Alaska, are food-limited in Alaska. Cages were set up in a fallow field near Delta Junction, AK, in 3 yr (2007-2009). In 2007 and 2008, fertilizer was added to half the plots to increase primary production, and, in all years, cages within each plot were stocked with 0, 5, 9, or 13 fourth-instar M. borealis (equivalent to 0, 20, 36, or 52 grasshoppers/m(2)). Grasshoppers in each cage were counted weekly. Near the end of the growing season, surviving female grasshoppers (≈40% of the original number) were collected. Femur length was taken as a measure of adult size, and functional ovarioles were counted as a measure of current fecundity. If the grasshoppers were food limited, we expected to see significant effects of either density or fertilizer on grasshopper survival, size, or fecundity. The fertilizer treatment greatly increased primary production in both years. Neither fertilizer treatment nor grasshopper density had consistent effects on survival, size, or potential fecundity, leading us to conclude that food is seldom limiting to populations in the interior of Alaska at densities <50 m(-2). PMID:22251631

  19. The Baryonic Matter at Supercluster Scales: The Case of Corona Borealis Supercluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla-Torres, Carmen P.; Rebolo, Rafael; Gutiérrez, Carlos M.; Watson, Robert; Génova-Santos, Ricardo; Juncosa, Robert

    2007-05-01

    In a recent survey for baryonic matter at large scales in the Corona Borealis Supercluster, using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect, it has been found SZ evidence (Génova-Santos et al. 2005, Battistelli et al. 2006) for a potentially large amount of warm/hot plasma towards the center of this supercluster, in a region where there are no known clusters of galaxies. We investigate the distribution of galaxies in the SDSS for this region and compare it with observations of known clusters and with various control fields in the Corona Borealis Supercluster and in other regions. Our analysis provides evidence for an excess in the number density of galaxies (down to completeness magnitude r ≤ 20) in the location of the two strongest SZ spots observed with the Very Small Array as compared with the average density of galaxies towards the Supercluster which is already a factor two higher than the density of background control fields. The overdensity in the SZ spots is however smaller than in known clusters members of the Supercluster (Abell 2065, Abell 2089, Abell 2061). Our findings support the existence of a broadly distributed population of galaxies in the two SZ spots with colours consistent with membership in the Corona Supercluster.

  20. Mass spectrometric measurement of neuropeptide secretion in the crab, Cancer borealis, by in vivo microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhidan; Schmerberg, Claire M; Li, Lingjun

    2015-06-01

    Neuropeptides (NPs), a unique and highly important class of signaling molecules across the animal kingdom, have been extensively characterized in the neuronal tissues of various crustaceans. Because many NPs are released into circulating fluid (hemolymph) and travel to distant sites in order to exhibit physiological effects, it is important to measure the secretion of these NPs from living animals. In this study, we report on extensive characterization of NPs released in the crab Cancer borealis by utilizing in vivo microdialysis to sample NPs from the hemolymph. We determined the necessary duration for collection of microdialysis samples, enabling more comprehensive identification of NP content while maintaining the temporal resolution of sampling. Analysis of in vivo microdialysates using a hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap™ Q-Exactive mass spectrometer revealed that more than 50 neuropeptides from 9 peptide families-including the allatostatin, RFamide, orcokinin, tachykinin-related peptide and RYamide families - were released into the circulatory system. The presence of these peptides both in neuronal tissues as well as in hemolymph indicates their putative hormonal roles, a finding that merits further investigation. Preliminary quantitative measurement of these identified NPs suggested several potential candidates that maybe associated with the circadian rhythm in Cancer borealis. PMID:25537886

  1. Electrical coupling and innexin expression in the stomatogastric ganglion of the crab Cancer borealis

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, David J.; Lett, Kawasi M.; Marder, Eve

    2014-01-01

    Gap junctions are intercellular channels that allow for the movement of small molecules and ions between the cytoplasm of adjacent cells and form electrical synapses between neurons. In invertebrates, the gap junction proteins are coded for by the innexin family of genes. The stomatogastric ganglion (STG) in the crab Cancer borealis contains a small number of identified and electrically coupled neurons. We identified Innexin 1 (Inx1), Innexin 2 (Inx2), Innexin 3 (Inx3), Innexin 4 (Inx4), Innexin 5 (Inx5), and Innexin 6 (Inx6) members of the C. borealis innexin family. We also identified six members of the innexin family from the lobster Homarus americanus transcriptome. These innexins show significant sequence similarity to other arthropod innexins. Using in situ hybridization and reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), we determined that all the cells in the crab STG express multiple innexin genes. Electrophysiological recordings of coupling coefficients between identified pairs of pyloric dilator (PD) cells and PD-lateral posterior gastric (LPG) neurons show that the PD-PD electrical synapse is nonrectifying while the PD-LPG synapse is apparently strongly rectifying. PMID:25210156

  2. Xenopus borealis as an alternative source of oocytes for biophysical and pharmacological studies of neuronal ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Cristofori-Armstrong, Ben; Soh, Ming S.; Talwar, Sahil; Brown, Darren L.; Griffin, John D. O.; Dekan, Zoltan; Stow, Jennifer L.; King, Glenn F.; Lynch, Joseph W.; Rash, Lachlan D.

    2015-01-01

    For the past 30 years, oocytes from Xenopus laevis have been extensively used to express and characterise ion channels in an easily controlled environment. Here we report the first use of oocytes from the closely related species Xenopus borealis as an alternative expression system for neuronal ion channels. Using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, we show that a wide variety of voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels have the same channel properties and pharmacological profiles when expressed in either X. laevis or X. borealis oocytes. Potential advantages of the X. borealis oocytes include a smaller endogenous chloride current and the ability to produce more intense fluorescence signals when studied with voltage-clamp fluorometry. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a difference in vitelline membrane structure between the two species, which may be related to the discrepancy in fluorescence signals observed. We demonstrate that X. borealis oocytes are a viable heterologous system for expression of neuronal ion channels with some potential advantages over X. laevis oocytes for certain applications. PMID:26440210

  3. The 203 kbp Mitochondrial Genome of the Phytopathogenic Fungus Sclerotinia borealis Reveals Multiple Invasions of Introns and Genomic Duplications

    PubMed Central

    Mardanov, Andrey V.; Beletsky, Alexey V.; Kadnikov, Vitaly V.; Ignatov, Alexander N.; Ravin, Nikolai V.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the complete sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of the necrotrophic phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia borealis, a member of the order Helotiales of Ascomycetes. The 203,051 bp long mtDNA of S. borealis represents one of the largest sequenced fungal mt genomes. The large size is mostly determined by the presence of mobile genetic elements, which include 61 introns. Introns contain a total of 125,394 bp, are scattered throughout the genome, and are found in 12 protein-coding genes and in the ribosomal RNA genes. Most introns contain complete or truncated ORFs that are related to homing endonucleases of the LAGLIDADG and GIY-YIG families. Integrations of mobile elements are also evidenced by the presence of two regions similar to fragments of inverton-like plasmids. Although duplications of some short genome regions, resulting in the appearance of truncated extra copies of genes, did occur, we found no evidences of extensive accumulation of repeat sequences accounting for mitochondrial genome size expansion in some other fungi. Comparisons of mtDNA of S. borealis with other members of the order Helotiales reveal considerable gene order conservation and a dynamic pattern of intron acquisition and loss during evolution. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that horizontal DNA transfer has played a significant role in the evolution and size expansion of the S. borealis mt genome. PMID:25216190

  4. Arsenic in shrimp from Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Bou-Olayan, A.H.; Al-Yakoob, S.; Al-Hossaini, M.

    1995-04-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in the environment and can accumulate in food via contaminated soil, water or air. It enters the food chain through dry and wet atmospheric deposition. Combustion of oil and coal, use of arsenical fertilizers and pesticides and smelting of ores contributes significantly to the natural background of arsenic in soils and sediments. The metal can be transferred from soil to man through plants. In spite of variation in acute, subacute, and chronic toxic effects to plants and animals, evidence of nutritional essentiality of arsenic for rats, goats, and guinea pigs has been suggested, but has not been confirmed for humans. Adverse toxic effects of arsenic as well as its widespread distribution in the environment raises concern about levels of arsenic in man`s diet. Higher levels of arsenic in the diet can result in a higher accumulation rate. Arsenic levels in marine organisms are influenced by species differences, size of organism, and human activities. Bottom dwellers such as shrimp, crab, and lobster accumulate more arsenic than fish due to their frequent contact with bottom sediments. Shrimp constitute approximately 30% of mean total seafood consumption in Kuwait. This study was designed to determine the accumulation of arsenic in the commercially important jinga shrimp (Metapenaeus affinis) and grooved tiger prawn (Penaeus semisulcatus). 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Drilling Polar Oceans with the European Research Icebreaker AURORA BOREALIS: the IODP Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembke-Jene, Lester; Wolff-Boenisch, Bonnie; Azzolini, Roberto; Thiede, Joern; Biebow, Nicole; Eldholm, Olav; Egerton, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Polar oceans are characterized by extreme environmental conditions for humans and materials, and have remained the least accessible regions to scientists of the IODP. DSDP and ODP have for long faced specific technical and logistical problems when attempting to drill in ice-covered polar deep-sea basins. The Arctic Ocean and large areas of the high-latitude Southern Ocean remained largely un-sampled by ODP and remain one of the major scientific and technological challenges for IODP. Drilling in these regions has been discussed and anticipated for decades and the scientific rationales are reflected in the science plans of the international Nansen Arctic Drilling Program (NAD) or the Arctic Program Planning Group (APPG) of ODP/IODP, amongst others. More recently, the rationale to investigate the polar oceans in a holistic approach has been outlined by workshops, leading to strategic assessments of the scientific potential and new drilling proposals. The European Polar Board took the initiative to develop a plan for a novel and dedicated research icebreaker with technical capabilities hitherto unrealised. This research icebreaker will enable autonomous operations in the central Arctic Ocean and the Southern Ocean, even during the severest ice conditions in the deep winter, serving all marine disciplines of polar research including scientific drilling: The European Research Icebreaker and Deep-Sea Drilling Vessel AURORA BOREALIS. AURORA BOREALIS is presently planned as a multi-purpose vessel. The ship can be deployed as a research icebreaker in all polar waters during any season of the year, as it shall meet the specifications of the highest ice-class attainable (IACS Polar Code 1) for icebreakers. During the times when it is not employed for drilling, it will operate as the most technically advanced multi-disciplinary research vessel in the Arctic or polar Southern Ocean. AURORA BOREALIS will be a "European scientific flagship facility" (fully open to non-European partners), a multidisciplinary platform for studies ranging from the sub-seafloor into the atmosphere. AURORA BOREALIS was planned for her role in deep-sea drilling in consultation with engineers and technical experts familiar with the program and the operation of these vessels. All techniques currently deployed on IODP expeditions can be implemented onboard the vessel under polar weather and ice conditions, including the full range of re-entry, casing and cementing, and instrumentation options and the entire suite of downhole logging tools. Due to sufficient laboratory space, a full analytical workflow can be easily established comparable to existing permanent platforms, including clean rooms, diverse scanning and logging or incubation facilities. While the vessel is equipped with a dedicated deep-sea drilling rig, other coring and drilling techniques can be employed if needed (e.g. Rockdrill, MEBO, large diameter Kasten cores). AURORA BOREALIS is fitted to operate a CALYPSO Piston Coring System in polar waters. Future mud-return systems under consideration and testing for IODP to provide controlled borehole conditions in difficult facies are compatible with the layout of AURORA BOREALIS. The berthing capacity of 120 personnel total (scientists, technical support and crew) allows to accommodate a sufficient number of science party members offshore. The present scientific implementation documents plan for about one polar scientific drilling expedition per year in a to-be-determined configuration. As the vessel is a multi-dsiciplinary platform, operations for the entire year are not dependant on drilling operations alone. While principal access to the vessel will be based on a competitive proposal review and evaluation system, the allocation of timeslots specifically for drilling would preferably be given over to IODP handling and planning systems in a cooperative mode using the strengths and capacitites of the future program. Depending on interests and needs of the scientific communities a preferential focus in non-drilling expedition planning could be established e.g. for dedicated geophysical pre-site survey works in areas inaccessible by other vessels to secure critical data needed for later drilling expeditions. Based on ongoing expert consultations, it is safe to assume that the average costs for an Arctic or polar drilling expedition will be considerably lower than with an otherwise necessary multi-ship setup based on modelled expedition scenarios and annual operational cost calculations. Still, AURORA BOREALIS shall provide substantially enhanced scientific, operational, personnel and technical capacities offshore.

  6. Breaking the Ice: Strategies for Future European Research in the Polar Oceans - The AURORA BOREALIS Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembke-Jene, L.; Biebow, N.; Wolff-Boenisch, B.; Thiede, J.; European Research Icebreaker Consortium

    2011-12-01

    Research vessels dedicated to work in polar ice-covered waters have only rarely been built. Their history began with Fritjof Nansen's FRAM, which he used for his famous first crossing of the Arctic Ocean 1893-1896. She served as example for the first generation of polar research vessels, at their time being modern instruments planned with foresight. Ice breaker technology has developed substantially since then. However, it took almost 80 years until this technical advance also reached polar research, when the Russian AKADEMIK FEDEROV, the German POLARSTERN, the Swedish ODEN and the USCG Cutter HEALY were built. All of these house modern laboratories, are ice-breakers capable to move into the deep-Arctic during the summer time and represent the second generation of dedicated polar research vessels. Still, the increasing demand in polar marine research capacities by societies that call for action to better understand climate change, especially in the high latitudes is not matched by adequate facilities and resources. Today, no icebreaker platform exists that is permanently available to the international science community for year-round expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean or heavily ice-infested waters of the polar Southern Ocean around Antarctica. The AURORA BOREALIS concept plans for a heavy research icebreaker, which will enable polar scientists around the world to launch international research expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic continental shelf seas autonomously during all seasons of the year. The European Research Icebreaker Consortium - AURORA BOREALIS (ERICON-AB) was established in 2008 to plan the scientific, governance, financial, and legal frameworks needed for the construction and operation of this first multi-nationally owned and operated research icebreaker and polar scientific drilling platform. By collaborating together and sharing common infrastructures it is envisioned that European nations make a major contribution to tackle problems of high societal relevance beyond the scope of individual disciplines. It is planned to use part of the berthing capacity of AURORA BOREALIS for dedicated university education and teaching programmes in order to give future polar scientists the best training facilities available and enable a vital international exchange between educational centres. This aims at helping to vertically structure the new generation of young and well-trained students and playing a key role in the construction of an efficient research and innovation environment for future collaboration in polar research

  7. Low-frequency vocalizations of sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis) in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Calderan, Susannah; Miller, Brian; Collins, Kym; Ensor, Paul; Double, Michael; Leaper, Russell; Barlow, Jay

    2014-12-01

    Simultaneous sightings and acoustic detections of sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis) are scarce, and there are few published data describing their vocalizations. Analysis of recordings from directional frequency analysis and recording sonobuoys in the presence of sei whales in the Southern Ocean in March 2013 identified both downsweep and upsweep calls. Sound frequencies within all calls were between 34 and 87 Hz with an average call duration of 1.1 s. These very low-frequency sounds share characteristics with sei whale calls recorded near the Hawaiian Islands and off Cape Cod in winter and summer, respectively, but are the first documented sei whale calls in the Southern Ocean that are clearly less than 100 Hz. PMID:25480092

  8. What is the True Population of the R Coronae Borealis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, G.

    2014-04-01

    The R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are rare hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich supergiants. Two evolutionary scenarios have been suggested, a double degenerate merger of two white dwarfs (WDs), or a final helium shell flash (FF) in a PN central star. The evidence pointing toward a WD merger or a FF origin for RCB stars is contradictory. Therefore, determining the population of RCB stars is very important. Predictions of the number of RCB stars in the Galaxy range as high as 5,000 but very few RCB stars are known. The discovery rate for RCB stars has been accelerated by the use of WISE IR colors and the ASAS-3 lightcurves. The number of Milky Way RCB stars identified has doubled in just a few years to about 100 and may double again soon.

  9. Long-Term Trends and Gleissberg Cycles in Aurora Borealis Records (1600 - 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, M.; Vaquero, J. M.; Gallego, M. C.; Roca Cortés, T.; Pallé, P. L.

    2016-02-01

    The long-term spatial and temporal variation of aurora borealis events from 1600 to the present were studied using catalogues and other records of these phenomena. Geographic and geomagnetic coordinates were assigned to approximately 45 000 auroral events with more than 160 000 observations. They were analysed separately for three large-scale areas: i) Europe and North Africa, ii) North America, and iii) Asia. Variations in the cumulative numbers of auroral events with latitude (in both geographic and geomagnetic coordinates) were used to distinguish between the two main solar sources: coronal mass ejections and high-speed streams from coronal holes. We find significant long-term variations in the space-time distribution of auroras. We mainly identify these with four Gleissberg solar activity cycles whose overall characteristics we examine. The Asian observations are crucial in this context, and therefore merit further studies and verifications.

  10. Long-Term Trends and Gleissberg Cycles in Aurora Borealis Records (1600 - 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, M.; Vaquero, J. M.; Gallego, M. C.; Roca Cortés, T.; Pallé, P. L.

    2016-01-01

    The long-term spatial and temporal variation of aurora borealis events from 1600 to the present were studied using catalogues and other records of these phenomena. Geographic and geomagnetic coordinates were assigned to approximately 45 000 auroral events with more than 160 000 observations. They were analysed separately for three large-scale areas: i) Europe and North Africa, ii) North America, and iii) Asia. Variations in the cumulative numbers of auroral events with latitude (in both geographic and geomagnetic coordinates) were used to distinguish between the two main solar sources: coronal mass ejections and high-speed streams from coronal holes. We find significant long-term variations in the space-time distribution of auroras. We mainly identify these with four Gleissberg solar activity cycles whose overall characteristics we examine. The Asian observations are crucial in this context, and therefore merit further studies and verifications.

  11. Aurora Borealis: stochastic cellular automata simulations of the excited-state dynamics of oxygen atoms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seybold, P. G.; Kier, L. B.; Cheng, C.-K.

    1999-12-01

    Emissions from the 1S and 1D excited states of atomic oxygen play a prominent role in creating the dramatic light displays (aurora borealis) seen in the skies over polar regions of the Northern Hemisphere. A probabilistic asynchronous cellular automaton model described previously has been applied to the excited-state dynamics of atomic oxygen. The model simulates the time-dependent variations in ground (3P) and excited-state populations that occur under user-defined probabilistic transition rules for both pulse and steady-state conditions. Although each trial simulation is itself an independent "experiment", deterministic values for the excited-state emission lifetimes and quantum yields emerge as limiting cases for large numbers of cells or large numbers of trials. Stochastic variations in the lifetimes and emission yields can be estimated from repeated trials.

  12. Stiptognathus new genus (Conodonta: Ibexian, Lower Ordovician), and the apparatus of Stiptognathus borealis (Repetski, 1982)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ethington, Raymond L.; Lehnert, O.; Repetski, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    Collections from upper Ibexian (Tulean Stage) rocks of western United States, from the Canning Basin in western Australia, and from the Argentine Precordillera contain a seximembrate apparatus of multidenticulate conodonts whose elements have been included by authors in species of Prioniodus Pander, 1986, and Reunerodus Serpagli, 1974. The individual elements as well as the complete apparatus are not consistent with assignment of the species to either of these genera or to any other extant genus. A new generic name, Stiptognathus Ethington, Lehnert, and Repetski, is proposed with Reutterodus borealis Repetski, 1982, as type species. The apparatus consists of Pa, Pb, Sa-c, and M elements; the genus represents either the Prioniodontidae or the Periodontidae.

  13. Echinococcus canadensis, E. borealis, and E. intermedius. What's in a name?

    PubMed

    Lymbery, Alan J; Jenkins, Emily J; Schurer, Janna M; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the G6, G7, G8, and G10 genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus are well defined, but their taxonomic status is currently unresolved. We apply an evolutionary species concept to infer that the G6 and G7 genotypes represent a single species that is different to both the G8 and G10 genotypes, and that the G8 and G10 genotypes are also on different evolutionary trajectories and, therefore, should be regarded as separate species. The names Echinococcus intermedius, Echinococcus canadensis, and Echinococcus borealis have been previously proposed for these three taxa (G6/7, G10 and G8, respectively) and we argue that it may be appropriate to resurrect these names. The correct delimitation and formal recognition of species of Echinococcus may have important veterinary and public health consequences. PMID:25440521

  14. In situ identification and mapping of neuropeptides from the stomatogastric nervous system of Cancer borealis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruibing; Ouyang, Chuanzi; Xiao, Mingming; Li, Lingjun

    2014-01-01

    RATIONAL The crustacean stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) is a classic experimental model to derive basic knowledge about neuron functions and how they coordinate with each other to generate neural circuits. To investigate the components of the neuromodulators and how they are distributed in such system is essential to understand the underlying mechanism. In this study, in situ mass spectrometry based techniques were employed to fulfill this goal. METHODS Offline high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation was coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/ time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) to analyze the neuropeptides in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) tissue extract from the Jonah crab Cancer borealis. Direct tissue analysis was also employed to investigate the neuropeptides presented in the STNS. MALDI imaging was also applied to map the localization of multiple neuropeptide families in the STG and the upstream nerve. RESULTS 57 neuropeptides were detected from a single desheathed STG using direct tissue analysis, and they were from 11 different neuropeptide families, including FaRP, AST-A, AST-B, etc. Differential neuropeptide profiles from three different types of ganglia and two types of nerve fiber tissues from the STNS were documented. The direct tissue analysis was shown better for studying neuropeptides from small neural organs like the STG as compared to the large scale HPLC-MALDI analysis. MALDI images were also acquired to study the distribution of neuropeptides in the STG. CONCLUSIONS In this study, the components and distribution of neuropeptides have been analyzed in the STNS from C. borealis using direct tissue profiling and MALDI imaging. The results show that the direct tissue analysis of desheathed neural tissues can provide higher sensitivity for neuropeptide study compared to large scale HPLC-MALDI analysis of pooled tissues. The results are valuable for understanding the functions of neuropeptides in neural network generation. PMID:25303472

  15. Scientific ballooning on a shoestring budget: The Montana Space Grant Consortium's BOREALIS program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpar, D.; Kirn, S.; Hiscock, W.

    High altitude ballooning using Latex weather balloons provides frequent and low cost opportunities to carry small meaningful scientific payloads to well in excess of 100,000 feet. Maximizing payload scientific capability requires utilization of the newest available miniature, low-power, light-weight technologies to minimize system mass and size. The Balloon Outreach, Research, Exploration And Land Imaging System (BOREALIS) program of the Montana Space Grant Consortium has provided for undergraduate student teams to build payload systems up to 5.4 kg to conduct high altitude flight experiments. In the university setting such a program provides direct experience to students in the fabrication and operation of (near)space flight systems and payloads, and subsequent analysis of the scientific data. Over the course of the past three years 19 successful balloon flights have been conducted, with full payload recovery, reaching altitudes in excess of 110,000 feet, providing rewarding and exciting developmental test flights for satellite subsystems and mini-science missions to the edge of space. Missions have included measurement of Ozone altitude profiles, UV and Cosmic Ray fluxes, and atmospheric temperature and pressure soundings. In addition to providing hands on training at our colleges and universities for future scientists and engineers; by involving the public, a much larger audience is exposed to the scientific research process. In this paper we describe our methodologies and program accomplishments, including the design of a payload support system utilizing commercially available subsystems. More information may be found at http://spacegrant.montana.edu/borealis/index.asp

  16. New data support the existence of the Hercules-Corona Borealis Great Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, István; Bagoly, Zsolt; Hakkila, Jon; Tóth, L. V.

    2015-12-01

    Context. Several large structures, including the Sloan Great Wall, the Huge Large Quasar Group, and a large gamma-ray burst cluster referred to as the Hercules-Corona Borealis Great Wall, appear to exceed the maximum structural size predicted by Universal inflationary models. The existence of very large structures such as these might necessitate cosmological model modifications. Aims: Gamma-ray bursts are the most luminous sources found in nature. They are associated with the stellar endpoints of massive stars and are found in and near distant galaxies. Since they are viable indicators of the dense part of the Universe containing normal matter, the spatial distribution of gamma-ray bursts can serve as tracers of Universal large-scale structure. Methods: An increased sample size of gamma-ray bursts with known redshift provides us with the opportunity to validate or invalidate the existence of the Hercules-Corona Borealis Great Wall. Nearest-neighbour tests are used to search the larger sample for evidence of clustering and a bootstrap point-radius method is used to estimate the angular cluster size. The potential influence of angular sampling biasing is studied to determine the viability of the results. Results: The larger gamma-ray burst database further supports the existence of a statistically significant gamma-ray burst cluster at 1.6 ≤ z < 2.1 with an estimated angular size of 2000-3000 Mpc. Conclusions: Although small number statistics limit our angular resolution and do not rule out the existence of adjacent and/or line-of-sight smaller structures, these structures must still clump together in order for us to see the large gamma-ray burst cluster detected here. This cluster provides support for the existence of very large-scale universal heterogeneities. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Circumstellar Dust Shells: Clues to the Evolution of R Coronae Borealis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montiel, Edward J.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.

    2016-06-01

    R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are an exotic group of extremely hydrogen- deficient, carbon-rich supergiants that are known for their spectacular declines in brightness (up to 8 mags) at irregular intervals. Two scenarios are currently competing to explain the origins of these stars. One suggests that RCB stars are the products after a binary white dwarf (WD) system merges. The other takes a single, evolved star and has it undergo a final, helium-shell flash (FF) and becoming a cool giant. Recently, observations of elemental abundances in RCB stars have strongly swung the argument in favor of the WD merger model. The FF scenario has maintained its relevancy by seemingly being the only model able to offer a suitable explanation for one RCB feature that merger model has historically struggled with explaining: the presence of cold, circumstellar dust envelopes which might be fossil planetary nebulae (PNe). In reality, the shells could actually be fossil PNe, material left over from the WD merger, or mass lost during the RCB phase, itself. I will present the results of my dissertation, which is to try and discern the nature and history of the far-IR dust shells around RCB stars to help understand the origin of these enigmatic stars. I will discuss our efforts to determine the mass, size, temperature, and morphology of these diffuse structures surrounding a sample of RCB stars using multi-wavelength observations ranging from the ultraviolet to the submillimeter. These observations have provided unprecedented wavelength coverage for both the central stars and their CSM. They have been examined by eye for morphology and have been used in the construction of maximum-light spectral energy distributions (SEDs). I will present the results of our Monte Carlo radiative transfer of the maximum-light SEDs. Finally, I will highlight our work investigating the HI abundance of the envelope of R Coronae Borealis, itself, using archival 21—cm observations from the Arecibo Observatory.

  18. Cationic antimicrobial peptides in penaeid shrimp.

    PubMed

    Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Amparyup, Piti; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Supungul, Premruethai

    2011-08-01

    Penaeid shrimp aquaculture has been consistently affected worldwide by devastating diseases that cause a severe loss in production. To fight a variety of harmful microbes in the surrounding environment, particularly at high densities (of which intensive farming represents an extreme example), shrimps have evolved and use a diverse array of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as part of an important first-line response of the host defense system. Cationic AMPs in penaeid shrimps composed of penaeidins, crustins, and anti-lipopolysaccharide factors are comprised of multiple classes or isoforms and possess antibacterial and antifungal activities against different strains of bacteria and fungi. Shrimp AMPs are primarily expressed in circulating hemocytes, which is the main site of the immune response, and hemocytes expressing AMPs probably migrate to infection sites to fight against pathogen invasion. Indeed, most AMPs are produced as early as the nauplii developmental stage to protect shrimp larvae from infections. In this review, we discuss the sequence diversity, expression, gene structure, and antimicrobial activities of cationic AMPs in penaeid shrimps. The information available on antimicrobial activities indicates that these shrimp AMPs have potential therapeutic applications in the control of disease problems in aquaculture. PMID:21533916

  19. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Bestha; Sai Gopal, D. V. R.

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases. PMID:23738078

  20. Probiotics as antiviral agents in shrimp aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Bestha; Viswanath, Buddolla; Sai Gopal, D V R

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases. PMID:23738078

  1. Current status of trade in cultured shrimps.

    PubMed

    Chen, S N

    1996-06-01

    Shrimp culture is an attractive sector of aquaculture business, in view of the high profits and quick turnover. The vast majority of cultured shrimp production occurs in Asian countries. The author details the levels of production, consumption and trade of cultured shrimps since 1991 in and between the major producing countries. A decline in production has been registered in some countries in recent years, due to mass mortality caused by a number of diseases (particularly 'white spot' disease). Efforts to overcome these problems have met with only partial success. PMID:8890377

  2. Discovery of a Previously Unrecognised Allusion to the Aurora Borealis in Paradise Lost, and Implications for Edmund Halley Scholarship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.

    2014-11-01

    This research reveals that John Milton employed an allusion to the aurora borealis in the epic poem Paradise Lost which has not been recognised in more than three centuries of scholarly analysis. It further disproves the long-held belief, made popular by the astronomer Edmund Halley, that no notable aurora was visible in England in the seventeenth century. A study of the personal Latin diary of the Elizabethan historian William Camden shows that the famous aurora of 1621 was visible in England. While Pierre Gassendi has been credited with creation of the term 'aurora borealis' based on his report of the 1621 aurora, this study reaffirms a neglected analysis from 1986 that established the term originated with Galileo in 1619.

  3. Shell form, growth, and production of Astarte borealis (Schumacher, 1817) (Astartidae, Bivalvia) in the southeastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A. A.; Rudinskaya, L. V.

    2014-07-01

    The relationships between the linear dimensions and body weight and the ratio between the masses, growth, and production were studied for the bivalve Astarte borealis inhabiting the southeastern Baltic Sea. The maximal shell length was 21.09 mm, while the maximum age was 8+. The linear growth was described by the Bertalanffy equation L τ = (1 - e -0.0894(τ-(-0.7354))). The annual production was 7.60 kJ/m2 at a P s/ B coefficient of 0.41. It was found that the A. borealis inhabiting the southeastern Baltic Sea was characterized by a lower linear growth rate compared to the mollusks of other parts of the geographical range due to the low salinity of the Baltic Sea.

  4. Limited mate availability decreases reproductive success of fragmented populations of Linnaea borealis, a rare, clonal self-incompatible plant

    PubMed Central

    Scobie, A. R.; Wilcock, C. C.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Small populations of rare plant species are increasingly reported to have high levels of reproductive failure. The objective of this study was to understand the principal constraints on sexual reproduction in small fragmented populations of a rare clonal self-incompatible plant. Methods The pollinator spectrum, diversity of flower colour, natural pollination and fruit-set levels of L. borealis were examined in Scotland. Artificially crossed seed production was compared within and between different flower colour types and patches. Key Results Linnaea borealis was pollinated by a diverse spectrum of insect species and the principal pollinators were muscid, syrphid and empid flies which mostly moved only small distances (<0·25 m) between flowers when foraging. Natural pollination levels were high, indicating high pollinator effectiveness, but fruit set was very low in most patches. Flower colour diversity was low in most patches and only those with a diversity of flower colour types had high fruiting success. Pollination experiments showed L. borealis to be highly self-incompatible and artificial crosses within and between patches and flower colour types confirmed that low fruit success was the result of a lack of compatible mates and limited pollen movement between them. Evidence of isolation from pollen exchange was apparent at as little as 6 m and severe at 30 m and beyond. Conclusions Limited mate availability and isolation from pollen exchange compromise the reproductive success of fragmented populations of L. borealis in Scotland. A diversity of compatible mates situated within close proximity (<6 m) is the key requirement to ensure high natural fruiting success. This study emphasizes that an understanding of the breeding system, pollinator spectrum and potential for interconnectivity via pollinator movement are fundamental to identify isolation distances and to establish when conservation intervention is necessary for rare species. PMID:19181748

  5. Zhongshania aliphaticivorans sp. nov., an aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium isolated from marine sediment, and transfer of Spongiibacter borealis Jang et al. 2011 to the genus Zhongshania as Zhongshania borealis comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Lo, Naysim; Kang, Hyo Jung; Jeon, Che Ok

    2014-11-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, facultatively aerobic bacterium, designated SM-2(T), was isolated from a sea-tidal flat of Yellow Sea, South Korea. Cells were catalase- and oxidase-positive motile rods with a single polar flagellum. Growth of strain SM-2(T) was observed at 10-37 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C), at pH 5.5-8.5 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5) and in the presence of 0-11% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2%). Strain SM-2(T) contained ubiquinone-8 (Q-8) as the sole isoprenoid quinone and C(17:1)ω8c, summed feature 3 (comprising C(16:1)ω7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH), C(17:0) and C(18:1)ω7c as the major fatty acids. Phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified lipid were identified as the major cellular polar lipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 52.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain SM-2(T) formed a tight phyletic lineage with Zhongshania antarctica ZS5-23(T), Zhongshania guokunii ZS6-22(T) and Spongiibacter borealis CL-AS9(T), but that S. borealis CL-AS9(T) was distinct from other species of the genus Spongiibacter. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strain SM-2(T) was most closely related to S. borealis CL-AS9(T), Z. antarctica ZS5-23(T) and Z. guokunii ZS6-22(T), with similarities of 99.5%, 98.9% and 98.7%, respectively, but the DNA-DNA hybridization values among these species were clearly lower than 70%. On the basis of chemotaxonomic data and molecular properties, we propose strain SM-2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Zhongshania with the name Zhongshania aliphaticivorans sp. nov. (type strain SM-2(T) =KACC 18120(T) =JCM 30138(T)). We also propose the transfer of Spongiibacter borealis Jang et al. 2011 to the genus Zhongshania as Zhongshania borealis comb. nov. (type strain CL-AS9(T) =KCCM 90094(T) =JCM 17304(T)). PMID:25122615

  6. Geologic support for the putative Borealis basin (Mega-Impact) on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleamaster, L. F.

    2008-12-01

    A series of recent papers (all in Nature v. 453) using Martian gravity and topography [Andrews-Hanna et al., 2008], 3-D hydrodynamic simulations [Marinova et al., 2008], and 2-D hydrocode models [Nimmo et al., 2008] have eloquently reintroduced the single mega-impact hypothesis for the formation of the Martian hemispheric dichotomy boundary. Although geophysical models often return non-unique solutions, the coalition front presented by these three independent methods to test such a hypothesis lends credibility and demands further evaluation. The central tenet of these works is the proposition that an elliptical basin (long axis 10,600km, ellipticity 1.25) centered at 67N, 208E marks the pre-Tharsis crustal thickness transition and thus the real dichotomy boundary. Evaluation of this new boundary with respect to the geologic record offers new avenues, especially since geologic tests of the mega-impact hypothesis have mostly proved inconclusive because of Mars' multi-stage and multi-process geologic history. Within this survey, a slightly larger ellipse with a long axis of 12,500 km, ellipticity of 1.48, and centered at 65.3N, 250E expands the putative Borealis impact basin (which does not necessarily represent the transient or final impact cavity dimensions, but defines a potential 'affected zone') while maintaining agreement with the original observations with respect to gravity and topography. The 'affected zone' can be defined by basement structure that may become susceptible to later deformation, or it may in fact have been the paleo- topographic expression of the basin. By expanding the overall area (nearly twice the area of the original mega-impact basin proposed by Wilhelms and Squyres in 1984) several geologic features become significant in evaluating the mega-impact story. 1) Valles Marineris is concentric to the putative basin interior and parallels the ellipse margin suggesting that it is the structural manifestation of localized crustal relaxation of the Tharsis volcanic pile over pre-existing basement structure related to Borealis basin subsidence. The present day Valles Marineris may actually represent the 'missing portion' of the original crustal dichotomy trace underneath Tharsis. 2) The 'great faults' (Connerney et al., 2005) that offset the magnetic field pattern radiate from near the center of the putative basin, again suggesting basement structural control related to basin formation. 3) The mysterious Medusa Fossae Formation is completely enclosed within the basin margin and the units' southern contacts fall within 5 km of the same elliptical trace that bisects central Valles Marineris. 4) Chaos regions at the eastern end of Valles Marineris are wholly contained within the basin margin and suggest some kind of marginal control on their locations. 5) Valley network (channel) densities sharply increase outside the basin and are truncated by the Borealis ellipse. Integrating these and other geologic observations (still ongoing) with the newly formulated geophysical methods suggests that a single mega-impact is reemerging as a viable and perhaps preferred mechanism for dichotomy formation.

  7. AURORA BOREALIS - Icebreaking Deep-Sea Drilling Platform and Multi-Purpose Research Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembke-Jene, L.; Biebow, N.; Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Thiede, J.; Egerton, P.; Azzolini, R.

    2009-04-01

    Future breakthroughs in scientific deep-sea drilling critically depend on our ability to perform field expeditions with state-of-the-art technologies and modern infrastructures. This will require major investments, both in terms of generating new, as well as maintaining and renovating existing infrastructure. Diverse models for science operations are presently projected, also within the context of scientific needs after the current phase of the IODP will come to an end. In spite of its critical role in global climate and tectonic evolution, the Arctic Ocean is one of the most unexplored ocean basins of the world, its geologic and paleo-environmental history remaining largely unknown. Restricted by circulating sea ice, scientific drilling has been slow to arrive in the Arctic Ocean. This lack of data remains and represents one of the largest gaps of information in modern Earth Science. We here report on the finalised technical planning of a new European research icebreaker and deep-sea drilling vessel, the AURORA BOREALIS, designed with an all-season capability of endurance in permanently ice-covered waters. The icebreaker will be able to carry out deep-sea drilling in ice-covered deep-sea basins primarily during the more favorable summer seasons in order to fulfill the needs of the IODP or its eventual successor as a Mission-Specific Platform. AURORA BOREALIS will be the most advanced polar research vessel in the world with a multi-functional role of drilling in deep ocean basins and supporting climate and environmental research and decision support for stakeholder governments within the next 35-40 years. It will feature the highest attainable icebreaker classification, considerably surpassing in performance all currently operating research icebreakers. New technological features to be implemented include a novel hull design and specialized dynamic positioning systems for operations under closed sea-ice cover conditions with up to 2.5 m ice thickness, combined with advanced ice-forecasting support. The vessel is planned to operate routinely without ice management support by additional icebreakers, thus reducing operational costs for scientific drilling in polar regions considerably. Two moon-pools (7x7 m each) will allow routine deployment of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) in ice conditions. A dedicated deep-sea drilling rig with full weather protection will enable sampling of the ocean floor in water depths between 100 and 5000 m with more than 1000 m penetration under polar conditions. The modular arrangement of science space with hangars, the possibility to flexibly equip the ship with laboratory or supply containers and with helicopters, addresses the needs of diverse disciplines in marine research. This icebreaker will allow to stage long international, interdisciplinary drilling expeditions in the central Arctic. In a long-term perspective, AURORA BOREALIS will also be used to address Antarctic research targets, both in its mode as a regular research and a scientific drilling vessel.

  8. Ultraviolet photoreception in mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    Cronin, T W; Marshall, N J; Quinn, C A; King, C A

    1994-06-01

    An UV-sensitive class of photoreceptors exists in all regions of the retinas of mantis shrimps. UV photosensitivity apparently resides in rhabdomeres of the eighth retinular cell (R8) that lies atop each rhabdom; and in ommatidia where the R8 rhabdomere consists of microvilli parallel in a single direction, sensitivity is maximal when the e-vector of plane-polarized light is parallel to the microvilli. Spectral sensitivity of the UV photoreceptor peaks at 345 nm and is best explained by the presence of a photopigment with lambda max near 325 nm overlain by material that absorbs UV light at wavelengths below approximately 350 nm. Rhabdomeres of R8 cells in several different retinal regions of a variety of species examined contain a photopigment absorbing maximally below 340 nm. Under appropriate conditions, a metapigment with lambda max near 460 nm can be formed. UV vision may be useful for enhancing the visual contrast of midwater predators or prey. PMID:8023455

  9. Quantitative Neuropeptidomics Study of the Effects of Temperature Change in the Crab Cancer borealis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Temperature changes influence the reaction rates of all biological processes, which can pose dramatic challenges to cold-blooded organisms, and the capability to adapt to temperature fluctuations is crucial for the survival of these animals. In order to understand the roles that neuropeptides play in the temperature stress response, we employed a mass spectrometry-based approach to investigate the neuropeptide changes associated with acute temperature elevation in three neural tissues from the Jonah crab Cancer borealis. At high temperature, members from two neuropeptide families, including RFamide and RYamide, were observed to be significantly reduced in one of the neuroendocrine structures, the pericardial organ, while several orcokinin peptides were detected to be decreased in another major neuroendocrine organ, the sinus gland. These results implicate that the observed neuropeptides may be involved with temperature perturbation response via hormonal regulation. Furthermore, a temperature stress marker peptide with the primary sequence of SFRRMGGKAQ (m/z 1137.7) was detected and de novo sequenced in the circulating fluid (hemolymph) from animals under thermal perturbation. PMID:25214466

  10. A New Threat to Honey Bees, the Parasitic Phorid Fly Apocephalus borealis

    PubMed Central

    Core, Andrew; Runckel, Charles; Ivers, Jonathan; Quock, Christopher; Siapno, Travis; DeNault, Seraphina; Brown, Brian; DeRisi, Joseph; Smith, Christopher D.; Hafernik, John

    2012-01-01

    Honey bee colonies are subject to numerous pathogens and parasites. Interaction among multiple pathogens and parasites is the proposed cause for Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a syndrome characterized by worker bees abandoning their hive. Here we provide the first documentation that the phorid fly Apocephalus borealis, previously known to parasitize bumble bees, also infects and eventually kills honey bees and may pose an emerging threat to North American apiculture. Parasitized honey bees show hive abandonment behavior, leaving their hives at night and dying shortly thereafter. On average, seven days later up to 13 phorid larvae emerge from each dead bee and pupate away from the bee. Using DNA barcoding, we confirmed that phorids that emerged from honey bees and bumble bees were the same species. Microarray analyses of honey bees from infected hives revealed that these bees are often infected with deformed wing virus and Nosema ceranae. Larvae and adult phorids also tested positive for these pathogens, implicating the fly as a potential vector or reservoir of these honey bee pathogens. Phorid parasitism may affect hive viability since 77% of sites sampled in the San Francisco Bay Area were infected by the fly and microarray analyses detected phorids in commercial hives in South Dakota and California's Central Valley. Understanding details of phorid infection may shed light on similar hive abandonment behaviors seen in CCD. PMID:22235317

  11. Sasa borealis Stem Extract Attenuates Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-induced Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuno; Lee, Soo-Jung; Jang, Sun-Hee; Ha, Ji Hee; Song, Young Min; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Kim, Hong-Duck; Min, Wongi; Kang, Suk Nam; Cho, Jae-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to examine the improving effect of Sasa borealis stem (SBS) extract extracts on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis in rats. To determine the hepatoprotective effect of SBS, we fed rats a normal regular diet (ND), HFD, and HFD supplemented with 150 mg/kg body weight (BW) SBS extracts for five weeks. We found that the body weight and liver weight of rats in the HFD + SBS group were significantly lower than those in the HFD group. Significantly lower serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations were observed in the SBS-supplemented group compared with the HFD group. We also found that the HFD supplemented with SBS group showed dramatically reduced hepatic lipid accumulation compared to the HFD alone group, and administration of SBS resulted in dramatic suppression of TG, TC in the HFD-induced fatty liver. In liver gene expression within the SBS treated group, PPARα was significantly increased and SREBP-1c was significantly suppressed. SBS induced a significant decrease in the hepatic mRNA levels of PPARγ, FAS, ACC1, and DGAT2. In conclusion, SBS improved cholesterol metabolism, decreased lipogenesis, and increased lipid oxidation in HFD-induced hepatic steatosis in rats, implying a potential application in treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:24905748

  12. Population structure of red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in south Florida: RAPDs revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Bowman, R.; Mullins, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    Six south Florida populations of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) were sampled to examine genetic diversity and population structure in the southernmost portion of the species' range relative to 14 previously sampled populations from throughout the species range. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses were used to evaluate the populations (n= 161 individuals, 13 primers, one band/primer). Results suggested that south Florida populations have significant among-population genetic differentiation (FST= 0.17, P < 0.000), although gene flow may be adequate to offset drift (Nm= 1.26). Comparison of Florida populations with others sampled indicated differentiation was less in Florida (FST for all populations = 0.21). Cluster analyses of all 20 populations did not reflect complete geographical predictions, although clustering of distant populations resulted in a significant correlation between genetic distance and geographical distance. Overall, results suggest populations in south Florida, similar to the remainder of the species, have low genetic diversity and high population fragmentation. Exact clustering of distant populations supports the ability of RAPDs to differentiate populations accurately. Our results further support past management recommendations that translocations of birds among geographically proximate populations is preferable to movement of birds between distant populations.

  13. R Coronae Borealis Stars Are Viable Factories of Pre-solar Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakas, Amanda I.; Ruiter, Ashley J.; Hampel, Melanie

    2015-08-01

    We present a new theoretical estimate for the birthrate of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars that is in agreement with recent observational data. We find the current Galactic birthrate of RCB stars to be ≈25% of the Galactic rate of Type Ia supernovae, assuming that RCB stars are formed through the merger of carbon-oxygen and helium-rich white dwarfs. Our new RCB birthrate (1.8 × 10-3 yr-1) is a factor of 10 lower than previous theoretical estimates. This results in roughly 180-540 RCB stars in the Galaxy, depending on the RCB lifetime. From the theoretical and observational estimates, we calculate the total dust production from RCB stars and compare this rate to dust production from novae and born-again asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. We find that the amount of dust produced by RCB stars is comparable to the amounts produced by novae or born-again post-AGB stars, indicating that these merger objects are a viable source of carbonaceous pre-solar grains in the Galaxy. There are graphite grains with carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios consistent with the observed composition of RCB stars, adding weight to the suggestion that these rare objects are a source of stardust grains.

  14. Impact Basin Formation on Mars: From Borealis to the Late Heavy Bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Erik; Stewart, Sarah; Lillis, Robert

    2015-06-01

    The Martian crust preserves the imprint of 20 large (>1000 km) impact basins and a global dichotomy that is hypothesized to have formed via a planetary-scale impact event. The impact basin record spans the end of the Martian dynamo magnetic field, and the youngest impact basins have the cleanest shock-demagnetization signatures. The youngest basins are also the least degraded and have more pronounced crustal thinning within the structure compared to older basins. Here, we consider the mechanics of impact basin formation under a range of crustal thickness and thermal gradients on Mars. This work will help constrain the possible impact energies and impactor sizes that produced the observed basins. Basin formation is modeled using the CTH shock physics code with a fixed central gravity field in 2D and self-gravity in 3D. Previous numerical models of a Borealis-scale impact did not include the crust or a rock rheology model, however, some important differences arise from the inclusion of strength. Heating of the mantle is significantly higher in the impacted hemisphere when strength is included. Our simulations with material strength provide new insights about the viability of the impact formation hypothesis for the global crustal dichotomy. Support Provided by NASA.

  15. Long-term Spatial and Temporal Variations of Aurora Borealis Events in the Period 1700 - 1905

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, M.; Vaquero, J. M.; Gallego, M. C.

    2014-05-01

    Catalogues and other records of aurora-borealis events were used to study the long-term spatial and temporal variation of these phenomena in the period from 1700 to 1905 in the Northern Hemisphere. For this purpose, geographic and geomagnetic coordinates were assigned to approximately 27 000 auroral events with more than 80 000 observations. They were analyzed separately in three large-scale areas: i) Europe and North Africa, ii) North America, and iii) Asia. There was a clear need to fill some gaps existing in the records so as to have a reliable proxy of solar activity, especially during the 18th century. In order to enhance the long-term variability, an 11-year smoothing window was applied to the data. Variations in the cumulative numbers of auroral events with latitude (in both geographic and geomagnetic coordinates) were used to discriminate between the two main solar sources: coronal mass ejections and high-speed streams from coronal holes. The characteristics of the associated auroras correlate differently with the solar-activity cycle.

  16. R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS IN M31 FROM THE PALOMAR TRANSIENT FACTORY

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Sumin; Bildsten, Lars; Cao Yi; Bellm, Eric; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Levitan, David; Prince, Thomas A.; Sesar, Branimir; Nugent, Peter; Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason; Masci, Frank; Ofek, Eran O.

    2013-04-20

    We report the discovery of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars in the Andromeda galaxy (M31) using the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). RCB stars are rare hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich supergiant variables, most likely the merger products of two white dwarfs. These new RCBs, including two confirmed ones and two candidates, are the first to be found beyond the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds. All of M31 RCBs showed >1.5 mag irregular declines over timescales of weeks to months. Due to the limiting magnitude of our data (R Almost-Equal-To 21-22 mag), these RCB stars have R Almost-Equal-To 19.5-20.5 mag at maximum light, corresponding to M{sub R} = -4 to -5, making them some of the most luminous RCBs known. Spectra of two objects show that they are warm RCBs, similar to the Milky Way RCBs RY Sgr and V854 Cen. We consider these results, derived from a pilot study of M31 variables, as an important proof-of-concept for the study of rare bright variables in nearby galaxies with the PTF or other synoptic surveys.

  17. Do R Coronae Borealis Stars Form from Double White Dwarf Mergers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motl, Patrick; Staff, Jan; Menon, Athira; Herwig, Falk; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris; Geballe, Tom; Pignatari, Marco; Clayton, Geoffrey; Tohline, Joel

    2013-04-01

    A leading formation scenario for the irregular variable R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars invokes the merger of a degenerate Helium white dwarf with a Carbon-Oxygen white dwarf in a binary. The observed ratio of ^16O / ^18O for RCB stars is in the range of 0.3 - 20, much smaller than the solar value of 500. We report on our investigations into whether such a low oxygen isotope ratio can be obtained in simulations of double white dwarf mergers. We identify a ``shell of fire'' feature in the simulations surrounding the merged object where temperatures and densities are favorable for forming ^18O for binaries with initial mass ratios near 0.7. However, the accretion stream's impact dredges up ^16O from the Carbon-Oxygen white dwarf which forms a competing process that raises the oxygen isotope ratio. We present the most favorable scenarios we have identified for creating RCB stars in light of these competing processes and outline steps for future progress.

  18. A new threat to honey bees, the parasitic phorid fly Apocephalus borealis.

    PubMed

    Core, Andrew; Runckel, Charles; Ivers, Jonathan; Quock, Christopher; Siapno, Travis; Denault, Seraphina; Brown, Brian; Derisi, Joseph; Smith, Christopher D; Hafernik, John

    2012-01-01

    Honey bee colonies are subject to numerous pathogens and parasites. Interaction among multiple pathogens and parasites is the proposed cause for Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a syndrome characterized by worker bees abandoning their hive. Here we provide the first documentation that the phorid fly Apocephalus borealis, previously known to parasitize bumble bees, also infects and eventually kills honey bees and may pose an emerging threat to North American apiculture. Parasitized honey bees show hive abandonment behavior, leaving their hives at night and dying shortly thereafter. On average, seven days later up to 13 phorid larvae emerge from each dead bee and pupate away from the bee. Using DNA barcoding, we confirmed that phorids that emerged from honey bees and bumble bees were the same species. Microarray analyses of honey bees from infected hives revealed that these bees are often infected with deformed wing virus and Nosema ceranae. Larvae and adult phorids also tested positive for these pathogens, implicating the fly as a potential vector or reservoir of these honey bee pathogens. Phorid parasitism may affect hive viability since 77% of sites sampled in the San Francisco Bay Area were infected by the fly and microarray analyses detected phorids in commercial hives in South Dakota and California's Central Valley. Understanding details of phorid infection may shed light on similar hive abandonment behaviors seen in CCD. PMID:22235317

  19. On the origin of the Vastitas Borealis Formation in Chryse and Acidalia Planitiae, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Christensen, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    The geologic history of the northern plains of Mars has been extensively debated. Specifically, the Vastitas Borealis Formation (VBF) represents an enigmatic surface unit that exhibits flow morphologies at its boundary, extensive surface fracturing, tens of thousands of small mounds, and unique crater morphologies. Here we test the hypothesis that the VBF in the region of Chryse and Acidalia Planitiae, Mars, originated through the compaction and later expulsion of fluid-laden sediments sourced from the shallow subsurface. We find that the morphological, thermophysical, and spectral properties of the VBF marginal unit, in addition to the recent identification of fine-grained sedimentary layers in the shallow subsurface, are all consistent with such a formation mechanism. Estimates of volume loss based on "collar-like" morphologies present on high-standing buttes suggest that a minimum fluid volume of ~13,500 km3 was expelled from the subsurface, making the VBF a significant ancient hydrologic reservoir on the Martian surface. This formation mechanism lends additional insight into the sedimentary and aqueous history of the northern plains of Mars and unites morphologic, spectral, thermophysical, and structural observations under one consistent formation hypothesis.

  20. Coordinated Ginga, IUE, and VLA observations of stellar activity in Sigma(2) Coronae Borealis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, R. A.; Uchida, Y.; Walter, F.; Vilhu, O.; Hannikainen, D.; Brown, A.; Veale, A.; Haisch, B. M.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of the active cool star binary system Sigma(2) Corona Borealis with the Large Area Counters on the Ginga X-ray satellite over 2.5 d, or about two orbital periods, are reported. Throughout the observations, Sigma(2) CrB exhibited X-ray variability on time scales ranging from tens of minutes to hours. The X-ray light curve shows evidence of flaring during the course of the observations. The summed X-ray pulse height spectrum from flaring events compared with similar spectra from quiescent periods indicates an increase in coronal temperature. Periodogram analysis of the entire X-ray light curve shows a possible periodicity at about 0.40-0.44 d, with no strong signal at the orbital period or 1/2 of the orbital period. Coordinated multiwavelength observations of IUE and the VLA indicate both UV and microwave flaring during one X-ray outburst. The quiescent microwave spectrum is not consistent with a thermal gyrosynchrotron process; nonthermal gyrosynchrotron radiation is argued to be the most likely emission process.

  1. Incidence and inactivation of Listeria spp. on frozen shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illness outbreaks occasionally occur as a result of microbiologically contaminated crustaceans, including shrimp. Foodborne pathogens occasionally found on shrimp include Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrios. In this study the microbiological qualit...

  2. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS IN TWO OREGON ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of Pacific estuarine tide flats, from British Columbia to Baja California. The spatial distribution of shrimp populations within estuaries has rarely been quantified because ...

  3. Shrimp Farms and Mangroves, Gulf of Fonseca

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For decades, astronauts on space missions have documented land use changes around the world. In this pair of images, astronauts track the development of shrimp farming along the Honduran coastline of the Gulf of Fonseca between 1989 and 2001. Mariculture, primarily shrimp farming, has become a leading agricultural effort in Honduras. The regional transformation of large tracts of coastal swamps into shrimp farms blossomed throughout the 1990s. The top image was taken with color infrared film in 1989. Dense vegetation, like the coastal mangrove swamps and the forested slopes of Volcan Cosiguina show up as dark red. The bottom image, taken with color visible film by the crew of the most recent Space Shuttle mission in December 2001 shows that hundreds of square kilometers of coastal swamp, primarily in Honduras, have been converted to shrimp ponds. These appear as the light-colored, rectilinear land use pattern. The Honduras shrimp farms were hit hard by flooding after Hurricane Mitch in 1998, and a devastating virus in 1999-2000. It is not known how many of the ponds in this view are still functional. A vigorous debate continues about the sustainability of the shrimp farms and the impacts to the environment and coastal ecosystem due to mangrove clearing and mariculture waste production. Apart from the shrimp farms, the other prominent feature on these images is the impressive volcano Cosiguina, which erupted explosively in 1859 (the largest recorded eruption in the Western Hemisphere). Photograph STS-108-717-85 was taken in the December 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 108 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. Photograph STS030-93-15 was taken in May 1989 using a Hasselblad camera and color infrared film. Both images are provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  4. A snap shot of the short-term response of crustaceans to macrophyte detritus in the deep Oslofjord

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Rinde, Eli; Gundersen, Hege; Christie, Hartvig; Fagerli, Camilla With; Fredriksen, Stein; Gitmark, Janne Kim; Norling, Karl; Walday, Mats Gunnar; Norderhaug, Kjell Magnus

    2016-01-01

    A test deployment of a time-lapse camera lander in the deep Oslofjord (431 m) was used to obtain initial information on the response of benthic fauna to macroalgal debris. Three macroalgal species were used on the lander baited plate: Fucus serratus, Saccharina latissima and Laminaria hyperborea and observed during 41.5 hours. The deep-water shrimp Pandalus borealis were attracted to the macroalgae rapidly (3 min after the lander reached the seafloor), followed by amphipods. Shrimp abundances were significantly higher in areas covered by macroalgae compared to the adjacent seafloor and the number of shrimp visiting the macroalgae increased with time. Amphipods arrived 13 hours later and were observed mainly on decaying L. hyperborea. The abundance of amphipods on L. hyperborea increased rapidly, reaching a peak at 31 h after deployment. These initial observations suggest that debris from kelp forests and other macroalgal beds may play an important role in fuelling deep benthic communities in the outer Oslofjord and, potentially, enhance secondary production of commercial species such as P. borealis. PMID:27025314

  5. A snap shot of the short-term response of crustaceans to macrophyte detritus in the deep Oslofjord.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Rinde, Eli; Gundersen, Hege; Christie, Hartvig; Fagerli, Camilla With; Fredriksen, Stein; Gitmark, Janne Kim; Norling, Karl; Walday, Mats Gunnar; Norderhaug, Kjell Magnus

    2016-01-01

    A test deployment of a time-lapse camera lander in the deep Oslofjord (431 m) was used to obtain initial information on the response of benthic fauna to macroalgal debris. Three macroalgal species were used on the lander baited plate: Fucus serratus, Saccharina latissima and Laminaria hyperborea and observed during 41.5 hours. The deep-water shrimp Pandalus borealis were attracted to the macroalgae rapidly (3 min after the lander reached the seafloor), followed by amphipods. Shrimp abundances were significantly higher in areas covered by macroalgae compared to the adjacent seafloor and the number of shrimp visiting the macroalgae increased with time. Amphipods arrived 13 hours later and were observed mainly on decaying L. hyperborea. The abundance of amphipods on L. hyperborea increased rapidly, reaching a peak at 31 h after deployment. These initial observations suggest that debris from kelp forests and other macroalgal beds may play an important role in fuelling deep benthic communities in the outer Oslofjord and, potentially, enhance secondary production of commercial species such as P. borealis. PMID:27025314

  6. A snap shot of the short-term response of crustaceans to macrophyte detritus in the deep Oslofjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Rinde, Eli; Gundersen, Hege; Christie, Hartvig; Fagerli, Camilla With; Fredriksen, Stein; Gitmark, Janne Kim; Norling, Karl; Walday, Mats Gunnar; Norderhaug, Kjell Magnus

    2016-03-01

    A test deployment of a time-lapse camera lander in the deep Oslofjord (431 m) was used to obtain initial information on the response of benthic fauna to macroalgal debris. Three macroalgal species were used on the lander baited plate: Fucus serratus, Saccharina latissima and Laminaria hyperborea and observed during 41.5 hours. The deep-water shrimp Pandalus borealis were attracted to the macroalgae rapidly (3 min after the lander reached the seafloor), followed by amphipods. Shrimp abundances were significantly higher in areas covered by macroalgae compared to the adjacent seafloor and the number of shrimp visiting the macroalgae increased with time. Amphipods arrived 13 hours later and were observed mainly on decaying L. hyperborea. The abundance of amphipods on L. hyperborea increased rapidly, reaching a peak at 31 h after deployment. These initial observations suggest that debris from kelp forests and other macroalgal beds may play an important role in fuelling deep benthic communities in the outer Oslofjord and, potentially, enhance secondary production of commercial species such as P. borealis.

  7. Quality changes of shrimp during boiling in salt solution.

    PubMed

    Niamnuy, C; Devahastin, S; Soponronnarit, S

    2007-06-01

    Boiling shrimp in salt solution is an important step during the production of dried shrimp. In this study the effects of various boiling parameters, namely, concentration of salt solution (2, 3, and 4% w/v), mass ratio of shrimp to salt solution (1:2 and 1:3), boiling time (1, 3, 5, and 7 min), and shrimp size (small and large), on the various quality attributes of shrimp were investigated. The quality of boiled shrimp was evaluated in terms of its salt content, moisture content, which is in turn related to the other qualities, namely, protein content, colors, shrinkage, and texture (hardness and toughness), as well as microbiological quality. It was found that higher concentration of salt solution and longer boiling time and lower mass ratio of shrimp to salt solution led to higher salt content of shrimp but to lower levels of moisture and proteins, leading to higher values of hardness, toughness, shrinkage, and color changes of shrimp. However, the mass ratio of shrimp to salt solution alone did not significantly affect any qualities of boiled shrimp (P > 0.05). It was found that the minimum boiling time of 3 min was enough to reduce the number of microorganisms to a safe level and inactivate enzymes causing melanosis in boiled shrimp. PMID:17995744

  8. Burrowing shrimp as foundation species in NE Pacific estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    My talk will be about the my research to characterize the role that burrowing shrimp play as foundation/engineering species in Pacific NW estuaries. My research has focused on measuring the abundance & distribution of two species (ghost shrimp & mud shrimp) at ecosystem scales, ...

  9. Biological treatment of shrimp production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Boopathy, Raj

    2009-07-01

    Over the last few decades, there has been an increase in consumer demand for shrimp, which has resulted in its worldwide aquaculture production. In the United States, the stringent enforcement of environmental regulations encourages shrimp farmers to develop new technologies, such as recirculating raceway systems. This is a zero-water exchange system capable of producing high-density shrimp yields. The system also produces wastewater characterized by high levels of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, and organic carbon, which make waste management costs prohibitive. Shrimp farmers have a great need for a waste management method that is effective and economical. One such method is the sequencing batch reactor (SBR). A SBR is a variation of the activated sludge biological treatment process. This process uses multiple steps in the same reactor to take the place of multiple reactors in a conventional treatment system. The SBR accomplishes equalization, aeration, and clarification in a timed sequence in a single reactor system. This is achieved through reactor operation in sequences, which includes fill, react, settle, decant, and idle. A laboratory scale SBR was successfully operated using shrimp aquaculture wastewater. The wastewater contained high concentrations of carbon and nitrogen. By operating the reactors sequentially, namely, aerobic and anoxic modes, nitrification and denitrification were achieved as well as removal of carbon. Ammonia in the waste was nitrified within 4 days. The denitrification of nitrate was achieved by the anoxic process, and 100% removal of nitrate was observed within 15 days of reactor operation. PMID:19396482

  10. Blockade of chronic high glucose-induced endothelial apoptosis by Sasa borealis bamboo extract.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yean-Jung; Lim, Hyeon-Sook; Choi, Jung-Suk; Shin, Seung-Yong; Bae, Ji-Young; Kang, Sang-Wook; Kang, Il-Jun; Kang, Young-Hee

    2008-05-01

    Hyperglycemia is a causal factor in the development of diabetic vascular complications including impaired vascular smooth muscle contractility and increased cell proliferation. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Sasa borealis water-extract (SBwE) on chronic hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). HUVEC were cultured in 5.5 mM low glucose, 5.5 mM glucose plus 27.5 mM mannitol as an osmotic control, or 33 mM high glucose for 5 days in the absence and presence of 1-30 microg/ ml SBwE. Caspase-3 activation and Annexin V staining revealed chronic high glucose-induced endothelial apoptotic toxicity with a generation of oxidants detected by DCF-fluorescence, and these effects were reversed by SBwE at > or =1 microg/ml in a dose-dependent manner. Cytoprotective SBwE substantially reduced the sustained high glucose-induced expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and attenuated the formation of peroxynitrite radicals. The suppressive effects of SBwE were most likely mediated through blunting activation of PKC beta 2 and NADPH oxidase promoted by high glucose. In addition, this bamboo extract modulated the high glucose-triggered mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent upregulation of heat-shock proteins. Our results suggest that SBwE suppressed these detrimental effects caused by PKC-dependent peroxynitrite formation via activation of NADPH oxidase and induction of nitric oxide synthase and heat-shock protein family that may be essential mechanisms responsible for increased apoptotic oxidative stress in diabetic vascular complications. Moreover, the blockade of high glucose-elicited heat-shock protein induction appeared to be responsible for SBwE-alleviated endothelial apoptosis. Therefore, SBwE may be a therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of diabetic endothelial dysfunction and related complications. PMID:18375828

  11. DO R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS FORM FROM DOUBLE WHITE DWARF MERGERS?

    SciTech Connect

    Staff, Jan. E.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Tohline, Joel E.; Menon, Athira; Herwig, Falk; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L.; Motl, Patrick M.; Geballe, Tom; Pignatari, Marco

    2012-09-20

    A leading formation scenario for R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars invokes the merger of degenerate He and CO white dwarfs (WDs) in a binary. The observed ratio of {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O for RCB stars is in the range of 0.3-20 much smaller than the solar value of {approx}500. In this paper, we investigate whether such a low ratio can be obtained in simulations of the merger of a CO and a He WD. We present the results of five three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the merger of a double WD system where the total mass is 0.9 M{sub Sun} and the initial mass ratio (q) varies between 0.5 and 0.99. We identify in simulations with q {approx}< 0.7 a feature around the merged stars where the temperatures and densities are suitable for forming {sup 18}O. However, more {sup 16}O is being dredged up from the C- and O-rich accretor during the merger than the amount of {sup 18}O that is produced. Therefore, on the dynamical timescale over which our hydrodynamics simulation runs, an {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratio of {approx}2000 in the 'best' case is found. If the conditions found in the hydrodynamic simulations persist for 10{sup 6} s the oxygen ratio drops to 16 in one case studied, while in a hundred years it drops to {approx}4 in another case studied, consistent with the observed values in RCB stars. Therefore, the merger of two WDs remains a strong candidate for the formation of these enigmatic stars.

  12. Effects of southern flying squirrels Glaucomys volans on red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis reproductive success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laves, K.S.; Loeb, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    Anecdotal data gathered from many populations suggest that southern flying squirrel (SFS, Glaucomys volans) use of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker's (RCW, Picoides borealis) nest and roost cavities may negatively affect RCW populations. We conducted a controlled experiment to determine the effects of SFSs on RCW reproductive success. During the 1994 and 1995 breeding seasons, SFSs were removed from 30 RCW clusters and 32 clusters served as controls. SFSs were the most frequently encountered occupants of RCW cavities and used 20-33% of RCW cavities in control and treatment clusters over both years. Treatment groups produced significantly more successful nests (??? 1 fledgling) than control groups in 1994. In 1995 however, there was no difference in the number of successful nests. In both years, RCW groups nesting in treatment clusters produced significantly more fledglings than groups in control clusters in each of four experimental areas, averaging approximately 0.7 additional fledglings per nesting group. Loss of entire clutches or broods, possibly as a result of predation or abandonment, was a major factor limiting reproduction in control groups in 1994. In contrast, differences in partial brood loss appeared to be the cause of differential fledging success in 1995 Usurpation of RCW roost cavities by SFSs may have placed greater energetic demands on RCWs for cavity defence or thermoregulation, thus reducing energy available for reproduction. Our results show that SFS use of RCW cavities during the breeding season has a significant impact on RCWs and that management of RCW populations should include activities that either minimize SFS populations in RCW clusters or limit access of SFSs to RCW cavities.

  13. THE CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENT OF R CORONAE BOREALIS: WHITE DWARF MERGER OR FINAL-HELIUM-SHELL FLASH?

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Andrews, J. E.; Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Adam Stanford, S.; Whitney, B. A.; Honor, J.; Babler, B.; Barlow, M. J.; Gordon, K. D.; Bond, Howard E.; Matsuura, M.; Geballe, T. R.; De Marco, O.; Lawson, W. A.; Sibthorpe, B.; Olofsson, G.; Polehampton, E.; Gomez, H. L.; Hargrave, P. C.; Ivison, R. J. E-mail: jandrews@phys.lsu.edu E-mail: stanford@physics.ucdavis.edu E-mail: jhonor@astro.wisc.edu E-mail: mjb@star.ucl.ac.uk; and others

    2011-12-10

    In 2007, R Coronae Borealis (R CrB) went into a historically deep and long decline. In this state, the dust acts like a natural coronagraph at visible wavelengths, allowing faint nebulosity around the star to be seen. Imaging has been obtained from 0.5 to 500 {mu}m with Gemini/GMOS, Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2, Spitzer/MIPS, and Herschel/SPIRE. Several of the structures around R CrB are cometary globules caused by wind from the star streaming past dense blobs. The estimated dust mass of the knots is consistent with their being responsible for the R CrB declines if they form along the line of sight to the star. In addition, there is a large diffuse shell extending up to 4 pc away from the star containing cool 25 K dust that is detected all the way out to 500 {mu}m. The spectral energy distribution of R CrB can be well fitted by a 150 AU disk surrounded by a very large diffuse envelope which corresponds to the size of the observed nebulosity. The total masses of the disk and envelope are 10{sup -4} and 2 M{sub Sun }, respectively, assuming a gas-to-dust ratio of 100. The evidence pointing toward a white dwarf merger or a final-helium-shell flash origin for R CrB is contradictory. The shell and the cometary knots are consistent with a fossil planetary nebula. Along with the fact that R CrB shows significant lithium in its atmosphere, this supports the final-helium-shell flash. However, the relatively high inferred mass of R CrB and its high fluorine abundance support a white dwarf merger.

  14. The Corona Borealis Supercluster - I: Observational Analysis of the Inter-Cluster Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batiste, Merida; Pearson, D.; Batuski, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a dynamical analysis of the core of the Corona Borealis Supercluster (CSC), a highly dense and compact supercluster at z ≈ 0.07. Expanding on work presented in a recent paper (Batiste & Batuski, 2013), we use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to assess the current dynamical state of the core of the CSC. The Fundamental Plane relation for early-type galaxies is used to determine redshift independent distances to seven clusters in the densest portion of the CSC, with mean accuracy in the relative distance estimates of 4%. Peculiar velocities for each of the seven clusters, determined using these distance estimates, indicate significant extended bound structure in the CSC. We find evidence for two collapsing regions, with some indication that these regions are not dynamically isolated but are in fact bound to each other. Comparing our results with simulations of the core of the CSC (Pearson & Batuski, 2013), we find that significantly more mass is required to bind the structure than is present in the clusters, suggesting a large inter-cluster matter component. We assess the likelihood that this additional mass could be accounted for by field galaxies, and investigate the possibility of an inter-cluster dark matter component as an explanation of our observations. Comparison of the observational analysis with these simulations suggests that the two bound regions identified in our analysis are likely bound to each other, and that the core of the CSC consists of at least five clusters, and has likely reached turnaround and is in collapse.

  15. DISCOVERY OF BRIGHT GALACTIC R CORONAE BOREALIS AND DY PERSEI VARIABLES: RARE GEMS MINED FROM ACVS

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A. A.; Richards, J. W.; Bloom, J. S.; Cenko, S. B.; Silverman, J. M.; Starr, D. L.; Stassun, K. G.

    2012-08-20

    We present the results of a machine-learning (ML)-based search for new R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars and DY Persei-like stars (DYPers) in the Galaxy using cataloged light curves from the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) Catalog of Variable Stars (ACVS). RCB stars-a rare class of hydrogen-deficient carbon-rich supergiants-are of great interest owing to the insights they can provide on the late stages of stellar evolution. DYPers are possibly the low-temperature, low-luminosity analogs to the RCB phenomenon, though additional examples are needed to fully establish this connection. While RCB stars and DYPers are traditionally identified by epochs of extreme dimming that occur without regularity, the ML search framework more fully captures the richness and diversity of their photometric behavior. We demonstrate that our ML method can use newly discovered RCB stars to identify additional candidates within the same data set. Our search yields 15 candidates that we consider likely RCB stars/DYPers: new spectroscopic observations confirm that four of these candidates are RCB stars and four are DYPers. Our discovery of four new DYPers increases the number of known Galactic DYPers from two to six; noteworthy is that one of the new DYPers has a measured parallax and is m Almost-Equal-To 7 mag, making it the brightest known DYPer to date. Future observations of these new DYPers should prove instrumental in establishing the RCB connection. We consider these results, derived from a machine-learned probabilistic classification catalog, as an important proof-of-concept for the efficient discovery of rare sources with time-domain surveys.

  16. DUST AROUND R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS. I. SPITZER/INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Anibal Garcia-Hernandez, D.; Lambert, David L. E-mail: nkrao@iiap.res.in

    2011-09-20

    Spitzer/infrared spectrograph (IRS) spectra from 5 to 37 {mu}m for a complete sample of 31 R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) are presented. These spectra are combined with optical and near-infrared photometry of each RCB at maximum light to compile a spectral energy distribution (SED). The SEDs are fitted with blackbody flux distributions and estimates are made of the ratio of the infrared flux from circumstellar dust to the flux emitted by the star. Comparisons for 29 of the 31 stars are made with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) fluxes from three decades earlier: Spitzer and IRAS fluxes at 12 {mu}m and 25 {mu}m are essentially equal for all but a minority of the sample. For this minority, the IRAS to Spitzer flux ratio exceeds a factor of three. The outliers are suggested to be stars where formation of a dust cloud or dust puff is a rare event. A single puff ejected prior to the IRAS observations may have been reobserved by Spitzer as a cooler puff at a greater distance from the RCB. RCBs which experience more frequent optical declines have, in general, a circumstellar environment containing puffs subtending a larger solid angle at the star and a quasi-constant infrared flux. Yet, the estimated subtended solid angles and the blackbody temperatures of the dust show a systematic evolution to lower solid angles and cooler temperatures in the interval between IRAS and Spitzer. Dust emission by these RCBs and those in the LMC is similar in terms of total 24 {mu}m luminosity and [8.0]-[24.0] color index.

  17. DUST AROUND R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS. II. INFRARED EMISSION FEATURES IN AN H-POOR ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.; Lambert, D. L. E-mail: nkrao@iiap.res.in

    2013-08-20

    Residual Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph spectra for a sample of 31 R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are presented and discussed in terms of narrow emission features superimposed on the quasi-blackbody continuous infrared emission. A broad {approx}6-10 {mu}m dust emission complex is seen in the RCBs showing an extreme H-deficiency. A secondary and much weaker {approx}11.5-15 {mu}m broad emission feature is detected in a few RCBs with the strongest {approx}6-10 {mu}m dust complex. The Spitzer infrared spectra reveal for the first time the structure within the {approx}6-10 {mu}m dust complex, showing the presence of strong C-C stretching modes at {approx}6.3 and 8.1 {mu}m as well as of other dust features at {approx}5.9, 6.9, and 7.3 {mu}m, which are attributable to amorphous carbonaceous solids with little or no hydrogen. The few RCBs with only moderate H-deficiencies display the classical ''unidentified infrared bands (UIRs)'' and mid-infrared features from fullerene-related molecules. In general, the characteristics of the RCB infrared emission features are not correlated with the stellar and circumstellar properties, suggesting that the RCB dust features may not be dependent on the present physical conditions around RCB stars. The only exception seems to be the central wavelength of the 6.3 {mu}m feature, which is blueshifted in those RCBs showing also the UIRs, i.e., the RCBs with the smallest H deficiency.

  18. Niche Partitioning of Feather Mites within a Seabird Host, Calonectris borealis

    PubMed Central

    Stefan, Laura M.; Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Elguero, Eric; Proctor, Heather C.; McCoy, Karen D.; González-Solís, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    According to classic niche theory, species can coexist in heterogeneous environments by reducing interspecific competition via niche partitioning, e.g. trophic or spatial partitioning. However, support for the role of competition on niche partitioning remains controversial. Here, we tested for spatial and trophic partitioning in feather mites, a diverse and abundant group of arthropods. We focused on the two dominant mite species, Microspalax brevipes and Zachvatkinia ovata, inhabiting flight feathers of the Cory’s shearwater, Calonectris borealis. We performed mite counts across and within primary and tail feathers on free-living shearwaters breeding on an oceanic island (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands). We then investigated trophic relationships between the two mite species and the host using stable isotope analyses of carbon and nitrogen on mite tissues and potential host food sources. The distribution of the two mite species showed clear spatial segregation among feathers; M. brevipes showed high preference for the central wing primary feathers, whereas Z. ovata was restricted to the two outermost primaries. Morphological differences between M. brevipes and Z. ovata support an adaptive basis for the spatial segregation of the two mite species. However, the two mites overlap in some central primaries and statistical modeling showed that Z. ovata tends to outcompete M. brevipes. Isotopic analyses indicated similar isotopic values for the two mite species and a strong correlation in carbon signatures between mites inhabiting the same individual host suggesting that diet is mainly based on shared host-associated resources. Among the four candidate tissues examined (blood, feather remains, skin remains and preen gland oil), we conclude that the diet is most likely dominated by preen gland oil, while the contribution of exogenous material to mite diets is less marked. Our results indicate that ongoing competition for space and resources plays a central role in structuring feather mite communities. They also illustrate that symbiotic infracommunities are excellent model systems to study trophic ecology, and can improve our understanding of mechanisms of niche differentiation and species coexistence. PMID:26650672

  19. Stable hydrogen isotopes record the summering grounds of eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis)

    PubMed Central

    Pylant, Cortney L.; Keller, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Bats face numerous threats associated with global environmental change, including the rapid expansion of wind-energy facilities, emerging infectious disease, and habitat loss. An understanding of the movement and migration patterns of these highly dispersive animals would help reveal how spatially localized the impacts from these threats are likely to be on bat populations, thus aiding in their conservation. Stable hydrogen isotope ratios (δ2H) can be used to infer regions where bats have foraged during the summer molt season, thus allowing an assessment of summering location and distance of movement of bats sampled during other times of year. However, a major impediment to the application of δ2H for inference of bat movements is that the relationship between δ2H of bat hair and precipitation tends to be species specific and is still unknown for some key species of conservation concern. We addressed this issue by using geo-referenced museum specimens to calibrate the relationship between δ2H of hair (δ2Hhair) and long-term δ2H of growing-season precipitation (δ2HGSprecip) at the site of collection for eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis), one of the main species of bats experiencing large numbers of fatalities at wind-energy facilities in North America. Based on comparison of δ2Hhair and δ2HGSprecip values for males we estimated a period of molt of June 14–August 7. Within this period, male and female red bats exhibited a significant positive relationship between δ2Hhair and δ2HGSprecip. These results establish the relationship between δ2Hhair and δ2HGSprecip for red bats, which is necessary for the use of δ2Hhair to infer the movement and migration patterns of this important species. These results provide a critical resource to conservation biologists working to assess the impacts of environmental change on bat populations. PMID:25337458

  20. Hearing and hunting in red bats (Lasiurus borealis, Vespertilionidae): audiogram and ear properties.

    PubMed

    Obrist, M K; Wenstrup, J J

    1998-01-01

    We examined aspects of hearing in the red bat (Lasiurus borealis) related to its use of biosonar. Evoked potential audiograms, obtained from volume-conducted auditory brainstem responses, were obtained in two bats, and the sound pressure transformation of the pinna was measured in three specimens. Field-recorded echolocation signals were analysed for comparison. The fundamental sonar search calls sweep from 45 to 30 kHz (peak energy at 35 kHz), approach-phase calls sweep from 65 to 35 kHz (peak 40 kHz) and terminal calls sweep from 70 to 30 kHz (peak 45 kHz). The most sensitive region of the audiogram extended from 10 kHz to 45-55 kHz, with maximum sensitivity as low as 20 dB SPL occurring between 25 and 30 kHz. A relative threshold minimum occurred between 40 and 50 kHz. With increasing frequency, the acoustic axis of the pinna moves upwards and medially. The sound pressure transformation was noteworthy near 40-45 kHz; the acoustic axis was closest to the midline, the -3 dB acceptance angles showed local minima, and the pinna gain and interaural intensity difference were maximal. These results are related to the known echolocation and foraging behavior of this species and match the spectral components of approach- and final-phase calls. We conclude that co-evolution with hearing prey has put a higher selective pressure on optimizing localization and tracking of prey than on improving detection performance. PMID:9390945

  1. Dust around R Coronae Borealis Stars. I. Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garca-Hernndez, D. A.; Rao, N. Kameswara; Lambert, David L.

    2011-09-01

    Spitzer/infrared spectrograph (IRS) spectra from 5 to 37 ?m for a complete sample of 31 R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) are presented. These spectra are combined with optical and near-infrared photometry of each RCB at maximum light to compile a spectral energy distribution (SED). The SEDs are fitted with blackbody flux distributions and estimates are made of the ratio of the infrared flux from circumstellar dust to the flux emitted by the star. Comparisons for 29 of the 31 stars are made with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) fluxes from three decades earlier: Spitzer and IRAS fluxes at 12 ?m and 25 ?m are essentially equal for all but a minority of the sample. For this minority, the IRAS to Spitzer flux ratio exceeds a factor of three. The outliers are suggested to be stars where formation of a dust cloud or dust puff is a rare event. A single puff ejected prior to the IRAS observations may have been reobserved by Spitzer as a cooler puff at a greater distance from the RCB. RCBs which experience more frequent optical declines have, in general, a circumstellar environment containing puffs subtending a larger solid angle at the star and a quasi-constant infrared flux. Yet, the estimated subtended solid angles and the blackbody temperatures of the dust show a systematic evolution to lower solid angles and cooler temperatures in the interval between IRAS and Spitzer. Dust emission by these RCBs and those in the LMC is similar in terms of total 24 ?m luminosity and [8.0]-[24.0] color index.

  2. Using 16O/18O to Determine the Evolutionary History of the R Coronae Borealis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Geoffrey; Geballe, Tom; Welch, Douglas; Tisserand, Patrick

    2013-08-01

    Of the Galactic hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) and R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars for which oxygen isotopic ratios can be measured, all of them show 16O/18O < 5, values that are orders of magnitude lower than measured in other stars (the Solar value is 500). This suggests that most if not all HdC and RCB stars are highly enriched in 18O. This is an important clue in determining the evolutionary pathways of HdC and RCB stars, for which two models have been proposed: the double degenerate (white dwarf (WD) merger), and the final helium-shell flash (FF). No overproduction of 18O is expected in the FF scenario. However, some RCB stars also show characteristics, such as 13C and Lithium, seen in FF stars. Therefore, we are conducting a survey all the RCB stars in the LMC and SMC for the characteristics of a WD merger or a FF. Most of the stars have been surveyed for 13C already and we plan to survey them for Lithium in the future. This proposal is to use Gemini/Flamingos-2 to survey all the stars, which are cool enough to show CO bands, for the presence of 18O near 2.3 micron. The Magellanic Clouds provide an unbiased, relatively complete sample of RCB stars which are at a known distance so their bolometric luminosities can be used in our stellar evolution models. This survey, combined with our models, will reveal the true fraction of RCB stars formed by each of the proposed scenarios.

  3. Using 16O/18O to Determine the Evolutionary History of the R Coronae Borealis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Geoffrey; Geballe, Tom; Welch, Douglas; Tisserand, Patrick

    2014-08-01

    All of the Galactic hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) and R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars for which oxygen isotopic ratios can be measured, show 16O/18O < 5, values that are orders of magnitude lower than measured in other stars (the Solar value is 500). This suggests that most if not all HdC and RCB stars are highly enriched in 18O. This is an important clue to determining the evolutionary pathways of HdC and RCB stars, for which two models have been proposed: the double degenerate (white dwarf (WD) merger), and the final helium-shell flash (FF). No overproduction of 18O is expected in the FF scenario. However, some RCB stars also show characteristics, such as 13C and Lithium, seen in FF stars. Therefore, we are conducting a survey of all the RCB stars in the LMC and SMC for the characteristics of a WD merger or a FF. Most of the stars have been surveyed for 13C already, and we are also planning to survey them for Lithium. But no RCB star in the Magellanic Clouds has been observed for 18O. The Magellanic Clouds provide an unbiased, relatively complete sample of RCB stars which are at a known distance so their bolometric luminosities can be used in our stellar evolution models. This proposal is to use Gemini/Flamingos-2 to survey all of the Magellanic Cloud stars, which are cool enough to show CO bands, for the presence of 18O near 2.3 micron. This survey, combined with our stellar evolution models, will reveal the true fraction of RCB stars formed by each of the proposed scenarios.

  4. Antibiotic-Resistant Vibrios in Farmed Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque Costa, Renata; Araújo, Rayza Lima; Souza, Oscarina Viana; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined in 100 strains of Vibrio isolated from the Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp and identified phenotypically. A high antibiotic-resistance index (75%) was observed, with the following phenotypic profiles: monoresistance (n = 42), cross-resistance to β-lactams (n = 20) and multiple resistance (n = 13). Plasmid resistance was characterized for penicillin (n = 11), penicillin + ampicillin (n = 1), penicillin + aztreonam (n = 1), and ampicillin (n = 1). Resistance to antimicrobial drugs by the other strains (n = 86) was possibly mediated by chromosomal genes. The findings of this study support the conclusion that the cultured shrimps can be vehicles of vibrios resistant to β-lactam and tetracycline. PMID:25918714

  5. Vulnerability of coastal livelihoods to shrimp farming: Insights from Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Blythe, Jessica; Flaherty, Mark; Murray, Grant

    2015-05-01

    Millions of people around the world depend on shrimp aquaculture for their livelihoods. Yet, the phenomenal growth of shrimp farming has often given rise to considerable environmental and social damage. This article examines the impacts of commercial, export-oriented shrimp aquaculture on local livelihood vulnerability by comparing the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of shrimp farm employees with non-farm employees in rural Mozambique. Exposure to stressors was similar between the two groups. Shrimp farm employees had higher assets and higher adaptive capacity than non-farm employees. However, because their income is heavily dependent on a single commodity, shrimp farm employees were highly susceptible to the boom crop nature of intensive shrimp farming. The implications for aquaculture policy and vulnerability research are discussed. The article argues that coastal vulnerability is dynamic, variable, and influenced by multiple processes operating at multiple scales. PMID:25391555

  6. Alkanes in shrimp from the Buccaneer Oil Field

    SciTech Connect

    Middleditch, B.S.; Basile, B.; Chang, E.S.

    1982-07-01

    A total of 36 samples of shrimp were examined from the region of the Buccaneer oil field, eighteen of which were representatives of the commercial species Penaeus aztecus and the rest were various other species: Penaeus duorarum (pink shrimp), Trachypenaeus duorarum (sugar shrimp), Squilla empusa (mantis shrimp), and Sicyonia dorsalis (chevron shrimp). The alkanes and deuteriated alkanes were completely separated by GC, so a mass spectrometer was not required for their detection and quantitation. To confirm the identities of individual compounds, however, some samples were examined by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results show that only thirteen of the forty shrimp collected from the region of the Buccaneer oil field contained petroleum alkanes, and the majority of these were obtained from trawls immediately adjacent to the production platforms. It appears that shrimp caught in the region of the Buccaneer oil field are not appreciably tainted with hydrocarbons discharged from the production platforms. (JMT)

  7. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Ghost shrimp and blue mud shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Horning, S.; Sterling, A.; Smith, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. The profiles are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessments. The ghost shrimp (Callianassa californiensis) and blue mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis) are common residents of intertidal mudflats of the Pacific Northwest, as well as of the entire West Coast of the contiguous United States. These species are decapod crustaceans, but not true shrimp. They are harvested as bait by recreational and commercial oyster-growing operations. Ghost shrimp larvae develop in summer in nearshore coastal waters and settle to the substrate surface, where they rapidly metamorphose; the life cycle of the blue mud shrimp is presumed to be similar. Both species spend their lives in burrows in the mudflat, where the ghost shrimp is primarily a deposit feeder and the blue mud shrimp is a suspension feeder.

  8. Secretagogues and Growth Factors in Fish and Crustacean Protein Hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Cancre; Ravallec; Van Wormhoudt A; Stenberg; Gildberg; Le Gal Y

    1999-09-01

    : The search for new molecules in fish protein hydrolysates is of great interest in animal feeding as it is in aquaculture, fertilizer, cosmetic, and pharmacologic domains. Different sources of hydrolysates such as shrimp waste (Pandalus borealis), cod (Gadus morhua) head, and head and viscera of sardine (Sardina pilchardus), obtained after hydrolysis or autolysis, were tested on fibroblast cell cultures and by gastrin radioimmunoassay. The level of hydrolysis seems to play an important role in the presence of biological peptides. Elution profile on a gel filtration Sephadex G-50 column was used to estimate the degree of hydrolysis of the fractions studied. Growth-factor-like activities were found in less-hydrolyzed fractions. Conversely, the most-hydrolyzed fractions showed gastrin and cholecystokinin immunoreactivity. PMID:10525683

  9. Chitosan fibers modified with HAp/β-TCP nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wawro, Dariusz; Pighinelli, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a method for preparing chitosan fibers modified with hydroxyapatite (HAp), tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), and HAp/β-TCP nanoparticles. Fiber-grade chitosan derived from the northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and nanoparticles of tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) suspended in a diluted chitosan solution were used in the investigation. Diluted chitosan solution containing nanoparticles of Hap/β-TCP was introduced to a 5.16 wt% solution of chitosan in 3.0 wt% acetic acid. The properties of the spinning solutions were examined. Chitosan fibers modified with nanoparticles of HAp/β-TCP were characterized by a level of tenacity and calcium content one hundred times higher than that of regular chitosan fibers. PMID:22174598

  10. Chitosan Fibers Modified with HAp/β–TCP Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Wawro, Dariusz; Pighinelli, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a method for preparing chitosan fibers modified with hydroxyapatite (HAp), tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), and HAp/β-TCP nanoparticles. Fiber-grade chitosan derived from the northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) and nanoparticles of tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) suspended in a diluted chitosan solution were used in the investigation. Diluted chitosan solution containing nanoparticles of Hap/β-TCP was introduced to a 5.16 wt% solution of chitosan in 3.0 wt% acetic acid. The properties of the spinning solutions were examined. Chitosan fibers modified with nanoparticles of HAp/β-TCP were characterized by a level of tenacity and calcium content one hundred times higher than that of regular chitosan fibers. PMID:22174598

  11. Immunoaffinity-based Mass Spectrometric Characterization of the FMRFamide-related Peptide Family in the Pericardial Organ of Cancer borealis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Mingming; Sturm, Robert M.; Kutz-Naber, Kimberly K.; Fu, Qiang; Li, Lingjun

    2009-01-01

    The tetrapeptide, FMRFamide, was first discovered in 1977 in the molluscan nervous system and was found to affect the contractile force of molluscan cardiac muscle and other muscles [1]. Since then, numerous FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) have been reported in both invertebrate and vertebrate species [2-9]. We have previously reported the detection and identification of numerous FaRPs in Cancer borealis pericardial organs (POs), one of the major neurosecretory structures in the crustaceans [2-3]. Here, we have developed two immunoaffinity-based methods, immunoprecipitation (IP) and immuno-dot blot screening assay, for the enrichment of FaRPs in C. borealis POs. A combined mass spectrometry (MS)-based approach involving both matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTMS) and nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-ESI-QTOF MS/MS) is used for a more comprehensive characterization of the FaRP family by utilizing high mass accuracy measurement and efficient peptide sequencing. Overall, 17 FMRFamide-related peptides were identified using these two complementary immuno-based approaches. Among them, three novel peptides were reported for the first time in this study. PMID:19800311

  12. Immunoaffinity-based mass spectrometric characterization of the FMRFamide-related peptide family in the pericardial organ of Cancer borealis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mingming; Sturm, Robert M; Kutz-Naber, Kimberly K; Fu, Qiang; Li, Lingjun

    2009-12-11

    The tetrapeptide, FMRFamide, was first discovered in 1977 in the molluscan nervous system and was found to affect the contractile force of molluscan cardiac muscle and other muscles. Since then, numerous FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) have been reported in both invertebrate and vertebrate species. We have previously reported the detection and identification of numerous FaRPs in Cancer borealis pericardial organs (POs), one of the major neurosecretory structures in the crustaceans. Here, we have developed two immunoaffinity-based methods, immunoprecipitation (IP) and immuno-dot blot screening assay, for the enrichment of FaRPs in C. borealis POs. A combined mass spectrometry (MS)-based approach involving both matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTMS) and nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-ESI-QTOF MS/MS) is used for a more comprehensive characterization of the FaRP family by utilizing high mass accuracy measurement and efficient peptide sequencing. Overall, 17 FMRFamide-related peptides were identified using these two complementary immuno-based approaches. Among them, three novel peptides were reported for the first time in this study. PMID:19800311

  13. Pacific white shrimp culture in inland ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a tropical species grown throughout Latin America and now introduced into Asia, adapts to and grows well in low-salinity water. Pond culture of L. vannamei has expanded to inland regions across the southern US where low-salinity ground water is availa...

  14. Probiotics in shrimp aquaculture: avenues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ninawe, A S; Selvin, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    As an alternative strategy to antibiotic use in aquatic disease management, probiotics have recently attracted extensive attention in aquaculture. However, the use of terrestrial bacterial species as probiotics for aquaculture has had limited success, as bacterial strain characteristics are dependent upon the environment in which they thrive. Therefore, isolating potential probiotic bacteria from the marine environment in which they grow optimally is a better approach. Bacteria that have been used successfully as probiotics belong to the genus Vibrio and Bacillus, and the species Thalassobacter utilis. Most researchers have isolated these probiotic strains from shrimp culture water, or from the intestine of different penaeid species. The use of probiotic bacteria, based on the principle of competitive exclusion, and the use of immunostimulants are two of the most promising preventive methods developed in the fight against diseases during the last few years. It also noticed that probiotic bacteria could produce some digestive enzymes, which might improve the digestion of shrimp, thus enhancing the ability of stress resistance and health of the shrimp. However, the probiotics in aquatic environment remain to be a controversial concept, as there was no authentic evidence / real environment demonstrations on the successful use of probiotics and their mechanisms of action in vivo. The present review highlights the potential sources of probiotics, mechanism of action, diversity of probiotic microbes and challenges of probiotic usage in shrimp aquaculture. PMID:19514908

  15. Lipid Adaptation of Shrimp Rimicaris exoculata in Hydrothermal Vent.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Si; Ye, Mengwei; Yan, Xiaojun; Zhou, Yadong; Wang, Chunsheng; Xu, Jilin

    2015-12-01

    The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata is the most abundant species in hydrothermal vents. Lipids, the component of membranes, play an important role in maintaining their function normally in such extreme environments. In order to understand the lipid adaptation of R. exoculata (HV shrimp) to hydrothermal vents, we compared its lipid profile with the coastal shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (EZ shrimp) which lives in the euphotic zone, using ultra performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. As a result, the following lipid adaptation can be observed. (1) The proportion of 16:1 and 18:1, and non-methylene interrupted fatty acid (48.9 and 6.2 %) in HV shrimp was higher than that in EZ shrimp (12.7 and 0 %). While highly-unsaturated fatty acids were only present in the EZ shrimp. (2) Ceramide and sphingomyelin in the HV shrimp were enriched in d14:1 long chain base (96.5 and 100 %) and unsaturated fatty acids (67.1 and 57.7 %). While in the EZ shrimp, ceramide and sphingomyelin had the tendency to contain d16:1 long chain base (68.7 and 75 %) and saturated fatty acids (100 and 100 %). (3) Triacylglycerol content (1.998 ± 0.005 nmol/mg) in the HV shrimp was higher than that in the EZ shrimp (0.092 ± 0.005 nmol/mg). (4) Phosphatidylinositol and diacylglycerol containing highly-unsaturated fatty acids were absent from the HV shrimp. (5) Lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine were rarely detected in the HV shrimp. A possible reason for such differences was the result of food resources and inhabiting environments. Therefore, these lipid classes mentioned above may be the biomarkers to compare the organisms from different environments, which will be benefit for the further exploitation of the hydrothermal environment. PMID:26475295

  16. What is the True Population of R Coronae Borealis Stars in the Galaxy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Tisserand, P.; Welch, D. L.; Zhang, W.

    2013-01-01

    The R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are rare hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich supergiants. Two evolutionary scenarios have been suggested, a double degenerate merger of two white dwarfs (WDs), or a final helium shell flash in a PN central star. The evidence pointing toward a WD merger or a FF origin for RCB stars is contradictory. The distribution on the sky and radial velocities of the RCB stars tend toward those of the bulge population but a much larger sample of stars is needed to determine the true population. We need to discover RCB much more efficiently. In order to do this we are pursuing three lines of attack: 1. Light Curves: Using the traditional technique of identifying RCB stars from their characteristic large and irregular light variations, we have we have investigated the stars in the ASAS-3 south survey. We have discovered 21 new RCB stars. The different analysis applied allowed us to extend our detection efficiency to fainter magnitudes that would not have been easily accessible to classical analysis based on light-curve variability. 2. Color-Color Diagrams: All RCB stars have IR excesses. Using the recent release of the WISE All-Sky Catalog, a series of IR color-color cuts have produced a sample of candidates 1600) that may yield over 200 new RCB star identifications. A pilot project to get spectra of the 200 brighter candidates has yielded an unexpectedly high new discovery rate 20%) based on photometric colors alone. 3. Spectral Classification: We are attempting to develop a quantitative spectral classification system for the RCB stars so that they can perhaps be identified without an accompanying light curve. The cooler RCB stars look like carbon stars with strong C2 bands, but they can be differentiated from carbon stars by their extreme hydrogen deficiency and very low 13C/12C ratio. Also, the red CN bands are much weaker in RCB stars than in carbon stars. The number of RCB stars in the Galaxy may be consistent with the predicted number of He/CO WD mergers. Solving the mystery of how the RCB stars evolve would be a watershed event in the study of stellar evolution that will lead to a better understanding of other important types of stellar merger events such as Type Ia SNe.

  17. Tracking down R Coronae Borealis stars from their mid-infrared WISE colours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisserand, P.

    2012-03-01

    Context. R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) are hydrogen-deficient and carbon-rich supergiant stars. They are very rare, with only ~50 actually known in our Galaxy. Interestingly, RCBs are strongly suspected of being the evolved merger product of two white dwarfs and could therefore be an important tool for understanding supernovae type Ia in the double degenerate scenario. Constraints on the spatial distribution and the formation rate of such stars are needed to picture their origin and test it in the context of actual population synthesis results. Aims: It is crucial to increase the number of known RCBs significantly. With an absolute magnitude MV ~ -5 and a bright/hot circumstellar shell made of amorphous carbon grains, RCBs are so distinctive that we should nowadays be able to find them everywhere in our Galaxy using publicly available catalogues. In the optical, the search is difficult because RCBs are known to undergo unpredictable photometric declines; however, mono-epoch mid-infrared data can help us to discriminate RCBs among other dust-producing stars. The aim is to produce from the mid-infrared WISE and near-infrared 2MASS catalogues a new catalogue of reasonable size, enriched with RCB stars. Methods: Colour-colour cuts used on all stars detected are the main selection criteria. The selection efficiency was monitored using the 52 known RCBs located in the sky area covered by the WISE first preliminary data release. Results: It has been found that selection cuts in mid-infrared colour-colour diagrams are a very efficient method of distinguishing RCBs from other stars. An RCB enriched catalogue made of only 1602 stars was produced, with a high detection efficiency of about 77%. Spectral energy distributions of 49 known RCBs and 5 known HdCs are also presented with estimates of their photosphere and circumstellar shell temperatures. Conclusions: The newly released WISE all sky catalogue has proven to be a valuable resource in finding RCB stars. Actual scenarios predict that between 100 and 500 RCBs exist in our Galaxy. The newly created RCB enriched catalogue is an important step towards significantly increasing the number of known RCB stars and therefore better understanding their origin. Tables 3-5 ara available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFull Table 5 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/539/A51

  18. Streptomyces sasae sp. nov., isolated from bamboo (Sasa borealis) rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo-Jin; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2015-10-01

    A novel strain of Gram-staining-positive actinobacterium, designated strain JR-39T, was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of bamboo (Sasa borealis) sampled in Damyang, Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated by a polyphasic approach. The isolate formed flexuous chains of spores that were cylindrical and smooth-surfaced. Strain JR-39T grew at 437?C (optimum 28?C). The pH range for growth was pH?510 (optimum pH?68) and the NaCl range for growth was 05?% (w/v) with optimum growth at 1?% NaCl. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained ll-diaminopimelic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and glycine. Whole-cell hydrolysates mainly contained glucose, mannose, ribose and rhamnose. Predominant menaquinones were MK-9 (H6), MK-9 (H8) and MK-9 (H4). The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15?:?0, iso-C16?:?0, iso-C15?:?0 and iso-C14?:?0. The G+C content of the DNA was 72.3??0.34?mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain JR-39T belonged to the genus Streptomyces, showing the highest sequence similarity to Streptomyces panaciradicis 1MR-8T (99.4?%), Streptomyces capoamus JCM 4734T (98.8?%), Streptomyces galbus DSM 40089T (98.7?%), Streptomyces longwoodensis LMG 20096T (98.7?%), Streptomyces bungoensis NBRC 15711T (98.7?%) and Streptomyces rhizophilus JR-41T (98.7?%). However, DNADNA hybridization assays, as well as physiological and biochemical analyses, showed that strain JR-39T could be differentiated from its closest phylogenetic relatives. On the basis of the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain JR-39T represents a novel species for which the name Streptomyces sasae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JR-39T (?=?KACC 17182T?=?NBRC 109809T). PMID:26296574

  19. The ongoing pursuit of R Coronae Borealis stars: the ASAS-3 survey strikes again

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisserand, P.; Clayton, G. C.; Welch, D. L.; Pilecki, B.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Kilkenny, D.

    2013-03-01

    Context. R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) are rare, hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich supergiant variable stars that are likely the evolved merger products of pairs of CO and He white dwarfs. Only 55 RCB stars have been found in our galaxy and their distribution on the sky is weighted heavily by microlensing survey field positions. A less biased wide-area survey would enable us to test competing evolutionary scenarios, understand the population or populations that produce RCBs, and constrain their formation rate. Aims: The ASAS-3 survey monitored the sky south of declination +28 deg between 2000 and 2010 to a limiting magnitude of V = 14. We searched ASAS-3 for RCB variables using several different methods to ensure that the probability of RCB detection was as high as possible and to reduce selection biases based on luminosity, temperature, dust production activity and shell brightness. Methods: Candidates whose light curves were visually inspected were pre-selected based on their infrared (IR) excesses due to warm dust in their circumstellar shells using the WISE and/or 2MASS catalogues. Criteria on light curve variability were also applied when necessary to minimise the number of objects. Initially, we searched for RCB stars among the ASAS-3 ACVS1.1 variable star catalogue, then among the entire ASAS-3 south source catalogue, and finally directly interrogated the light curve database for objects that were not catalogued in either of those. We then acquired spectra of 104 stars to determine their real nature using the SSO/WiFeS spectrograph. Results: We report 21 newly discovered RCB stars and 2 new DY Per stars. Two previously suspected RCB candidates were also spectroscopically confirmed. Our methods allowed us to extend our detection efficiency to fainter magnitudes that would not have been easily accessible to discovery techniques based on light curve variability. The overall detection efficiency is about 90% for RCBs with maximum light brighter than V ~ 13. Conclusions: With these new discoveries, 76 RCBs are now known in our Galaxy and 22 in the Magellanic Clouds. This growing sample is of great value to constrain the peculiar and disparate atmosphere composition of RCBs. Most importantly, we show that the spatial distribution and apparent magnitudes of Galactic RCB stars is consistent with RCBs being part of the Galactic bulge population.

  20. Development of the brine shrimp Artemia is accelerated during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Metcalf, J.; DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Noren, W.; Guikema, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmentally arrested brine shrimp cysts have been reactivated during orbital spaceflight on two different Space Shuttle missions (STS-50 and STS-54), and their subsequent development has been compared with that of simultaneously reactivated ground controls. Flight and control brine shrimp do not significantly differ with respect to hatching rates or larval morphology at the scanning and transmission EM levels. A small percentage of the flight larvae had defective nauplier eye development, but the observation was not statistically significant. However, in three different experiments on two different flights, involving a total of 232 larvae that developed in space, a highly significant difference in degree of flight to control development was found. By as early as 2.25 days after reactivation of development, spaceflight brine shrimp were accelerated, by a full instar, over ground control brine shrimp. Although developing more rapidly, flight shrimp grew as long as control shrimp at each developmental instar or stage.

  1. Homogeneous sample preparation of raw shrimp using dry ice.

    PubMed

    Bunch, E A; Altwein, D M; Johnson, L E; Farley, J R; Hammersmith, A A

    1995-01-01

    Sample homogeneity is critical to accurate and reproducible analysis of trace residues in foods. A method of uniform sample preparation using dry ice is described for shrimp. Other sample preparation techniques for raw shrimp produce nonhomogeneous samples. Sample homogeneity was determined through analysis of chloramphenicol added to intact tiger or white shrimp prior to sample preparation. Simulated chloramphenicol residue levels were 50, 15, 10, and 5 ppb. No significant differences were noted when analyses of shrimp inoculated with chlor-amphenicol prior to sample preparation with dry ice were compared with analyses of shrimp spiked after grinding with dry ice. Grinding shrimp with dry ice produced samples with homogeneous chloramphenicol residues. This technique should be applicable to other tissues and vegetable products. PMID:7756906

  2. Quantitative role of shrimp fecal bacteria in organic matter fluxes in a recirculating shrimp aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Beardsley, Christine; Moss, Shaun; Malfatti, Francesca; Azam, Farooq

    2011-07-01

    Microorganisms play integral roles in the cycling of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for fish and shellfish production. We quantified the pathways of shrimp fecal bacterial activities and their role in C- and N-flux partitioning relevant to culturing Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, in RAS. Freshly produced feces from P. vannamei contained 0.6-7 × 10(10) bacteria g(-1) dry wt belonging to Bacteroidetes (7%), Alphaproteobacteria (4%), and, within the Gammaproteobacteria, almost exclusively to the genus Vibrio (61%). Because of partial disintegration of the feces (up to 27% within 12 h), the experimental seawater became inoculated with fecal bacteria. Bacteria grew rapidly in the feces and in the seawater, and exhibited high levels of aminopeptidase, chitinase, chitobiase, alkaline phosphatase, α- and β-glucosidase, and lipase activities. Moreover, fecal bacteria enriched the protein content of the feces within 12 h, potentially enriching the feces for the coprophagous shrimp. The bacterial turnover time was much faster in feces (1-10 h) than in mature RAS water (350 h). Thus, shrimp fecal bacteria not only inoculate RAS water but also contribute to bacterial abundance and productivity, and regulate system processes important for shrimp health. PMID:21426366

  3. Shrimp laminin receptor binds with capsid proteins of two additional shrimp RNA viruses YHV and IMNV.

    PubMed

    Busayarat, Nattaphon; Senapin, Saengchan; Tonganunt, Moltira; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Meemetta, Watcharachai; Unajak, Sasimanas; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Lo, Chu-Fang; Phongdara, Amornrat

    2011-07-01

    Laminin receptor (Lamr) in shrimp was previously proposed to be a potential receptor protein for Taura syndrome virus (TSV) based on yeast two-hybrid assays. Since shrimp Lamr bound to the VP1 capsid protein of TSV, we were interested to know whether capsid/envelope proteins from other shrimp viruses would also bind to Lamr. Thus, capsid/envelope encoding genes from 5 additional shrimp viruses were examined. These were Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV), and yellow head virus (YHV). Protein interaction analysis using yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that Lamr specifically interacted with capsid/envelope proteins of RNA viruses IMNV and YHV but not MrNV and not with the capsid/envelope proteins of DNA viruses PstDNV and WSSV. In vitro pull-down assay also confirmed the interaction between Lamr and YHV gp116 envelope protein, and injection of recombinant Lamr (rLamr) protein produced in yeast cells protected shrimp against YHV in laboratory challenge tests. PMID:21414409

  4. Shrimp viral diseases, import risk assessment and international trade.

    PubMed

    Karunasagar, Iddya; Ababouch, Lahsen

    2012-09-01

    Shrimp is an important commodity in international trade accounting for 15 % in terms of value of internationally traded seafood products which reached $102.00 billion in 2008. Aquaculture contributes to over 50 % of global shrimp production. One of the major constraints faced by shrimp aquaculture is the loss due to viral diseases like white spot syndrome, yellow head disease, and Taura syndrome. There are several examples of global spread of shrimp diseases due to importation of live shrimp for aquaculture. Though millions of tonnes of frozen or processed shrimp have been traded internationally during the last two decades despite prevalence of viral diseases in shrimp producing areas in Asia and the Americas, there is no evidence of diseases having been transmitted through shrimp imported for human consumption. The guidelines developed by the World Animal Health Organisation for movement of live animals for aquaculture, frozen crustaceans for human consumption, and the regulations implemented by some shrimp importing regions in the world are reviewed. PMID:23997438

  5. Risk of spread of penaeid shrimp viruses in the Americas by the international movement of live and frozen shrimp.

    PubMed

    Lightner, D V; Redman, R M; Poulos, B T; Nunan, L M; Mari, J L; Hasson, K W

    1997-04-01

    Within the past decade, viral diseases have emerged as serious economic impediments to successful shrimp farming in many of the shrimp-farming countries of the world. In the western hemisphere, the viral agents of Taura syndrome (TS) and infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis have caused serious disease epizootics throughout the shrimp-growing regions of the Americas and Hawaii, while in Asia the viral agents of white spot syndrome (WSS) and yellow head (YH) have caused pandemics with catastrophic losses. The international transfer of live shrimp for aquaculture purposes is an obvious mechanism by which the viruses have spread within and between regions in which they have occurred. Shrimp-eating gulls, other seabirds and aquatic insects may also be factors in the spread of shrimp viruses between and within regions. Another potentially important mechanism for the international spread of these pathogens is the trade in frozen commodity shrimp, which may contain viruses exotic to the importing countries. The viral agents of WSS, YH and TS have been found, and demonstrated to be infectious, in frozen shrimp imported into the United States market. Mechanisms identified for the potential transfer of virus in imported frozen products to domestic populations of cultured or wild penaeid shrimp stocks include: the release of untreated liquid or solid wastes from shrimp importing and processing plants directly into coastal waters, improper disposal of solid waste from shrimp importing and processing plants in landfills so that the waste is accessible to gulls and other seabirds, and the use of imported shrimp as bait by sports fishermen. PMID:9329114

  6. Dead shrimp blues: a global assessment of extinction risk in freshwater shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea).

    PubMed

    De Grave, Sammy; Smith, Kevin G; Adeler, Nils A; Allen, Dave J; Alvarez, Fernando; Anker, Arthur; Cai, Yixiong; Carrizo, Savrina F; Klotz, Werner; Mantelatto, Fernando L; Page, Timothy J; Shy, Jhy-Yun; Villalobos, José Luis; Wowor, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    We present the first global assessment of extinction risk for a major group of freshwater invertebrates, caridean shrimps. The risk of extinction for all 763 species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria that include geographic ranges, habitats, ecology and past and present threats. The Indo-Malayan region holds over half of global species diversity, with a peak in Indo-China and southern China. Shrimps primarily inhabit flowing water; however, a significant subterranean component is present, which is more threatened than the surface fauna. Two species are extinct with a further 10 possibly extinct, and almost one third of species are either threatened or Near Threatened (NT). Threats to freshwater shrimps include agricultural and urban pollution impact over two-thirds of threatened and NT species. Invasive species and climate change have the greatest overall impact of all threats (based on combined timing, scope and severity of threats). PMID:25807292

  7. Dead Shrimp Blues: A Global Assessment of Extinction Risk in Freshwater Shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present the first global assessment of extinction risk for a major group of freshwater invertebrates, caridean shrimps. The risk of extinction for all 763 species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria that include geographic ranges, habitats, ecology and past and present threats. The Indo-Malayan region holds over half of global species diversity, with a peak in Indo-China and southern China. Shrimps primarily inhabit flowing water; however, a significant subterranean component is present, which is more threatened than the surface fauna. Two species are extinct with a further 10 possibly extinct, and almost one third of species are either threatened or Near Threatened (NT). Threats to freshwater shrimps include agricultural and urban pollution impact over two-thirds of threatened and NT species. Invasive species and climate change have the greatest overall impact of all threats (based on combined timing, scope and severity of threats). PMID:25807292

  8. Abundance of Ohio shrimp (Macrobrachium ohione) and Glass shrimp (Palaemonetes kadiakensis) in the unimpounded Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barko, V.A.; Hrabik, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Large rivers of the United States have been altered by construction and maintenance of navigation channels, which has resulted in habitat loss and degradation. Using 7 y of Long Term Resource Monitoring Program data collected from the unimpounded upper Mississippi River, we investigated Ohio and Glass Shrimp abundance collected from four physical habitats of the unimpounded upper Mississippi River: main channel border, main channel border with wing dike, open side channel and closed side channel. Our objective was to assess associations between Ohio and Glass Shrimp abundance, environmental measurements and the four habitats to better understand the ecology of these species in a channelized river system. Ohio Shrimp were most abundant in the open side channels, while Glass Shrimp were most abundant in the main channel border wing dike habitat. Thirty-two percent of the variance in Glass Shrimp abundance was explained by year 1995, year 1998, water temperature, depth of gear deployment, Secchi disk transparency and river elevation. Approximately 8% of variation in Ohio Shrimp abundance was explained by Secchi disk transparency. Catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) was greatest in 1998 for Glass Shrimp but lowest in 1997. Conversely, CPUE was greatest in 1996 for Ohio Shrimp and lowest in 2000. Both species exhibited inter-annual variability in CPUE. Long-term impacts of river modifications on aquatic invertebrates have not been well documented in many large, river systems and warrants further study. The findings from this study provide ecological information on Glass and Ohio Shrimp in a channelized river system.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genomes of the yellowleg shrimp Farfantepenaeus californiensis and the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B; Varela-Romero, Alejandro; Muhlia-Almazán, Adriana; Anduro-Corona, Iván; Vega-Heredia, Sarahí; Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis E; De la Rosa-Vélez, Jorge; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2009-03-01

    Mitochondria play key roles in many cellular processes. Description of penaeid shrimp genes, including mitochondrial genomes are fairly recent and some are focusing on commercially important shrimp as the Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei that is being used for aquaculture not only in America, but also in Asia. Much less is known about other Pacific shrimp such as the yellowleg shrimp Farfantepenaeus californiensis and the blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris. We report the complete mitogenomes from these last two Pacific shrimp species. Long DNA fragments were obtained by PCR and then used to get internal fragments for sequencing. The complete F. californiensis and L. stylirostris mtDNAs are 15,975 and 15,988 bp long, containing the 37 common sequences and a control region of 990 and 999 bp, respectively. The gene order is identical to that of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Secondary structures for the 22 tRNAs are proposed and phylogenetic relationships for selected complete crustacean mitogenomes are included. Phylogenomic relationships among five shrimp show strong statistical support for the monophyly of the genus across the analysis. Litopenaeus species define a clade, with close relationship to Farfantepenaeus, and both clade with the sister group of Penaeus and Fenneropenaeus. PMID:20403743

  10. Carbon cycle in shrimp polyculture mesocosm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guo-Cai; Li, De-Shang; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2000-03-01

    The carbon cycle in shrimp polyculture mesocosm ecosystems was studied in the shrimp farm of the Huanghai Fisheries Group Corporation in Shandong Province from May to August, 1997. The results showed that the plankton community respiration rate fluctuated between 0.07 and 2.28 mgC/(L·d), average of 0.82±0.42 mgC/(L·d), which was 49 percent of the rate of phytoplankton gross production; that the average respiration rates (mgC/(L·d)) of micro-, nano- and pico-plankton were 0.07, 0.38 and 0.31, which were 175, 30 and 207 percent of the corresponding sized phytoplankton production rates; that the sediment respiration rate (mgC/(m2·d)) varied from 178.64 to 373.23, average of 262.60±48.68, and increased gradually with the lapse of culture time; and that the organic carbon accumulation and the respiration in the sediment of the shrimp monoculture mesocosm was higher than that in the polyculture mesocosms. The total sediment respiration per 25 m2 mesocosm in the culture period averaged 571.16 gC, which was 10 percent of the total organic carbon input of the mesocosm.

  11. Trihalomethanes formation potential of shrimp farm effluents.

    PubMed

    Marhaba, Taha F; Mangmeechai, Aweewan; Chaiwatpongsakorn, Chaichana; Pavasant, Prasert

    2006-08-21

    Shrimp farm effluents along the Bangpakong River in the Chachoengsao Province of Thailand were evaluated for their trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) and related parameters. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC), salinity and bromide ion concentrations of shrimp farm effluents were in the ranges of 12-14 mg/L, 0.1-14.5 ppt, and 0-14 mg/L, respectively. The dissolved organic matter was fractionated into hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions having a range concentration of 3-5 and 8-10mg/L, respectively. The THMFP for all shrimp farm effluents analyzed was in the range of 810-3100 microg/L. The hydrophilic organic fraction was found to be a more active precursor of trihalomethanes (THMs) with 700-966 microg/L THMFP obtained from this fraction, while only 111-363 microg/L THMFP was derived from the hydrophobic fraction. The experimental results showed that salinity and bromide played crucial roles in the formation of THMs. At low salinity and bromide levels, chloroform was the dominant THM species, whereas at high salinity and bromide levels, bromoform became the dominant species. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrum analysis of the samples before and after chlorination illustrated that the functional groups involved in the THM formation reaction were phenolic compounds, amines, aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic bromo-compounds, and aliphatic chloro-compounds. PMID:16442713

  12. Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.

    PubMed

    Hess, David; Brücker, Christoph; Hegner, Franziska; Balmert, Alexander; Bleckmann, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus) were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ΔT*≈4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times. PMID:24244273

  13. Biology, genome organization, and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Arun K; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Saksmerprome, Vanvimon; Lakshman, Dilip K

    2014-01-01

    As shrimp aquaculture has evolved from a subsistent farming activity to an economically important global industry, viral diseases have also become a serious threat to the sustainable growth and productivity of this industry. Parvoviruses represent an economically important group of viruses that has greatly affected shrimp aquaculture. In the early 1980s, an outbreak of a shrimp parvovirus, infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), led to the collapse of penaeid shrimp farming in the Americas. Since then, considerable progress has been made in characterizing the parvoviruses of shrimp and developing diagnostic methods aimed to preventing the spread of diseases caused by these viruses. To date, four parvoviruses are known that infect shrimp; these include IHHNV, hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), spawner-isolated mortality virus (SMV), and lymphoid organ parvo-like virus. Due to the economic repercussions that IHHNV and HPV outbreaks have caused to shrimp farming over the years, studies have been focused mostly on these two pathogens, while information on SMV and LPV remains limited. IHHNV was the first shrimp virus to be sequenced and the first for which highly sensitive diagnostic methods were developed. IHHNV-resistant lines of shrimp were also developed to mitigate the losses caused by this virus. While the losses due to IHHNV have been largely contained in recent years, reports of HPV-induced mortalities in larval stages in hatchery and losses due to reduced growth have increased. This review presents a comprehensive account of the history and current knowledge on the biology, diagnostics methods, genomic features, mechanisms of evolution, and management strategies of shrimp parvoviruses. We also highlighted areas where research efforts should be focused in order to gain further insight on the mechanisms of parvoviral pathogenicity in shrimp that will help to prevent future losses caused by these viruses. PMID:24751195

  14. Closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiongfei; Zhao, Zhidong; Li, Deshang; Chang, Kangmei; Tong, Zhuanshang; Si, Liegang; Xu, Kaichong; Ge, Bailin

    2005-12-01

    This paper deals with a new system of aquaculture, i.e., a closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture. The culture system consisted of several shrimp ponds, a mollusk water-purifying pond and a reservoir. During the production cycle, water circulated between the shrimp and mollusk ponds, and the reservoir compensated for water loss from seepage and evaporation. Constricted tagelus, Sinonovacula constricta, was selected as the cultured mollusk, and Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, as the cultured shrimp. The main managing measures during the production cycle were: setting and using the aerators; introducting the probiotic products timely into the shrimp ponds; adopting a “pen-closing” method for controlling shrimp viral epidemics; setting the flow diversion barriers in the mollusk pond to keep the circulating water flowing through the pond along a sine-like curve and serve as substrate for biofilm; no direct feeding was necessary for the cultured mollusk until the co-cultured shrimp was harvested; natural foods in the water from the shrimp ponds was used for their foods. Two sets of the system were used in the experiment in 2002 and satisfactory results were achieved. The average yield of the shrimp was 11 943.5 kg/hm2, and that of the mollusk was 16 965 kg/hm2. After converting the mollusk yield into shrimp yield at their market price ratio, the food coefficient of the entire system averaged at as low as 0.81. The water quality in the ponds was maintained at a desirable level and no viral epidemics were discovered during the production cycle.

  15. Bacterial dynamics in intestines of the black tiger shrimp and the Pacific white shrimp during Vibrio harveyi exposure.

    PubMed

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota play important roles in health of their host, contributing to maintaining the balance and resilience against pathogen. To investigate effects of pathogen to intestinal microbiota, the bacterial dynamics upon a shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi, exposures were determined in two economically important shrimp species; the black tiger shrimp (BT) and the Pacific white shrimp (PW). Both shrimp species were reared under the same diet and environmental conditions. Shrimp survival rates after the V. harveyi exposure revealed that the PW shrimp had a higher resistance to the pathogen than the BT shrimp. The intestinal bacterial profiles were determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and barcoded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA sequences under no pathogen challenge control and under pathogenic V. harveyi challenge. The DGGE profiles showed that the presence of V. harveyi altered the intestinal bacterial patterns in comparison to the control in BT and PW intestines. This implies that bacterial balance in shrimp intestines was disrupted in the presence of V. harveyi. The barcoded pyrosequencing analysis showed the similar bacterial community structures in intestines of BT and PW shrimp under a normal condition. However, during the time course exposure to V. harveyi, the relative abundance of bacteria belong to Vibrio genus was higher in the BT intestines at 12h after the exposure, whereas relative abundance of vibrios was more stable in PW intestines. The principle coordinates analysis based on weighted-UniFrac analysis showed that intestinal bacterial population in the BT shrimp lost their ability to restore their bacterial balance during the 72-h period of exposure to the pathogen, while the PW shrimp were able to reestablish their bacterial population to resemble those seen in the unexposed control group. This observation of bacterial disruption might correlate to different mortality rates observed between the two shrimp species. Our findings provide evidence of intestinal bacterial population altered by a presence of the pathogen in shrimp intestines and intestinal bacterial stability might provide colonization resistance against the invading pathogen in the host shrimp. Hence, intestinal microbial ecology management may potentially contribute to disease prevention in aquaculture. PMID:26585302

  16. Characterization of Sterol Oxidation Products in Two Breaded Shrimp Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two breaded shrimp products were examined for the changes in cholesterol, phytosterols, and fatty acids that occurred during cooking. The products were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) in the raw, baked, and fried states after separation into breading and shrimp components. Cholesterol, campest...

  17. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Chennai, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavinck, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing metier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested metier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers…

  18. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinh, Le Xuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the job satisfaction of small-scale shrimp trawl fishers in the vicinity of Camau National Park in southern Vietnam. The research sample consisted of 77 fishers who belong to a growing population of shrimp fishers in the region. The results suggest that 60% would change their fishing metier, 78% would leave fishing for…

  19. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinh, Le Xuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the job satisfaction of small-scale shrimp trawl fishers in the vicinity of Camau National Park in southern Vietnam. The research sample consisted of 77 fishers who belong to a growing population of shrimp fishers in the region. The results suggest that 60% would change their fishing metier, 78% would leave fishing for

  20. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Chennai, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavinck, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing metier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested metier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers

  1. Effect of organic acids on shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Mine, Saori; Boopathy, Raj

    2011-07-01

    Shrimp farming accounts for more than 40% of the world shrimp production. Luminous vibriosis is a shrimp disease that causes major economic losses in the shrimp industry as a result of massive shrimp kills due to infection. Some farms in the South Asia use antibiotics to control Vibrio harveyi, a responsible pathogen for luminous vibriosis. However, the antibiotic-resistant strain was found recently in many shrimp farms, which makes it necessary to develop alternative pathogen control methods. Short-chain fatty acids are metabolic products of organisms, and they have been used as food preservatives for a long time. Organic acids are also commonly added in feeds in animal husbandry, but not in aquaculture. In this study, growth inhibitory effects of short-chain fatty acids, namely formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, on V. harveyi were investigated. Among four acids, formic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effect followed by acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.035% formic acid suppressed growth of V. harveyi. The major inhibitory mechanism seems to be the pH effect of organic acids. The effective concentration 50 (EC50) values at 96 h inoculation for all organic acids were determined to be 0.023, 0.041, 0.03, and 0.066% for formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, respectively. The laboratory study results are encouraging to formulate shrimp feeds with organic acids to control vibrio infection in shrimp aquaculture farms. PMID:21479932

  2. CUTICULAR LESIONS INDUCED IN GRASS SHRIMP EXPOSED TO HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult grass shrimp were exposed to four concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 ppm) of hexavalent chromium for 38 days. At the end of the exposure period, over 50% of the surviving shrimp possessed cuticular lesions that had many of the gross characteristics of 'shell disease.' Th...

  3. Biology, genome organization and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of parvoviruses are now know to infect marine shrimp, and these viruses alone or in combination with other viruses have the potential to cause major losses in shrimp aquaculture globally. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the biology, genome organization, gene expression, and...

  4. 21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. 102.55 Section 102.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. 102.55 Section 102.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. 102.55 Section 102.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. (a)...

  7. Prey exoskeletons influence the course of gastric evacuation in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua.

    PubMed

    Couturier, C S; Andersen, N G; Audet, C; Chabot, D

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the effects of prey exoskeleton characteristics on gastric evacuation patterns in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. Three distinct stages were highlighted in the gastric evacuation of crustacean prey characterized by a robust exoskeleton. The experiments confirmed that the three shrimp species, Pandalus borealis, Pandalus montagui and Eualus macilentus, and the crab Chionoecetes opilio, were evacuated from the stomach at different rates. The duration of all stages increased with increasing ash (and carbonate) content of the fresh prey. Thickness, chemical composition and morphology of the prey exoskeleton all affected gastric evacuation: duration of initial delay, overall evacuation rate and a decreased evacuation rate at the end of the process. The power exponential function (PEF), with its shape parameter, described the course of evacuation for these prey types well, especially the initial delay. The PEF does not, however, allow describing evacuation by the current stomach content mass independent of meal size, which limits its usefulness in estimating consumption rates of wild G. morhua. To predict and describe gastric evacuation of prey with a robust exoskeleton, it is therefore suggested that the square-root function be expanded with an initial lag phase, coupled to the mechanistically based cylinder model of gastric evacuation. PMID:23464544

  8. 75 FR 60730 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of...

  9. 50 CFR 622.201 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... SOUTH ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.201 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. (a) Commercial Vessel Permits for Rock Shrimp (South Atlantic EEZ). For a person aboard a...

  10. 50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off Georgia or off Florida or possess rock shrimp in or...

  11. 50 CFR 622.201 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... SOUTH ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.201 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. (a) Commercial Vessel Permits for Rock Shrimp (South Atlantic EEZ). For a person aboard a...

  12. Shrimps remove ectoparasites from fishes in temperate waters

    PubMed Central

    Östlund-Nilsson, Sara; Becker, Justine H.A; Nilsson, Göran E

    2005-01-01

    We have found that two very common species of North Atlantic shallow water shrimp, Palaemon adspersus and Palaemon elegans, remove and feed on ectoparasites on plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.). The relationship could be mutualistic, as we did not observe any attempts by the fishes to feed on the shrimps. The ectoparasites removed included monogenean worms (Gyrodactylus sp.) and sea lice (Lepeophtheirus pectoralis). An experiment showed that there were 65% more Gyrodactylus parasites on the fishes that had been apart from compared with those that had been together with shrimps for 48 h. Shrimps on coral reefs are known for cleaning fishes, but that shrimps in temperate waters show parasite-cleaning behaviour is, to our knowledge, a new observation. PMID:17148231

  13. Marine shrimp aquaculture and natural resource degradation in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaherty, Mark; Karnjanakesorn, Choomjet

    1995-01-01

    Rising demand for shrimp in the developed nations has helped to foster a dramatic growth in marine shrimp aquaculture, particularly in South America and South Asia. In Thailand, Marine shrimp aquaculture is now an important earmer of foreign exchange. The growth in Production has been achieved through the expansion of the culture area and the adoption of intensive production methods. The conversion of near-shore areas to shrimp culture, however, is proving to have many consequences that impinge on the environmental integrity of coastal areas. This paper reviews the development of Thailand's marine shrimp culture industry and examines the nature of the environmental impacts that are emerging. It then discusses the implications these have for rural poor and the long-term viability of the culture industry.

  14. Cellular immune responses against viral pathogens in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dandan; Liu, Weifeng; Alvarez, Angel; Huang, Tianzhi

    2014-12-01

    Shrimp is one of the most important commercial marine species worldwide; however, viral diseases threaten the healthy development of shrimp aquaculture. In order to develop efficient control strategies against viral diseases, researchers have begun focusing increasing attention to the molecular mechanism of shrimp innate immunity. Although knowledge of shrimp humoral immunity has grown significantly in recent years, very little information is available about the cell-mediated immune responses. Several cellular processes such as phagocytosis, apoptosis, and RNA interference critical in cellular immune response play a significant role in endogenous antiviral activity in shrimp. In this review, we summarize the emerging research and highlight key mediators of cellular immune response to viral pathogens. PMID:25111591

  15. Cloning and characterization of the tiger shrimp lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xing; Gao, Feng-Ying; Zheng, Qing-Mei; Bai, Jun-Jie; Wang, Huan; Lao, Hai-Hua; Jian, Qing

    2009-07-01

    Lysozymes are key proteins to invertebrates in the innate immune responses against bacterial infections. A lysozyme gene isolated from tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, was cloned, sequenced and characterized. The cDNA consists of a signal peptide of 18 amino acids and a mature peptide of 140 amino acids. The lysozyme is presumed to be a chicken-type lysozyme for it possesses two catalytic sites and eight cysteine residues which are highly conserved across species of chicken-type lysozymes. The lysozyme cDNAs of Penaeus semisulcatus, Litopenaeus vannamei, Macrobrachium nipponense and Macrobrachium rosenbergii were also cloned. High similarities existed among shrimp and prawn lysozymes but phylogenetic relationship of shrimps and prawns based on lysozyme molecules did not quite consistent with traditional taxonomic classification. High mRNA expression was detected in hepatopancreas, haemocytes and gill of tiger shrimp. Recombinant lysozyme exhibited potent lytic activities against fish pathogens providing evidence of the involvement of lysozyme in shrimp immunity. PMID:18618291

  16. CO-OCCURRENCE OF WHITE SHRIMP, PENAEUS VANNAMEI, MORTALITIES AND MICROCYSTIN TOXIN IN A SOUTHEASTERN USA SHRIMP FACILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various freshwater and marine algal toxins are known to affect plants, fishes, mammals, and invertebrates. During recent mortality events in Texas white shrimp aquaculture ponds, water and shrimp tissue samples were analyzed for cyanobacterial toxins and found to contain microcystin-LR. Cyanoprokar...

  17. Suppression of Shrimp Melanization during White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection*

    PubMed Central

    Sutthangkul, Jantiwan; Amparyup, Piti; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2015-01-01

    The melanization cascade, activated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system, plays a key role in the production of cytotoxic intermediates, as well as melanin products for microbial sequestration in invertebrates. Here, we show that the proPO system is an important component of the Penaeus monodon shrimp immune defense toward a major viral pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Gene silencing of PmproPO(s) resulted in increased cumulative shrimp mortality after WSSV infection, whereas incubation of WSSV with an in vitro melanization reaction prior to injection into shrimp significantly increased the shrimp survival rate. The hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity of WSSV-infected shrimp was extremely reduced at days 2 and 3 post-injection compared with uninfected shrimp but was fully restored after the addition of exogenous trypsin, suggesting that WSSV probably inhibits the activity of some proteinases in the proPO cascade. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation assays, the viral protein WSSV453 was found to interact with the proPO-activating enzyme 2 (PmPPAE2) of P. monodon. Gene silencing of WSSV453 showed a significant increase of PO activity in WSSV-infected shrimp, whereas co-silencing of WSSV453 and PmPPAE2 did not, suggesting that silencing of WSSV453 partially restored the PO activity via PmPPAE2 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Moreover, the activation of PO activity in shrimp plasma by PmPPAE2 was significantly decreased by preincubation with recombinant WSSV453. These results suggest that the inhibition of the shrimp proPO system by WSSV partly occurs via the PmPPAE2-inhibiting activity of WSSV453. PMID:25572398

  18. Immunization with Hypoallergens of Shrimp Allergen Tropomyosin Inhibits Shrimp Tropomyosin Specific IgE Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Wai, Christine Y. Y.; Leung, Nicki Y. H.; Ho, Marco H. K.; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Shu, Shang An; Leung, Patrick S. C.; Chu, Ka Hou

    2014-01-01

    Designer proteins deprived of its IgE-binding reactivity are being sought as a regimen for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Although shrimp tropomyosin (Met e 1) has long been identified as the major shellfish allergen, no immunotherapy is currently available. In this study, we aim at identifying the Met e 1 IgE epitopes for construction of hypoallergens and to determine the IgE inhibitory capacity of the hypoallergens. IgE-binding epitopes were defined by three online computational models, ELISA and dot-blot using sera from shrimp allergy patients. Based on the epitope data, two hypoallergenic derivatives were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (MEM49) and epitope deletion (MED171). Nine regions on Met e 1 were defined as the major IgE-binding epitopes. Both hypoallergens MEM49 and MED171 showed marked reduction in their in vitro reactivity towards IgE from shrimp allergy patients and Met e 1-sensitized mice, as well as considerable decrease in induction of mast cell degranulation as demonstrated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. Both hypoallergens were able to induce Met e 1-recognizing IgG antibodies in mice, specifically IgG2a antibodies, that strongly inhibited IgE from shrimp allergy subjects and Met e 1-sensitized mice from binding to Met e 1. These results indicate that the two designer hypoallergenic molecules MEM49 and MED171 exhibit desirable preclinical characteristics, including marked reduction in IgE reactivity and allergenicity, as well as ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies. This approach therefore offers promises for development of immunotherapeutic regimen for shrimp tropomyosin allergy. PMID:25365343

  19. Immunization with Hypoallergens of shrimp allergen tropomyosin inhibits shrimp tropomyosin specific IgE reactivity.

    PubMed

    Wai, Christine Y Y; Leung, Nicki Y H; Ho, Marco H K; Gershwin, Laurel J; Shu, Shang An; Leung, Patrick S C; Chu, Ka Hou

    2014-01-01

    Designer proteins deprived of its IgE-binding reactivity are being sought as a regimen for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Although shrimp tropomyosin (Met e 1) has long been identified as the major shellfish allergen, no immunotherapy is currently available. In this study, we aim at identifying the Met e 1 IgE epitopes for construction of hypoallergens and to determine the IgE inhibitory capacity of the hypoallergens. IgE-binding epitopes were defined by three online computational models, ELISA and dot-blot using sera from shrimp allergy patients. Based on the epitope data, two hypoallergenic derivatives were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (MEM49) and epitope deletion (MED171). Nine regions on Met e 1 were defined as the major IgE-binding epitopes. Both hypoallergens MEM49 and MED171 showed marked reduction in their in vitro reactivity towards IgE from shrimp allergy patients and Met e 1-sensitized mice, as well as considerable decrease in induction of mast cell degranulation as demonstrated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. Both hypoallergens were able to induce Met e 1-recognizing IgG antibodies in mice, specifically IgG2a antibodies, that strongly inhibited IgE from shrimp allergy subjects and Met e 1-sensitized mice from binding to Met e 1. These results indicate that the two designer hypoallergenic molecules MEM49 and MED171 exhibit desirable preclinical characteristics, including marked reduction in IgE reactivity and allergenicity, as well as ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies. This approach therefore offers promises for development of immunotherapeutic regimen for shrimp tropomyosin allergy. PMID:25365343

  20. DNaseI-hypersensitive sites at promoter-like sequences in the spacer of Xenopus laevis and Xenopus borealis ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed Central

    La Volpe, A; Taggart, M; McStay, B; Bird, A

    1983-01-01

    We have detected a DNAseI hypersensitive site in the ribosomal DNA spacer of Xenopus laevis and Xenopus borealis. The site is present in blood and embryonic nuclei of each species. In interspecies hybrids, however, the site is absent in unexpressed borealis rDNA, but is present normally in expressed laevis rDNA. Hypersensitive sites are located well upstream (over lkb) of the pre-ribosomal RNA promoter. Sequencing of the hypersensitive region in borealis rDNA, however, shows extensive homology with the promoter sequence, and with the hypersensitive region in X. laevis. Of two promoter-like duplications in each spacer, only the most upstream copy is associated with hypersensitivity to DNAaseI. Unlike DNAaseI, Endo R. MspI digests the rDNA of laevis blood nuclei at a domain extending downstream from the hypersensitive site to near the 40S promoter. Since the organisation of conserved sequence elements within this "proximal domain" is similar in three Xenopus species whose spacers have otherwise evolved rapidly, we conclude that this domain plays an important role in rDNA function. Images PMID:6310495

  1. Comparative studies on nitrogen budgets of closed shrimp polyculture systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhen-Xiong; Li, De-Shang; Zhang, Man-Ping; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2001-09-01

    April to October, 1997 comparative studies on the nitrogen budgets of closed shrimp polyculture systems showed that, in all the studied polyculture systems, nitrogen from feeds and fertilizers were the main input items, which comprised 70.7% 83.9% of the total input nitrogen 3.2% 7.4% of which was provided by nitrogen fixation. It was in monoculture enclosures (Y-4, Y-11 and Y-12) that the percentage reached the maximum value. The output nitrogen in harvested products comprised 10.8% 24.6% of total input nitrogen, and the highest percentage, 24.6%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems. In shrimp monoculture and shrimp-fish polyculture systems, they were 19.1% and 21.9% respectively. The nitrogen utilization efficiency was different and varied from 12.2% was found in shrimp-tagelus polyculture systems. The lowest, 12.2%, was found in shrimp monoculture systems. All the nitrogen utilization efficiencies in shrimp-fish systems or shrimp-scallop systems seemed to be higher than that of the monoculture system, but they showed little statistical difference. The main outputs of nitrogen were found in sediment mud, and comprised 48.2% 60.8% of the total, input, the lowest percentage was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems, and the highest percentage in shrimp-scallop systems. During the experiment, nitrogen lost through denitrification and ammonia volatilization comprised 1.9% 6. 2%, averaged 2.8%, of the total input, and the loss through seepage comprised 5.9% 8.9% of the total. The estimated nitrogen attached to the enclosure wall comprised 3.7% 13.3% of the total, and was highest in shrimp monoculture systems. Compared with the classic shrimp farming industry, the closed shrimp polyculture systems may improve the nitrogen utilization efficiency, and hence reduce the environmental impacts on coastal waters. The nitrogen discharging rates for all the studied polyculture systems ranged from 3.0% to 6. 0% of total input nitrogen.

  2. Beyond Symbiosis: Cleaner Shrimp Clean Up in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Militz, Thane A.; Hutson, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to “client” organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections. PMID:25706952

  3. Digestive toxicity in grass shrimp collected along an impact gradient.

    PubMed

    Seebaugh, David R; L'Amoreaux, William J; Wallace, William G

    2011-10-01

    Ingested pollutants may elicit digestive toxicity following incorporation into consumer tissues. This post-assimilatory toxicity may include tissue damage influencing synthesis of digestive enzymes, gut transit time and absorption of nutrients as well as pollutants by the gut epithelium. This study investigated impacts of chronic field exposure on gut residence time (GRT), feces elimination rate (FER), extracellular digestive protease activities and gut pH in grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. Adult shrimp were collected from differentially impacted sites within the New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and fed prepared meals containing fluorescent or near-infrared markers and analyzed for digestive toxicity. Relationships between digestive parameters and assimilation efficiencies (AE) for Cd, Hg and organic carbon reported previously were also analyzed. Minimum GRT did not vary significantly for field-collected shrimp, but was positively correlated with Cd, but not Hg or carbon, AE. FER was not impacted by field exposure. Digestive protease activities exhibited a marked decrease in grass shrimp from impacted field sites relative to reference shrimp. Relationships between the assimilation of elements and digestive physiology in field-collected shrimp suggest that digestive plasticity (increasing GRT) may be important in compensating for post-assimilatory digestive toxicity (reduced protease activities) in order to maintain nutrient assimilation. Stress-induced variability in digestive function among grass shrimp populations may, in turn, enhance the assimilation of non-essential elements, such as Cd. PMID:21946169

  4. Beyond symbiosis: cleaner shrimp clean up in culture.

    PubMed

    Militz, Thane A; Hutson, Kate S

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to "client" organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections. PMID:25706952

  5. Prediction of shelled shrimp weight by machine vision

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Peng-min; Li, Jian-ping; Lv, Gu-lai; Yang, Hui; Zhu, Song-ming; Lou, Jian-zhong

    2009-01-01

    The weight of shelled shrimp is an important parameter for grading process. The weight prediction of shelled shrimp by contour area is not accurate enough because of the ignorance of the shrimp thickness. In this paper, a multivariate prediction model containing area, perimeter, length, and width was established. A new calibration algorithm for extracting length of shelled shrimp was proposed, which contains binary image thinning, branch recognition and elimination, and length reconstruction, while its width was calculated during the process of length extracting. The model was further validated with another set of images from 30 shelled shrimps. For a comparison purpose, artificial neural network (ANN) was used for the shrimp weight predication. The ANN model resulted in a better prediction accuracy (with the average relative error at 2.67%), but took a tenfold increase in calculation time compared with the weight-area-perimeter (WAP) model (with the average relative error at 3.02%). We thus conclude that the WAP model is a better method for the prediction of the weight of shelled red shrimp. PMID:19650197

  6. Shoreline as a controlling factor in commercial shrimp production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faller, K. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    An ecological model was developed that relates marsh detritus export and shrimp production, based on the hypothesis that the shoreline is a controlling factor in the production of shrimp through regulation of detritus export from the marsh. LANDSAT data were used to develop measurements of shoreline length and area of marsh having more than 5.0 km shoreline/sq km for the coast of Louisiana, demonstrating the capability of remote sensing to provide important geographic information. These factors were combined with published tidal ranges and salinities to develop a mathematical model that predicted shrimp production for nine geographic units of the Louisiana coast, as indicated by the long term average commercial shrimp yield. The mathematical model relating these parameters and the shrimp production is consistent with an energy flow model describing the interaction of detritus producing marshlands with shrimp nursery grounds and inshore shrimping areas. The analysis supports the basic hypothesis and further raises the possibility of applications to coastal zone management requirements.

  7. EFFECTS OF GROUND ULV (ULTRA-LOW VOLUME) APPLICATIONS OF FENTHION ON ESTUARINE BIOTA. 3. RESPONSE OF CAGED PINK SHRIMP AND GRASS SHRIMP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum) were deployed in floating cages to determine if fenthion, in an actual-use application in the field, affected shrimp survival. After four ultra-low-volume ground applications (equivalent to llg/ha or 0...

  8. Sexual segregation of Echinorhynchus borealis von Linstow, 1901 (Acanthocephala) in the gut of burbot (Lota lota Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Tuomainen, Arto; Tellervo Valtonen, E; Benesh, Daniel P

    2015-01-01

    Helminths often occupy defined niches in the gut of their definitive hosts. In the dioecious acanthocephalans, adult males and females usually have similar gut distributions, but sexual site segregation has been reported in at least some species. We studied the intestinal distribution of the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus borealis von Linstow, 1901 (syn. of E. cinctulus Porta, 1905) in its definitive host, burbot (Lota lota Linnaeus). Over 80% of female worms were found in the pyloric caeca, whereas the majority of males were in the anterior two-thirds of the intestine. This difference was relatively consistent between individual fish hosts. Worms from different parts of the gut did not differ in length, so site segregation was not obviously related to worm growth or age. We found proportionally more males in the caeca when a larger fraction of the females were found there, suggesting mating opportunities influence gut distribution. However, this result relied on a single parasite infrapopulation and is thus tentative. We discuss how mating strategies and/or sexual differences in life history might explain why males and females occupy different parts of the burbot gut. PMID:26580557

  9. Genetic approaches to the conservation of migratory bats: a study of the eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis)

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Documented fatalities of bats at wind turbines have raised serious concerns about the future impacts of increased wind power development on populations of migratory bat species. However, for most bat species we have no knowledge of the size of populations and their demographic trends, the degree of structuring into discrete subpopulations, and whether different subpopulations use spatially segregated migratory routes. Here, we utilize genetic data from eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis), one of the species most highly affected by wind power development in North America, to (1) evaluate patterns of population structure across the landscape, (2) estimate effective population size (Ne), and (3) assess signals of growth or decline in population size. Using data on both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation, we demonstrate that this species forms a single, panmictic population across their range with no evidence for the historical use of divergent migratory pathways by any portion of the population. Further, using coalescent estimates we estimate that the effective size of this population is in the hundreds of thousands to millions of individuals. The high levels of gene flow and connectivity across the population of eastern red bats indicate that monitoring and management of eastern red bats must integrate information across the range of this species. PMID:26038736

  10. Apron heights around stepped massifs in the Cydonia Mensae region: Do they record the local paleobathymetry of Oceanus Borealis?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. J.; Gorsline, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    The use of photoclinometry and shadow measurements to determine the basin volume without linking the measurements to a global datum is described. Since the boundary, or shoreline, of the basin cannot be tied to the datum and typically has no useful local relative height to measure, what is needed is a number of measurements of the height of the paleoshorelines distributed across the basin. Photoclinometric profiles are being compiled from Viking Orbiter images of the Cydonia Mensae region, which includes images with high sun elevations, necessary to avoid shadows, and images with low sun elevations, to enable the use of shadow measurements as an independent check, at high resolution (40 to 100 m/pixel). Both asymmetric and symmetric photoclinometric profile models are being used, and the results cross checked with one another to minimize errors. An apron-height map, potentially a paleobathymetric map of part of the margin of Oceanus Borealis, can be compiled from this data to determine whether variations in apron height are consistent with a lacustrine interpretation.

  11. Neuropilar Projections of the Anterior Gastric Receptor Neuron in the Stomatogastric Ganglion of the Jonah Crab, Cancer Borealis

    PubMed Central

    Goeritz, Marie L.; Bowers, Matthew R.; Slepian, Brian; Marder, Eve

    2013-01-01

    Sensory neurons provide important feedback to pattern-generating motor systems. In the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system (STNS), feedback from the anterior gastric receptor (AGR), a muscle receptor neuron, shapes the activity of motor circuits in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) via polysynaptic pathways involving anterior ganglia. The AGR soma is located in the dorsal ventricular nerve posterior to the STG and it has been thought that its axon passes through the STG without making contacts. Using high-resolution confocal microscopy with dye-filled neurons, we show here that AGR from the crab Cancer borealis also has local projections within the STG and that these projections form candidate contact sites with STG motor neurons or with descending input fibers from other ganglia. We develop and exploit a new masking method that allows us to potentially separate presynaptic and postsynaptic staining of synaptic markers. The AGR processes in the STG show diversity in shape, number of branches and branching structure. The number of AGR projections in the STG ranges from one to three simple to multiply branched processes. The projections come in close contact with gastric motor neurons and descending neurons and may also be electrically coupled to other neurons of the STNS. Thus, in addition to well described long-loop pathways, it is possible that AGR is involved in integration and pattern regulation directly in the STG. PMID:24312448

  12. Offshore Observations of Eastern Red Bats (Lasiurus borealis) in the Mid-Atlantic United States Using Multiple Survey Methods

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, Shaylyn K.; Connelly, Emily E.; Divoll, Timothy J.; Stenhouse, Iain J.; Williams, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the migration and movements of migratory tree-roosting bat species in North America, though anecdotal observations of migrating bats over the Atlantic Ocean have been reported since at least the 1890s. Aerial surveys and boat-based surveys of wildlife off the Atlantic Seaboard detected a possible diurnal migration event of eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis) in September 2012. One bat was sighted approximately 44 km east of Rehoboth Beach, Delaware during a boat-based survey. Eleven additional bats were observed between 16.9 and 41.8 km east of New Jersey, Delaware, and Virginia in high definition video footage collected during digital aerial surveys. Observations were collected incidentally as part of a large baseline study of seabird, marine mammal, and sea turtle distributions and movements in the offshore environment. Digital survey methods also allowed for altitude estimation for several of these bats at >100 m above sea level. These observations provide new evidence of bat movements offshore, and offer insight into their flight heights above sea level and the times of day at which such migrations may occur. PMID:24367614

  13. Sasa borealis Extract Efficiently Enhanced Swimming Capacity by Improving Energy Metabolism and the Antioxidant Defense System in Mice.

    PubMed

    You, Yanghee; Kim, Kyungmi; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Lee, Jeongmin; Jun, Woojin

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of 50% ethanolic extract from Sasa borealis leaves (SBE) on swimming capacity and oxidative metabolism in mice. The mice were divided into 2 groups with similar swimming times and body weights; Ex-Control and Ex-SBE were orally administered with distilled water and 250 mg/kg body weight/d of SBE. Exhaustive swimming times were prolonged by 1.5-fold in the Ex-SBE group compared to the Ex-Control. The Ex-SBE group displayed lower lactate and higher non-esterified fatty acid levels 15 min after swimming and the hepatic and muscle glycogen levels were significantly higher than that in the Ex-Control. SBE potentially enhanced mRNA expression of citrate synthase (CS), carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1), and ?-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (?-HAD) in skeletal muscle. The activities and mRNA expression of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were elevated in the Ex-SBE compared with the Ex-Control after exhaustive swimming. These results suggest that SBE might be used as an effective agent to enhance swimming capacity by utilization of energy substrates and might ameliorate physical exhaustion by facilitating energy-generating metabolic genes and enhancing endogenous antioxidants. PMID:26875491

  14. Genetic approaches to the conservation of migratory bats: a study of the eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis).

    PubMed

    Vonhof, Maarten J; Russell, Amy L

    2015-01-01

    Documented fatalities of bats at wind turbines have raised serious concerns about the future impacts of increased wind power development on populations of migratory bat species. However, for most bat species we have no knowledge of the size of populations and their demographic trends, the degree of structuring into discrete subpopulations, and whether different subpopulations use spatially segregated migratory routes. Here, we utilize genetic data from eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis), one of the species most highly affected by wind power development in North America, to (1) evaluate patterns of population structure across the landscape, (2) estimate effective population size (Ne ), and (3) assess signals of growth or decline in population size. Using data on both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation, we demonstrate that this species forms a single, panmictic population across their range with no evidence for the historical use of divergent migratory pathways by any portion of the population. Further, using coalescent estimates we estimate that the effective size of this population is in the hundreds of thousands to millions of individuals. The high levels of gene flow and connectivity across the population of eastern red bats indicate that monitoring and management of eastern red bats must integrate information across the range of this species. PMID:26038736

  15. Biology and life cycle of Natatolana borealis Lilj.1851, a scavenging isopod from the continental slope of the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kam-Malka, R. A.

    1997-12-01

    The biology of Natatolana borealis, a deep-sea (-500 m) scavenging isopod that lives on the continental slope of Mediterranean canyons, was studied in the field and in the laboratory. Animals were collected at two stations using a baited trap. Whatever the site at which the animals were collected, a strong correlation was always found to exist between their length and weight, which shows variably marked seasonal variations. The growth pattern was modelled by fitting the Von Bertalanffy growth equation to the length of animals of various ages. The lifespan was estimated to be 6 years in the case of the largest animals collected. Sexual maturity is presumably reached at the age of 2.5 years. Not all the females were found to be sexually active at the same period of the year. A scheme of reproductive cycle is proposed for the mature females. It seems likely that each female may produce at least four broods during her lifetime. The emergence of offspring occurs at various times throughout the year, resulting in successive cohorts. At some periods in the year, some developmental stages were lacking in the samples, possibly owing to alimentary behaviour that helps to protect the animals from predators.

  16. New R Coronae Borealis and DY Persei Star Candidates and Other Related Objects Found in Photometric Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, S.; Hümmerich, S.; Bernhard, K.; Sozynski, I.

    2014-06-01

    We have carried out a search for new R Coronae Borealis (RCB) variables using the publicly accessible data from various photometric sky surveys and -- whenever available -- AAVSO visual data. Candidates were selected from Tisserand's "Catalogue enriched with R CrB stars" and by a visual inspection of light curves from the ASAS-3, MACHO, NSVS and OGLE surveys. We have identified two new RCB stars, four RCB candidates, and one DY Persei (DYPer) star candidate. Our identification was based mainly on photometric variability, color-color diagrams, and further information drawn from various catalogue sources; spectroscopic classifications were also reported in our analysis whenever available. Additionally, we present a sample of interesting stars which -- although showing similar photometric variability -- can be ruled out as RCB and DYPer stars or have been rejected as such on spectroscopic grounds in recent studies. Although not useful in the investigation of the aforementioned groups of variables, these objects defy an easy classification and might be interesting targets for follow-up studies which we encourage for all stars presented in this paper.

  17. Sexing Live Pupae and Adults of Two Wax Blooming Beetles, Colposcelis microderoides microderoides and Anatolica polita borealis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Fuchun; Ma, Ji

    2013-01-01

    The wax blooming beetles Colposcelis microderoides microderoides Reitter and Anatolica polita borealis Kaszab (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) are small, flightless beetles living in the Guerbantonggut desert in the northwestern region of China. These beetles were recently found to have wax blooms, and their short life cycle and ease of rearing under laboratory conditions make them excellent models for advanced studies on desert adaptation. To date, dissection has been used for sex identification in these species, whereas a nondestructive method is needed for further studies on sexual dimorphism. Microscopic examinations of pupae and adults revealed distinct differences between the sexes in the 8th abdominal sternites, including the presence of a setose cleft in adult males that is not visible in females, in which the 8th sternite forms a single semicircular plate. The female pupae have a pair of tan papillae and a tan genital orifice, which are absent on the male 8th sternite. These two sexual characteristics can be used to sex live adults and pupae. These methods are simple, nondestructive, 100% accurate, and useful for sex differentiation of dead beetles and some other tenebrionid species (including some pests) in both the field and the laboratory. PMID:24766472

  18. COMPARISON OF CARBON AND NITROGEN FLUXES IN TIDEFLAT FOOD WEBS DOMINATED BY BURROWING SHRIMP OR BY CULTURED OYSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two species of indigenous, thalassinid burrowing shrimps are pests to the benthic culture of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) because deposition of sediment excavated by the shrimps buries or smothers the oysters. Carbaryl pesticide is used to reduce burrowing shrimp densitie...

  19. Shoreline as a controlling factor in commercial shrimp production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faller, K. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An ecological model was developed that relates marsh detritus export and shrimp production. It was based on the hypothesis that the shoreline is a controlling factor in the production of shrimp through regulation of detritus export from the marsh. LANDSAT data were used to develop measurement of shoreline length and areas of marsh having more than 5.0 kilometers of shoreline per square kilometer of area for the Louisiana coast, demonstrating the capability of remote sensing to provide important geographic information. These factors were combined with published tidal ranges and salinities to develop a mathematical model that predicted shrimp production for nine geographic units of the Louisiana coast, as indicated by the long term average commercial shrimp yield.

  20. GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF A BURROWING SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ghost shrimp, (Neotypaea californiensis) are burrowers, whose bioturbation and sediment destabilizations have a negative effect on mariculture of the commercially important oyster (Crassostrea gigas). Oyster farmers in Washington and Oregon estuaries have been poisoning these shr...

  1. MAPPING BURROWING SHRIMP AND SEAGRASS IN YAQUINA ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Burrowing shrimp and seagrasses create extensive intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats within Pacific NW estuaries. Maps of their populations are useful to inform estuarine managers of locations that deserve special consideration for conservation, and to inform oyster farmers...

  2. INFECTIVITY OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE IN GRASS SHRIMP EMBRYOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing embryos of the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were exposed to Metarhizium anisopliae conidiospores. Attachment of conidiospores was often followed by germination and outgrowth on embryo surface. Penetration of the embryonic envelopes by M. anisopliae allow...

  3. DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATION TREATMENT OF GULF SHRIMP CANNERY WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study reports on the operation of a plant scale dissolved air flotation system installed to define and evaluate attainable shrimp cannery wastewater treatment levels. The system was operated in all three modes of DAF pressurization. Destabilizing coagulants investigation inc...

  4. Enhanced cellular immunity in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) after 'vaccination'.

    PubMed

    Pope, Edward C; Powell, Adam; Roberts, Emily C; Shields, Robin J; Wardle, Robin; Rowley, Andrew F

    2011-01-01

    It has long been viewed that invertebrates rely exclusively upon a wide variety of innate mechanisms for protection from disease and parasite invasion and lack any specific acquired immune mechanisms comparable to those of vertebrates. Recent findings, however, suggest certain invertebrates may be able to mount some form of specific immunity, termed 'specific immune priming', although the mechanism of this is not fully understood (see Textbox S1). In our initial experiments, either formalin-inactivated Vibrio harveyi or sterile saline were injected into the main body cavity (haemocoel) of juvenile shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Haemocytes (blood cells) from V. harveyi-injected shrimp were collected 7 days later and incubated with a 1:1 mix of V. harveyi and an unrelated gram positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. Haemocytes from 'vaccinated' shrimp showed elevated levels of phagocytosis of V. harveyi, but not B. subtilis, compared with those from saline-injected (non-immunised) animals. The increased phagocytic activity was characterised by a significant increase in the percentage of phagocytic cells. When shrimp were injected with B. subtilis rather than vibrio, there was no significant increase in the phagocytic activity of haemocytes from these animals in comparison to the non-immunised (saline injected) controls. Whole haemolymph (blood) from either 'immunised' or non-immunised' shrimp was shown to display innate humoral antibacterial activity against V. harveyi that was absent against B. subtilis. However, there was no difference in the potency of antibacterial activity between V. harveyi-injected shrimp and control (saline injected) animals showing that 'vaccination' has no effect on this component of the shrimp's immune system. These results imply that the cellular immune system of shrimp, particularly phagocytosis, is capable of a degree of specificity and shows the phenomenon of 'immune priming' reported by other workers. However, in agreement with other studies, this phenomenon is not universal to all potential pathogens. PMID:21698190

  5. Detection of virus in shrimp using digital color correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Borrego, Josue; Chavez-Sanchez, Cristina; Bueno-Ibarra, Mario A.

    1999-07-01

    Detection of virus in shrimp tissue using digital color correlation is presented. Phase filters in three channels (red, green and blue) were used in order to detect HPV virus like target. These first results obtained showed that is possible to detect virus in shrimp tissue. More research must be made with color correlation in order to consider natural morphology of the virus, color, scale and rotation and noise in the samples.

  6. Decline and Local Extinction of Caribbean Eusocial Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, J. Emmett; Macdonald III, Kenneth S.; Hultgren, Kristin M.; Chak, Tin Chi Solomon; Rubenstein, Dustin R.

    2013-01-01

    The tropical shrimp genus Synalpheus includes the only eusocial marine animals. In much of the Caribbean, eusocial species have dominated the diverse fauna of sponge-dwelling shrimp in coral rubble for at least the past two decades. Here we document a recent, dramatic decline and apparent local extinction of eusocial shrimp species on the Belize Barrier Reef. Our collections from shallow reefs in central Belize in 2012 failed to locate three of the four eusocial species formerly abundant in the area, and showed steep declines in colony size and increases in frequency of queenless colonies prior to their disappearance. Concordant with these declines, several nonsocial, pair-forming Synalpheus species increased in frequency. The decline in eusocial shrimp is explained in part by disappearance of two sponge species on which they specialize. Eusocial shrimp collections from Jamaica in 2012 showed similar patterns of decline in colony size and increased queenlessness compared with prior Jamaican collections. The decline and local extinction of eusocial shrimp happened against a backdrop of changes in coral assemblages during recent decades, and may reflect changes in abundance and quality of dead coral substratum and succession of the diverse cryptic organisms living within it. These changes document potentially worrisome declines in a unique taxon of eusocial marine animals. PMID:23418429

  7. Decline and local extinction of Caribbean eusocial shrimp.

    PubMed

    Duffy, J Emmett; Macdonald, Kenneth S; Hultgren, Kristin M; Chak, Tin Chi Solomon; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2013-01-01

    The tropical shrimp genus Synalpheus includes the only eusocial marine animals. In much of the Caribbean, eusocial species have dominated the diverse fauna of sponge-dwelling shrimp in coral rubble for at least the past two decades. Here we document a recent, dramatic decline and apparent local extinction of eusocial shrimp species on the Belize Barrier Reef. Our collections from shallow reefs in central Belize in 2012 failed to locate three of the four eusocial species formerly abundant in the area, and showed steep declines in colony size and increases in frequency of queenless colonies prior to their disappearance. Concordant with these declines, several nonsocial, pair-forming Synalpheus species increased in frequency. The decline in eusocial shrimp is explained in part by disappearance of two sponge species on which they specialize. Eusocial shrimp collections from Jamaica in 2012 showed similar patterns of decline in colony size and increased queenlessness compared with prior Jamaican collections. The decline and local extinction of eusocial shrimp happened against a backdrop of changes in coral assemblages during recent decades, and may reflect changes in abundance and quality of dead coral substratum and succession of the diverse cryptic organisms living within it. These changes document potentially worrisome declines in a unique taxon of eusocial marine animals. PMID:23418429

  8. Comparative spring mechanics in mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    Patek, S N; Rosario, M V; Taylor, J R A

    2013-04-01

    Elastic mechanisms are fundamental to fast and efficient movements. Mantis shrimp power their fast raptorial appendages using a conserved network of exoskeletal springs, linkages and latches. Their appendages are fantastically diverse, ranging from spears to hammers. We measured the spring mechanics of 12 mantis shrimp species from five different families exhibiting hammer-shaped, spear-shaped and undifferentiated appendages. Across species, spring force and work increase with size of the appendage and spring constant is not correlated with size. Species that hammer their prey exhibit significantly greater spring resilience compared with species that impale evasive prey ('spearers'); mixed statistical results show that species that hammer prey also produce greater work relative to size during spring loading compared with spearers. Disabling part of the spring mechanism, the 'saddle', significantly decreases spring force and work in three smasher species; cross-species analyses show a greater effect of cutting the saddle on the spring force and spring constant in species without hammers compared with species with hammers. Overall, the study shows a more potent spring mechanism in the faster and more powerful hammering species compared with spearing species while also highlighting the challenges of reconciling within-species and cross-species mechanical analyses when different processes may be acting at these two different levels of analysis. The observed mechanical variation in spring mechanics provides insights into the evolutionary history, morphological components and mechanical behavior, which were not discernible in prior single-species studies. The results also suggest that, even with a conserved spring mechanism, spring behavior, potency and component structures can be varied within a clade with implications for the behavioral functions of power-amplified devices. PMID:23239886

  9. Antibacterial activity in four marine crustacean decapods.

    PubMed

    Haug, Tor; Kjuul, Anita K; Stensvåg, Klara; Sandsdalen, Erling; Styrvold, Olaf B

    2002-05-01

    A search for antibacterial activity in different body-parts of Pandalus borealis (northern shrimp), Pagurus bernhardus (hermit crab), Hyas araneus (spider crab) and Paralithodes camtschatica (king crab) was conducted. Dried samples were extracted with 60% (v/v) acetonitrile, containing 0.1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid, and further extracted and concentrated on C18 cartridges. Eluates from the solid phase extraction were tested for antibacterial, lysozyme and haemolytic activity. Antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Vibrio anguillarum, Corynebacterium glutamicum and Staphylococcus aureus was detected in extracts from several tissues in all species tested, but mainly in the haemolymph and haemocyte extracts. V. anguillarum and C. glutamicum were generally the most sensitive micro-organisms. In P. borealis and P. bernhardus most of the active fractions were not affected by proteinase K treatment, while in H. araneus and P. camtschatica most fractions were sensitive to proteinase K treatment, indicating antibacterial factors of proteinaceous nature. In P. bernhardus the active fractions were generally heat labile, whereas in H. araneus the activities were resistant to heat. Differences between active extracts regarding hydrophobicity and sensitivity for heat and proteinase K treatment indicate that several compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activities detected. Lysozyme-like activity could be detected in some fractions and haemolytic activity against human red blood cells could be detected in haemolymph/haemocyte and exoskeleton extracts from all species tested. PMID:12194450

  10. Elemental abundance analyses with coadded DAO spectrograms. VI - The mercury-manganese stars Nu Cancri, Iota Coronae Borealis and HR 8349

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Saul J.

    1989-01-01

    The elemental abundances of three mercury-manganese stars, Nu Cancri, Iota Coronae Borealis, and HR 8349, were found to be consistent with previous analyses of this series. As Iota CrB is a double-lined spectroscopic binary with a small velocity amplitude for most of its period, its study required determining whether the observed lines were produced in the primary or secondary or both. The derived abundances and effective termperatures were used along with those of mercury-manganese stars previously analyzed in order to extend the study of probable correlations between abundances, with the effective temperature and surface gravity in accordance with radiative diffusion explanations.

  11. Structure and functions of the placenta in common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde's (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Chiyo; Sasaki, Motoki; Ishikawa, Hajime; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Ohsumi, Seiji; Fukui, Yutaka; Budipitojo, Teguh; Kondoh, Daisuke; Kitamura, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The structure and functions of placentas were examined in 3 species of rorqual whales, common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde's (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales, with the aim of confirming the structural characteristics of the chorion, including the presence of the areolar part, and clarifying steroidogenic activities and fetomaternal interactions in the placentas of these whales. Placentas were collected from the second phase of the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the North Pacific (JARPN II). Histological and ultrastructural examinations revealed that these whale placentas were epitheliochorial placentas with the interdigitation of chorionic villi lined by monolayer uninucleate cells (trophoblast cells) and endometrial crypts as well as folded placentation by fold-like chorionic villi. Moreover, well-developed pouch-like areolae were observed in the placentas, and active absorption was suggested in the chorionic epithelial cells of the areolar part (areolar trophoblast cells). Berlin blue staining showed the presence of ferric ions (Fe(3+)) in the uterine glandular epithelial cells and within the stroma of chorionic villi in the areolar part. An immunohistochemical examination revealed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; known as uteroferrin in uteri) in the cytoplasm of glandular cells and areolar trophoblast cells. This result suggested that, in cetaceans, uteroferrin is used to supply iron to the fetus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity for P450scc and P450arom was detected in trophoblast cells, but not in areolar trophoblast cells, suggesting that trophoblast cells synthesize estrogen in whale placentas. Therefore, we herein immunohistochemically revealed the localization of aromatase and uteroferrin in cetacean placentas during pregnancy for the first time. PMID:26096685

  12. Subaru/HDS Study of HE 1015-2050: Spectral Evidence of R Coronae Borealis Light Decline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Aruna; Aoki, Wako

    2013-02-01

    Hydrogen deficiency and a sudden optical light decline of about 6-8 mag are two principal characteristics of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars. The high latitude carbon star HE 1015-2050 was identified as a hydrogen-deficient carbon star from low-resolution spectroscopy. Photometric data of the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey gathered between 2006 February and 2012 May indicate that the object exhibits no variability. However, a high-resolution (R ~ 50, 000) optical spectrum of this object obtained with the 8.2 m Subaru telescope using High Dispersion Spectrograph on the 2012 January 13 offers sufficient spectral evidence that the object is a cool HdC star of RCB type undergoing light decline. In contrast to the Na I D broad absorption features seen in the low-resolution spectra on several occasions, the high-resolution spectrum exhibits Na I D2 and D1 features in emission. A few emission lines due to Mg I, Sc II, Ti I, Ti II, Fe II, and Ba I are also observed in the spectrum of this object for the first time. Such emission features combined with neutral and singly ionized lines of Ca, Ti, Fe, etc., in absorption are reportedly seen in RCBs spectra in the early stage of decline or during the recovery to maximum. Further, the light decline of RCBs is ascribed to the formation of a cloud of soot that obscures the visible photosphere. The presence of such circumstellar material is evident from the polarimetric observations with an estimated V-band percentage polarization of ~1.7% for this object.

  13. SUBARU/HDS STUDY OF HE 1015-2050: SPECTRAL EVIDENCE OF R CORONAE BOREALIS LIGHT DECLINE

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, Aruna; Aoki, Wako

    2013-02-01

    Hydrogen deficiency and a sudden optical light decline of about 6-8 mag are two principal characteristics of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars. The high latitude carbon star HE 1015-2050 was identified as a hydrogen-deficient carbon star from low-resolution spectroscopy. Photometric data of the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey gathered between 2006 February and 2012 May indicate that the object exhibits no variability. However, a high-resolution (R {approx} 50, 000) optical spectrum of this object obtained with the 8.2 m Subaru telescope using High Dispersion Spectrograph on the 2012 January 13 offers sufficient spectral evidence that the object is a cool HdC star of RCB type undergoing light decline. In contrast to the Na I D broad absorption features seen in the low-resolution spectra on several occasions, the high-resolution spectrum exhibits Na I D{sub 2} and D{sub 1} features in emission. A few emission lines due to Mg I, Sc II, Ti I, Ti II, Fe II, and Ba I are also observed in the spectrum of this object for the first time. Such emission features combined with neutral and singly ionized lines of Ca, Ti, Fe, etc., in absorption are reportedly seen in RCBs spectra in the early stage of decline or during the recovery to maximum. Further, the light decline of RCBs is ascribed to the formation of a cloud of soot that obscures the visible photosphere. The presence of such circumstellar material is evident from the polarimetric observations with an estimated V-band percentage polarization of {approx}1.7% for this object.

  14. RESPONSE OF GHOST SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS) BIOTURBATION TO ORGANIC MATTER ENRICHMENT OF ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Populations of burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia p;ugettensis) are the dominant invertebrate fauna on Pacific estuarine tide flats, occupying >80% of intertidal area in some estuaries. Burrowing shrimp are renowned for their bioturbation of intertidal sedi...

  15. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF DITHIOCARBAMATE TOXICITY TO THE GRASS SHRIMP, 'PALAEMONETES PUGIO'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the acute toxicity of dithiocarbamates (Aquatreat and Busan) to molting grass shrimp and the effects of these fungicides on regenerative limb growth in grass shrimp. Results indicate that both dithiocarbamate formulations caused a dose...

  16. 78 FR 13325 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ...: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigations, 78 FR 5416 (January 25, 2013) (Initiation Notice...-815] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia,...

  17. 78 FR 54912 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... connection with the subject investigations concerning Indonesia (78 FR 50379) and Thailand (78 FR 50383... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations AGENCY: United...(a)), the countervailing duty investigations concerning frozen warmwater shrimp from Indonesia...

  18. INFLUENCE OF AN INSECT GROWTH REGULATOR ON THE LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF AN ESTUARINE SHRIMP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of methoprene, an insect growth regulator used in mosquito control, on larval development of the estuarine grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) was examined in the laboratory. o grass shrimp larvae successfully completed metamorphosis when continuously exposed to 1000 ...

  19. 78 FR 33350 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...''' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content...

  20. 78 FR 33346 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...''' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content...

  1. 78 FR 33347 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp...

  2. Viral resistance in shrimp that express an antisense Taura syndrome virus coat protein gene.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuanan; Sun, Piera S

    2005-09-01

    Taura syndrome virus (TSV) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in shrimp, and has a profound economic impact on commercial U.S. shrimp farming. This paper describes the stable expression of an antisense Taura syndrome virus-coat protein (TSV-CP) gene construct in shrimp zygotes, via transfection using jetPEI reagent, over a period of at least 236 days. The transgenic shrimp showed no statistically significant difference from normal control shrimp in terms of weight gain or their appearance, morphology, swimming and eating activities. When challenged with live TSV, the transgenic shrimp exhibited increased resistance to the TSV infection (83% survival rate) as compared to control animals (44% survival rate). This work demonstrates that transgenic shrimp, which stably express an antisense transcript from the TSV-CP gene, are partially resistant to TSV infection. These data may have an important implication for commercial shrimp farming. PMID:16129499

  3. ENHANCED ORGANIC MATTER REMINERALIZATION AND NUTRIENT TURNOVER BY POPULATIONS OF BURROWING SHRIMP IN YAQUINA BAY, OR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Burrowing, or thalassinid, shrimp structure large areas of intertidal habitat of Pacific Northwest estuaries. This field study utilized a combination of anoxic incubations, porewater dialysis peepers, and benthic chambers to quantify the role of burrowing shrimp species on OM dec...

  4. Characterization of recombinant shrimp allergen Pen a 1 (tropomyosin).

    PubMed

    Reese, G; Jeoung, B J; Daul, C B; Lehrer, S B

    1997-01-01

    Tropomyosin (Pen a 1) from brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, has been identified as the only major shrimp allergen. Since beef, pork and chicken are other tropomyosin-containing foods that are not very allergenic, tropomyosins can serve to investigate the contribution of the structural properties of a protein to its allergenicity. The aim of this study was to determine the primary structure of Pen a 1 and to identify IgE-binding epitopes. The screening of a unidirectional expression cDNA library from shrimp tail muscle with the Pen-a-1-specific monoclonal antibody 4.9.5 resulted in 4 positive Escherichia coli clones. Immunoblot analysis with human sera from shrimp-allergic subjects demonstrated IgE binding of all 4 recombinant shrimp proteins. Three of 4 expressed recombinant proteins have a molecular weight of approximately 36 kD, consistent with the molecular weight of natural Pen a 1. The DNA sequence analysis identified these recombinant shrimp proteins as tropomyosin and could be aligned with the sequence of greasyback shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis) tropomyosin (Met e 1). In order to characterize contiguous IgE-binding epitopes of Pen a 1, a peptide library (Novagen epitope mapping system) expressing 10-30 amino-acid-residue-long recombinant Pen a 1 peptides was constructed and screened with human IgE. Four recombinant, IgE-reactive Pen a 1 peptides were selected and sequenced. They show various degrees of sequence identity with tropomyosins of other arthropods, such as fruitfly and house dust mite, helminths and vertebrates. PMID:9130534

  5. Quality perceptions of stakeholders in Beninese export-oriented shrimp chain.

    PubMed

    Dabade, D Sylvain; den Besten, Heidy M W; Azokpota, Paulin; Nout, M J Rob; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, the Beninese shrimp sector has faced a ban on export to the European Union due to lack of compliance with food safety standards. The present study aimed at obtaining insight into the factors that determine shrimp quality and safety in Benin. A survey was conducted to investigate the relationships between stakeholders, the conditions under which shrimps are handled at fishing areas and processed at shrimp plants, and the stakeholders' perceptions of quality. A total of 325 fishermen, 128 intermediate traders, 12 collectors, and 3 shrimp processing plant managers were interviewed face to face. The results showed that various specific relations existed between the stakeholders. For example, loyalty was ensured by family relationships, or incentives were provided to ensure a supply of shrimps between stakeholders. Shrimp handling practices during the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants were not in agreement with the requirements of the European regulations. For example, shrimps were kept at ambient temperature (28 ± 1°C) by 94.1% of fishermen and 60.9% of intermediate traders. Shrimps were also stored in inappropriate holding containers and washed with nonpotable water. Fishermen, intermediate traders, and collectors considered shrimp size and texture their priority quality attributes, whereas plant managers considered shrimp appearance (freshness) and texture their priority quality attributes. This survey demonstrated that the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants are the critical steps for shrimp quality and safety because of temperature abuse and inappropriate hygienic conditions. There is a need to communicate and provide incentives for the stakeholders in the first part of the chain to give priority to shrimp freshness. Moreover, training in Good Fishing Practices and safe food handling practices and evaluation of compliance with the practices through monitoring will contribute to better shrimp quality and safety management. PMID:25198861

  6. 76 FR 16384 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005) (``Order''). Pursuant to section 751... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of...

  7. 75 FR 20563 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ..., 75 FR 3446 (January 21, 2010) (``Preliminary Rescission''). The final results of this review are... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). This review covers...

  8. 76 FR 16384 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Shipper Review, 75 FR 60730 (October 1, 2010). The preliminary results of this review are currently due no... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The period of review...

  9. 76 FR 6603 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... Review, 72 FR 52065 (Sept. 12, 2007). The period of review (POR) is August 4, 2004, through January 31... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Thailand. See Certain Frozen...

  10. 75 FR 12175 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... warmwater shrimp and prawns, whether wild-caught (ocean harvested) or farm-raised (produced by aquaculture... Penaeidae family. Some examples of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited... Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India, 70 FR 5147 (Feb. 1, 2005) (Shrimp...

  11. 77 FR 13275 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... wild-caught (ocean harvested) or farm-raised (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on... farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus... Warmwater Shrimp from India, 70 FR 5147 (Feb. 1, 2005) (Shrimp Order). \\2\\ See Antidumping or...

  12. The effects of boiling on the allergenic properties of tropomyosin of shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrimp play an important role in human nutrition, and is responsible for severe hypersensitivity reactions. The thermal stability of raw and boiled shrimp tropomyosins (TM) has never been reported. The aims of the study were to compare the stability of raw and boiled shrimp TM of Litopenaeus vanname...

  13. 75 FR 33375 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-2031, Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-2031, Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration, OMB Control... Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/ Importer's Declaration. OMB... document imports of shrimp pursuant to the State Department's implementation of Section 609 of Public...

  14. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  15. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  16. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  17. 78 FR 39824 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration ACTION: Notice of... Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/ Importer's Declaration OMB Control Number: 1405-0095 Type of Request... imports of shrimp pursuant to the State Department's implementation of Section 609 of Public Law...

  18. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  19. Strong population genetic structure and larval dispersal capability of the burrowing ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The burrowing ghost shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis, is a vital member of the estuarine benthic community. Dense populations of shrimp are found in the major estuaries of Washington and Oregon. Our study determines the genetic structure of shrimp populations in order to gain ...

  20. 78 FR 35643 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... from any species of warmwater shrimp and prawns. Warmwater shrimp and prawns are generally classified... warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus... on or before September 16, 2013, but such final comments must not contain new factual information...

  1. 75 FR 22370 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Value: Certain Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910 (December 23, 2004) (Brazil...: Certain Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp from the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 70997 (December 8... Than Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, 70 FR...

  2. 78 FR 33345 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Malaysia: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... fresh (or thawed-from-frozen) and peeled shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting''' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product...

  3. 78 FR 50385 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination, 78 FR 33344 (June 4, 2013... fresh (or thawed-from-frozen) and peeled shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting'' ' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp...

  4. 78 FR 33344 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... fresh (or thawed-from-frozen) and peeled shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting''' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product...

  5. 78 FR 33342 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... fresh (or thawed-from-frozen) and peeled shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting''' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product...

  6. 78 FR 33349 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Indonesia: Negative Preliminary Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... fresh (or thawed-from-frozen) and peeled shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting''' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product...

  7. 75 FR 16436 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India, 70 FR 5147 (Feb. 1, 2005) (Shrimp Order). On February 3, 2010... shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been... of China: Final Results of Changed Circumstances Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 70 FR...

  8. 76 FR 18157 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Administrative Review, 72 FR 52055, (Sept. 12, 2007) ] (2004-2006 Indian Shrimp Final Results). Initiation of..., 74 FR 9991, 9994 (Mar. 9, 2009) (2007-2008 Indian Shrimp Preliminary Results) unchanged in Certain... Administrative Review, 74 FR 33409 (July 13, 2009) (2007-2008 Indian Shrimp Final Results). Absent information...

  9. 78 FR 40436 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... Shrimp Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The regulations for the Gulf Shrimp Vessel and Gear... Gear Characterization Form. The form will be provided by NMFS at the time of permit application...

  10. 77 FR 36998 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... Shrimp Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The regulations for the Gulf Shrimp Vessel and Gear... and Gear Characterization Form. The form will be provided by NMFS at the time of permit...

  11. Modelling gastric evacuation in gadoids feeding on crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Andersen, N G; Chabot, D; Couturier, C S

    2016-05-01

    A mechanistic, prey surface-dependent model was expanded to describe the course and rate of gastric evacuation in predatory fishes feeding on crustacean prey with robust exoskeletons. This was accomplished by adding a layer of higher resistance to the digestive processes outside the inner softer parts of a prey cylinder abstraction and splitting up the prey evacuation into two stages: an initial stage where the exoskeleton is cracked and a second where the prey remains are digested and evacuated. The model was parameterized for crustaceans with different levels of armour fed to Atlantic cod Gadus morhua or whiting Merlangius merlangus and recovered from the stomachs at different post-prandial times. The prey species were krill Meganyctiphanes norvegica; shrimps and prawns Crangon crangon, Pandalus borealis, Pandalus montagui and Eualus macilentus; crabs Liocarcinus depurator and Chionoecetes opilio. In accordance with the apparent intraspecific isometric relationship between exoskeleton mass and total body mass, the model described stage duration and rate of evacuation of the crustacean prey independently of meal and prey sizes. The duration of the first stage increased (0-33 h) and the evacuation rate of both stages decreased (by a half) with increasing level of the crustacean armament in terms of chitin and ash. A common, interspecific parameterization of the model within each of the categories krill, shrimp and crab can probably be used if the contents of chitin and ash are similar among prey species per prey category. The model offers a simple way for estimating evacuation rates from stomach content data in order to obtain food consumption rates of wild fishes, provided that information about digestion stage of crustacean prey is available. PMID:27170110

  12. Progress in the development of shrimp cell cultures in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kasornchandra, J; Khongpradit, R; Ekpanithanpong, U; Boonyaratpalin, S

    1999-01-01

    Primary shrimp cell cultures were developed from lymphoid organ and ovaries of black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, in double-strength Leibovitz's L-15 medium supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum, 1% glucose, 5 g/L NaCl, 15% shrimp meat extract. The optimum conditions for primary culture in vitro were obtained in L-15 medium with an osmolality of approximately 730 +/- 10 mmol/kg, a temperature range of 25--28 degrees C and incubation in a normal atmosphere. However, basal medium supplemented with 0.01% cholesterol could enhance good growth and cells performance initiated from lymphoid organ. Both epithelial-like and fibroblastic- like cells were observed from those organs within 2 days incubation. Within 3 days, 80% confluent monolayers were obtained from the lymphoid organ while cultures from other tissues required 5 days. Cultures were maintained for at least 43 days. Only cells from lymphoid organ could be subcultured and confluent monolayers achieved within 10 days post-spilt. Healthy cultures of the lymphoid cells did not persist beyond the third passage. Application of these primary shrimp cell cultures for studying pathogenic viruses of shrimp in vitro will be discussed. PMID:10627677

  13. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp.

    PubMed

    Luz, Roger B; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B; Soliman, Mayra C; Souza, Fernanda G; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D; Spilki, Fernando R

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26413052

  14. Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses.

    PubMed

    Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2014-02-12

    Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerly known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus), their impacts were greatly diminished after the introduction of tolerant stocks of P. vannamei. Less important viruses are Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV; formerly called hepatopancreatic parvovirus), and Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV; previously called monodon baculovirus). For freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus are considered important viral pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the shrimp viruses described above have been generated and used as an alternative tool in various immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Some of these MAbs were further developed into immunochromatographic strip tests for the detection of WSSV, YHV, IMNV and PemoNPV and into a dual strip test for the simultaneous detection of WSSV/YHV. The strip test has the advantages of speed, as the result can be obtained within 15 min, and simplicity, as laboratory equipment and specialized skills are not required. Therefore, strip tests can be used by shrimp farmers for the pond-side monitoring of viral infection. PMID:24567913

  15. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Roger B.; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B.; Soliman, Mayra C.; Souza, Fernanda G.; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V.; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S.; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D.; Spilki, Fernando R.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26413052

  16. [Detection of allergenic substances (shrimp, crab) in processed seafood].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroko; Saita, Kiyotaka; Akaboshi, Chie; Ohsawa, Nobuhiko; Hashiguchi, Shigeki; Miyazawa, Maki

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out a study (2009-2012) on processed seafood products in order to determine the level of contamination with shrimp and crab. In 2010-2012, after the Allergy Labeling Regulation went into effect, the detection rate of crustacean protein in processed seafood products including small fish, such as niboshi, tukudani and so on (both boiled and dried), was 63%. Detection rates for processed seafood products in which crustacean protein levels were below 1 μg/g were 36% with and 58% without advisory labels, allowing us to conclude that 60% of labels were adequate. On the other hand, the detection rate for processed seafood products with crustacean protein levels higher than the baseline of 10 μg/g was 9%, of which 60% carried no advisory labels. The rate of shrimp DNA detection using the Akiami primer in processed foods containing shrimp and crab was high (73%). This suggests that it is necessary to test these products using the Akiami primer for supplemental analyses of shrimp DNA. The PCR analysis for crab DNA detection failed due to combined detection of mantis shrimp DNA, which accounted for 8% of the total detected. PMID:24598226

  17. Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses

    PubMed Central

    Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2014-01-01

    Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerly known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus), their impacts were greatly diminished after the introduction of tolerant stocks of P. vannamei. Less important viruses are Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV; formerly called hepatopancreatic parvovirus), and Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV; previously called monodon baculovirus). For freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus are considered important viral pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the shrimp viruses described above have been generated and used as an alternative tool in various immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Some of these MAbs were further developed into immunochromatographic strip tests for the detection of WSSV, YHV, IMNV and PemoNPV and into a dual strip test for the simultaneous detection of WSSV/YHV. The strip test has the advantages of speed, as the result can be obtained within 15 min, and simplicity, as laboratory equipment and specialized skills are not required. Therefore, strip tests can be used by shrimp farmers for the pond-side monitoring of viral infection. PMID:24567913

  18. Monogamy in a Hyper-Symbiotic Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Baeza, J Antonio; Simpson, Lunden; Ambrosio, Louis J; Guéron, Rodrigo; Mora, Nathalia

    2016-01-01

    Theory predicts that monogamy is adaptive in resource-specialist symbiotic crustaceans inhabiting relatively small and morphologically simple hosts in tropical environments where predation risk away from hosts is high. We tested this prediction in Pontonia manningi, a hyper-symbiotic shrimp that dwells in the mantle cavity of the Atlantic winged oyster Pteria colymbus that, in turn, infects gorgonians from the genus Pseudopterogorgia in the Caribbean Sea. In agreement with theory, P. manningi were found dwelling as heterosexual pairs in oysters more frequently than expected by chance alone. Males and females also inhabited the same host individual independent of the female gravid condition or of the developmental stage of brooded embryos. While the observations above argue in favor of monogamy in P. manningi, there is evidence to suggest that males of the studied species are moderately promiscuous. That females found living solitary in oysters most often brooded embryos, and that males allocated more to weaponry (major claw size) than females at any given size suggest that males might be roaming among host individuals in search of and, fighting for, receptive females. All available information depicts a rather complex mating system in P. manningi: primarily monogamous but with moderately promiscuous males. PMID:26934109

  19. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, James R.; Walker, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

  20. Monogamy in a Hyper-Symbiotic Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Baeza, J. Antonio; Simpson, Lunden; Ambrosio, Louis J.; Guéron, Rodrigo; Mora, Nathalia

    2016-01-01

    Theory predicts that monogamy is adaptive in resource-specialist symbiotic crustaceans inhabiting relatively small and morphologically simple hosts in tropical environments where predation risk away from hosts is high. We tested this prediction in Pontonia manningi, a hyper-symbiotic shrimp that dwells in the mantle cavity of the Atlantic winged oyster Pteria colymbus that, in turn, infects gorgonians from the genus Pseudopterogorgia in the Caribbean Sea. In agreement with theory, P. manningi were found dwelling as heterosexual pairs in oysters more frequently than expected by chance alone. Males and females also inhabited the same host individual independent of the female gravid condition or of the developmental stage of brooded embryos. While the observations above argue in favor of monogamy in P. manningi, there is evidence to suggest that males of the studied species are moderately promiscuous. That females found living solitary in oysters most often brooded embryos, and that males allocated more to weaponry (major claw size) than females at any given size suggest that males might be roaming among host individuals in search of and, fighting for, receptive females. All available information depicts a rather complex mating system in P. manningi: primarily monogamous but with moderately promiscuous males. PMID:26934109

  1. Microprobe analysis of brine shrimp grown on meteorite extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, J.; Mautner, M. N.; Barry, B.; Markwitz, A.

    2007-07-01

    Nuclear microprobe methods have been used to investigate the uptake and distribution of various elements by brine shrimps and their unhatched eggs when grown in extracts of the Murchison and Allende carbonaceous meteorites, which were selected as model space resources. Measurements were carried out using a focussed 2 MeV proton beam raster scanned over the samples in order to obtain the average elemental concentrations. Line scans across the egg and shrimp samples show uptake of elements such as Mg, Ni, S and P which are present in the meteorites. The results confirmed that carbonaceous chondrite materials can provide nutrients, including high levels of the essential nutrient phosphate. The concentrations of these elements varied significantly between shrimp and eggs grown in extracts of the two meteorite types, which can help in identifying optimal growth media. Our results illustrate that nuclear microprobe techniques can determine elemental concentrations in organisms exposed to meteorite derived media and thus help in identifying useful future resources.

  2. Environmental regulation through trade: the case of shrimp.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Darren; Hite, Diane; Jaffar, Abdul; Kari, Fatimah

    2003-07-01

    The implications of a potential ban on shrimp imports by the US from countries that do not utilize the Turtle Excluder Device on commercial shrimp nets is explored in this paper. A Linear Expenditure System (LES) was used to determine the own-price elasticities of demand for shrimp imports. The system of estimated equations was then solved for quantity levels under assumptions made about the trade restrictions, resulting in a set of prices for those import levels. These estimated prices were then used to estimate the compensating variation impact of the trade restrictions. Findings suggest that the environmental regulation would have a negative impact on US consumers, but the magnitude of that effect depends on assumptions made regarding the distribution of US imports after the trade restriction is imposed. PMID:12837252

  3. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Bavinck, Maarten

    2012-10-01

    Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing mtier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested mtier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers of Chennai (former Madras). Research took place in 2007 and 2008 (N=137). Results suggest a general satisfaction with being in the fishery. However, a little over three-fifths of fishers said they would be willing to change fishing mtier and about one-half said they would leave the occupation. About one-half also said they would not advise a young person to enter the occupation. The tendency to move away from the fishery is argued to reflect a growing pessimism about the future of the shrimp trawl fisheries, but also an increasing awareness of other economic opportunities. PMID:22997478

  4. Cloning of penaeidin gene promoter in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Ho, Shih-Hu; Song, Yen-Ling

    2009-07-01

    Penaeidins belong to a family of antimicrobial peptides that are expressed in the hemocytes of penaeid shrimps. Using an extender PCR method and a nested PCR, we cloned two types of genomic fragment flanking the 5' end of penaeidin gene in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon): Type536 and Type411 sequences. Both fragments contained TATA box, GATA, dorsal and AP-1 motifs and were ligated to an expression vector with a luciferase reporter gene. The constructs were then delivered into Drosophila S2 cell line. The promoter functions of the two fragments were determined using a luciferase expression assay. The study demonstrated that Type411 sequence performed higher transcriptional activity than Type536. Alignment of the upstream sequences of penaeidin genes in P. monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei showed that the promoter regions were obviously more diverse than the 5'UTRs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the presence of two types of promoters that are not species-specific in the two shrimps. PMID:19439182

  5. Cloning of profilin (FcPFN) from the shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis, a highly expressed protein in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected shrimp.

    PubMed

    Kong, H J; Hong, G-E; Cho, H K; Nam, B-H; Kim, Y-O; Kim, W-J; Lee, S-J; Kim, K-K

    2009-01-01

    We isolated and characterized the profilin (FcPFN) cDNA from hemocytes of Fenneropenaeus chinensis, a unique shrimp species from the Yellow Sea. The FcPFN cDNA consists of 830 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 125 amino acids, having a predicted isoelectric point of 5.06. The deduced amino acid sequence of FcPFN shows 36% and 90% amino acid sequence identity to the profilin genes of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, respectively. The FcPFN mRNA was highly expressed in hemocytes and hepatopancreas and moderately in muscle of normal shrimp. The higher expression of FcPFN mRNA is observed in shrimp infected with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), which is a major concern in all shrimp-growing regions of the world. These results suggest a potential role for FcPFN in viral host defense mechanisms. PMID:19638679

  6. The Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect in superclusters of galaxies using gasdynamical simulations: the case of Corona Borealis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Cacho, I.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Luzzi, G.; Rebolo, R.; de Petris, M.; Yepes, G.; Lamagna, L.; de Gregori, S.; Battistelli, E. S.; Coratella, R.; Gottlöber, S.

    2009-12-01

    We study the thermal (tSZ) and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect associated with superclusters of galaxies using the MareNostrum (MNU) universe smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulation. In particular, we consider superclusters with characteristics (total mass, overdensity and number density of cluster members) similar to those of the Corona Borealis Supercluster (CrB-SC). This paper has been motivated by the detection at 33 GHz of a strong temperature decrement in the cosmic microwave background towards the core of this supercluster (Génova-Santos et al.). Multifrequency observations with Very Small Array (VSA) and Millimetre & Infrared Testa Grigia Observatory (MITO) suggest the existence of a tSZ effect component in the spectrum of this cold spot, with a Comptonization parameter value of y = 7.8+4.4-5.3 × 10-6 (Battistelli et al.), which would account for roughly 25 per cent of the total observed decrement. From the SPH simulation, we identify nine (50h-1Mpc)3 regions containing superclusters similar to CrB-SC, obtain the associated SZ maps and calculate the probability of finding such SZ signals arising from hot gas within the supercluster. Our results show that the warm/hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) lying in the intercluster regions within the supercluster produces a tSZ effect much smaller than the observed value by MITO/VSA. Neither can, summing the contribution of small clusters and galaxy groups (M < 5 × 1013h-1Msolar) in the region, explain the amplitude of the SZ signal. Our synthetic maps show peak y-values significantly below the observations. Less than 0.3 per cent are compatible at the lower end of the 1σ level, even when considering privileged orientations in which the filamentary structures are aligned along the line of sight (LOS). When we take into account the actual posterior distribution from the observations, the probability that WHIM can cause a tSZ signal like the one observed in the CrB-SC is <1 per cent, rising up to a 3.2 per cent when the contribution of small clusters and galaxy groups is included. If the simulations provide a suitable description of the gas physics, then we must conclude that the tSZ component of the CrB spot most probably arises from an unknown galaxy cluster along the LOS. On the other hand, the simulations also show that the kSZ signal associated with the supercluster cannot provide an explanation for the remaining 75 per cent of the observed cold spot in CrB.

  7. A study of the galaxy redshift distribution towards the cosmic microwave background cold spot in the Corona Borealis supercluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Génova-Santos, Ricardo; Padilla-Torres, Carmen Pilar; Rubiño Martín, José Alberto; Gutiérrez, Carlos M.; Rebolo, Rafael

    2010-04-01

    We present a study of the spatial and redshift distributions of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies towards the position of CrB-H, a very deep and extended decrement in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), located within the Corona Borealis supercluster (CrB-SC). It was found in a survey with the Very Small Array (VSA) interferometer at 33 GHz, with a peak negative brightness temperature of -230μK, and deviates 4.4σ from the Gaussian CMB (Génova-Santos et al.). Observations with the Millimeter and Infrared Testa Grigia Observatory (MITO) suggested that 25+21-18 per cent of this decrement may be caused by the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect (Battistelli et al.). Here, we investigate whether the galaxy distribution could be tracing either a previously unnoticed galaxy cluster or a warm/hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) filament that could build up this tSZ effect. We find that the projected density of galaxies outside Abell clusters and with redshifts 0.05 < z < 0.12 at the position of CrB-H is the highest in the area encompassed by the CrB-SC. Most of these galaxies are located around redshifts z = 0.07 and 0.11, but no clear connection in the form of a filamentary structure is appreciable in between. While the galaxy distribution at z = 0.07 is sparse, we find evidence at z = 0.11 of a galaxy group or a low-mass galaxy cluster. We estimate that this structure could produce a thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect of ~ -18μK. The remaining VSA signal of ~ -212μK is still a significant 4.1σ deviation from the Gaussian CMB. However, the MITO error bar allows for a larger tSZ effect, which could be produced by galaxy clusters or superclusters beyond the sensitivity of the SDSS. Contributions from other possible secondary anisotropies associated with these structures are also discussed.

  8. Acidicapsa borealis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Acidicapsa ligni sp. nov., subdivision 1 Acidobacteria from Sphagnum peat and decaying wood.

    PubMed

    Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Kostina, Lilia A; Valásková, Vendula; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; de Boer, Wietse; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2012-07-01

    Two strains of subdivision 1 Acidobacteria, a pink-pigmented bacterium KA1(T) and a colourless isolate WH120(T), were obtained from acidic Sphagnum peat and wood under decay by the white-rot fungus Hyploma fasciculare, respectively. Cells of these isolates were Gram-negative-staining, non-motile, short rods, which were covered by large polysaccharide capsules and occurred singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) were strictly aerobic mesophiles that grew between 10 and 33 °C, with an optimum at 22-28 °C. Both isolates developed under acidic conditions, but strain WH120(T) was more acidophilic (pH growth range 3.5-6.4; optimum, 4.0-4.5) than strain KA1(T) (pH growth range 3.5-7.3; optimum , 5.0-5.5). The preferred growth substrates were sugars. In addition, the wood-derived isolate WH120(T) grew on oxalate, lactate and xylan, while the peat-inhabiting acidobacterium strain KA1(T) utilized galacturonate, glucuronate and pectin. The major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0) and iso-C(17:1)ω8c; the cells also contained significant amounts of 13,16-dimethyl octacosanedioic acid. The quinone was MK-8. The DNA G+C contents of strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) were 54.1 and 51.7 mol%, respectively. Strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) displayed 97.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to each other. The closest recognized relatives were Acidobacterium capsulatum and Telmatobacter bradus (93.4-94.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). These species differed from strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) by their ability to grow under anoxic conditions, the absence of capsules, presence of cell motility and differing fatty acid composition. Based on these differences, the two new isolates are proposed as representing a novel genus, Acidicapsa gen. nov., and two novel species. Acidicapsa borealis gen. nov., sp. nov. is the type species for the new genus with strain KA1(T) (=DSM 23886(T)=LMG 25897(T)=VKM B-2678(T)) as the type strain. The name Acidicapsa ligni sp. nov. is proposed for strain WH120(T) (=LMG 26244(T)=VKM B-2677(T)=NCCB 100371(T)). PMID:21856984

  9. Clues to the Evolution of the R Coronae Borealis Stars from their Unique 16O/18O ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Montiel, Edward J.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Welch, Douglas L.; Tisserand, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    We report new spectroscopic observations of the CO bands near 2.3 micron in order to measure the 16O/18O isotopic ratio in the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars using IRTF/SpeX. These observations of ten additional stars confirm the remarkable discovery made a few years ago that the hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) and RCB stars have 16O/18O ratios that are close to and in some cases less than unity, values that are orders of magnitude smaller than measured in other stars (the Solar value is 500). The RCB stars are a small group of carbon-rich supergiants. Only about 100 RCB stars are known in the Galaxy. Their defining characteristics are hydrogen deficiency and unusual variability - RCB stars undergo massive declines of up to 8 mag due to the formation of carbon dust at irregular intervals. The six known HdC stars are very similar to the RCB stars spectroscopically, but do not show declines or IR excesses. Two scenarios have been proposed for the origin of an RCB star: the double degenerate and the final helium-shell flash models. The former involves the merger of a CO- and a He-white dwarf. In the latter, a star evolving into a planetary nebula central star expands to supergiant size by a final, helium-shell flash. Greatly enhanced 18O is evident in every HdC and RCB we have measured that is cool enough to have detectable CO bands. This discovery is important evidence to help distinguish between the proposed evolutionary pathways of HdC and RCB stars. No overproduction of 18O is expected in a final flash, so we are investigating the merger scenario. We are working to reproduce the observed 16O/18O ratios by performing hydrodynamical simulations of the merger of CO- and He-WDs to investigate the formation of RCB stars. We are also using the MESA stellar evolution and NuGrid nucleosynthesis codes to construct post-merger 1D spherical models and follow their evolution into the region of the HR diagram where RCB stars are located.

  10. The Effect of Latitudinal Variation on Shrimp Reproductive Strategies.

    PubMed

    van de Kerk, Madelon; Jones Littles, Chanda; Saucedo, Omar; Lorenzen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive strategies comprise the timing and frequency of reproductive events and the number of offspring per reproductive event, depending on factors such as climate conditions. Therefore, species that exhibit plasticity in the allocation of reproductive effort can alter their behavior in response to climate change. Studying how the reproductive strategy of species varies along the latitudinal gradient can help us understand and predict how they will respond to climate change. We investigated the effects of the temporal allocation of reproductive effort on the population size of brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) along a latitudinal gradient. Multiple shrimp species exhibit variation in their reproductive strategies, and given the economic importance of brown shrimp to the commercial fishing sector of the Unites States, changes in the timing of their reproduction could have significant economic and social consequences. We used a stage-based, density-dependent matrix population model tailored to the life history of brown shrimp. Shrimp growth rates and environmental carrying capacity were varied based on the seasonal climate conditions at different latitudes, and we estimated the population size at equilibrium. The length of the growing season increased with decreasing latitude and the reproductive strategy leading to the highest population size changed from one annual birth pulse with high reproductive output to continuous low-output reproduction. Hence, our model confirms the classical paradigm of continuous reproduction at low latitudes, with increased seasonality of the breeding period towards the poles. Our results also demonstrate the potential for variation in climate to affect the optimal reproductive strategy for achieving maximum population sizes. Certainly, understanding these dynamics may inform more comprehensive management strategies for commercially important species like brown shrimp. PMID:27158895

  11. The Effect of Latitudinal Variation on Shrimp Reproductive Strategies

    PubMed Central

    van de Kerk, Madelon; Jones Littles, Chanda; Saucedo, Omar; Lorenzen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive strategies comprise the timing and frequency of reproductive events and the number of offspring per reproductive event, depending on factors such as climate conditions. Therefore, species that exhibit plasticity in the allocation of reproductive effort can alter their behavior in response to climate change. Studying how the reproductive strategy of species varies along the latitudinal gradient can help us understand and predict how they will respond to climate change. We investigated the effects of the temporal allocation of reproductive effort on the population size of brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) along a latitudinal gradient. Multiple shrimp species exhibit variation in their reproductive strategies, and given the economic importance of brown shrimp to the commercial fishing sector of the Unites States, changes in the timing of their reproduction could have significant economic and social consequences. We used a stage-based, density-dependent matrix population model tailored to the life history of brown shrimp. Shrimp growth rates and environmental carrying capacity were varied based on the seasonal climate conditions at different latitudes, and we estimated the population size at equilibrium. The length of the growing season increased with decreasing latitude and the reproductive strategy leading to the highest population size changed from one annual birth pulse with high reproductive output to continuous low-output reproduction. Hence, our model confirms the classical paradigm of continuous reproduction at low latitudes, with increased seasonality of the breeding period towards the poles. Our results also demonstrate the potential for variation in climate to affect the optimal reproductive strategy for achieving maximum population sizes. Certainly, understanding these dynamics may inform more comprehensive management strategies for commercially important species like brown shrimp. PMID:27158895

  12. Issues, Impacts, and Implications of Shrimp Aquaculture in Thailand

    PubMed

    Dierberg; Kiattisimkul

    1996-09-01

    Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just beginning to be considered in Thailand, partial recirculating and integrated intensive farming systems are producing promising, if somewhat limited, results. By providing on-site treatment of the effluent from the shrimp growout ponds, there is less reliance on using outside water supplies, believed to be the source of the contamination.The explosion in the number of intensively operated shrimp farms has not only impacted the coastal zone of Thailand, but has also resulted in an unsustainable aquaculture industry. Abandonment of shrimp ponds due to either drastic, disease-caused collapses or more grandual, year-to-year reductions in the productivity of the pond is common. To move Thailand towards a more sustainable aquaculture industry and coastal zone environment, integrated aquaculture management is needed. Components of integrated aquaculture management are technical and institutional. The technical components involve deployment of wastewater treatment and minimal water-use systems aimed at making aquaculture operations more hydraulically closed. Before this is possible, technical and economic feasibility studies on enhanced nitrification systems and organic solids removal by oxidation between production cycles and/or the utilization of plastic pond liners need to be conducted. The integration of semi-intensive aquaculture within mangrove areas also should be investigated since mangrove losses attributable to shrimp aquaculture are estimated to be between 16 and 32 % of the total mangrove area destroyed betweeen 1979 and 1993.Government policy needs to devote as much attention to sustainability issues as it has on promoting intensive pond culture. Such a balanced policy would include training and education monitoring and enforcement, rehabilitating abandoned ponds, managing land use within the coastal zone, more community involvement, and government reorganization to eliminate overlapping jurisdictions among agencies.As integrated aquaculture management becomes more the practice than the exception, less risk of crop failure to the industry and reduced discharge loadings from intensively managed shrimp ponds to receiving waters can be expected. Projected limitations on growing and marketing shrimp in the future, such as scarcity of land and broodstock, continued disease outbreaks, negative publicity, regulatory enforcement, water treatment and solids disposal costs, and increased competition from growers in other Asian countries will also drive the government and the industry towards adopting integrated aquaculture management.KEY WORDS: Shrimp aquaculture; Thailand; Historical practices; Environmental impacts; Sustainability; Integrated management; Water treatment; Institutional aspects PMID:8703103

  13. Biomechanics: deadly strike mechanism of a mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    Patek, S N; Korff, W L; Caldwell, R L

    2004-04-22

    Stomatopods (mantis shrimp) are well known for the feeding appendages they use to smash shells and impale fish. Here we show that the peacock mantis shrimp (Odontodactylus scyllarus) generates an extremely fast strike that requires major energy storage and release, which we explain in terms of a saddle-shaped exoskeletal spring mechanism. High-speed images reveal the formation and collapse of vapour bubbles next to the prey due to swift movement of the appendage towards it, indicating that O. scyllarus may use destructive cavitation forces to damage its prey. PMID:15103366

  14. Summary of studies on closed-polyculture of penaeid shrimp with fishes and moluscans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, De-Shang; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2000-03-01

    Closed-polyculture of Chinese penaeid shrimp, Taiwan red tilapia, and molluscans(constricted tagelus and bay scallop) was studied from 1995 to 1997 with the enclosure-experiment method, on a shrimp farm in Haiyang County, Shandong Province. Four structure-optimized closed-polyculture systems, i. e., the “shrimp-tagelus” system, the “shrimp-scallop” system, the “shrimp-tilapia” system and the “shrimp-tilapia-tagelus” system, were worked out. All these polyculture systems were superior to shrimp monoculture system in economic and ecological efficiencies. The order of these polyculture systems in efficiencies was “shrimptilapia-tagelus” > “shrimp-tagelus”>“shrimp-tilapia”>“shrimp-scallop”. The “shrimp-tilapia-tagelus” system raised the production by 28% and the utilization efficiency of input nitrogen by 85%. These closed-polyculture systems reduced the nitrogen discharge ratio to 6% 8%, instead of 40% 90% in the usual open culture systems. The ecological features of the systems were also investigated and many meaningful results have been obtained. The mechanism enhancing the efficiencies of these systems, the ways to enhance the efficiencies further and those to reuse the sedimented materials are disscussed.

  15. The effects of a thermophile metabolite, tryptophol, upon protecting shrimp against white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fei; Jin, Min

    2015-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a shrimp pathogen responsible for significant economic loss in commercial shrimp farms and until now, there has been no effective approach to control this disease. In this study, tryptophol (indole-3-ethanol) was identified as a metabolite involved in bacteriophage-thermophile interactions. The dietary addition of tryptophol reduced the mortality in shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus when orally challenged with WSSV. Our results revealed that 50 mg/kg tryptophol has a better protective effect in shrimp than 10 or 100 mg/kg tryptophol. WSSV copies in shrimp were reduced significantly (P < 0.01) when supplemented with 50 mg/kg tryptophol, indicating that virus replication was inhibited by tryptophol. Consequently, tryptophol represents an effective antiviral dietary supplement for shrimp, and thus holds significant promise as a novel and efficient therapeutic approach to control WSSV in shrimp aquaculture. PMID:26492993

  16. A feasibility study of gamma irradiation on Thailand frozen shrimps ( PENEAUS MONODON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, M. L.; Charbonneau, R.; Jobin, M.; Thibault, C.; Nouchpramool, K.; Charoen, S.; Gagnon, M.

    1995-02-01

    Two lots of frozen precooked shrimps from Thaïland "PENAEUS MONODON" Black tiger variety were irradiated at 1.8 to 3.6 kGy. This way, it was hoped to compare the effects of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and the organoleptic properties of frozen precooked shrimps after transportation from Thailand to Canada. The results indicated that the extension of shelf-life based on mesophiles content was from 33 days for the control to more than 47 days for the irradiated shrimps stored at 3 ± 1 °C. The results of sensory evaluation gave slightly fresher odor for the control than the irradiated shrimps. On day one, this effect was more apparent. The results of hedonic tests showed that the irradiated shrimps were acceptable during storage. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the combined treatments (freezing plus irradiation) of precooked shrimps are useful for increasing the storage life of shrimps without affecting consumer acceptability.

  17. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter J; Winton, James R

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

  18. Molecule capture by olfactory antennules: mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Mark T; Mead, Kristina S; Koehl, Mimi A R

    2002-01-01

    A critical step in the process of olfaction is the movement of odorant molecules from the environment to the surface of a chemosensory structure. Many marine crustaceans capture odorant molecules with arrays of chemosensory sensilla (aesthetascs) on antennules that they flick through the water. We developed a model to calculate molecule flux to the surfaces of aesthetascs in order to study how the size, aesthetasc spacing, and flick kinematics of olfactory antennules affect their performance in capturing molecules from the surrounding water. Since the three-dimensional geometry of an aesthetasc-bearing antennule is complex, dynamically-scaled physical models can often provide an efficient method of determining the fluid velocity field through the array. Here we present a method to optimize the incorporation of such measured velocity vector fields into a numerical simulation of the advection and diffusion of odorants to aesthetasc surfaces. Furthermore, unlike earlier models of odorant interception by antennae, our model incorporates odorant concentration distributions that have been measured in turbulent ambient flows. By applying our model to the example of the olfactory antennules of mantis shrimp, we learned that flicking velocity can have profound effects on odorant flux to the aesthetascs if they operate in the speed range in which the leakiness of the gaps between the aesthetascs to fluid movement is sensitive to velocity. This sensitivity creates an asymmetry in molecule fluxes between outstroke and return stroke, which results in an antennule taking discrete samples in space and time, i.e. "sniffing". As stomatopods grow and their aesthetasc Reynolds number increases, the aesthetasc arrangement on the antennule changes in a way that maintains these asymmetries in leakiness and molecule flux between the outstroke and return stroke, allowing the individual to continue to take discrete samples as it develops. PMID:11942523

  19. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Peter J.; Winton, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

  20. Bringing Scientific Inquiry Alive Using Real Grass Shrimp Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aultman, Terry; Curran, Mary Carla; Partridge, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ("Palaemonetes pugio") to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Education through the Living Marine

  1. Talking about Brine Shrimps: Three Ways of Analysing Pupil Conversations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Applies three distinct analyses to recorded and transcribed student conversations (n=240) about brine shrimps. The complementary analytic methods provide information on the content of pupils' conversations in terms of the observations made, the ways in which pupils make sense of their observations, and the ways in which students use conversation…

  2. Brine Shrimp and Their Habitat, An Environmental Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within the existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and students are encouraged to work at their own speed. The philosophy of the unit is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages independent student work. This unit explores the life cycle of brine shrimp and…

  3. Multilevel analysis of elastic morphology: The mantis shrimp's spring.

    PubMed

    Rosario, M V; Patek, S N

    2015-09-01

    Spring systems, whether natural or engineered, are composed of compliant and rigid regions. Biological springs are often similar to monolithic structures that distribute compliance and rigidity across the whole system. For example, to confer different amounts of compliance in distinct regions within a single structure, biological systems typically vary regional morphology through thickening or elongation. Here, we analyze the monolithic spring in mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) raptorial appendages to rapidly acquire or process prey. We quantified the shape of cross-sections of the merus segment of the raptorial appendage. We also examined specific regions of the merus that are hypothesized to either store elastic energy or provide structural support to permit energy storage in other regions of the system. We found that while all mantis shrimp contain thicker ventral bars in distal cross-sections, differences in thickness are more pronounced in high-impact "smasher" mantis shrimp than in the slower-striking "spearer" mantis shrimp. We also found that spearer cross-sections are more circular while those of smashers are more eccentric with elongation along the dorso-ventral axis. The results suggest that the regional thickening of ventral bars provides structural support for resisting spring compression and also reduces flexural stiffness along the system's long axis. This multilevel morphological analysis offers a foundation for understanding the evolution and mechanics of monolithic systems in biology. PMID:26195244

  4. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section 161.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish...

  5. 21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. 102.55 Section 102.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION COMMON OR USUAL NAME FOR NONSTANDARDIZED FOODS...

  6. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section 161.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish...

  7. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section 161.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish...

  8. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section 161.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish...

  9. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section 161.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly...

  10. Soybean meal, distillers grains replace fishmeal in experimental shrimp diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  11. CO2 Efflux from Shrimp Ponds in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored ‘blue’ carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO2 efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO2 efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO2 m−2 y−1 from the walls and 1.60 kg CO2 m−2 y−1 from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y−1. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO2 emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO2 released to atmosphere. PMID:23755306

  12. Production of low-fat shrimps by using hydrocolloid coatings.

    PubMed

    Izadi, S; Ojagh, S M; Rahmanifarah, K; Shabanpour, B; Sakhale, B K

    2015-09-01

    Production of low-fat fried foods by using hydrocolloid coatings is a common method to avoid excessive oil absorption during deep-fat frying. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of hydrocolloid coatings (carboxymethyl cellulose, guar, tragacanth and zedo gum) on the oil content and quality parameters of shrimp after deep-fat frying. The hydrocolloid solutions (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 % w/v) were used for coating. Coated and uncoated (control) samples were packaged and stored at -20 and after a week were fried at 170 °C for 90 s in sunflower oil. The results showed that all hydrocolloid coatings reduced oil content of fried shrimp. The coated shrimps with 1.5 % tragacanth solution had highest coating pick up and moisture content, and lowest oil content than the other samples. The coated samples had darker color and softer texture than the control sample. Sensory evaluation indicated that all coated and uncoated shrimps were acceptable. PMID:26345025

  13. Distribution and biology of Indo-Pacific insular hypogeal shrimps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maciolek, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Ten species of caridean shrimps, representing nine genera in five families, have been found in exposures of the marine water table at 28 islands from Hawaii to the western Indian Ocean. Synthesis of literature information and personal observations indicate that, as a group, these shrimps are characterized by red body pigment, reduced but pigmented eyes, euryhalinity, a proclivity for interstitial seawater in limestone or lava rock, generalized food requirements, and probable pre-Pleistocene origins. The shrimps have not been found in waters cooler than about 20°C.Species are often solitary, but as many as five are known to coexist. Six of the species have widely scattered populations, some as far apart as Hawaii and the Red Sea. Passive oceanic dispersal is endorsed as a general explanation for such apparently disjunct distributions. On the basis of an assumed primary habitat requirement of interstitial marine water, which could include that in shallow submerged rock as well as that in emergent (insular) rock, I hypothesize a much more cosmopolitan distribution of these shrimps in the Indo-Pacific Tropical Zone.

  14. Bringing Scientific Inquiry Alive Using Real Grass Shrimp Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aultman, Terry; Curran, Mary Carla; Partridge, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ("Palaemonetes pugio") to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Education through the Living Marine…

  15. Stable isotope analysis of some representative fish and invertebrates of the Newfoundland and Labrador continental shelf food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Graham D.; Rose, George A.

    2005-06-01

    We examined stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures of 17 fish and 16 invertebrate taxa common to the Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) continental shelf food web. Particular sampling emphasis was placed on Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) and related prey species (e.g. shrimp, Pandalus borealis, and capelin, Mallotus villosus). We found highly significant ( p < 0.0001) differences between near-shore (bays) and offshore (shelf edge) δ15N signatures for cod, 'other fish' (pooled) and invertebrates (pooled). In contrast, there were only minor differences in δ13C signatures of 'other fish' ( p < 0.05) and no difference for cod and invertebrates among the two habitats. We sampled at two times of the year (January and June) and found no systematic effect of season on both δ13C and δ15N in cod, 'other fish' and invertebrates. We calculated isotopic fractionation factors for cod from the entire shelf (mixed diet) and for cod with diets composed mainly of capelin or shrimp. These values ranged between 2.2‰ and 3.9‰ for δ15N and -0.4‰ and 0.8‰ for δ13C and, for δ15N, may reflect diet-related differences in bioenergetic status. We discuss potential mechanisms for near-shore versus offshore enrichment of δ15N signatures, and demonstrate the implications of this spatial variation on δ15N-derived trophic position estimates.

  16. Diet composition and feeding behaviour of juvenile Greenland halibut ( Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) in the Svalbard area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollen, Tone; Albert, Ole Thomas; Nilssen, Einar M.

    2004-05-01

    The diet of trawl-captured juvenile Greenland halibut ( Reinhardtius hippoglossoides Walbaum) from three locations on the western and northern coasts of Svalbard, Norway, in December 1995 and January 1996 is described. Stomach fullness was recorded for 1216 fish of 7 to 65 cm length, and stomach contents were analysed for 353 non-empty stomachs. The diet differed only slightly between the sampling areas and no differences were found between males and females. The overall percentage of empty stomachs (PES) was comparable to other nursery areas and lower than recordings from feeding and spawning areas. PES decreased and prey size increased as predator length increased. Fish and crustaceans dominated the diet, the most important prey species being Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua), polar cod ( Boreogadus saida) and northern shrimp ( Pandalus borealis). The relative importance of fish and crustaceans, respectively, was independent of predator length. However, a size-dependent variation in preferred prey was found, as smaller fish preyed upon small crustaceans and polar cod while larger individuals displayed a preference for northern shrimp, juvenile Atlantic cod, and other larger fish. Finally, there was a close resemblance between the length distribution of prey species from the trawl and from the stomachs.

  17. Issues, impacts, and implications of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierberg, Forrest E.; Kiattisimkul, Woraphan

    1996-09-01

    Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just beginning to be considered in Thailand, partial recirculating and integrated intensive farming systems are producing promising, if somewhat limited, results. By providing on-site treatment of the effluent from the shrimp growout ponds, there is less reliance on using outside water supplies, believed to be the source of the contamination. The explosion in the number of intensively operated shrimp farms has not only impacted the coastal zone of Thailand, but has also resulted in an unsustainable aquaculture industry. Abandonment of shrimp ponds due to either drastic, disease-caused collapses or more grandual, year-to-year reductions in the productivity of the pond is common. To move Thailand towards a more sustainable aquaculture industry and coastal zone environment, integrated aquaculture management is needed. Components of integrated aquaculture management are technical and institutional. The technical components involve deployment of wastewater treatment and minimal water-use systems aimed at making aquaculture operations more hydraulically closed. Before this is possible, technical and economic feasibility studies on enhanced nitrification systems and organic solids removal by oxidation between production cycles and/or the utilization of plastic pond liners need to be conducted. The integration of semi-intensive aquaculture within mangrove areas also should be investigated since mangrove losses attributable to shrimp aquaculture are estimated to be between 16 and 32% of the total mangrove area destroyed betweeen 1979 and 1993. Government policy needs to devote as much attention to sustainability issues as it has on promoting intensive pond culture. Such a balanced policy would include training and education monitoring and enforcement, rehabilitating abandoned ponds, managing land use within the coastal zone, more community involvement, and government reorganization to eliminate overlapping jurisdictions among agencies. As integrated aquaculture management becomes more the practice than the exception, less risk of crop failure to the industry and reduced discharge loadings from intensively managed shrimp ponds to receiving waters can be expected. Projected limitations on growing and marketing shrimp in the future, such as scarcity of land and broodstock, continued disease outbreaks, negative publicity, regulatory enforcement, water treatment and solids disposal costs, and increased competition from growers in other Asian countries will also drive the government and the industry towards adopting integrated aquaculture management.

  18. Fish and opossum shrimp entrainment in the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Impacts of operating the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Power Plant on fish and opossum shrimp (mysis relicta) were investigated from 1981 to 1985 at Twin Lakes, Colorado to determine any negative effects on the Twin Lakes fishery. Daytime generation cycles entrained shrimp at densities averaging 0.05 to 0.23 shrimp/m/sup 3/ of discharge. Eight hour daytime generation cycles would entrain 50,000 to 300,000 shrimp at these rates. Generation cycles which occurred after dark entrained many times more shrimp with densities as high as 1.21 shrimp/m/sup 3/ of discharge. Entrainment density during nighttime pump-back cycles was much greater; averaging 2 to 17 shrimp/m/sup 3/ discharged. Six to 44 million shrimp were entrained during typical 8 h pump-back cycles. Differences between daytime and nighttime entrainment rates appeared to be caused by migration of shrimp into the water column at night making them more vulnerable to entrainment. Losses were estimated to have reduced Lower Twin Lake shrimp abundance by 39% in 1985.

  19. Microhabitat and shrimp abundance within a Norwegian cold-water coral ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purser, A.; Ontrup, J.; Schoening, T.; Thomsen, L.; Tong, R.; Unnithan, V.; Nattkemper, T. W.

    2013-02-01

    Cold-water coral reefs are highly heterogeneous ecosystems comprising of a range of diverse microhabitats. In a typical European cold-water coral reef various biogenic habitats (live colonies of locally common coral species such as Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, dead coral structure, coral rubble) may be surrounded and intermixed with non-biogenic habitats (soft sediment, hardground, gravel/pebbles, steep walls). To date, studies of distribution of sessile fauna across these microhabitats have been more numerous than those investigating mobile fauna distribution. In this study we quantified shrimp densities associated with key CWC habitat categories at the Røst reef, Norway, by analysing image data collected by towed video sled. We also investigated shrimp distribution patterns on the local scale (<40 cm) and how these may vary with habitat. We found shrimp abundances at the Røst reef to be on average an order of magnitude greater in biogenic reef habitats than in non-biogenic habitats. Greatest shrimp densities were observed in association with live Paragorgia arborea habitats (43 shrimp m-2, SD = 35.5), live Primnoa resedaeformis habitats (41.6 shrimp m-2, SD = 26.1) and live Lophelia pertusa habitats (24.4 shrimp m-2, SD = 18.6). In non-biogenic habitats shrimp densities were <2 shrimp m-2. We conclude that CWC reef habitats clearly support greater shrimp densities than the surrounding non-biogenic habitats on the Norwegian margin.

  20. Microhabitat and shrimp abundance within a Norwegian cold-water coral ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purser, A.; Ontrup, J.; Schoening, T.; Thomsen, L.; Tong, R.; Unnithan, V.; Nattkemper, T. W.

    2013-09-01

    Cold-water coral (CWC) reefs are heterogeneous ecosystems comprising numerous microhabitats. A typical European CWC reef provides various biogenic microhabitats (within, on and surrounding colonies of coral species such as Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, or formed by their remains after death). These microhabitats may be surrounded and intermixed with non-biogenic microhabitats (soft sediment, hard ground, gravel/pebbles, steep walls). To date, studies of distribution of sessile fauna across CWC reefs have been more numerous than those investigating mobile fauna distribution. In this study we quantified shrimp densities associated with key CWC microhabitat categories at the Røst Reef, Norway, by analysing image data collected by towed video sled in June 2007. We also investigated shrimp distribution patterns on the local scale (<40 cm) and how these may vary with microhabitat. Shrimp abundances at the Røst Reef were on average an order of magnitude greater in biogenic reef microhabitats than in non-biogenic microhabitats. Greatest shrimp densities were observed in association with live Paragorgia arborea microhabitat (43 shrimp m-2, SD = 35.5), live Primnoa resedaeformis microhabitat (41.6 shrimp m-2, SD = 26.1) and live Lophelia pertusa microhabitat (24.4 shrimp m-2, SD = 18.6). In non-biogenic microhabitat, shrimp densities were <2 shrimp m-2. CWC reef microhabitats appear to support greater shrimp densities than the surrounding non-biogenic microhabitats at the Røst Reef, at least at the time of survey.

  1. Salmonella and the sanitary quality of aquacultured shrimp.

    PubMed

    Koonse, Brett; Burkhardt, William; Chirtel, Stuart; Hoskin, George P

    2005-12-01

    In this study, we examined the prevalence of Salmonella and coliform bacteria on shrimp aquaculture farms to develop guidelines or preventative measures for reducing Salmonella and fecal contamination on products harvested from these farms. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, in conjunction with foreign government regulatory agencies, the aquaculture industry, and academia affiliates, analyzed 1,234 samples from 103 shrimp aquaculture farms representing six countries between July 2001 and June 2003 for fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. A significant relationship was found (P = 0.0342) between the log number of fecal bacteria and the probability that any given sample would contain Salmonella. The likelihood of any given sample containing Salmonella was increased by 1.2 times with each 10-fold increase in either fecal coliform or E. coli concentration. The statistical relationship between Salmonella concentration and that of both fecal coliforms and E. coli was highest in grow-out pond water (P = 0.0042 for fecal coliforms and P = 0.0021 for E. coli). The likelihood of finding Salmonella in grow-out pond water increased 2.7 times with each log unit increase in fecal coliform concentration and 3.0 times with each log unit increase in E. coli concentration. Salmonella is not part of the natural flora of the shrimp culture environment nor is it inherently present in shrimp grow-out ponds. The occurrence of Salmonella bacteria in shrimp from aquaculture operations is related to the concentration of fecal bacteria in the source and grow-out pond water. PMID:16355822

  2. PCB concentrations in shrimp from major import markets and the United States.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Fillos D; Scott LL; De Sylor MA; Grespin M; Luksemburg WJ; Finley B

    2012-05-01

    Currently, environmental studies describing levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in imported shrimp are limited, particularly studies of aquaculture shrimp. In the present study, we measured concentrations of the 209 PCB congeners in 84 uncooked, warm-water shrimp samples from the United States and 14 other countries in three continents. Total PCB and dioxin-like PCB (DL-PCB) levels were not significantly different between wild-caught and farm-raised shrimp, and the distribution of total PCB levels did not vary considerably by country of origin although significant differences were observed in some cases. Regional trends in both total PCB and DL-PCB concentrations were observed, with the highest concentrations measured in shrimp from North America followed by Asia and then South America. The lower chlorinated homologues (i.e., mono-, di-, and tri-PCBs) generally comprised a greater fraction of the total levels measured in farm-raised shrimp and shrimp from Asia and South America whereas higher chlorinated homologues (i.e., hepta-, octa-, nona-, and deca-PCBs) contributed more to levels in wild-caught shrimp and shrimp from North America. Estimated daily intake of PCBs associated with shrimp consumption ranged from 2 pg/kg/d (shrimp from South America) to 15 pg/kg/d (shrimp from North America). Results from the present study were comparable to other studies conducted recently and demonstrate that exposure to PCBs from consumption of farm-raised and wild-caught shrimp imported from different regions are not likely to pose any health risks.

  3. PCB concentrations in shrimp from major import markets and the United States.

    PubMed

    Fillos, Dimitri; Scott, Laura L F; De Sylor, Marianna Anderle; Grespin, Matthew; Luksemburg, William J; Finley, Brent

    2012-05-01

    Currently, environmental studies describing levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in imported shrimp are limited, particularly studies of aquaculture shrimp. In the present study, we measured concentrations of the 209 PCB congeners in 84 uncooked, warm-water shrimp samples from the United States and 14 other countries in three continents. Total PCB and dioxin-like PCB (DL-PCB) levels were not significantly different between wild-caught and farm-raised shrimp, and the distribution of total PCB levels did not vary considerably by country of origin although significant differences were observed in some cases. Regional trends in both total PCB and DL-PCB concentrations were observed, with the highest concentrations measured in shrimp from North America followed by Asia and then South America. The lower chlorinated homologues (i.e., mono-, di-, and tri-PCBs) generally comprised a greater fraction of the total levels measured in farm-raised shrimp and shrimp from Asia and South America whereas higher chlorinated homologues (i.e., hepta-, octa-, nona-, and deca-PCBs) contributed more to levels in wild-caught shrimp and shrimp from North America. Estimated daily intake of PCBs associated with shrimp consumption ranged from 2 pg/kg/d (shrimp from South America) to 15 pg/kg/d (shrimp from North America). Results from the present study were comparable to other studies conducted recently and demonstrate that exposure to PCBs from consumption of farm-raised and wild-caught shrimp imported from different regions are not likely to pose any health risks. PMID:22407850

  4. Endoparasite survey of free-swimming baleen whales (Balaenoptera musculus, B. physalus, B. borealis) and sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) using non/minimally invasive methods.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Silva, Liliana M R; Kleinertz, Sonja; Prieto, Rui; Silva, Monica A; Taubert, Anja

    2016-02-01

    A number of parasitic diseases have gained importance as neozoan opportunistic infections in the marine environment. Here, we report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of three baleen whale species and one toothed whale: blue (Balaenoptera musculus), fin (Balaenoptera physalus), and sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis) and sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) from the Azores Islands, Portugal. In total, 17 individual whale fecal samples [n = 10 (B. physalus); n = 4 (P. macrocephalus); n = 2 (B. musculus); n = 1 (B. borealis)] were collected from free-swimming animals as part of ongoing studies on behavioral ecology. Furthermore, skin biopsies were collected from sperm whales (n = 5) using minimally invasive biopsy darting and tested for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, and Besnoitia besnoiti DNA via PCR. Overall, more than ten taxa were detected in whale fecal samples. Within protozoan parasites, Entamoeba spp. occurred most frequently (64.7%), followed by Giardia spp. (17.6%) and Balantidium spp. (5.9%). The most prevalent metazoan parasites were Ascaridida indet. spp. (41.2%), followed by trematodes (17.7%), acanthocephalan spp., strongyles (11.8%), Diphyllobotrium spp. (5.9%), and spirurids (5.9%). Helminths were mainly found in sperm whales, while enteric protozoan parasites were exclusively detected in baleen whales, which might be related to dietary differences. No T. gondii, N. caninum, or B. besnoiti DNA was detected in any skin sample. This is the first record on Giardia and Balantidium infections in large baleen whales. PMID:26593736

  5. Application of molecular diagnostic methods to penaeid shrimp diseases: advances of the past 10 years for control of viral diseases in farmed shrimp.

    PubMed

    Lightner, D V; Poulos, B T; Tang-Nelson, K F J; Pantoja, C R; Nunan, L M; Navarro, S A; Redman, R M; Mohney, L L

    2006-01-01

    The most important diseases of farmed penaeid shrimp have infectious aetiologies. Among these are diseases with viral, rickettsial, bacterial, fungal and parasitic aetiologies. Diagnostic methods for these pathogens include the traditional methods of gross pathology, histopathology, classical microbiology, animal bioassay, antibody-based methods, and molecular methods using DNA probes and DNA amplification. While methods using clinical chemistry and tissue culture are standard methods in veterinary and human diagnostic laboratories, the former has not been routinely applied to the diagnosis of penaeid shrimp diseases and the latter has yet to be developed, despite considerable research and development efforts that have spanned the past 40 years. No continuous shrimp cell lines, or lines from other crustaceans, have been developed. Hence, when molecular methods began to be routinely applied to the diagnosis of infectious diseases in humans and domestic animals in the mid- to late 1980s, the technology was applied to the diagnosis of certain important diseases of penaeid shrimp for which only classical diagnostic methods were previously available. A DNA hybridization assay for the parvovirus IHHNV was the first molecular test developed for a shrimp disease. This was followed within a year by the first PCR test for MBV, an important baculovirus disease of shrimp. Today, shrimp disease diagnostic laboratories routinely use molecular tests for diagnostic and surveillance purposes for most of the important penaeid shrimp diseases. PMID:17058487

  6. Vaccination Enhances Early Immune Responses in White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after Secondary Exposure to Vibrio alginolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Morni, Wan Zabidii W.; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Huang, Chien-Lun; Li, Chang-Che; Hsieh, Jen-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent work suggested that the presence of specific memory or some form of adaptive immunity occurs in insects and shrimp. Hypervariable pattern recognition molecules, known as Down syndrome cell adhesion molecules, are able to mount specific recognition, and immune priming in invertebrates. In the present study, we attempted to understand the immune response pattern of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received primary (PE) and secondary exposure (SE) to Vibrio alginolyticus. Methodology Immune parameters and proliferation of haematopoietic tissues (HPTs) of shrimp which had received PE and SE to V. alginolyticus were measured. In the PE trial, the immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of shrimp that received heat-killed V. alginolyticus (HVa) and formalin-inactivated V. alginolyticus (FVa) were measured. Mortality, immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to HVa after 7 days) and 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to FVa after 7 days) following SE to live V. alginolyticus (LVa) were measured. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were examined for the 7∼35-day-HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp. Results HVa-receiving shrimp showed an earlier increase in the immune response on day 1, whereas FVa-receiving shrimp showed a late increase in the immune response on day 5. The 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed enhancement of immunity when encountering SE to LVa, whereas 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp showed a minor enhancement in immunity. 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed higher proliferation and an HPT mitotic index. Both phagocytic activity and clearance maintained higher for both HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp after 28 days. Conclusions HVa- and FVa-receiving shrimp showed the bacteria agglutinated prior to being phagocytised. FVa functions as a vaccine, whereas HVa functions as an inducer and can be used as an immune adjuvant. A combined mixture of FVa and HVa can serve as a “vaccine component” to modulate the immunity of shrimp. PMID:23894531

  7. The Effect of Copper on the Color of Shrimps: Redder Is Not Always Healthier

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Ana; Romero, Yanet; Castillo, Tania; Mascaró, Maite; López-Rull, Isabel; Simões, Nuno; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Barbosa, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is to test the effects of copper on the color of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in vivo. Forty-eight shrimps (L. vannamei) were exposed to a low concentration of copper (1 mg/L; experimental treatment) and forty-eight shrimps were used as controls (no copper added to the water). As a result of this experiment, it was found that shrimps with more copper are significantly redder than those designated as controls (hue (500–700 nm): P = 0.0015; red chroma (625–700 nm): P<0.0001). These results indicate that redder color may result from exposure to copper and challenge the commonly held view that highly pigmented shrimps are healthier than pale shrimps. PMID:25229639

  8. Differential gene expression in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, following administration of oxytetracycline and oxolinic acid.

    PubMed

    Fagutao, Fernand F; Yasuike, Motoshige; Santos, Mudjekeewis D; Ruangpan, Lila; Sangrunggruang, Kulvara; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Takahashi, Yuikinori; Ueno, Ryuji; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi

    2009-10-01

    The intensification of shrimp farming systems has led to the spreading of a variety of bacterial and viral diseases that continue to plague the shrimp industry worldwide. Efforts to combat these pathogenic organisms include the use of immunostimulants, probiotics, vaccines and antibiotics. Although a few studies have already reported on the effects of various stimuli on shrimp, the effect of antibiotics, particularly on the changes in the shrimp transcriptomic profile have yet to be reported. Here we show that injecting shrimp with oxytetracycline and oxolinic acid alters the expression of genes in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, lymphoid organ. These antibiotics, especially oxylinic acid, down-regulated the expression of a few immune-related genes, most notably penaeidin, proPO, clotting protein, profilin and whey acidic protein. PMID:19497335

  9. Ecological limitations and appropriation of ecosystem support by shrimp farming in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Jonas; Folke, Carl; Kautsky, Nils

    1994-09-01

    Shrimp farming in mangrove areas has grown dramatically in Asia and Latin America over the past decade. As a result, demand for resources required for farming, such as feed, seed, and clean water, has increased substantially. This study focuses on semiintensive shrimp culture as practiced on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. We estimated the spatial ecosystem support that is required to produce the food inputs, nursery areas, and clean water to the shrimp farms, as well as to process wastes. We also made an estimate of the natural and human-made resources necessary to run a typical semiintensive shrimp farm. The results show that a semiintensive shrimp farm needs a spatial ecosystem support—the ecological footprint—that is 35-190 times larger than the surface area of the farm. A typical such shrimp farm appropriates about 295 J of ecological work for each joule of edible shrimp protein produced. The corresponding figure for industrial energy is 40:1. More than 80% of the ecological primary production required to feed the shrimps is derived from external ecosystems. In 1990 an area of 874-2300 km2 of mangrove was required to supply shrimp postlarvae to the farms in Colombia, corresponding to a total area equivalent to about 20-50% of the country’s total mangrove area. The results were compared with similar estimates for other food production systems, particularly aquacultural ones. The comparison indicates that shrimp farming ranks as one of the most resource-intensive food production systems, characterizing it as an ecologically unsustainable throughput system. Based on the results, we discuss local, national, and regional appropriation of ecological support by the semiintensive shrimp farms. Suggestions are made for how shrimp farming could be transformed into a food production system that is less environmentally degrading and less dependent on external support areas.

  10. The role of selective breeding and biosecurity in the prevention of disease in penaeid shrimp aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Moss, Shaun M; Moss, Dustin R; Arce, Steve M; Lightner, Donald V; Lotz, Jeffrey M

    2012-06-01

    About 3.5 million metric tons of farmed shrimp were produced globally in 2009 with an estimated value greater than USD$14.6 billion. Despite the economic importance of farmed shrimp, the global shrimp farming industry continues to be plagued by disease. There are a number of strategies a shrimp farmer can employ to mitigate crop loss from disease, including the use of Specific Pathogen Free (SPF), selectively bred shrimp and the adoption of on-farm biosecurity practices. Selective breeding for disease resistance began in the mid 1990s in response to outbreaks of Taura syndrome, caused by Taura syndrome virus (TSV), which devastated populations of farmed shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) throughout the Americas. Breeding programs designed to enhance TSV survival have generated valuable information about the quantitative genetics of disease resistance in shrimp and have produced shrimp families which exhibit high survival after TSV exposure. The commercial availability of these selected shrimp has benefitted the shrimp farming industry and TSV is no longer considered a major threat in many shrimp farming regions. Although selective breeding has been valuable in combating TSV, this approach has not been effective for other viral pathogens and selective breeding may not be the most effective strategy for the long-term viability of the industry. Cost-effective, on-farm biosecurity protocols can be more practical and less expensive than breeding programs designed to enhance disease resistance. Of particular importance is the use of SPF shrimp stocked in biosecure environments where physical barriers are in place to mitigate the introduction and spread of virulent pathogens. PMID:22434005

  11. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Appenzeller Cheese Supplemented with Shrimp Powder

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hee-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Chun, Soon-Sil

    2015-01-01

    The effects of adding shrimp (Periclimenes imperator) powder to Appenzeller cheese on quality and characteristics during ripening were investigated. Cheese samples were prepared containing 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% shrimp powder. Changes in the lactic acid bacterial populations, pH, water-soluble nitrogen concentrations, consumer acceptability, colour and texture were monitored during ripening. The addition of shrimp powder did not affect the appearance or consumer sensory characteristics of the cheeses. Likewise, cheese cohesiveness, fracturability, and springiness were not significantly altered. It was concluded that the quality of the Appenzeller cheese was not affected by adding shrimp powder. PMID:26761833

  12. Alterations in prey capture and induction of metallothioneins in grass shrimp fed cadmium-contaminated prey

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.G.; Hoexum Brouwer, T.M.; Brouwer, M.; Lopez, G.R.

    2000-04-01

    The aquatic oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri from a Cd-contaminated cove on the Hudson River, Foundry Cove, New York, USA, has evolved Cd resistance. Past studies have focused on how the mode of detoxification of Cd by these Cd-resistant worms influences Cd trophic transfer to the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. In the present study, the authors investigate reductions in prey capture in grass shrimp fed Cd-contaminated prey. They also investigate the induction of metal-binding proteins, metallothioneins, in these Cd-exposed shrimp. Grass shrimp were fed field-exposed Cd-contaminated Foundry Cove oligochaetes or laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated Artemia salina. Following these exposures, the ability of Cd- dosed and control shrimp to capture live A. salina was compared. Results show that shrimp fed laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated A. salina for 2 weeks exhibit significant reductions in their ability to successfully capture prey (live A. salina). Reductions in prey capture were also apparent, though not as dramatic in shrimp fed for 1 week on field-exposed Cd-contained Foundry Cove oligochaetes. Shrimp were further investigated for their subcellular distribution of Cd to examine if alterations in prey capture could be linked to saturation of Cd-metallothionein. Cd-dosed shrimp produced a low molecular weight CD-binding metallothionein protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Most importantly, successful prey capture decreased with increased Cd body burdens and increased Cd concentration bound to high molecular weight proteins.

  13. Social and ecological challenges of market-oriented shrimp farming in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ngo Thi Phuong

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is one of the largest shrimp exporters in the world. Since 2010, Vietnam has earned about two billion dollars annually through shrimp exports. As a fertile area of greatest potential for agricultural production in Vietnam, the Mekong Delta has been a major contributor to the country's achievements, especially in the agricultural sector. During recent decades, trade liberation along with various policies in support of aquaculture has accelerated the development of shrimp production in the Delta. Based on an ethnographic study of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, I assert that along with great rewards arising from the expansion of shrimp farming areas, productivity, and export value, the shrimp industry has brought various environmental, economic and social challenges. Consequently, shrimp farming is a risky business and local inhabitants have relied on various strategies to cope with these challenges. Risk mitigation in shrimp production and labor migration are the two important strategies of local inhabitants for securing their livelihoods. Water pollution and poor quality post-larvae shrimp are direct consequences of market-oriented production. PMID:24386621

  14. Simulated gastrointestinal digestion reduces the allergic reactivity of shrimp extract proteins and tropomyosin.

    PubMed

    Gámez, Cristina; Zafra, Ma Paz; Sanz, Verónica; Mazzeo, Carla; Ibáñez, Ma Dolores; Sastre, Joaquín; del Pozo, Victoria

    2015-04-15

    Shrimp are highly allergenic foods. Current management are limited to the avoidance of foods. Therefore, there is an unmet need for a safe and effective therapy using modified allergens. This study focuses on assessing the potential for modification of the allergenicity of shrimp proteins following heat treatment or simulated gastric digestion. Shrimp proteins do not reduce their IgE reactivity after heat treatment but it is reduced by simulated gastric digestion in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Tropomyosin in shrimp extract is worse digested than purified tropomyosin. After 60 min of 10 U/μg pepsin digestion, a strong inhibition was produced in the in vivo skin reactivity of shrimp extracts and in activation of basophils from allergic patients. Immunisation experiments performed in rabbits demonstrated that digested boiled shrimp extract is able to induce IgG antibodies that block the IgE binding to the untreated boiled shrimp extract in shrimp-allergic patients. Building on our observations, digestion treatment could be an effective method for reducing shrimp allergenicity while maintaining the immunogenicity. PMID:25466048

  15. Differential detection of shrimp and crab for food labeling using polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Hiromu; Watanabe, Satoshi; Temmei, Yusuke; Hirao, Takashi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sakai, Shinobu; Adachi, Reiko; Sakata, Kozue; Urisu, Atsuo; Teshima, Reiko

    2011-04-27

    Shrimp and crab are well-known as allergenic ingredients. According to Japanese food allergy labeling regulations, shrimp species (including prawns, crayfishes, and lobsters) and crab species must be differentially declared when ≥10 ppm (total protein) of an allergenic ingredient is present. However, the commercial ELISA tests for the detection of crustacean proteins cannot differentiate between shrimp and crab. Therefore, two methods were developed to discriminate shrimp and crab: a shrimp-PCR method with postamplification digestion and a crab-PCR method that specifically amplifies a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. The sensitivity and specificity of both PCR methods were verified by experiments using DNA extracted from 15 shrimp species, 13 crab species, krill, mysid, mantis shrimp, other food samples (cephalopod, shellfish, and fish), incurred foods, and commercial food products. Both PCR methods could detect 5 pg of DNA extracted from target species and 50 ng of genomic DNA extracted from incurred foods containing 10 ppm (μg/g) total protein of shrimp or crab. The two PCR methods were considered to be specific enough to separately detect species belonging to shrimp and crab. Although false-positive and false-negative results were obtained from some nontarget crustacean species, the proposed PCR methods, when used in conjunction with ELISA tests, would be a useful tool for confirmation of the validity of food allergy labeling and management of processed food safety for allergic patients. PMID:21395255

  16. Determination of the infectious nature of the agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome affecting penaeid shrimp.

    PubMed

    Tran, Loc; Nunan, Linda; Redman, Rita M; Mohney, Leone L; Pantoja, Carlos R; Fitzsimmons, Kevin; Lightner, Donald V

    2013-07-01

    A new emerging disease in shrimp, first reported in 2009, was initially named early mortality syndrome (EMS). In 2011, a more descriptive name for the acute phase of the disease was proposed as acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome (AHPNS). Affecting both Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei and black tiger shrimp P. monodon, the disease has caused significant losses in Southeast Asian shrimp farms. AHPNS was first classified as idiopathic because no specific causative agent had been identified. However, in early 2013, the Aquaculture Pathology Laboratory at the University of Arizona was able to isolate the causative agent of AHPNS in pure culture. Immersion challenge tests were employed for infectivity studies, which induced 100% mortality with typical AHPNS pathology to experimental shrimp exposed to the pathogenic agent. Subsequent histological analyses showed that AHPNS lesions were experimentally induced in the laboratory and were identical to those found in AHPNS-infected shrimp samples collected from the endemic areas. Bacterial isolation from the experimentally infected shrimp enabled recovery of the same bacterial colony type found in field samples. In 3 separate immersion tests, using the recovered isolate from the AHPNS-positive shrimp, the same AHPNS pathology was reproduced in experimental shrimp with consistent results. Hence, AHPNS has a bacterial etiology and Koch's Postulates have been satisfied in laboratory challenge studies with the isolate, which has been identified as a member of the Vibrio harveyi clade, most closely related to V. parahemolyticus. PMID:23836769

  17. [Application of electron spin resonance spectroscopy for the detection of irradiated crustaceans (prawn, shrimp, and crabs)].

    PubMed

    Kameya, Hiromi; Takatsuki, Satoshi; Matsuda, Rieko; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Todoriki, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    Prawn, shrimp and crabs sold in Japan are mostly imported from overseas. Detection of irradiated crustaceans is very important for quality assurance. In this study, we used ESR to detect radiation-induced radicals after irradiation of prawn, shrimp and crabs of major species. No radiation-induced radicals were detected in prawn (black tiger prawn) or shrimp (white leg shrimp). Radiation-induced radicals due to hydroxyapatite were detected in the claws of snow crab, red king crab, and swimming crab. Our results indicate that ESR measurement on the claw parts of these three species of crab can be used to determine their irradiation history. PMID:25743382

  18. Transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) to Litopenaeus vannamei from infected cephalothorax, abdomen, or whole shrimp cadaver.

    PubMed

    Soto, M A; Shervette, V R; Lotz, J M

    2001-06-20

    Shrimp viruses can remain infectious in frozen shrimp tissue and have been found in frozen commodity shrimp. Therefore, the threat of viral outbreaks in wild and cultured shrimp via frozen commodity shrimp exists. Because frozen shrimp are imported with and without the cephalothorax, more knowledge is needed concerning the infectivity of a cephalothorax relative to that of an abdomen. We compared the mortality rates from shrimp exposed to a WSSV-infected cephalothorax, abdomen, or whole shrimp cadaver. Estimates of transmission coefficients from the exposures to the infected cephalothorax, abdomen, or whole shrimp were also calculated because the transmission coefficients account for differences in the initial doses. In addition, we compared the variability in infectivity of pieces of shrimp by feeding 24 equal-sized pieces of cephalothorax and abdomen to 24 individually isolated shrimp. In Expt 1, susceptible shrimp did not completely consume the infected abdomen, and a significant difference was detected among shrimp exposed to the abdomen (mortality rate = 0.40), cephalothorax (mortality rate = 0.75), and whole shrimp cadaver (mortality rate = 0.67). The calculated transmission coefficients were 0.95 from an infected cephalothorax, 0.59 from an infected abdomen, and 0.69 from an infected whole shrimp cadaver. In Expt 2, susceptible shrimp were starved to ensure complete ingestion of each dose. No significant difference was observed in the estimated mortality rates from an infected cephalothorax (0.58), abdomen (0.63), or whole shrimp (0.67). The calculated transmission coefficients were 0.84 from an infected cephalothorax, 0.83 from an infected abdomen, and 0.60 from an infected whole shrimp cadaver. In Expt 3, no difference was observed in the mortality rates resulting from exposures to pieces of infected cephalothorax (0.57) or abdomen (0.58). Our results suggested that there was no difference in the viral loads of a WSSV-infected cephalothorax or abdomen, but that the cephalothorax was more infectious, probably because it was more palatable. In addition, our results are inconsistent with some assumptions of pathogen transmission used in epidemiological models. Some shrimp may be less aggressive feeders; therefore, susceptible shrimp are differentially contacting the dead infected shrimp in the exposure tanks, violating the random mixing assumption. Moreover, virus is probably not homogeneously distributed throughout an infected shrimp, suggesting that contacts between susceptible and infected shrimp are not equally likely to result in transmission. PMID:11463105

  19. Dopamine depresses immunity in the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Wu, Zhi-Rong; Kuo, Ching-Ming; Cheng, Winton

    2007-07-01

    The total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anion), superoxide dismutase activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen Photobacterium damsela were measured when tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (13.5+/-1.5 g) were individually injected with saline or dopamine at 10(-8), 10(-7), or 10(-6)mol shrimp(-1). Results showed that a transient period of immunosuppression occurred between 2 and 8h after injection of dopamine for all immune parameters except circulating haemocytes, and all immune parameters had returned to control values within 8-16 h after receiving dopamine. The injection of dopamine also significantly increased the mortality of P. monodon challenged with the pathogen Pho. damsela. These results suggest that stress-inducing dopamine suppresses the immune system, which in turn promotes the susceptibility of P. monodon to Pho. damsela. PMID:17210259

  20. Evolution of neural computations: Mantis shrimp and human color decoding

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Qasim; Marshall, Justin; Thoen, Hanne; Conway, Bevil R.

    2014-01-01

    Mantis shrimp and primates both possess good color vision, but the neural implementation in the two species is very different, a reflection of the largely unrelated evolutionary lineages of these creatures. Mantis shrimp have scanning compound eyes with 12 classes of photoreceptors, and have evolved a system to decode color information at the front-end of the sensory stream. Primates have image-focusing eyes with three classes of cones, and decode color further along the visual-processing hierarchy. Despite these differences, we report a fascinating parallel between the computational strategies at the color-decoding stage in the brains of stomatopods and primates. Both species appear to use narrowly tuned cells that support interval decoding color identification. PMID:26034560

  1. Guiding brine shrimp through mazes by solving reaction diffusion equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singal, Krishma; Fenton, Flavio

    Excitable systems driven by reaction diffusion equations have been shown to not only find solutions to mazes but to also to find the shortest path between the beginning and the end of the maze. In this talk we describe how we can use the Fitzhugh-Nagumo model, a generic model for excitable media, to solve a maze by varying the basin of attraction of its two fixed points. We demonstrate how two dimensional mazes are solved numerically using a Java Applet and then accelerated to run in real time by using graphic processors (GPUs). An application of this work is shown by guiding phototactic brine shrimp through a maze solved by the algorithm. Once the path is obtained, an Arduino directs the shrimp through the maze using lights from LEDs placed at the floor of the Maze. This method running in real time could be eventually used for guiding robots and cars through traffic.

  2. Selective preservation of chitin during the decay of shrimp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baas, M.; Briggs, D. E. G.; Van Heemst, J. D. H.; Kear, A. J.; De Leeuw, J. W.

    1995-03-01

    The preservation potential of chitin in the marine environment is a matter of debate. To determine the relative survival of chitin and other organic components, the shrimp Crangon was decayed under different laboratory conditions. Solid state 13C NMR and Curie point pyrolysis-gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry demonstrated that slightly transformed chitin represents the major component of the remaining biomass after only eight weeks. This selective preservation confirms that the resistance of chitin to decay may be a major factor in accounting for the extensive fossil record of arthropods lacking a biomineralized skeleton. It also suggests that chitin is likely to be an important contributor to the organic content of recent marine sediments. The pyrolysate of the preserved cuticle of fossil shrimps reveals a homologous series of alkanes and alkenes indicating a substitution of chitin by more resistant organic matter derived from other sources.

  3. Evolution of neural computations: Mantis shrimp and human color decoding.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Qasim; Marshall, Justin; Thoen, Hanne; Conway, Bevil R

    2014-01-01

    Mantis shrimp and primates both possess good color vision, but the neural implementation in the two species is very different, a reflection of the largely unrelated evolutionary lineages of these creatures. Mantis shrimp have scanning compound eyes with 12 classes of photoreceptors, and have evolved a system to decode color information at the front-end of the sensory stream. Primates have image-focusing eyes with three classes of cones, and decode color further along the visual-processing hierarchy. Despite these differences, we report a fascinating parallel between the computational strategies at the color-decoding stage in the brains of stomatopods and primates. Both species appear to use narrowly tuned cells that support interval decoding color identification. PMID:26034560

  4. The retinoids of seven species of mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, T H; Cronin, T W

    1993-01-01

    Eyes of stomatopod crustaceans, or mantis shrimps, contain the greatest diversity of visual pigments yet described in any species, with as many as ten or more spectral classes present in a single retina. In this study, the eyes of seven species of mantis shrimp from three superfamilies of stomatopods were examined for their content of retinoids. Only retinal and retinol were found; neither hydroxyretinoids nor dehydroretinoids were detected. The principal isomers were 11-cis and all-trans. The eyes of most of these species contain stores of 11-cis retinol, principally as retinyl esters, and in amounts in excess of retinal. Squilla empusa is particularly noteworthy, with over 5000 pmoles of retinol per eye. PMID:8217940

  5. Shrimp Lipids: A Source of Cancer Chemopreventive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    López-Saiz, Carmen-María; Suárez-Jiménez, Guadalupe-Miroslava; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Burgos-Hernández, Armando

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp is one of the most popular seafoods worldwide, and its lipids have been studied for biological activity in both, muscle and exoskeleton. Free fatty acids, triglycerides, carotenoids, and other lipids integrate this fraction, and some of these compounds have been reported with cancer chemopreventive activities. Carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied for chemopreventive properties, in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Their mechanisms of action depend on the lipid chemical structure and include antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-mutagenic, and anti-inflammatory activities, among others. The purpose of this review is to lay groundwork for future research about the properties of the lipid fraction of shrimp. PMID:24135910

  6. A Circo-Like Virus Isolated from Penaeus monodon Shrimps

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Hanh T.; Yu, Qian; Boisvert, Maude; Van, Hanh T.; Bergoin, Max

    2014-01-01

    A virus with a circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) (CRESS-DNA) genome (PmCV-1) was isolated from Penaeus monodon shrimps in Vietnam. The gene structure of the 1,777-nucleotide (nt) genome was similar to that of circoviruses and cycloviruses, but the nucleic acid and protein sequence identities to these viruses were very low. PMID:24435870

  7. The microbiology of cooked prawns and shrimps on retail sale.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, M. H.; Coetzee, E. F.; Ford, B. M.; Gill, P.; Hooper, W. L.; Matthews, S. C.; Patrick, S.

    1985-01-01

    In an inter-laboratory survey, 148 samples of cooked prawns and shrimps were obtained at the point of sale to the consumer. Salmonellae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were not detected. Yersinia enterocolitica was isolated from three samples. Results for total viable count and presence of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus complied well with available guidelines for imported cooked prawns, suggesting that the risk of food poisoning from retail samples of these foods in the South of England is minimal. PMID:3891850

  8. Sensory adaptation. Tunable colour vision in a mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    Cronin, T W; Caldwell, R L; Marshall, J

    2001-05-31

    Systems of colour vision are normally identical in all members of a species, but a single design may not be adequate for species living in a diverse range of light environments. Here we show that in the mantis shrimp Haptosquilla trispinosa, which occupies a range of depths in the ocean, long-wavelength colour receptors are individually tuned to the local light environment. The spectral sensitivity of specific classes of photoreceptor is adjusted by filters that vary between individuals. PMID:11385560

  9. Water Diagnosis in Shrimp Aquaculture based on Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbajal Hernández, J. J.; Sánchez Fernández, L. P.

    2007-05-01

    In many countries, the shrimp aquaculture has not advanced computational systems to supervise the artificial habitat of the farms and laboratories. A computational system of this type helps significantly to improve the environmental conditions and to elevate the production and its quality. The main idea of this study is the creation of a system using an artificial neural network (ANN), which can help to recognize patterns of problems and their evolution in shrimp aquaculture, and thus to respond with greater rapidity against the negative effects. Bad control on the shrimp artificial habitat produces organisms with high stress and as consequence losses in their defenses. It generate low nutrition, low reproduction or worse still, they prearrange to acquire lethal diseases. The proposed system helps to control this problem. Environmental variables as pH, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and turbidity have an important effect in the suitable growth of the shrimps and influence in their health. However, the exact mathematical model of this relationship is unspecified; an ANN is useful for establishing a relationship between these variables and to classify a status that describes a problem into the farm. The data classification is made to recognize and to quantify two states within the pool: a) Normal: Everything is well. b) Risk: One, some or all environmental variables are outside of the allowed interval, which generates problems. The neural network will have to recognize the state and to quantify it, in others words, how normal or risky it is, which allows finding trend of the water quality. A study was developed for designing a software tool that allows recognizing the status of the water quality and control problems for the environment into the pond.

  10. Effect of Shrimp Chitin and Shrimp Chitin Hydrolysate on the Freeze-Induced Denaturation, and on the Amount of Unfreezable Water of Wanieso Lizardfish Myofibrillar Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somjit, Kingduean; Kongpun, Orawan; Osatomi, Kiyoshi; Hara, Kenji; Nozaki, Yukinori

    In view of potential utilization of shrimp waste, shrimp chitin (SC) and shrimp chitin hydrolysate (SCH) were prepared from 3 kinds of shrimp species, namely: black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, endeavour shrimp Metapenaeus endeavouri and giant freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The effects of 5% SC and SCH (dry weight) on the state of water and on the denaturation of wanieso lizardfish Saurida wanieso myofibrillar protein (Mf) were evaluated based on changes in Mf Ca-ATPase activity and the amount of unfreezable water during frozen storage. Each effect was compared with those of Mf without additives (control) and Mf with glucose. The changes in Ca-ATPase activity of control and Mf with SC during frozen storage were exhibited biphasic pattern while those of SCH and glucose exhibited monophasic pattern. The amount of unfreezable water of Mf with SC was lower than that of control while those of Mf with SCH and glucose were higher than that of control. Present findings suggested that the preventive effect of SCH on freeze-induced denaturation of Mf is caused by the stabilizing the hydrated water molecule surrounding the Mf.

  11. IMPACT OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS ON C, N CYCLING AND WATER QUALITY IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN TEMPERATE ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (predominantly, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of tide flats in North American Pacific estuaries, from British Columbia to Baja California. Feeding, burrowing, and burrow irrigation by burrowing shrimp can ...

  12. IMPACT OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS ON NITROGEN CYCLING AND WATER QUALITY IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN TEMPERATE ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (predominantly, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of tide flats in North American Pacific estuaries, from British Columbia to Baja California. Feeding, burrowing, and burrow irrigation by burrowing shrimp can ...

  13. DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF BURROWING SHRIMP IN TWO OREGON ESTUARIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ESTUARINE-SCALE NITROGEN DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of Pacific estuarine tide flats, from British Columbia to Baja California. The spatial distribution of shrimp populations within estuaries has rarely been quantified because ...

  14. 78 FR 14069 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery Off the Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... overfished and overfishing status determination criteria for pink shrimp. DATES: Written comments must be... closure. Overfished and Overfishing Status Determination Criteria for Pink Shrimp Amendment 9 would update the overfished and overfishing status determination criteria (biomass at maximum sustainable yield...

  15. Shrimps that pay attention: saccadic eye movements in stomatopod crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, N. J.; Land, M. F.; Cronin, T. W.

    2014-01-01

    Discovering that a shrimp can flick its eyes over to a fish and follow up by tracking it or flicking back to observe something else implies a ‘primate-like’ awareness of the immediate environment that we do not normally associate with crustaceans. For several reasons, stomatopods (mantis shrimp) do not fit the general mould of their subphylum, and here we add saccadic, acquisitional eye movements to their repertoire of unusual visual capabilities. Optically, their apposition compound eyes contain an area of heightened acuity, in some ways similar to the fovea of vertebrate eyes. Using rapid eye movements of up to several hundred degrees per second, objects of interest are placed under the scrutiny of this area. While other arthropod species, including insects and spiders, are known to possess and use acute zones in similar saccadic gaze relocations, stomatopods are the only crustacean known with such abilities. Differences among species exist, generally reflecting both the eye size and lifestyle of the animal, with the larger-eyed more sedentary species producing slower saccades than the smaller-eyed, more active species. Possessing the ability to rapidly look at and assess objects is ecologically important for mantis shrimps, as their lifestyle is, by any standards, fast, furious and deadly. PMID:24395969

  16. Predation by native brown shrimp on invasive Pacific oyster spat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerman, E. J.; Eriksson, B. K.; Olff, H.; van der Heide, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, the invasive Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) increased dramatically in the Wadden Sea. One of the driving mechanisms for the success of the Pacific oyster could be a relatively low predation pressure by epibenthic predators and shore birds on oyster spat. Nevertheless, observations and experiments on predation rates on early life-stages of the Pacific oyster are rare. Therefore, we examined predation rates of brown shrimps on Pacific oyster spat in a number of laboratory experiments. Our results demonstrate that spat of Pacific oysters are most susceptible to predation by brown shrimps (Crangon crangon) in the first days after settlement, when attachment to the substrate (unglazed tiles in our study) is still absent or weak. At this stage the shell length of oyster spat is around ~ 300 μm, and around 50% of the individuals in the experiment were consumed in the two hour trials. Predation rates decreased rapidly as the spat grew larger and reached zero within 10 days after settlement of the spat (shell length > 700 μm). Additional experiments revealed that the attachment of oysters is probably limiting predation by brown shrimps rather than the size of the spat. This indicates that Pacific oyster spat may limit predation loss faster compared to native bivalves, which commonly depend on size to reduce predation rates. Overall, our results suggest that the invasive success of Pacific oysters may in part be explained by relatively low predation rates throughout their life stages.

  17. Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds.

    PubMed

    Barraza-Guardado, Ramón Héctor; Arreola-Lizárraga, José Alfredo; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Juárez-García, Manuel; Juvera-Hoyos, Antonio; Casillas-Hernández, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30-35 ind m(-2) and daily water exchange <2%. Our study provides evidence that by interconnecting ponds nutrient recycling is favored by promoting the growth of primary producers of the pond as chlorophyll a. Based on the mass balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5 m(3) kg(-1) cycle(-1)), when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha(-1) shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming. PMID:26525070

  18. Shrimps that pay attention: saccadic eye movements in stomatopod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Marshall, N J; Land, M F; Cronin, T W

    2014-01-01

    Discovering that a shrimp can flick its eyes over to a fish and follow up by tracking it or flicking back to observe something else implies a 'primate-like' awareness of the immediate environment that we do not normally associate with crustaceans. For several reasons, stomatopods (mantis shrimp) do not fit the general mould of their subphylum, and here we add saccadic, acquisitional eye movements to their repertoire of unusual visual capabilities. Optically, their apposition compound eyes contain an area of heightened acuity, in some ways similar to the fovea of vertebrate eyes. Using rapid eye movements of up to several hundred degrees per second, objects of interest are placed under the scrutiny of this area. While other arthropod species, including insects and spiders, are known to possess and use acute zones in similar saccadic gaze relocations, stomatopods are the only crustacean known with such abilities. Differences among species exist, generally reflecting both the eye size and lifestyle of the animal, with the larger-eyed more sedentary species producing slower saccades than the smaller-eyed, more active species. Possessing the ability to rapidly look at and assess objects is ecologically important for mantis shrimps, as their lifestyle is, by any standards, fast, furious and deadly. PMID:24395969

  19. Taura syndrome virus from Penaeus vannamei shrimp cultured in Korea.

    PubMed

    Do, Jeong Wan; Cha, Seung Ju; Lee, Nam Sil; Kim, Yi Cheong; Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Jae Dong; Park, Jeong Woo

    2006-06-12

    Mass mortality occurred among Penaeus vannamei shrimp cultured in Korea in 2004. In an earlier study, we reported white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) as a causative agent of mass mortality of P. monodon shrimp in Korea (Moon et al. 2003; Dis Aquat Org 53:11-13). However, in the present study, we detected Taura syndrome virus (TSV) from the moribund 2004 P. vannamei shrimp by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, during our regular screening for the TSV in stocks of P. vannamei imported from Hawaii, USA, we also detected TSV by RT-PCR. The nucleotide sequences of the partial capsid protein VP1 of 2 Korean isolates were 99% identical to each other and 96 to 99% identical to those of TSVs isolated from the Americas, Taiwan, and Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 2 Korean isolates were closely related to TSV types from Thailand. This is the first report on the detection of TSV during an epizootic among cultured P. vannamei in Korea, and our results suggests the possibility that TSV has been introduced via the imported stock of P. vannamei. PMID:16875405

  20. Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds

    PubMed Central

    Barraza-Guardado, Ramón Héctor; Arreola-Lizárraga, José Alfredo; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Juárez-García, Manuel; Juvera-Hoyos, Antonio; Casillas-Hernández, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30–35 ind m−2 and daily water exchange <2%. Our study provides evidence that by interconnecting ponds nutrient recycling is favored by promoting the growth of primary producers of the pond as chlorophyll a. Based on the mass balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5 m3 kg−1 cycle−1), when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha−1 shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming. PMID:26525070

  1. Antimicrobials in shrimp aquaculture in the United States: regulatory status and safety concerns.

    PubMed

    Park, E D; Lightner, D V; Park, D L

    1994-01-01

    The consumption of seafood, especially shrimp, increases yearly in the U.S. The U.S. is the second largest importer of shrimp in the world, consuming more than 11% of the total world production. Aquaculture is becoming an increasingly important source of the world's shrimp, currently accounting for approximately 30% of the world's supply. Unfortunately, in this era of international trade deficits, U.S. production of aquacultured shrimp is insignificant (< 0.1%) compared with world production. As shrimp aquaculture expands in the U.S., so does the use of intensive farming techniques. Shrimp aquaculture is like any other animal husbandry industry in that shrimp are subject to disease, especially under intensive farming methods. In penaeid shrimp, the primary diseases associated with mortalities are usually viral or bacterial. The majority of bacterial infections in penaeid shrimp are attributable to Vibrio species, with mortalities ranging from insignificant to 100%. However, the rapid growth of this industry has outpaced efforts by researchers, pharmaceutical companies, and federal regulatory agencies to provide approved therapeutants for shrimp disease management. Approval of drugs and their surveillance for compliance with regulations applicable to seafoods, including aquacultured goods, is the responsibility of the FDA. There are three general areas of concern regarding human health when chemotherapeutants are used in aquaculture: (1) residues of drugs in fish destined for human consumption; (2) development of drug resistance in human pathogenic bacteria; and (3) direct toxic effects to humans from handling of drugs. Currently, there are no antibacterials approved for shrimp aquaculture in the U.S. One of the major obstacles in the development and approval of new drugs for aquaculture is the cost of conducting the required studies. The high cost to pharmaceutical companies discourages investment in shrimp chemotherapeutant research, since the current U.S. market for such products is small. Unfortunately, the U.S. shrimp aquaculture industry will remain small without legal availability of chemotherapeutants. Oxytetracycline (OTC) and Romet-30 are two antibacterials currently approved in the U.S. for catfish and salmonid aquaculture. Shrimp aquaculture facilities outside of the U.S. routinely use these drugs, as well as others, in the treatment of bacterial disease outbreaks. Much of the work required for OTC approval by the FDA for penaeid shrimp has been completed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7938783

  2. Evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

    2014-10-01

    Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) β-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens. PMID:24780624

  3. Abundance and size of Gulf shrimp in Louisiana's coastal estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    van der Ham, Joris L; de Mutsert, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus) in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP) design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1) exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2) fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events. PMID:25272142

  4. Abundance and Size of Gulf Shrimp in Louisiana's Coastal Estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    van der Ham, Joris L.; de Mutsert, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus) in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP) design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1) exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2) fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events. PMID:25272142

  5. Virus diseases of farmed shrimp in the Western Hemisphere (the Americas): a review.

    PubMed

    Lightner, D V

    2011-01-01

    Penaeid shrimp aquaculture is an important industry in the Americas, and the industry is based almost entirely on the culture of the Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Western Hemisphere shrimp farmers in 14 countries in 2004 produced more than 200,000 metric tons of shrimp, generated more than $2 billion in revenue, and employed more than 500,000 people. Disease has had a major impact on shrimp aquaculture in the Americas since it became a significant commercial entity in the 1970s. Diseases due to viruses, rickettsial-like bacteria, true bacteria, protozoa, and fungi have emerged as major diseases of farmed shrimp in the region. Many of the bacterial, fungal and protozoan caused diseases are managed using improved culture practices, routine sanitation, and the use of chemotherapeutics. However, the virus diseases have been far more problematic to manage and they have been responsible for the most costly epizootics. Examples include the Taura syndrome pandemic that began in 1991-1992 when the disease emerged in Ecuador, and the subsequent White Spot Disease pandemic that followed its introduction to Central America from Asia in 1999. Because of their socioeconomic significance to shrimp farming, seven of the nine crustacean diseases listed by the World Animal Organization (OIE) are virus diseases of shrimp. Of the seven virus diseases of penaeid shrimp, five are native to the Americas or have become enzootic following their introduction. The shrimp virus diseases in the Americas are increasingly being managed by exclusion using a combination of biosecurity and the practice of culturing domesticated specific pathogen-free (SPF) stocks or specific pathogen-resistant (SPR) stocks. Despite the significant challenges posed by disease, the shrimp farming industry of the Americas has responded to the challenges posed by disease and it has developed methods to manage its diseases and mature into a sustainable industry. PMID:21215359

  6. These Squatters Are Not Innocent: The Evidence of Parasitism in Sponge-Inhabiting Shrimps

    PubMed Central

    Ďuriš, Zdeněk; Horká, Ivona; Juračka, Petr Jan; Petrusek, Adam; Sandford, Floyd

    2011-01-01

    Marine sponges are frequently inhabited by a wide range of associated invertebrates, including caridean shrimps. Symbiotic shrimps are often considered to be commensals; however, in most cases, the relationship with sponge hosts remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that sponge-inhabiting shrimps are often parasites adapted to consumption of sponge tissues. First, we provide detailed examination of morphology and stomach contents of Typton carneus (Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae), a West Atlantic tropical shrimp living in fire sponges of the genus Tedania. Remarkable shear-like claws of T. carneus show evidence of intensive shearing, likely the result of crushing siliceous sponge spicules. Examination of stomach contents revealed that the host sponge tissue is a major source of food for T. carneus. A parasitic mode of life is also reflected in adaptations of mouth appendages, in the reproduction strategy, and in apparent sequestration of host pigments by shrimp. Consistent results were obtained also for congeneric species T. distinctus (Western Atlantic) and T. spongicola (Mediterranean). The distribution of shrimps among sponge hosts (mostly solitary individuals or heterosexual pairs) suggests that Typton shrimps actively prevent colonisation of their sponge by additional conspecifics, thus protecting their resource and reducing the damage to the hosts. We also demonstrate feeding on host tissues by sponge-associated shrimps of the genera Onycocaris, Periclimenaeus, and Thaumastocaris (Pontoniinae) and Synalpheus (Alpheidae). The parasitic mode of life appears to be widely distributed among sponge-inhabiting shrimps. However, it is possible that under some circumstances, the shrimps provide a service to the host sponge by preventing a penetration by potentially more damaging associated animals. The overall nature of interspecific shrimp-sponge relationships thus warrants further investigation. PMID:21814564

  7. 75 FR 53947 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910 (December 23, 2004) (``Brazil Final Determination... Shrimp From Ecuador, 69 FR 76913 (December 23, 2004) (``Ecuador Final Determination''); Notice of Final...: Certain Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From India, 69 FR 76916 (December 23, 2004) (``India...

  8. Inactivation of natural microflora and Listeria innocua on raw whole shrimp by ozonated water, antimicrobial coatings, and cryogenic freezing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrimp have been associated with foodborne illness outbreaks. A survey was conducted to investigate the microbiological safety and quality of frozen raw whole shrimp in local US markets. Results from 32 brands of raw whole shrimp samples available in local retail markets representing 9 countries of ...

  9. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.120 Section 408.120... CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in... shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  10. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.110 Section 408.110 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.110 Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  11. 40 CFR 408.130 - Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.130 Section 408.130 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.130 Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  12. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.110 Section 408.110 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.110 Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  13. 40 CFR 408.130 - Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.130 Section 408.130 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.130 Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  14. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.120 Section 408.120... CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in... shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  15. 78 FR 18958 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China and Diamond Sawblades and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... FR 77722 (December 27, 2006) (``Final Modification for Investigations''). \\1\\ See Notice of Final... Republic of China, 69 FR 70997 (December 8, 2004) (``PRC Shrimp Final Determination''). See also Notice of... Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, 70 FR 5149 (February 1, 2005) (``PRC Shrimp...

  16. 76 FR 23277 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910 (December 23, 2004); Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Certain Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador, 69 FR 76913 (December 23... of Critical Circumstances: Certain Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From India, 69 FR...

  17. 75 FR 49889 - Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review: Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005) (``VN Shrimp Order... Warmwater Shrimp From Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary Results of Changed-Circumstances Review, 75 FR... ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; 3) with the...

  18. 75 FR 28760 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... Atlantic Shrimp FMP (73 FR 18536, April 16, 1997) established BRD requirements in the South Atlantic EEZ... certification. Regulations implementing Amendment 9 to the Gulf Shrimp FMP were published April 14, 1998 (63 FR... Gulf FMP (69 FR 1538, January 9, 2004) required BRDs in shrimp trawls fished in the EEZ east of 85...

  19. Sasa borealis leaves extract improves insulin resistance by modulating inflammatory cytokine secretion in high fat diet-induced obese C57/BL6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jung-Hwa; Lim, Hyeon-Sook

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is considered a mild inflammatory state, and the secretion of inflammation-related cytokines rises as adipose tissue expands. Inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interlukin 6 (IL-6) and monocyte-chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), are modulated by adipose tissue and known to play an important role in insulin resistance which is the common characteristics of obesity related disorders. In this study we analyzed the effects of Sasa borealis leaves extract on inflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance in diet induced obese C57/BL6J mice. The obese state was induced by a high fat diet for 20 weeks and then the mice were divided into two groups; obese control group (OBC, n = 7) and experimental group (OB-SBE, n = 7). The OBC group was fed a high fat diet and the OB-SBE group was fed a high fat diet containing 5% Sasa borealis leaves extract (SBE) for 12 weeks. We also used mice fed a standard diet as a normal control (NC, n = 7). The body weight and adipose tissue weight in the OB group were significantly higher than those in the NC group. The effects of the high fat diet were reduced by SBE treatments, and the body weight and adipose tissue deposition in the OB-SBE group were significantly decreased compared to the OBC group. The OBC group showed higher serum glucose and insulin levels which resulted in a significant increase of incremental area under the curve (IAUC) and HOMA-IR than the NC group. Also, serum leptin, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in the OBC group than in the NC group. In contrast, the OB-SBE group showed a reversal in the metabolic defects, including a decrease in glucose, insulin, IAUC, HOMA-IR, TNF-α, IL-6 and leptin levels. These results suggest that BSE can suppress increased weight gain and/or fat deposition induced by a high fat diet and theses effects are accompanied by modulation of the inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6 secretion resulting in improved insulin resistance. PMID:20461197

  20. EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON THE SHRIMPS, 'PENAEUS DUORARUM', 'PALAEMONETES PUGIO' AND 'PALAEMONETES VULGARIS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from this experiment show that grass shrimp, Palaemonetes vulgaris, were acutely and chronically more sensitive to cadmium than the pink shrimp, Penaeus duorarum. Bioaccumulation of cadmium from water occurred at concentrations as low as 2 micrograms/l in P. duorarum and 7.9...

  1. 75 FR 55740 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Vietnam and the People's Republic of China, 75 FR 18154 (April 9, 2010). The preliminary results of the... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers...

  2. 76 FR 41760 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 76 FR 20627... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the period...

  3. 78 FR 56211 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005... transactions during the POR: Amanda Food (Vietnam) Ltd., Anvifish Joint Stock Company, Bien Dong Seafood Co... Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Administrative Review, 77...

  4. Characterization of the Taura syndrome virus isolate originating from the 2004 Texas Epizootic in cultured shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Taura syndrome virus (TSV) is a major viral pathogen of penaeid shrimp worldwide. A comprehensive investigation of the Texas isolate of TSV that caused epizootics in shrimp farms in Texas in 2004 (Us04Pv1) revealed that the virus was highly virulent in laboratory bioassays causing severe symptom dev...

  5. Enhanced immune defences in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) post-exposure to a vibrio vaccine.

    PubMed

    Powell, Adam; Pope, Edward C; Eddy, Fiona E; Roberts, Emily C; Shields, Robin J; Francis, Michael J; Smith, Patrick; Topps, Sylvie; Reid, Jim; Rowley, Andrew F

    2011-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine if exposure of shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, to a commercial anti-vibrio vaccine caused changes in antibacterial and cellular (phagocytosis) defences. Shrimp post-larvae were administered either Vibromax™ vaccine or a blank preparation. Whole body homogenates were prepared before (day 0), during (day 10) and after (day 20) vaccination and incubated with a selection of pathogenic vibrios. Homogenate from day 0 animals showed natural antibacterial activity towards Vibrioanguillarum which was significantly enhanced for bacteria-exposed shrimp at 10 days post-challenge. This effect of the vaccine was short-term in its duration. No antibacterial activity was observed in day 0 shrimp homogenate against Vibrio alginolyticus but it was significantly enhanced for both vaccinated and blank-vaccinated shrimp by day 10. No natural or inducible antibacterial activity was observed against Vibrio harveyi at 0, 10 or 20 days post-challenge. To determine if prior exposure of shrimp to inactivated vibrios results in elevated hemocyte phagocytic activity, juveniles were injected with either a mixture of formalin-inactivated vibrios or saline. Hemocyte monolayers made from these shrimp were overlaid with a 1:1 mix of Bacillus subtilis and these vibrios. Hemocytes from vibrio-exposed animals showed elevated levels of internalised vibrios compared with those from the saline injected group. These studies show selectively enhanced cellular defences of shrimp following 'vaccination'. PMID:21377471

  6. Isolation and characterization of infectious Vibrio sinaloensis strains from the Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae).

    PubMed

    del Carmen Flores-Miranda, Ma; Luna-González, Antonio; Córdova, Angel I Campa; Fierro-Coronado, Jesús A; Partida-Arangure, Blanca O; Pintado, José; González-Ocampo, Héctor A

    2012-06-01

    Infectious diseases especially those caused by bacterial and viral pathogens are serious loss factors in shrimp farming. In this study, bacteria were isolated from the gut and hepatopancreas of stressed shrimps obtained from a commercial farm. The isolates were screened on Thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose (TCBS) agar plates for the selection of Vibrio species. Presumptive vibrios were characterized through tests for hemolytic and enzymatic activity, hydrophobicity, growth and molecular identification. Three experimental infections were conducted in order to confirm the pathogenicity of selected bacterial strains VHPC18, VHPC23, VHPC24 and VIC30. In the third experimental challenge the LD50 was obtained, it lasted 10 days with 10 shrimp, weighing 6.9+1. Ig, per tank. The treatments in triplicate were: (1) saline solution (control group); (2) 2xl0(5)CFU/shrimp; (3) 4xl05CFU/shrimp; (4) 2x10(6)CFU/shrimp; (5) 4x10(6)CFU/shrimp, and (6) 8x10(6)CFU/shrimp. In all challenges, water parameters measured during the experimental period remained within optimum ranges. Pathogenicity tests confirmed that the mixture of four vibrio isolates, identified as Vibrio sinaloensis, was virulent for L. vannamei. The LD50 value was 1.178x10(5)CFU/g body weight. V sinaloensis may act as opportunistic pathogens for cultured L. vannamei. PMID:23894929

  7. Little Shrimp, Big Results: A Model of an Integrative, Cross-Curricular Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerson, Nicole; Piser, Carol; Walka, Keith

    2010-01-01

    This integrative, cross-curricular lab engages middle school biology students in an exercise involving ecology, arthropod biology, and mathematics. Students research the anatomy and behavioral patterns of a species of brine shrimp, compare the anatomy of adult and juvenile brine shrimp, and graph and interpret results. In this article, the authors

  8. 75 FR 51756 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... certain frozen warmwater shrimp and prawns, whether wild-caught (ocean harvested) or farm-raised (produced... limited to, the Penaeidae family. Some examples of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include... Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review, 75 FR 13492...

  9. 77 FR 13547 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... prawns, whether wild-caught (ocean harvested) or farm-raised (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head... examples of the farmed and wild-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp... Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005)...

  10. Probabilities of low nighttime temperatures during stocking and harvest seasons for inland shrimp culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: The pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is cultured in earthen ponds at inland sites across the southern US. The growing season in ponds is limited to periods when water temperatures permit shrimp survival and growth. Low nighttime air temperatures associated with cold f...

  11. 75 FR 56988 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the People's Republic of China, 75 FR 18154 (April 9, 2010). The... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The review covers the...

  12. 76 FR 50718 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... Administrative Reviews, Requests for Revocation in Part, and Deferral of Administrative Review, 76 FR 17825... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The review covers the...

  13. FEEDING RATES OF THE MUD SHRIMP UPOGEBIA PUGETTENSIS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ESTUARINE PHYTOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The burrowing shrimp Upogebia pugettensis is an abundant inhabitant of Pacific Northwest bays and estuaries where it lives commensally with the clam Cryptomya californica. Suspension-feeding activities of the shrimp and its commensal clam, as well as particle settlement within t...

  14. 50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... off Georgia and Florida. 622.19 Section 622.19 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... off Georgia and Florida. (a) Initial applicability. (1) The measures in paragraph (a) of this section... for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off Georgia or off Florida or possess rock shrimp in or...

  15. 50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... off Georgia and Florida. 622.19 Section 622.19 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... off Georgia and Florida. (a) Initial applicability. (1) The measures in paragraph (a) of this section... for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off Georgia or off Florida or possess rock shrimp in or...

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Vibrio owensii Strain SH-14, Which Causes Shrimp Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liyuan; Xiao, Jinzhou; Xia, Xiaoming; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling

    2015-01-01

    We sequenced Vibrio owensii strain SH-14, which causes serious acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp. Sequence analysis showed a large extrachromosomal plasmid, which encoded pir toxin genes and shared highly sequence similarity with the one observed in AHPND-causing Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains. The results suggest that this plasmid appears to play an important role in shrimp AHPND. PMID:26634753

  17. ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDY OF LESIONS IN GILLS OF A MARINE SHRIMP EXPOSED TO CADMIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pathologic black gills of pink shrimp, Penaeus duorarum, exposed to 763 micrograms/l of cadmium chloride for 15 days were studied with transmission electron microscopy and were compared with normal gills of control pink shrimp. Local as well as extensive areas of cell death and n...

  18. 78 FR 50379 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Negative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination, 78 FR 33350 (June 4, 2013... ``dusting'' ' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the...

  19. 75 FR 44229 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review, 75 FR...-frozen) and peeled shrimp; 2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent... provided evidence of changed circumstances sufficient to warrant a review. See Initiation Notice, 75 FR...

  20. 76 FR 12025 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India, 70 FR 5147 (Feb. 1, 2005) (Shrimp Order). On February 1, 2010... Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 5037 (Feb. 1, 2010). In..., 75 FR 17693 (Apr. 7, 2010) (Initiation Notice). In the Initiation Notice, the Department...

  1. 77 FR 73619 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Circumstances Review: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India, 77 FR 64953 (Oct. 24, 2012) (Initiation and... Results, 77 FR at 64955. In the Initiation and Preliminary Results, we provided all interested parties... fresh (or thawed-from-frozen) and peeled shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat...

  2. 78 FR 50387 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ...: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination, 78 FR 33342 (June 4, 2013) (Preliminary Determination). This... fresh (or thawed-from-frozen) and peeled shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour... thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product...

  3. 78 FR 50389 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ...: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination, 78 FR 33347 (June 4, 2013) (Preliminary Determination... fresh (or thawed-from-frozen) and peeled shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting''' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp...

  4. 75 FR 13492 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India, 70 FR 5147 (Feb. 1, 2005) (Shrimp Order...; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been... of China: Final Results of Changed Circumstances Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 70 FR...

  5. 76 FR 12033 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand, 70 FR 5145 (Feb. 1, 2005) (Shrimp Order). On February 1..., or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 5037 (Feb. 1, 2010... Reviews, 75 FR 17693 (Apr. 7, 2010) (Initiation Notice).\\2\\ \\2\\ In the Initiation Notice, the...

  6. 77 FR 23222 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005) (``VN Shrimp Order''). \\2\\ See VN Shrimp Order; see also... Rescission of Antidumping Administrative Review, 73 FR 52273 (September 9, 2008). \\3\\ See Certain Frozen... Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 47771 (August 9, 2010). On December 13, 2011, C. P....

  7. Little Shrimp, Big Results: A Model of an Integrative, Cross-Curricular Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerson, Nicole; Piser, Carol; Walka, Keith

    2010-01-01

    This integrative, cross-curricular lab engages middle school biology students in an exercise involving ecology, arthropod biology, and mathematics. Students research the anatomy and behavioral patterns of a species of brine shrimp, compare the anatomy of adult and juvenile brine shrimp, and graph and interpret results. In this article, the authors…

  8. Characterization of lipids and their oxidation products in baked or fried breaded shrimp products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two breaded shrimp products were examined for the changes in cholesterol, phytosterols, and fatty acids that occurred during cooking. The products were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) in the raw, baked, and fried states after separation into breading and shrimp components. Cholesterol, campest...

  9. USE OF THE GRASS SHRIMP 'PALAEMONETES PUGIO' IN A LIFE-CYCLE TOXICITY TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    A methodology for using the estuarine grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) in life-cycle toxicity tests was successfully developed. Life-cycle exposures of juvenile shrimp (12 to 19 mm in rostrum-telson length) to the chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide endrin were begun in November 1...

  10. Prediction of spoilage of tropical shrimp (Penaeus notialis) under dynamic temperature regimes.

    PubMed

    Dabadé, D Sylvain; Azokpota, Paulin; Nout, M J Robert; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Zwietering, Marcel H; den Besten, Heidy M W

    2015-10-01

    The spoilage activity of Pseudomonas psychrophila and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, two tropical shrimp (Penaeus notialis) spoilage organisms, was assessed in cooked shrimps stored at 0 to 28 °C. Microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses were performed during storage. P. psychrophila had a higher growth rate and showed a higher spoilage activity at temperatures from 0 to 15 °C, while at 28 °C, C. maltaromaticum had a higher growth rate. The spoilage activity of P. psychrophila was found to be higher in cooked shrimp than in fresh shrimp. Observed shelf-life data of shrimps stored at constant temperatures were used to validate a previously developed model that predicts tropical shrimp shelf-life at constant storage temperatures. Models predicting the growth of the spoilage organisms as a function of temperature were constructed. The validation of these models under dynamic storage temperatures simulating temperature fluctuation in the shrimp supply chain showed that they can be used to predict the shelf-life of cooked and fresh tropical shrimps. PMID:26119189

  11. 77 FR 19612 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Duty Proceedings: Electronic Filing Procedures; Administrative Protective Order Procedures, 76 FR 39263... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 9991, 9994 (Mar. 9, 2009) (2007-2008 Indian Shrimp Preliminary... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 33409 (July 13, 2009) (2007-2008 Indian Shrimp Final...

  12. Effect of gamma-irradiation on frozen shrimps for decontamination of pathogenic bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Rashid, Harun Or; Sangthong, Naruemon; Adulyatham, Pitaya; Rattagool, Pongpen; Ishigaki, Isao

    1993-07-01

    Twelve samples of imported frozen shrimps were used in this study. The total aerobic bacteria were at 2 × 10 4 to 6 × 10 6 per gram. A few of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. mimicus, V. alginolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. fluvialis and Listeria monocytogenes were isolated from many samples. However, Salmonella was not detected in any of the samples. After exposure to 4-5 kGy of gamma-rays, the total aerobic bacteria in frozen shrimps were reduced by approximately 2-3 log cycles. The dose necessary to reduce the vibrio isolates and Aeromonas hydrophila at a level of below 10 -4 per gram was about 3 kGy in frozen shrimps, whereas about 3.5 kGy was required for L. monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. In this study, unpleasant off-odor was clearly detected in the non-frozen shrimps irradiated at 2.5 kGy. On the other hand, off-odor was negligible in the frozen product below 5 kGy irradiation. No remarkable changes of peroxide values were also obtained up to 9 kGy of irradiation in the frozen shrimps. However peroxide values of non-frozen shrimps were clearly increased even irradiated at 4 kGy. Trimethylamine content was not changed at doses below 10 kGy in both of frozen and non-frozen shrimps. Shelf-life of defrosted shrimps were extended ca. 2 times under non-frozen market conditions.

  13. 75 FR 10338 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-2031, Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-2031, Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration, OMB Control... of Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/ Importer's Declaration OMB Control Number: 1405-0095... Frequency: On occasion Obligation to Respond: Mandatory DATE(S): The Department will accept comments...

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Vibrio owensii Strain SH-14, Which Causes Shrimp Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liyuan; Xiao, Jinzhou; Xia, Xiaoming; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    We sequenced Vibrio owensii strain SH-14, which causes serious acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp. Sequence analysis showed a large extrachromosomal plasmid, which encoded pir toxin genes and shared highly sequence similarity with the one observed in AHPND-causing Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains. The results suggest that this plasmid appears to play an important role in shrimp AHPND. PMID:26634753

  15. 50 CFR 622.208 - Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Minimum mesh size applicable to rock... mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida. (a) The minimum mesh size for the cod end of a rock shrimp trawl net in the South Atlantic EEZ off Georgia and Florida is 17/8 inches (4.8...

  16. 50 CFR 622.208 - Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minimum mesh size applicable to rock... mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida. (a) The minimum mesh size for the cod end of a rock shrimp trawl net in the South Atlantic EEZ off Georgia and Florida is 17/8 inches (4.8...

  17. Hydraulic activities by ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis induce oxic-anoxic oscillations in sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    We applied porewater pressure sensing, time-lapse photography and planar optode imaging of oxygen to investigate hydraulic behaviors of the Thalassinidean ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis and the associated dynamics of oxygen in and around their burrows. Ghost shrimp were h...

  18. MODELING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SHRIMP MARICULTURE AND WATER QUALITY IN THE RIO CHONE ESTUARY, ECUADOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Rio Chone estuary in Ecuador has been heavily altered by the conversion of over 90% of the original mangrove forest to shrimp ponds. We carried out computational experiments using both hydrodynamic and shrimp pond models to investigate factors leading to declines in estuarine...

  19. Immunostimulation of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) following dietary administration of Ergosan.

    PubMed

    Montero-Rocha, A; McIntosh, D; Sánchez-Merino, R; Flores, I

    2006-03-01

    Ergosan an algal product containing 1% alginic acid, developed for use in aquaculture and reported to have immunomodulatory activity, was administered orally to intermoult adult white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) for 15 days. Examination of haemolymph proteins using SDS-PAGE did not reveal any obvious differences between control and Ergosan treated shrimp. Similarly, total haemocyte counts were found to be roughly equivalent for both the control and experimental samples. However, differential analysis of haemocyte populations revealed marked changes in terms of the relative levels of hyaline, semi-granular, and particularly granular haemocytes between the two groups. Moreover, enhancement of the in vitro antimicrobial activity of haemolymph towards two shrimp pathogenic Vibrio isolates was recorded for shrimp fed with Ergosan. Finally, shrimp fed with Ergosan showed a significant increase in relative growth when compared with control groups. PMID:16490202

  20. Burrow utilization in the goby Eutaeniichthys gilli associated with the mud shrimp Upogebia yokoyai.

    PubMed

    Henmi, Yumi; Itani, Gyo

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the estuarine goby's (Eutaeniichthys gilli) utilization of mud shrimp (Upogebia yokoyai) burrows in laboratory experiments at Kochi, Japan. The goby utilized the shrimp burrow in the presence of the host, without predators, when the mud surface was covered with water. The goby spent one quarter to half the time in shrimp burrows in experimental tanks. The goby frequently entered and exited the shrimp burrows, with bout durations of several seconds to several minutes. The goby also utilized vacant artificial burrows in much the same manner. It is suggested that E. gilli feeds on small-sized crustaceans and other organic matter on the mud surface frequently utilizing shrimp burrows for possible predator avoidance even when no predator is present. Repeated evolution of burrow utilization in the North Pacific bay gobies in both the East and West Pacific would correlate with burrow commensalism in E. gilli, which is the most proximal outgroup of the bay gobies. PMID:25088593

  1. Predation by dipteran larvae on fairy shrimp (Crustacea: Anostraca) in Utah rock pools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, T.B.

    1994-01-01

    A series of experiments examined how ecological factors affect notonectid foraging success on fairy shrimp. Variation in pond depth over natural ranges had no direct effect on notonectid ability to capture fairy shrimp. Decreases in water clarity over natural ranges led to decreased notonectid ability to capture fairy shrimp. This corresponds with the observation that six weeks after the fairy shrimp hatched they were more likely to be present in cloudy ponds than in ponds containing clearer water. If correct, this is a situation where physical factors have a major effect on how a biological interaction influences the local distribution of species. It appears water depth indirectly affects notonectid foraging rates, as shallow ponds are apparently made cloudy by wind-driven waves disturbing the bottom mud. These results suggest the notonectid-fairy shrimp interaction will not be a constant for any given pond, but will depend on abiotic factors like amount of rainfall and frequency of windy conditions.

  2. Effect of peach gum polysaccharides on quality changes of white shrimp.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xing-Cun; Chang, Cheng-Fei; Wu, Sheng-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Peach gum polysaccharides (PGPs) have both antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In this study, the retardation effect of the PGPs on the quality changes of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) during refrigerated storage was investigated. Shrimp samples were untreated with different concentrations of the PGPs solution and then they were stored under refrigerated conditions for 10 days. During refrigerated storage, shrimp samples were taken periodically and their total viable count, pH value, total volatile basic nitrogen, and overall acceptability score were evaluated. Compared to the control, treatment of the PGPs solution effectively retarded bacterial growth and pH changes, reduced total volatile basic nitrogen, and increased overall acceptability score of white shrimp (P. vannamei) during refrigerated storage. The results indicate that treatment of PGPs could be a promising means to preserve white shrimp (P. vannamei). PMID:25450827

  3. A study of the incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Malaysian shrimp undergoing processing for export.

    PubMed Central

    Cann, D. C.; Taylor, L. Y.; Merican, Z.

    1981-01-01

    The incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in products of the Malaysian export shrimp processing industry was investigated through the stages from the catch to that of the cooked, peeled and frozen product. The organism was commonly found in freshly caught and landed shrimp, and could be detected by enrichment culture at all stages of processing. The number of V. parahaemolyticus in shrimp varied from nil to 4x10(4), and 19 of the 50 serotypes in the current antigenic scheme were found, O1-K38 and O1-K32 occurring most often. All the isolates were Kanagawa-negative; one strain was a sucrose-positive variant. The study indicated that specifications of 10(2) g-1 for V. parahaemolyticus in raw tropical shellfish are too stringent but that the Malaysian shrimp industry should be able to meet this requirement for cooked shrimp. PMID:7310127

  4. Scanning electron microscope observations of brine shrimp larvae from space shuttle experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Spooner, B.

    1992-01-01

    Brine shrimp are encysted as gastrula stage embryos, and may remain dehydrated and encysted for years without compromising their viability. This aspect of brine shrimp biology is desirable for studying development of animals during space shuttle flight, as cysts placed aboard a spacecraft may be rehydrated at the convenience of an astronaut, guaranteeing that subsequent brine shrimp development occurs only on orbit and not on the pad during launch delays. Brine shrimp cysts placed in 5 ml syringes were rehydrated with salt water and hatched during a 9 day space shuttle mission. Subsequent larvae developed to the 8th larval stage in the sealed syringes. We studied the morphogenesis of the brine shrimp larvae and found the larvae from the space shuttle experiments similar in rate of growth and extent of development, to larvae grown in sealed syringes on the ground. Extensive differentiation and development of embryos and larvae can occur in a microgravity environment.

  5. A multi-biomarker approach to assess the impact of farming systems on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Tu, Huynh Thi; Silvestre, Frederic; Wang, Neil; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Kestemont, Patrick

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the advantages of the use of biomarkers as an early warning system by applying it to different shrimp farming systems in Soctrang and Camau provinces, main shrimp producers in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp were collected at 15 different farms divided into four different farming systems: three farms were converted from originally rice paddies into intensive shrimp farming systems (IS1, IS2, IS3); three farms were rice-shrimp integrated farming systems (RS4, RS5, RS6); three farms were intensive farming systems (IS7, IS8, IS9); six farms were extensive shrimp farming systems (From ES1 to ES6). Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total glutathione (GSH) were measured as well as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase activities (ACHE). Organ specificity was observed between gills and hepatopancreas with generally higher activity of GST in gills (GSTG) whereas the contrary was observed for LPO level in gills (LPOG). Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis clearly indicated that shrimp reared in extensive culture system formed a distinct group from those reared in intensive or rice-shrimp integrated systems. CAT in gills (CATG), GPX in gills (GPXG) and hepatopancreas (GPXHP) and ACHE in muscle (ACHEM) of shrimp collected in extensive farms showed a general higher level than those in intensively farmed shrimp. On the contrary, we observed clear high levels of GSTG and GST in hepatopancreas (GSTHP) and LPOG and hepatopancreas (LPOHP) of shrimp sampled in intensive and rice-shrimp integrated systems. Thus, we propose that LPO and CAT, GPX, GST and ACHE can be used as a set of biomarkers for the assessment of health condition and can discriminate between shrimp cultivated in different farming systems. These findings provide the usefulness of integrating a set of biomarkers to define the health status of shrimp in different shrimp culture systems. PMID:20943254

  6. Immune response and disease resistance of shrimp fed biofloc grown on different carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Ekasari, Julie; Hanif Azhar, Muhammad; Surawidjaja, Enang H; Nuryati, Sri; De Schryver, Peter; Bossier, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to document the immunological effects of growing shrimp in biofloc systems. The experiment consisted of four types of biofloc systems in which bioflocs were produced by daily supplementation of four different carbon sources, i.e. molasses, tapioca, tapioca-by-product, and rice bran, at an estimated C/N ratio of 15 and a control system without any organic carbon addition. Each biofloc system was stocked with Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) juveniles that were reared for 49 days. The use of tapioca-by-product resulted in a higher survival (93%) of the shrimp as compared to the other carbon sources and the control. The highest yield and protein assimilation was observed when tapioca was used as the carbon source. After 49 days, phenoloxidase (PO) activity of the shrimp grown in all biofloc systems was higher than that of the shrimp from the control system. Following a challenge test by injection with infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), the levels of PO and respiratory burst (RB) activity in the shrimp of all biofloc treatments were higher than that of the challenged shrimp from the control treatment. An increased immunity was also suggested by the survival of the challenged shrimp from the experimental biofloc groups that was significantly higher as compared to the challenged shrimp from the control treatment, regardless of the organic carbon source used to grow the bioflocs. Overall, this study demonstrated that the application of biofloc technology may contribute to the robustness of cultured shrimp by immunostimulation and that this effect is independent of the type of carbon source used to grow the flocs. PMID:25218685

  7. Bioturbating shrimp alter the structure and diversity of bacterial communities in coastal marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Laverock, Bonnie; Smith, Cindy J; Tait, Karen; Osborn, A Mark; Widdicombe, Steve; Gilbert, Jack A

    2010-12-01

    Bioturbation is a key process in coastal sediments, influencing microbially driven cycling of nutrients as well as the physical characteristics of the sediment. However, little is known about the distribution, diversity and function of the microbial communities that inhabit the burrows of infaunal macroorganisms. In this study, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to investigate variation in the structure of bacterial communities in sediment bioturbated by the burrowing shrimp Upogebia deltaura or Callianassa subterranea. Analyses of 229 sediment samples revealed significant differences between bacterial communities inhabiting shrimp burrows and those inhabiting ambient surface and subsurface sediments. Bacterial communities in burrows from both shrimp species were more similar to those in surface-ambient than subsurface-ambient sediment (R=0.258, P<0.001). The presence of shrimp was also associated with changes in bacterial community structure in surrounding surface sediment, when compared with sediments uninhabited by shrimp. Bacterial community structure varied with burrow depth, and also between individual burrows, suggesting that the shrimp's burrow construction, irrigation and maintenance behaviour affect the distribution of bacteria within shrimp burrows. Subsequent sequence analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes from surface sediments revealed differences in the relative abundance of bacterial taxa between shrimp-inhabited and uninhabited sediments; shrimp-inhabited sediment contained a higher proportion of proteobacterial sequences, including in particular a twofold increase in Gammaproteobacteria. Chao1 and ACE diversity estimates showed that taxon richness within surface bacterial communities in shrimp-inhabited sediment was at least threefold higher than that in uninhabited sediment. This study shows that bioturbation can result in significant structural and compositional changes in sediment bacterial communities, increasing bacterial diversity in surface sediments and resulting in distinct bacterial communities even at depth within the burrow. In an area of high macrofaunal abundance, this could lead to alterations in the microbial transformations of important nutrients at the sediment-water interface. PMID:20596074

  8. Pedobacter nyackensis sp. nov., Pedobacter alluvionis sp. nov. and Pedobacter borealis sp. nov., isolated from Montana flood-plain sediment and forest soil.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Nathan S; Valenzuela, Alejandra; Adams, Sandra M; Ramsey, Philip W; Pollock, Jarrod L; Holben, William E; Gannon, James E

    2009-07-01

    Three Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming eubacterial strains were isolated in western Montana, USA, and subjected to taxonomic studies. Strains NWG-II14(T) and NWER-II11(T) were isolated from hyporheic sediments of a large alluvial flood plain, whereas strain G-1(T) was isolated from a conifer forest soil. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strains NWG-II14(T), NWER-II11(T) and G-1(T) were shown to belong to the family Sphingobacteriaceae and are most closely related to various species of the genus Pedobacter. The results of molecular, physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of these three strains from 23 Pedobacter species with validly published names. The three isolates therefore represent novel species, for which the names Pedobacter nyackensis sp. nov. (type strain NWG-II14(T) =DSM 19625(T) =LMG 24260(T)), Pedobacter alluvionis sp. nov. (type strain NWER-II11(T) =DSM 19624(T) =LMG 24258(T)) and Pedobacter borealis sp. nov. (type strain G-1(T) =DSM 19626(T) =LMG 24259(T)) are proposed. PMID:19542109

  9. CNO ABUNDANCES OF HYDROGEN-DEFICIENT CARBON AND R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS: A VIEW OF THE NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN A WHITE DWARF MERGER

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.; Lambert, David L.; Eriksson, K. E-mail: hinkle@noao.edu E-mail: Kjell.Eriksson@astro.uu.se

    2009-05-10

    We present high-resolution (R {approx} 50, 000) observations of near-IR transitions of CO and CN of the five known hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) stars and four R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars. We perform an abundance analysis of these stars by using spectrum synthesis and state-of-the-art MARCS model atmospheres for cool hydrogen-deficient stars. Our analysis confirms reports by Clayton and colleagues that those HdC stars exhibiting CO lines in their spectrum and the cool RCB star S Aps are strongly enriched in {sup 18}O (with {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratios ranging from 0.3 to 16). Nitrogen and carbon are in the form of {sup 14}N and {sup 12}C, respectively. Elemental abundances for CNO are obtained from C I, C{sub 2}, CN, and CO lines. Difficulties in deriving the carbon abundance are discussed. Abundances of Na from Na I lines and S from S I lines are obtained. Elemental and isotopic CNO abundances suggest that HdC and RCB stars may be related objects, and that they probably formed from a merger of an He white dwarf with a C-O white dwarf.

  10. Diversity of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonizing Clintonia borealis from a mixed-wood boreal forest.

    PubMed

    DeBellis, Tonia; Widden, Paul

    2006-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities in Clintonia borealis roots from a boreal mixed forests in northwestern Québec were investigated. Roots were sampled from 100 m2 plots whose overstory was dominated by either trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), or mixed white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.). Part of the 18S ribosomal gene of the AMF was amplified and the resulting PCR products were cloned. Restriction analysis of the 576 resulting clones yielded 92 different restriction patterns which were then sequenced. Fifty-two sequences closely matched other Glomus sequences from Genbank. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 10 different AMF sequence types, most of which clustered with other uncultured AM sequences from plant roots from various field sites. Compared with other AMF communities from comparable studies, richness and diversity were higher than observed in an arable field, but lower than seen in a tropical forest and a temperate wetland. The AMF communities from Clintonia roots under the different canopy types did not differ significantly and the dominant sequence type, which clustered with AM sequences from a variety of environments and hosts at distant geographical locations, represented 66.9% of all the clones analyzed. PMID:17064264

  11. Pathogenesis of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hung-Chiao; Ng, Tze Hann; Ando, Masahiro; Lee, Chung-Te; Chen, I-Tung; Chuang, Jie-Cheng; Mavichak, Rapeepat; Chang, Sheng-Hsiung; Yeh, Mi-De; Chiang, Yi-An; Takeyama, Haruko; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o; Lo, Chu-Fang; Aoki, Takashi; Wang, Han-Ching

    2015-12-01

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), also called early mortality syndrome (EMS), is a recently emergent shrimp bacterial disease that has resulted in substantial economic losses since 2009. AHPND is known to be caused by strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that contain a unique virulence plasmid, but the pathology of the disease is still unclear. In this study, we show that AHPND-causing strains of V. parahaemolyticus secrete the plasmid-encoded binary toxin PirAB(vp) into the culture medium. We further determined that, after shrimp were challenged with AHPND-causing bacteria, the bacteria initially colonized the stomach, where they started to produce PirAB(vp) toxin. At the same early time point (6 hpi), PirB(vp) toxin, but not PirA(vp) toxin, was detected in the hepatopancreas, and the characteristic histopathological signs of AHPND, including sloughing of the epithelial cells of the hepatopancreatic tubules, were also seen. Although some previous studies have found that both components of the binary PirAB(vp) toxin are necessary to induce a toxic effect, our present results are consistent with other studies which have suggested that PirB(vp) alone may be sufficient to cause cellular damage. At later time points, the bacteria and PirA(vp) and PirB(vp) toxins were all detected in the hepatopancreas. We also show that Raman spectroscopy "Whole organism fingerprints" were unable to distinguish between AHPND-causing and non-AHPND causing strains. Lastly, by using minimum inhibitory concentrations, we found that both virulent and non-virulent V. parahaemolyticus strains were resistant to several antibiotics, suggesting that the use of antibiotics in shrimp culture should be more strictly regulated. PMID:26549178

  12. Micrometeorology of a Shrimp Farm: a Case Study in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Jose Luis

    A low cost micrometeorological data acquisition system (less than 10,000) was devised and deployed at a Shrimp Farm located along the coast of Ecuador in order to monitor environmental parameters important for the management of such ponds. The Surface Boundary Layer conditions on the Shrimp Farm were found to be more dependent on the size and density distribution of the ponds rather than on the climatic characteristics of the region. Fluxes and other micrometeorological quantities in the Surface Boundary Layer were estimated with an error of up to 25%, although this error is considerable larger than what is possible to obtain with state of the art sensors now commercially available, nevertheless it is accurate enough to be used as inputs to help predict the physical and chemical characteristics of the water in the pond and thus be used as a tool for improving the management of aquacultural sites. The Planetary Boundary Layer over the Shrimp Farm was found to be almost always under unstable conditions; Surface Energy Balance calculations indicated that the turbulent losses to the atmosphere were more as latent rather than sensible heat, with a day-time Bowen Ratio having an average value between 0.4 and 0.5. The development and evolution of Internal Boundary Layers due to changes in surface conditions in going from water to ground during the day was found to be more dependent to the step change in temperature, while at night the step change in surface roughness was found to be of equal importance.

  13. Isotopic incorporation rates and discrimination factors in mantis shrimp crustaceans.

    PubMed

    deVries, Maya S; Del Rio, Carlos Martínez; Tunstall, Tate S; Dawson, Todd E

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis has provided insights into the trophic ecology of a wide diversity of animals. Knowledge about isotopic incorporation rates and isotopic discrimination between the consumer and its diet for different tissue types is essential for interpreting stable isotope data, but these parameters remain understudied in many animal taxa and particularly in aquatic invertebrates. We performed a 292-day diet shift experiment on 92 individuals of the predatory mantis shrimp, Neogonodactylus bredini, to quantify carbon and nitrogen incorporation rates and isotope discrimination factors in muscle and hemolymph tissues. Average isotopic discrimination factors between mantis shrimp muscle and the new diet were 3.0 ± 0.6 ‰ and 0.9 ± 0.3 ‰ for carbon and nitrogen, respectively, which is contrary to what is seen in many other animals (e.g. C and N discrimination is generally 0-1 ‰ and 3-4 ‰, respectively). Surprisingly, the average residence time of nitrogen in hemolymph (28.9 ± 8.3 days) was over 8 times longer than that of carbon (3.4 ± 1.4 days). In muscle, the average residence times of carbon and nitrogen were of the same magnitude (89.3 ± 44.4 and 72.8 ± 18.8 days, respectively). We compared the mantis shrimps' incorporation rates, along with rates from four other invertebrate taxa from the literature, to those predicted by an allometric equation relating carbon incorporation rate to body mass that was developed for teleost fishes and sharks. The rate of carbon incorporation into muscle was consistent with rates predicted by this equation. Our findings provide new insight into isotopic discrimination factors and incorporation rates in invertebrates with the former showing a different trend than what is commonly observed in other animals. PMID:25835953

  14. Polysaccharides as Alternative Moisture Retention Agents for Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Torti, Michael J; Sims, Charles A; Adams, Charles M; Sarnoski, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    Phosphates are used as moisture retention agents (MRAs) by the shrimp industry. Although they are effective, phosphates are expensive, need to be listed on a food label, and overuse can often lead to a higher product cost for consumers. Polysaccharides were researched as alternative MRAs. Polysaccharides are usually inexpensive, are considered natural, and can have nutritional benefits. Research was conducted to determine whether polysaccharides yielded similar functional impacts as phosphates. Treatments included a 0.5% fibercolloid solution isolated from citrus peel, an 8% pectin solution, a 0.5% xanthan gum (XG) solution, a 1% carboxymethyl cellulose solution, and conventionally used 4% sodium tripolyphosphate (STP). Experimental treatments were compared to a distilled water control to gauge effectiveness. Freezing, boiling, and oven drying studies were performed to determine how moisture retention in shrimp differed using these different treatments. Water activity was measured to determine any potential differences in shelf life. Solution uptake was also determined to understand how well the treatments enhanced water binding. For moisture loss by freezing, 4% STP and the 0.5% fibercolloid solution functioned the best. The 4% STP treated shrimp lost the least amount of moisture during boiling. The 0.5% fibercolloid and 0.5% XG treatment outperformed phosphates in respect to moisture uptake ability. None of the treatments had a major effect on water activity. All treatments were rated similar in consumer sensory acceptability tests except for pectin, which was rated lower by the sensory panel. Overall, polysaccharides were found to be viable alternatives to phosphates. PMID:26849189

  15. Strike mechanics of an ambush predator: the spearing mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    deVries, M S; Murphy, E A K; Patek, S N

    2012-12-15

    Ambush predation is characterized by an animal scanning the environment from a concealed position and then rapidly executing a surprise attack. Mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) consist of both ambush predators ('spearers') and foragers ('smashers'). Spearers hide in sandy burrows and capture evasive prey, whereas smashers search for prey away from their burrows and typically hammer hard-shelled, sedentary prey. Here, we examined the kinematics, morphology and field behavior of spearing mantis shrimp and compared them with previously studied smashers. Using two species with dramatically different adult sizes, we found that strikes produced by the diminutive species, Alachosquilla vicina, were faster (mean peak speed 5.72±0.91 m s(-1); mean duration 3.26±0.41 ms) than the strikes produced by the large species, Lysiosquillina maculata (mean peak speed 2.30±0.85 m s(-1); mean duration 24.98±9.68 ms). Micro-computed tomography and dissections showed that both species have the spring and latch structures that are used in other species for producing a spring-loaded strike; however, kinematic analyses indicated that only A. vicina consistently engages the elastic mechanism. In the field, L. maculata ambushed evasive prey primarily at night while hidden in burrows, striking with both long and short durations compared with laboratory videos. We expected ambush predators to strike with very high speeds, yet instead we found that these spearing mantis shrimp struck more slowly and with longer durations than smashers. Nonetheless, the strikes of spearers occurred at similar speeds and durations to those of other aquatic predators of evasive prey. Although counterintuitive, these findings suggest that ambush predators do not actually need to produce extremely high speeds, and that the very fastest predators are using speed to achieve other mechanical feats, such as producing large impact forces. PMID:23175528

  16. Effects of process parameters on quality changes of shrimp during drying in a jet-spouted bed dryer.

    PubMed

    Niamnuy, C; Devahastin, S; Soponronnarit, S

    2007-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of various parameters, that is, concentration of salt solution (2%, 3%, 4%[w/v]), boiling time (3, 5, 7 min), drying air temperature (80, 100, 120 degrees C), and size of shrimp, on the kinetics of drying and various quality attributes of shrimp, namely, shrinkage, rehydration ability, texture, colors, and microstructure, during drying in a jet-spouted bed dryer. In addition, the effects of these processing parameters on the sensory attributes of dried shrimp were also investigated. Small shrimp (350 to 360 shrimp/kg) and large shrimp (150 to 160 shrimp/kg) were boiled and then dried until their moisture content was around 25% (d.b.). It was found that the degree of color changes, toughness, and shrinkage of shrimp increased while the rehydration ability decreased with an increase in the concentration of salt solution and boiling time. Size of shrimp and drying temperature significantly affected all quality attributes of dried shrimp. The conditions that gave the highest hedonic scores of sensory evaluation for small dried shrimp are the concentration of salt solution of 2% (w/v), boiling time of 7 min, and drying air temperature of 120 degrees C. On the other hand, the conditions that gave the highest hedonic scores of sensory evaluation for large dried shrimp are the concentration of salt solution of 4% (w/v), boiling time of 7 min, and drying air temperature of 100 degrees C. The quality attributes of dried shrimp measured by instruments correlated well with the sensory attributes, especially the color of dried shrimp. PMID:18034725

  17. Crowding of white shrimp Litopenaeus vananmei depresses their immunity to and resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Chen, Yu-Yuan; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Chen, Li-Li; Huang, Chien-Lun; Hsieh, Jen-Fang; Li, Chang-Che

    2015-07-01

    Immunity parameters and the expression levels of several immune-related proteins, including lipopolysaccharide and β-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), intergin β (IB), prophenoloxidase (proPO) I, proPO II, α2-macroglobulin (α2-M), cytosolic mangangese superoxide dismutase (cytMnSOD), mitochondria manganese superoxide dismutase (mtMnSOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), lysozyme, and penaeidin 3a were examined in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reared at stocking densities of 2, 10, 20, 30, and 40 shrimp L(-1) after 3, 6, and 12 h. All immune parameters including haemocyte count, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst (RB), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and haemolymph protein were negatively related to density and time. The PO activity, SOD activity, and lysozyme activity of shrimp reared at 10 shrimp L(-1) after 12 h significantly decreased. The transcript levels of these immune-related proteins were down-regulated in shrimp reared at 20, 30, and 40 shrimp L(-1) after 12 h. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to Vibrio alginolyticus were significantly lower in shrimp reared at 30 and 40 shrimp L(-1) after 12 h. The mortality rates of shrimp reared at 20 and 40 shrimp L(-1) were significantly higher than shrimp reared at 2 shrimp L(-1) over 12-144 h and 12-48 h, respectively. Shrimp reared at high densities (>10 shrimp L(-1)) exhibited decreased resistance against pathogens as evidenced by reductions in immune parameters together with decreased expression levels of immune-related proteins, indicating perturbations of the immune system. PMID:25700787

  18. Hydrostatic pressure affects selective tidal stream transport in the North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon).

    PubMed

    Tielmann, Moritz; Reiser, Stefan; Hufnagl, Marc; Herrmann, Jens-Peter; Eckardt, André; Temming, Axel

    2015-10-01

    The brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) is a highly abundant invertebrate in the North Sea, with its life cycle stages ranging from deep offshore spawning to shallow onshore nursery areas. To overcome the long distances between these two habitats, brown shrimp are suspected to use selective tidal stream transport (STST), moving with the cyclic tide currents towards their preferred water depths. However, it is not known which stimulus actually triggers STST behavior in brown shrimp. In this work, we determined the influence of different hyperbaric pressures on STST behavior of juvenile brown shrimp. Brown shrimp activity was recorded in a hyperbaric pressure chamber that supplied constant and dynamic pressure conditions simulating different depths, with and without a tidal cycle. Subsequent wavelet and Fourier analysis were performed to determine the periodicity in the activity data. The results of the experiments show that STST behavior in brown shrimp varies with pressure and therefore with depth. We further show that STST behavior can be initiated by cyclic pressure changes. However, an interaction with one or more other environmental triggers remains possible. Furthermore, a security ebb-tide activity was identified that may serve to avoid potential stranding in shallow waters and is 'remembered' by shrimp for about 1.5 days without contact with tidal triggers. PMID:26347562

  19. Autolysis of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) meat: characterization and the effects of protein additives.

    PubMed

    Eakpetch, P; Benjakul, S; Visessanguan, W; Kijroongrojana, K

    2008-03-01

    Autolytic activity of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) mince in the absence and in the presence of 2.5%NaCl was investigated. Pacific white shrimp mince exhibited the maximum autolytic activity at 35 and 40 degrees C in the absence and in the presence of 2.5%NaCl, respectively, as evidenced by the highest TCA-soluble peptide content and the greatest disappearance of myosin heavy chain (MHC). The autolysis was more pronounced in the acidic pH values, followed by alkaline pH ranges. Pepstatin A showed the highest inhibition toward autolysis in the acidic condition, revealing that aspartic proteinase was dominant in shrimp muscle. Nevertheless, soybean trypsin inhibitor effectively inhibited the autolysis at neutral and alkaline pH values, suggesting that serine proteinase was present in shrimp mince but contributed to autolysis at a lower extent in shrimp meat. Autolysis in shrimp meat could be inhibited partially by all protein additives, including bovine plasma protein (BPP), egg white (EW), and whey protein concentrate (WPC). The inhibition of autolysis increased when the level of protein additives increased with the concomitant increase in band intensity of MHC retained. WPC and BPP in the range of 2% to 3% exhibited the highest inhibition toward autolysis of shrimp mince. PMID:18298747

  20. Transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) to penaeid shrimp.

    PubMed

    Haryadi, D; Verreth, J A J; Verdegem, M C J; Vlak, J M

    2015-05-01

    Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) is a common polychaete in shrimp ponds built on intertidal land and is natural food for shrimp in traditionally managed ponds in Indonesia. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an important viral pathogen of the shrimp, can replicate in this polychaete (Desrina et al. 2013); therefore, it is a potential propagative vector for virus transmission. The major aim of this study was to determine whether WSSV can be transmitted from naturally infected Dendronereis spp. to specific pathogen-free (SPF) Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) through feeding. WSSV was detected in naturally infected Dendronereis spp. and Penaeus monodon Fabricius from a traditional shrimp pond, and the positive animals were used in the current experiment. WSSV-infected Dendronereis spp. and P. monodon in a pond had a point prevalence of 90% and 80%, respectively, as measured by PCR. WSSV was detected in the head, gills, blood and mid-body of Dendronereis spp. WSSV from naturally infected Dendronereis spp was transmitted to SPF L. vannamei and subsequently from this shrimp to new naïve-SPF L. vannamei to cause transient infection. Our findings support the contention that Dendronereis spp, upon feeding, can be a source of WSSV infection of shrimp in ponds. PMID:24716813

  1. The effects of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) coating on the quality of shrimp during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Mousavinejad, Mohsen S

    2015-10-01

    Green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) is an important aquaculture species worldwide. Its perishable nature, however, needs preservation methods to ensure its quality and shelf life. In this study, the effects of Aloe vera coating on the quality and shelf life of shrimps during cold storage were investigated. Shrimp samples were dipped in aqueous solutions containing 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% Aloe vera gel before storage at 4 °C for 7 days. Drip loss, pH, TBA, TVB-N, and texture of both the control and treated shrimp samples were analyzed periodically. There were significant differences between coated shrimps and the control group in all parameters evaluated. Aloe vera at 75% and 100% concentrations was able to prevent lipid oxidation and drip loss properly; however, coatings containing 25% Aloe vera did not have the desired effects on these characteristics. Shrimps coated with higher concentrations of Aloe vera had better textural properties during cold storage. Results also indicated the positive effects of Aloe vera coating on the sensory quality of shrimp. PMID:26396412

  2. Quality of shrimp analogue product as affected by addition of modified potato starch.

    PubMed

    Remya, S; Basu, S; Venkateshwarlu, G; Mohan, C O

    2015-07-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of addition of modified potato starch on the biochemical and textural properties of shrimp analogue/imitation shrimp, a popular value-added product prepared from surimi. Three batches of shrimp analogues were prepared with 0 % (NPS), 50 % (CPS) and 100 % (MPS) of modified starch incorporation and various quality attributes were monitored at regular intervals during frozen storage (-20 °C). Loss of myofibrillar protein was least for the shrimp analogue sample added with 100 % modified potato starch. The expressible moisture content of MPS (2.48 %) was less affected by long term storage compared to CPS (3.38 %) and NPS (3.99 %). During extended low temperature storage, the textural quality of sea food analogue was highly influenced by the type of starch added to it. The percentage of modified potato starch added to shrimp analogue significantly (p ≤ 0.05) affected its hardness and fracturability. MPS samples did not show significant changes in hardness during storage as compared to other two samples. Springiness of shrimp analogue increased 2.57, 1.5 and 1.77 times with the storage period for samples with NPS, CPS and MPS, respectively. Addition of modified potato starch improved the sensory quality and textural properties of shrimp analogue and reduced the quality degradation during frozen storage as compared to NPS which contained only native potato starch. PMID:26139909

  3. Organotins in North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon L.) after implementation of the TBT ban.

    PubMed

    Verhaegen, Y; Monteyne, E; Neudecker, T; Tulp, I; Smagghe, G; Cooreman, K; Roose, P; Parmentier, K

    2012-03-01

    The organotin (OT) compounds tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) are potent biocides that have been used ubiquitously in antifouling paints and pesticides since the mid-1970s. These biocides are extremely toxic to marine life, particularly marine gastropod populations. The European Union therefore took measures to reduce the use of TBT-based antifouling paints on ships and ultimately banned these paints in 2003. Despite sufficient data on OT concentrations in marine gastropods, data are scarce for other species such as the North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon), a dominant crustacean species in North Sea inshore benthic communities. The present study provides the first spatial overview of OT concentrations in North Sea brown shrimp. We have compared these data with historical concentrations in shrimp as well as with sediment concentrations. We have also addressed the effect on the shrimp stock and any human health risks associated with the OT concentrations found. TBT and TPhT in shrimp tail muscle ranged from 4 to 124 and from 1 to 24 μg kg(-1) DW, respectively. High levels are accumulated in estuarine areas and are clearly related with sediment concentrations (biota-sediment accumulation factor ~10). Levels have decreased approximately 10-fold since the ban took effect, coinciding with a recovery of the shrimp stock after 30 years of gradual regression. Furthermore, the OT levels found in brown shrimp no longer present a human health risk. PMID:22154339

  4. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Vibrio spp. in Retail and Farm Shrimps in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Sperling, L; Alter, T; Huehn, S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in shrimp at retail and in shrimp farms in Ecuador and to determine the antimicrobial agent resistance patterns of farm isolates. The presence of genes linked to early mortality syndrome (EMS) or acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) also was evaluated. Vibrio spp. were isolated from retail shrimps in Cuenca, Ecuador, and farm shrimps originating from provinces El Oro and Guayas, Ecuador. A total of 229 shrimp samples were collected, of which 71 originated from retail markets in Cuenca and 158 came from shrimp farms. Overall, 219 (95.6%) samples tested positive for Vibrio spp. Vibrio parahaemolyticus (80.8%) was the most common species detected, followed by Vibrio alginolyticus (50.2%), Vibrio cholerae (11.3%), and Vibrio vulnificus (3.5%). None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the virulence-associated tdh and trh genes. In V. parahaemolyticus shrimp farm isolates, high resistance was found to ampicillin (92.2%), and intermediate resistance was found to tetracycline (51.3%) and amikacin (22.1%). Of the V. parahaemolyticus strains, 68 were resistant to at least three antimicrobial agents, and 2 were resistant to seven antimicrobial agents simultaneously. Up to 18 resistant isolates were found for V. alginolyticus, whereas V. vulnificus and V. cholerae isolates were more susceptible. None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the EMS-AHPND plasmid. The results of this study revealed the ubiquitous occurrence of Vibrio spp. in shrimps at retail and on shrimp farms in Ecuador. PMID:26555534

  5. Characterization of Intestinal Bacteria in Wild and Domesticated Adult Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    PubMed Central

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2014-01-01

    The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp. PMID:24618668

  6. Application of nucleic-acid-based therapeutics for viral infections in shrimp aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, Mudagandur S; Lu, Yuanan

    2009-01-01

    Viral infections are one of the major reasons for the huge economic losses in shrimp farming. The control of viral diseases in shrimp remains a serious challenge for the shrimp aquacultural industry, with major pathogens, such as the white spot syndrome virus, yellow head virus, Taura syndrome virus, hepatopancreatic parvovirus, and baculoviruses, being geographically widespread. In the absence of a true adaptive immune response system in invertebrates such as shrimp, one of the alternative and more specific approaches to counteract viral infections in shrimp could be the use of molecular-based gene transfer technologies, such as RNA interference (RNAi). The RNAi mechanism is initiated by double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), which are fragmented into shorter 21-23 nucleotides of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) by a type III endonuclease, the Dicer. RNAi, which is mediated by small interfering RNA (siRNA), results in the sequence-specific post-transcriptional silencing of a target gene. This gene-silencing mechanism is universally conserved and is a well-known phenomenon that exists in many eukaryotes, including invertebrates. It has been recently extended to shrimp as an important potential tool in viral disease prevention. RNAi technology shows considerable promise as a therapeutic approach and efficient strategy for shrimp virus control in the aquaculture industry. Further progress in understanding the mechanism of siRNAs at the molecular level, as well as strategies to achieve their tightly regulated, stable, prolonged and tissue-specific expression in an effective manner, will definitely revolutionize therapeutic approaches for counteracting viral diseases of shrimp. In the present review, the recent development and potential use of RNAi in combating shrimp viral infections is discussed. PMID:18941835

  7. Characterization of intestinal bacteria in wild and domesticated adult black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2014-01-01

    The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp. PMID:24618668

  8. Contests with deadly weapons: telson sparring in mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda).

    PubMed

    Green, P A; Patek, S N

    2015-09-01

    Mantis shrimp strike with extreme impact forces that are deadly to prey. They also strike conspecifics during territorial contests, yet theoretical and empirical findings in aggressive behaviour research suggest competitors should resolve conflicts using signals before escalating to dangerous combat. We tested how Neogonodactylus bredini uses two ritualized behaviours to resolve size-matched contests: meral spread visual displays and telson (tailplate) strikes. We predicted that (i) most contests would be resolved by meral spreads, (ii) meral spreads would reliably signal strike force and (iii) strike force would predict contest success. The results were unexpected for each prediction. Contests were not resolved by meral spreads, instead escalating to striking in 33 of 34 experiments. The size of meral spread components did not strongly correlate with strike force. Strike force did not predict contest success; instead, winners delivered more strikes. Size-matched N. bredini avoid deadly combat not by visual displays, but by ritualistically and repeatedly striking each other's telsons until the loser retreats. We term this behaviour 'telson sparring', analogous to sparring in other weapon systems. We present an alternative framework for mantis shrimp contests in which the fight itself is the signal, serving as a non-lethal indicator of aggressive persistence or endurance. PMID:26399976

  9. Evaluation of space adequateness of shrimp farms in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Rodrigo R; Hartmann, Carlos; Tagliani, Paulo R A; Poersch, Luís H

    2011-09-01

    In Rio Grande do Sul State, there are four marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farms in the municipal districts of São José do Norte and Rio Grande, and other four with previous license for operation. Thus, the present study aimed to identify and characterize areas for marine shrimp farming located in the Southern portion of the Patos Lagoon estuary (32º00'S 52º00'W) by employing the analysis of satellite remote sensing (Landsat TM and ETM+/Google Earth), airborne remote sensing (35mm system ADAR 1000), terrestrial remote sensing (RICOH 500SE), and field expeditions, integrating data in a Geographical Information System (IDRISI Andes). As a result, the enterprises were built on coastal fields or in obliterated dune areas, which are favorable for cultivation. The proximity of possible consuming markets and local labor, relatively good access roads and local technical support also favor the projects. However, there must be caution in terms of changes in the original projects, which could cause environmental impacts and noncompliance of environmental norms, such as the occupation of salt marsh areas. Based on the obtained information, instruments can be created to help inherent legal decision-making to manage the activity for futures enterprises. PMID:21808923

  10. Elastic energy storage in the mantis shrimp's fast predatory strike.

    PubMed

    Zack, T I; Claverie, T; Patek, S N

    2009-12-01

    Storage of elastic energy is key to increasing the power output of many biological systems. Mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) must store considerable elastic energy prior to their rapid raptorial strikes; however, little is known about the dynamics and location of elastic energy storage structures in this system. We used computed tomography (CT) to visualize the mineralization patterns in Gonodactylaceus falcatus and high speed videography of Odontodactylus scyllarus to observe the dynamics of spring loading. Using a materials testing apparatus, we measured the force and work required to contract the elastic structures in G. falcatus. There was a positive linear correlation between contraction force and contraction distance; alternative model tests further supported the use of a linear model. Therefore, we modeled the system as a Hookean spring. The force required to fully compress the spring was positively correlated with body mass and appendage size, but the spring constant did not scale with body size, suggesting a possible role of muscle constraints in the scaling of this system. One hypothesized elastic storage structure, the saddle, only contributed approximately 11% of the total measured force, thus suggesting that primary site of elastic energy storage is in the mineralized ventral bars found in the merus segment of the raptorial appendages. Furthermore, the intact system exhibited 81% resilience and severing the saddle resulted in a non-significant reduction to 77% resilience. The remarkable shapes and mineralization patterns that characterize the mantis shrimp's raptorial appendage further reveal a highly integrated mechanical power amplification system based on exoskeletal elastic energy storage. PMID:19946078

  11. Linkage mechanics and power amplification of the mantis shrimp's strike.

    PubMed

    Patek, S N; Nowroozi, B N; Baio, J E; Caldwell, R L; Summers, A P

    2007-10-01

    Mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) generate extremely rapid and forceful predatory strikes through a suite of structural modifications of their raptorial appendages. Here we examine the key morphological and kinematic components of the raptorial strike that amplify the power output of the underlying muscle contractions. Morphological analyses of joint mechanics are integrated with CT scans of mineralization patterns and kinematic analyses toward the goal of understanding the mechanical basis of linkage dynamics and strike performance. We test whether a four-bar linkage mechanism amplifies rotation in this system and find that the rotational amplification is approximately two times the input rotation, thereby amplifying the velocity and acceleration of the strike. The four-bar model is generally supported, although the observed kinematic transmission is lower than predicted by the four-bar model. The results of the morphological, kinematic and mechanical analyses suggest a multi-faceted mechanical system that integrates latches, linkages and lever arms and is powered by multiple sites of cuticular energy storage. Through reorganization of joint architecture and asymmetric distribution of mineralized cuticle, the mantis shrimp's raptorial appendage offers a remarkable example of how structural and mechanical modifications can yield power amplification sufficient to produce speeds and forces at the outer known limits of biological systems. PMID:17921168

  12. Structure of Penaeus stylirostris Densovirus, a Shrimp Pathogen

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, Bärbel; Bowman, Valorie D.; Li, Yi; Szelei, Jozsef; Waddell, Peter J.; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-11-16

    Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), a pathogen of penaeid shrimp, causes significant damage to farmed and wild shrimp populations. In contrast to other parvoviruses, PstDNV probably has only one type of capsid protein that lacks the phospholipase A2 activity that has been implicated as a requirement during parvoviral host cell infection. The structure of recombinant virus-like particles, composed of 60 copies of the 37.5-kDa coat protein, the smallest parvoviral capsid protein reported thus far, was determined to 2.5-{angstrom} resolution by X-ray crystallography. The structure represents the first near-atomic resolution structure within the genus Brevidensovirus. The capsid protein has a {beta}-barrel 'jelly roll' motif similar to that found in many icosahedral viruses, including other parvoviruses. The N-terminal portion of the PstDNV coat protein adopts a 'domain-swapped' conformation relative to its twofold-related neighbor similar to the insect parvovirus Galleria mellonella densovirus (GmDNV) but in stark contrast to vertebrate parvoviruses. However, most of the surface loops have little structural resemblance to any of the known parvoviral capsid proteins.

  13. One-solvent extraction of astaxanthin from lactic acid fermented shrimp wastes.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Miquel; Ramírez-Hernández, Jessica Yesemite; Mártinez-Ibarra, César; Pacheco, Neith; García-Arrazola, Roeb; Bárzana, Eduardo; Shirai, Keiko

    2007-12-12

    Free astaxanthin one-solvent extractions with ethanol, acetone, and liquid 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane from raw and lactic acid fermented (ensilaged) shrimp residues were investigated. The total carotenoid recovery from ensilaged shrimp wastes was higher than that from non-ensilaged ones as assessed by HPLC analyses. Acetone gave the highest extraction yields of free astaxanthin with up to 115 microg/g of material. Moreover, liquid tetrafluoroethane is reported for the first time in a successful one-solvent extraction of carotenoids from shrimp. PMID:18020413

  14. Effect of chitosan-based edible coating on preservation of white shrimp during partially frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengjun

    2014-04-01

    Chitosan and chitooligosaccharides are preservatives with proven antibacterial activity, while glutathione has antioxidant activity. This study investigated the effects of chitosan coating combined with chitooligosaccharides and glutathione (0.8% glutathione+1% chitooligosaccharides+1% chitosan) on preservation of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) during partially frozen storage. Chitosan-based coating treatments effectively inhibited bacterial growth, reduced total volatile basic nitrogen and malondialdehyde, and basically maintained the sensory properties of white shrimp (P. vannamei) during partially frozen storage. Therefore, chitosan-based edible coating combined with chitooligosaccharides and glutathione could be a promising antimicrobial and oxidant method to prevent metamorphism of white shrimp with extended shelf life. PMID:24491494

  15. A Brine Shrimp Bioassay for Measuring Toxicity and Remediation of Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, Marya

    1999-12-01

    A bioassay using Artemia franciscana (brine shrimp) was adapted to measure the toxicity of household chemicals. One project is described in which students collect dose-response curves for seven commercial flea-killing products. Next, groups of students researched the insecticidal ingredients of the flea products. On the basis of the structures of the active ingredients, they chose remediation methods to make the flea product less toxic to brine shrimp; procedures included copper-catalyzed hydrolysis, adsorption onto activated charcoal, bleach treatment, and photodegradation. No special equipment or supplies are necessary for the bioassay other than the brine shrimp eggs, which can be obtained at any aquarium store.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of the hydrothermal vent ghost shrimp Paraglypturus tonganus (Crustacea, Axiidea, Callianassidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Joo; Kim, Jonguk; Ahn, Dong-Ha; Ju, Se-Jong; Min, Gi-Sik; Kim, Sanghee

    2016-01-01

    Ghost shrimps are burrowing decapods that serve as bioturbators and habitat providers in seafloor environments. The hydrothermal vent ghost shrimp, Paraglypturus tonganus, was collected from a hydrothermal vent in the Tonga Arc. This species has a mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of 15,924 bp in length with an AT content of 66.1%. The mitogenome was identical to the typical gene arrangement and transcriptional polarity of the infraorder Axiidea. Paraglypturus tonganus showed 65.3-70.1% nucleotide similarity with the known mitogenomes of other axiid shrimps. These results are useful for understanding the phylogenetic relationships among the members of Axiidea within the decapods. PMID:24963774

  17. Status of selected bottomfish and crustacean species in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, D.A.; Dinnel, P.A.; Orensanz, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Exposure and possible adverse effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) at depth were studied between 1989 and 1991 on several species of crustaceans, molluscs, and finfish that are characterized by ontogenetic shifts in distribution from meroplanktonic larvae to benthic and demersal juveniles and adults. The authors approach was to search for (1) evidence of exposure to Exxon Valdez crude oil (EVC) at depth (generally between 20 to 150 m) and (2) measurable perturbations at both the individual and population levels. Primary species targeted were Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi), several pandalid shrimps (Pandalus platyceros, P. hypsinotus, P. borealis), flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon), and several bivalves including scallops (Chlamys rubida) and infaunal clams (Nuculana, Yoldia, and Macoma spp.). The survey design provided a comparison between variables measured in oiled bays around Knight Island and non-oiled bays at other locations within Prince William Sound. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of petrogenic origin were measured in all bays sampled in this study and levels of PAHs derived from EVC were elevated in the oiled bays following the spill, yet attenuated to less than 200 ng/g sediment by 1991. 95 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Improved activity and stability of alkaline phosphatases from psychrophilic and mesophilic organisms by chemically modifying aliphatic or amino groups using tetracarboxy-benzophenone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, K S; Poljak, A; Cavicchioli, R

    2004-07-01

    The activity-stability-structure relationship of the cold-active alkaline phosphatase from Red Arctic shrimp, Pandalus borealis (SAP) was studied by chemically modifying aliphatic (C-H) or amino (NH2) groups using benzophenone tetracarboxylic derivatives in either a light (UV-A) or dark reaction. The response of the cold-adapted enzyme was compared to a similarly modified calf alkaline phosphatase (CAP). MALDI-TOF-MS was used to determine the extent and nature of the modifications in both SAP and CAP. On average 2 to 4 amino acid residues were linked to a BP-modifier, with up to 18 to 21 amino acids modified in a smaller portion of the material. The effect of the modifications on kinetic and thermodynamic properties varied with the enzyme and type of modification. The aliphatic-group modified SAP demonstrated typical characteristics of a mesophilic enzyme, consistent with an activity-stability trade-off where gain in thermostability was attained at the expense of decreased activity. In contrast, the activity of the amino-group modified SAP attained an even more psychrophilic character with respect to its kinetic (increase in kcat and Km) and thermodynamic (reduction in deltaH#) properties. Interestingly, the amino-group modified SAP also acquired higher thermostability, thus demonstrating that both activity and stability can be simultaneously enhanced using chemical modification. The study demonstrates the applicability of benzophenone chemical modification for improving the thermal properties of enzymes from psychrophiles and mesophiles. PMID:15559981

  19. Fate of outflow channel effluents in the northern lowlands of Mars: The Vastitas Borealis Formation as a sublimation residue from frozen ponded bodies of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.

    2002-12-01

    We analyze the fate of the Hesperian-aged outflow channel effluents emplaced into the northern lowlands of Mars. We have modeled the evolution of these effluents under the assumption that they were emplaced under a range of atmospheric conditions comparable to those of today and thought to have prevailed in the Hesperian. Under these conditions we find that the evolution of the sediment-loaded water after it left the channels includes three phases. Phase 1: Emplacement and intensive cooling: Violent emplacement of water followed by a short period of intensive evaporation from the surface and near-surface layer, and intensive convection. During this phase the water maintained and redistributed its large suspended sediment load. Water vapor strongly influenced the climate, at least for a geologically short time. When the temperature of the water reached the temperature of the maximum density or the freezing point, boiling and intensive convection ceased and the water deposited the sediments. Phase 2: Freezing solid: Geologically rapid freezing of the water body accompanied by weak convective water movement occurred over a period of the order of ~104 years. Phase 3: Sublimation and loss: This period involved sublimation of the ice and lasted longer than the freezing phase. The rate and latitudinal dependence of the sublimation, as well as the location of water vapor condensation, crucially depend on the planetary obliquity, climate, and sedimentary veneering of the ice. Phase 3 would have been very short geologically (~105-106 years) if an insulating sedimentary layer did not build up rapidly. If such an insulating layer did form rapidly, sublimation could cease and residual ice hundreds of meters thick could remain below the surface today. The northern lowlands of Mars are largely covered by the Late Hesperian-aged Vastitas Borealis Formation (VBF), which has sharp boundaries clearly seen in the map of kilometer-scale roughness, and a distinctive kilometer-scale roughness signature. We examine detrended topography data and find evidence that the VBF is underlain at very shallow depths by an Early Hesperian ridged volcanic plains substrate, rather than frozen water deposits remaining from the outflow channel events. Analysis of the VBF roughness characteristics suggests at least 100 m thickness of sediments on top of the underlying volcanic ridged plains. The total inferred volume of the VBF material approximately corresponds to the volume of material removed from the outflow channels. These results support a model in which the Vastitas Borealis Formation predominantly represents the sedimentary residue remaining after the sediment-laden water effluents of the outflow channels ponded in the northern lowlands and rapidly froze solid and sublimed. The distinctive facies of the VBF are interpreted to be related to the freezing, sublimation, and residue of the outflow channel effluents. Ridged facies are dominantly marginal and are interpreted to be related to ice sheet lateral retreat. Knobby facies occur throughout and are interpreted to be due to a variety of causes, including dewatering, de-icing and brine-related processes, and kame-like ice residues. Grooved facies are interpreted to represent postsublimation uplift and fracturing due to load removal. The mottled facies may represent bright ejecta whose albedo is related to buried sedimentary or evaporitic residues. Presently, the most likely sites to find frozen remnants of the Hesperian ocean are below the floors of stealth craters underlying the VBF. On the basis of these findings and interpretations, we make predictions for the fate of the outflow channel water vapor and the nature of the Martian hydrologic cycle during the Hesperian. If Noachian-aged oceans existed, conditions at that time would be similar to those described for a Hesperian ocean as soon as a global cryosphere was formed. If any residual deposits remain in the northern lowlands from a proposed Noachian ocean, they would lie below both the VBF and the underlying sequence of Hesperian ridged plains.

  20. THE GALACTIC R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS: THE C{sub 2} SWAN BANDS, THE CARBON PROBLEM, AND THE {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C RATIO

    SciTech Connect

    Hema, B. P.; Pandey, Gajendra; Lambert, David L. E-mail: pandey@iiap.res.in

    2012-03-10

    Observed spectra of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) and hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) stars are analyzed by synthesizing the C{sub 2} Swan bands (1, 0), (0, 0), and (0, 1) using our detailed line list and the Uppsala model atmospheres. The (0, 1) and (0, 0) C{sub 2} bands are used to derive the {sup 12}C abundance, and the (1, 0) {sup 12}C{sup 13}C band to determine the {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratios. The carbon abundance derived from the C{sub 2} Swan bands is about the same for the adopted models constructed with different carbon abundances over the range 8.5 (C/He = 0.1%) to 10.5 (C/He = 10%). Carbon abundances derived from C I lines are about a factor of four lower than the carbon abundance of the adopted model atmosphere over the same C/He interval, as reported by Asplund et al., who dubbed the mismatch between adopted and derived C abundance as the 'carbon problem'. In principle, the carbon abundances obtained from C{sub 2} Swan bands and that assumed for the model atmosphere can be equated for a particular choice of C/He that varies from star to star. Then, the carbon problem for C{sub 2} bands is eliminated. However, such C/He ratios are in general less than those of the extreme helium stars, the seemingly natural relatives to the RCB and HdC stars. A more likely solution to the C{sub 2} carbon problem may lie in a modification of the model atmosphere's temperature structure. The derived carbon abundances and the {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratios are discussed in light of the double degenerate and the final flash scenarios.

  1. Structure and functions of the placenta in common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde’s (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales

    PubMed Central

    KITAYAMA, Chiyo; SASAKI, Motoki; ISHIKAWA, Hajime; MOGOE, Toshihiro; OHSUMI, Seiji; FUKUI, Yutaka; BUDIPITOJO, Teguh; KONDOH, Daisuke; KITAMURA, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The structure and functions of placentas were examined in 3 species of rorqual whales, common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde’s (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales, with the aim of confirming the structural characteristics of the chorion, including the presence of the areolar part, and clarifying steroidogenic activities and fetomaternal interactions in the placentas of these whales. Placentas were collected from the second phase of the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the North Pacific (JARPN II). Histological and ultrastructural examinations revealed that these whale placentas were epitheliochorial placentas with the interdigitation of chorionic villi lined by monolayer uninucleate cells (trophoblast cells) and endometrial crypts as well as folded placentation by fold-like chorionic villi. Moreover, well-developed pouch-like areolae were observed in the placentas, and active absorption was suggested in the chorionic epithelial cells of the areolar part (areolar trophoblast cells). Berlin blue staining showed the presence of ferric ions (Fe3+) in the uterine glandular epithelial cells and within the stroma of chorionic villi in the areolar part. An immunohistochemical examination revealed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; known as uteroferrin in uteri) in the cytoplasm of glandular cells and areolar trophoblast cells. This result suggested that, in cetaceans, uteroferrin is used to supply iron to the fetus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity for P450scc and P450arom was detected in trophoblast cells, but not in areolar trophoblast cells, suggesting that trophoblast cells synthesize estrogen in whale placentas. Therefore, we herein immunohistochemically revealed the localization of aromatase and uteroferrin in cetacean placentas during pregnancy for the first time. PMID:26096685

  2. The Dust Properties of Hot R Coronae Borealis Stars and a Wolf-Rayet Central Star of a Planetary Nebula: In Search of the Missing Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; De Marco, O.; Whitney, B. A.; Babler, B.; Gallagher, J. S.; Nordhaus, J.; Speck, A. K.; Wolff, M. J.; Freeman, W. R.; Camp, K. A.; Lawson, W. A.; Roman-Duval, J.; Misselt, K. A.; Meade, M.; Sonneborn, G.; Matsuura, M.; Meixner, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present new Spitzer IIRS spectra of two hot R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars, one in the Galaxy,V348 Sgr, and one lying in the Large Magellanic Cloud, HV 2671. These two objects constitute a link between the RCB stars and the [WCL] class of central stars of planetary nebula (CSPNe) that has little or no hydrogen in their atmospheres such as CPD -560 8032. HV 2671 and V348 Sgr are members of a rare subclass that has significantly higher effective temperatures than most RCB stars, but sharing the traits of hydrogen deficiency and dust formation that define the cooler RCB stars. The [WC] CSPNe star, CPD -560 8032, displays evidence for dual-dust chemistry showing both PAHs and crystalline silicates in its mid-IR spectrum. HV 2671 shows strong PAH emission but shows no sign of having crystalline silicates. The spectrum of V348 Sgr is very different from those of CPD -56deg 8032 and HV 2671. The PAH emission seen strongly in the other two stars is only weakly present. Instead, the spectrum is dominated by a broad emission centered at about 8.5 microns. This feature is not identified with either PAHs or silicates. Several other novae and post-asymptotic giant branch stars show similar features in their IR spectra. The mid-IR spectrum of CPD -56deg 8032 shows emission features associated with C60 . The other two stars do not show evidence for C60. The nature of the dust around these stars does not help us in establishing further links that may indicate a common origin.

  3. Observations on the Activity and Life History of the Scavenging Isopod Natatolana borealisLilljeborg (Isopoda: Cirolanidae) from Loch Fyne, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Y. M.; Moore, P. G.

    1996-02-01

    The activity and life history of the cirolanid isopod Natatolana borealisLilljeborg has been studied using (primarily) fish-baited traps deployed at a deep-water station (190 m) in Loch Fyne, Scotland. A voracious scavenger, it burrows into soft mud, emerging to feed when suitable food odours are detected in the water. Isopods were attracted significantly to baited vs. non-baited traps. Underwater video observations revealed that most animals were active in the vicinity of traps, that capture efficiency was low, but retention complete. Only traps on the sea-bed captured mancas or juveniles in any numbers. Any seasonal pattern in catch rate through the year was confounded by high variability. Only one (manca-)brooding female was ever caught in a trap (in April). It is assumed that brooding females desist from feeding. The sex ratio of isopods in most trap collections was thus significantly male dominated. Mancas were trapped during February to August. Growth rate was slowest in adults and was similar for males and females. The maximum growth rate occurred during autumn associated with the seasonal cycle in bottom water temperatures. Longevity was estimated (by following peaks in the size-frequency distributions with time) to be c. 2·5 years, with sexual maturity (based on oostegites/spurred appendix masculinae) achieved after c. 19 months. Semelparity is suggested. A low incidence of an unnamed epicaridean parasite is reported from the Clyde population. Natatolana borealisalso carried peritrich ciliate epizoites on their antennae. Possible predators are swimming crabs and gadid fish, e.g. whiting and cod.

  4. Mechanoreception, a possible mechanism for food fall detection in deep-sea scavengers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klages, Michael; Muyakshin, Sergey; Soltwedel, Thomas; Arntz, Wolf E.

    2002-01-01

    There is strong evidence in the literature that energy supply for deep-sea scavengers is largely restricted to food falls of dead vertebrates such as fish and mammals. The problem for any scavenger inhabiting the seafloor is the unpredictability both in space and time of food fall events. It is generally accepted that chemoreception is one of the major means by which marine organisms detect food sources. Another major source of potential information, however, may come from hydroacoustic stimuli, which have long-range penetration. Such hydroacoustic stimuli will either arise when a large carcass hits and impacts the seafloor or during food consumption of scavengers producing feeding noises. The intensity and transmission characteristics depend upon sediment properties, size, weight and composition of the carcass as well as on size and mouthpart morphology of feeding individuals. In this study the relevance of hydroacoustic stimuli for food fall detection has been investigated in the pandalid shrimp Pandalus borealis Krøyer, 1838. The sensitivity of P. borealis to particle displacement amplitude was found to be close to values measured in other crustaceans. Based on 228 single experiments carried out with five specimens, our results indicate that low-frequency noises may be helpful in detecting food fall events but only in the near-field. In this paper we suggest that the impact of a sinking carcass at the seafloor is a likely source producing elastic waves at the water-seafloor interface. Based on both empirical findings and general theoretical calculations of elastic waves originating from a sinking object hitting the seafloor we conclude that such "micro seismic events" may allow resting scavengers even several hundred metres away to detect a food source.

  5. 75 FR 17693 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... ITC Limited, International Business ITC Ltd Jagadeesh Marine Exports Jaya Satya Marine Exports Jaya... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty Administrative Reviews AGENCY: Import Administration, International...

  6. 75 FR 32915 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ..., or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 5037 (February 1... and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of Administrative Reviews, 75 FR 17693 (April 7, 2010) (Initiation... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission...

  7. Requirements of shrimp, Penaeus chinensis O'sbeck for potassium, sodium, magnesium and iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fa-Yi; Li, He-Fang; Wang, Hui-Liang; Liang, De-Hai; Tian, Yu-Chuan

    1995-06-01

    Potassium, sodium, magnesium and iodine requirements of shrimp, Penaeus chinensis were studied. Orthogonal design was employed in this experiment. The composition of the basal diet consisted of fish meal, peanut cake, corn meal, soybean cake, wheat bran, vitamin mix and mineral mix, and supplementations of potassium, sodium, magnesium and iodine in the basal diet were made according to the L9(34) orthogonal table. The results indicated that iodine supplementation improved growth of the shrimp significantly and raised survival very significantly, iodine requirement of the shrimp was 0.003%; sodium requirement was 0.87% or less; and that 1.1 1.3% potassium and 0.18 0.38% magnesium in the diet were proper nutrition supplements for the shrimp.

  8. The occurrence of semicarbazide in the meat and shell of Bangladeshi fresh-water shrimp.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Robert; Hanna, Bob; Ennis, David; Cantley, Lynne; Faulkner, Dermot; Kennedy, D Glenn

    2013-02-15

    There is evidence that semicarbazide (SEM), a marker for the banned nitrofuran nitrofurazone, can arise from other, unrelated sources. Recently, Belgium rejected 54 consignments of Bangladeshi freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), following a laboratory decision to test meat and exoskeleton combined. To study the possible natural occurrence of SEM in wild shrimp, samples were collected and analysed from 29 sites across Bangladesh. SEM (<1.0 ?g/kg) was detected in ?65% of meat samples. However, SEM concentrations were approximately 100 times higher in the exoskeleton, and were unrelated to sampling location, strongly suggesting natural occurrence. In meat, most SEM was surface-associated. When the shrimp was shelled, some of the epidermal layer (which synthesises new exoskeleton) remained with the shell and some remained with the meat--leading to differing levels of natural SEM on the shrimp surface. This has implications for the use of SEM and the analytical strategy used to control nitrofuran use. PMID:23194563

  9. Shrimp pond effluent dominates foliar nitrogen in disturbed mangroves as mapped using hyperspectral imagery.

    PubMed

    Fauzi, Anas; Skidmore, Andrew K; van Gils, Hein; Schlerf, Martin; Heitkönig, Ignas M A

    2013-11-15

    Conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds creates fragmentation and eutrophication. Detection of the spatial variation of foliar nitrogen is essential for understanding the effect of eutrophication on mangroves. We aim (i) to estimate nitrogen variability across mangrove landscapes of the Mahakam delta using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing (HyMap) and (ii) to investigate links between the variation of foliar nitrogen mapped and local environmental variables. In this study, multivariate prediction models achieved a higher level of accuracy than narrow-band vegetation indices, making multivariate modeling the best choice for mapping. The variation of foliar nitrogen concentration in mangroves was significantly influenced by the local environment: (1) position of mangroves (seaward/landward), (2) distance to the shrimp ponds, and (3) predominant mangrove species. The findings suggest that anthropogenic disturbances, in this case shrimp ponds, influence nitrogen variation in mangroves. Mangroves closer to the shrimp ponds had higher foliar nitrogen concentrations. PMID:24103095

  10. Spiroplasma penaei sp. nov., associated with mortalities in Penaeus vannamei, Pacific white shrimp.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Linda M; Lightner, Donald V; Oduori, Marietta A; Gasparich, Gail E

    2005-11-01

    A new bacterial strain, designated SHRIMP(T), isolated from the haemolymph of the Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, was serologically distinct from other spiroplasmas. Cells of this strain were helical in form and variable in length. Examination by electron microscopy revealed wall-less cells delineated by a single cytoplasmic membrane. The organisms grew well in M1D media supplemented with 2 % NaCl. Strain SHRIMP(T) grew at temperatures of 20-37 degrees C, with optimum growth occurring at 28 degrees C. The strain catabolized glucose and hydrolysed arginine, but did not hydrolyse urea. The G+C content of the DNA was 29 +/-1 mol%. Strain SHRIMP(T) (=ATCC BAA-1082T=CAIM 1252T) is designated the type strain of a novel species, Spiroplasma penaei sp. nov., which represents a new subgroup (I-9) of the group I spiroplasmas. PMID:16280489

  11. Genetic characterization of the burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis) in Washington and Oregon estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ghost shrimp, (Neotrypaea californiensis) are burrowers, which have a wide demographic distribution along the United States Pacific Coast. Our study used genetic analysis to estimate the source populations of larvae recruiting into estuaries to allow a greater understanding ...

  12. Use of a Brine Shrimp Assay to Study Herbal Teas in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opler, Annette; Mizell, Rebecca; Robert, Alexander; Cervantes-Cervantes, Miguel; Kincaid, Dwight; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a brine shrimp assay to demonstrate the effects of the biological activity of herbal remedies. Describes two protocols, one using aqueous extracts and the other using methanol extracts. (Contains 21 references.) (YDS)

  13. A real-time PCR for the detection of infectious myonecrosis virus in penaeid shrimp.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Ling; Yan, Dong-Chun; Sun, Hu-Shan; Wang, Yi-Yan; Wang, Lei

    2013-07-01

    Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) is a recently observed shrimp virus, which threats the cultured Litopenaeus vannamei and can cause huge economic loss in shrimp farming industry. The specific aim of this study was to develop a new sensitive real-time PCR method for the specific detection of shrimp IMNV. A real-time PCR assay with a pair of primers to specifically amplify a 101bp IMNV cDNA fragment and a corresponding TaqMan probe was developed, which shown to be specific for IMNV without cross reaction with DNA samples prepared from four other shrimp viruses including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), and infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic virus (IHHNV). The method could detect as low as one single copy of IMNV plasmid cDNA. PMID:23639336

  14. Inhibitory effect of mimosine on polyphenoloxidase from cephalothoraxes of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2011-09-28

    The inhibitory effect of mimosine on polyphenoloxidase (PPO) from the cephalothorax of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was studied. Mimosine showed inhibitory activity toward PPO from white shrimp with an apparent molecular weight of 210 kDa as evidenced by the decrease in the activity staining band, as compared to the control. An inhibition kinetic study revealed that mimosine exhibited the mixed type reversible inhibition on PPO from white shrimp with a Ki value of 3.7 mM. Mimosine showed copper (Cu2+) reduction and chelating capacity in a dose dependent manner. Mimosine could react with the intermediate browning product, thereby rendering lower red-brown color formation. Therefore, mimosine could inhibit PPO by different modes of inhibition and could be used to prevent melanosis formation in Pacific white shrimp. PMID:21863871

  15. Clonal Occurrence of Salmonella Weltevreden in Cultured Shrimp in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Noor Uddin, Gazi Md; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Barco, Lisa; Minh Phu, Tran; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence, serovar and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in shrimp samples from intensive and extensive farms located in three different provinces in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp from 11 of the 48 farms all contained S. Weltevreden, except for one farm yielding S. Agona, with no difference in Salmonella occurrence between the two production systems. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of S. Weltevreden showed closely related XbaI pulse types, suggesting a clonal relationship despite the farms and shrimp samples being epidemiologically unrelated. S. Weltevreden was susceptible to most antimicrobials tested, with a few strains being resistant to florfenicol, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim. Future studies of the ecology of S. Weltevreden should establish if this serovar may survive better and even multiply in warm-water shrimp farm environments compared to other Salmonella serovars. PMID:26222547

  16. Bioaccumulation of cyanuric acid in edible tissues of shrimp following experimental feeding.

    PubMed

    Karbiwnyk, Christine M; Williams, Rodney R; Andersen, Wendy C; Turnipseed, Sherri B; Madson, Mark R; Miller, Keith E; Reimschuessel, Renate

    2010-12-01

    Due to concerns that cyanuric acid (CYA)-contaminated feed had been used in aquaculture and could enter the human food chain, a method to quantify CYA residues in the edible tissues of fish and shrimp was previously developed and validated. This paper provides further data on the deliberate feeding of CYA to shrimp to determine the extent of residue accumulation in edible tissue. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed for the analysis of CYA in shrimp tissue. Edible tissue of shrimp fed 1666 or 3333 mg kg⁻¹ CYA in their diet (approximately 55 and 124 mg kg⁻¹ body weight) contained 0.767 and 0.406 mg kg⁻¹ CYA, respectively. The residue levels are below the World Health Organization (WHO) tolerable daily intake level for CYA and are generally considered unlikely to pose a human health risk. PMID:20936555

  17. Genetic improvement of Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei]: perspectives for genomic selection.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Juárez, Héctor; Campos-Montes, Gabriel R; Caballero-Zamora, Alejandra; Montaldo, Hugo H

    2015-01-01

    The uses of breeding programs for the Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei] based on mixed linear models with pedigreed data are described. The application of these classic breeding methods yielded continuous progress of great value to increase the profitability of the shrimp industry in several countries. Recent advances in such areas as genomics in shrimp will allow for the development of new breeding programs in the near future that will increase genetic progress. In particular, these novel techniques may help increase disease resistance to specific emerging diseases, which is today a very important component of shrimp breeding programs. Thanks to increased selection accuracy, simulated genetic advance using genomic selection for survival to a disease challenge was up to 2.6 times that of phenotypic sib selection. PMID:25852740

  18. Genetic improvement of Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei]: perspectives for genomic selection

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Juárez, Héctor; Campos-Montes, Gabriel R.; Caballero-Zamora, Alejandra; Montaldo, Hugo H.

    2015-01-01

    The uses of breeding programs for the Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei] based on mixed linear models with pedigreed data are described. The application of these classic breeding methods yielded continuous progress of great value to increase the profitability of the shrimp industry in several countries. Recent advances in such areas as genomics in shrimp will allow for the development of new breeding programs in the near future that will increase genetic progress. In particular, these novel techniques may help increase disease resistance to specific emerging diseases, which is today a very important component of shrimp breeding programs. Thanks to increased selection accuracy, simulated genetic advance using genomic selection for survival to a disease challenge was up to 2.6 times that of phenotypic sib selection. PMID:25852740

  19. Clonal Occurrence of Salmonella Weltevreden in Cultured Shrimp in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Noor Uddin, Gazi Md.; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Barco, Lisa; Minh Phu, Tran; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence, serovar and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in shrimp samples from intensive and extensive farms located in three different provinces in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp from 11 of the 48 farms all contained S. Weltevreden, except for one farm yielding S. Agona, with no difference in Salmonella occurrence between the two production systems. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of S. Weltevreden showed closely related XbaI pulse types, suggesting a clonal relationship despite the farms and shrimp samples being epidemiologically unrelated. S. Weltevreden was susceptible to most antimicrobials tested, with a few strains being resistant to florfenicol, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim. Future studies of the ecology of S. Weltevreden should establish if this serovar may survive better and even multiply in warm-water shrimp farm environments compared to other Salmonella serovars. PMID:26222547

  20. Effects of different diets on the dietary attractability and selectivity of Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guoqiang; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Fang

    2005-01-01

    Attractabilities of different diets and dietary selectivity of Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis were studied through behavior observation and feeding experiment, respectively. The five diets used in the experiment are: Fish Flesh (FF), Shrimp Flesh (SF), Clam Foot (CF), Polychaete Worm (PW), and Formulated Diet (FD). No significant differences of attractability exist between any two different diets when every two natural diets or all five diets are provided simultaneously. On the other hand, significant differences of attractability exist between FD and every single natural diet when they are provided simultaneously. Results of behavioral observation indicate that natural diets are more attractive than FD. In feeding experiment, Chinese shrimp has distinct selectivity on different diets. It positively selects CF and PW, negatively selects FF and SF, and excludes FD absolutely. The results of the present studies indicate that the dietary selectivity of shrimp was based not only on the attractabilities of the diets, but also on the responses such as growth and food conversion.