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1

Coastal dynamics in western Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the evolution of the beaches plays a fundamental role in every territorial politics regarding the coastal band. More than half the world population lives in coastal regions which support a florid touristic activity in many countries. The beach constitutes, in terms of economic value, the most important element of the coastal system, but also the more fragile and morphologically variable. Thus, studying its evolutions is fundamental in order to adopt the best management of this complex, densely populated and economically interesting zone. In this regard, the western coast of Sicily (Italy) is an effective example. It took its origin from variation of the sea middle level (Quaternary), with the consequent formation of marine terraces. Morphologically, the shore is made up by low and rock coast alternating beaches. The historical evolution of the coast has been performed through the use of aerial images identifying, despite several uncertainties, the position of the shoreline. Indeed the shoreline position extracted from an aerial image is a wet/dry line that describes the instantaneous land-water boundary at the time of imaging rather than a "normal" or "average" condition. Each wave instantaneously influences the shoreline position and hence, to take into account shoreline oscillations due to wave motion. Even if from a conceptual point of view the shore line is defined as a border between the emerged earth and the sea, its perennial variability makes it difficult to determine. In order to start a correct management, a cognitive geomorphological study has been carried on, as well as a study of high strategic value and environmental sustainability. It was based on a continuous decisional process based on objectives defined by the UE, in order to classify the beaches and to define the characteristic which are necessary for a correct coastal management. This study has been fundamental to start a monitoring of the coast; moreover, it has shown vulnerabilities of the coastal band which are important to design plans of defense. Keywords: coast, shoreline, management

Liguori, Vincenzo; Manno, Giorgio; Agate, Francesca

2014-05-01

2

Observations of drainage systems of NE Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

The landscapes of southern Italy provide an opportunity to observe the response of drainage systems in a Mediterranean climate to variations in bedrock erodibility and uplift rate. The area of NE Sicily studied is mainly composed of granite, high-grade gneiss, limestone and meta-pellite. Published Late Pleistocene to Holocene uplift rates from bedrock terraces and erosional notches in the study area

R. Goswami; N. C. Mitchell; S. H. Brocklehurst

2009-01-01

3

Magnetic signature of the Sicily Channel volcanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread Late Miocene to Quaternary volcanic activity is know to have occurred in the Sicily Channel continuing up to historical time. New magnetic anomaly data acquired in the Pantelleria Graben, one of the three main tectonic depressions forming the WNW-trending Sicily Channel rift system, integrated with available profiles, are used to identify and map volcanic bodies in this sector of the northern African margin. Some of these manifestations, both outcropping at the sea-floor or buried beneath a variable thickness of Plio-Quaternary sedimentary cover, have been imaged by seismic reflection profiles. Three main positive magnetic anomalies have been found: to the S-E of the Pantelleria Island, the largest emerged caldera of the Sicily Channel, along the eastern margin of the Nameless Bank, and at the north-western termination of the Linosa Graben. Only the anomaly located off the south-eastern coast of the Pantelleria Island, associated with a large outcropping body gradually buried beneath a substantially undisturbed Upper Pliocene-Quaternary sediments, aligns with the trend of the tectonic depression. 2-D geophysical models produced along seismic transects perpendicularly crossing the Pantelleria Graben have allowed to derive its deep crustal structure, and detect the presence of buried magmatic bodies which generate the anomalies. Marginal faults seem to have played a major role in focussing magma emplacement in this sector of the Sicily Channel. The other anomalies represent off-axis volcanic episodes and generally do not show evident magmatic manifestations at the sea-floor. These magnetic maxima seem to follow a NNE-SSW-trending belt extending from Linosa Island to the Nameless Bank, where pre-existing crustal anisotropies may have conditioned magma emplacement both at deep and shallow crustal levels. In general, data analysis has shown that there is a structural control on magma emplacement, with the major magmatic features located in specific locations like boundary faults and transfer zones, in a manner similar to that found along several segments of the East African Rift system.

Lodolo, E.; Civile, D.; Zanolla, C.; Geletti, R.

2012-03-01

4

77 FR 54647 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Sicily: Art and Invention...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Determinations: ``Sicily: Art and Invention Between Greece and Rome'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations...exhibition ``Sicily: Art and Invention Between Greece and Rome,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

2012-09-05

5

Emergence and Phylodynamics of Citrus tristeza virus in Sicily, Italy  

PubMed Central

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) outbreaks were detected in Sicily island, Italy for the first time in 2002. To gain insight into the evolutionary forces driving the emergence and phylogeography of these CTV populations, we determined and analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the p20 gene from 108 CTV isolates collected from 2002 to 2009. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed that mild and severe CTV isolates belonging to five different clades (lineages) were introduced in Sicily in 2002. Phylogeographic analysis showed that four lineages co-circulated in the main citrus growing area located in Eastern Sicily. However, only one lineage (composed of mild isolates) spread to distant areas of Sicily and was detected after 2007. No correlation was found between genetic variation and citrus host, indicating that citrus cultivars did not exert differential selective pressures on the virus. The genetic variation of CTV was not structured according to geographical location or sampling time, likely due to the multiple introduction events and a complex migration pattern with intense co- and re-circulation of different lineages in the same area. The phylogenetic structure, statistical tests of neutrality and comparison of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates suggest that weak negative selection and genetic drift following a rapid expansion may be the main causes of the CTV variability observed today in Sicily. Nonetheless, three adjacent amino acids at the p20 N-terminal region were found to be under positive selection, likely resulting from adaptation events. PMID:23818960

Davino, Salvatore; Willemsen, Anouk; Panno, Stefano; Davino, Mario; Catara, Antonino; Elena, Santiago F.; Rubio, Luis

2013-01-01

6

Annual runoff regional frequency analysis in Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper performs annual runoff frequency analysis in Sicily, Italy using the index runoff method. Homogeneous regions, not necessarily defined by geographical boundaries but sharing common features from a morphologic and climatic standpoint, have been identified. For each region a single probability distribution function can be fitted to the available annual runoff data scaled by the index runoff. Starting from an initial dataset of 105 hydrometric stations, 57 stations have been selected using heuristic criteria associated with the Hosking and Wallis’s discordancy measure. The Mantel tests have been then applied to find out the physical and morphological parameters best correlated with the runoff using the distances matrix approach. These parameters have been successively used in the cluster analysis to delineate homogeneous regions and the Hosking and Wallis’s heterogeneity test has been applied to the clusters in order to verify their homogeneity. Further analysis has been carried out to test the goodness-of-fit of four different candidate distributions of the scaled annual runoff using the chi-square test. For all the identified homogeneous regions the three-parameters lognormal distribution has been proved the most suitable distribution for the dimensionless annual runoff. In order to predict the runoff quantiles at ungauged sites, the procedure finally envisages the estimation of mean annual runoff (index runoff) by multiple regression analysis, providing expressions that relate mean annual runoff to some climatic and morphologic features of the basins.

Cannarozzo, M.; Noto, L. V.; Viola, F.; La Loggia, G.

7

Active faulting in the Calabrian arc and eastern Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Calabrian arc and eastern Sicily are areas of the central Mediterranean where the effects of Quaternary tectonics are well preserved. The most impressive tectonic feature in this region is represented by a major normal fault belt that runs more or less continuously along the inner side of the Calabrian arc, extending through the Strait of Messina along the Ionian

Carmelo Monaco; Luigi Tortorici

2000-01-01

8

Methane emission from the mud volcanoes of Sicily (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mud volcanoes represent the largest expression of natural methane release into the atmosphere; however, the gas flux has never been investigated in detail. Methane output from vents and diffuse soil degassing is herewith reported for the first time. Measurements were carried out at 5 mud volcano fields around Sicily (Italy). Each mud volcano is characterized by tens of vents and

G. Etiope; A. Caracausi; R. Favara; F. Italiano; C. Baciu

2002-01-01

9

Results of Skylab investigation over Italy. [Sicily and Sardinia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Multispectral high resolution photography of S190A was successfully applied to the detection of paleoriverbeds in flat lands. Results of SL-3 mission were compared to those of LANDSAT for two regional geological surveys (linear structures) on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia. On Sicily, the seasonal conditions were unfavorable for Skylab while LANDSAT played a major role in discovering long, unknown lineaments of great interest for the geodynamics of the area. On Sardinia, owing to the vegetation type and to the geomorphic conditions, the Skylab imagery was successfully employed to describe the network of linears, both regional and local. Results can be used to study the relationship between linears, actual fracturing and the occurrence of mineral deposits.

Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. M.; Tonelli, A. M. (principal investigators)

1975-01-01

10

Wild food plants of popular use in Sicily  

PubMed Central

In the present work the authors report the result of their food ethnobotanical researches, which have been carried out in Sicily during the last thirty years. Data concerning 188 wild species used in the traditional Sicilian cuisine are reported. The authors underline those species that are partially or completely unknown for their culinary use and they illustrate other species that local inhabitants suggested in the prevention or treatment of symptomatologies caused by a refined diet, poor in vegetables. These data want to contribute to avoid the loss of traditional knowledge on uses and recipes concerning wild food botanicals, and to encourage further studies for those species that have not yet been sufficiently researched in their food chemical and nutritional profile. These studies may also suggest new applications for a few botanicals in medico-nutritional fields. The work includes also a short review of the seaweeds and mushrooms traditionally gathered and consumed in Sicily. PMID:17397527

Lentini, Francesca; Venza, Francesca

2007-01-01

11

Risk factors for toxoplasmosis in pigs bred in Sicily, Southern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs raised and slaughtered in Sicily, Southern Italy, and to evaluate the risk factors associated with the infection. Samples were collected in seven slaughterhouses and on-site on 274 raising farms across Sicily, in the period from January 2006 until March 2007. For each sampled pig

S. Villari; G. Vesco; E. Petersen; A. Crispo; W. Buffolano

2009-01-01

12

Livestock production and animal health in Sicily, Italy.  

PubMed

In Sicily, as in other Mediterranean areas, livestock represents one of the most important resources for the island economy. This sector involves more than 16,000 farms of cattle and 10,000 farms of sheep and goats (respectively 6% and 15% of national production) which are actually increasing their number. Most livestock in Sicily is owned by small holders and pastoralists. Regional production of milk feeds some industries, which involve a large and increasing occupational area. Due to its peculiar geographic aspect Sicily is constituted by hill areas with sporadic grasses, therefore extensive grazing methods represent an ancient, traditional practice for using poor lands. For the control of infectious diseases Veterinary Services (VS) are based on the public regional network that is coordinated by the Ministry of Health in Rome. Even if Sicilian VS had to solve many constraints related to traditional "pastoral management system", to the lack of any sanitary background of this sector, to unknown data on the numbers of the whole livestock, the effort done in the last years has allowed to monitor for brucellosis, bovine leukemia virus (BLV), bovine TBC, swine vescicular disease (MVS) and other diseases for the majority of the farms. Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) still represent a serious impediment to the improvement of meat and milk production in the region. Every year, several outbreaks related to Theileria, Babesia or Anaplasma infections in cattle are recorded. Imported breeds pay the most expensive tribute often with a mortality rate of 100%. In the last five years more than 170 outbreaks of TBDs have been notified by our Institute although the pathogen prevalence and economical impact in the Sicilian livestock is still unknown. The outdoor grazing of the animals, far away from observation, a subclinical course of the disease, can in fact create difficulties in discovering infection and therefore the therapy is often too late. New diagnostic and control methods (PCR, vaccination) are being developed at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale of Sicily in cooperation with other national and international laboratories (such as the University of Utrecht). PMID:11071536

Caracappa, S

1999-09-01

13

Mobile laser spectrofluorometer for natural waters monitoring in Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new laser spectrofluorometric apparatus has been recently developed and assembled in the mobile laboratory ENVILAB of at ENEA Research Center of Frascati. The instrumentation was utilized from October 20 to 25,2003 in the measurement campaign carried on in Sicily within the activities of the "RIADE project" (Integrated Research for the Application of Innovative Technologies and Processes for the Struggle Against Desertification) in order to monitor waters in areas at risk of desertification. During the campaign, the concentrations of dissolved (proteins and humic acids) and suspended (algae) organic substances have been measured in natural waters of Sicilian sites (near Syracuse and Licata).

Aristipini, P.; Del Bugaro, D.; Fiorani, L.; Loreti, S.; Palucci, A.

2005-06-01

14

Isoleucine epimerization ages of the dwarf elephants of Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isoleucine epimerization reaction has been used to date tooth enamel from dwarf elephants collected from the Sicilian caves of Spinagallo and Puntali. Elephant teeth from the Isernia la Pineta deposit in central Italy, dated at ˜700 ka by potassium-argon (K-Ar) and paleomagnetics, were used for calibration of the isoleucine epimerization rate. The ages determined for the dwarf elephants found at the Spinagallo Cave are considerably older than the more robust dwarf species found at the Puntali Cave. These dates suggest that more than one invasion of continental elephants have taken place on Sicily. The subsequent isolation of the continental species has apparently produced varying stages of dwarfism.

Belluomini, Giorgio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

1985-07-01

15

Analyses of water, core material, and elutriate samples collected near Sicily Island, Louisiana (Sicily Island area levee project)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples consisting of composited core material were collected from five areas by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide data on the impact of proposed channel excavation and levee construction in the Sicily Island area, Louisiana. Samples of receiving water from the five areas, selected to represent the water that will contact the proposed dredged material of the levee fill material, also were collected. Chemical and physical analyses were performed on samples of core material and native water and on elutriate samples of specific core material-receiving water mixtures. The results of these analyses are presented without interpretation. (USGS)

Demcheck, Dennis K.; Dupuy, Alton J.

1980-01-01

16

GM and KM allotypes in nine population samples of Sicily.  

PubMed

Serum samples of 864 unrelated healthy male and female individuals belonging to nine provinces of Sicily were types for Glm (1,2,3,17), G3m (5,10,11,13,14,15,16,21), and KM (1). With the exception of the Trapani sample these samples are characterized by the presence of five GM haplotypes: GM*1,17;21,26; GM*1,2,17;21,26; GM*1,3;5,10,11,13,14,26; GM*3;5,10,13,14,26; and GM*1,17;10,11,13,15,16. The interpopulation variability in the distribution of these haplotypes is considerable, which is especially due to haplotypes GM*1,3;5,10,11,13,14,26, and GM*3;5,10,13,14,26. However, no clear-cut clustering of the samples according to historical or geographical facts could be shown. Comparisons with other Italian populations reveal the considerable genetic difference of the Sicilians, which is in particular caused by the presence of the haplotypes GM*1,3;5,10,11,13,14,26, and GM*1,17;10,11,13,15,16. These haplotypes are quite uncommon in Europeans and may reflect gene flow from the Middle East. The KM phenotype and allele frequencies also show a considerable interpopulation variability among the nine Sicilian samples, but as for GM no distinction between eastern and western provinces of Sicily is present. PMID:9300119

Walter, H; Matsumoto, H; Danker-Hopfe, H; De Stefano, G F; Rickards, O

1997-01-01

17

Groundwater Nitrate Contamination Risk Assessment in Canicattì area (Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwaters play a dominant role in the Sicily, because as most part of Mediterranean countries this island is interested by the phenomenon of desertification and the quality of the groundwater reservoir is one of the most important aim for the management policy strategies. During last decade most of the Italian regions the nitrate levels in river and groundwaters have increased gradually over mainly as a consequence of large-scale agricultural application of manure and fertilizers, thereby threatening drinking water quality. The excessive use of chemicals and fertilizers increases the risk to pollution of surface and groundwater from diffuse source, an important reflex to human health and the environment. The studied area is located in Canicattì (central Sicily, Italy), the current land use (grape, olive grove and almond) is the main source of groundwater pollution. In order to investigate the effect of the over farming on the groundwater quality we report the study on the potential risk of contamination from nitrate of agricultural origin through the join of the application of two parametric methods: the IPNOA method (the intrinsic nitrate contamination risk from Agricultural sources) applied to define the Nitrate Vulnerable Zones and the SINTACS method applied to determine the aquifer vulnerability to contamination.

Pisciotta, Antonino; Cusimano, Gioacchino; Favara, Rocco

2010-05-01

18

The plants, rituals and spells that 'cured' helminthiasis in Sicily  

PubMed Central

Background The author reports on the plants, rituals and spells used against worms and the so-called scantu (fright) in some areas of Sicily. The work is based on ethnobotanical research carried out, prevalently, between 2002-2006, in some areas of Eastern, South-Eastern, North-Central and South-Central Sicily. Methods This research is based on dialogue. Senior 'healers' were contacted; furthermore, doctors, teachers, farmers and in general 'experts' with herbs and 'magic' rituals. Information was collected about the way the plants of folk medicine are prepared. The interviewees were also invited to recite prayers and spells against helminthiasis. Results The author has highlighted the importance of how, in some parts of Sicily, some ailments like helminthiasis and other correlated pathologies like scantu are 'treated' and, especially within the rural social classes, by folk medicine remedies, herbal practises, particular prayers, rituals and spells. Conclusion As regards health/illness, it should be noted that in the last ten years conventional medicine has provided very satisfactory results even resolving potentially mortal pathologies. However, in certain social classes, there is no real collaboration between conventional and folk medicine; so for some senior citizens, the 'healer' with his rituals and empirical and magical herbs is still the person to turn to for the 'cure' of particular ailments. Interest in these practises from ancestral heritage in an advanced country like Italy, is only relevant if the aim is to recoup a cultural identity which is already in decline. It is significant to report a piece: on 14 October 2007 the news on a well-known national Italian TV channel reported an interview with a 94 year-old man from Arbatax (Sardinia) referred to as a 'healer' because both his townspeople and others from all over the world go to him for his cures. He is not paid except in kind and has been known to cure St. Anthony's fire, burns, scalding and marine fungal infections, by smearing his saliva over the infected part and reciting 'special words'. PMID:18823529

Napoli, Mariangela

2008-01-01

19

Coastal erosion in Sicily: geomorphologic impact and mitigation (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coast of Sicily region stretches about 1400 km, bathing three different seas: the North tract, from Messina to Capo San Vito wash to the Tyrrhenian Sea, the oriental side, from Messina to Capo Passero, wash to the Ionian Sea, and finally the southern side wash to the Mediterranean. Of these, 395 km are made up of beaches and 970 km from rocky shores. The coastal morph-type were analyzed in relation to their evolutionary trend (backspace or advancement of the seaside), can be summarized as follows: a low shores of torrent plain (Messina), low shores with salt (Trapani), low shores beaches edged with dunal systems, subject to backspace, where urbanization has reduced or eliminated the internal sand dunes, shores on marine terraces, with beaches at the foot (Agrigento) and high shores non-affected of real phenomena of backspace, but subject to often dangerous events of detachment and collapse of blocks (high rocky shores). The marine and coastal environment is a complex and articulated, in balance with the Earth's environment, in which live together, but through different dynamics strongly interacting, ecosystems and marine ecosystems typically transition. The increasing density of population concentrated along the shores, the gradual expansion of activities related to the use of marine and coastal resources, are some of the issues that threaten the delicate balance of nature and the sea coast. The sicilian coastal areas most subject to erosion are those in Ragusa shores areas in south-eastern of Sicily, where the critical areas interesting low coastline and high shores. Following the coast, between Capo Peloro and Milazzo (Messina),where the erosion affects the coast with a low of about 23 km. In the coastal between Capo St. Marco and Capo Feto (Trapani) the critical areas interesting the low coastline and, in part erodible bluffs. One of this case is localized in the town of Mazara del Vallo. In general, the phenomenon erosive affects almost all the sicilian coastal units, in low-coastline and mountainous, with average rates of 29%. The main methods available today for the protection of coastlines in Sicily, are falling in the first approximation in hard (structural), and soft and soft, based not only on nutrition artificial beaches but also on interventions with low environmental impact as the reduction of losses sediments. The right approach is not only in stabilizing the various shores, but also in not induce or accelerate the erosion of the adjacent areas. Indeed this impact accompanies almost all the hard interventions achieved in past years. It is essential to carry out a verification of the effectiveness of the defence of the coast from erosion and structural interventions of nourishment in terms of impact on coastal marine and coastal environment. We started a series of experimental analysis based on the application of new techniques for relief based on remote sensing as the major techniques performed with satellite radar (SAR), measurements morph-altitude high resolution made with the laser system by plane (LIDAR) and precise measurements on the behaviour of works and river mouths with intelligences cameras. The most dominant climate change involve the precipitation and temperature. Temperature is particularly important in snow-dominated basins and in coastal areas, the latter due to the impact of temperature on sea level. Moreover we must say that (as mentioned in 4th Report IPCC) the shores are projected to be exposed to increasing risks, including coastal erosion, due to climate change and sea level rise. Infrastructure in coastal areas is vulnerable to damage from sea-level rise, flooding, and other storms. This effect will be exacerbated by increasing human-induced pressures on coastal areas. Keywords: erosion, shores, coastal defend, monitoring.

Liguori, V.; Manno, G.

2009-04-01

20

Acoustic evaluation of anchovy larvae distribution in relation to oceanography in the Cape Passero area (Strait of Sicily)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the paper is to present the results of a study on the relationship between ichthyoplanktonic distribution and the hydrographic features in the Cape Passero area (Strait of Sicily). Acoustic, physical, and biological data were collected during two multidisciplinary research surveys performed during the summer in 2002 and 2003 in the Strait of Sicily. The oceanographic surveys ‘Ansic

A. Bonanno; S. Goncharov; S. Mazzola; S. Popov; A. Cuttitta; B. Patti; G. Basilone; A. Di Nieri; C. Patti; S. Aronica; G. Buscaino

2006-01-01

21

Correlates of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus seroprevalence in Sicily  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental factors, such as plants and soil, may influence Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) replication or immune responses. However, the relationship of such exposures to KSHV seroprevalence has not been established. Methods In 1154 randomly sampled adults (aged 32–92) throughout Sicily, KSHV antibodies were detected with four assays and a conservative algorithm. Seroprevalence was re-weighted to the population. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations of seroprevalence with interview data, including contact with 20 specific plants. Results KSHV seroprevalence was 8.5%, including 5.3% among men and 11.5% among women (P=0.22). In multivariate models, seroprevalence was consistently higher with residence in a smaller community during childhood (Ptrend?0.03) and working with plants/soil during adulthood (odds ratio?2.73). In such models, seroprevalence was higher with exposure to one plant (Hieracium, odds ratio?2.8), but it was lower with three others (Acanthus mollis, Taraxacum officinalis, and Trigonella foenum-graecum) and with cumulative exposure to all 20 plants (Ptrend=0.03). Other demographic, household, and water contact variables were unrelated to seroprevalence. Conclusions KSHV seroprevalence appears to be increased by contact with soil and to vary with certain plants. Corroboration and investigation of possible effects of soil and plant constituents on KSHV regulation and immune responses are needed. PMID:19777527

Pelser, Colleen; Vitale, Francesco; Whitby, Denise; Graubard, Barry I.; Messina, Angelo; Gafà, Lorenzo; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Anderson, Lesley A.; Romano, Nino; Lauria, Carmela; Goedert, James J.

2009-01-01

22

Astronomically oriented megaliths of the Monte Jato area (Sicily).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An imposing megalith is visible from many kilometres of distance near the top of the hill named Monte Arcivocalotto (Sicily). It is made by a single sandstone slab, shaped in triangular form with a large circular hole pierced at the centre. It is known to local people as U Campanaru ("The Bell Tower") and it was considered as a magic place until recently. The megalith is oriented toward the sunrise of the winter solstice, when the Sun rises at the hole centre, becoming visible from a very large distance. At a few kilometres, on the top of another hill, significantly named "Cozzo Perciata" ("Hill of the pierced one") a similar megalith was standing until to a few decades ago. It is presently collapsed, probably by a lighting, but the remains clearly show that it is oriented toward the summer solstice sunrise. Both megaliths have to be considered in the framework of the Eneolithic / Early Bronze Age worship centre of Pizzo Pietralunga, located halfway between Monte Arcivocalotto and Cozzo Perciata.

Scuderi, A.; Polcaro, V. F.; Mercadante, F.; Lo Cascio, P.; Maurici, F.

23

Genital myiasis by Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Diptera, Sarcophagidae) in Sicily (Italy).  

PubMed

Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner, 1862; Diptera: Sarcophagidae), known also as flesh fly or screwworm, is a fly distributed especially in south Europe, Middle East, North Africa and China. Maggots of W. magnifica are responsible for traumatic myiasis in warm-blooded vertebrate animals and humans. In Italy data on wohlfahrtiosis in animals and humans are scant. This paper reports three cases of genital myiasis by W. magnifica in Sicily that occurred in a goat, a ram and a dog, respectively. Maggots were found in the vulva of a goat, in a wound localised in the scrotum of a ram and in the prepuce of a dog. Although the disease was not recorded before in the region, data collected from a questionnaire specifically designed for the study suggest that the disease is endemic in the area for more than 20 years. Larger epidemiological studies in the region are needed to get more data on disease prevalence and pattern of infestation as well as more information and education is needed for both farmers and veterinarians on wohlfahrtiosis and its strategies of control and treatment. PMID:21541751

Gaglio, Gabriella; Brianti, Emanuele; Abbene, Salvatore; Giannetto, Salvatore

2011-11-01

24

Iridovirus infection in terrestrial isopods from Sicily (Italy).  

PubMed

During our researches on systematics and ecology of terrestrial isopods, carried out in western Sicily, some specimens showing a blue-purple coloration were collected; they belonged to four species: Armadillidium decorum Brandt, 1833, Trichoniscus panormidensis Montesanto et al., 2011, Philoscia affinis Verhoeff, 1908, Porcellio siculoccidentalis Viglianisi et al., 1992. We hypothesized that such coloration could be due, as reported in literature, to characteristic paracrystalline arrays of virions inside the tissues of blue colored specimens. Ultrastructural observations by transmission electron microscopy, on tissues of A. decorum, showed the presence of electron-dense viral particles, with a diameter of nearly 0.12?m. Dual-axis tomography, performed on specimens of A. decorum, evidenced an icosahedral structure of viral particles matching with that of Isopod Iridescent Virus (IIV). Molecular analysis, on 254bp portion of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene, allowed to place the virus into IIV-31 group, already known for other oniscidean species. The symptoms of infected individuals and the course of the disease were followed in laboratory, indicating similarities with other studies on Isopod Iridoviruses. Moreover, some notes on reproduction of infected ovigerous females are reported. Our data support unequivocal and direct evidences for the first case of IIV infection in terrestrial isopods reported in Italy. PMID:23756498

Lupetti, Pietro; Montesanto, Giuseppe; Ciolfi, Silvia; Marri, Laura; Gentile, Mariangela; Paccagnini, Eugenio; Lombardo, Bianca Maria

2013-10-01

25

Numerical simulation of the barotropic tides in the Tunisian Shelf and the Strait of Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the barotropic tides in the Tunisian shelf and the Strait of Sicily using the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) with very high-resolution. Model performance was evaluated with respect to tide gauge, satellite data, and current meter measurements. The model fields faithfully reproduced the major feature of the barotropic tidal currents and agreed well with existing tidal elevation

Jihène Abdennadher; Moncef Boukthir

2006-01-01

26

Data-driven simulations of synoptic circulation and transports in the Tunisia-Sardinia-Sicily region  

E-print Network

-Sardinia-Sicily region Reiner Onken1 SACLANT Undersea Research Centre, Viale San Bartolomeo, La Spezia, Italy Allan R TERMS: 4243 Oceanography: General: Marginal and semienclosed seas; 4283 Oceanography: General: Water masses; 4532 Oceanography: Physical: General circulation; 4255 Oceanography: General: Numerical modeling

Leonard, John J.

27

Quaternary normal faulting in southeastern Sicily (Italy):a seismic source for the 1693 large earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present geological and morphological data, combined with an analysis of seismic reflection lines across the Ionian offshore zone and information on historical earthquakes, in order to yield new constraints on active faulting in southeastern Sicily. This region, one of the most seismically active of the Mediterranean, is affected by WNW-ESE regional extension producing normal faulting of the southern edge

Marcello Bianca; Carmelo Monaco; Luigi Tortorici; Licio Cernobori

1999-01-01

28

Textural, chemical and isotopic variations induced by hydrothermal fluids on mesozoic limestones in northwestern Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results are given of textural and compositional investigations carried out on carbonate materials outcropping in various localities in northwestern Sicily where fluorite, barite and calcite mineralizations of hydrothermal origin occur. Observation of the textural features indicate variations in the degree of calcite recrystallization and silicification that appear to be more marked in rocks that show more evident effects of

A. Bellanca; P. Censi; P. Di Salvo; R. Neri

1984-01-01

29

Heavy metals in urban soils: a case study from the city of Palermo (Sicily), Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of V, Mn, Cd, Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Hg and Sb were measured on 70 topsoil samples collected from green areas and parks in the city of Palermo (Sicily) in order to: (1) assess the distribution of these heavy metals in the urban environment; (2) discriminate natural and anthropic contributions; and (3) identify possible sources of pollution.

Daniela Salvagio Manta; Massimo Angelone; Adriana Bellanca; Rodolfo Neri; Mario Sprovieri

2002-01-01

30

Reworking of fusulinids and calcisphaerids in the Lercara Formation (Sicily, Italy); geological implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different fusulinids have been identified in the Lercara Formation (Sicily). They are: Reichelina sp., Schubertella paramelonica, Toriyamaia (?) sp., Neofusulinella lantenoisi, Yangchienia compressa, Rauserella staffi, Darvasites contractus, Chalaroschwagerina (Taiyuanella?) aff. davalensis, Levenella aff. evoluta, Pamirina darvasica, and Neoschwagerina ex gr. craticulifera. Small Permian foraminifers, as well as the calcispherid Asterosphaera pulchra also exist. The microfossils indicate reworking of different Permian

Lucia Carcione; Daniel Vachard; Rossana Martini; Louisette Zaninetti; Benedetto Abate; Giovanna Lo Cicero; Loris Montanari

2004-01-01

31

Features of dominant mesoscale variability, circulation patterns and dynamics in the Strait of Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combining an intensive hydrographic data survey with a numerical primitive equation model by data assimilation, the main features of dominant mesoscale to subbasin-scale variability in the Strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea) during the summer of 1996 are estimated, revealed and described, and several hydrographic and dynamical properties of the flow and variabilities discussed. The feature identification is based on two

P. F. J. Lermusiaux; A. R. Robinson

2001-01-01

32

Rainfall thresholds for landslide early warning in Sicily: development and comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification of the characteristics of rainfall events potentially leading to landslides plays a key role in the implementation of early warning systems, oriented to reduce the victims and the damages caused by these natural hazards. Due to their geomorphological features and also to the lack of adequate mitigation infrastructures, hilly and mountainous parts of Sicily are systematically hit by landslides when intense rainfall events occur. In particular, debris flows are frequent in the Peloritani Mountains, in the north-eastern part of the island, while in many other parts of Sicily slower and deeper landslides and rockfalls are the most frequent types. While occurrence of the former type has caused victims and huge damage, occurrence of the latter types mainly has been responsible of several accidents in roads and railways, and has often made impassable important traffic links in Sicily. In this study rainfall thresholds for the initiation of landslides are assessed separately for different areas of Sicily which are approximately homogenous with respect to the type of landslide most likely to occur. Several sources of rainfall and landslide information are exploited and various types of empirical models are explored in order to identify the most adequate ones. Uncertainty in the thresholds is evaluated as well, by considering the rainfall events not associated to landslides. Results obtained for the analysed areas are then compared in order to understand which are the different rainfall conditions that lead to the different types of landslides and the related degree of uncertainty in triggering-threshold assessment.

Peres, D. J.; Cancelliere, A.

2012-04-01

33

Sicily 2002 balloon campaign: a test of the HASI instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mock-up of the probe descending in the Titan atmosphere as part of the Huygens Cassini Mission was successfully launched and recovered on 30th May 2002 after a stratospheric balloon launch from the Italian Space Agency Base "Luigi Broglio" in Trapani, Sicily. To simulate the Huygens mission at Titan, the probe was lifted to an altitude of 32 km and then released to perform a 45 min parachute decelerated descent. The probe was hosting spares of HASI instruments, housekeeping sensors and other dedicated sensors, Beagle II UV Sensors and Huygens Tilt Sensor, for a total of 76 acquired sensor channels and sampled during the ascent, drift and descent phase. An integrated data acquisition and instrument control system was developed, based on PC architecture and soft-real-time application. Sensors channels were sampled at the nominal HASI data rates, with a max rate of 1 kHz. Software was developed for data acquisition, onboard storage and telemetry transmission satisfying all requests for real-time monitoring, diagnostic and redundancy. The main goal of this flight was to verify sensor performance and perform a realistic functional test for HASI hardware in dynamical and environmental conditions similar to those of the Titan atmosphere as well as the impact detection sequence of HASI accelerometer and HASI during ground landing. Aerodynamic study of the probe has contributed in achieving descent velocity and spin rate profiles close to the ones envisioned for the Huygens Titan descent. Profiles have been calculated by solving a system of ODE describing the translational and rotational motion of the probe through the Earth's atmosphere during parachute aided descent. Results of these calculations have driven the choice of an appropriate angle of attack of the blades in the bottom of the probe and ballast weight during flight. Passive thermal control of the probe has also been designed and implemented in order to guarantee proper temperature ranges on critical components and instrument during all mission phases. Preliminary results of main instruments are also presented in this work.

Bettanini, C.; Fulchignoni, M.; Angrilli, F.; Lion Stoppato, P. F.; Antonello, M.; Bastianello, S.; Bianchini, G.; Colombatti, G.; Ferri, F.; Flamini, E.; Gaborit, V.; Aboudan, A.

2004-01-01

34

Seismotectonic outline of South-Eastern Sicily: an evaluation of available options for the earthquake fault rupture scenario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismotectonic information and interpretations available for SE Sicily suggest three groups of possible sources for the M=7.1-7.5 mainshock of 1693 and its strong foreshock: (1) normal faults belonging to the Ibleo Maltese Escarpment (also: Malta Escarpment); (2) normal faults associated with the two adjacent Simeto and Scordia-Lentini structures; (3) a transfer structure between the Sicily Straits rift system and the

L. Sirovich; F. Pettenati

1999-01-01

35

Burnout syndrome and type A behavior in nurses and teachers in Sicily.  

PubMed

Burnout and Type A behavior were studied in two groups of 50 teachers (26 working in high school and 24 in junior high school) and 50 nurses living and working in Sicily. Each group was composed of 19 men and 31 women. A revised version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Adult and Adolescent Type A Behavior Scale-Revised Form 1 were used to measure burnout and Type A behavior, and a scale of job satisfaction was given. Analysis shows higher scores on stress for nurses, related to the low social acknowledgment of their job. Among nurses, Type A scores were correlated positively with scores on burnout and negatively with ratings of job satisfaction. The teachers showed greater compatibility with their work which may reflect that in Sicily, the teaching profession is still held in high regard. PMID:9354105

Lavanco, G

1997-10-01

36

Nitrate, sulphate and chloride contents in public drinking water supplies in Sicily, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water samples collected from public drinking water supplies in Sicily were analysed for electric conductivity and for their\\u000a chloride, sulphate and nitrate contents. The samples were collected as uniformly as possible from throughout the Sicilian\\u000a territory, with an average sampling density of about one sample for every 7,600 inhabitants. Chloride contents that ranged\\u000a from 5.53 to 1,302 mg\\/l were correlated strongly

Walter D’Alessandro; Sergio Bellomo; Francesco Parello; Pietro Bonfanti; Lorenzo Brusca; Manfredi Longo; Roberto Maugeri

37

Late Pleistocene human evolution in Sicily: comparative morphometric analysis of Grotta di San Teodoro craniofacial remains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paleoanthropological remains from Grotta di San Teodoro near Acquedolci (province of Messina, Italy) represent the oldest and largest skeletal collection yet found documenting human settlement of Sicily. The sample, attributed to the Late Epigravettian (between 14,000 and 10,000 years B.P.), consists of seven variously complete adult individuals (San Teodoro 1–7). We compare the cranial sample to an array of

Giuseppe D'Amore; Sylvia Di Marco; Giandonato Tartarelli; Renzo Bigazzi; Luca Sineo

2009-01-01

38

The last 7 millennia of vegetation and climate changes at Lago di Pergusa (central Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to investigate climate changes and human activities under the lens of palynology. Based on a new high-resolution pollen sequence (PG2) from Lago di Pergusa (667 m a.s.l., central Sicily, Italy) covering the last 6700 yr, we propose a reconstruction of climate and landscape changes over the recent past in central Sicily. Compared to former studies from Lago di Pergusa (Sadori and Narcisi, 2001), this work provides a reconstruction of the evolution of vegetation and climate over the last millennia in central Sicily, indeed completing previous results with new pollen data, which is particularly detailed on the last 3000 yr. Joint actions of increasing dryness, climate oscillations, and human impact shaped the landscape of this privileged site. Lago di Pergusa, besides being the main inland lake of Sicily, is very sensitive to climate change and its territory was inhabited and exploited continuously since the Palaeolithic. The lake sediments turned out to be a good observatory for natural phenomena that occurred in the last thousands of years. Results of the pollen-based study are integrated with changes in magnetic susceptibility and a tephra layer characterization. The tephra layer was shown to be related to the Sicanians' event, radiocarbon dated at 3055 ± 75 yr BP (Sadori and Narcisi, 2001). We performed palaeoclimate reconstructions by MAT (Modern Analogues Technique) and WAPLS (Weighted Average Partial Least Square). Palaeoclimate reconstructions based on the core show important climate fluctuations throughout the Holocene. Climate reconstruction points out four phases of cooling and enhanced wetness in the last three millennia (2600-2000, 1650-1100, 850-550, 400-200 cal BP, corresponding to the periods between 650-50 BC, and 300-850, 1100-1400, 1550-1750 AD, respectively). This appears to be the evidence of local responses to global climate oscillations during the recent past.

Sadori, L.; Ortu, E.; Peyron, O.; Zanchetta, G.; Vannière, B.; Desmet, M.; Magny, M.

2013-08-01

39

The last 7 millennia of vegetation and climate changes at Lago di Pergusa (central Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to investigate climate changes and human activities under the lens of palynology. Based on a new high-resolution pollen sequence (PG2) from Lago di Pergusa (667 m a.s.l., central Sicily, Italy) covering the last 6700 yr, we propose a reconstruction of climate and landscape changes over the recent past in central Sicily. Compared to former studies from Lago di Pergusa (Sadori and Narcisi, 2001), this work provides a reconstruction of the evolution of vegetation and climate over the last millennia in central Sicily, indeed completing previous results with new data which is particularly detailed on the last 3000 yr. Joint actions of increasing dryness, climate oscillations, and human impact shaped the landscape of this privileged site. Lago di Pergusa, in fact, besides being the main inland lake of Sicily, is very sensitive to climate change and its territory was inhabited and exploited continuously since the prehistory. The lake sediments turned out to be a good observatory for the natural phenomena occurred in the last thousands of years. Results of the pollen-based study are integrated with changes in magnetic susceptibility and a tephra layer characterization. The tephra layer was shown to be related to the Sicanians' event, radiocarbon dated at 3055 ± 75 yr BP (Sadori and Narcisi, 2001). We performed palaeoclimate reconstructions by MAT and WA-PLS. Palaeoclimate reconstructions based on the core show important climate fluctuations throughout the Holocene. Climate reconstruction points out four phases of cooling and enhanced wetness in the last three millennia (2600-2000, 1650-1100, 850-550, 400-200 cal BP). This appears to be the evidence of local responses to global climate oscillations during the recent past.

Sadori, L.; Ortu, E.; Peyron, O.; Zanchetta, G.; Vannière, B.; Desmet, M.; Magny, M.

2013-04-01

40

Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in common buzzard ( Buteo buteo ) from Sicily (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we investigated the concentrations and distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated\\u000a biphenyls (PCBs) in intestine, liver, and muscle samples of 11 common buzzards (Buteo buteo) from Sicily used as bioindicator for monitoring pollution in environment. All samples of common buzzards were collected\\u000a at the “Recovery Center of Wild Fauna” of Palermo, through the Zooprophilactic Institute.

Patrizia Licata; Francesco Naccari; Giacomo Dugo; Vincenzo Fotia; Vincenzo Lo Turco; Angela Giorgia Potorti; Giuseppa Di Bella

41

On particular ignimbrites of the Island of Pantelleria (channel of sicily)  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the Island of Pantelleria (Channel of Sicily) several layers of particular ignimbrites have been found. Their properties\\u000a can be explained only by admitting a great fluidity of the deposited material. Such a low viscosity is abnormal for sodarhyolitic\\u000a or sodatrachytic melts and demonstrates that the temperature must have been exceptionally high, as it is possible only in\\u000a the case

L. Villari

1969-01-01

42

Numerical simulation of the barotropic tides in the Tunisian Shelf and the Strait of Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the barotropic tides in the Tunisian shelf and the Strait of Sicily using the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) with very high-resolution. Model performance was evaluated with respect to tide gauge, satellite data, and current meter measurements. The model fields faithfully reproduced the major feature of the barotropic tidal currents and agreed well with existing tidal elevation and phase observations. General features for the various semidiurnal constituents are nearly similar to each other with maximum amplitude in the Gulf of Gabes. The larger tidal currents occur over the continental shelves. In the Adventure Bank, the current is essentially of diurnal type whereas in the Gulf of Gabes it is of semidiurnal type. Tidal energy lost, which is primarily due to bottom stress dissipation, is predominantly in the Gulf of Gabes (˜ 61%), the Strait of Sicily, and the Strait of Messina. The forcing function for internal tides shows for both M 2 and K 1 constituents, significant spatial variability in the Strait of Sicily. This suggests that some internal tides will be generated in these regions and could thus explain the observed strong diurnal internal waves in the Adventure Bank.

Abdennadher, Jihène; Boukthir, Moncef

2006-12-01

43

Patterns of tectonic stress in Sicily from borehole breakout observations and finite element modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The orientation of in situ tectonic stress was deduced from borehole breakout analysis of 22 wells from onshore Sicily. The results allow us to distinguish the stress field of different geological units: (1) A nearly NNW (148°) orientation is detected in the Hyblean Plateau. (2) A NNE SHmax direction characterizes the Gela area. To the north, within the thrust belt (around Mount Judica), the SHmax direction swings to NE. In the northeastern segment of the foredeep, the Catania Plain, the direction of SHmax is roughly parallel to the NE trending grabens that mark the northern margin of the Hyblean Plateau. (3) The southwestern segment of the foredeep has no preferential SHmax orientation and may act as a transition zone with isotropic horizontal stresses. (4) In western Sicily a SHmax orientation from N-S to NW-SE is observed. This fits well the kinematics of the SE migrating Egadi and Adventure thrust belts and the direction of shortening inferred from the modern seismicity of the area. A three-dimensional finite element modeling, including the most important tectonic features, was performed. Modeling results of the stress field indicate that the NNW trending SHmax is locally influenced by the variation of crustal thickness and local zones of weakness. In addition, the Pantelleria Rift causes a rotation of the regional NW-SE stress orientation to NNE along the northern rim of the rift system, including large on-shore areas in the adjacent central south Sicily.

Ragg, Steffen; Grasso, Mario; Müller, Birgit

1999-08-01

44

Integrated Archaeological and Geophysical Surveys at the archaeological site of Priolo (Eastern Sicily, Italy).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Syracuse (Eastern Sicily, Italy) and its vast hinterland played a crucial role in the economy of ancient Sicily, largely because of the management, exploitation and trade of agricultural supply. Nevertheless, the socio-economic aspects of its territorial management and the relation between the countryside and coastal centres in the complex system of the Mediterranean markets have not yet been analysed in depth by scholars. Despite the historical, monumental and economic importance of the surrounding area of Syracuse in the Antiquity, the knowledge of the roman landscape and archaeological sites are still limited. The research undertaken by Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali - CNR of Catania (Sicily, Italy) attempted to remedy this omission by outlining a preliminary picture of the rich historical and archaeological heritage of Syracuse and its surrounding territory, which will be analysed using a multidisciplinary approach. Three contexts are under exploration: Aguglia d'Agosta, an early roman funerary monument; Ponte Diddino, a middle-late roman villa; Tavoliere-Maccaudo, a roman and byzantine settlement. Integrated archaeological and geophysical investigations allowed a wide range knowledge of the roman-byzantine landscapes, archaeological sites and monumental remains. This researches conducted to solve specific archaeological problems which are part of a wider debate regarding the phenomena connected to the role of settlements, use of lands, etc. to establish new parameters for the development of ancient sicilian landscapes.

Leucci, G.; Malfitana, D.; Cacciaguerra, G.; Lanteri, R.; Fragalà, G.

2012-04-01

45

An Ancient Mediterranean Melting Pot: Investigating the Uniparental Genetic Structure and Population History of Sicily and Southern Italy  

PubMed Central

Due to their strategic geographic location between three different continents, Sicily and Southern Italy have long represented a major Mediterranean crossroad where different peoples and cultures came together over time. However, its multi-layered history of migration pathways and cultural exchanges, has made the reconstruction of its genetic history and population structure extremely controversial and widely debated. To address this debate, we surveyed the genetic variability of 326 accurately selected individuals from 8 different provinces of Sicily and Southern Italy, through a comprehensive evaluation of both Y-chromosome and mtDNA genomes. The main goal was to investigate the structuring of maternal and paternal genetic pools within Sicily and Southern Italy, and to examine their degrees of interaction with other Mediterranean populations. Our findings show high levels of within-population variability, coupled with the lack of significant genetic sub-structures both within Sicily, as well as between Sicily and Southern Italy. When Sicilian and Southern Italian populations were contextualized within the Euro-Mediterranean genetic space, we observed different historical dynamics for maternal and paternal inheritances. Y-chromosome results highlight a significant genetic differentiation between the North-Western and South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, the Italian Peninsula occupying an intermediate position therein. In particular, Sicily and Southern Italy reveal a shared paternal genetic background with the Balkan Peninsula and the time estimates of main Y-chromosome lineages signal paternal genetic traces of Neolithic and post-Neolithic migration events. On the contrary, despite showing some correspondence with its paternal counterpart, mtDNA reveals a substantially homogeneous genetic landscape, which may reflect older population events or different demographic dynamics between males and females. Overall, both uniparental genetic structures and TMRCA estimates confirm the role of Sicily and Southern Italy as an ancient Mediterranean melting pot for genes and cultures. PMID:24788788

Sarno, Stefania; Boattini, Alessio; Carta, Marilisa; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Yao, Daniele Yang; Ciani, Graziella; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata

2014-01-01

46

A crustal-upper mantle model for southeastern Sicily (Italy) from the integration of petrologic and geophysical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interdisciplinary approach is proposed to investigate the structure and composition of the Permo-Triassic basement of the Hyblean Plateau and Sicily Channel. Comparisons of published data on peridotites and spinels from different geodynamic settings, and new data on Hyblean spinels, reveal the affinity of the Hyblean basement with an ultra-slow spreading oceanic lithosphere, rather than with the Africa continental plate. Similar results derive from volcanic rocks of the studied area, whose Nb/Yb vs. Th/Yb ratio hints at their affinity with the MORB-OIB array, even excluding any possible contamination with continental crust lithologies, unlike North Africa lavas. The comparison of He isotopic ratios from Hyblean Plateau and Sicily Channel highlights their similarity with values measured in fluids emitted from the Rainbow and Logatchev hydrothermal fields in Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Based on petrologic and geochemical evidence for the oceanic nature of the Permo-Triassic basement in southeastern Sicily, and the occurrence of serpentinized harzburgite xenoliths in Hyblean diatremes, the P-wave velocity model proposed for the investigated area is used to estimate lithospheric pressure, density, degree of serpentinization and magnetic susceptibility also considering both abyssal and ophiolitic serpentinites. The resulting values suggest the presence of peridotites affected by different degrees of serpentinization (35-100 vol.%) ranging to a depth of 8-19 km. As a whole, combined seismic, gravimetric and magnetic data indicate the presence of a marked anomaly at a depth of about 19 km. As a consequence, we consider the Moho discontinuity as a serpentinization front, by fixing the relative top at a depth of 19 km. Our results suggest that the oceanic lithospheric model for southeastern Sicily could be broadened to the Sicily Channel, which is possibly correlated to the adjacent Ionian oceanic basin, inferred as belonging to the Oman-Iraq-Levantine-Sicily seaway.

Manuella, Fabio Carmelo; Brancato, Alfonso; Carbone, Serafina; Gresta, Stefano

2013-05-01

47

Nitrate, sulphate and chloride contents in public drinking water supplies in Sicily, Italy.  

PubMed

Water samples collected from public drinking water supplies in Sicily were analysed for electric conductivity and for their chloride, sulphate and nitrate contents. The samples were collected as uniformly as possible from throughout the Sicilian territory, with an average sampling density of about one sample for every 7,600 inhabitants. Chloride contents that ranged from 5.53 to 1,302 mg/l were correlated strongly with electric conductivity, a parameter used as a proxy for water salinity. The highest values are attributable to seawater contamination along the coasts of the island. High chloride and sulphate values attributable to evaporitic rock dissolution were found in the central part of Sicily. The nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 296 mg/l, with 31 samples (4.7% of the total) exceeding the maximum admissible concentration of 50 mg/l. Anomalous samples always came from areas of intensive agricultural usage, indicating a clear anthropogenic origin. The same parameters were also measured in bottled water sold in Sicily, and they all were within the ranges for public drinking water supplies. The calculated mean nitrate intake from consuming public water supplies (16.1 mg/l) did not differ significantly from that of bottled water (15.2 mg/l). Although the quality of public water supplies needs to be improved by eliminating those that do not comply with the current drinking water limits, at present it does not justify the high consumption of bottled water (at least for nitrate contents). PMID:21717203

D'Alessandro, Walter; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco; Bonfanti, Pietro; Brusca, Lorenzo; Longo, Manfredi; Maugeri, Roberto

2012-05-01

48

Application and comparison of tsunami vulnerability models in the gulf of Siracusa, Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Siracusa is one of the most important cities of the eastern coast of Sicily, that according to historical records and to the present knowledge of the tectonic setting is exposed to tsunamis generated by landslides on the Hyblean-Malta escarpment and by local and remote (Eastern Hellenic Arc) earthquakes. For this reason the area of Siracusa and Augusta has been selected as one of the test sites where to conduct specific studies within the European FP7 project ASTARTE. In this context, this work focuses on the tsunami vulnerability of buildings that are found in the coastal zone subject to inundation in the Gulf of Siracusa. The classification of buildings is carried out following two different schemes, namely the SCHEMA and PTVA (Papathoma Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment) method. The former was developed in the frame of the EU project SCHEMA and applied to a number of sites, including the city of Catania which is located along the same coast of Sicily, to the north of the area under study here. The latter was proposed by Papathoma (2003) and applied in the original form in the city of Heraklion, Crete, and in subsequent refined versions in Stromboli, Tyrrhenian sea, and in other regions of the world (United States, Australia and Indian Ocean). In our study, the classification of buildings in the potentially flooded areas starts from digital databases (e.g. CTR and CTN) produced by the region of Sicily, which provides building size and location and some other few parameters. In a second step, use is made of satellite imagery which allows a better classification, usually sufficient for the SCHEMA method but not for the PTVA approach. The next step consists in a field survey in the most exposed areas to determine the attributes necessary for the PTVA method and also to confirm the data obtained in the second step. This study highlights similarities and differences of the two vulnerability models, also posing attention to the resources that each classification requires.

Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano; Rallo, Francesco

2014-05-01

49

Calibration and validation of rainfall thresholds for shallow landslide forecasting in Sicily, southern Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Empirical rainfall thresholds are tools to forecast the possible occurrence of rainfall-induced shallow landslides. Accurate prediction of landslide occurrence requires reliable thresholds, which need to be properly validated before their use in operational warning systems. We exploited a catalogue of 200 rainfall conditions that have resulted in at least 223 shallow landslides in Sicily, southern Italy, in the 11-year period 2002-2011, to determine regional event duration-cumulated event rainfall (ED) thresholds for shallow landslide occurrence. We computed ED thresholds for different exceedance probability levels and determined the uncertainty associated to the thresholds using a consolidated bootstrap nonparametric technique. We further determined subregional thresholds, and we studied the role of lithology and seasonal periods in the initiation of shallow landslides in Sicily. Next, we validated the regional rainfall thresholds using 29 rainfall conditions that have resulted in 42 shallow landslides in Sicily in 2012. We based the validation on contingency tables, skill scores, and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for thresholds at different exceedance probability levels, from 1% to 50%. Validation of rainfall thresholds is hampered by lack of information on landslide occurrence. Therefore, we considered the effects of variations in the contingencies and the skill scores caused by lack of information. Based on the results obtained, we propose a general methodology for the objective identification of a threshold that provides an optimal balance between maximization of correct predictions and minimization of incorrect predictions, including missed and false alarms. We expect that the methodology will increase the reliability of rainfall thresholds, fostering the operational use of validated rainfall thresholds in operational early warning system for regional shallow landslide forecasting.

Gariano, S. L.; Brunetti, M. T.; Iovine, G.; Melillo, M.; Peruccacci, S.; Terranova, O.; Vennari, C.; Guzzetti, F.

2015-01-01

50

Geodetic and geological evidence of active tectonics in south-western Sicily (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated geological, geodetic and marine geophysical data provide evidence of active deformation in south-western Sicily, in an area spatially coincident with the macroseismic zone of the destructive 1968 Belice earthquake sequence. Even though the sequence represents the strongest seismic event recorded in Western Sicily in historical times, focal solutions provided by different authors are inconclusive on possible faulting mechanism, which ranges from thrusting to transpression, and the seismogenic source is still undefined. Interferometric (DInSAR) observations reveal a differential ground motion on a SW-NE alignment between Campobello di Mazara and Castelvetrano (CCA), located just west of the maximum macroseismic sector. In addition, new GPS campaign-mode data acquired across the CCA alignment documents NW-SE contractional strain accumulation. Morphostructural analysis allowed to associate the alignment detected through geodetic measurements with a topographic offset of Pleistocene marine sediments. The on-land data were complemented by new high-resolution marine geophysical surveys, which indicate recent contraction on the offshore extension of the CCA alignment. The discovery of archaeological remains displaced by a thrust fault associated with the alignment provided the first likely surface evidence of coseismic and/or aseismic deformation related to a seismogenic source in the area. Results of the integrated study supports the contention that oblique thrusting and folding in response to NW-SE oriented contraction is still active. Although we are not able to associate the CCA alignment to the 1968 seismic sequence or to the historical earthquakes that destroyed the ancient Greek city of Selinunte, located on the nearby coastline, our result must be incorporated in the seismic hazard evaluation of this densely populated area of Sicily.

Barreca, G.; Bruno, V.; Cocorullo, C.; Cultrera, F.; Ferranti, L.; Guglielmino, F.; Guzzetta, L.; Mattia, M.; Monaco, C.; Pepe, F.

2014-12-01

51

Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations in western Sicily: Controlling factors, triggering mechanisms, and morphoevolutionary models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD) phenomena affecting areas of various geological and geomorphological settings in western Sicily is described. Western Sicily is underlain by a thin-skinned imbricate wedge of Meso-Cenozoic carbonate and siliciclastic rocks that formed by the stacking of several thrust nappes over the Iblean foreland. Locally, the original thrust sheets are folded and cut by high-angle faults. Large areas of western Sicily now display high relief energy due to Plio-Pleistocene block-faulting and uplifting, and the Quaternary morphogenetic phases are characterised by incision, thereby triggering widespread DSGSDs. To identify controlling factors and triggering causes and to develop reliable morphoevolutionary models for the DSGSDs of western Sicily, a geomorphological study based on field surveys and aerial-photography interpretations was performed. Previous geomorphological data relating to well-known examples of DSGSDs were reconsidered, leading to remarkable revisions of the interpretative models in certain cases. New data were subsequently collected, enabling recognition of additional DSGSD phenomena. The whole body of data involves a total of 27 DSGSDs affecting areas in two specific geological settings: (1) areas with flat thrust surfaces, where differential settlements, back-tilting, lateral spreads in competent rocks overlying marls and clays, large topples, and/or block-type slope movements may develop; and (2) areas where deep-rooted carbonate units come into lateral contact with clayey-marly units along high-angle faults, where lateral spreads in brittle homogeneous rocks, sinking, and/or rock flows may occur. These DSGSD phenomena are associated with different evolutionary stages, allowing a morphoevolutionary model to be defined for the two geological conditions. For these two different morphoevolutionary models, the following structural features play an important role in the development of DSGSDs: (1) where carbonate bodies overlie clayey-marly rocks, triggering of the DSGSDs traces back to deformation of a ductile substratum that follows the exhumation of the flat thrust planes and the underlying clayey-marly rocks due to block-faulting and/or stream incision; and (2) where homogeneous carbonate rocks hundreds of metres thick crop out, the DSGSDs are triggered by very high relief energy and tensile stress that follow the combined actions of Quaternary block-faulting and stream deepening associated with differential erosion.

Di Maggio, Cipriano; Madonia, Giuliana; Vattano, Marco

2014-03-01

52

Fast geodetic strain-rates in eastern Sicily (southern Italy): New insights into block tectonics and seismic potential in the area of the great 1693 earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along the ˜500 km long Sicily-Calabria segment of the Nubia-Eurasia plate boundary GPS data highlight a complex, and debated, kinematic pattern. We focus on eastern Sicily, where the style of crustal deformation rapidly changes in the space of few tens of kilometers. In southeastern Sicily, struck by the 1693 MW˜7.4 earthquake, GPS measurements highlight a steep velocity gradient, with ˜2.4 mm/yr of ˜N-S shortening in ˜10 km, changing to broader extension (˜3 mm/yr in ˜60 km) in northern Sicily and shortening in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea. GPS data and kinematic elastic block models highlight a complex fragmentation of the Sicilian domain into three tectonic blocks, which move independently from Nubia, describing an overall clockwise rotation of this crustal domain with respect to Eurasia. Shortening in southeastern Sicily is associated with a system of high-angle reverse faults resulting from tectonic inversion of extensional faults at the northern tip of the Hyblean plateau. Extension in northern Sicily occurs on a broader deformation belt, developed on the former Kumeta-Alcantara line, extending west of Mount Etna toward the southwestern Tyrrhenian Sea, accommodating the faster rotation of the northeastern Sicily block with respect to central Sicily. Although the seismic potential of inland faults is not negligible, our results strengthen the hypothesis that the Malta escarpment is the likely source of the large 1693 earthquake and tsunami. The observed kinematics appears only subordinately driven by the Nubia-Eurasia convergence and the dynamics of the Mediterranean subduction system is likely playing a major role in governing block motions and active tectonics in Sicily.

Mastrolembo Ventura, Brunella; Serpelloni, Enrico; Argnani, Andrea; Bonforte, Alessandro; Bürgmann, Roland; Anzidei, Marco; Baldi, Paolo; Puglisi, Giuseppe

2014-10-01

53

Interannual variability of water mass properties in the Tunisia-Sicily Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analysed in situ CTD data collected on 36 joint Tunisian-Italian oceanographic cruises in the Tunisia-Sicily Channel (Cap Bon-Mazara del Vallo section) from 1995 to 2009 in order to identify the water masses in the region and to estimate the interannual variability of their hydrological characteristics. Besides the well-known AW (Atlantic Water) and LIW (Levantine Intermediate Water), other water masses have been identified though their presence is neither as steady nor as stable as the aforementioned ones. The WIW (Western Intermediate Water) flows beneath the AW towards the eastern basin while the IW (Ionian Water), with a highly intermittent character, flows within the subsurface layer towards the western basin. The flow of subsurface water (WIW and IW) is affected by intense mixing which modifies the water masses, tending to make them disappear. Moreover, the same hydrological time series produced interesting results concerning the increase in both temperature and salinity in the Tunisia-Sicily Channel. This trend especially concerns the deeper layers (LIW and tEMDW, i.e. transitional Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water) and we hypothesise that this is a direct response to climatic change occurring in the eastern basin.

Ben Ismail, Sana; Schroeder, Katrin; Sammari, Chérif; Gasparini, Gian Pietro; Borghini, Mireno; Aleya, Lotfi

2014-07-01

54

Deflation acting on Pantelleria island (Sicily Channel) inferred through geodetic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pantelleria is a volcanic island situated at the centre of the Sicily Channel continental rift. Since 1980, the island has been monitored by geodetic techniques (electro-optical distance measurements (EDM) and levelling) and gravimetry. After more than 10 years, the EDM network was re-measured in 1995 and successively it has been improved and measured also with global position system (GPS) techniques. It has therefore been possible to carry out a long-term analysis (1980-1996) of the deformation pattern. The levelling in the 1980-1996 period revealed a marked lowering of the central-southern part of the island with respect to the northern sector. The horizontal EDM measurements all prove to be in contraction and suggest that a deflation is ongoing in the central-southern part. The effects of areal contraction and lowering are interpreted as being due to the volcanic field, which appears to predominate over possible stretching induced by the Sicily Channel dynamics. We modelled the horizontal and vertical changes accumulated over 16 years using a 3D ellipsoidal depressuring model which indicates a ca. 5 km deep source located under the area within the most recent caldera. This model could explain a short term (tens of years) acting deflation. We also propose an interpretive framework in the case where the deflation is acting over a long period (thousands of years). In this case, the deflation is interpreted as readjustment following the loss of mass occurring with recent volcanism (18-3 kyr).

Bonaccorso, A.; Mattia, M.

2000-07-01

55

Gravity changes and present-day dynamics of the island of Pantelleria (Sicily Channel—Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island of Pantelleria is an active volcano located in the Sicily Channel (southern Italy), occurring in the middle of a continental rift system. Since the 1980's the island has been periodically surveyed by means of geodetic and geophysical methods to monitor the regional and local volcanic dynamics. Also, high-precision gravity measurements were started in 1990. The present paper is an analysis of the time-space gravity changes. Gravity measurements were carried out on a network presently formed by twenty stations. The gravity network was fully surveyed in June 1990 and June 1995 and partially surveyed in September 1993. Two absolute gravity stations were established in 1993 to provide a reference system and to check for long-term variations. The areal distribution of the gravity changes during the 1990-1995 time interval, obtained in the thirteen stations of the 1990 network, is strongly similar to the Bouguer anomaly field and to the large-scale features of the basement of the island. Otherwise, gravity changes are directly correlated with the Bouguer anomaly and inversely correlated with the altimetric variations. Comparison with the geological setting suggests that the present activity may be ascribed to the influence of the geodynamics of the Sicily Channel.

Berrino, Giovanna

1997-09-01

56

The diversity of terrestrial isopods in the natural reserve “Saline di Trapani e Paceco” (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in northwestern Sicily  

PubMed Central

Abstract Ecosystems comprising coastal lakes and ponds are important areas for preserving biodiversity. The natural reserve “Saline di Trapani e Paceco” is an interesting natural area in Sicily, formed by the remaining strips of land among salt pans near the coastline. From January 2008 to January 2010, pitfall trapping was conducted in five sampling sites inside the study area. The community of terrestrial isopods was assessed using the main diversity indices. Twenty-four species were collected, only one of them endemic to western Sicily: Porcellio siculoccidentalis Viglianisi, Lombardo & Caruso, 1992. Two species are new to Sicily: Armadilloniscus candidus Budde-Lund, 1885 and Armadilloniscus ellipticus (Harger, 1878). This is high species richness for a single reserve in Sicily. The extended sampling period also allowed us to study species phenology. Most of the species exhibited higher activity in spring than in autumn while some species also exhibited lower activity in the summer. The species richness revealed that the study area is in an acceptable conservation status; Shannon and Pielou indices also confirmed a more or less even distribution of individuals belonging to different species. PMID:22536110

Messina, Giuseppina; Pezzino, Elisa; Montesanto, Giuseppe; Caruso, Domenico; Lombardo, Bianca Maria

2012-01-01

57

Reference ranges for haematology, biochemical profile and electrophoresis in a single herd of Ragusana donkeys from Sicily (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Donkeys, an endangered species, have recently gained a new application with the use of their milk to feed humans with allergic processes. The Ragusana donkey breed from Sicily is used to produce milk for humans with allergic diseases. In order to evaluate the hygienic, nutritional and management measures on a farm of Ragusana donkeys, complete blood counts, extended biochemical profiles

Marco Caldin; Tommaso Furlanello; Laia Solano-Gallego; Davide De Lorenzi; Erika Carli; Silvia Tasca; George Lubas

2005-01-01

58

Feasibility study and assessment of the technical, administrative and financial viability of the Voltano desalination plant (Agrigento, Sicily)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Italian Ministry of Public Works has funded a study aimed at assessing the technical feasibility and financial viability of a disalination plant to be implemented in Agrigento, Sicily. The plant, with a design production capacity of 40,000 m3 and an estimated cost of € 120 million, will serve 19 municipalities of the Agrigento province with a total population of

Augusto Pretner; Mario Iannelli

2003-01-01

59

Ground deformation and gravity changes on the island of Pantelleria in the geodynamic framework of the Sicily Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island of Pantelleria is an active volcano located in the Sicily Channel (Southern Italy), in the middle of a continental rift system. Since the 1980s the island was periodically surveyed by using geodetic techniques (EDM, levelling, GPS and high precise gravimetry) to monitor the regional and local volcanic dynamics. Gravity data, collected between 1990 and 1998, show short and long wavelength changes due to the combined effect of shallow and deep sources. They reflect, to some degree, the structural setting of the island as delineated by the Bouguer anomaly field, which indicates that the island is broken up into two main basement blocks. The latter are bordered by two lineaments, probably regional faults related to the global geodynamics of the Sicily Channel Rift Zone. Moreover, the inverse correlation between the gravity and altimetric variations suggests that: i) Pantelleria is kinematically divided in two blocks; ii) the observed behaviour is strongly influenced by the geodynamics of the Sicily Channel. A new interpretation of the fully reprocessed data sets is presented, focusing on the spatial-temporal features of the horizontal ground deformation and gravity changes compared to the Bouguer anomaly and altimetric data. This leads to conclude that volcanism on the island has been probably strongly influenced by the global geodynamics of the Sicily Channel, and future eruptions are most likely to occur at the structural boundary separating the two blocks.

Behncke, Boris; Berrino, Giovanna; Corrado, Gennaro; Velardita, Rosanna

2006-02-01

60

Geochemical study of macromolecular organic matter from sulfur-rich sediments of evaporitic origin (Messinian of Sicily) by chemical degradations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective chemical degradations have been performed on sulfur-rich macromolecular organic matter from sediments of the Messinian of Sicily (Upper Miocene, Italy). The biomarkers released upon different desulfurization experiments are much more abundant than the free lipids and display completely different distributions, which reflect the selective trapping of (poly)functionalized molecules by inorganic sulfur species at an early stage of diagenesis. The

P. Schaeffer; C. Reiss; P. Albrecht

1995-01-01

61

Chronological records of metal deposition in sediments from the Strait of Sicily, central Mediterranean: Assessing natural fluxes and anthropogenic alteration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment box-cores were recovered from the Strait of Sicily along two onshore-offshore transects in water depths of 29-500 m. Samples were dated by 210Pb and analysed for major and trace elements. Inspections of chronological profiles integrated with application of statistical algorithms to the geochemical dataset and supported by in situ hydrological observations were used to assess factors driving element distributions. Mineralogical and chemical variability of sediments offshore of the southwestern Sicily coast reflect the irregular sea floor morphology of the Adventure Bank. Anthropogenic inputs explain enrichments with respect to background values for Sb, As, Pb, and Hg, that become more marked since approximately the 1960s. Clear fluctuations of major and trace element concentrations along a + 150 year record and high background values of some trace metals (notably Cr, Ni, and locally As) are interpreted as signals of geothermal and/or magmatic activities in the Strait of Sicily. A combined effect of current flowing, sea floor morphology and thermohaline gradient appears to encourage trace metal accumulation in front of the southern coast of Sicily.

Tranchida, Giorgio; Bellanca, Adriana; Angelone, Massimo; Bonanno, Angelo; Langone, Leonardo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Neri, Rodolfo; Patti, Bernardo

2010-01-01

62

Evidences of a lithospheric fault zone in the Sicily Channel continental rift (southern Italy) from instrumental seismicity data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sicily Channel is a portion of Mediterranean Sea, between Sicily (Southern Italy) and Tunisia, representing a part of the foreland Apennine-Maghrebian thrust belt. The seismicity of the region is commonly associated with the normal faulting related to the rifting process and volcanic activity of the region. However, certain seismic patterns suggest the existence of some mechanism coexisting with the rifting process. In this work, we present the results of a statistical analysis of the instrumental seismicity and a reliable relocalization of the events recorded in the last 30 yr in the Sicily Channel and western Sicily using the Double Difference method and 3-D Vp and Vs tomographic models. Our procedure allows us to discern the seismic regime of the Sicily sea from the Tyrrhenian one and to describe the main features of an active fault zone in the study area that could not be related to the rifting process. We report that most of the events are highly clustered in the region between 12.5°-13.5°E and 35.5°-37°N with hypocentral depth of 5-40 km, and reaching 70 km depth in the southernmost sector. The alignment of the seismic clusters, the distribution of volcanic and geothermal regions and the location of some large events occurred in the last century suggest the existence of a subvertical shear zone extending for least 250 km and oriented approximately NNE-SSW. The spatial distribution of the seismic moment suggests that this transfer fault zone is seismically discontinuous showing large seismic gaps in proximity of the Ferdinandea Island, and Graham and Nameless Bank.

Calò, M.; Parisi, L.

2014-10-01

63

Seismic stratigraphy and structural setting of the Adventure Plateau (Sicily Channel)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the central Mediterranean, the northwestern sector of the Sicily Channel is the unique area where two independent tectonic processes can be analyzed: the building of the Sicilian-Maghrebian Chain occurred in Late Miocene and the continental lithospheric rifting of the northern African margin occurred since Early Pliocene. These two geodynamic processes generated a peculiar structural style that is largely recognizable in the Adventure Plateau. This plateau is the shallowest part of the Sicily Channel, where water depths do not generally exceed 150 m. It hosts several areas of geomorphic relief, which in some cases rise up to less than 20 m beneath sea-level. A series of submarine magmatic manifestations occur in this area, mainly associated with the extensional phase which produced the rift-related depressions of Pantelleria, Malta and Linosa. Seismic-stratigraphic and structural analyses, based on a large set of multichannel seismic reflection profiles and well information acquired mostly for commercial purposes in the 1970s and 1980s, have allowed us to reconstruct the Triassic-Quaternary sedimentary succession of the Adventure Plateau and define its structural setting. A broad lithological distinction can be made between the successions ranging from Triassic to Paleogene, predominantly carbonate, and the successions ranging from Miocene to Quaternary, predominantly siliciclastic. Three main structural belts have been identified within the Adventure Plateau: (1) the northern belt, affected during Late Miocene time by ESE-verging thrusts belonging to the External Thrust System orogenic domain, which represents the lowermost structural level of the Sicilian-Maghrebian Orogen; (2) the Apenninic-Maghrebian domain of the Sicilian-Maghrebian Orogen, which occupies the northwestern sector of the Adventure Plateau, and that is overthrusted on the External Thrust System orogenic domain during the Late Miocene; (3) the extensional belt of the southwestern sector of the Adventure Plateau, affected by broad NW-trending, high-angle normal faults associated with the Early Pliocene continental rifting phase. The eastern boundary of the Adventure Plateau corresponds to a broadly N-S trending lithospheric transfer zone separating two sectors of the Sicily Channel characterized by a different tectonic evolution.

Civile, D.; Lodolo, E.; Alp, H.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Cova, A.; Baradello, L.; Accettella, D.; Burca, M.; Centonze, J.

2014-03-01

64

Relationships between seismicity and tectonic in northern Sicily and southern Tyrrhenian: some important open problems.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The widespread seismic activity which characterizes the Northern Sicily and its Tyrrhenian off-shore, is related to a very complex geodynamic context. The different tectonic structures are associated, first, to the collision between African and European Plate, and then to the evolution of Tyrrhenian Basin. Sicily represents the easternmost sector of Maghrebian Chain, built since Oligocene, by the foreland migration of foredeep-deformation front couple. The recent deformation pattern of Sicilian Maghrebides is interpreted as a result of brittle and brittle-ductile neotectonic structures with strike-slip kinematics developed since Middle-Late Miocene in the internal zones of thrust belt. This structures are related to recent Tyrrhenian opening. In particular, we tried to make a comparison among recent structure and seismicity in the hinge zone between northern Sicily and southern Tyrrhenian, corresponding to both emerged and submerged northern portion of the Maghrebian chain. This hinge zone is part of a wider W-E trending right-lateral shear zone, mainly characterized by both a synthetic NW-SE/W-E oriented, and antithetic left-lateral N-S/NE-SW fault systems, which has been affecting the tectonic edifice, since the Pliocene. The seismicity in the sicilian Maghrebides is mainly located in the hinge zone, either crustal or deeper, and limited in two main hypocentral sectors (Giunta et al., 2002b;Gueguen et al., 2002; Giunta et al., 2004; 2008). Deep seismicity, concentrated in north-eastern Sicily, is associated with the subduction of the Ionian lithospheric slab beneath the Calabrian arc, while the shallow seismicity results as expression of the brittle strain crossing the whole orogen (Neri et al., 1996). The seismogenic process complexity requires that descriptive models are based on a large amount of experimental information about both a huge number of earthquakes and the structural features of the main seismogenic volumes in the investigated area. At the moment, it is possible to describe in detail the source of single events if these are recorded by sufficiently dense arrays, while much still remains clear about the seismicity and the relationships between seismicity and recognized faults. In this context, where possible, we describe the relationships between the structures that were observed inland and interpreted offshore and clusters of seismic events, carefully relocated. The hypocentral distribution, the typical focal mechanisms and the principal deviatoric stresses have been related to the geometrical features of the seismogenic volumes, their mechanical heterogeneity, and the tectonic stress, following in part the Caputo and Sato (1996), and Audemard (2004) methodology. We defined firstly the neotectonic pattern of the study area using both aerial photos and field measurements. The geometrical relationships and/or the relative chronology of the identified tectonic structures were estimated by mesoscopic field analysis. In the second time, numerous volumes characterized by seismogenic homogeneity (clusters) have been obtained by the analysis of the seismological data. This analysis consisted in a preliminary location of the events, in their assignment to specific clusters or to the background seismicity (independent events) using statistical methods and in a subsequent relocation of the events of each cluster using a relative location technique. Moreover, the seismogenic processes, relative to the most numerous clusters, were characterized in the space, time and magnitude domains with statistical techniques. Some informations on the regional deviatoric stress field can be inferred from fault orientation and slip direction, assuming a mechanical homogeneity of the cluster-relate volume. The heterogeneity of seismogenic volumes of the crust and the mantle makes the kinematics of dislocations rather complex and a non-unique relation between faults geometry and the stress acting on these faults (Albarello, 2000). In order to constrain the stress field acting in a seismogenic volume by a set of focal mechanisms, and

Orioli, Silvia; Giunta, Giuseppe; Giorgianni, Alessandra; di Trapani, Francesco; Luzio, Dario

2009-04-01

65

A Molecular Survey of Rickettsia felis in Fleas from Cats and Dogs in Sicily (Southern Italy)  

PubMed Central

Rickettsia felis, the agent of flea-borne spotted fever, has a cosmopolitan distribution. Its pathogenic role in humans has been demonstrated through molecular and serologic tests in several cases. The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is considered the main reservoir and the biological vector. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and occurrence of R. felis in fleas collected from dogs and cats in various sites of Palermo (Sicily). Between August and October 2012, 134 fleas were collected from 42 animals: 37 fleas from 13 dogs and 97 fleas from 29 cats. Two species of fleas were identified: 132 Ctenocephalides felis (98.51%) collected on all animals and only two C. canis (1.49%) on one dog. Out of 132 C. felis, 34 (25.76%), 12 from dogs (32.43%) and 22 (22.68%) from cats, were positive for R. felis DNA by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), confirmed by sequencing. The only two C. canis fleas were negative. About half of examined animals (47.62%, 20/42) were infested with at least one infected flea; in particular 46.15% of dogs (6/13) and 48.28% of cats (14/29). It seems that in the Palermo district there is a peri-domestic cycle, with a relatively high prevalence of R. felis infection in the cat flea, an insect widely diffused in home environments and which can frequently bite humans. The results also suggest that R. felis should be considered in the human differential diagnosis of any spotted-like fever or febrile illness without a clear source of infection in Sicily, especially if the patient is known to have been exposed to flea bites. PMID:25203839

Giudice, Elisabetta; Di Pietro, Simona; Alaimo, Antonio; Blanda, Valeria; Lelli, Rossella; Francaviglia, Francesco; Caracappa, Santo; Torina, Alessandra

2014-01-01

66

Argas (Persicargas) persicus (Oken, 1818) (Ixodida: Argasidae) in Sicily with considerations about its Italian and West-Mediterranean distribution.  

PubMed

Recently, in the province of Trapani (Western Sicily), some overwintering specimens of the argasid tick Argos (Persicargas) persicus (Oken, 1818) were observed and collected. Morphological and genetic analysis were utilized in order to reach a definitive identification. The species was found in two semi-natural sites where, having been found repeatedly, its presence does not appear accidental. Moreover the characteristics of the Sicilian findings seem to exclude a human-induced spread. This record, the first regarding Sicily and South Italy, is discussed together with the previous doubtful citations for Italy. These findings revalue not only all the old citations for Italy but also the hypothesis that the Mediterranean distribution of this argasid is of a natural origin. PMID:21275242

Pantaleoni, R A; Baratti, M; Barraco, L; Contini, C; Cossu, C S; Filippelli, M T; Loru, L; Romano, M

2010-12-01

67

Degradation of stone materials in the archaeological context of the Greek–Roman Theatre in Taormina (Sicily, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work results on the degradation phenomena of stone materials in the Ancient Theatre of Taormina, one of the\\u000a most important Greek–Roman monuments of Sicily, are reported. Artificial stone materials in different conservation conditions\\u000a were investigated. Samples of salt efflorescences from brick walls and degraded setting mortars were taken from the open gallery\\u000a in “summa cavea”. The chemical,

M. Brai; M. P. Casaletto; G. Gennaro; M. Marrale; T. Schillaci; L. Tranchina

2010-01-01

68

Late Quaternary slip rates on the Acireale-Piedimonte normal faults and tectonic origin of Mt. Etna (Sicily)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mt. Etna is located along the east coast of Sicily, near the boundary between the continental crust of the Hyblean Plateau and the Mesozoic oceanic crust of the Ionian basin. The main active faults near Mt. Etna cut the base of its eastern flank, forming a 30 km long system of NNE- and NNW-trending, ene´chelon fault segments (the Acireale-Piedimonte system),

C. Monaco; P. Tapponnier; L. Tortorici; P. Y. Gillot

1997-01-01

69

New Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia in a Rhipicephalus turanicus Tick Removed from a Child in Eastern Sicily, Italy  

PubMed Central

A new genotype of spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR) was identified in Rhipicephalus turanicus from eastern Sicily. On the basis of current molecular criteria, the genetic characteristics obtained from multiple locus sequence typing satisfy the requirements for Candidatus status of this SFGR. Further detection and identification of this SFGR during entomological and clinical surveys will be required to establish the prevalence of this Rickettsia and its potential pathogenicity for humans. PMID:21212209

Eremeeva, Marina E.; Stromdahl, Ellen Y.

2011-01-01

70

Ground penetrating radar survey finalized to the recovery of the “S. Agata alla Badia” church in Catania (eastern Sicily, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous archaeological sites dating to the greek-roman period have been found in the underground of the city of Catania (eastern\\u000a Sicily, Italy). Their presence is a testimony of the several settlements that have followed in this area over time. In this\\u000a work we have conducted electromagnetic surveys, consisting of ten georadar profiles, inside the church of “S. Agata alla Badia”,

S. Imposa; F. Barone; S. Gresta; A. Leone

2009-01-01

71

Gravity Changes and kinematic behaviour of the Island of Pantelleria in the Geodynamic Framework of the Sicily Channel (Southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island of Pantelleria is an active volcano located in the Sicily Channel (Southern Italy), in the middle of a continental rift system. Since the 1980s the island is periodically surveyed by means of geodetic techniques (levelling, EDM, GPS and high precise gravimetry) to monitor the local and regional volcanic dynamics. The analysis of the gravity data, collected during several field surveys from 1990 to 1998, have shown that the gravity field changes generally appear resulting by the superposition of short and long wavelengths, due to the combined effect of shallow and deep sources. Gravity changes fields also reflect, to some degree, the structural setting of the island as sketched by the Bouguer anomaly field which indicates that the island is constituted by a basement dislocated in two main blocks. These latter are also bordered by two lineaments, probably regional faults related to the global geodynamics of the Sicily Channel Rift Zone. Moreover, there is an inverse correlation between the gravity and height variations and their joined analysis implies that: i) Pantelleria appears to be divided in two blocks also from the kinematic behaviour; ii) the observed phenomena may be also ascribed to the influence of the geodynamics of the Sicily Channel. Moreover, a combined analysis of the time-space features of the horizontal ground deformation and gravity changes has been done to check if the characteristics previously detected are present in all the aspects of the kinematic behaviour of the island. On the basis of the previous conclusions the EDM data have been reprocessed for a proper comparison with the gravity data, the Bouguer anomaly and the altimetric data. This allows a joint interpretation taking also into account the structural setting and the geodynamics of the Sicily Channel to evaluate its influence on the local volcanic dynamics of the island.

Berrino, G.; Velardita, R.; Behncke, B.; Corrado, G.

2004-12-01

72

Persistence and co-occurrence of demersal nurseries in the Strait of Sicily (central Mediterranean): Implications for fishery management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the nurseries of seven commercially important demersal species of the northern sector of the Strait of Sicily (central Mediterranean): red mullet, European hake, horned octopus, deep-water rose shrimp, greater forkbeard, Norway lobster and giant red shrimp. An eleven-year series of data collected through experimental trawling in the Strait of Sicily during spring and autumn was analyzed. The spatio-temporal persistence of the high-density aggregations (hot spots) of juvenile individuals in their first year of life was investigated to identify habitats that serve as nurseries. The density of recruits within the persistent nurseries was used as a proxy of the unit area contribution of individuals which recruit to the adult population. The spatial distribution patterns of the recruits of most the species were well defined and very stable in the long term. Persistent and potentially highly productive nurseries of European hake, deep-water rose shrimp and greater forkbeard were identified off the southern coast of Sicily. Persistent areas of recruits concentration were also observed for the other species investigated, but their specific potential contribution of individuals to the adult population was not substantial compared to adjacent grounds. The close or overlapped localization of sites which regularly host vulnerable life stages of different exploited species, revealed an area of great ecological significance which probably plays a major role in the dynamics of the fishery resources in the Strait of Sicily. Appropriate spatial protection measures of this area, including marine protected area designation, could complement conventional management approach for ensuring the long-term sustainability of these fisheries and stocks conservation.

Garofalo, G.; Fortibuoni, T.; Gristina, M.; Sinopoli, M.; Fiorentino, F.

2011-08-01

73

Dimensional and spatial patterns of disrupted blocks of Messinian gypsum, western Caltanissetta Basin, Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chaotic mass-flow deposition is common along both active and passive margins; however, limited information about the internal structure and stratigraphy is available for these submarine deposits. Primary Lower Gypsum was deposited in shallow basins on top of the accretionary wedge along the convergent margin of southern Sicily between 5.96 and 5.6 Ma. These wedge-top evaporites were subsequently eroded via mass-wasting and redeposited as clastic gypsum in the foredeep. The exhumed Late-Miocene Sicilian foredeep basin provides an accessible on-shore record of this mass-wasting process. Evaporites associated with the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) are widespread throughout the Mediterranean region. The Sicilian Messinian stratigraphy is composed of two evaporitic units. The lower of these, (Lower Gypsum (LG)), includes both shallow-water, Primary Lower Gypsum (PLG) and deep-water, Resedimented Lower Gypsum (RLG). In the western Caltanissetta Basin, the RLG includes chaotic, non-bedded bodies containing disarticulated cm- to km-blocks of massive selenite gypsum, bedded gypsum mass-flows, and gypsum turbidites. The resedimented components were derived from the dismantlement of PLG along basin margins. Previous studies suggest that major sections of the PLG, both in the northern Apennines and Sicily, underwent large-scale mass-wasting processes and that the chaotic bodies in the RLG are gravitationally driven mass-flow deposits (olistostromes). The olistoliths within the RLG have a well-defined stratigraphy that can be correlated back to in-place sections. We investigated the distribution of these blocks to reveal the deposit's internal structure and possible block emplacement mechanisms. Field mapping and satellite imagery were used to map the size, shape, and block distribution in order to establish dimensional and spatial patterns of block disruption. The stratigraphy and orientation of each major block was also determined to estimate dispersal patterns and possible temporal or stratigraphic sub-groupings. On the basis of work to date, we hypothesize that the blocks slid out onto the basin floor and were buried by younger, deep-water sediments, which are now being eroded to exhume original seafloor topography created by the emplaced blocks.

Thress, R. J.; Cowan, D. S.; Lugli, S.; Manzi, V.; Roveri, M.; Schreiber, C.

2011-12-01

74

Holocene environmental and climatic changes at Gorgo Basso, a coastal lake in southern Sicily, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used a new sedimentary record to reconstruct the Holocene vegetation and fire history of Gorgo Basso, a coastal lake in south-western Sicily (Italy). Pollen and charcoal data suggest a fire-prone open grassland near the site until ca 10,000 cal yr BP (8050 cal BC), when Pistacia shrubland expanded and fire activity declined, probably in response to increased moisture availability. Evergreen Olea europaea woods expanded ca 8400 to decline abruptly at 8200 cal yr BP, when climatic conditions became drier at other sites in the Mediterranean region. Around 7000 cal yr BP evergreen broadleaved forests ( Quercus ilex, Quercus suber and O. europaea) expanded at the cost of open communities. The expansion of evergreen broadleaved forests was associated with a decline of fire and of local Neolithic ( Ficus carica-Cerealia based) agriculture that had initiated ca 500 years earlier. Vegetational, fire and land-use changes ca 7000 cal yr BP were probably caused by increased precipitation that resulted from (insolation-forced) weakening of the monsoon and Hadley circulation ca 8000-6000 cal yr BP. Low fire activity and dense coastal evergreen forests persisted until renewed human activity (probably Greek, respectively Roman colonists) disrupted the forest ca 2700 cal yr BP (750 BC) and 2100 cal yr BP (150 BC) to gain open land for agriculture. The intense use of fire for this purpose induced the expansion of open maquis, garrigue, and grassland-prairie environments (with an increasing abundance of the native palm Chamaerops humilis). Prehistoric land-use phases after the Bronze Age seem synchronous with those at other sites in southern and central Europe, possibly as a result of climatic forcing. Considering the response of vegetation to Holocene climatic variability as well as human impact we conclude that under (semi-)natural conditions evergreen broadleaved Q. ilex- O. europaea (s.l.) forests would still dominate near Gorgo Basso. However, forecasted climate change and aridification may lead to a situation similar to that before 7000 cal yr BP and thus trigger a rapid collapse of the few relict evergreen broadleaved woodlands in coastal Sicily and elsewhere in the southern Mediterranean region.

Tinner, Willy; van Leeuwen, Jacqueline F. N.; Colombaroli, Daniele; Vescovi, Elisa; van der Knaap, W. O.; Henne, Paul D.; Pasta, Salvatore; D'Angelo, Stefania; La Mantia, Tommaso

2009-07-01

75

Evidences of a Lithospheric Fault Zone in the Sicily Channel Continental Rift (Southern Italy) from Instrumental Seismicity Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sicily Channel continental rift is located in the African Plate and is submerged by a shallow sea extending from the northern coast of Africa to the southern coast of Sicily (southern Italy). The area is affected by an extensional regime since early Pliocene, which thins the continental crust and produces NW-SE oriented Pantelleria, Linosa and Malta grabens. The rift-related volcanic activity is represented by Pantelleria and Linosa Islands and a series of magmatic manifestations roughly NNE-SSW aligned, from Linosa Island to the Nameless Bank, in proximity of the Sicilian coast. Recent rapid magmatic ascents occurred along the strip near to the Sicilian coast in a region named Graham Bank. The NNE-SSW strip has already been recognised as a separation belt between the western sector of the rift (Pantelleria graben) and the eastern one (Linosa and Malta grabens). Seismic profiles suggest the presence of near vertical structures associated with strike slip fault zones. Bathymetric data show a 15-20 km wide zone characterised by several shallow basins irregularly alternated by topographic highs. However, evidences of a N-S or NNE-SSW orientated faults have not been found. In this work we re-localised the instrumental seismicity recorded between 1981 and 2012 in the Sicily Channel and western Sicily using the Double Difference method (Waldhauser, 2001, 2012) and 3D Vp and Vs models (Calò et al., 2013). The statistical analysis of the relocated seismicity together with the study of seismic energy release distribution allows us to describe the main patterns associated with the active faults in the western Sicily Straits. Here we find that most of the events in the Sicily Channel are highly clustered between 12.5°- 13.5°E and 35.5°-37°N with hypocentral depth between 5-40 km, reaching in some cases 70 km of depth. Seismic events seem to be aligned along a sub-vertical shear zone that is long at least 250 km and oriented approximately NNE-SSW. The spatial distribution of seismic moment shows that this transfer fault zone is seismically discontinuous. A large seismic gap is present in proximity of Graham and Nameless banks suggesting that the strain energy accumulation is differently accommodated along the transfer zone. Our observations represent new elements for the open discussion of the genesis of the Sicily Channel continental rift and the geodynamic of the western Africa-Eurasia plate boundary. References. Calò, M, Parisi, L., Luzio, D., 2013. Lithospheric P- and S-wave velocity models of the Sicilian area using WAM tomography: procedure and assessments. Geophysical Journal International. In press. Waldhauser, F., 2001. hypoDD -- A program to compute double-difference hypocenter locations, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 01-113. Waldhauser, F., 2012. HYPODD Version 2.1 beta.

Parisi, L.; Calo, M.

2013-12-01

76

Identification of D179H, a novel missense GJB2 mutation in a western Sicily family.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study was to describe a novel missense mutation (p.D179H) found in a Western Sicily family and to examine the genetic and audiologic profiles of all family members by performing a GJB2 and GJB6 mutations analysis and a complete audiologic assessment. The proband was a 3-month-old infant with a congenital profound sensorineural hearing loss; direct sequencing of the GJB2 revealed the presence of a c.35delG mutation in the heterozygous state and a heterozygous G>C transition at nucleotide 535 in trans; this novel mutation, called p.D179H, resulted in an aspartic acid to histidine change at codon 179. It was also evidenced in the heterozygous state in two members of this family, both with normal hearing. No GJB6 mutations were evidenced in all subjects studied. Considering the genotypic and phenotypic analysis of all family members, we suggest, differently from the p.D179 N mutation previously reported, a recessive mode of inheritance. Functional studies on p.D179H have to be performed to confirm our hypothesis. PMID:23812555

Bartolotta, Caterina; Salvago, Pietro; Cocuzza, Salvatore; Fabiano, Carmelo; Sammarco, Pietro; Martines, Francesco

2014-06-01

77

Risk of classic Kaposi sarcoma with residential exposure to volcanic and related soils in Sicily  

PubMed Central

Purpose Before AIDS, endemic (African) Kaposi sarcoma (KS) was noted to occur in volcanic areas and was postulated to result from dirt chronically embedded in the skin of the lower extremities. The primary cause of all KS types is KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection, but co-factors contribute to the neoplasia. We investigated whether residential exposure volcanic or related soils was associated with the risk of classic Kaposi sarcoma (cKS) in Sicily. Methods Risk of incident cKS (n=141) compared to population-based KSHV seropositive controls (n=123) was estimated for residential exposure to four types of soil, categorized with maps from the European Soil Database and direct surveying. Questionnaire data provided covariates. Results Residents in communities high in luvisols were approximately 2.7-times more likely to have cKS than those in communities with no luvisols. Risk was not specific for cKS on the limbs, but it was elevated approximately 4–5-fold with frequent bathing or tap water drinking in high luvisols communities. Risk was unrelated to communities high in andosols, tephra, or clay soils. Conclusions Iron and alumino-silicate clay, major components of luvisols, may increase cKS risk, but formal investigation and consideration of other soil types and exposures are needed. PMID:19576540

Pelser, Colleen; Dazzi, Carmelo; Graubard, Barry I.; Lauria, Carmela; Vitale, Francesco; Goedert, James J.

2009-01-01

78

Lagrangian simulations and interannual variability of anchovy egg and larva dispersal in the Sicily Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

interannual variability in the transport of anchovy eggs and larvae in the Sicily Channel, relatively to the period 1999-2012, is studied by means of numerical simulations of the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) circulation model provided by INGV. Subgrid-scale dynamics not resolved by the MFS model is parameterized in terms of kinematic fields. The latter affect small-scale tracer relative dispersion, while leaving the mean large-scale advection substantially unchanged. A Lagrangian Transport Index (LTI) can be defined to characterize the efficiency of the main currents, e.g., the Atlantic Ionian Stream, in connecting spawning and nursery areas to each other. In our case, this indicator comes from the first arrival time statistics of tracers traveling from a spawning area near Sciacca to a nursery area in proximity of Cape Passero. We observe, on the basis of LTI values, that there are years when the Lagrangian connectivity is very efficient (2004, 2008, 2012) and years when it is weak (2000, 2001, 2003, 2010). Lagrangian indicators like the LTI concur to explain observed fluctuations of larval density and, also, can be employed, more in general, in multivariate models of population dynamics.

Palatella, Luigi; Bignami, Francesco; Falcini, Federico; Lacorata, Guglielmo; Lanotte, Alessandra S.; Santoleri, Rosalia

2014-02-01

79

Rockfall hazard assessment along a road on Peloritani Mounts (northeastern Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hazard assessment has been performed on rock slopes impending over a segment of the Taorminese Road, which connects two popular tourist destinations in northeastern Sicily: the urban centers of Taormina and Castelmola. The road crosses steep, rock slopes, with a complex geological and tectonic history. The section of the road close to Castelmola is often affected by rockfall phenomena, causing injury to people and serious damage to buildings and traffic. The study analyzes the geostructural setting of the unstable rock masses, by evaluating their mechanical properties and the kinematics of potential failures. Rockfall simulations confirm that falling rocks would involve the Taorminese Road with different kinetic energy rates and prove useful for suggesting the most suitable mitigation technologies for future remedial works. The modified Rockfall Hazard Rating System has been applied to highlight the different levels of hazard along the road. The compiled hazard map shows that the slopes need urgent remedial works, especially because Taorminese is the only access road to Castelmola and its interruption would lead to the isolation of the entire village.

Pappalardo, G.; Mineo, S.; Rapisarda, F.

2013-12-01

80

Geophysical monitoring of a complex geologic framework: the multi-disciplinary sensor networks in Sicily (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2004 the Osservatorio Etneo INGV has begun a new approach to the geophysical monitoring of volcanic and seismic areas of Sicily (Italy) where the core is a new type of remote infrastructure able to efficiently accommodate different kinds of sensor. In particular our multi-parametric network is mainly focused on the monitoring of different geophysical parameters (seismic ground velocity and acceleration, infrasound and ground deformation GPS).The whole seismic network consists of 66 broad band digital stations, 19 analog stations, 13 accelerometric stations and 12 infrasonic stations, for a total of 110 stations while the Continuous GPS network consist of 80 stations. Every station is equipped with solar panels in order to satisfy the power requirements of the instruments and with satellite-based communication systems. In this work we show both the technical solutions of this integrated network and its main advantages, if compared with older kinds of remote stations. Moreover we show some examples of the more interesting scientific results achieved thank to this technologically advanced network.

Cantarero, M.; Di Prima, S.; Mattia, M.; Patanè, D.; Rossi, M.

2012-04-01

81

Lava flow-field morphology: A case study from Mount Etna, Sicily  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The morphology of lava flows is often taken as an indicator of the broad chemical composition of the lava, especially when interpreting extraterrestrial volcanoes using spacecraft images. The historical lavas of the active volcano Mount Etna in Sicily provide an excellent opportunity to examine the controls on flow field morphology. In this study only flow produced by flank eruptions after the middle of the 18th century are examined. The final form of a flow-field may be more indicative of the internal plumbing of the volcano, which may control such factors as the effusion, rate, duration of eruption, volume of available magma, rate of de-gassing, and lava rheology. Different flow morphologies on Etna appear to be a good indicator of differing conditions within the volcanic pile. Thus the spatial distribution of different flow types on an extraterrestrial volcano may provide useful information about the plumbing conditions of that volcano, rather than necessarily providing information on the composition of materials erupted.

Guest, J. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Duncan, A. M.

1987-01-01

82

Morphologic Variability of two Adjacent Mass-Transport Deposits: Twin Slides, Gela Basin (Sicily Channel).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrating geophysical, sedimentological, structural and paleontological data, we reconstruct the age, size and internal geometry of two adjacent and recent mass-transport deposits (Twin Slides) exposed on the seafloor of Gela Basin (Sicily Channel). Twin Slides are coeval (late-Holocene), and were likely triggered by an earthquake. Twin Slides originated from the mobilization of Pleistocene slope units, are only 6 km apart from each other, have their headscarps in similar water depth (230 m), and have a comparable run out distance (ca. 10 km). Both slides suggest a multistage evolution, but differ in internal organization and morphological expression. The northern slide shows a deposit characterised by pressure ridges in the toe region suggesting a component of plastic deformation, while the southern slide is characterised by large blocks and a reduced thickness of displaced masses. We ascribe the difference in deformation style and resulting morphology to the stratigraphic architecture of the Pleistocene progradational units involved in failure. In the case of the blocky southern slide the units affected by failure are slightly older (Eemian or pre-Emian) and more consolidated; furthermore, in the area where the headscarp is located these units appear affected by shallow faulting likely resulting in the definition of large blocks. The northern slide, instead, affects progradational units of the Last Glacial Maximum in an area where these units are more than 100 m thick and, possibly, underconsolidated.

Minisini, D.; Trincardi, F.; Asioli, A.; Canu, M.; Foglini, F.

2006-12-01

83

Paleomagnetism of Pleistocene volcanic rocks from Pantelleria Island (Sicily Channel), Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A paleomagnetic investigation has been carried out on Pleistocene volcanic rocks from Pantelleria, in the Sicily Channel. This island is characterised by a bimodal volcanism of peralkaline rhyolite to trachyte and basalt composition. The radiometric data indicate that volcanic activity started around 324 ka BP. Samples have been collected from 30 sites in 16 volcanic units spanning activity during the last 150 ka. Magnetic properties vary systematically with lithotype and indicate high-Ti titanomagnetite to magnetite as the main carriers of magnetisation. Stable characteristic remanent magnetisation (ChRM) directions isolated by alternating fields (Af) demagnetisation show normal polarity consistent with emplacement during the Brunhes chron and vary within the paleosecular variation (PSV) range. However, the inclinations are low as compared with the geocentric axial dipole (GAD) inclination at Pantelleria, especially for volcanic units younger than 50 ka. The mean ChRM direction computed from 27 sites is D=358.8°, I=46.9° ( k=30, ?95=5.2°), and the inclination anomaly is ? I=-8.1°. Both tectonic movements and the presence of large magnetic anomalies around the island of Pantelleria fail to explain this low inclination, which may therefore be related to a significant long-lived, non-dipolar field contribution in the area over the past 150 kyr.

Zanella, Elena

1998-08-01

84

The Pantelleria graben (Sicily Channel, Central Mediterranean): An example of intraplate ‘passive’ rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new high-resolution swath bathymetric data and multichannel seismic profiles acquired in the Pantelleria graben, one of the three main tectonic depressions forming the Sicily Channel Rift Zone. This region experienced a Late Miocene-Early Pliocene continental extension with the development of NW-trending, fault-bounded troughs, later accompanied by widespread volcanic manifestations. Data support the interpretation that the Pantelleria graben evolution was dominated by two tectonic phases: A lithospheric-scale continental rifting (Early Pliocene), in which the whole graben was formed, and a successive phase (Late Pliocene-Pleistocene) characterized by a magma-assisted extensional mechanism. Ascending magmas within the graben floor seem to migrate from the S-E sector of the depression toward the N-W sector, which is almost entirely floored by igneous material, and where the volcanic edifice of the Pantelleria Island is emerged. The volcanic activity is presently concentrated north of the Pantelleria Island. The tectonic evolution of the Pantelleria graben, characterized by the chronological sequence of events: rifting-doming-volcanism, can be referred to as a 'passive' rifting model. Crustal stretching, and subsequent fault development and rifting within the Pelagian block, may have been controlled by slab-pull forces of the northward-subducting African slab.

Civile, D.; Lodolo, E.; Accettella, D.; Geletti, R.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Deponte, M.; Facchin, L.; Ramella, R.; Romeo, R.

2010-07-01

85

Geology of the Strait of Sicily: An example of geological mapping  

SciTech Connect

The Strait of Sicily is a comparatively shallow-water threshold which divides the Mediterranean into western and eastern deep-water hollows. The author composed a geologic map of the bottom of the Sicilian Strait and adjacent aquatories with a scale of 1:500,000. This map is based on the geologic-geophysical data of Soviet and foreign investigations (including more than 15,000 km of seismic reflection profiles, dredging, sampling, and drilling data) and their seismostratigraphic interpretation. Most of this region is underlain by the continental crust with a thick sedimentary cover. The most widespread sediments are Pliocene-Quaternary. On the map they are shown only in basins where thickness exceeds 200 m (Hammamet, Gabes, Tunisian, etc). Additionally, there are mapped outcrops of Messinian evaporites at the steep slopes of the Malta escarpment, Pantelleria and Malta grabens, Adventure and Skerki banks, etc. Also shown are outcrops of Paleogene, Cretaceous, Jurassic, and Upper Triassic rocks. This new geologic map should generate great interest because of the high petroleum potential of this region.

Yutsis, V.V. (Moscow State Univ. (USSR))

1988-08-01

86

Rockfall hazard assessment along a road on the Peloritani Mountains (northeastern Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hazard assessment has been performed on rock slopes impending over a segment of the Taorminese Road, which connects two popular tourist destinations in northeastern Sicily: the urban centers of Taormina and Castelmola. The road crosses steep rock slopes with a complex geological and tectonic history. The section of the road close to Castelmola is often affected by rockfall phenomena, causing injury to people and serious damage to buildings and traffic. The study analyzes the geostructural setting of the unstable rock masses, by evaluating their mechanical properties and the kinematics of potential failures. Rockfall simulations confirm that falling rocks would involve the Taorminese Road with different kinetic energy rates and prove useful for suggesting the most suitable mitigation technologies for future remedial works. The modified Rockfall Hazard Rating System has been applied to highlight the different levels of hazard along the road. The compiled hazard map shows that portions of the slopes need urgent remedial works, especially because Taorminese is the only access road to Castelmola and its interruption would lead to the isolation of the village.

Pappalardo, G.; Mineo, S.; Rapisarda, F.

2014-10-01

87

Geochemical characterization of groundwater and submarine discharge in the south-eastern Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main results of a hydrogeochemical survey carried out during 2002-2003 along the coast of the south-eastern Sicily, which aimed at geochemical characterization of both groundwater chemistry and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in the area are presented. A general frame of chemical processes affecting the studied groundwater and SGD point out that most samples fall within the calcite-anhydrite-dolomite field (CAD). The chemical composition of the samples within the CAD triangle is essentially controlled by calcite, dolomite and gypsum dissolution, which are the main minerals of the carbonate rocks hosting the aquifers. An additional process evidenced in this study is a mixing with seawater. Nitrate is the most typical ion significantly disturbed in the groundwater chemistry influenced by agricultural activities. The strong correlation with SO 42- indicates that the use of ammonium sulphate fertilisers is widespread in the study area. The K + vs. NO 3- diagram evidences a correlation occurring at lower and higher concentrations, and implies that there is not a common source of both nitrate and potassium, at least on a regional scale. High-phosphate concentration is found in submarine springs along the coast, specifically in the Donnalucata and Avola areas, while its content in inland wells is generally lower. Phosphate is also associated with high-bicarbonate contents in the Donnalucata area, suggesting its possible origin is phosphate-rich carbonate rocks, which are commonly outcropping in the area.

Schiavo, M. A.; Hauser, S.; Cusimano, G.; Gatto, L.

2006-05-01

88

Origin and Diet of the Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers on the Mediterranean Island of Favignana (Ègadi Islands, Sicily)  

PubMed Central

Hunter-gatherers living in Europe during the transition from the late Pleistocene to the Holocene intensified food acquisition by broadening the range of resources exploited to include marine taxa. However, little is known on the nature of this dietary change in the Mediterranean Basin. A key area to investigate this issue is the archipelago of the Ègadi Islands, most of which were connected to Sicily until the early Holocene. The site of Grotta d’Oriente, on the present-day island of Favignana, was occupied by hunter-gatherers when Postglacial environmental changes were taking place (14,000-7,500 cal BP). Here we present the results of AMS radiocarbon dating, palaeogenetic and isotopic analyses undertaken on skeletal remains of the humans buried at Grotta d’Oriente. Analyses of the mitochondrial hypervariable first region of individual Oriente B, which belongs to the HV-1 haplogroup, suggest for the first time on genetic grounds that humans living in Sicily during the early Holocene could have originated from groups that migrated from the Italian Peninsula around the Last Glacial Maximum. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses show that the Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic hunter-gatherers of Favignana consumed almost exclusively protein from terrestrial game and that there was only a slight increase in marine food consumption from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene. This dietary change was similar in scale to that at sites on mainland Sicily and in the rest of the Mediterranean, suggesting that the hunter-gatherers of Grotta d’Oriente did not modify their subsistence strategies specifically to adapt to the progressive isolation of Favignana. The limited development of technologies for intensively exploiting marine resources was probably a consequence both of Mediterranean oligotrophy and of the small effective population size of these increasingly isolated human groups, which made innovation less likely and prevented transmission of fitness-enhancing adaptations. PMID:23209602

Mannino, Marcello A.; Catalano, Giulio; Talamo, Sahra; Mannino, Giovanni; Di Salvo, Rosaria; Schimmenti, Vittoria; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Messina, Andrea; Petruso, Daria; Caramelli, David; Richards, Michael P.; Sineo, Luca

2012-01-01

89

Geodynamical aspects of the Eurasia-Nubia collision zone in Sicily (Italy): new data from a dense CGPS network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The collisional processes acting along the boundary between the Eurasian and Nubian plates in Sicily (Italy) is a critical geological context for the definition of the hazard related to intense volcanic activity and to a diffuse low-to-medium seismic activity. The Catania section of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV-Ct) currently manage a network of about 40 continuous GPS stations. Many of these stations are devoted to the monitoring of active volcanic areas (Etna, Stromboli, Vulcano and Pantelleria), but some of these stations can help to improve the current knowledge of the geodynamical aspects of Sicily. In this work we show the first results of the analysis of the data from the INGV-Ct GPS network finalised to the estimation of velocity fields. The time span covered by our stations is different, ranging from 10 years to, at least, 3 years. We analysed the data using the GAMIT/GLOBK software (King and Bock, 1995; Herring, 1995) in a two step approach: in the first step we used double-differenced phase observations from each day to estimate station coordinates, atmospheric zenith delays at each station, and orbital and Earth orientation parameters, applying loose constrains to all parameters. In the second step we used the estimated station coordinates and their covariances from each day as quasi-observations to estimate a consistent set of coordinates and velocities for the entire period (10 years). Our estimates are computed in ITRF00 system with respect to an Eurasia and also Nubia-fixed reference frame, in order to distinguish the kinematic of the different plates. The analysis of these velocities and of the main strain parameters in some peculiar areas more densely covered by our network (Aeolian Islands, Eastern Sicily) gives new insights in the small scale processes linking the geodynamical aspects and the volcanic activity and a description of the features related to the large scale process of the collision.

Bruno, V.; Mattia, M.; Palano, D.; Rossi, M.; Gresta, S.

2006-12-01

90

High-resolution and Deep Crustal Imaging Across The North Sicily Continental Margin (southern Tyrrhenian Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three multichannel seismic reflection profiles across the North Sicily continental mar- gin have been reprocessed and interpreted. Data consist of an unpublished high pene- tration seismic profile (deep crust Italian CROP Project) and a high-resolution seismic line. These lines run in the NNE-SSW direction, from the Sicilian continental shelf to the Tyrrhenian abyssal plain (Marsili area), and are tied by a third, high penetration seismic line MS104 crossing the Sisifo High. The North Sicily continental margin represents the inner sector of the Sicilian-Maghrebian chain that is collapsed as con- sequence of extensional tectonics. The chain is formed by a tectonic wedge (12-15 km thick. It includes basinal Meso-Cenozoic carbonate units overthrusting carbonate platform rock units (Catalano et al., 2000). Presently, main culmination (e.g. Monte Solunto) and a number of tectonic depressions (e.g. Cefalù basin), filled by >1000 m thick Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary wedge, are observed along the investigated tran- sect. Seismic attributes and reflector pattern depicts a complex crustal structure. Be- tween the coast and the M. Solunto high, a transparent to diffractive band (assigned to the upper crust) is recognised above low frequency reflective layers (occurring be- tween 9 and 11 s/TWT) that dips towards the North. Their bottom can be correlated to the seismological (African?) Moho discontinuity which is (26 km deep in the Sicilian shelf (Scarascia et al., 1994). Beneath the Monte Solunto ridge, strongly deformed re- flectors occurring between 8 to 9.5 s/TWT (European lower crust?) overly the African (?) lower crust. The resulting geometry suggests underplating of the African crust respect to the European crust (?). The already deformed crustal edifice is dissected by a number of N-dipping normal faults that open extensional basins and are associ- ated with crustal thinning. The Plio-Pleistocene fill of the Cefalù basin can be subdi- vided into three subunits by well-developed unconformities. The stratal pattern of the lower subunit (Early Pliocene?) points out thrust-top basin. The intermediate subunit (Middle-Late Pliocene?) shows a wide sedimentary lateral accretion with syntectonic growth geometries. Upper Pliocene layers are overlain by well-stratified sediments of supposedly Pleistocene to Recent age, which drape and smooth underlying features (Pepe et al., 2000). Crustal thinning is (2 in the Cefalù basin and reach (3.54 north of Sisifo volcano, where crustal separation occurs and oceanic crust emplaced (Marsili 1 basin). In this area the Moho is located at (8 s/TWT, corresponding to 10-km depth. References Catalano R., Franchino A., Merlini S. e Sulli A., 2000. Mem. Soc. Geol. It., 55, 5-16. Pepe F., Bertotti G., Cella F. Marsella E., 2000. Tectonics, 19, 241-257. Scarascia S., Lozej A. Cassinis R., 1994. Boll. Geof. Teor. Appl., 36 (141-144), 5-19. 2

Agate, M.; Bertotti, G.; Catalano, R.; Pepe, F.; Sulli, A.

91

[Environment and health in Gela (Sicily): present knowledge and prospects for future studies].  

PubMed

The study area includes the Municipalities of Gela, Niscemi and Butera located in the South of Sicily, Italy. In 1990 it was declared Area at High Risk of Environmental Crisis. In 2000 part of it was designated as Gela Reclamation Site of National Interest, RSNI. The site includes a private industrial area, public and marine areas, for a total of 51 km(2). Gela populationin 2008 was 77,145 (54,774 in 1961). Sea level:46 m. Total area: 276 km(2). Grid reference: 37 degrees 4' 0" N, 14 degrees 15' 0" E. Niscemi and Butera are located border to Gela. Populations are respectively 26,541 and 5,063. Sea level respectively: 332 m and 402 m. Close to the city of Gela, the industrial area, operating since 1962, includes chemical production plants, a power station and an oil refinery plant, one of the larger in Europe, refining 5 millions tons of crude per year. From the beginning the workforces decreased from 7,000 to the current 3,000 units. Over the years, these industrial activities have been a major source of environmental pollution. Extremely high levels of toxic, persistent and bio-accumulating chemical pollutants have been documented. Many relevant environmental and health data are available. Prior to the studies described in the present publication, their use in order to identify environmental pressures on health has been limited. Nevertheless, since several years different epidemiological studies have provided evidence of the occurrence of health outcomes significantly higher than in neighbouring areas and compared to regional data. In 2007 a Multidisciplinary Working Group has been established, to analyze the existing data on pollution-exposure-effect and to complete current knowledge on the cycle of pollutants, from migration in the environment to health impact. The present publication is a collection of contribution of this group of experts, supported by the following projects: Evaluation of environmental health impact and estimation of economic costs at of National Interest Remediation Sites coordinated by the Italian National Institute of Health on behalf of the Ministry for the Environment and Technical Assistance of WHO Health and Environment Centre to the Sicilian Region to develop plans for environmental remediation. Results describe the state of contamination of a variety of environmental matrices in the area. Other contributions are addressed to understanding action mechanisms of main pollutants and their environmental pathways, as well as to identifying crucial knowledge to be used for studying the environment-health relations. A specific attention has been paid to pollutants migration in the environment and to the potential exposure of the population. Appropriate markers of exposure and physiological changes are described and referred to the chemical substances identified in the environment in Gela. Details are given about the genotoxic and endocrine disrupting potential, and about the potential association between markers of exposure and diseases observed in excess in the same area. Indications to develop specific biomarkers for Index Substances and human biomonitoring surveys for populations exposed to environmental risk are presented and discussed. A specific multiple-exposure risk assessment procedure is proposed for Index Substances. Epidemiological studies useful to describe the health status of Gela population are summarized. One report deals with the occupational and residential analyses of male petrochemical workers, born in Sicily, employed from 1960 to the end of 1993, followed up for mortality from 1960 to 2002. Major findings were amarked healthy worker effect and an increased lung cancer risk for residence in Gela. The analyses of death certificates from 1995 to 2002 and of hospital discharge records from 2001 to 2007 confirm the potentialities of these current statistics for ecological studies: they depict the poor health conditions of Gela residents compared to other neighbouring municipalities in a 40-km range. Infact, the overall mortality rate for tumor and non-tumor causes in Ge

Musmeci, Loredana; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Carere, Mario; Cori, Liliana

2009-01-01

92

A radiometric and petrographic approach to risk assessment at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).  

PubMed

The main goal of this work was to assess the radiological hazard at Alte Madonie Mounts region (north-central Sicily, Italy) in response to rumours of an increase in the incidence of cancer in this area. A correlation between the natural radionuclide contents and the petrographic features of the soil and rock samples was also evaluated. A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in 'Marinelli' beakers for 20 d prior to measurement to ensure that a radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi had been reached. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to quantify the radioactivity concentrations. To determine (238)U and (232)Th activities, the 609.3-keV line from (214)Bi in secular equilibrium with (226)Ra and the 911-keV line from (228)Ac, with which (232)Th can be assumed to be in equilibrium, were used, respectively. The gamma transition of 1461 keV was used to determine (40)K activity. The average values of the concentrations of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K were 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1), respectively, whereas the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1), respectively. A linear relationship was found between the activity values of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K. An exception was found for a group of samples in which the (214)Bi activities were much higher than expected. The chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples permitted the justification of these anomalies. The results of the primordial radionuclide contents are reassuring from a radiation protection point of view because the activities of the uranium and thorium series products and of the (40)K do not present a significant radiological hazard. PMID:24106332

Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

2014-03-01

93

Correlation of welded ignimbrites on Pantelleria (Strait of Sicily) using paleomagnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the oldest volcanic rocks exposed at Pantelleria (Strait of Sicily) are older than 300 ka, most of the island is covered by the 45-50 ka Green Tuff ignimbrite, thought to be related to the Cinque Denti caldera, and younger lavas and scoria cones. Pre-50 ka rocks (predominantly rheomorphic ignimbrites) are exposed at isolated sea cliffs, and their stratigraphy and chronology are not completely resolved. Based on volcanic stratigraphy and K/Ar dating, it has been proposed that the older La Vecchia caldera is related to ignimbrite Q (114 ka), and that ignimbrites F, D, and Z (106, 94, and 79 ka, respectively) were erupted after caldera formation. We report here the paleomagnetic directions obtained from 23 sites in ignimbrite P (133 ka) and four younger ignimbrites, and from an uncorrelated (and loosely dated) welded lithic breccia thought to record a caldera-forming eruption. The paleosecular variation of the geomagnetic field recorded by ignimbrites is used as correlative tool, with an estimated time resolution in the order of 100 years. We find that ignimbrites D and Z correspond, in good agreement with recent Ar/Ar ages constraining the D/Z eruption to 87 ka. The welded lithic breccia correlates with a thinner breccia lying just below ignimbrite P at another locality, implying that collapse of the La Vecchia caldera took place at ~130-160 ka. This caldera was subsequently buried by ignimbrites P, Q, F, and D/Z. Paleomagnetic data also show that the northern caldera margin underwent a ~10° west-northwest (outwards) tilting after emplacement of ignimbrite P, possibly recording magma resurgence in the crust.

Speranza, Fabio; di Chiara, Anita; Rotolo, Silvio G.

2012-03-01

94

Paleomagnetic dating of the most recent silicic eruptive activity at Pantelleria (Strait of Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the paleomagnetism of ten sites in the products of the most recent silicic eruptive cycle of Pantelleria, Strait of Sicily. Previously radiometrically dated at 5-10 ka, our comparison with proxies for geomagnetic field directions allows us to narrow considerably the time window during which these eruptions occurred. The strongly peralkaline composition causes the magmas to have low viscosities, locally resulting in strong agglutination of proximal fall deposits. This allows successful extraction of paleomagnetic directions from the explosive phases of eruptions. One of our sites was located in the Serra della Fastuca fall deposit, produced by the first explosive event of the eruptive cycle. The other nine sites were located in the most recent explosive (pumice fall and agglutinate from Cuddia del Gallo and Cuddia Randazzo) and effusive (Khaggiar lava) products. The (very similar) paleomagnetic directions gathered from eight internally consistent sites were compared to reference geomagnetic field directions of the last 5-10 ka. Directions from Cuddia del Gallo agglutinate and Khaggiar flows translate into 5.9- to 6.2-ka ages, whereas the Fastuca pumices yield a slightly older age of 6.2-6.8 ka. Hence, the most recent silicic eruptive cycle lasted at most a millennium and as little as a few centuries around 6.0 ka. Paleomagnetically inferred ages are in good agreement with published (and calibrated by us) 14C dates from paleosols/charcoals sampled below the studied volcanic units, whereas K/Ar data are more scattered and yield ˜30% older ages. Our data show that the time elapsed since the most recent silicic eruptions at Pantelleria is comparable to the quiescence period separating the two latest volcanic cycles.

Speranza, Fabio; Landi, Patrizia; D'Ajello Caracciolo, Francesca; Pignatelli, Alessandro

2010-09-01

95

Climate change effects on hydropower potential of the Alcantara river basin in Sicily (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years an increasing attention has been paid to hydropower generation, since it is a renewable, efficient, and reliable source of energy, as well as an effective tool to reduce the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases resulting from human activities. At the same time, however, hydropower is high vulnerable to global warming, because water resources are closely linked to climate changes. Indeed, the effects of climate change on water availability are expected to affect hydropower generation with special reference to Southern countries which are supposed to face dryer conditions in the next decades. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of future climate change on the hydrological regime of the Alcantara river basin, Eastern Sicily (Italy), based on Monte Carlo simulations. Synthetic series of daily rainfall and temperature are generated, based on observed data, through a first order Markov chain and an ARMA model respectively, for the current scenario and two future scenarios at 2025. In particular, the mean and standard deviation values of daily rainfall and temperature at 2025, calculated using simulations of the Hadley Centre Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Model (HadCM3), are adopted to generate future scenarios of precipitation and temperature. Synthetic series for the two climatic scenarios are, then, introduced as input into the IHACRES model to simulate the hydrological response of the basin. The effects of climate change are, then, investigated by analysing potential modification of the resulting flow duration curves and utilisation curves, which allow to estimate a site's energy potential for the design of run-of-river hydropower plants.

Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Bonaccorso, Brunella

2013-04-01

96

Sicily 2002 Balloon Flight Campaign: A Test of the HASI Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mock up of the probe descending in the Titan atmosphere for the Huygens Cassini Mission has been successfully launched with stratospheric balloon from Italian Space Agency Base "Luigi Broglio" in Sicily and recovered on May 30 th 2002. The probe has been lifted at 32 km altitude and then released to perform a 45 minutes descent decelerated by parachute, to simulate Huygens mission at Titan. Preliminary aerodynamics study of the probe has focused on the achievement of a descent velocity profile and a spin rate profile, satisfying the Huygens mission to Titan requirements. The descent velocity and spin rate have been calculated by solving a system of ODE describing the translational and rotational motion of the probe trough the earth atmosphere during parachute aided descent Results of these calculations have driven the choice of an appropriate angle of attack of the blades in the bottom of the probe and ballast weight during flight. The probe is hosting spares of HASI instruments, housekeeping sensors and other dedicated sensors, Beagle II UV Sensors and Huygens Tilt Sensor, for a total of 77 acquired sensor channels, sampled during ascent, drift and descent phase. Main goals are to verify sensor performance and perform a realistic functional test in dynamical and environmental conditions similar to those during the descent in Titan atmosphere and furthermore to investigate impact at ground to check the impact detection sequence of HASI accelerometer and HASI in the surface phase. An integrated data acquisition and instrument control system has been developed, based on PC architecture and soft -real-time application. Sensors channels have been sampled at the nominal HASI data rates, with a max rate of 1 kHz. Software has been developed for data acquisition, onboard storage and telemetry transmission satisfying all requests for real-time monitoring, diagnostic and redundancy.

Bettanini, C.

97

Geomorphological, chemical and physical study of “calanchi” landforms in NW Sicily (southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work deals with an integrated geomorphological and chemical-physical study of “calanchi” landforms in two sites (Ottosalme and Catalfimo) of NW Sicily (southern Italy), developed on dominant silty-clay deposits. The calanchi fronts are characterized by different morphological features and dominant geomorphic processes. Sharp knife-edged ridges and concentrated water runoff dominate at Ottosalme, and smoother landforms affected by mass movements (mud flows and translational slides) prevail at Catalfimo. We focused on some geochemical and physical parameters such as pH, total dissolved salts, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), porosity, plastic and liquid limits as possible causes of the above differences, with special emphasis on their role in discriminating the behavior of peculiar microforms, such as a weathered outer crust and the corresponding inner massive portion (unweathered substrate). Our results show that the main chemical-physical features of calanchi morphologies and microforms often display no clear correlations with respect to those reported in the existing literature, pointing to a higher complexity of patterns and behaviors. In particular, all samples consist of dispersive material (SAR values > 10), but a more plastic and liquid behavior at Catalfimo can explain a higher occurrence of landslides and smoother morphology than at Ottosalme. Higher SAR values at Ottosalme well explain the dominance of concentrated water erosion. The chemical behavior of the studied microforms is better described by pH being alkaline with higher values in the inner substrate than the outer crust, and appears to minimize the effects of all other parameters and their responses to other external controlling factors. Lower SAR values in the crust suggest that clay dispersivity is not the prominent factor controlling its surface detachment and mobility downslope, which is more likely promoted by its higher porosity and consequent water absorption than the inner portion, with changes in the saturation state, shear strength and water pressure.

Pulice, Iolanda; Cappadonia, Chiara; Scarciglia, Fabio; Robustelli, Gaetano; Conoscenti, Christian; De Rose, Rossella; Rotigliano, Edoardo; Agnesi, Valerio

2012-06-01

98

Herniation Pits in Human Mummies: A CT Investigation in the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily  

PubMed Central

Herniation pits (HPs) of the femoral neck were first described in a radiological publication in 1982 as round to oval radiolucencies in the proximal superior quadrant of the femoral neck on anteroposterior radiographs of adults. In following early clinical publications, HPs were generally recognized as an incidental finding. In contrast, in current clinical literature they are mentioned in the context of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) of the hip joint, which is known to cause osteoarthritis (OA). The significance of HPs in chronic skeletal disorders such as OA is still unclear, but they are discussed as a possible radiological indicator for FAI in a large part of clinical studies. In this paleoradiological study we examined a sample of mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily, by a mobile computed tomography (CT) scanner. Evaluation of the CT examinations revealed HPs in six out of 16 (37.5%) adult male mummies. The first aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of HPs shown in our mummy collection to the findings described in clinical literature. Thereby CT evaluation revealed that their osseous imaging characteristics are in accordance, consisting of round to oval subcortical lesions at the anterior femoral neck, clearly demarcated by a sclerotic margin. The second aim was to introduce HPs to the paleoradiological and paleopathological methodology as an entity that underwent a renaissance from an incidental finding to a possible radiological indicator of FAI in the clinical situation. As FAI plays an important role in the development of OA of the hip, which is a very common finding in human skeletal remains, HPs should always be considered in paleoradiological evaluation of hip joint diseases. PMID:22567164

Panzer, Stephanie; Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Zink, Albert R.

2012-01-01

99

Water masses and nutrient distribution in the Gulf of Syrte and between Sicily and Libya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyzes for the first time the water masses circulation in the Gulf of Syrte (Libya) and along a Sicily-Libya transect (central Mediterranean Sea) based on a new dataset of hydrological and nutrients data. The collected dataset highlights the presence of three main water masses with different chemical-physical features: Atlantic Water, Levantine Intermediate Water and Deep Water. Atlantic Water shows an intrusive low-salinity water near the Sicilian (? 37.6) and Libyan coasts (? 37.8), linked to the Atlantic Ionian Stream and the Atlantic Libyan Current respectively. The surface circulation evidences meandering structures throughout the area and the presence of an anti-cyclonic vortex in the central part of the Gulf of Syrte. In this latter area no coastal surface current is recognized, suggesting a seasonal character for such coastal circulation. In the Gulf the anti-cyclonic pattern characterizes also the intermediate water circulation. The nutrient distribution confirms the oligotrophic character of the area with a strong reduction in concentration in the surface layer due to the assimilation of phytoplankton in the euphotic zone. Furthermore, there is an evident increase in the deep water caused by the re-mineralization of organisms. The nitrate:phosphate ratio is ~ 10 and ~ 30 in the surface waters and deep waters, respectively, the latter being far in excess of the Redfield ratio (16:1) found in the oceans' deep waters. Nutrients data close to the Libyan coast do not show any enrichment pattern as a potential effect of the input of Saharan dust.

Placenti, F.; Schroeder, K.; Bonanno, A.; Zgozi, S.; Sprovieri, M.; Borghini, M.; Rumolo, P.; Cerrati, G.; Bonomo, S.; Genovese, S.; Basilone, G.; Haddoud, D. A.; Patti, B.; El Turki, A.; Hamza, M.; Mazzola, S.

2013-07-01

100

Staphylococcal Food Poisoning Case and Molecular Analysis of Toxin Genes in Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Food in Sicily, Italy.  

PubMed

A case of staphylococcal food poisoning was observed in two individuals of the same family after consumption of primosale, a semiripened sheep cheese produced in Sicily. Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the cheese produced enterotoxin C (SEC) and carried both the enterotoxin C (sec) and the toxic shock syndrome toxin (tsst-1) gene. Following this case, an extensive survey was conducted on 971 food samples (raw milk, cheese, meat, and food preparations). S. aureus was detected in 102 of 971 food samples, from all types of food with the exception of ricotta cheese. The tsst-1 gene was present in 42% of the strains, either alone or in combination with other toxin genes. The enterotoxin C gene was the most represented enterotoxin, but it was only found in dairy products. Six S. aureus isolates carried the sea gene alone, two isolates carried both sea and seb, and one isolate carried both sea and sec. A significant percentage (46%) of all isolates carried a toxin gene, creating significant concern that virulent S. aureus can be transmitted through food in Sicily. PMID:25384106

Vitale, Maria; Scatassa, Maria Luisa; Cardamone, Cinzia; Oliveri, Giuseppa; Piraino, Chiara; Alduina, Rosa; Napoli, Concetta

2015-01-01

101

Variability of water mass properties in the Strait of Sicily in summer period of 1998-2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Strait of Sicily plays a crucial role in determining the water mass exchanges and related properties between western and eastern Mediterranean. The presence of sills to the east and west of the Strait of Sicily and the complex seabed topography modulate the thermohaline circulation of the Mediterranean basin. An anti-estuarine circulation is mainly characterized, from a dynamic point of view, by a two-layer system: a surface layer composed of Atlantic Water (AW) flowing eastward, essentially dominated by mesoscale processes, and a subsurface layer composed of Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) flowing in the opposite direction; the topography appears to play an important role. Furthermore, there are transition water masses with variable hydrological characteristics. The dataset here studied is a time series 16 years long (1998-2013), which highlights the high horizontal and vertical interannual variability affecting the study area. Strong temperature-salinity correlations, in the intermediate layer, for specific time intervals, could be linked to the reversal of sub-surface circulation in the Central Ionian Sea. Moreover, a long-term monitoring of the hydrographic properties of water masses across this strait allow the modelers to assess the performance of hydrological models of this area.

Bonanno, A.; Placenti, F.; Basilone, G.; Mifsud, R.; Genovese, S.; Patti, B.; Di Bitetto, M.; Aronica, S.; Barra, M.; Giacalone, G.; Ferreri, R.; Fontana, I.; Buscaino, G.; Tranchida, G.; Quinci, E. M.; Mazzola, S.

2014-03-01

102

Ground penetrating radar survey finalized to the recovery of the ``S. Agata alla Badia'' church in Catania (eastern Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous archaeological sites dating to the greek-roman period have been found in the underground of the city of Catania (eastern Sicily, Italy). Their presence is a testimony of the several settlements that have followed in this area over time. In this work we have conducted electromagnetic surveys, consisting of ten georadar profiles, inside the church of “S. Agata alla Badia”, damaged during the earthquake occurred in eastern Sicily on 13 December 1990. The aim was to investigate the area where the church is located to obtain information useful for its structural recovery. Mechanical drillings were also carried out to reconstruct the local stratigraphy, which could be complicated by the presence of underground cavities and artefacts, as evidenced by recent excavations beneath the Catania Cathedral, in the nearby Piazza Duomo. From the interpretation of the GPR data, the presence of ancient masonry structures underlying the recent foundations was highlighted. In addition, the GPR survey allowed us to identify and locate reflective horizons in the subsurface, probably due to the presence of materials with different state of aggregation and/or to buried structures.

Imposa, S.; Barone, F.; Gresta, S.; Leone, A.

2009-08-01

103

Characteristics of the extreme rainfall event and consequent flash floods in North-East part of Sicily, Italy in October 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 1st October 2009, a devastating flooding was caused by a very intense rainfall concentrated over the Messina area in the North-East part of Sicily, Italy. The storm caused severe flash floods in many villages around the city of Messina, such as Gianpilieri, Scaletta Zanclea, Altolia Superiore and Molino with forty casualties and significant damage to property, buildings, roads and

Giuseppe Tito Aronica; Giuseppina Brigandi

2010-01-01

104

Climatic adaptability of populations of Diplotaxis erucoides D.C. (Brassicaceae) from Sicily, based on leaf morphology, leaf anatomy and ? 13 C studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological and anatomical variability ofDiplotaxis erucoides populations from Sicily was investigated. Populations growing during the summer months exhibit distinct xeromorphic features. Leaf area is strongly reduced and leaf thickness is increased when compared with winter populations. Cell size, as well as cell arrangement and mesophyll cell surface area differ significantly between summer and winter populations. Leaf thickness is almost

G. H. Schleser; K.-G. Bernhardt; H. Hurka

1989-01-01

105

Tsunami hazard for the city of Catania, eastern Sicily, Italy, assessed by means of Worst-case Credible Tsunami Scenario Analysis (WCTSA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern Sicily is one of the coastal areas most exposed to earthquakes and tsunamis in Italy. The city of Catania that developed between the eastern base of Etna volcano and the Ionian Sea is, together with the neighbour coastal belt, under the strong menace of tsunamis. This paper addresses the estimation of the tsunami hazard for the city of Catania

R. Tonini; A. Armigliato; G. Pagnoni; F. Zaniboni; S. Tinti

2011-01-01

106

Timing and recurrence of failure within NE Gela Basin, Sicily Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine mass movements represent a common phenomenon in the evolution of continental margins. In order to enhance knowledge on trigger mechanisms and assess the geologic risk of slope failure, many studies focus on extensive and voluminous slide complexes, since these may have catastrophic and largely unpredictable consequences for offshore infrastructures and coastal communities alike. However, rather thick and complex deposits often hinder the definition of internal structures and hence the recognition of individual failure events. Small-scaled slide complexes are uniquely positioned in this context, as full data coverage often allows for a more detailed evaluation of the timing and recurrence rates of failure. We present evidence from a multidisciplinary study combining high-resolution acoustic data with deep-drilled core material (MeBo type) from a prominent example - the NE portion of Gela Basin within Sicily Channel, Central Mediterranean Sea. Morphological data (Kongsberg Simrad EM120 and EM1002 multibeam echosounder) and subsurface imagery (Atlas parametric sediment echosounder) from this submarine landslide complex between 200 and 700 m water depth reveal multiple slope failures and stacked mass transport deposits of varying thicknesses and lateral distributions. Correlations of the acoustic data to 14C-dated core material (GeoB14401, 35.5 mbsf) drilled through the stacked mass transport deposits suggest the occurrence of four major failure events within the basin during the last ~30 ka. Failure times of these events relate to different palaeo-environments including (1) the MIS2/3 boundary, (2) the Last Glacial Maximum [LGM], (3) the deposition of Sapropel S1 equivalent, and (4) the late Holocene. In addition to these major events, the occasional presence of reworked shelf-benthic foraminifera species within the core sedimentary record hints towards the presence of additional, small-scaled events during the period of the LGM chronozone. Frequent failure of limited sediment volumes might have counteracted the development of major events during this time. However, the fact that these features, indicating sediment instability, are not resolvable in the acoustic record highlights the benefits of an integrated/multidisciplinary approach in identifying individual failure events within a slide complex.

Kuhlmann, Jannis; Asioli, Alessandra; Trincardi, Fabio; Huhn, Katrin

2014-05-01

107

Persistence of phlebotomine Leishmania vectors in urban sites of Catania (Sicily, Italy).  

PubMed

BackgroundPioneering research on ¿Mediterranean Kala-Azar¿ carried out by Adler and Theodor early in the past century (~1930s) had identified Catania city (Sicily) as a major focus of the disease nowadays known as zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Despite the fact that disease in both humans and dogs has continued to be highly prevalent in the Catania province up to the present times, research on Leishmania vectors in this urban focus dates back to that distant period. This study aimed to evaluate the persistence and current composition of the sand fly fauna in urban environments of Catania in recent years, 2006 and 2013.MethodsIn 2006 fifty-one suitable collecting sites were identified within 44 sub-units of a grid drawn to include the urban Catania area. In 2013 the survey was restricted to four of the most productive and representative sites resulting from the 2006 survey. In both periods 3 collections per month were performed using standard sticky traps set for 3 days in wall holes/cavities along public roads, from the end of April through December.Results43/51 sites (84.3%) were found positive for sand flies. The 2006 collections accounted for a total of 4341 specimens including six species. Among competent Leishmania vector species, P. perniciosus was the most prevalent (36.5%) being identified in all sand fly-positive sites, with significant abundance in those of the old city centre. Other species of interest were P. sergenti (2.5%) and P. neglectus (1.5%). The 2013 survey produced 1130 sand flies, of which 39.5% were P. perniciosus, 1.6% P. sergenti and 0.7% P. neglectus. A search for Leishmania DNA in a small sample of 72 P. perniciosus females revealed 11% infection prevalence.ConclusionsOur findings from an old urban focus of leishmaniasis demonstrate that phlebotomine sand flies have adapted fairly well to the drastic environmental changes that have occurred in cities of the Western world in the past century and still represent a potential risk for Leishmania transmission. PMID:25487039

Lisi, Oscar; D Urso, Vera; Vaccalluzzo, Valerio; Bongiorno, Gioia; Khoury, Cristina; Severini, Francesco; Di Muccio, Trentina; Gramiccia, Marina; Gradoni, Luigi; Maroli, Michele

2014-12-01

108

Isotope geochemistry of Pantelleria volcanic fluids, Sicily Channel rift: a mantle volatile end-member for volcanism in southern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical and isotopic ratio (He, C, H and O) analysis of hydrothermal manifestations on Pantelleria island, the southernmost active volcano in Italy, provides us with the first data upon mantle degassing through the Sicily Channel rift zone, south of the African-European collision plate boundary. We find that Pantelleria fluids contain a CO 2-He-rich gas component of mantle magmatic derivation which, at shallow depth, variably interacts with a main thermal (˜100°C) aquifer of mixed marine-meteoric water. The measured 3He/ 4He ratios and ? 13C of both the free gases (4.5-7.3 Ra and -5.8 to -4.2‰, respectively) and dissolved helium and carbon in waters (1.0-6.3 Ra and -7.1 to -0.9‰), together with their covariation with the He/CO 2 ratio, constrain a 3He/ 4He ratio of 7.3±0.1 Ra and a ? 13C of ca. -4‰ for the magmatic end-member. These latter are best preserved in fluids emanating inside the active caldera of Pantelleria, in agreement with a higher heat flow across this structure and other indications of an underlying crustal magma reservoir. Outside the caldera, the magmatic component is more affected by air dilution and, at a few sites, by mixing with either organic carbon and/or radiogenic 4He leached from the U-Th-rich trachytic host rocks of the aquifer. Pantelleria magmatic end-member is richer in 3He and has a lower (closer to MORB) ? 13C than all fluids yet analyzed in volcanic regions of Italy and southern Europe, including Mt. Etna in Sicily (6.9±0.2 Ra, ? 13C=-3±1‰). This observation is consistent with a south to north increasing imprint of subducted crustal material in the products of Italian volcanoes, whose He and C (but also O and Sr) isotopic ratios gradually evolve towards crustal values northward of the African-Eurasian plate collision boundary. Our results for Pantelleria extend this regional isotopic pattern further south and suggest the presence of a slightly most pristine or 'less contaminated', 3He-richer mantle source beneath the Sicily Channel rift zone. The lower than MORB 3He/ 4He ratio but higher than MORB CO 2/ 3He ratio of Pantelleria volatile end-member are compatible with petro-geochemical evidence that this mantle source includes an upwelling HIMU-EM1-type asthenospheric plume component whose origin, according to recent seismic data, may be in the lower mantle.

Parello, F.; Allard, P.; D'Alessandro, W.; Federico, C.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Catani, O.

2000-08-01

109

Degradation of stone materials in the archaeological context of the Greek-Roman Theatre in Taormina (Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work results on the degradation phenomena of stone materials in the Ancient Theatre of Taormina, one of the most important Greek-Roman monuments of Sicily, are reported. Artificial stone materials in different conservation conditions were investigated. Samples of salt efflorescences from brick walls and degraded setting mortars were taken from the open gallery in “ summa cavea”. The chemical, physical and structural characterization was performed by means of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), both in situ and ex situ. Results showed that the deterioration of stone materials is due to the aggressive action of the environment agents. Soluble salts, such as chlorides, sulphates and nitrates, were found in efflorescence samples. Mortars were affected by a decomposition process induced by sulphates’ attack.

Brai, M.; Casaletto, M. P.; Gennaro, G.; Marrale, M.; Schillaci, T.; Tranchina, L.

2010-09-01

110

The fibres with fluoro-edenitic composition in Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy): health impact and clues for environmental remediation.  

PubMed

Subsequently to the observation of a localized excess of mortality from malignant pleural neoplasms in the town of Biancavilla (Sicily), previously unknown amphibolic fibres with fluoro-edenitic composition were detected as naturally occurring soil contaminants. Less then two years after the initial report, ISS provided a set of public health recommendations that were complied by regional and local institutions. The recognition of Biancavilla as a National Priority Contaminated Site in 2002 opened the way to clean-up interventions. An up-dating of epidemiological studies, exposure assessment investigations and in vivo and in vitro mechanistic studies on fluoro-edenite fibres is provided in this issue. Scientific evidence can provide a sound foundation to public health action and environmental remediation. Finally, it is now necessary to properly tune the response of the health system to the community needs in terms of diagnostic procedures and medical treatment. PMID:24968907

Comba, Pietro; Scondotto, Salvatore; Musmeci, Loredana

2014-01-01

111

Analogue modelling of Late Miocene-Early Quaternary continental crustal extension in the Tunisia-Sicily Channel area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We adopt analogue modelling to investigate continental crustal stretching by simulating a Late Miocene-Early Quaternary extensional event occurred in Tunisia and in the Sicily Channel. The analogue model of the continental crust is composed of a lower ductile crust and an upper brittle crust including a low-viscosity layer to simulate the presence of evaporites. In our models, the extension is driven by tectonic stresses and not solely by gravity. All models are run under the same boundary conditions with a moveable lateral edge. Different physical hypotheses are tested to interpret the origin and geometry of this rifting event that affected the SW sector of the Mediterranean basin. The modelling of the continental crustal stretching produces small tectonic troughs with regular spacing that simulates the pattern observed in the Atlasic Rift System (Tunisia) as well as a large rift zone involving bulk crust thinning simulating the features of the Sicily Channel Rift Zone. In accordance with geological and geophysical data, extension in the Atlasic Rift Zone is controlled at depth by the Triassic evaporite layer and by inherited diapiric structures that create rheological “soft points” in the upper crust. The best accordance between models and nature are thus obtained when combining crustal-scale stretching, decoupling level within the upper-crust and pre-structuration (inheritance) of the evaporitic layer. We propose that the NE-trending extensional event occurring since the Pliocene to the early Quaternary in the Tunisian-Pelagian Sea area was driven by a transient eastward migration of the Tunisia-Pelagian-Ionian area (acting as a micro-plate with an undefined southern boundary) due to a far-field pull of the Western-Hellenic/Dinaride subduction.

Belguith, Youssef; Geoffroy, Laurent; Mourgues, Regis; Rigane, Adel

2013-11-01

112

Geomorphology of the NE Sicily continental shelf controlled by tidal currents, canyon head incision and river-derived sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NE Sicily continental shelf, imaged by multibeam bathymetry data and CHIRP/sparker seismic profiles, is less than 5 km-wide, and is located in a tectonically active margin characterized by strong regional uplift rates. In this paper, we show how variations of geomorphic elements in the study area are tied to spatial and temporal changes in the driving forces that control the seafloor processes. This study demonstrates that the geomorphology of continental shelves can vary over very short spatial scales depending on the uneven distribution of sediment supply from rivers and sediment transfer both across and along the shelf by oceanographic currents. In the northeastern part, three sandwave fields were mapped in the highstand sediment wedge that, due to the small size of rivers, is restricted to the inner shelf. The sandwave fields are found in proximity of the Messina Straits, a shallow water sill with strong tidal currents between the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian Seas. The bedform fields have sandwaves of variable shape, wavelength and orientation, reflecting along-shelf variations of tidal current strength and sediment grain size distribution. In the southwestern shelf, rivers are larger and form deltas that shape a considerable part of the shelf, often having their distal, still channelized delta front at the shelf edge. In some cases, deltas are built close to the heads of canyons and a large volume of the river-borne sediments is directly fed to the deep sea through delta front terminal distributary channels. Where rivers are small, the outer shelf lacks recent river borne sediment and presents a relict morphology consisting of submerged coastal systems formed during previous sea-level lowstands. The tectonics of the study area mainly consist of structures that have a NNE-SSW trend similar to the extensional faults responsible for the Siculo-Calabrian Rift Zone in the nearby emerged areas. Our study extends the area affected by the regional deformation belt into the NE Sicily offshore.

Gamberi, Fabiano; Rovere, Marzia; Mercorella, Alessandra; Leidi, Elisa; Dalla Valle, Giacomo

2014-07-01

113

Risk factors for classical Kaposi sarcoma in a population-based case-control study in Sicily  

PubMed Central

Background Classical Kaposi sarcoma (cKS) is a rare complication of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) infection. We conducted a population-based, frequency-matched case-control study in Sicily to further investigate the reported inverse relationship between smoking and cKS and to identify other factors associated with altered risk. Methods All incident, histologically confirmed, cKS cases in Sicily were eligible. A two-stage cluster sample design was applied to select population controls. KSHV seropositivity was determined using 4 antibody assays (K8.1 and orf73 enzyme immunoassays and 2 immunofluroescence assays). Using SAS-callable SUDAAN we compared the characteristics of cKS cases and KSHV seropositive controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are presented. Results In total, 142 cKS cases and 123 KSHV seropositive controls were recruited. Current cigarette smoking was associated with reduced risk of cKS (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.06-0.67). Edema was associated with cKS, but only when it presented on the lower extremities (OR 3.65, 95% CI 1.62-8.23). Irrespective of presentation site, diabetes and oral corticosteroid medications were associated with increased risk (ORs, 95% CIs: 4.73, 2.02-11.1 and 2.34, 1.23-4.45, respectively). Never smoking, diabetes and oral corticosteroid medication use were all independently associated with cKS risk. Discussion We confirmed previous reports that cigarette smoking was associated with a reduced risk of cKS, and we found that risk was lowest among current smokers. We also found that cKS risk was strongly and independently associated with oral corticosteroid use and diabetes. Corroboration of these observations and investigation of possible underlying mechanisms are warranted. PMID:19064559

Anderson, LA; Lauria, C; Romano, N; Brown, EE; Whitby, D; Graubard, BI; Li, Y; Messina, A; Gafà, L; Vitale, F

2009-01-01

114

The calibration of the Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm TEDA for the coastal tide-gauge of Siracusa, Sicily.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of the FP-7 European project ASTARTE, which aims to improve the knowledge on the tsunami risk and to enhance the tsunami resilience for the European, North Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts, one of the tasks of the University of Bologna focuses on the study of the tsunami hazard, risk, impact and impact mitigation for the test site of Siracusa, in Sicily. This study includes the study for the calibration of a tsunami early detection algorithm (TEDA), developed by the University of Bologna, for the coastal tide-gauge station of Siracusa, Targia. The tide-gauge of Siracusa, together with the stations of Catania and Tremestieri (Messina), is part of the TSUNET network, which is a set of monitoring stations installed in order to measure and detect tsunamis in eastern Sicily. The calibration is a process that combines the study of the performance of the algorithm with the study of the background signal, which is considered the normal sea-level signal without tsunami or hazardous long-period waves, and of the possible tsunami signals that might hit the station: in this case the tsunami signals are taken by synthetic tsunami simulations from a tsunami hazard study for the town of Siracusa. The main purpose of the calibration is to optimize the efficiency of TEDA to detect tsunamis by selecting the most appropriate parameter configuration. Different tests of TEDA are carried out with different parameter settings both against the background signal and against tsunami signals. The best setting is the one that leads to the best performance, i.e. detects the highest number of tsunami events in the shortest time, and that avoids false detection in normal conditions. The results for the calibration of Siracusa are evaluated and compared with those of Catania and Tremestieri (Messina). As expected, the background sea-level presents stability over a year time period, with seasonal variability, and TEDA functions for Siracusa present similar statistical characteristics as for Catania and Messina Tremestieri.

Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano; Pagnoni, Gianluca

2014-05-01

115

Probability hazard map for future vent opening at Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mount Etna is a composite stratovolcano located along the Ionian coast of eastern Sicily. The frequent flank eruptions occurrence (at an interval of years, mostly concentrated along the NE, S and W rift zones) lead to a high volcanic hazard that, linked with intense urbanization, poses a high volcanic risk. A long-term volcanic hazard assessment, mainly based on the past behaviour of the Etna volcano, is the basic tool for the evaluation of this risk. Then, a reliable forecast where the next eruption will occur is needed. A computer-assisted analysis and probabilistic evaluations will provide the relative map, thus allowing identification of the areas prone to the highest hazard. Based on these grounds, the use of a code such BET_EF (Bayesian Event Tree_Eruption Forecasting) showed that a suitable analysis can be explored (Selva et al., 2012). Following an analysis we are performing, a total of 6886 point-vents referring to the last 4.0 ka of Etna flank activity, and spread over an area of 744 km2 (divided into N=2976 squared cell, with side of 500 m), allowed us to estimate a pdf by applying a Gaussian kernel. The probability values represent a complete set of outcomes mutually exclusive and the relative sum is normalized to one over the investigated area; then, the basic assumptions of a Dirichlet distribution (the prior distribution set in the BET_EF code (Marzocchi et al., 2004, 2008)) still hold. One fundamental parameter is the the equivalent number of data, that depicts our confidence on the best guess probability. The BET_EF code also works with a likelihood function. This is modelled by a Multinomial distribution, with parameters representing the number of vents in each cell and the total number of past data (i.e. the 6886 point-vents). Given the grid of N cells, the final posterior distribution will be evaluated by multiplying the a priori Dirichlet probability distribution with the past data in each cell through the likelihood. The probability hazard map shows a tendency to concentrate along the NE and S rifts, as well as Valle del Bove, increasing the difference in probability between these areas and the rest of the volcano edifice. It is worthy notice that a higher significance is still evident along the W rift, even if not comparable with the ones of the above mentioned areas. References Marzocchi W., Sandri L., Gasparini P., Newhall C. and Boschi E.; 2004: Quantifying probabilities of volcanic events: The example of volcanic hazard at Mount Vesuvius, J. Geophys. Res., 109, B11201, doi:10.1029/2004JB00315U. Marzocchi W., Sandri, L. and Selva, J.; 2008: BET_EF: a probabilistic tool for long- and short-term eruption forecasting, Bull. Volcanol., 70, 623 - 632, doi: 10.1007/s00445-007-0157-y. Selva J., Orsi G., Di Vito M.A., Marzocchi W. And Sandri L.; 2012: Probability hazard mapfor future vent opening atthe Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy, Bull. Volcanol., 74, 497 - 510, doi: 10.1007/s00445-011-0528-2.

Brancato, Alfonso; Tusa, Giuseppina; Coltelli, Mauro; Proietti, Cristina

2014-05-01

116

Modelling a strike-slip fault system affecting porous carbonates in Favignana Island (Sicily, southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigating the deformation processes as well as the characteristics and distribution of their end-products is a crucial issue to improve geo-fluid exploitation in carbonate reservoirs (?50% of natural geo-fluids). Indeed, besides the primary controls on the petrophysical properties of limestones, which are due to nature and organization/shape of the constituent elements (i.e. grains, pores, cement, clay minerals), both containment and migration of fluids in these rocks are influenced by fault zones and fractures. In this contribution we integrate quantitative structural analysis and numerical modelling approaches aiming at testing a new workflow useful to create a 3D discrete fracture network (DFN) model of a reservoir starting from outcrop data collected in Favignana Island (Sicily, southern Italy). The presence of several quarries in the Island provides 3D exposures of ?25 m-thick Lower-Pleistocene high-porosity grainstones crosscut by two conjugate sets of strike-slip faults. This fault system, documented by Tondi et al. (2012), is comprised of three types of structure: single compactive shear bands (CSB); zones of bands (ZB); and, faults. CSBs are narrow tabular features with porosity less than the surrounding host rocks, and have thicknesses and displacements on the order of a few mm. The growth process for these structures involves localizing further deformation within zones of closely-spaced CSBs and, possibly, along continuous slip surfaces within fault rocks overprinting older ZBs. The transitions from one growth step to another are recorded by different values of the dimensional parameters (i.e. length, thickness and displacement) for the structures. These transitions are also reflected by the ratios and distributions of the dimensional parameters. The DFN model was built by means of the Fracture Modelling module of the commercial software package Move from Midland Valley©. The analysis of an aerial photo was performed firstly to delimit the outcrop perimeter and geometry, needed to construct the model, and then to identify the major faults. The intensity of CSBs and ZBs, was calculated by integrating the distribution laws of the dimensional parameters (Tondi et al., 2012) with the lineament analysis tool of Move. The variation in intensity of deformation was used to guide the modelling of deformed zones, both within the fault zones and in the host rock in order to obtain a DFN reflecting a deformation pattern similar to the natural one. The DFN was then used to model the effect of deformation on the permeability of the host rock. Here, unlike in tight rocks where deformation generally increases permeability, the CSBs and ZBs reduce permeability whilst slip surfaces within the fault cores enhance fault-parallel fluid flow. Thus, by varying the porosity values attributed to CSBs, ZBs and slip surfaces the resulting DFN model was imposed to have a reduced permeability in CSBs and ZBs (relative to the host rock and the slip surfaces). This semi-automated process of lineament analysis followed by the use of power law distributions to model sub-seismic scale CSBs and ZBs is proposed as a potential modelling route for reservoir scale assessment of structural deformation controls on permeability in porous carbonate reservoirs.

Cilona, A.; Tondi, E.; Agosta, F.; Johnson, G.; Shackleton, R.

2012-12-01

117

Simulation of debris flow events in Sicily by cellular automata model SCIDDICA_SS3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Debris flow models are widely used for hazard mapping or for evaluating the effectiveness of risk mitigation measures. Several models analyze the dynamics of debris flow runout solving Partial Differential Equations. In use of such models, difficulties arise in estimating kinematic geotechnical soil parameters for real phenomena. In order to overcome such difficulties, alternative semi-empirical approaches can be employed, such as macroscopic Cellular Automata (CA). In particular, for CA simulation purposes, the runout of debris flows emerges from local interactions in a dynamical system, subdivided into elementary parts, whose state evolves within a spatial and temporal discretum. The attributes of each cell (substates) describe physical characteristics. For computational reasons, the natural phenomenon is splitted into a number of elementary processes, whose proper composition makes up the CA transition function. By simultaneously applying this function to all the cells, the evolution of the phenomenon can be simulated in terms of modifications of the substates. In this study, we present an application of the macroscopic CA semi-empirical model SCIDDICA_SS3 to the Peloritani Mountains area in Sicily island, Italy. The model was applied using detailed data from the 1 October 2009 debris flow event, which was triggered by a rainfall event of about 250 mm falling in 9 hours, that caused the death of 37 persons. This region is characterized by river valleys with large hillslope angles (30°-60°), catchment basins of small extensions (0.5-12 km2) and soil composed by metamorphic material, which is easy to be eroded. CA usage implies a calibration phase, that identifies an optimal set of parameters capable of adequately play back the considered case, and a validation phase, that tests the model on a sufficient (and different) number of cases similar in terms of physical and geomorphological properties. The performance of the model can be measured in terms of a fitness function that compares the observed landslide with the simulated one. This function returns values from 0 (completely wrong simulation) to 1 (perfect match); values greater than 0.7 are considered acceptable. The adopted version SCIDDICA_SS3 was calibrated on debris-flows occurred in Torrente Sopra Urno, that have caused most of the damage in Giampilieri town. Other 5 events, occurred in the same day and on the same area, were used for validation with fitness function ranging from 0.72 to 0.78. Simulations show a good capability of the model to describe the runout of debris in such highly-urbanized area, according to several performance indices. The calibrated parameters may be reasonably used to simulate debris flow runout in the nearby catchments for predictive purposes, aimed at risk assessment. Acknowledgements: This research was funded by the Italian Education, University and Research Ministry (MIUR), PON Project No. 01_01503 'Integrated Systems for Hydrogeological Risk Monitoring, Early Warning and Mitigation Along the Main Lifelines', CUP B31H11000370005

Cancelliere, A.; Lupiano, V.; Peres, D. J.; Stancanelli, L.; Avolio, M.; Foti, E.; Di Gregorio, S.

2013-12-01

118

Presence of Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis, the Causative Agent of Israeli Spotted Fever, in Sicily, Italy, Ascertained in a Retrospective Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective analysis by molecular-sequence-based techniques was performed to correctly identify the etiological agent of 24 Mediterranean spotted fever cases occurring in Western Sicily, Italy, from 1987 to 2001. Restriction analysis of a 632-bp PCR-amplified portion of the ompA gene allowed presumptive identification of five clinical isolates as belonging to Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis, the etiological agent of Israeli spotted

Giovanni M. Giammanco; Giustina Vitale; Serafino Mansueto; Giuseppina Capra; Maria Pia Caleca; Pietro Ammatuna

2005-01-01

119

New contributions to the debate on the cause of the January 11th, 1693 tsunami in eastern Sicily (Italy): earthquake or offshore landslide source (or may be both)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern Sicily is among the most exposed regions in Italy and in the whole Mediterranean to tsunami hazard and risk. The historical tsunamis recorded here were generally associated to moderate-to-large magnitude earthquakes. The largest tsunami documented in the area occurred on January 11th, 1693. It followed the highest-magnitude earthquake (7.4) of the Italian seismic history. The tsunami, whose first significant

A. Armigliato; S. Tinti; F. Zaniboni; G. Pagnoni; A. Argnani

2007-01-01

120

Modeling, Analysis, and Preservation Techniques for Historic Reinforced Concrete Structures in Seismic Prone Regions Case Study: Augusta Airship Hangar, Sicily  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the world there are hundreds of historic monuments and structures considered to be invaluable and irreplaceable. They are symbols of cultural identity and a means of educating people about history. Preservation of historic monuments and structures is therefore an important part of safeguarding these cultural heritage sites so that they retain their value for future generations.This report discusses a procedure for the investigation of seismic hazards in existing buildings and possible steps that can be taken to avoid damage caused by these hazards. The Augusta Airship Hangar located in Sicily, will be used as a case study however the topics addressed in this paper can be applied to other structures of historic value around the world.First state-of-the-art scanning procedures were used to create scale digital models that were imported into a structural analysis program. Within this program dynamic analyses were performed on the model based on actual ground motions taken close to the site. This data was used to determine the period and mode shapes of the structure. Then a nonlinear analysis, including a static pushover analysis, was implemented on a two-dimensional model of the structural frame. From this analysis the failure mechanisms of the structure were revealed with relation to an allowable roof displacement. The structural integrity of the structure was evaluated based on pre-defined performance goals. Finally multiple suggestions were made how the Augusta Airship Hangar might be repaired and strengthened so that this structure will not be destroyed should an earthquake occur.The results of our study show that historic structures, despite their age, can still be strong and ductile. Also there are a multitude of effective preservation and retrofit techniques that can be used to strengthen these historic structures, should an earthquake occur. Through this study, the Augusta Airship Hangar has proven to be not only a historic symbol for Sicily but also can be used as an example for the rehabilitation of other historic structures. The techniques and processes discussed in this paper can be applied to other historic reinforced concrete structures and can be expanded upon in future investigations.

Cronin, Kelly; Whyte, Catherine [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 760 Davis Hall (United States); Reiner, Tom [Graduate Engineer, Buro Happold Consulting Engineers, Inc., 9601 Jefferson Blvd., Suite B, Culver City, CA 90232 (United States)

2008-07-08

121

Is land-use change a cause of loss of pedodiversity? The case of the Mazzarrone study area, Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic soils created ex novo by land-use change in large scale farming are, from a pedogenetic point of view, catastrophic events that bring the soils to time zero and change the natural pattern of the soilscape, remarkably, in some cases. The quantitative aspects of pedodiversity of a soilscape in South-East Sicily, where some types of soils, in recent decades, have suffered a consistent reduction due to the transformations by large scale farming, are considered. The evolution of pedodiversity over a 53-year period (1955 to 2008) is examined using a dedicated statistical method and a space-time model based on Markov analysis and cellular automata in order to predict the evolution of the soilscape pattern in the next 42 years (i.e. until 2050). Soil subgroups, using the USDA Soil Taxonomy and a classification proposal, were considered and the following indices were used: richness; Shannon's diversity index; Simpson diversity index; modified Simpson's diversity index; Shannon's evenness index; Simpson's evenness index and modified Simpson's evenness index. These indices measured over time, show, quantitatively, a decrease in pedodiversity that highlights the effect of the human intervention in modifying the natural order of the soilscape.

Lo Papa, Giuseppe; Palermo, Vanessa; Dazzi, Carmelo

2011-12-01

122

New evidence for Late Quaternary deformation of the substratum of Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy): clues indicate active crustal doming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratigraphic and morphostructural analyses have been carried out in the Mt. Etna volcanic region (eastern Sicily) to investigate in detail the deformation events that have affected the sedimentary successions forming the substratum of the volcano. In the foredeep, Quaternary submarine sedimentation ended 600 ka ago when the whole area emerged in response to homogeneous regional uplift. The irregular distribution of a stratigraphic marker, recognized through the analysis of more than 250 borehole logs, suggests that local dynamics also affected the area. We identify both compressional tectonic dynamics and volcano-related tectonic activity, and discriminate among their associated deformations. In particular, we quantify the vertical deformation component of the compressional structures (thrusts and related folds) and recognize for the first time a vertical component of deformation whose pattern clearly indicates a doming process acting at Mt. Etna. The comparison between long-term and short-term rates suggests that the doming has acted consistently over space and time through the last 600 ka and provides clues to the source of uplift. This component, defined by a specific Quaternary sedimentary horizon, has been compared with vertical deformation obtained by analytical inversion of morphological substratum data, and localizes the source at a depth of ˜16 km, at the mantle-crust transition. This uplift may be the consequence of hydration occurring in the altered ocean-like crust.

De Guidi, Giorgio; Imposa, Sebastiano; Scudero, Salvatore; Palano, Mimmo

2014-05-01

123

Gully erosion susceptibility assessment by means of GIS-based logistic regression: A case of Sicily (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research aims at characterizing susceptibility conditions to gully erosion by means of GIS and multivariate statistical analysis. The study area is a 9.5 km2 river catchment in central-northern Sicily, where agriculture activities are limited by intense erosion. By means of field surveys and interpretation of aerial images, we prepared a digital map of the spatial distribution of 260 gullies in the study area. In addition, from available thematic maps, a 5 m cell size digital elevation model and field checks, we derived 27 environmental attributes that describe the variability of lithology, land use, topography and road position. These attributes were selected for their potential influence on erosion processes, while the dependent variable was given by presence or absence of gullies within two different types of mapping units: 5 m grid cells and slope units (average size = 2.66 ha). The functional relationships between gully occurrence and the controlling factors were obtained from forward stepwise logistic regression to calculate the probability to host a gully for each mapping unit. In order to train and test the predictive models, three calibration and three validation subsets, of both grid cells and slope units, were randomly selected. Results of validation, based on ROC (receiving operating characteristic) curves, attest for acceptable to excellent accuracies of the models, showing better predictive skill and more stable performance of the susceptibility model based on grid cells.

Conoscenti, Christian; Angileri, Silvia; Cappadonia, Chiara; Rotigliano, Edoardo; Agnesi, Valerio; Märker, Michael

2014-01-01

124

S-waves attenuation and separation of scattering and intrinsic absorption of seismic energy in southeastern Sicily (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic wave attenuation in southeastern Sicily was investigated by using a data set of about 180 local earthquakes (1.5 <=ML<= 4.6) recorded in the period 1994-2003. We first estimated the quality factor of S waves (QS) and clarified its frequency dependence by means of the coda-normalization method, applied in the frequency range 1.5-15 Hz. The average QS as function of frequency is given by QS= 49f0.88. A detailed separation of scattering attenuation (Q-1s) from intrinsic absorption (Q-1i) was also attempted by applying the multiple lapse time window analysis (MLTWA), under the hypothesis of multiple isotropic scattering with uniform distribution of scatterers. Intrinsic absorption dominates over scattering in the attenuation process at high frequencies (above 3 Hz). Below 3 Hz scattering is the predominant attenuation effect in the region, at the scale length of these frequencies. However, some discrepancies have been observed between the theoretical model and the observations. This indicates that models with depth-dependent velocity structure and/or non isotropic scattering should be taken into account in order to remove ambiguities in the interpretation of the results.

Giampiccolo, E.; Tuvè, T.; Gresta, S.; Patanè, D.

2006-04-01

125

The significance of slab-crusted lava flows for understanding controls on flow emplacement at Mount Etna, Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slab-crusted flows on Mount Etna, Sicily are defined here as those whose crust has ridden on the flow core without significant disruption or deformation and have a high length to width ratio. They typically erupt from ephemeral boccas as late-stage products on dominantly aa flow fields, such as that of the 1983 eruption on Mount Etna. Slab-crusted flows tend to inflate mainly as they approach and after they reach the maximum length of slab-crust formation, the flow interior acting as a preferential pathway for injecting lava under a stable crust. Coalescence of vesicles under successive crusts causes separation between core and crust giving a new cooling surface within the flow, on which ropy surfaces (and occasionally aa textures) of limited areal extent may develop. Slab-crusted flows tend to form at ephemeral boccas together with other surface textural types including toes, ropy pahoehoe sheets and aa flows. This suggests that, on Etna, slab-crusted flows form from lava of the same rheological properties as both aa and pahoehoe textured flows. They do not represent a transition between aa and pahoehoe as argued for toothpaste flows in Hawaii. We conclude that slab-crusted flows on Etna owe their morphology to a relatively high critical ratio of effusion rate to advance rate, related to vent cross-sectional area and the slope over which the flow forms.

Guest, John E.; Stofan, Ellen R.

2005-04-01

126

Mixibius parvus sp. nov. and Diphascon (Diphascon) ziliense sp. nov., two new species of Eutardigrada from Sicily.  

PubMed

Two new species, Mixibius parvus sp. nov. and Diphascon (Diphascon) ziliense sp. nov. are described from Sicily. Mixibius parvus sp. nov. has three macroplacoids and a microplacoid and differs from M. tibetanus, the only other known species of the genus with those characteristics, in having a wrinkled cuticle without true small tubercles, a shorter microplacoid, smaller claw pt index values, and in lacking a cuticular bar on the first three pairs of the legs.Diphascon (Diphascon) ziliense sp. nov. lacks eye spots, has a pharyngeal bulb with two macroplacoids and a septulum, and possesses lunules and cuticular bars on the legs. It is similar to D. (D.) ramazzottii and D. (D.) procerum but differs from them in characters of the cuticular ornamentation and, in addition, from D. (D.) ramazzottii in having lunules and slightly longer claws in proportion to the body size and to the buccal tube. The new species differs from D. (D.) procerum in having stouter claws with a wider common portion and with the main branches shorter in proportion to the total length of the respective claws. PMID:24871024

Lisi, Oscar; Sabella, Giorgio; Pilato, Giovanni

2014-01-01

127

Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus in a swine farm house in Sicily, Italy.  

PubMed

This report describes a pandemic A/H1N1 (H1N1 pdm) virus outbreak occurred in December, 2009 in a swine farm used as research facility (Istituto Mediterraneo Trapianti e Terapie ad Alta Specializzazione) for preclinical studies, located in Sicily, Italy. All the 13 pigs of the farm, showed cough, fever, inappetence and weakness. At the same time, an unvaccinated worker of the stabling showed influenza-like symptoms. RNAv extracted from two swabs collected from infected pigs resulted positive by Real Time RT-PCR for Influenza A virus. Furthermore, after growth on embryonated eggs, viral isolates were identified by Real Time RT-PCR specific for H1N1 pdm virus and characterized antigenically. Sequencing of the whole genome was also performed. All sera taken from animals and from the worker were tested by a competitive influenza A ELISA and by the haemoagglutination inhibition test. Serological findings confirmed the circulation of influenza virus H1N1 pdm in pigs and the presence of specific antibodies against H1N1 pdm in human serum. The results of this study seem to support a H1N1 pdm transmission from man to animals showing the importance of serological and virological investigation to control the pig farms and the importance of close cooperation between the different authorities like veterinarian and human public. PMID:23033673

Guercio, A; Purpari, G; Conaldi, P G; Pagano, V; Moreno, A; Giambruno, P; Di Trani, L; Vaccari, G; Falcone, E; Istituto, A Boni; Cordioli, P

2012-03-01

128

Building stone employed in the historical monuments of Eastern Sicily (Italy). An example: the ancient city centre of Catania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An archaeometric study of the stone materials employed in the Late Baroque historical monuments of the ancient city centre of Catania was carried out. Lithological maps of a selection of monuments, transferred to a digital format, revealed that the stone materials are both magmatic and sedimentary rocks, the colours of which are matched in a peculiar type of bichromy. Particular attention focused on sedimentary rocks, which consist of various types of limestone quarried near the city of Syracuse (Hyblean Plateau, south-eastern Sicily). Carbonate rocks were characterised in terms of mineralogy, petrography and geochemistry, by studying rock samples from both monuments and historical extraction sites. Results showed that, although only one name was historically attributed to the above lithotypes (i.e. “Pietra di Siracusa‘’), they were quarried from many locations and, as they belong to various geological formations, they therefore exhibit great variety. In order to examine the durability of Hyblean limestones employed in works of cultural heritage interest, salt crystallisation tests were carried out according to standard procedure norms (UNI EN 12370 (1999) Determination of resistance to crystallisation of salts, 6p). Results are consistent with the forms of deterioration observed in the monuments, and highlight the close relationship between textural characteristics and damage. Our purpose is to provide a basic tool, which may be useful both for conserving monuments of cultural heritage and for their restoration.

Punturo, Rosalda; Russo, Laura G.; Giudice, Antonino Lo; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Pezzino, Antonino

2006-05-01

129

Propagation of a lithospheric tear fault (STEP) through the western boundary of the Calabrian accretionary wedge offshore eastern Sicily (Southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rollback of a segmented slab of oceanic lithosphere is typically accompanied by vertical lithospheric tear fault(s) along the lateral slab edge(s) and by strike slip movement in the upper plate, defined as a STEP fault (Subduction Tear Edge Propagator). The Neogene evolution of the Central Mediterranean is dominated by the interaction between the slow Africa-Eurasia convergence and the SE-ward rollback of the Ionian slab, that leads to the back-arc opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Here, we present post-stack time migrated and pre-stack depth migrated Archimede (1997) multichannel seismic lines, that were acquired offshore eastern Sicily, at the foot of the Malta escarpment. First, we identify the recent deformation along the lateral ramp of the Calabrian accretionary wedge. Towards the east, the Calabrian wedge is formed by the accretion of the post-evaporitic sediments, above a decollement at the base of the Messinian evaporites. At the latitude of Syracuse, 50 km east of the Malta escarpment, a major N150°E trending crustal scale and vertical fault slices through the entire accretionary wedge. This fault cuts by several kilometers, through the pre-evaporitic Messinian sediments and into the basement. The vertical offset along this vertical fault decreases from north to south, and the fault is no longer observed on the seismic lines, 50 km SE of the Alfeo seamount. A previously published Moho depth isocontour map, offshore Sicily and the recent GPS data, combined with the presence of strike slip movements NE onshore Sicily, allow us to identify this 200 km long crustal-scale fault as the surface expression of a STEP fault. The presence of syntectonic Pleistocene sediments on top this crustal-scale fault suggests a recent lithospheric vertical movement of the STEP fault, in response to the rollback of the Ionian slab and to the SE-ward advance of the Calabria-Peloritan block.

Gallais, Flora; Graindorge, David; Gutscher, Marc-André; Klaeschen, Dirk

2013-08-01

130

1891 Submarine eruption of Foerstner volcano (Pantelleria, Sicily) : insights into the vent structure of basaltic balloon eruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous shallow water basaltic eruptions have produced abundant floating scoria up to several meters in diameter, yet little is known about the conditions that give rise to this unusual style of volcanism. On October 17, 1891, a submarine eruption began 4 kilometers northwest of the island of Pantelleria, Sicily. The eruptive vent was located at a depth of 250 meters along the NW-SE trending Sicily Channel Rift Zone. Evidence for the eruption was provided by the occurrence of hot, scoriaceous lava "balloons" floating on the sea surface along a narrow line about 850-1000 meters long trending along the rift. These extremely vesicular fragments were spherical to ellipsoidal in shape and ranged from <50 to 250 cm in diameter. Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) and existing bathymetric maps have been used to conduct the first detailed investigation of a vent site associated with this unique style of volcanism. In 2011 the ROV Hercules, deployed from the E/V Nautilus, explored the 1891 Foerstner vent using high definition video cameras and produced a high resolution bathymetric map of the area using a BlueView multibeam imaging sonar. Light backscattering and oxidation-reduction potential sensors (MAPRs) were added to Hercules to detect discharge from active venting. ROV video footage has been used in conjunction with the high resolution bathymetric data to construct a geologic map of the vent area based on a variety of facies descriptors, such as abundance of scoria bombs, occurrence of pillow or scoria flow lobes, extent of sediment cover, and presence of spatter-like deposits. Initial results of the mapping have shown that there are two main vents that erupted within the observed area of floating scoria and most likely erupted at the same time as evidenced by similar bulk chemical compositions of recovered samples. Scoria bomb beds and some scoria flow lobes largely cover the suspected main vent, located at a depth of 250 meters. Distinct pillow flow lobes cover the second, previously unknown vent located north of Foerstner volcano at a depth of around 350 meters. Given the close proximity of these two vents, the differences in deposit types may be due to changing eruption style as a function of water depth. The abundant pillow flow lobes observed at the northern vent are most likely the result of more effusive eruptions occurring in deeper water (350 m) whereas the dominantly fragmental nature of material in the main southern vent indicates more vigorous explosive activity at shallower levels (250 m). Based on the nature of deposits found at the vent areas, the basaltic balloons of the 1891 Foerstner eruption are suspected to be a result of both coarse, localized fire fountaining activity and detachment from gas-charged flow lobes. The larger and shallower southern vent area is likely to have been the main source of the basaltic balloons observed on the surface during the 1891 eruption. A review of other historic eruptions that have produced basaltic balloons suggests that this style of activity is likely to be restricted to a rather narrow range of water depths and thus recognition of the distinct deposits produced by this type of activity in ancient deposits could help place important paleodepth constraints on volcaniclastic sequences.

Kelly, J. T.; Carey, S.; Bell, K. L.; Rosi, M.; Marani, M.; Roman, C.; Pistolesi, M.; Baker, E. T.

2012-12-01

131

A Molecular survey of Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia canis and Babesia microti in foxes and fleas from Sicily.  

PubMed

Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) are obligate bloodsucking insects, which parasitize birds and mammals, and are distributed throughout the world. Several species have been implicated in pathogen transmission. This study aimed to monitor red foxes and the fleas isolated from them in the Palermo and Ragusa provinces of Sicily, Italy, as these organisms are potential reservoirs and vectors of pathogens. Thirteen foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 110 fleas were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect DNA of the pathogens Ehrlichia canis, Babesia microti, Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma ovis. In the foxes, A. ovis was detected in only one animal, whereas the prevalence of the E. canis pathogen was 31%. B. microti and Rickettsia spp. were not detected. Of all of the collected fleas, 75 belonged to the species Xenopsylla cheopis, 32 belonged to Ctenocephalides canis, two belonged to Ctenocephalides felis and one belonged to Cediopsylla inaequalis. In the fleas, the following pathogens were found: A. ovis (prevalence 25%), A. marginale (1%), A. phagocytophilum (1%), Rickettsia felis (2%) and E. canis (3%). X. cheopis was the flea species most frequently infected with Anaplasma, in particular A. ovis (33%), A. marginale (1%) and A. phagocytophilum (1%). Both C. felis exemplars were positive for R. felis. E. canis was found in the lone C. inaequalis and also in 3% of the X. cheopis specimens. No fleas were positive for B. microti or A. platys. As foxes often live in proximity to domestic areas, they may constitute potential reservoirs for human and animal parasites. Further studies should be performed on fleas to determine their vectorial capacity. PMID:24589112

Torina, A; Blanda, V; Antoci, F; Scimeca, S; D'Agostino, R; Scariano, E; Piazza, A; Galluzzo, P; Giudice, E; Caracappa, S

2013-11-01

132

Geogenic and atmospheric sources for volatile organic compounds in fumarolic emissions from Mt. Etna and Vulcano Island (Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, fluid source(s) and processes controlling the chemical composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in gas discharges from Mt. Etna and Vulcano Island (Sicily, Italy) were investigated. The main composition of the Etnean and Volcano gas emissions is produced by mixing, to various degrees, of magmatic and hydrothermal components. VOCs are dominated by alkanes, alkenes and aromatics, with minor, though significant, concentrations of O-, S- and Cl(F)-substituted compounds. The main mechanism for the production of alkanes is likely related to pyrolysis of organic-matter-bearing sediments that interact with the ascending magmatic fluids. Alkanes are then converted to alkene and aromatic compounds via catalytic reactions (dehydrogenation and dehydroaromatization, respectively). Nevertheless, an abiogenic origin for the light hydrocarbons cannot be ruled out. Oxidative processes of hydrocarbons at relatively high temperatures and oxidizing conditions, typical of these volcanic-hydrothermal fluids, may explain the production of alcohols, esters, aldehydes, as well as O- and S-bearing heterocycles. By comparing the concentrations of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) in the fumarolic discharges with respect to those of background air, it is possible to highlight that they have a geogenic origin likely due to halogenation of both methane and alkenes. Finally, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) abundances appear to be consistent with background air, although the strong air contamination that affects the Mt. Etna fumaroles may mask a possible geogenic contribution for these compounds. On the other hand, no CFCs were detected in the Vulcano gases, which are characterized by low air contribution. Nevertheless, a geogenic source for these compounds cannot be excluded on the basis of the present data.

Tassi, F.; Capecchiacci, F.; Cabassi, J.; Calabrese, S.; Vaselli, O.; Rouwet, D.; Pecoraino, G.; Chiodini, G.

2012-09-01

133

Friction and mixing effects on potential vorticity for bottom current crossing a marine strait: an application to the Sicily Channel (central Mediterranean Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss here the evolution of vorticity and potential vorticity (PV) for a bottom current crossing a marine channel in shallow-water approximation, focusing on the effect of friction and mixing. We argue that bottom current vorticity is prone to significant sign changes and oscillations due to topographic effects when, in particular, the current flows over the sill of a channel. These vorticity variations are, however, modulated by frictional effects due to seafloor roughness and morphology. Such behavior is also reflected in the PV spatial evolution, which shows an abrupt peak around the sill region. Our theoretical findings are discussed by means of in situ hydrographic data related to the Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water, i.e., a dense, bottom water vein that flows northwestward, along the Sicily Channel (Mediterranean Sea). Indeed, the narrow sill of this channel implies that friction and entrainment need to be considered. Small tidal effects in the Sicily Channel allow for a steady theoretical approach. Our diagnoses on vorticity and PV allow us to obtain general insights about the effect of mixing and friction on the pathway and internal structure of bottom-trapped currents flowing through channels and straits, and to discuss spatial variability of the frictional coefficient. Our approach significantly differs from other PV-constant approaches previously used in studying the dynamics of bottom currents flowing through rotating channels.

Falcini, F.; Salusti, E.

2014-11-01

134

P- and S-wave velocities and densities in silicate and calcite rocks from the Peloritani Mountains, Sicily (Italy): The effect of pressure, temperature and the direction of wave propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Peloritani Mountain Belt (north-eastern Sicily) represents the connection between the Southern Appenninic Range and the Appenninic Maghrebid Chain. The lithotypes outcropping in a 36 km long and approximately 8 km wide area in the eastern part of the Peloritani Mountains are considered to represent most properly the composition of the lower crust. We selected 7 representative samples of silicate

R. Punturo; H. Kern; R. Cirrincione; P. Mazzoleni; A. Pezzino

2005-01-01

135

The migration of plate boundaries in SE Sicily: Influence on the large-scale kinematic model of the African promontory in southern Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed field mapping, coupled with structural analyses and morphological investigation, has been carried out along the northern and western borders of the Hyblean Plateau (SE Sicily), in order to define the nature and the kinematics of a major Quaternary fault belt. This, here designed as the Scicli Line Fault Belt, is composed of two N50 oriented extensional basins that, linked by a regional N10 trending transfer zone, originated during the Early Pleistocene and experienced, since the Late Quaternary, a positive tectonic inversion. In both the two stages of deformation, the Scicli Line Fault Belt has been characterised by displacement-rate comparable with the relative velocities measured between the distinct plates composing the central Mediterranean region. In the period going from 1.5-1.2 to 0.85 Ma, the fault belt accommodated the entire divergence between Adria and Nubia. At present, the Scicli Line Fault Belt absorbs most of the Nubia-Eurasia convergence, while the western divergent margin of the Adria microplate has jumped to the eastern and the southern margins of the Hyblean Plateau, along the Late Quaternary Siculo-Calabrian Rift Zone. The off-shore prolongation of the two tectonic boundaries of the Hyblean Plateau has been recognised in the Sicily Channel, where they are both interrupted by a WNW-ESE oriented dextral fault. According to our reconstruction, the Hyblean Plateau represents an isolated lithospheric block, whose evolution can be related to the propagation of the western divergent margin of the Adria microplate, accompanied with the southward migration of the triple junction between Eurasia, Nubia and Adria. In this new large-scale kinematic picture, the GPS velocity measured in the Hyblean region, at the permanent site of NOTO, is actually representative of the local kinematics, rather than of the entire African promontory of southern Italy. This implies a correction of previous regional kinematic models based on combination of GPS vectors. In particular, our data constrain a new interpretation both for the kinematics along the E-W oriented Nubia-Eurasia margin, dominated by prevalent dextral deformation rather than reverse motions, and for the intraplate deformation in the Sicily Channel, within the Africa promontory, which would be dominated by a roughly N110° oriented extension. This conclusion has implication also on the mechanism and the origin of the Pantelleria-Linosa-Malta Rift that is here interpreted as a transtensive feature developed along a major transform fault, rather than the result of passive rifting induced by the Nubia-Eurasia collision, as it is currently interpreted.

Catalano, S.; De Guidi, G.; Romagnoli, G.; Torrisi, S.; Tortorici, G.; Tortorici, L.

2008-03-01

136

deducing the sequence of deformations during chain building from the analysis of minor structures: the case of the Sicily Belt (Central Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinematics of mountain belts is often very difficult to decipher. Main problems consist in the linkage between different stages of deformation which define the chain building, their significance in the context of lithospheric evolution dominates by plate collision and the interaction with previous structures recorded in the rocks. Also, the overprinting of structures developing later with respect to the chain building may further make complicate the way to unravel the tectonic evolution of the wedge. Folding and faulting are the dominant modes for strain partitioning during chain building. The micro-to-macroscopic related structures represent shortening accommodation in the shallow crustal levels during plate collision. The structures defined by both modes are often geometrically and kinematically linked. Folding and faulting may also be representative of distinct episodes of tectonism. Meso-scale structural observations provide a powerful tool to unravel the evolution of map- and regional-scale structures. Several studies are known worldwide, regarding the deformative history during a single contractional episode. Also in the Mediterranean region, several outcrop- and map-scale examples are consistent with a progressive deformation model, where folding and thrusting are interpreted as kinematically linked. The connection between thrusting-and-folding evolution and the wedge failure towards the extensional collapse in collisional settings is poorly argued. Different opinions are known about this concept: i) one view is that extension post-date thrusting and wedge growth and is due to thermal processes in the inner zones of the chain built; and ii) the other view is that extension develops during the chain building processes and is related to the wedge taper evolution. In Sicily, located in the Central Mediterranean, lack a kinematic model relative to the chain building, including folding-and-thrusting and extension. Our aim is to provide constraints to help unravel the structural evolution of the Sicily chain using overprinting mesoscopic fabrics and their relationships to larger structures. The geometric differences existing between some types of structures within the belt and their overprinting relationships allow delineating the timing of deformations during chain building and post-collision tectonic history. The overall structural setting of the mountain chain reflects therefore the deformation and the progressive thrusting migration forelandwards, with extensional faulting overprinting and inverting formed thrusts. Most of the data available for this work come from detailed analysis in a few key areas, ranging along the Northern Sicily, where minor structures are overprinted to form a single sequence. Our study of outcrops throughout the region has recognised that the progression of deformation is represented by four regionally-significant structural stages (layer-parallel shortening, folding-and-thrusting, extension and renewed thrusting). The first stage of deformation includes several sub-stages (layer-parallel shortening, bed-parallel simple shear and fold nucleation). Deformation continued in a second stage, where thrusting was coupled by fold amplification and tightening. Kinematic evolution is provided by a third stage, where dominantly negative inversion of previous weakened zones and mechanical discontinuities occurred, coupled by normal faults activation. Out-of-sequence thrusting follows the chain thinning phase, as the late orogenic deformation phase of the contractional tectonics which affected Sicily. Each stage is defined as a discrete phase of deformation, characterised by the development of a characteristic set of structures, such as cleavage, folds, faults and veins. Each deformative step may be sequentially framed in a kinematic history, where a continuous shortening process, halted by an extension episode due to chain overthickening, in a tectonic setting dominated by collisional tectonics.

Nigro, Fabrizio; Renda, Pietro; Favara, Rocco

2010-05-01

137

Characterisation and antimicrobial activity of the volatile components of the flowers of Magydaris tomentosa (Desf.) DC. collected in Sicily and Algeria.  

PubMed

The essential oils of the flowers of Magydaris tomentosa (Desf.) DC. (Apiaceae) collected in Sicily (MSi) and Algeria (MAl), respectively, were obtained by hydrodistillation, and their compositions were analysed. The analyses allowed the identification and quantification of 23 components in MSi and 60 compounds in MAl, respectively, showing a very different profile in the composition of the two populations. The main components of MSi were cembrene (28.2%), ?-springene (17.5%) and ?-springene (14.8%), also present in MAl but in lesser amount (0.4%, 1.8% and 0.9%, respectively), whereas the principal constituents of MAl were (E)-nerolidol (35.4%), ?-costol (13.3%) and ?-costol (6.8%). Both MSi and MAl exhibited a significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis (minimum inhibitory concentration = 25 and 12.5 ?g/mL, respectively). The chemotaxonomy markers of the species were identified. PMID:24871127

Khaoukha, Guesmia; Ben Jemia, Mariem; Amira, Smain; Laouer, Hocine; Bruno, Maurizio; Scandolera, Elia; Senatore, Felice

2014-01-01

138

SMART: A Spatially Explicit Bio-Economic Model for Assessing and Managing Demersal Fisheries, with an Application to Italian Trawlers in the Strait of Sicily  

PubMed Central

Management of catches, effort and exploitation pattern are considered the most effective measures to control fishing mortality and ultimately ensure productivity and sustainability of fisheries. Despite the growing concerns about the spatial dimension of fisheries, the distribution of resources and fishing effort in space is seldom considered in assessment and management processes. Here we propose SMART (Spatial MAnagement of demersal Resources for Trawl fisheries), a tool for assessing bio-economic feedback in different management scenarios. SMART combines information from different tasks gathered within the European Data Collection Framework on fisheries and is composed of: 1) spatial models of fishing effort, environmental characteristics and distribution of demersal resources; 2) an Artificial Neural Network which captures the relationships among these aspects in a spatially explicit way and uses them to predict resources abundances; 3) a deterministic module which analyzes the size structure of catches and the associated revenues, according to different spatially-based management scenarios. SMART is applied to demersal fishery in the Strait of Sicily, one of the most productive fisheries of the Mediterranean Sea. Three of the main target species are used as proxies for the whole range exploited by trawlers. After training, SMART is used to evaluate different management scenarios, including spatial closures, using a simulation approach that mimics the recent exploitation patterns. Results evidence good model performance, with a noteworthy coherence and reliability of outputs for the different components. Among others, the main finding is that a partial improvement in resource conditions can be achieved by means of nursery closures, even if the overall fishing effort in the area remains stable. Accordingly, a series of strategically designed areas of trawling closures could significantly improve the resource conditions of demersal fisheries in the Strait of Sicily, also supporting sustainable economic returns for fishermen if not applied simultaneously for different species. PMID:24465971

Russo, Tommaso; Parisi, Antonio; Garofalo, Germana; Gristina, Michele; Cataudella, Stefano; Fiorentino, Fabio

2014-01-01

139

SMART: a spatially explicit bio-economic model for assessing and managing demersal fisheries, with an application to italian trawlers in the strait of sicily.  

PubMed

Management of catches, effort and exploitation pattern are considered the most effective measures to control fishing mortality and ultimately ensure productivity and sustainability of fisheries. Despite the growing concerns about the spatial dimension of fisheries, the distribution of resources and fishing effort in space is seldom considered in assessment and management processes. Here we propose SMART (Spatial MAnagement of demersal Resources for Trawl fisheries), a tool for assessing bio-economic feedback in different management scenarios. SMART combines information from different tasks gathered within the European Data Collection Framework on fisheries and is composed of: 1) spatial models of fishing effort, environmental characteristics and distribution of demersal resources; 2) an Artificial Neural Network which captures the relationships among these aspects in a spatially explicit way and uses them to predict resources abundances; 3) a deterministic module which analyzes the size structure of catches and the associated revenues, according to different spatially-based management scenarios. SMART is applied to demersal fishery in the Strait of Sicily, one of the most productive fisheries of the Mediterranean Sea. Three of the main target species are used as proxies for the whole range exploited by trawlers. After training, SMART is used to evaluate different management scenarios, including spatial closures, using a simulation approach that mimics the recent exploitation patterns. Results evidence good model performance, with a noteworthy coherence and reliability of outputs for the different components. Among others, the main finding is that a partial improvement in resource conditions can be achieved by means of nursery closures, even if the overall fishing effort in the area remains stable. Accordingly, a series of strategically designed areas of trawling closures could significantly improve the resource conditions of demersal fisheries in the Strait of Sicily, also supporting sustainable economic returns for fishermen if not applied simultaneously for different species. PMID:24465971

Russo, Tommaso; Parisi, Antonio; Garofalo, Germana; Gristina, Michele; Cataudella, Stefano; Fiorentino, Fabio

2014-01-01

140

The role of sea surface circulation and hydrographic processes in anchovy spawning and larvae distribution in the Strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the most important resources of the Mediterranean Sea. Despite its abundance and relevance, the anchovy population off the Mediterranean coasts exhibits a patchy distribution. Moreover, its biology and the influence of environment on its variability is poorly known. We here use data from ichthyoplankton-surveys carried out during the peak spawning season in order to analyze abundance and age of anchovy larvae in the Strait of Sicily, with respect to sea surface dynamic and hydrographic parameter patterns. The Strait of Sicily dynamics is characterized by upwelling regions, fronts, vortices, and filaments, with a consequent complexity in the spatial distribution of oceanographic parameters and anchovy larvae. To investigate the role of mesoscale features and oceanographic environment on the latter, anchovy larvae observations were paired to remote sensing data (such as sea surface temperature, chlorophyll, primary production, surface wind speed as well as light attenuation, absorption, and particle backscattering coefficients) and Lagrangian and Eulerian numerical simulations results for ocean currents and larval transport. The subsequent analysis shows and quantifies how the Atlantic Ionian Stream (AIS, a meandering current of Atlantic origin) path and variability, as well as the upwelling-induced south Sicilian coastal current, have consequences for anchovy spawning and larvae distribution. These currents transport anchovy larvae towards the Sicilian coast's south-eastern tip, where larvae are then retained in a frontal structure. However, significant cross-shore transport events due to relatively cold filament-like baroclinic instabilities generated by wind-induced coastal upwelling were also observed. Finally, the larval age distribution qualitatively agrees well with this transport pattern.

Falcini, Federico; Palatella, Luigi; Cuttitta, Angela; Bignami, Francesco; Patti, Bernardo; Santoleri, Rosalia; Fiorentino, Fabio

2014-05-01

141

Preliminary results of a multi-scale structural analisys in an analogue carbonate reservoir (Hyblean Plateau, Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the aim of studying the multi-scale fault architecture and permeability in hydrocarbon-rich porous carbonate rocks, we are currently involved in a project focused on the structural analysis of fractured and faulted platform-to-ramp carbonates cropping out in the Hyblean Plateau (Sicily, Italy). The Hyblean Plateau is part of the Maghrebian foreland and forms the northern portion of the African plate. The plateau is a NE-oriented structural high crosscut by a large-scale N10°-20°E oriented strike-slip fault system, named Scicli-Ragusa, which was affected by right-lateral kinematics during the Upper Miocene-Lower Pliocene. Some authors documented a recent activity of the Scicli-Ragusa fault system, during the Quaternary, characterized by left-lateral kinematics. The portion of the Hyblean Plateau crosscut by this fault system represents an excellent example of an outcropping analogue of a fractured carbonate reservoir. By taking advantage of the several oil shows located along the Scicli-Ragusa fault system, we combine stratigraphic-structural analyses, both at outcrop and microscopic scales, to assess the structural control exerted by faults and fractures on hydrocarbon migration and storage. The field work focused on the geological mapping, at 1:10.000 scale, on detailed stratigraphic characterization of the outcropping layered carbonates (Ragusa Fm.) and on traditional faults and fractures analysis. Sample collection was also performed in order to conduct, in the laboratory, optical microscope and image analyses. The Oligo-Miocenic Ragusa Fm. is comprised of two main members: i) the lower Leonardo Member, which is characterised by well-cemented carbonate packstones intercalated with marl-rich levels; ii) the upper Irminio Member, characterised by an alternation of well-cemented and poorly-cemented grainstones/packstones. According to both orientations and kinematics, we grouped the fault segments of the Scicli-Ragusa fault system into three major sets: (i) NNE-striking faults with predominant right-lateral kinematics, (ii) ENE-striking faults with left-lateral kinematics, and (iii) NE-striking faults characterized by normal slip. Conversely, based on the fault attributes we subdivided the outcropping faults into four main categories: (i) Major faults, comprised of well-developed fault cores (made up of cataclastic rocks and main slip surfaces) flanked by thicker fault damage zones, which are up to 18 km-long and have throws in the order of 100's of meters. (ii) Medium faults containing thin and discontinuous fault cores of brecciated and cataclastic fault rocks and through-going slip surfaces encompassed within the fault damage zones, which are long up to several 100's of meters and have throws up to 10's of meters. (iii) Small faults made up of isolated and discontinuous fault cores of faults breccias and through-going slip surfaces, which are up to a few m-long and have throws in order of several 10's of cm and a few meters. (iv) Incipient faults consist, predominantly, of sheared pre-existing fractures confined within the individual carbonate beds; the maximum throw < 10 cm. The meso-structural analysis performed to define the background deformation allowed us to identify mainly three different typology of structures: i) joints, ii) stylolites, and iii) shear bands. On the basis of their abutting relationships first originated bed-parallel stylolites and then two coeval sets of bed perpendicular joints. Shear bands nucleated by shearing of previously formed bed-parallel and bed-perpendicular structures. Another important data came out from preliminary microscope analysis carried out within mines of tar rich carbonates. Here, shear bands within porous layers behaved as a seal for oil migration whereas joints, localized in well cemented layers, acted as conduct for hydrocarbons. Finally, as planned work, we are going to combine fault architecture data with petrophysical analyses conducted on samples belonging to different structural domains in order to define hydraulic behaviours of the studied faults.

Cilona, Antonino; Agosta, Fabrizio; Criscenti, Alessandro; Dipasquale, Mario; Giunta, Giuseppe; Napoli, Giuseppe; Occhipinti, Rosario; Renda, Pietro; Tondi, Emanuele

2010-05-01

142

High-resolution chemostratigraphic records for the Tethyan Bonarelli Level (latest Cenomanian) from the Hybla Formation at Calabianca, NW Sicily, Italy: implications for its duration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest Cenomanian Bonarelli Level is a well-known organic carbon-rich black shale horizon which is considered to be the sedimentary expression of a short-term global Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE2). It has been recognized in different settings throughout Italy, from the Southern Alps to Sicily. The present work is focused on a 3 m-thick pelagic sedimentary succession of the Hybla Formation outcropping at Calabianca (NW Sicily). The studied succession spans the top of the Rotalipora cushmani zone and the base of the Whiteinella archaeocretacea zone of latest Cenomanian age. The Bonarelli Level equivalent is about 1.5 m-thick and consists of cm-thick couplets of radiolarian cherts or cherty mudstones and black shales. Within the Bonarelli Level radiolarians proliferate but scattered planktonic foraminifers, mainly represented by small hedgerbellids and shackoinids, also occur. The black shales are laminated, organic carbon-rich (TOC values up to 26%) and show fish remains and occasional radiolarians. A distinct positive excursion of 2.5 ? ppm in the carbon isotope curve is recorded for the studied section. This shift is correlated with analogous signals recognized for the same stratigraphic interval in other sequences from Italian Apennines and Alps as well as in various sections in the world in coincidence with the global OAE2. Moreover, the high resolution of the ?13C record (sample spacing of 2 cm) allows us to split the carbon curve into different segments with peculiar trends. The abundance of biogenic silica and the relatively high Ca/Al and Ba/Al ratios in the radiolarian rich-layers suggest that during their deposition, surface water were rather fertile possibly due to an efficient recycling of nutrients from deeper waters. Black shale deposition is characterized by relatively oxygen-depleted bottom water (high Fe/Mn ratios and V and Ni concentrations) probably as consequence of an enhanced stratification induced by an increase in nutrient-rich riverine influxes (D* greater than 0.63 and high P_2O_5 concentrations). Cyclic organization of couplets seems to represent climatic cycles. Power spectral analysis applied to Ca/Al ratios shows cyclicity of 21, 40, and 100 ka which could be explained by periodic orbital-climatic cycles, in tune with the Milankovitch cycles. Based on this, we suggest for the Bonarelli Level of the Calabianca section a duration of 350 ± 20 ka, which fits well with estimates provided by other authors for the same stratigraphic interval.

Scopelliti, G.; Bellanca, A.; Neri, R.; Coccioni, R.; Luciani, V.; Baudin, F.

2003-04-01

143

Holocene hydrological changes in south-western Mediterranean as recorded by lake-level fluctuations at Lago Preola, a coastal lake in southern Sicily, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a high-resolution lake-level record for the Holocene at Lago Preola (Sicily, southern Italy) based on a specific sedimentological approach, with a chronology derived from AMS radiocarbon dates. It gives evidence of three major successive palaeohydrological periods, with (1) a pronounced dryness during the early Holocene until ca 10300 cal BP, (2) a highstand from ca 10300 to 4500 cal BP, and (3) a marked lowstand from 4500 cal BP to present. Large amplitude lake-level fluctuations characterise two transition phases at ca 10300-9000 and 6400-4500 cal BP. Period 2 was interrupted between 8300 and 7000 cal BP by a dry phase that was punctuated to ca 7300 cal BP by the deposition of a tephra from neighbouring Pantelleria Island. Comparisons of the Preola record with other palaeohydrological records along north-south and west-east transects in the Mediterranean show contrasting patterns of hydrological changes: north (south) of around 40°N latitude, the records highlight a mid-Holocene period characterised by lake-level minima (maxima). Humid mid-Holocene conditions over the Mediterranean south of 40°N were probably linked to a strong weakening of the Hadley cell circulation and of monsoon winds. We suggest that the maximum of humidity in the Mediterranean during the mid-Holocene was characterised by humid winters to the north of 40°N and humid summers to the south. On a multi-centennial scale, the high-resolution palaeohydrological reconstructions in the central Mediterranean area reveal a strong climate reversal around 4500-4000 cal BP, with contrasting changes in the hydrological cycle. In addition to seasonal and inter-hemispherical changes related to orbital forcing, this major oscillation might be related to non-linear responses of the climatic system to the gradual decrease in summer insolation at northern latitudes. Another major climate oscillation around 7500-7000 cal BP may have resulted from the combined effects of (1) a strong rate of change in insolation, and (2) variations in solar activity. Finally, comparisons of the Preola lake-level record with Sicilian pollen records suggest a strong influence of moisture availability on vegetation development in Sicily. Very dry early Holocene conditions probably prevented the expansion of coastal evergreen forests, while decreasing moisture availability since the onset of the late Holocene may have exacerbated effects of intensive land-use.

Magny, Michel; Vannière, Boris; Calo, Camilla; Millet, Laurent; Leroux, Aurélie; Peyron, Odile; Zanchetta, Gianni; La Mantia, Tommaso; Tinner, Willy

2011-09-01

144

Holocene vertical deformation along the coastal sector of Mt. Etna volcano (eastern Sicily, Italy): Implications on the time-space constrains of the volcano lateral sliding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed survey of morphological and biological markers of paleo-shorelines has been carried out along the coastal sector of Mt. Etna volcano (eastern Sicily, Italy), in order to better define causes and timing of vertical deformation. We have mapped markers of raised Holocene shorelines, which are represented by beach rocks, wave-cut platforms, balanid, vermetid and algal rims. The timing of coastal uplift has been determined by radiocarbon dating of shells collected from the raised paleo-shorelines and, to correctly assess the total amount of tectonic uplift of the coast during the Late Holocene, we have compared the elevation-age data of sampled shells to the local curve of Holocene sea-level rise. Taking into account the nominal elevation of the associated paleo-shorelines, an uplift rate of 2.5-3.0 mm/year has been estimated for the last 6-7 ka. This general process of uplifting is only locally interrupted by subsidence related to flank sliding of the volcanic edifice, measured at docks and other manmade structures, and by acceleration along the hinge of an active anticline and at the footwall of an active fault. Based on this new data we suggest more precise time-space constraints for the dynamics of the lower eastern flank of Mt. Etna volcano.

Branca, Stefano; De Guidi, Giorgio; Lanzafame, Gianni; Monaco, Carmelo

2014-12-01

145

Iblean diatremes 3: volcanic processes on a Miocene carbonate platform (Iblean Mountains, SE-Sicily): a comparison of deep vs. shallow marine eruptive processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evolution and magma fragmentation processes of two contrasting, well-exposed diatreme complexes interbedded with Late Miocene calcareous marine sediments in distinct sedimentary environments of a carbonate platform (Iblean Plateau, Sicily) are compared with each other. The nephelinitic Cozzo Molino diatreme (CMD) to the east developed in shallow water (0-80 m water depth); the alkali basaltic Valle Guffari seamount (VGS) to the west grew on a deeper water carbonate ramp (150-200 m water depth). We focus on the dominant boundary conditions inferred to have governed depth of magma fragmentation and subaqueous emplacement mechanisms: water depth, physical nature of host rocks, magma composition, and inferred differences in initial volatile concentrations. There are gross similarities in the composition of the two moderately evolved magmas. The low-viscosity magmas in both diatremes were laden with xenoliths originating from mantle to lower crustal sites. Although similar, the eastern shallow water CMD was likely more volatile-rich, with magma fragmented prior to reaching the surface and the surrounding tephra cone was partly emergent. The eruptions of the entirely submarine VGS diatreme complex in the deeper water environment were dominated by interaction of soft sediment and alkali basaltic magma or a pre-fragmented volatile-particle mixture. Eruption columns were, thus, strongly damped and the submarine complex never pierced the water surface.

Suiting, Ines; Schmincke, H.-U.

2012-01-01

146

Distribution of rare earth elements in marine sediments from the Strait of Sicily (western Mediterranean Sea): evidence of phosphogypsum waste contamination.  

PubMed

Concentrations of rare earth elements (REE), Y, Th and Sc were recently determined in marine sediments collected using a box corer along two onshore-offshore transects located in the Strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea). The REE+Y were enriched in offshore fine-grained sediments where clay minerals are abundant, whereas the REE+Y contents were lower in onshore coarse-grained sediments with high carbonate fractions. Considering this distribution trend, the onshore sediments in front of the southwestern Sicilian coast represent an anomaly with high REE+Y concentrations (mean value 163.4 ?g g(-1)) associated to high Th concentrations (mean value 7.9 ?g g(-1)). Plot of shale-normalized REE+Y data of these coastal sediments showed Middle REE enrichments relative to Light REE and Heavy REE, manifested by a convexity around Sm-Gd-Eu elements. These anomalies in the fractionation patterns of the coastal sediments were attributed to phosphogypsum-contaminated effluents from an industrial plant, located in the southern Sicilian coast. PMID:21130477

Tranchida, G; Oliveri, E; Angelone, M; Bellanca, A; Censi, P; D'Elia, M; Neri, R; Placenti, F; Sprovieri, M; Mazzola, S

2011-01-01

147

Synsedimentary-tectonic, soft-sediment deformation and volcanism in the rifted Tethyan margin from the Upper Triassic-Middle Jurassic deep-water carbonates in Central Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pizzo Lupo section (Sicanian Mts, central Sicily) is an Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic condensed deep-water succession, where the relationships among synsedimentary tectonic, soft-sediment deformations, volcanism and lithological changes reflect the evolution of a rift-basin. The morphostructural setting of the studied basin appears as a gently dipping slope where a fault-delimited area (graben to halfgraben) was developed. The instability of the sea floor, related to the seismic shocks, was the cause of the gravity-driven deformational sedimentary structures (slumping, breccia channelized bodies). The partly stratified basaltic rocks, with disorganized and chaotic stratification, suggest the occurrence of a volcanic complex located in neighbouring areas. A regional comparison with the tectono-sedimentary evolution of the pelagic drowning platform succession (i.e. Trapanese domain Auct.), outcropping in adjacent areas, suggests that these different domains were close to each other during the studied period forming a stepped margin platform-to-basin system. The environmental changes, synsedimentary tectonic activity and gravity-driven phenomena were the result of repeated events occurred during a long time interval, spanning from Late Triassic to Early Jurassic.

Basilone, Luca; Lena, Gabriele; Gasparo-Morticelli, Maurizio

2014-07-01

148

Partitioning between "wedge-top" river- and wave-dominated successions: an example from the late Tortonian — early Messinian Terravecchia Formation (NW Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed field sedimentological and facies analyses have been performed in the Terravecchia Formation cropping out in NW Sicily, in order to differentiate and describe, for the first time, wave- and river-dominated shallow-marine (deltaic) siliciclastic successions. The latter were deposited filling syntectonic basins, developed between the late Tortonian and early Messinian time, within the wedge-top depozone of the Sicilian Foreland Basin System. It has been observed that river-dominated successions, recording the deposition of small fan-deltas are characterized by fining- to coarsening upward, transgressive-regressive sequences which were mostly deposited filling relatively narrow and often oversupplied basins. These basins were probably located in a proximal sector of the wedge-top depozone, closer to emergent sectors of the chain and probably sheltered from the main marine areas. Wavedominated successions, on the other hand, are characterized by upward fining, mostly transgressive sequences which were deposited filling wider basins open to major marine regions and located in a more distal position of the wedge-top depozone. The documented partitioning between river- and wave-dominated successions, as a function of the position of the sedimentary basin within the wedge-top depozone, is coherent with data from analyses of the deformational patterns of the Terravecchia Formation in this study area. Furthermore, the data here presented could be considered as a preliminary database for future characterization and analysis of siliciclastic reservoirs from Sicilian outcrop analogues.

Gugliotta, Calogero

2011-09-01

149

A retrospective study on acute health effects due to volcanic ash exposure during the eruption of Mount Etna (Sicily) in 2002  

PubMed Central

Background Mount Etna, located in the eastern part of Sicily (Italy), is the highest and most active volcano in Europe. During the sustained eruption that occurred in October-November 2002 huge amounts of volcanic ash fell on a densely populated area south-east of Mount Etna in Catania province. The volcanic ash fall caused extensive damage to infrastructure utilities and distress in the exposed population. This retrospective study evaluates whether or not there was an association between ash fall and acute health effects in exposed local communities. Methods We collected the number and type of visits to the emergency department (ED) for diseases that could be related to volcanic ash exposure in public hospitals of the Province of Catania between October 20 and November 7, 2002. We compared the magnitude of differences in ED visits between the ash exposure period in 2002 and the same period of the previous year 2001. Results We observed a significant increase of ED visits for acute respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and ocular disturbances during the ash exposure time period. Conclusions There was a positive association between exposure to volcanic ash from the 2002 eruption of Mount Etna and acute health effects in the Catania residents. This study documents the need for public health preparedness and response initiatives to protect nearby populations from exposure to ash fall from future eruptions of Mount Etna. PMID:23924394

2013-01-01

150

Flash floods and debris flow in the city area of Messina, North-East part of Sicily, Italy in October 2009: the case of the Giampilieri catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flash floods are phenomena in which the important hydrologic processes are occurring on the same spatial and temporal scales as the intense precipitation. Most of the catchment in the North-East part of Sicily (Italy) are small, with a steep slope, and characterized by short concentration times. These characteristics make those catchment prone to flash flood formation, as demonstrated by events that occurred in the area around Messina in the North-East part of Sicily, Italy in the last recent years. The events occurred on 25th October 2007 in the Mastroguglielmo torrent on the ionic sea coast, on 11th December 2008 in the Elicona catchment on the Tyrrhenian sea coast and on 1st October 2009 in Racinazzi and Giampilieri torrents on the ionic sea coast are an example of flash floods and debris flow events that caused not only significant economic damages to property, buildings, roads and bridges but also, for this that concern the 1st October 2009 flash flood event, loss of human life. This work is aimed by the 1st October 2009 flash flood and debris flow event where a devastating flooding was caused by a very intense rainfall concentrated over the Messina area. The storm caused severe flash floods in many villages around the city of Messina, such as Giampilieri, Scaletta Zanclea, Altolia Superiore and Molino with forty casualties and significant damage to property, buildings, roads and bridges estimated close to 200 million Euro. Main focus of this work is to perform a post event analysis of the 2009 flash flood event, putting together available meteorological and hydrological data in order to get better insight into temporal and spatial variability of the rain storm, the soil moisture condition and the consequent flash floods in the catchment of the Giampilieri catchment. Starting from these information another objective has been, then, to document the post-failure stage of event concerning slid materials. With the help of GIS technology and particularly spatial analysis, volume of debris gone down for the Giampilieri catchment has been calculated. The event was investigated using observed data from a raingauge network and hydraulic evidences. Statistical analysis using GEV distribution was performed and rainfall return period (storm severity) was estimated. Further, measured rainfall data and rainfall-runoff modeling were used to analyze the hydrological behaviour and to reconstruct flood and debris hydrographs. The study confirmed that post-flood investigation should focus on discharges and hydrological response of the catchment rather than simply analyzing statistical characteristics of rainfall. Thanks to LIDAR data produced immediately after the event, issued one meter precision DEM has been compared with a two meter precision one provided two years before. GIS maps with landslide and material deposit areas have been produced and analyzed.

Aronica, G. T.; Brigandi, G.; Morey, N.

2010-09-01

151

large-scale structural pattern as the result of the interplay between compression and extension during chain building: the case of the Sicily Belt (Central Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are very close relationships between chains building and contemporaneous basins formation in terms of spatial and structural interdependence, mutual compensation of sediments, tectonic interaction and simultaneous evolution. In fact, extensional tectonics has been worldwide documented as a process that contributes to the evolution of orogenic belts. The dynamics of wedge growth may partly dictate by localised extensional forces which may support basin formation both in the back of the wedge (piggy-back basins) and in its toe region (foredeep-foreland basins). The evolution of chain-foredeep-foreland systems is characterised by contractional structures coupled by extensional deformations, both at the chain-foredeep and at the foredeep-foreland transition zone. As a consequence, the architecture of most foredeep depressions is generally envisioned as controlled by active regional thrusts and coeval subsidiary normal faults in their inner and outer edges. These structures may contribute to accommodate flexure of foreland plates induced by the load of advancing thrust sheets. The connection between thrusting-and-folding evolution (including thermal and mechanical perturbations of the continental lithosphere induced by mountain building) and the wedge failure towards the extensional collapse in collisional settings is poorly argued and two main different models are known: I) syn-orogenic extension (extensional tectonics contemporaneous with shortening induced by the overstepping at the back of an accretionary wedge during continuous deeper subduction) and II) post-orogenic extension (often explained as the result of crustal change in stress path related to gravitational collapse of the previously thickened and thermally weakened lithosphere). Syn-orogenic extension observed during the build-up of the mountain belt is usually restricted to the upper brittle crust and to the brittle-ductile transition. A kinematic model relative to the chain building lack for the Sicily Belt, including folding-and-thrusting and extension interactions. Sicily, located in the Central Mediterranean, is considered as part of the Tertiary Alpine-Himalayan suture zone. The Sicilian Thrust System (STS) is a south-verging fold-and-thrust belt and represents the South-eastern arcuate portion of the Apennine-Maghrebides thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belt. The STS is made of a lot of thrust sheets, including Mesozoic-Lower Tertiary pre-orogenic multilayered sedimentary sequence and occupies the larger part of the island. The thrust stack owes its origin to the deformation of pre-orogenic strata deposited in different palaeogeographic domains belonging to the Northern Africa passive margin. The belt developed during the Neogene, following the closure of the Tethys Ocean and the continental collision between the Sardo-Corso Block and the Africa margin. The thrust pile was detached from the underlying basement during Miocene-Pliocene time interval and experienced both faulting, folding and stretching. A general hinterland-to-foreland thrust propagation is recorded in the syn-orogenic deposits. The recognised regional-scale structural setting allow us to reconstruct tectonic evolution: I) piggy-back thrusting from the early Oligocene to the Langhian, inducing the building of the Inner Sicilian Chain (ISC) that migrated progressively forelandwards. Extensional deformations were active only in the foredeep-foreland system; II) piggy-back thrusting from the Langhian to the Tortonian, inducing the building of the Middle Sicilian Chain (MSC) that migrated progressively forelandwards. Extensional deformations were active both in the foredeep-foreland system and in the ISC as the result of incipient supercritical wedge taper conditions; III) wedge failure (ISC+MSC) from the Tortonian to the earliermost Pliocene, inducing generalised extensional deformations in the chain-foredeep-foreland system; IV) new onset of piggy-back thrusting since the early Pliocene for renewed subcritical wedge taper conditions, allowed the building of the Outer Sicilian Chain (OSC) an

Nigro, Fabrizio; Renda, Pietro; Favara, Rocco; Salvaggio, Gaetano

2010-05-01

152

Characteristics of the extreme rainfall event and consequent flash floods in North-East part of Sicily, Italy in October 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 1st October 2009, a devastating flooding was caused by a very intense rainfall concentrated over the Messina area in the North-East part of Sicily, Italy. The storm caused severe flash floods in many villages around the city of Messina, such as Gianpilieri, Scaletta Zanclea, Altolia Superiore and Molino with forty casualties and significant damage to property, buildings, roads and bridges estimated close to 200 million Euro. The main goal of the study here presented is put together available meteorological and hydrological data in order to get better insight into temporal and spatial variability of the rain storm, the soil moisture condition and the consequent flash floods in the catchment of the Gianpilieri river. The area of the catchment is approximately 10 km2, predominantly rural with woods and sparse shrubs in the upper mountainous part, while the areas next to the outlet are highly urbanized. The topography is very rugged and the slope is steep, as is that of a number of its tributaries, some of which are incised into narrow pathways as they approach the main channel. As a consequence, short concentration times are to be expected with fast hydrological response. The area under study has been subjected to unstable weather with high values of precipitation during all the September period. In fact, more than 40 percent of the annual total precipitation occurred during this period and consequently the catchment was totally saturated at the beginning of the event, as the post event analysis has shown. The event was investigated using observed data from a raingauge network and hydraulic evidences. Statistical analysis using GEV distribution was performed and rainfall return period (storm severity) was estimated. Further, measured rainfall data and rainfall-runoff modeling were used to analyze the hydrological behaviour and to reconstruct flood and debris hydrographs. The study confirmed that post-flood investigation should focus on discharges and hydrological response of the catchment rather than simply analyzing statistical characteristics of rainfall.

Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Brigand?, Giuseppina

2010-05-01

153

High-resolution 40Ar/ 39Ar chronostratigraphy of the post-caldera (<20 ka) volcanic activity at Pantelleria, Sicily Strait  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island of Pantelleria (Sicily Strait), the type locality for pantellerite, has been the locus of major caldera-forming eruptions that culminated, ca. 50 ka ago, in the formation of the Cinque Denti caldera produced by the Green Tuff eruption. The post-caldera silicic activity since that time has been mostly confined inside the caldera and consists of smaller-energy eruptions represented by more than twenty coalescing pantelleritic centers structurally controlled by resurgence and trapdoor faulting of the caldera floor. A high-resolution 40Ar/ 39Ar study was conducted on key units spanning the recent (post-20 ka) intracaldera activity to better characterize the present-day status (and forecast the short-term behavior of) the system based on the temporal evolution of the latest eruptions. The new 40Ar/ 39Ar data capture a long-term (> 15 ka) decline in eruption frequency with a shift in eruptive pace from 3.5 ka -1 to 0.8 ka -1 associated with a prominent paleosol horizon marking the only recognizable volcanic stasis around 12-14 ka. This shift in extraction frequency occurs without major changes in eruptive style, and is paralleled by a subtle trend of decreasing melt differentiation index. We speculate that this decline probably occurred (i) without short-term variations in melt production/differentiation rate in a steady-state compositionally-zoned silicic reservoir progressively tapped deeper through the sequence, and (ii) that it was possibly modulated by outboard eustatic forcing due to the 140 m sea level rise over the past 21 ka. The intracaldera system is experiencing a protracted stasis since 7 ka. Coupled with recent geodetic evidence of deflation and subsidence of the caldera floor, the system appears today to be on a wane with no temporal evidence for a short-term silicic eruption.

Scaillet, Stéphane; Rotolo, Silvio G.; La Felice, Sonia; Vita-Scaillet, Grazia

2011-09-01

154

Late Quaternary deformation on the island on Pantelleria: New constraints for the recent tectonic evolution of the Sicily Channel Rift (southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural observations carried out on the volcanic Island of Pantelleria show that the tectonic setting is dominated by NNE trending normal faults and by NW-striking right-lateral strike-slip faults with normal component of motion controlled by a ?N 100°E oriented extension. This mode of deformation also controls the development of the eruptive fissures, dykes and eruptive centres along NNE-SSW belts that may thus represent the surface response to crustal cracking with associated magma intrusions. Magmatic intrusions are also responsible for the impressive vertical deformations that affect during the Late Quaternary the south-eastern segment of the island and producing a large dome within the Pantelleria caldera complex. The results of the structural analysis carried out on the Island of Pantelleria also improves the general knowledge on the Late Quaternary tectonics of the entire Sicily Channel. ESE-WNW directed extension, responsible for both the tectonic and volcano-tectonic features of the Pantelleria Island, also characterizes, at a greater scale, the entire channel as shown by available geodetic and seismological data. This mode of extension reactivates the older NW-SE trending fault segments bounding the tectonic troughs of the Channel as right-lateral strike-slip faults and produces new NNE trending pure extensional features (normal faulting and cracking) that preferentially develop at the tip of the major strike-slip fault zones. We thus relate the Late Quaternary volcanism of the Pelagian Block magmatism to dilatational strain on the NNE-striking extensional features that develop on the pre-existing stretched area and propagate throughout the entire continental crust linking the already up-welled mantle with the surface.

Catalano, Stefano; De Guidi, Giorgio; Lanzafame, Gianni; Monaco, Carmelo; Tortorici, Luigi

2009-08-01

155

Neurotoxicological effects on marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis caged at petrochemical contaminated areas (eastern Sicily, Italy): (1)H NMR and immunohistochemical assays.  

PubMed

The neurotoxicological potential of environmental pollution, mainly related to petrochemical activities, was investigated in marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, are widely used as sentinel organisms in biomonitoring studies for assessing the impact of anthropogenic contaminants. The gills, mainly involved in nutrient uptake, digestion, gas exchange and neuronal signaling, are the first organ to be affected by pollutants present in the external environment, and therefore were selected as the target organ for this study. Mussels from an aquaculture farm were caged at a highly polluted petrochemical area and a reference site along the Augusta coastline (eastern Sicily, Italy) for one month. A battery of biomarkers indicative of neuronal perturbations was applied on gills in order to investigate on the serotonergic (i.e. serotonin, 5-HT, and its receptor, 5-HT3R), cholinergic (i.e. acetylcholine, acetylcholinesterase, AChE, and choline acetyltransferase, ChAT), and dopaminergic systems (i.e. tyrosine and tyrosine hydroxylase, TH). Overall, impairment in the normal ciliary motility was found in mussels caged at the polluted site. Alterations in serotoninergic and cholinergic systems were revealed, with enhancement of dopaminergic neurotransmission resulting in a cilio-inhibitory effect. However, the over-expression in 5-HT3R and ChAT at cellular level may indicate an adaptive response of mussels to recover a regular physiological activity in gills. To our knowledge, this is the first study that uses (1)H NMR and immunohistochemical assays. Their concurrent use demonstrated to be sensitive and effective for assessing environmental influences on the health status of aquatic organisms, and thus suitable to be applied in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:25572855

Cappello, Tiziana; Maisano, Maria; Giannetto, Alessia; Parrino, Vincenzo; Mauceri, Angela; Fasulo, Salvatore

2015-03-01

156

The use of multispectral thermal infrared image data to estimate the sulfur dioxide flux from volcanoes: A case study from Mount Etna, Sicily, July 29, 1986  

SciTech Connect

The authors have found that image data acquired with NASA's airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) can be used to make estimates of the SO[sub 2] content of volcanic plumes. TIMS image data are most applicable to the study of partially transparent SO[sub 2] plumes, such as those released during quiescent periods or nonexplosive eruptions. The estimation procedure is based on the LOWTRAN 7 radiative transfer code, which the authors use to model the radiance perceived by TIMS as it views the ground through an SO[sub 2] plume. The input to the procedure includes the altitudes of the aircraft and ground, the altitude and thickness of the SO[sub 2] plume, the emissivity of the ground, and altitude profiles of the atmospheric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. They use the TIMS data to estimate both ground temperatures beneath a plume and SO[sub 2] concentrations within a plume. Applying this procedure to TIMS data acquired over Mount Etna, Sicily, on July 29, 1986, the authors estimate that the SO[sub 2] flux from the volcano was approximately 6700 t d[sup [minus]1]. The use of TIMS to study SO[sub 2] plumes represents a bridge between highly localized methods, such as correlation spectroscopy or direct sampling, and small-scale mapping techniques involving satellite instruments such as the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer or Microwave Limb Sounder. The authors require further airborne experiments to refine their estimation procedure. This refinement is a necessary preparation for the scheduled 1998 launch of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer, which will allow large-scale multispectral thermal infrared image data to be collected over virtually any volcano on Earth at least once every 16 days.

Realmuto, V.J.; Abrams, M.J.; Buongiorno, M.F.; Pieri, D.C. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States))

1994-01-10

157

The Gela Basin pockmark field in the strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea): chemosymbiotic faunal and carbonate signatures of postglacial to modern cold seepage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geo-biological exploration of a pockmark field located at ca. 800 m below sea level in the Gela basin (Strait of Sicily, Central Mediterranean) provided a relatively diverse chemosymbiotic community and methane-imprinted carbonates. To date, this is the first occurrence of such a type of specialised deep-water cold-seep communities recorded from this key region, before documented in the Mediterranean as rather disjunct findings in its eastern and westernmost basins. The thiotrophic chemosymbiotic organisms recovered from this area include empty tubes of the vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia sp., loose and articulated shells of lucinids (Lucinoma kazani, Myrtea amorpha), vesicomyids (Isorropodon perplexum), and gastropods (Taranis moerchii). A callianassid decapod (Calliax sp.) was consistently found alive in large numbers in the pockmark mud. Their post-mortem calcified parts mixed with molluscs and subordinately miliolid foraminifers form a distinct type of skeletal assemblage. Carbonate concretions display ?13C values as low as -40‰ PDB suggesting the occurrence of light hydrocarbons in the seeping fluids. Since none of the truly chemosymbiotic organisms was found alive, although their skeletal parts appear at times very fresh, some specimens have been AMS-14C dated to shed light on the historical evolution of this site. Lamellibrachiav and Lucinoma are two of the most significant chemosymbiotic taxa reported from various Mediterranean cold seep sites (Alboran Sea and Eastern basin). Specimens from station MEDCOR78 (pockmark #1, Lat. 36°46´10.18" N, Long. 14°01´31.59" E, 815 m below sea level) provided ages of 11736 ± 636 yr cal BP (Lamellibrachia sp.), and 9609.5 ± 153.5 yr cal BP (L. kazani). One shell of M. amorpha in core MEDCOR81 (pockmark #6, Lat 36°45´38.89" N, Long 14°00´07.58" E, 822 m below sea level) provided a sub-modern age of 484 ± 54 yr cal BP. These ages document that fluid seepage at this pockmark site has been episodically sustaining thiotrophic macrobenthic communities since the end of the Younger Dryas stadial up to sub-recent times.

Taviani, M.; Angeletti, L.; Ceregato, A.; Foglini, F.; Froglia, C.; Trincardi, F.

2013-07-01

158

The Gela Basin pockmark field in the strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea): chemosymbiotic faunal and carbonate signatures of postglacial to modern cold seepage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geo-biological exploration of a pockmark field located at ca. -800 m in the Gela basin (Strait of Sicily, Central Mediterranean) provided a relatively diverse chemosymbiotic community and methane-imprinted carbonates. To date, this is the first occurrence of such type of specialized deep-water cold-seep communities recorded from this key region, before documented in the Mediterranean as rather disjunct findings in its eastern and westernmost basins. The thiotrophic chemosymbiotic organisms recovered from this area include empty tubes of the vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia sp., loose and articulated shells of lucinids (Lucinoma kazani, Myrtea amorpha), vesicomyids (Isorropodon perplexum), and gastropods (Taranis moerchi). A callianassid decapod (Calliax sp.) was consistently found alive in large numbers in the pockmark mud. Their post-mortem calcified parts mixed with molluscs and subordinately miliolid foraminifers form a distinct type of skeletal assemblage (named DECAMOL). Carbonate concretions display ?13C values as low as -40 ‰ PDB suggesting the occurrence of light hydrocarbons in the seeping fluids. Since none of the truly chemosymbiotic organisms was found alive, although their skeletal parts appear at times very fresh, some specimens have been AMS-14C dated to shed light on the historical evolution of this site. Lamellibrachia and Lucinoma are two of the most significant chemosymbiotic taxa reported from various Mediterranean cold seep sites (Alboran Sea and Eastern basin). Specimens from station MEDCOR78 (pockmark#1, Lat 36°46´10.18´´ N, Long 14°01´31.59´´ E, -815 m) provided ages of 11 736 ± 636 yr cal BP (Lamellibrachia sp.), and 9609.5 ± 153.5 yr cal BP (L. kazani). One shell of M. amorpha in core MEDCOR81 (pockmark#6, Lat 36°45´38.89´´ N, Long 14°00´07.58´´ E, -822 m) provided a sub-modern age of 484 ± 54 yr cal BP. These ages document that fluid seepage at this pockmark site has been episodically sustaining thiotrophic macrobenthic communities since the end of the Younger Dryas stadial up to sub-recent times.

Taviani, M.; Angeletti, L.; Ceregato, A.; Foglini, F.; Froglia, C.; Trincardi, F.

2013-01-01

159

Analysis and assessment of trace element contamination in offshore sediments of the Augusta Bay (SE Sicily): A multivariate statistical approach based on canonical correlation analysis and mixture density estimation approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An application of multivariate statistical methods is provided to identify anthropogenic contaminants and lithogenic elements in offshore sediments collected near the heavily industrialized Augusta Bay, Sicily. An exploratory statistical technique, based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and mixture density estimation approach, is used for distinguishing between natural and anthropogenic contributions of trace elements in the investigated sediments. Following the intensive industrialization of Augusta area, marine sediments reveal the severe impact of local anthropogenic activities for many elements (e.g. As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Sb), which are considered very dangerous for the environment. In contrast, a prevalent natural/lithogenic origin can be ascribed to Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, V, and Zn. The multivariate statistical approach used in this study, which aims to estimate and to classify trace element pre-industrial levels and sources, could be easily applied to other different contaminated areas.

Di Leonardo, Rossella; Adelfio, Giada; Bellanca, Adriana; Chiodi, Marcello; Mazzola, Salvatore

2014-01-01

160

Human reponses to historical eruptions of Etna (Sicily) from 1600 to present and their implications for present-day disaster planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mount Etna in northeastern Sicily (Italy) rises to over 3000 m, covers an area of ca.1750 km2 and is the most active volcano in Europe. Observations of Etna by literate observers stretch back to the classical era and one of the earliest references to an eruption of Etna was by Pindar in his Pythian Odes, to the event of ca. 474-479 B.C. The history of its activity has been reconstructed by scholars up to the present day and records of eruptions are reasonably complete from the early fifteenth century, reliable from 1669, and document the threats and destruction to human settlements and livelihoods. Effusive and explosive activity has occurred continually throughout the historical period and eruptions of Mount Etna have presented numerous eruption styles, from persistent central crater activity, to periodic flank eruptions. From 1600 to 1669 the activity of Etna was characterised by a high volumetric output of lava with a mean eruption rate of 1.19 m3s-1, this was followed by a pause from flank eruptions and the re-establishment of significant activity from the middle of the eighteenth century. After 1750 the output of lava by flank eruptions was lower than in the previous century, with the mean eruption rate falling to 0.18 m3s-1. This paper summarises: the characteristics of the eruptions that occurred between the period of 1600 to present; the particularities of the societal responses over time and the role of the authorities; and, the important lessons this history holds for the management of present-day civil defence planning in the region. People responded to the eruptions at three levels: as members of a family and extended family; as members of a community and, as citizens of the State. The State, however, was a minor player in responding to these eruptions until the early nineteenth century as the State then became more involved in each successive eruption as the responses moved to a more industrial nature rather than pre-industrial. Today emergencies are closely managed by central government, through the Ministry of Civil Protection (Dipartimento della Protezione Civile - founded in 1992), who can call on the expertise of local authorities (comuni) and scientific bodies, especially the National Institute of Geophysics and Vulcanology in Catania (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologica INGV - sezione Catania). The nature of the society living on the flanks of Mount Etna has changed over the past nine decades, especially since the late 1960s, and the increasing exposure to volcanic and volcano-related hazards in the Etna Region is strengthening the need for improved communication amongst social scientists, civil defence authorities, the media and the local communities. Educating local people about how to react when a disaster strikes is viewed as an increasingly important element in Civil Defence planning, with examples of how people coped successfully in the past being used to inform people today. Effective communication both in terms of, raising awareness and ensuring that non-scientists have properly understood the associated hazard implications, and implementing emergency responses, is critical in facilitating more effective hazard prevention plans.

Sangster, H.; Chester, D. K.; Duncan, A. M.

2012-04-01

161

Monitoring large-scale landslides and their induced hazard with COSMO-SkyMed Intermittent SBAS (ISBAS): a case study in north-western Sicily, Italy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landslides detection and mapping are fundamental requirements for every hazard and risk evaluation. Due to their inevitable shortcomings, geomorphological field surveys and airphoto interpretation do not document all the gravitational events. Indeed some unstable slopes are inaccessible to field surveyors, while some landslides are too slow to be detected with the naked eye or interpretation of aerial photographs. In this work, we integrate geomorphological surveys with ground motion data derived by employing COSMO-SkyMed satellite imagery and the Intermittent Small BAseline Subset (ISBAS; Sowter et al., 2013), a new Advanced Differential Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (ADInSAR) technique which has been developed recently at the Nottingham University in the UK. The main advantage of ISBAS with respect to other InSAR and SBAS techniques, is the possibility to detect good radar reflectors even in non-urbanized terrain, where ground targets usually look intermittently coherent, meaning they have high coherence only in some interferograms but not in others. ISBAS has proven capable of increasing results over natural, woodland and agricultural terrains and, as a result, it makes it possible to improve the detection of landslide boundaries and the assessment of the state of activity where other InSAR approaches fail. We used COSMO-SkyMed StripMap data covering the period between November 2008 and October 2011, with 3m ground range resolution, 40° look angle and minimum revisiting time of 8 days. The data consist of 38 ascending images (track 133, frame 380) with ground track angle at scene centre of 169.5° from the north-south direction. These have been obtained thanks to an agreement between the Italian Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea and the University of Naples 'Federico II'. We tested ISBAS in north-western Sicily (southern Italy), over a 1,530 km2 area where 1,473 landslides have been identified based on optical imagery and field surveys by the local Hydro-geomorphological Setting Plan published in 2006. The geological and tectonic setting of the area, related to the Apenninic-Maghrebian Chain orogeny, makes most of the instability phenomena of complex or flow type with an extremely slow to very slow velocity, namely very suitable for an interferometric analysis. We show the results for Piana degli Albanesi, a thrust faults-bounded basin located in the northern Mt. Kumeta massif, filled in with Lower Miocene marls and pelitic deposits. Here landslide risk affects housing and public infrastructure (e.g. the SP34, the SP38 and SP102 highways), and the unstable slopes extend up to a gravity masonry dam, such as to require continuous rebuilding of infrastructures in the portions with the higher displacement rates. The ISBAS results for ascending geometry entail an unprecedented 685,518 points in a 90 km2 extended processing area, and their Line Of Sight velocities range between -6.4 mm/yr (away from the sensor) and +6.6mm/yr (towards the sensor). ISBAS results detect a total of 89 mapped landslides, of which 23 are previously not recorded. The analysis of ISBAS COSMO-SKyMed time-series allows us to compare the deformation trends to rainfall events, and to evaluate the correlation between heavy or prolonged rainfall and accelerations in the ground motion histories of the identified landslides. Sowter A., Bateson L., Strange P., Ambrose K., Syafiudin M.F., 2013. DInSAR estimation of land motion using intermittent coherence with application to the South Derbyshire and Leicestershire coalfields. Remote Sensing Letters, v.4 : 979-987.

Novellino, Alessandro; Cigna, Francesca; Jordan, Colm; Sowter, Andrew; Calcaterra, Domenico

2014-05-01

162

Mantle melting in within-plate continental settings: Sr-Nd-Pb and U-series isotope constraints in alkali basalts from the Sicily Channel (Pantelleria and Linosa Islands, Southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of the mantle sources of the Na-alkaline magmas erupted within the continental rift of the Sicily Channel and their melting behaviour are here investigated through the determination of Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios and U-series disequilibria on basaltic volcanic rocks from Linosa and Pantelleria. The isotope data, along with trace element ratios are used to assess the possible role of the interaction with the continental crust and/or the Sub-Continental Lithospheric Mantle (SCLM). The data show little variation in Sr and Nd isotopes and a continuous trend toward more radiogenic Pb isotope composition from Linosa to the oldest mafic activity of Pantelleria (i.e. Paleo-Pantelleria), with intermediate values measured in the youngest Pantelleria lavas (Neo-Pantelleria). Pantelleria basalts have ubiquitous 230Th-excess ranging from 7% to 20%. These data suggest the magmas are originated within the asthenospheric mantle, with little or no interaction with either the continental crust or the SCLM. The increasing FOZO-like character of the studied magmas and the variation of some key trace element ratios (e.g. Rb/La) argue for an increasing role of recycled oceanic material in the form of eclogite/pyroxenite dispersed within the mantle sources of these magmas. A completely distinct isotope composition is recorded in Neo-Pantelleria hawaiites from Khartibucale, which show significantly higher 87Sr/86Sr and lower 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb, (238U/232Th) and (230Th/232Th), but comparable (230Th/238U) with respect to all the other rocks studied. These rocks cannot be considered co-genetic with other Pantelleria basalts and are interpreted either as related to interaction with partial melts of the SCLM or to be originated from a mantle source enriched by recycled crustal material (EM-like). 235U-231Pa disequilibria were also measured in one Neo-Pantelleria hawaiite and one Neo-Pantelleria basalt. The coupled (230Th/238U) = 1.20 and (231Pa/235U) = 1.39 of the latter were used to perform quantitative dynamic melting models in order to constrain physical parameters of mantle melting in the Sicily Channel. The combined modelling yielded positive solutions only for high DU/DTh (? 2.5) and low melting rates (? < 1 × 10- 4 kg/m3/a). These data argue against any important role for amphibole in the genesis of these magmas and are consistent with a peridotite source possibly well mixed with recycled components. The modelled values of ? can also be converted into estimates of the upwelling rate of the mantle that are compatible with slow passive upwelling along the Sicily Channel rift.

Avanzinelli, Riccardo; Braschi, Eleonora; Marchionni, Sara; Bindi, Luca

2014-02-01

163

The CIRCEE-HR survey in the Calabrian arc and offshore E Sicily (Ionian Sea and Southern Italy): investigating active faults, recent deformation and the deep marine paleoseismic record (turbidites)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(CIRCEE-HR - Calabrian arc Ionian sea Research and Catastrophic historical EarthquakE s in southern italy - a High Resolution seismic survey) We report on a recent marine geophysical and geological survey conducted onboard the R/V Le Suroit from 2-24 October in the Ionian Sea, offshore Eastern Sicily. The primary aim of the CIRCEE-HR cruise proposal was to conduct a neo-tectonic study of the Calabrian subduction zone offshore Southern Italy, a region struck repeatedly by the most destructive earthquakes in European history. The CIRCEE-HR survey targeted the region struck by the 1693 Catania earthquake (60,000 killed) and the 1908 Messina earthquakes, which produced intensity X-XI shaking and tsunamis. The 1908 (normal faulting mechanism) earthquake triggered a turbidite flow that ruptured submarine cables. The source of some strong historical earthquakes (1169, 1542, 1693) remains unknown. Several crustal scale structures have been proposed as being seismogenic: the Malta escarpment, a lithospheric tear fault (STEP), the subduction fault plane and other related faults. The main objectives of the cruise were therefore to seek evidence of active faults associated with these structures, and to characterize the degree of activity of the Calabria accretionary wedge (sedimentary deformation, dewatering processes) in order to better assess its seismogenic potential. Another major objective is to try to determine the typical recurrence interval for large earthquakes in the region (by coring and dating of turbidites triggered by great earthquakes). The Augias mega-turbidite dated either 3.5 ka (Cita et al., 1996) or 365 AD (Polonia et al., 2013) covers the entire floor of the Ionian abyssal plain with a thickness of 10-15m representing a volume of > 100km3. This layer serves as a stratigraphic marker to identify recent deformation in the abyssal domain. The methods applied were 72-channel high-resolution seismic profiles and sub-bottom profiling (chirp) (with 1200km of profiles planned) as well as some targeted bathymetric swathmapping surveys (in areas <3000m depth, not previously well mapped), and gravity coring of the turbidite deposits (28 coring sites planned). Map of the Ionian Sea - E Sicily margin, with planned seismic profiles shown as red lines and planned sediment coring sites as red triangles

Gutscher, M.; Babonneau, N.; Cattaneo, A.; Gallais, F.; Graindorge, D.; San Pedro, L.

2013-12-01

164

Obsidian provenance determination using the beam stability controlled BSC-XRF and the PIXE-alpha portable spectrometers of the LANDIS laboratory: the case of the Via Capuana settlement in Licodia Eubea (Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade about 800 obsidian artifacts coming from various archaeological sites of Sicily have been analyzed using the BSC-XRF (beam stability controlled-x-ray fluorescence) and PIXE-alpha (particle induced x-ray emission, using low-energy alpha particles) portable spectrometers developed at the Landis laboratory of the LNS-INFN and IBAM-CNR in Catania (Italy). The portable BSC-XRF system allows the non-destructive analysis of Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Nb trace concentrations, which are considered to be characteristic of the obsidian samples and consequently are indicative of the provenance quarries. Quantitative data on the above trace-element concentrations were deduced using a method that makes use of a multi-parameter linear regression. The portable PIXE-alpha spectrometer allows the quantitative determination of the matrix major elements, from Na to Zn. In this paper the updated versions of the instrumental devices and methods are presented together with a review of all the obtained data from various Sicilian sites. Results on compositional data for trace elements and major elements allowed us to identify Lipari and Pantelleria islands as the only two sources of the analyzed samples. Recent data about the Via Capuana settlement in Licodia Eubea are also presented and discussed for the first time.

Pappalardo, L.; Romano, F. P.; Bracchitta, D.; Massimino, A.; Palio, O.; Rizzo, F.

2013-12-01

165

Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in Sicily.  

PubMed

Eight Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs)-DYS19, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393 and DYS385-were typed in a population sample (n=255) of unrelated Sicilian males from nine different towns on the main island and from the island of Pantelleria. PMID:15990263

Robino, C; Inturri, S; Gino, S; Torre, C; Di Gaetano, C; Crobu, F; Romano, V; Matullo, G; Piazza, A

2006-06-01

166

Tsunami risk assessments in Messina, Sicily - Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a first detailed tsunami risk assessment for the city of Messina where one of the most destructive tsunami inundations of the last centuries occurred in 1908. In the tsunami hazard evaluation, probabilities are calculated through a new general modular Bayesian tool for Probability Tsunami Hazard Assessment. The estimation of losses of persons and buildings takes into account data collected directly or supplied by: (i) the Italian National Institute of Statistics that provides information on the population, on buildings and on many relevant social aspects; (ii) the Italian National Territory Agency that provides updated economic values of the buildings on the basis of their typology (residential, commercial, industrial) and location (streets); and (iii) the Train and Port Authorities. For human beings, a factor of time exposition is introduced and calculated in terms of hours per day in different places (private and public) and in terms of seasons, considering that some factors like the number of tourists can vary by one order of magnitude from January to August. Since the tsunami risk is a function of the run-up levels along the coast, a variable tsunami risk zone is defined as the area along the Messina coast where tsunami inundations may occur.

Grezio, A.; Gasparini, P.; Marzocchi, W.; Patera, A.; Tinti, S.

2012-01-01

167

Sicily statement on evidence-based practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A variety of definitions of evidence-based practice (EBP) exist. However, definitions are in themselves insufficient to explain the underlying processes of EBP and to differentiate between an evidence-based process and evidence-based outcome. There is a need for a clear statement of what Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) means, a description of the skills required to practise in an evidence-based manner and

Martin Dawes; William Summerskill; Paul Glasziou; Antonino Cartabellotta; Janet Martin; Kevork Hopayian; Franz Porzsolt; Amanda Burls; James Osborne

2005-01-01

168

Two new tardigrade species from Sicily.  

PubMed

Two new species of tardigrades are described from Sicilian moss samples: Macrobiotus insuetus sp. nov. and Diphascon (Diphascon) procerum sp. nov.        Macrobiotus insuetus sp. nov. is a species of the harmsworthi-group characterized by both posterior and anterior claws of the hind legs, which are different in shape from those of the first three leg pairs. The IV claws have extended basal tract where the branches are joined and the secondary branch breaks at near right angle to the primary branch and is clearly shorter than the main branch and the secondary branch of claws I-III. The eggs are not areolated and have conical processes with a reticular ornamentation.        Diphascon (D.) procerum sp. nov. has a delicate cuticular ornamentation of very small tubercles, almost dots; two macroplacoids and septulum are present; thin accessory points are present on the main branches of the slender claws; lunules are absent but the base of the external claws of the hind legs are enlarged and slightly indented; a cuticular bar is present near the internal claw of the first three leg pairs and two cuticular bars are present on the hind legs between the base of the claws and near the base of the anterior claw.  PMID:24869688

Pilato, Giovanni; Sabella, Giorgio; Lisi, Oscar

2014-01-01

169

SICILY & THE AMALFI COAST FROM $3195 | OCTOBER 3 12, 2014  

E-print Network

seemingly untouched by time. Discover sun-bleached Greek temples, Roman ruins and ancient theaters amidst Mount Etna. See the ancient Greek theater, rebuilt by the Romans in about A.D. 200. It features near, the ancient city of Syracuse, the Amalfi Coast, the historic city center of Naples, and the archaeological

170

The July–August 2001 eruption of Mt. Etna (Sicily)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The July–August 2001 eruption of Mt. Etna stimulated widespread public and media interest, caused significant damage to tourist facilities, and for several days threatened the town of Nicolosi on the S flank of the volcano. Seven eruptive fissures were active, five on the S flank between 3,050 and 2,100 m altitude, and two on the NE flank between 3,080 and 2,600 m

Boris Behncke; Marco Neri

2003-01-01

171

Geology of the peralkaline volcano at Pantelleria, Strait of Sicily  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Situated in a submerged continental rift, Pantelleria is a volcanic island with a subaerial eruptive history longer than 300 Ka. Its eruptive behavior, edifice morphologies, and complex, multiunit geologic history are representative of strongly peralkaline centers. It is dominated by the 6-km-wide Cinque Denti caldera, which formed ca. 45 Ka ago during eruption of the Green Tuff, a strongly rheomorphic unit zoned from pantellerite to trachyte and consisting of falls, surges, and pyroclastic flows. Soon after collapse, trachyte lava flows from an intracaldera central vent built a broad cone that compensated isostatically for the volume of the caldera and nearly filled it. Progressive chemical evolution of the chamber between 45 and 18 Ka ago is recorded in the increasing peralkalinity of the youngest lava of the intracaldera trachyte cone and the few lavas erupted northwest of the caldera. Beginning about 18 Ka ago, inflation of the chamber opened old ring fractures and new radial fractures, along which recently differentiated pantellerite constructed more than 25 pumice cones and shields. Continued uplift raised the northwest half of the intracaldera trachyte cone 275 m, creating the island's present summit, Montagna Grande, by trapdoor uplift. Pantellerite erupted along the trapdoor faults and their hingeline, forming numerous pumice cones and agglutinate sheets as well as five lava domes. Degassing and drawdown of the upper pantelleritic part of a compositionally and thermally stratified magma chamber during this 18-3-Ka episode led to entrainment of subjacent, crystal-rich, pantelleritic trachyte magma as crenulate inclusions. Progressive mixing between host and inclusions resulted in a secular decrease in the degree of evolution of the 0.82 km3 of magma erupted during the episode. The 45-Ka-old caldera is nested within the La Vecchia caldera, which is thought to have formed around 114 Ka ago. This older caldera was filled by three widespread welded units erupted 106, 94, and 79 Ka ago. Reactivation of the ring fracture ca. 67 Ka ago is indicated by venting of a large pantellerite centero and a chain of small shields along the ring fault. For each of the two nested calderas, the onset of postcaldera ring-fracture volcanism coincides with a low stand of sea level. Rates of chemical regeneration within the chamber are rapid, the 3% crystallization/Ka of the post-Green Tuff period being typical. Highly evolved pantellerites are rare, however, because intervals between major eruptions (averaging 13-6 Ka during the last 190 Ka) are short. Benmoreites and mugearites are entirely lacking. Fe-Ti-rich alkalic basalts have erupted peripherally along NW-trending lineaments parallel to the enclosing rift but not within the nested calderas, suggesting that felsic magma persists beneath them. The most recent basaltic eruption (in 1891) took place 4 km northwest of Pantelleria, manifesting the long-term northwestward migration of the volcanic focus. These strongly differentiated basalts reflect low-pressure fractional crystallization of partial melts of garnet peridotite that coalesce in small magma reservoirs replenished only infrequently in this continental rift environment. ?? 1986 Springer-Verlag.

Mahood, G.A.; Hildreth, W.

1986-01-01

172

Bioindication of volcanic mercury (Hg) deposition around Mt Etna (Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mt. Etna is a major natural source of Hg to the Mediterranean region. Total mercury concentrations, [Hg]tot, in Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut) leaves sampled 7-13 km from Etna's vents (during six campaigns in 2005-2011) were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. [Hg]tot in C. sativa was greatest on Etna's SE flank reflecting Hg deposition from the typically overhead volcanic plume. When adjusted for leaf age, [Hg]tot in C. sativa also increased with recent eruptive activity. [Hg]tot in C. sativa was not controlled by [Hg]tot in soils, which instead was greatest on the (upwind) NW flank and correlated strongly with soil organic matter (% Org). Our results suggest that at least ~1% of Hg emitted from Etna is deposited proximally, supporting recent measurement and model results which indicate that GEM (Hg0; the dominant form of Hg in high temperature magmatic gases) is oxidised rapidly to RGM and Hgp in ambient temperature volcanic plumes. Samples of C. sativa and soils were also collected in July and September 2012 alongside SO2 and acid gas diffusion tube samples. These new samples will enable us to investigate Hg accumulation over a single growth season with reference to the exposure of vegetation to volcanic gases and particles.

Martin, R.; Witt, M. L.; Sawyer, G. M.; Watt, S.; Bagnato, E.; Calabrese, S.; Aiuppa, A.; Delmelle, P.; Pyle, D. M.; Mather, T. A.

2012-12-01

173

Cortical Dynamics, Sicily, Nov 2003 1 Dynamics of storage and  

E-print Network

and mixed cation · EPSP / spike shaping · Spike frequency adaptation Borg-Graham, Cerebral Cortex vol 13 dendrites ­ deactivation shortens time course of distal EPSPs · Equal temporal summation of proximal and Ca currents · Can a neuron count the number of active inputs (EPSPs)? Graham, Network: Comput. Neural

Graham, Bruce

174

Cortical Dynamics, Sicily, Nov 2003 1 Dynamics of storage and  

E-print Network

­ inactivation / reactivation · Amplifiers ­ Na and Ca currents · Suppressors ­ K and mixed cation · EPSP / spike course of distal EPSPs · Equal temporal summation of proximal and distal inputs Magee, J. Neurosci18 of active inputs (EPSPs)? Graham,Network: Comput. Neural Syst. 12:473-492, 2001 200 versus 100 sync. inputs

Graham, Bruce

175

Frequent failure of the continental slope: The Gela Basin (Sicily Channel)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating the recurrence of sediment failure on continental margins is important to better understand the evolution of margins and to assess the geologic risk of slope failure and, possibly, tsunami hazard. This paper proposes an integrated morphological and stratigraphic reconstruction of slope failures to evaluate their timing, frequency, and responsible mechanisms. Data from seismic stratigraphy, sediment cores, and seafloor geomorphology

D. Minisini; F. Trincardi

2009-01-01

176

Geomorphology of the western Ionian Sea between Sicily and Calabria, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the westernmost Ionian Sea lies a steep, tectonically active marine basin influenced by turbidity currents generated by terrigenous river input from the adjacent mountains and strong tidal currents propagating through the Strait of Messina. Like many young marine rifts, the basin is lined by steep streams draining the uplifting coasts and supplying sediment across narrow shelves. However, unlike many rifts, this basin is semi-enclosed. The present study explores the seabed morphology and sediment structures in this complex environmental setting, based on multibeam sonar, chirp profiler and seismic reflection data collected in 2006. Offshore channels include many that can be directly linked to onshore streams, suggesting that hyperpycnal flows are important for their formation. Near the Strait of Messina in depths shallower than 400 m, the channels are subdued, plausibly explained as an effect of strong tidal currents. The Messina Channel is characterised by abundant mass-wasting features along its outer bends, particularly on the Calabrian side. Coincidence of the channel course with faults suggests that the channel is structurally controlled in places. The chirp profiles generally show only shallow penetration, the evidence for coarse texture being consistent with the steep gradient of the basin that inhibits deposition from turbidity currents. By contrast, some locally discontinuous mounds exhibiting layered sub-bottom reflectors in the chirp profiles are interpreted as modern levee deposits formed from channelised turbidity current overspill. Overall, this semi-enclosed basin shows little evidence of substantial accumulations associated with modern turbidity current activity, any contemporaneous sediment supply evidently bypassing the area to be deposited in the Ionian Trench; as a consequence, this trench should be an archive of local slope failure and flood events.

Goswami, Rajasmita; Mitchell, Neil C.; Argnani, Andrea; Brocklehurst, Simon H.

2014-10-01

177

Volcanic tremor wave field during quiescent and eruptive activity at Mt. Etna (Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the results of an analysis of volcanic tremor at Etna in the years 1987 to 1992. The data utilized were obtained from the Osservatorio Vesuviano's Serra la Nave permanent station and several seismic surveys carried out by means of portable digital seismic stations equipped with three-component geophones. The spatial-temporal patterns of main parameters such as intensity, spectral content, polarization and wave composition of volcanic tremor in different phases of Etna's activity were studied. Eruptive activity appears to be significantly correlated with volcanic tremor. In particular, it is worth pointing out that the magma upwelling in the terminal part of the conduit is characterized by a marked increase in low-frequency components (3-4 Hz) of the spectrum of volcanic tremor. Hence, volcanic tremor at Etna can be considered as a short-period precursor of eruptions. An analysis of polarization and propagation velocity of volcanic tremor shows the presence of Love waves overlapping other seismic phases.

Ereditato, Davide; Luongo, Guiseppe

1994-07-01

178

Use of shock block transmitters in the structural rehabilitation of historical buildings in Calabria and Sicily  

SciTech Connect

Many old and historical masonry buildings, located in the Calabrian and Sicilian areas near the strait of Messina, are affected by typical pattern of cracks, which are not produced by previous earthquakes. These cracks in the masonry walls are characterized by a quasi-vertical trend with constant width. The careful examination of the crack distribution allows to clearly identify the diagnosis: the damage is caused by the sinking due to a horizontal movement of translation of the ground, which is an evident effect of creep phenomena in the soil, so-called 'solifluxion'. This paper, after showing this geological pathology, proposes an innovative strategy of intervention, which consists of the use of 'oleo-dynamic' devices, so-called shock block transmitters, providing different degrees of restraint, according to the loading conditions. In addition, in case of earthquake, an important part of the in-put seismic energy can be dissipated. The strategy of application of this system to the building consists of the subdivision of each masonry wall in two different parts, which are physically separated by the cracks. Each wall portion must be consolidated separately and the different parts of walls behave as statically independent each other, so that they can move independently during the serviceability conditions. The connection among the walls composing the whole structural organism is given by metal tie-rods equipped with 'oleo dynamic' devices, which allows, in a given range, the horizontal sliding in case of slow movement due to the phenomenon of 'solifluxion'. Contrary, in case of dynamic and fast movements, such as the ones produced by an earthquake, each 'oleo dynamic' device provides a fully restraint effect and, as a consequence, the tie-rods behave in the classical way.

Bianco, Alessia [Lab. M.A.Re., PAU Department, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria (Italy); Candela, Michele [PAU Department, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria (Italy); Fonti, Roberta [Graduated in SCBAA, Faculty of Architecture, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria (Italy)

2008-07-08

179

Essential oil composition of Tanacetum vulgare subsp. siculum (Guss.) Raimondo et Spadaro (Asteraceae) from Sicily.  

PubMed

Ninety-four components of the essential oils from aerial parts and capitula of Tanacetum vulgare subsp. siculum (Guss.) Raimondo et Spadaro were detected. Alpha-Thujone, beta-thujone and 1,8-cineole were the main constituents of the oils. The analysis allows the assignment of this Tanacetum species to the thujone chemotype. PMID:19476007

Formisano, Carmen; Senatore, Felice; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Bellone, Gabriella; Spadaro, Vivienne

2009-04-01

180

Antibacterial and antifungal activities of Otanthus maritimus (L.) Hoffmanns. & Link essential oil from Sicily.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the flowers of Otanthus maritimus L., a perennial plant growing wild in maritime sands in the Mediterranean region, was investigated by GC and GC-MS analyses. Totally 66 were identified. The oil was dominated by the high content of monoterpene compounds, especially oxygenated monoterpenes which accounted for 73.1%. The most abundant components were yomogi alcohol (20.8%), camphor (15.8%), artemisyl acetate (15.3%) and artemisia alcohol (13.7%). The oil was tested against two Gram (+) and six Gram (-) bacterial strains, both American Type Culture Collection standard strains and clinically isolated (CI), one potentially pathogenic yeast (Candida albicans CI) and two filamentous phytopathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani). The results show that the oil from O. maritimus exerts strong antibacterial and antifungal activities. PMID:23126552

Basile, Adriana; Rigano, Daniela; Sorbo, Sergio; Conte, Barbara; Rosselli, Sergio; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

2013-01-01

181

Diversity of human rotaviruses detected in Sicily, Italy, over a 5-year period (2001–2005)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Rotavirus infection was detected in 39.9% of 1030 children hospitalized with gastroenteritis in Palermo, Italy, in the period\\u000a 2001–2005. Rotavirus strains belonging to G1, G4 and G9 types were continually detected, with G1 being the most common type\\u000a in 2001, 2002 and 2004. A G4 epidemic occurred in 2003, while G9 was predominant in 2005. G2 strains displayed a low

S. De Grazia; S. Ramirez; G. M. Giammanco; C. Colomba; V. Martella; C. Lo Biundo; R. Mazzola; S. Arista

2007-01-01

182

Diversity of human rotaviruses detected in Sicily, Italy, over a 5-year period (2001-2005).  

PubMed

Rotavirus infection was detected in 39.9% of 1030 children hospitalized with gastroenteritis in Palermo, Italy, in the period 2001-2005. Rotavirus strains belonging to G1, G4 and G9 types were continually detected, with G1 being the most common type in 2001, 2002 and 2004. A G4 epidemic occurred in 2003, while G9 was predominant in 2005. G2 strains displayed a low prevalence, except in 2003. G3 rotaviruses accounted for 2.7-17% of the gastroenteritis episodes in 2002-2005. The P-type of a subset of 166 strains confirmed the circulation of the usual G/P combinations, but single G1P[6], G9P[9] and G6P[9] strains were also found. PMID:17160368

De Grazia, S; Ramirez, S; Giammanco, G M; Colomba, C; Martella, V; Lo Biundo, C; Mazzola, R; Arista, S

2007-01-01

183

Carbon dioxide emission and heat release estimation for Pantelleria Island (Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed surveys of diffuse CO2 flux, soil temperature, thermal gradients, and sampling of high-T fumaroles were carried out in the Favare area and Lake Specchio di Venere on Pantelleria Island. Spatial patterns of diffuse CO2 emissions in the Favare area reflect structural discontinuities (faults, fractures or cracks in the soil) associated with the volcano-tectonic structures of the young Monastero Caldera (NNE-SSW to NE-SW trending). The estimated diffuse CO2 output from two adjacent sites in the Favare area (~ 93,000 m2) is 7.8 t d- 1 (equivalent to 2.62 kt a- 1), whereas that from the west shore of the lake (450 m2) is 0.041 t d- 1 (or 0.015 kt a- 1). The extrapolation of diffuse CO2 fluxes across the entire altered area of Favare suggests that CO2 emissions are ~ 19.3 t d- 1. The diffuse CO2 flux correlates with shallow soil temperatures, indicating a similar source for both the heat and volatiles from the underlying geothermal reservoir. Gas equilibria applied to fumarolic effluents define P-T conditions for this reservoir at 2-6 bar and 120-160 °C, in good agreement with measurements from exploratory wells in these areas (e.g., 135 °C at a depth of 290 m). Using the CO2 flux as a tracer for steam output, and consequently for heat flow, the calculated thermal energy for the shallow reservoir is 10-12 MW; this represents the minimum geothermal potential of the reservoir on Pantelleria island.

Granieri, Domenico; Chiodini, Giovanni; Avino, Rosario; Caliro, Stefano

2014-04-01

184

78 FR 14619 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Sicily: Art and Invention...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Art and Invention Between Greece and Rome'' ACTION: Notice, correction...Art and Invention Between Greece and Rome.'' The referenced notice is corrected...Art and Invention Between Greece and Rome,'' imported from abroad for...

2013-03-06

185

Slope instability in a historical and architectural interest site: the Agrigento hill (Sicily-Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of landslides are an issue for many urban cities and their cultural heritage, especially where both natural factors and human actions are join. Indeed in these cases, both the geological-geomorphological area predisposition and the continuous human actions increase the possibility occurrence of a landslide. In order to study these landslides and their natural hazard, a multi-disciplinary approach is necessary. Agrigento (37°19'18''N; 13°35'22''E), founded around 580 b.C. along the Sicilian southern coast, is an example of a possible impacts of landslides on cultural heritage. This work discusses the geological, geomorphological and hydrological data results, performed in order to study and the monitoring the landslide on the north side of the Agrigento hill (335 m a.s.l.), on which is localized the antique cathedral (sixteenth century) and the old city. The hill geology is a typical regressive Plio-Pleistocene succession and their lithology are clays (Monte Narbone formation) , calcarenites , sands and silts of the Agrigento formation. The landslide phenomena, current since 1315, involves a calcarenitic pack (Pleistocene), weakly cemented, highly porous, fractured and fissured (E-W). This phenomena from 1924, at different times, have produced various types of instability such as: falls, flows and complex movements. From 7 March 2005 have been reactivated fractures of the calcarenitic pack, already highlighted by studies in 1966. These fractures have triggered slope movements damaging the cathedral and the various historic buildings. In order to reduce the risk and thus safeguard the monuments and the activity in this area, carried out the several studies. Since 2005, the landslide is the subject both geological-geomorphological studies and a continuous monitoring, which have used different techniques of different disciplines: interferometric analysis, interpretation of aerial and satellite imagery, geophysical investigations, stratigraphic survey, etc. The results of this studies carried out the landslide kinematics and the lithology involved, in this way it was possible to suggest targeted intervention. Keywords: rotational landslide, rockfall, hazard, architectural heritage.

Liguori, Vincenzo; Manno, Giorgio

2014-05-01

186

The role of apatite fractionation and REE distribution in alkaline rocks from Mt. Etna, Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   Melt inclusions in olivine and apatite, and REE distribution of apatite were studied in one of the least differentiated members\\u000a of the oldest alkaline succession of Mt. Etna. Apatite occurs both as microphenocrysts and as inclusions in olivine crystals,\\u000a even in the most Mg-rich ones (Fo82). In addition phenocrysts and groundmass are composed of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, olivine and magnetite.

T. Busà; R. Clochiatti; R. Cristofolini

2002-01-01

187

Working Group 3: Rich Learning Tasks September 19-25, Sicily, Italy  

E-print Network

) Gary Flewelling (Canada / co-leader) Gunter Graumann (Germany / co-leader) Thomas Hagspihl (South the teacher's sense of what their work is? #12;Q6. [Rich learning tasks ask the student, fellow students and the teacher to play the twin roles of sense maker and facilitator of sense making.] Which of these pairings

Spagnolo, Filippo

188

Magnetic stratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the Piacenzian (Upper Pliocene) at Monte San Nicola (Sicily)  

SciTech Connect

During the Neogene, the Mediterranean was a rather unique biogeographic province. For this reason, first and last occurrences of Neogene species recorded in the Mediterranean region may not be synchronous with those recorded in the open oceans. This has important implications as most of the Neogene stage boundaries are defined on the basis of Mediterranean type sections. The most direct way to determine the relative timing of Mediterranean and open ocean datums is through correlation with the polarity time scale. Such correlations are not available for the Mediterranean Pliocene. The Trubi pelagic limestones and Monte narbone marls which characterize the SicilianPliocene are not ideal for magnetic stratigraphy due to weak remnant intensities and an ubiquitous normal polarity overprint. However, at Monte San Nicola, a magnetic stratigraphy has been resolved by stepwise demagnetization in small temperature increments. The upper and lower bounds of the Gauss Epoch, and the Mammoth and Kaena polarity events can be correlated to well defined planktonic foraminiferal and calcareous nannofossil datums. Hence the synchronism of these datums between the Mediterranean and the open ocean can be tested. The most notable discrepancy is in the last occurrence of G. margaritae which occurs at the base of the Gauss in most open marine sections, but is found at the top of the Gilbert at Monte San Nicola.

Channell, J.E.T.; Sprovieri, R.; Di Stefano, E.

1985-01-01

189

Visiting Friends and Relatives (VFRs) travelers and imported malaria in the Palermo district (Sicily).  

PubMed

Introduction. Although Italy has been malaria-free since 1970, the infection is commonly introduced into the country by travelers and immigrants from endemic areas. The term VFRs refers to immigrants from malaria-endemic countries who are regularly resident in a malaria-free area, and who travel to their countries of origin to visit friends and relatives (VFRs). This group is at special risk of malaria as they are unaware of having lost their transitory immunity to the disease. Methods. We conducted a retrospective study at the International Travelers Department of Palermo (Italy), examining records of malaria cases (67) reported over the period from 1998 to 2013. Results. VFRs represent the highest number of cases (77.6%), followed by workers (16.4%) and tourists (6.0%). All female patients and patients under the age of 18 were VFRs. Plasmodium falciparum was the most frequently-identified species. In all cases, chemoprophylaxis was not taken or was incomplete. Conclusions. VFRs are at high risk of contracting malaria. This is probably related to an inequality in health care available to immigrants, as well as to ethnic and cultural conditions. PMID:25522079

Casuccio, Alessandra; D'Angelo, Claudio; Casuccio, Nicolò; Di Carlo, Paola; Immordino, Palmira

2014-01-01

190

Cyclostratigraphy and astrochronology of the Tripolo diatomite formation pre-evaporite Messinian, Sicily, italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ongoing debate about the Messinian salinity crisis in the Mediterranean is fuelled in part by the lach of an adequate time control. The most accurate and, at the same time, detailed constrains are nowadays provided by the astronomical dating technique. Here we present an astronomical age model for the cyclically bedded Tripoli diatomite Formation on Scily pre-evaporite Messinian, Italy)

F. J. Hilgen; W. Krijgsman

1999-01-01

191

Cyclostratigraphy and astrochronology of the Tripoli diatomite formation (pre-evaporite Messinian, Sicily, Italy)  

E-print Network

Cyclostratigraphy and astrochronology of the Tripoli diatomite formation (pre-evaporite Messinian Formation stratigraphically underlie limestones and evaporites of the Gessoso-Solfifera Formation deposited

Utrecht, Universiteit

192

A Human Case of Hymenolepis diminuta in a Child from Eastern Sicily  

PubMed Central

We report a case of Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a 2-year-old child living in a suburban area of Catania, Italy. This case was initially referred to us as Dipylidium caninum infection, which was not cured after being treated twice with mebendazole. However, by analyzing the clinical presentation and stool samples we arrived to the diagnosis of H. diminuta infection. The case presented with atypical allergic manifestations which had never been reported as clinical features of symptomatic H. diminuta infection; remittent fever with abdominal pain, diffuse cutaneous itching, transient thoracic rash, and arthromyalgias. The patient was treated with a 7-day cycle of oral niclosamide, which proved to be safe and effective. This case report emphasizes that a correct parasitological diagnosis requires adequate district laboratories and trained personnel. In addition, we recommend the importance of reporting all H. diminuta infection cases, in order to improve knowledge on epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment protocols. PMID:20585535

Patamia, Ildebrando; Cappello, Elisa; Castellano-Chiodo, Donato; Greco, Filippo; Cacopardo, Bruno

2010-01-01

193

A human case of Hymenolepis diminuta in a child from eastern Sicily.  

PubMed

We report a case of Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a 2-year-old child living in a suburban area of Catania, Italy. This case was initially referred to us as Dipylidium caninum infection, which was not cured after being treated twice with mebendazole. However, by analyzing the clinical presentation and stool samples we arrived to the diagnosis of H. diminuta infection. The case presented with atypical allergic manifestations which had never been reported as clinical features of symptomatic H. diminuta infection; remittent fever with abdominal pain, diffuse cutaneous itching, transient thoracic rash, and arthromyalgias. The patient was treated with a 7-day cycle of oral niclosamide, which proved to be safe and effective. This case report emphasizes that a correct parasitological diagnosis requires adequate district laboratories and trained personnel. In addition, we recommend the importance of reporting all H. diminuta infection cases, in order to improve knowledge on epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment protocols. PMID:20585535

Patamia, Ildebrando; Cappello, Elisa; Castellano-Chiodo, Donato; Greco, Filippo; Nigro, Luciano; Cacopardo, Bruno

2010-06-01

194

The Role of Wrench Tectonics In The Neogene-quaternary Evolution of The Western Hyblean Plateau (sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focussed on the kinematics and temporal variations of neotectonic-to-active structures on the margin of the Southern Apennines thrust front. The border between the thrustbelt contractional terranes and continental plateau hosts a number of strike- slip and, secondarily, normal structures of still disputed geometry. Based on newly- acquired data, this research opened new issues with respect to present-day kinematics of these fault systems, suggesting a new interpretation for the tectonic mechanisms underpinning the Hyblean plateau. Given its geodynamic environs, the present-day structural configuration of this plateau reflects a long tectonic history involving both intraplate extension and plate margin deformation. As a consequence, the platform area has been dominated by a complex interplay between extensional, compressional and strike-slip tectonics, expressed by subvertical faults that can be brokendown into two main trends: NE-SW and NNE- SSW. Fieldwork, integrated by interpretation of aerial photos and SPOT images, con- tributed to constrain and enhance a structural model of the region. The main NNE- SSW fault system (Scicli - Ragusa - Giarratana) is well exposed in the western part of the Hyblean plateau, called Ragusa Platform. This is an important structural feature which affects all domains present here and is characterised by vertical slip rates with a lateral component of motion. Structural analysis was primarily concentrated in this zone. Notably, a large set of structural elements, associated with a principal rigth-lateral NNE-SSW and NE-SW fault zone, was documented in the area and local transpressive elements, associated with these faults, are shown on the basis of their morphological evidence. A large bending and elevated area characterises the northern edge of the Ragusa platform and unveils the presence of several N-S striking reverse faults, with dextral lateral component of movement, and anticlinal folds. The detailed meso-structural analysis conducted on the Ragusa platform revealed the presence of non-coaxial compressive deformations, which in turn generated folds, re- verse faults and rare thrusts, involving the Upper Miocene - Lower Pleistocene de- posits. The structural analysis was conducted at the 1:25.000 scale, using the dis- persion of bedding data to define the orientation of the main structures. These data display a certain scattering but nevertheless allow to recognise a common trend; the 1 main fold system is characterised by structures trending~N-S. Subordinately, another set of folds is present; these are less developed and continuous than the previous sys- tem, forming fold with an average trend of about N 140E. The scattering of these structures is summarized in the structural model developed, including diagrams of some meso-folds recognized in the field. The presence of reverse faults is interpreted as flower structures and push-up systems which developed in a transpressive stress regime. In order to devise a tectonic model of the Hyblean plateau, the structural dataset was supplemented with a comparative morphological analysis, as revealed by fieldwork, satellite images, aerial photos and topographic data. Drainage network has been thor- oughly ascertained. In the case that the preferential directions of rivers were statisti- cally significant and different from those expected from non-structural controls (e.g. topographic and geographic trend), they were deemed to be a diagnostic tool to iden- tify the deformation system. This is based on the assumption of a strict structural control on the local hydrographic network and its evolution. The close relationship between the structural and morphological features underline the recent activity of the main fault trends. This study indicates that widespread occurrence of folds and reverse faulting can be ascribed to the transpressive regime, as a consequence of regional active wrenching capable of generating push-up and positive flower structures. Consequently, transform systems and brittle/ductile deformation is herewith envisag

Mattina, D.

195

Salinity variations in the water resources fed by the Etnean volcanic aquifers (Sicily, Italy): natural vs. anthropogenic causes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, in an attempt to reveal possible changes connected to natural or anthropogenic causes, the main results of\\u000a hydrogeochemical monitoring carried out at Mount Etna are evaluated. We report on the salinity contents of the groundwaters\\u000a that flow in fractured volcanics, which make up the flanks of the volcano. These waters, analyzed for major ion chemistry,\\u000a were sampled

Walter D’Alessandro; Sergio Bellomo; Pietro Bonfanti; Lorenzo Brusca; Manfredi Longo

2011-01-01

196

Repeating volcano-tectonic earthquakes at Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy): characterization and evidences of crustal changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repeating volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes, taking place at Mt. Etna during 1999-2009, were detected and analyzed to investigate their behavior. We found 735 families amounting to 2479 VT earthquakes, representing ~38% of all the analyzed VT earthquakes. Over 70% of the families comprise 2 or 3 VT earthquakes and only 20 families by more than 10 events. More than half of the families have a lifetime shorter than 0.5 day and only ~10% longer than 1 year. On the basis of these results, most of the detected families were considered 'burst-type', i.e., show swarm-like occurrence, and hence their origin cannot be explained by a temporally constant tectonic loading. Indeed, since the analyzed earthquakes take place in a volcanic area, the rocks are affected not only by tectonic stresses related to the fairly steady regional stress field but also by local stresses, caused by the volcano, such as magma batch intrusions/movements and gravitational loading. We focused on five groups of families characterized by the best repeatability over time, namely high number of events and long lifetime, located in the north-eastern, eastern and southern flanks of the volcano. Unlike the first four groups, which similarly to most of the detected families show swarm-like VT occurrences, group 'v', located in the north-eastern sector, exhibits a more 'tectonic' behavior with the events making up such a group spread over almost the entire analyzed period. It is clear how both occurrence and slip rates do not remain constant but vary over time, and such changes are time-related to the occurrence of the 2002-2003 eruption. We searched for waveform variations in VT earthquakes belonging to the group 'v' and found changes that took place mainly in the 2002-2003 period. These consisted in a decreasing similarity of the late seismogram windows, highlighted by cross correlation analysis, as well as in delays, increasing proportionally to lapse time, detected by coda wave interferometry. Such variations, mainly evident at the stations located in the north-eastern flank of volcano, were likely due to medium changes taking place in this region. In particular, medium velocity decreases were inferred to occur in 2002-2003, followed by successive increases. The velocity decrease was interpreted as being caused by the opening or enlargement of cracks, produced by intruding magma bodies, ground intense deformation and/or VT earthquake activity, accompanying the 2002-2003 Mt. Etna eruption. On the other hand, the subsequent velocity increases were interpreted as resulting from healing processes.

Cannata, Andrea; Alparone, Salvatore; Ursino, Andrea

2014-05-01

197

Repeating volcano-tectonic earthquakes at Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy): characterization and evidences of crustal changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repeating volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes, taking place at Mt. Etna during 1999-2009, were detected and analyzed to investigate their behavior. We found 735 families amounting to 2479 VT earthquakes, representing ~38% of all the analyzed VT earthquakes. The number of VT earthquakes making up the families ranges from 2 to 23. Over 70% of the families comprise 2 or 3 VT earthquakes and only 20 families by more than 10 events. The occurrence lifetime is also highly variable ranging from some minutes to ten years. In particular, more than half of the families have a lifetime shorter than 0.5 day and only ~10% longer than 1 year. On the basis of these results, most of the detected families were considered "burst-type", i.e., show swarm-like occurrence, and hence their origin cannot be explained by a temporally constant tectonic loading. Indeed, since the analyzed earthquakes take place in a volcanic area, the rocks are affected not only by tectonic stresses related to the fairly steady regional stress field but also by local stresses, caused by the volcano, such as magma batch intrusions/movements and gravitational loading. We focused on five groups of families characterized by the best repeatability over time, namely high number of events and long lifetime, located in the north-eastern, eastern and southern flanks of the volcano. Unlike the first four groups, which similarly to most of the detected families show swarm-like VT occurrences, group "v", located in the north-eastern sector, exhibits a more "tectonic" behavior with the events making up such a group spread over almost the entire analyzed period. It is clear how both occurrence and slip rates do not remain constant but vary over time, and such changes are time-related to the occurrence of the 2002-2003 eruption. We searched for waveform variations in VT earthquakes belonging to the group "v" and found changes that took place mainly in the 2002-2003 period. These consisted in a decreasing similarity of the late seismogram windows, highlighted by cross correlation analysis, as well as in delays, increasing proportionally to lapse time, detected by coda wave interferometry. Such variations, mainly evident at the stations located in the north-eastern flank of volcano, were likely due to medium changes taking place in this region. In particular, medium velocity decreases were inferred to occur in 2002-2003, followed by successive increases. The velocity decrease was interpreted as being caused by the opening or enlargement of cracks, produced by intruding magma bodies, ground intense deformation and/or VT earthquake activity, accompanying the 2002-2003 Mt. Etna eruption. On the other hand, the subsequent velocity increases were interpreted as resulting from healing processes.

Cannata, A.; Alparone, S.; Ursino, A.

2012-12-01

198

A revision of the structure and stratigraphy of pre-Green Tuff ignimbrites at Pantelleria (Strait of Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Pantelleria, peralkaline silicic magmas were erupted across a range of eruptive typologies and magnitudes: pyroclastic flows, Plinian to strombolian pumice fallout and lava flows. In this paper we focus on the intermediate cycle of eruptive activity which is bracketed by ignimbrite units slightly older than the two caldera collapses which marked the volcanological activity of the island. This age interval (180-85 ka) was punctuated by six ignimbrite-forming eruptions (silicic and variably peralkaline) for a cumulative erupted magma volume of approximately 6 km3 dense rock equivalent. Based on new 40Ar/39Ar (Na,K)-feldspar ages and petrographic data, we propose an updated volcanostratigraphic scheme for these welded and rheomorphic ignimbrites that can be summarised as follows: (i) the age of the old ('La Vecchia') caldera collapse is now tightly constrained between 140 and 146 ka and the caldera-forming eruption can be traced to a lithic-rich welded tuff breccia that outcrops in two opposite sectors of the island (south-west and north-east); (ii) four ignimbrite units previously considered unrelated are now merged in two distinct eruptive paroxysmal events at 107 and 85 ka. In particular, the 85 ka eruptive event is comparable in magnitude to the younger (caldera forming) Green Tuff Plinian eruption; (iii) the recurrence patterns of the 107 and 85 ka eruptions, compared to the Green Tuff, allow us to qualitatively assess that the climax in production of low-temperature silicic and peralkaline melt was focused in the age interval 85-45 ka.

Rotolo, Silvio G.; Scaillet, Stephane; La Felice, Sonia; Vita-Scaillet, Grazia

2013-01-01

199

High-pressure and high-temperature measurements of electrical conductivity in basaltic rocks from Mount Etna, Sicily, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the electrical properties of Etnean rocks by in situ complex impedance spectroscopy using a multianvil apparatus. From these measurements we determined the electrical conductivity of a lava flow sample, whose basaltic composition can be considered close to that of the parent magma and also that of a mafic nodule representative of the high-density cumulates interpreted as responsible for the main high-velocity anomaly observed beneath the volcano. The electrical conductivities of the two samples were measured at pressures of 0.9 and 1.5 GPa and temperatures from 400 to 1100°C at frequencies from 0.1 to 105 Hz. To investigate the electrical properties of the Etnean products as a function of partial melting, a few experiments were performed in a piston-cylinder apparatus prior to the electrical measurements. The obtained data were approximated using an equivalent circuit fitting technique. For the lava flow sample, electrical conductivity displays Arrhenian behavior over the entire investigated temperature range, with an activation energy of ˜0.8 eV. Within the uncertainties of our measurements, we do not observe any effect of pressure on conductivity between 0.9 and 1.5 GPa. On the contrary, experiments performed on the series of partially molten samples indicate that conductivity increases with increasing quantity of glass. While conductivities of samples with minor amounts of glass are comparable to that of the lava flow starting material, with increased melting, conductivity can increase by as much as a factor of 3. The mafic nodule was observed to have a conductivity higher than the lava flow sample (e.g., at 800°C and 0.9 GPa, a factor of 4 higher). However, scatter in the data is somewhat higher in comparison to the lava flow sample, most likely because of the coarse texture of the samples and a consequence to their chemical and structural heterogeneity. Using our results, we illustrate the effects that a layer of hot magma surrounded by a cooler wall rock has on apparent resistivities determined by one-dimensional forward calculations. Our modeling demonstrates that both size and depth of magmatic intrusions strongly influence apparent resistivity and that these parameters can be extracted from field data if the electrical properties of the rocks below the surface are well understood.

Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Poe, Brent T.; Freda, Carmela; Gaeta, Mario

2004-02-01

200

Food safety in hospital: knowledge, attitudes and practices of nursing staff of two hospitals in Sicily, Italy  

PubMed Central

Background Food hygiene in hospital poses peculiar problems, particularly given the presence of patients who could be more vulnerable than healthy subjects to microbiological and nutritional risks. Moreover, in nosocomial outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, the mortality risk has been proved to be significantly higher than the community outbreaks and highest for foodborne outbreaks. On the other hand, the common involvement in the role of food handlers of nurses or domestic staff, not specifically trained about food hygiene and HACCP, may represent a further cause of concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning food safety of the nursing staff of two hospitals in Palermo, Italy. Association with some demographic and work-related determinants was also investigated. Methods The survey was conducted, by using a semi-structured questionnaire, in March-November 2005 in an acute general hospital and a paediatric hospital, where nursing staff is routinely involved in food service functions. Results Overall, 401 nurses (279, 37.1%, of the General Hospital and 122, 53.5%, of the Paediatric Hospital, respectively) answered. Among the respondents there was a generalized lack of knowledge about etiologic agents and food vehicles associated to foodborne diseases and proper temperatures of storage of hot and cold ready to eat foods. A general positive attitude towards temperature control and using clothing and gloves, when handling food, was shared by the respondents nurses, but questions about cross-contamination, refreezing and handling unwrapped food with cuts or abrasions on hands were frequently answered incorrectly. The practice section performed better, though sharing of utensils for raw and uncooked foods and thawing of frozen foods at room temperatures proved to be widely frequent among the respondents. Age, gender, educational level and length of service were inconsistently associated with the answer pattern. More than 80% of the respondent nurses did not attend any educational course on food hygiene. Those who attended at least one training course fared significantly better about some knowledge issues, but no difference was detected in both the attitude and practice sections. Conclusion Results strongly emphasize the need for a safer management of catering in the hospitals, where non professional food handlers, like nursing or domestic staff, are involved in food service functions. PMID:17407582

Buccheri, Cecilia; Casuccio, Alessandra; Giammanco, Santo; Giammanco, Marco; La Guardia, Maurizio; Mammina, Caterina

2007-01-01

201

A revision of the structure and stratigraphy of pre-Green Tuff ignimbrites at Pantelleria (Strait of Sicily)  

E-print Network

1 A revision of the structure and stratigraphy of pre-Green Tuff ignimbrites at Pantelleria (Strait. In this paper we focus on the intermediate cycle of eruptive activity which is bracketed by ignimbrite units. This age interval (181 - 85 ka) was punctuated by six ignimbrite-forming eruptions (silicic and variably

Boyer, Edmond

202

Evaluation of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Mullus barbatus from Sicily Channel and risk-based consumption limits.  

PubMed

Our study is a preliminary step to evaluate water contamination of the Mediterranean Sea surrounding Lampedusa island and health risks for fish consumers. We analyzed muscle tissue of Mullus barbatus specimens to detect metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results show the following average concentrations of heavy metals: Pb 0.035, Cd 0.001, Hg 0.027, Cr 0.524, As 27.01, Cu 0.433, Co 0.013, Ni 0.042, Se 0.487, V 0.072, U 0.055 and Zn 3.360 ppm. PAHs ranged from 0.250 to 13.16 ppb. A possible risk to human health was determined based on consumption limits data and the content of total PAHs in fillets of this species. PMID:22450961

Conti, Gea Oliveri; Copat, Chiara; Ledda, Caterina; Fiore, Maria; Fallico, Roberto; Sciacca, Salvatore; Ferrante, Margherita

2012-06-01

203

Organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals in tissues of the mullet Liza aurata in lake Ganzirri and Straits of Messina (Sicily, Italy).  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to investigate the presence of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in fish living in lake Ganzirri and the Straits of Messina, using the mullet Liza aurata as a "biological indicator". Different tissues of Liza aurata, which include the muscle, gill and vertebral column, were taken for analyses. Quantitative determination of the organochlorine compounds was performed by GC-ECD and confirmed with GC-MS. The concentrations of "essential" and "toxic" heavy metals were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. For the mullets of lake Ganzirri, the study showed DDE in three samples of gills and one of muscle, at concentrations below the MRL; no appreciable residues of PCBs (Aroclor 1232 series) were found. The concentrations of Zn and Cu were much higher than those of the "toxic" metals. No traces of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs were found in the individuals from the Straits of Messina. Therefore, these results indicate that these two environments are not at toxicological risk. PMID:12729706

Licata, Patrizia; Bella, Giuseppa Di; Dugo, Giacomo; Naccari, Francesco

2003-07-01

204

large-scale structural pattern as the result of the interplay between compression and extension during chain building: the case of the Sicily Belt (Central Mediterranean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are very close relationships between chains building and contemporaneous basins formation in terms of spatial and structural interdependence, mutual compensation of sediments, tectonic interaction and simultaneous evolution. In fact, extensional tectonics has been worldwide documented as a process that contributes to the evolution of orogenic belts. The dynamics of wedge growth may partly dictate by localised extensional forces which

Fabrizio Nigro; Pietro Renda; Rocco Favara; Gaetano Salvaggio

2010-01-01

205

Submarine canyons of north-western Sicily (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea): Variability in morphology, sedimentary processes and evolution on a tectonically active margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Swath-bathymetry, mono-channel and multi-channel seismic reflection records acquired during the last two decades on the northern Sicilian margin have unveiled a dense network of submarine canyons within the depth range of 80-2100 m. The canyons display a relevant variability in their geometry, morphology and sedimentary processes. The margin shows a young, tectonically active shelf to slope setting, linking the Sicilian-Maghrebian Thrust Belt to the Tyrrhenian oceanic realm, developed during the Neogene-Quaternary time span. The aim of this study is to highlight the main governing factors that contributed to the evolution and differentiation of the northern Sicilian canyons, mainly focusing on the Gulf of Palermo and on the Gulf of Castellammare. Tectonic control is more evident in the canyons of the Gulf of Palermo, with submarine landslides retrograding on a steep slope and mainly controlling their evolution. Otherwise, canyons, tributaries and gullies mapped in the Gulf of Castellammare developed on a less steep substrate and display sinuous to meandering paths, with a relevant role of coastal/shelf sedimentary inputs and downslope turbidity processes in their formation. Results suggest that, despite the geographically close proximity of the two study areas, the different structural settings of the Castellammare and Palermo Basins are mainly responsible for canyon variability. Data indicate likely on-going uplift and tilting movements along the Sicilian margin, influencing the development of the studied canyons, which have probably been more active during the Quaternary glacial maxima than they are in the present day.

Lo Iacono, Claudio; Sulli, Attilio; Agate, Mauro

2014-06-01

206

Using high-resolution stratigraphy and structural analysis to constrain polyphase tectonics in wedge-top basins: Inferences from the late Tortonian Scillato Basin (central-northern Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper aims to show, both from a stratigraphic and structural points of view, the main features of a wedge-top syntectonic basin which evolved recording polyphase and non-coaxial tectonics. The study area is the Scillato Basin (SB), a roughly N-S-oriented structural depression located in the central-northern sector of the Sicililian Maghrebides. There, an approximately 1300 m-thick upper Serravallian to upper Tortonian succession of clastic units outcrops as a portion of the Neogene syntectonic covers of the Sicilian fold and thrust belt. Within the outcropping succession the upper Tortonian Terravecchia Fm represents the main topic of this paper. A multidisciplinary approach was carried out through an integration of sedimentology, facies, stratal pattern and structural analyses; this was applied to the formation enabling one to recognize in the Scillato Basin a fining to coarsening upward succession, deposited recording an early transgressive and a late regressive depositional stage. In our model these two main depositional stages developed and are directly relatable to a two-step structural evolution of the basin. During the first step, a NW-SE-oriented structural depression existed, enclosed between structural highs and accommodating the lower and middle portion of the upper Tortonian succession. Subsequently, during the second step, the NW-SE depression was non-coaxially deformed by superimposition of high-angle transpressive faults (many of which were SE-dipping), developed in response to the upward propagation of structures enucleated at deeper structural levels. This step was recorded in the basin by development of both depositional and structural interferences recognizable along the upper portion of the Scillato Basin succession. A comparison between field data and deep geophysical data interpreted at the preliminary stage, raises questions about the late Miocene geological evolution of this sector of the Sicilian chain, including: (i) the syn-tectonic deposition of the Terravecchia Fm. in the Scillato Basin clearly recorded the interference of two main and non-coaxial tectonic events; (ii) the younger of these two events has a clear tranpressional character and was active during the very late Tortonian; (iii) as also indicated by many authors in neighboring orogenic wedges, the main control on the location, geometry and depositional evolution of the Scillato wedge-top Basin was carried out by compressional and transpressional structures developed at a deeper structural level. Their deformation propagated upward both into the shallow structural level and sedimentary covers; therefore (iv) the late Miocene structural scenario here depicted is not consistent either with the back-arc-related extension or with the late orogenic gravitational collapse models previously invoked by other authors with regard to this sector of the Sicilian thrust belt.

Gugliotta, C.; Gasparo Morticelli, M.

2012-10-01

207

Flash floods and debris flow in the city area of Messina, north-east part of Sicily, Italy in October 2009: the case of the Giampilieri catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper concerns the analysis of the 1 October 2009 flash flood and debris flow event caused by a very intense rainfall concentrated over the Messina area. The storm caused severe flash floods in many villages around the city of Messina, such as Giampilieri, Scaletta Zanclea, Altolia Superiore and Molino, with 38 casualties and significant damages to property, buildings, roads and bridges estimated close to 550 million Euro. The main focus of this work is to perform a post event analysis, putting together available meteorological and hydrological data in order to get better insight into temporal and spatial variability of the rain storm, the soil moisture conditions and the consequent flash flood in the Giampilieri catchment. The event was investigated using observed data from a raingauge network. Statistical analysis using GEV distribution was performed and rainfall return period (storm severity) was estimated. Further, measured rainfall data and rainfall-runoff modelling were used to estimate soil moisture conditions, to analyse the hydrological behaviour and to reconstruct flood hydrograph. With the help of GIS technology and particularly spatial analysis, the volume of debris which has gone down into the Giampilieri village was also calculated. GIS maps with landslide and material deposit areas were produced and analysed.

Aronica, G. T.; Brigandí, G.; Morey, N.

2012-05-01

208

The transition summit-flank activity at Mt. Etna, Sicily (Italy): inferences from the petrology of products erupted from 2007 to 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mt. Etna is an active basaltic volcano where both flank and summit eruptions take place. In particular, the South-East summit crater (SEC) during the last decades has been characterized by 'episodic' eruptions, which consist of recurrent lava fountains associated with lava flows emission, lasting from a few weeks to months. The past recent volcanic activity has shown that, if a transition from an episodic summit eruption to a flank eruption occurred, it generally took place while the last paroxysm of the episodic eruption was still underway. Differently, the 2007-08 episodic eruption at SEC was followed by the 2008-09 flank activity which started three days after the conclusion of the last paroxysm, in coincidence with the strong earthquake (M= 7.9) in Sichuan (China), whose perturbations have been registered by the monitoring network of Mt. Etna. We then investigated the transition from summit episodic activity at SEC to flank eruption utilizing a petrologic study of the products erupted from 2007 to 2009 integrated with data from the literature. The compositional variability of the products is mainly explainable with a mixing between an evolved magma stored in the SEC reservoir and a more primitive magma which intrudes it. In the studied period the most significant episodes of magma recharge occurred before the onset of the 2007-08 episodic activity and during the 2008-09 flank eruption, more precisely before June 2008. According to previous studies the seven episodes of the 2007-08 eruption at SEC have been interpreted to result from the disruption of a foam layer at the top of the SEC reservoir which was rebuilt before each subsequent episode. The transition from 2007-08 episodic eruption at SEC to the 2008-09 flank activity was essentially triggered by the Sichuan earthquake which caused a variation of dynamic stress. It promoted the volatile exolution, the pressurization of SEC stored magma, and the consequent fracturing of the surrounding rocks where magma intruded to be then erupted during the 2008-09 flank activity.

Corsaro, Rosa Anna; Miraglia, Lucia

2014-05-01

209

The transition from summit to flank activity at Mt. Etna, Sicily (Italy): Inferences from the petrology of products erupted in 2007-2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mt. Etna is an active basaltic volcano where both flank and summit eruptions take place. In recent decades, the South-East summit crater (SEC) has in particular been characterized by 'episodic' eruptions, consisting of recurrent lava fountains associated with lava flow emissions and lasting from a few weeks to months. Recent volcanic activity shows that, if there is a transition from an episodic summit eruption to a flank eruption, then this usually takes place while the last paroxysm of the episodic eruption is still underway. By contrast, the 2007-08 episodic eruption at SEC was followed by the 2008-09 flank activity which started three days after the conclusion of the last paroxysm, coinciding with the strong earthquake (M = 7.9) in Sichuan (China), whose perturbations were recorded by the monitoring network of Mt. Etna. We therefore investigated the transition from a summit episodic eruption at SEC to flank activity utilizing a petrologic study of the products erupted from 2007 to 2009, integrated with literature data. The compositional variability of the products may largely be explained by a mixing between an evolved magma stored in the SEC reservoir and a more primitive magma which intrudes it. In the studied period, the most significant episodes of magma recharge occurred before the onset of the 2007-08 episodic eruption and during the 2008-09 flank activity, more precisely before June 2008. According to previous studies, the seven paroxysms of the 2007-08 episodic eruption at SEC have been interpreted as resulting from the disruption of a foam layer at the top of the SEC reservoir which was rebuilt before each subsequent episode. The transition from the 2007-08 episodic eruption at SEC to the 2008-09 flank activity was essentially triggered by the Sichuan earthquake which caused a variation of dynamic stress. It caused the volatile exolution, the pressurization of SEC stored magma, and the consequent fracturing of the surrounding rocks where magma intruded to then be erupted during the 2008-09 flank activity.

Corsaro, Rosa Anna; Miraglia, Lucia

2014-04-01

210

Yeast ecology of vineyards within Marsala wine area (western Sicily) in two consecutive vintages and selection of autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.  

PubMed

In this work, the yeast ecology associated with the spontaneous fermentation of Grillo cultivar grapes from 10 vineyards was analyzed from grape harvest till complete consumption of must sugars. The microbiological investigation started with the plate count onto two culture media to distinguish total yeasts (TY) and presumptive Saccharomyces (PS). Yeasts were randomly isolated and identified by a combined genotypic approach consisting of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 5.8S rRNA gene and 26S rRNA and sequencing of D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene, which resulted in the recognition of 14 species belonging to 10 genera. The distribution of the yeasts within the vineyards showed some differences in species composition and concentration levels among 2008 and 2009 vintages. Due to the enological relevance, all Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates were differentiated applying two genotypic tools (interdelta analysis and microsatellite multiplex PCR of polymorphic microsatellite loci) that recognized 51 strains. Based on the low production of H(2)S, acetic acid and foam, ethanol resistance, growth in presence of high concentrations of potassium metabisulphite (KMBS) and CuSO(4) and at low temperatures, 14 strains were selected and used as starter to ferment grape must at 13 °C and 17 °C in presence of 100 mg/L of KMBS. Three strains (CS160, CS165 and CS182) showed optimal technological aptitudes. PMID:22877686

Settanni, Luca; Sannino, Ciro; Francesca, Nicola; Guarcello, Rosa; Moschetti, Giancarlo

2012-12-01

211

GC-MS analysis of the essential oils of ripe fruits, roots and flowering aerial parts of Elaeoselinum asclepium subsp. meoides growing in Sicily.  

PubMed

The compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the ripe fruits, flowering aerial parts and roots of Elaeoselinum asclepium (L.) Bertol subsp. meoides (Desf.) Fiori (Apiaceae) were determined by GC-MS analysis. All the analyzed parts were very rich in alpha-pinene (77.1%, 92.2% and 60.8%, respectively). Other compounds detected in appreciable amounts were beta-pinene (4.3%, 4.0% and 8.2%), and sabinene (11.9% in ripe fruits; 12.8% in aerial parts). The plant synthesizes different classes of monoterpenes, including pinane, camphane, thujane, menthane, and fenchane derivatives, besides some acyclic monoterpenes. Trace amounts of sesquiterpenes and diterpenes were also detected. PMID:20734952

Bader, Ammar; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Flamini, Guido

2010-07-01

212

Chemical composition and free radical scavenging activity of the essential oil of Achillea ligustica growing wild in Lipari (Aeolian Islands, Sicily).  

PubMed

In the present study the chemical composition of the essential oils from aerial parts and flowers of Achillea ligustica All., collected in Lipari (Aeolian Islands) was evaluated by GC and GC-MS. (Z)-Chrysanthenyl acetate was the most abundant component of both oils (29.6% in A1 and 27.8% in F1), followed by viridiflorol (16.8% in A1 and 21.6% in F1), bornyl acetate (8.7% in A1 and 11.6% in F1) and 1,8-cineole (7.4% in A1 and 9.3% in F1). A comparison was made of the composition of the different populations studied so far. Futhermore, the free radical scavenging activity of the oil was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. PMID:24427958

Rouis, Zyed; Maggio, Antonella; Venditti, Alessandro; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

2013-11-01

213

Detection of the new emerging rabbit haemorrhagic disease type 2 virus (RHDV2) in Sicily from rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Italian hare (Lepus corsicanus).  

PubMed

Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), a member of the genus Lagovirus, causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD), a fatal hepatitis of rabbits, not previously reported in hares. Recently, a new RHDV-related virus emerged, called RHDV2. This lagovirus can cause RHD in rabbits and disease and mortality in Lepus capensis (Cape hare). Here we describe a case of RHDV2 infection in another hare species, Lepus corsicanus, during a concurrent RHD outbreak in a group of wild rabbits. The same RHDV2 strain infected rabbits and a hare, also causing a RHD-like syndrome in the latter. Our findings confirmed the capability of RHDV2 to infect hosts other than rabbits and improve the knowledge about the epidemiology and the host range of this new lagovirus. PMID:25458493

Camarda, A; Pugliese, N; Cavadini, P; Circella, E; Capucci, L; Caroli, A; Legretto, M; Mallia, E; Lavazza, A

2014-10-16

214

Human responses to eruptions of Etna (Sicily) during the late-Pre-Industrial Era and their implications for present-day disaster planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarises: the characteristics of eruptions that occurred between 1792/3 and 1923; the ways in which human responses evolved during the period and the lessons this history holds for the management of present-day volcanic and volcano-related disasters. People responded to eruptions at three levels: as members of a family and extended family; through the mutual support of a village or larger settlement and as citizens of the State. During the study period and with the exception of limited financial aid and preservation of law and order, the State was a minor player in responding to eruptions. Families and extended families provided shelter, accommodation and often alternative agricultural employment; whilst supportive villages communities displayed a well developed tendency to learn from experience (e.g. innovating techniques to bring land back into cultivation and avoiding the risks of phreatic activity as lava encountered water and saturated ground) and providing labour to enable household chattels and agricultural crops to be salvaged from land threatened with lava incursion. Eruptions were widely believed to be 'Acts of God', with divine punishment frequently being invoked as a primary cause of human suffering. Elaborate rituals of propitiation were performed to appease a supposed angry God, but this world-view did not produce a fatalistic attitude amongst the population preventing people from coping with disasters in a generally effective manner. Despite present day emergencies being handled by the State and its agencies, some features of nineteenth century responses remain in evidence, including salvaging all that may be easily removed from a building and/or agricultural holding, and explanations of disaster which are theistic in character. Lessons from eruptions that occurred between 1792/3 to 1923 are that the former should be encouraged, whilst the latter does not prevent people acting to preserve life and property or obeying the authorities. Earthquakes are one category of hazard that caused major damage during, or associated with, several historic eruptions especially those of 1865, 1883 and 1911. This study highlights the vulnerability of the Etna region to this hazard which remains largely un-ameliorated. Attempts to divert lava flows occurred during the 1832, 1879 and 1923 eruptions.

Chester, David K.; Duncan, Angus M.; Sangster, Heather

2012-05-01

215

The 1891 submarine eruption offshore Pantelleria Island (Sicily Channel, Italy): Identification of the vent and characterization of products and eruptive style  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

bathymetry and seafloor sampling have been used to characterize the 1891 submarine eruption of the Pantelleria volcanic complex. This submarine eruption has been documented mainly by historical reports, describing basaltic scoria bombs floating on the sea surface (i.e., lava balloons). In this study, the 1891 eruptive vent has been identified as a small cone (volume of ˜700,000 m3) rising ˜90 m from 350 m w.d., and located within a newly discovered submarine volcanic field covering a wide area offshore from the NW coast of Pantelleria; recently, Kelly et al. (2012) confirmed this location by a multibeam and ROV survey. Pyroclasts from the 1891 eruption crop out directly on the seafloor and are fresh scoria clasts (i.e., small bombs, bomb fragments, and lapilli) and glass ash-sized grains; both have been characterized in their morphology, textures, and geochemistry. The distinctive vesicularity and crystallization characteristics displayed by the scoriaceous pyroclasts reflect modes of degassing in both syn and posteruptive regimes; these characteristics, along with the distribution of deposits suggest for the strongest eruptive phase of the 1891 eruption a style analogous to Hawaiian fountaining. Glass grains from a buoyant plume were dispersed northward from the vent, up to distances of 1.5 km, redirected by the Levantine Intermediate Water. The identification of the 1891 submarine eruptive vent offshore Pantelleria, as well as the features of erupted pyroclasts improve our knowledge of submarine explosive eruptions that occur at shallow-intermediate depths and, among these, of the rare eruptions producing lava balloons.

Conte, A. M.; Martorelli, E.; Calarco, M.; Sposato, A.; Perinelli, C.; Coltelli, M.; Chiocci, F. L.

2014-06-01

216

Millennial-scale phase relationships between ice-core and Mediterranean marine records: insights from high-precision 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Green Tuff of Pantelleria, Sicily Strait  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of annually-resolved polar ice records extending back to 70 ka, marine and continental paleoclimate studies have now matured into a discipline where high-quality age control is essential for putting on an equal pace layer-counted timescale models and Late Quaternary sedimentary records. High-resolution U-Th dating of speleothem records and 40Ar/39Ar dating of globally recorded geomagnetic excursions have recently improved the time calibration of Quaternary archives, reflecting the cross-disciplinary effort made to synchronize the geologic record at the millennial scale. Yet, tie-points with such an absolute age control remain scarce for paleoclimatic time-series extending beyond the radiocarbon timescale, most notably in the marine record. Far-travelled tephra layers recorded both onland and offshore provide an alternative in such instance to synchronize continental and marine archives via high-resolution 40Ar/39Ar dating of the parent volcanic eruption. High-resolution 40Ar/39Ar data are reported herein for one such volcanic marker, the Green Tuff of Pantelleria and its Y-6 tephra equivalent recorded throughout the Central and Eastern Mediterranean. Published radiochronometric and ?18O orbitally-tied ages for this marker horizon scatter widely from about 41 ka up to 56 ka. Our new 40Ar/39Ar age at 45.7 ± 1.0 ka (2?) reveals that previous estimates are biased by more than their reported errors would suggest, including recent orbital tuning of marine records hosting the tephra bed that are reevaluated in the context of this study. This improved estimate enables potential phase lags and leads to be studied between deep-sea and terrestrial archives with unrivaled (near-millennial) 40Ar/39Ar precision in the marine record.

Scaillet, S.; Vita-Scaillet, G.; Rotolo, S. G.

2013-10-01

217

High resolution seismic data coupled to Multibeam bathymetry of Stromboli island collected in the frame of the Stromboli geophysical experiment: implications with the marine geophysics and volcanology of the Aeolian Arc volcanic complex (Sicily, Southern Tyrrhenian sea, Italy).  

PubMed

New high resolution seismic data (Subbottom Chirp) coupled to high resolution Multibeam bathymetry collected in the frame of the Stromboli geophysical experiment aimed at recording active seismic data and tomography of the Stromboli Island are here presented. The Stromboli geophysical experiment has been already carried out based on onshore and offshore data acquisition in order to investigate the deep structure and the location of the magma chambers of the Stromboli volcano. A new detailed swath bathymetry of Stromboli Island is here shown and discussed to reconstruct an up-to-date morpho-bathymetry and marine geology of the area compared to the volcanologic setting of the Aeolian Arc volcanic complex. Due to its high resolution the new Digital Terrain Model of the Stromboli Island gives interesting information about the submerged structure of the volcano, particularly about the volcano-tectonic and gravitational processes involving the submarine flanks of the edifice. Several seismic units have been identified based on the geologic interpretation of Subbottom Chirp profiles recorded around the volcanic edifice and interpreted as volcanic acoustic basement pertaining to the volcano and overlying slide chaotic bodies emplaced during its complex volcano-tectonic evolution. They are related to the eruptive activity of Stromboli, mainly poliphasic and to regional geological processes involving the intriguing geology of the Aeolian Arc, a volcanic area still in activity and needing improved research interest. PMID:24860717

Aiello, Gemma; Di Fiore, Vincenzo; Marsella, Ennio; Passaro, Salvatore

2014-01-01

218

Mitochondrial dna variation and divergence in three Hermann's tortoise (testudo hermanni) populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 12SrRNA mitochondrial fragment was sequenced in 47 Testudo hermanni individuals from three different populations in northeastern Italy, Sicily, and Spain. All these locations fall within the distribution range usually recognized for the T. h. hermanni subspecies. Seven different sequences were identified, which clearly separate the highly variable northern Italian group from the homogenous individuals in Sicily and Spain. More

Luca Mirimin; Cristiano Vernesi; Cristiano Bertolucci; Stefano Mazzotti; Giorgio Bertorelle

2004-01-01

219

Trans-Med expansion nears start-up; Maghreb line nears construction  

SciTech Connect

Efforts to move more Algerian gas to Europe have hit full stride this year. Planning is well under way for the Maghreb-Europe pipeline, a second gas line from North Africa, this time across the Strait of Gibraltar into Spain. Construction on most segments will begin this summer. Meanwhile, construction is nearly complete to double capacity on the original Trans-Mediterranean gas pipeline from Algeria across the Sicily Channel to Italy. From a technical standpoint, the new project can be divided into two parts: the landlines in Tunisia, in Sicily, and on the Italian peninsula; and the subsea stretches of the Sicily Channel and the Messina strait.

True, W.R.

1994-01-17

220

About Face  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... US Army 1942 - 1945 Belgium, France, Germany, North Africa, Omaha Beach, Sicily Tap for Video Wanda Pegues ... Pearsall US Air Force 1998 - 2008 Horn of Africa, Iraq Tap for Video Ron Whitcomb US Army ...

221

Lower Permian cephalopods from the Texas Colorado River Valley  

E-print Network

geographically andstratigraphically. This latter genus, which ranges from Lower to Upper Permian, inclusive, has been found in Texas, Coahuila, Wyoming, Sicily, Croatia, Armenia, the Ural region, Novaya Zemlya, Kashmir (and possibly the Transalai Range), several... geographically andstratigraphically. This latter genus, which ranges from Lower to Upper Permian, inclusive, has been found in Texas, Coahuila, Wyoming, Sicily, Croatia, Armenia, the Ural region, Novaya Zemlya, Kashmir (and possibly the Transalai Range), several...

Miller, A. K.; Youngquist, W.

1947-08-29

222

Lunnoe zatmenie -330, sept. 20 i problema izmereniya dolgoty v antichnoj geografii %t The -330, Sept. 20 lunar eclipse and the problem of the determination of longitude in ancient geography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attempt to reconstruct the Hipparchus system of is proposed. The offered analysis of certain passages in the treatises of Ptolemy, Pliny, and Strabo allows to trace the latent semantic connection between them and to advance a hypothesis to clarify it. Ptolemy's passage (sect. 3) states Hipparchus to propose in his geography a certain system of meridians and to use the -330, Sept. 20 eclipse to determine the relative longitudes of Arbela and Carthage. Pliny's evidence (4) shows that Hipparchus must have known about the observation of this eclipse from Sicily, which demands to situate this island far eastward of Carthage. Strabo's data (5) confirm that Hipparchus, while criticising Eratosthenes, suggested situating Sicily far eastward of Carthage. Ptolemy's data (6) show that Marinus, whose work Ptolemy's geography was based on, in his early redaction, must situate Sicily farther eastward than in the final variant. Posidonius' passage (7) demonstrates the latitude of Sicily in Ptolemy's geography to go back to Hipparchus. In "Almagest" (9) the longitude of Babylon (relative to Alexandria) is directly ascribed to Hipparchus and the longitude of Rome agrees with that of Sicily in Pliny's evidence. The data of Ptolemy's geography (9.3-9.5) permit that Arbela and Babylon were situated on the same meridian initially. All these enable us to suggest that Hipparchus determined the longitudes not only of Arbela and Babylon, but also of Babylon and Sicily, Alexandria and Rome.

Shcheglov, D. A.

223

Project Copernicus: Cooperation Programme in Europe on Nature and Industry through Coordinated University Study. Round Table. Unesco-Standing Conference of Rectors, Presidents, and Vice Chancellors of the European Universities (CRE) (Catania, Sicily, April 5-8, 1989). Number 32. Papers on Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Project COPERNICUS (Cooperation Programme in Europe for Research on Nature and Industry through Coordinated University Studies) Round Table report considers efforts to identify priorities and objectives of the new alliance between the higher education community, industry, and international organizations in addressing today's environmental…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

224

Postmortem changes of human bodies on the bathyal sea floor--two cases of aircraft accidents above the open sea.  

PubMed

Forensic taphonomy in the marine context recently received growing attention. However, only limited information is available about the fate of human bodies at greater sea depth. Following two fatal aircraft accidents (west of Namibia, south of Sicily) human remains were recovered from a depth of 540-580 m (both cases) after 3 months (Namibia)/34 days (Sicily). In the Namibia case fully skeletonized bones were lifted. In the Sicily case a complete, dressed body was found exhibiting a partially skeletonized skull, starting adipocere formation and pink teeth. The rate and mode of decomposition of human bodies in the deep sea varies considerably and is mainly influenced by the local faunal composition. Of special relevance for the understanding of both cases was the oceanographic observation that the highly efficient necrophageous lyssianassids are abundant off Namibia but are rare in the Mediterranean, emphasizing the importance of collaboration of forensic and marine scientists in such case work. PMID:18637978

Dumser, Thomas K; Türkay, Michael

2008-09-01

225

Oil spill hazard assessment using a reverse trajectory method for the Egadi marine protected area (Central Mediterranean Sea).  

PubMed

The Egadi Marine Protected Area (MPA) on the western side of the Sicily Channel (Central Mediterranean) is exposed to a high risk of oil pollution from the tanker routes connecting the eastern and western basins of the Mediterranean Sea. Areas where an oil spill would do most damage, and thus where surveillance should be concentrated, are identified in this study by Lagrangian tracers tracked backwards in time from points along the MPA perimeter using data spanning six years from 2006 to 2011. Results indicate that the areas where oil surveillance would be most beneficial are segments of the tanker routes south of Sicily (highly frequented) and north of Sicily (scarcely frequented), both extending about 150 miles from November to March and 100 miles in the other months. The third route, close to the Tunisian shore, is the most frequented by oil tankers but the threat period is limited to November and December. PMID:24934441

Ciappa, Achille; Costabile, Salvatore

2014-07-15

226

Multiple sclerosis in the Republic of San Marino.  

PubMed Central

Previous studies on the prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Italy have grossly underestimated the prevalence of the disease. The prevalence in the Republic of San Marino (near Rimini), in Sicily, and no doubt in the rest of Italy, is of the same order of magnitude as in Europe--that is, 40-60/100 000. The contrast of this with the very low prevalence in Malta (only 60 miles (96 km) away from Sicily) of 4/100 000 should provide a clue to the genetic and environmental factors responsible for multiple sclerosis. PMID:6707559

Morganti, G; Naccarato, S; Elian, M; Ferrari, P; Kelly, R; Karhausen, L; Dean, G

1984-01-01

227

Introduction to Papers from the Conference Dionysius' Ear: Trauma, Tragedy, and Psychoanalytic Listening  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I describe the origin and spirit of the meeting of about 200 European, Israeli, and American psychoanalysts for a week in Siracusa, Sicily, to consider our work as embedded in our Greco-Roman cultural roots while we reveled, Dionysius-like, in that culture in many forms: drama, archeology, food, wine, and music. Organized by five institutes and hosted by

Donna M. Orange

2006-01-01

228

Behavioral Aspects of Feeding Basic and Applied Research in Mammals  

E-print Network

a Switzerland ·Australia ·Belgium ·France ·Germany ·Great Britain India · Japan ·Malaysia ·Netherlands ·Russia churches perched atop a 750-meter peak in northwestern Sicily. A place of strong winds, cool temperatures. Logical development of topics has been given precedence over historical accuracy in organizing

Galef Jr., Bennett G.

229

Recognition of water masses according to geochemical signatures in the Central Mediterranean sea: Y\\/Ho ratio and rare earth element behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the results of geochemical investigations carried out in the Strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean Sea) during the oceanographic cruise BANSIC 2000, focusing on the area around the Pantelleria Island. We evaluate the interface processes between dissolved phase and suspended particulate matter in the water columns on the basis of Y\\/Ho ratio and rare earth elements and yttrium

P. Censi; P. Zuddas; D. Larocca; F. Saiano; F. Placenti; A. Bonanno

2007-01-01

230

Problems and contradictions in the constitution of a southern european metropolitan area: Catania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Metropolitan Area of Catania has been created with a Regional law of 1986 (together with that of Palermo and Messina). With its 27 municipalities and for its characteristics it resembles, more than any other area in Sicily, a Metropolitan Area (MA), that is, a complex urban system in continuos evolution and at an advanced stage of the urban life

Luca Ruggiero

2001-01-01

231

Crop genetic diversity, farm productivity and the management of environmental risk in rainfed agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an assessment of the linkages between crop genetic diversity, farm productivity and risk management. A flexible moment-based approach is used to analyse the impact of crop genetic diversity on the mean, variance and skewness of yield. Using farm-level data from Sicily (Italy), econometric evidence shows how crop genetic diversity can increase farm productivity and reduce risk exposure.

Salvatore Di Falco; Jean-Paul Chavas

2006-01-01

232

Fabled Lost Cities The Mediterranean  

E-print Network

Fabled Lost Cities of The Mediterranean Italy, Croatia, Albania, Sicily, Turkey & Greece ( Aboard led to a new course on The Mediterranean City in the 2nd -6th Centuries. Dr. James Wiseman, lecturer for the Archaeological Institute of America, is an expert on Mediterranean archaeology, history, and art from prehistoric

Rowley, Clarence W.

233

The Global Irish s more and more talk turns to  

E-print Network

per- haps there is something in the blood that makes our island people want to see the rest ­ but there is something else too, something migratory in our make-up. Our ancient ancestors traveled from afar to inhabit our small island ­ some say they came from Sicily by way of Greece, Cappadocia, Gothia and Spain ­ so

Li, Mo

234

Italy: Mt. Etna  

... Larger Image The height and southward extent of the ash plume emanating from Sicily's Mount Etna volcano on October 27, 2002 are ... from the volcano. The three natural-color (red, green and blue) images depict the scene as observed by MISR's downward-looking ...

2013-04-17

235

Aldo Morselli, INFN Roma Tor Vergata! 1! The neutrinos-gamma-rays connection in the  

E-print Network

Aldo Morselli, INFN Roma Tor Vergata! 1! The neutrinos-gamma-rays connection in the understanding of high-energy astrophysical sources Aldo Morselli INFN Roma Tor Vergata Erice-Sicily , 16-24 September Morselli, INFN Roma Tor Vergata! 2! Happy 5th Birthday Fermi !! 11 June 2008 #12;Aldo Morselli, INFN Roma

Morselli, Aldo

236

Proteomes and Proteins A Course Jointly Organized by  

E-print Network

Sicily, and is easily reachable via hydrofoil boat or ferry from Naples, Messina and Milazzo. Its natural + hydrofoil, 2 social tours and the social dinner. Participants who wish to stay one week only may choose + hydrofoil, 1 social tour and the social dinner. The social dinner is organized on the black beach of Vulcano

Pascucci, Valerio

237

Settlement of the alien mollusc Brachidontes pharaonis in a Mediterranean industrial plant: Bioassays for antifouling treatment optimization and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we investigated the efficacy of three new biocides (77351, 73532, 73503 – NALCO®) as specific antifouling products against adult organisms of the bivalve Brachidontes pharaonis (Fischer P., 1870), a Lessepsian species introduced in the Mediterranean Sea by sea transport (ballast water), and which has recently shown invasive behaviour in an industrial plant in Southern Italy (Sicily). These

F. Garaventa; C. Corrà; V. Piazza; E. Giacco; G. Greco; L. Pane; M. Faimali

238

Astronomical kaleidoscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The entry contains two Moon eclipses (a picture of a total eclipse and a photo of a penumbral one), photographs of monuments of few greatest astronomers: Nikolay Kopernik, Tiho Brahe and Johannes Kepler, a photo from the JENAM-1995 (Catania, Sicily) as well as photographs of few astronomers related with Moldova and Romania: V. Grigorevskii, N. Donitch, V.Nadolschi, D. Mangeron, two

Alex Gaina

2005-01-01

239

Documenting the Undocumented in Italo-American Female Creativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This synthesis project documents specific, penitential domestic tasks of ritual celebration of the feast of St. Joseph as practiced by the Amari family. While still practiced in Sicily, this ritual is rare in America. It has three phases: the making of bread dough sculptures, the creation of a home alter, and the preparation of a meal of foods eaten solely

Donna Letteriello

1998-01-01

240

Genetics of the early stages of invasion of the Lessepsian rabbitfish Siganus luridus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the initial stages of dispersal and settlement are of great interest in understanding the dynamics of biological invasions and in designing management responses. A newly settled population of the Lessepsian rabbitfish migrant Siganus luridus, that arrived in Linosa Island (Sicily Strait) in 2000, offered a unique opportunity to examine the genetic variability of the early phase of invasion

Ernesto Azzurro; Daniel Golani; Giuseppe Bucciarelli; Giacomo Bernardi

2006-01-01

241

Genetics of the early stages of invasion of the Lessepsian rabbitfish Siganus luridus  

E-print Network

, 25 Siganus rivulatus, and one of Siganus (Lo) vulpinus and S. doliatus were used. Samples wereGenetics of the early stages of invasion of the Lessepsian rabbitfish Siganus luridus Ernesto population of the Lessepsian rabbitfish migrant Siganus luridus, that arrived in Linosa Island (Sicily Strait

Bernardi, Giacomo

242

HOTRES: renewable energies in the hotels. An extensive technical tool for the hotel industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project HOTRES aimed at the systematic implementation of conditions for future massive applications of the renewable energies in the tourism industry. Under the umbrella of this project five renewable energy technologies were promoted (solar thermal, solar passive, solar PV, biomass and geothermal energy) in parallel in five EU regions (East Attica, Sicily, Alpes-Maritimes, Andalusia and Madeira) by the corresponding

Michaelis Karagiorgas; Theocharis Tsoutsos; Vassiliki Drosou; Stéphane Pouffary; Tulio Pagano; Germán Lopez Lara; José Manuel Melim Mendes

2006-01-01

243

Astronomical trip to Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Joint European Astronomical Meeting -1995 held in Catania, Sicily, chaired by Rodono, Marcelo is described. Few other details: the trip to Serbia through Romania, the Astronomical Observatory in Belgrade (former director: Milan S. Dimitrijevic), as well as the trip through the Adriatic Sea , Italy the bridge in Messina and the city of Catania are described also.

Gaina, Alex

2007-12-01

244

Thomas E. J. Mensink LEAR Team -INRIA Grenoble thomas.mensink@inria.fr  

E-print Network

, Utrecht Education PhD Student in Computer Vision & Machine Learning 2009 ­ present LEAR - INRIA Grenoble¨ose and Dr. W. Zajdel Title Multi-Observations Newscast EM for Distributed Multi-Camera Tracking Bachelor School, Grenoble, France 2010,2012 International Computer Vision Summer School, Sicily, Italy 2010 Best

245

LUIS M. ROCHA School of Informatics & Computing  

E-print Network

Systems PhD Track. INSTITUTO GULBENKIAN DA CIENCIA, Portugal. Director of the FLAD Computational Biology, machine learning, network science, recommender systems, uncertainty modeling. Academic Education: Ph Systems. August 2012. Sicily, Italy, 28-31 ICCS2011: Eighth International Conference on Complex Systems

Rocha, Luis

246

Helium isotopes and tectonics in southern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geodynamic evolution of southern Italy can be understood within the framework of the Mediterranean-Alpine System. Subduction of a plate along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc under the Tyrrhenian Sea has been suggested by many geophysicists, although it is not het confirmed and remains somewhat controversial. Helium isotope ratios provide useful information on the geotectonic structure of the region. We report here the

Yuji Sano; Hiroshi Wakita; Francesco Italiano; Mario P. Nuccio

1989-01-01

247

Isotopic composition of the precipitations in the central Mediterranean: Origin marks and orographic precipitation effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isotopic composition of the rainfall in northwestern Sicily (Italy, central Mediterranean) was investigated in the period February 2002 to March 2003. A rain gauge network was installed and sampled monthly. The monthly values of the D and 18O ratios showed a wide range that reflected seasonal climatic variations. Mean weighted values were used to define an isotopic model of

Marcello Liotta; Rocco Favara; Mariano Valenza

2006-01-01

248

Agronomic response of winter melon (Cucumis melo inodorus Naud.) to biodegradable and polyethylene film mulches, and to different planting densities  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - The winter melon is widely grown in the open field in Sicily on about 6000 hectares. Plants are grown in the countryside without irrigation as the annual rain precipitation provides sufficient water for the crop. In the last decades the use of plastic mulches has enhanced early winter melon and total yields. However, disadvantages of plastic mulches are

G. Incalcaterra; A. Sciortino; F. Vetrano; G. Iapichino

249

Cementation of Upper Miocene reefs in western Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reefs in the western Mediterranean (southeast Spain, Balearic Island, northern Morocco, Sicily, and Italy) show a wide variety of cement types, ranging from completely tight, well-cemented, to poorly cemented reefs with most of the primary porosity still preserved. Cementation processes in those coral reefs appear to be controlled to a great extent by repeated changes of relative sea levels

M. Esteban; F. Calvet

1983-01-01

250

The Silica Cycle in the Ultraoligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean Sea , K. Fanning2  

E-print Network

The Silica Cycle in the Ultraoligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean Sea N. Kress1 , K. Fanning2 and M studies aimed at understanding the Si cycle in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS). Here we use Mediterranean Sea (WMS) water at the Straits of Sicily. It does not change seasonally because there is only

Simon, Emmanuel

251

Nutrients in the Mediterranean Sea, mass balance and statistical analysis of concentrations with respect to environmental change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data obtained from the Algero–Provençal basin (Western Mediterranean) in 1994 illustrates the homogeneity of phosphate, nitrate and silicate concentrations in deep-water throughout this basin, comparable to temperature and salinity homogeneity. Nutrient mass balances across the straits of Gibraltar and Sicily enable us to estimate new production (NP) and f ratio (new vs. total production) in the inner basins. Rather

J. P Béthoux; P Morin; C Chaumery; O Connan; B Gentili; D Ruiz-Pino

1998-01-01

252

MY FAVORITE NUMBERS: September 15, 2008  

E-print Network

by iron pyrite, or `fool's gold': #12;But fool's gold cannot have 5-fold symmetry ­ no crystal can! What you just saw was a `pyritohedron': #12;The Greek colonies in Sicily had a lot of pyrite dodecahedron by `perfecting' the pyrite crystals they saw. #12;The Pythagoreans were also fascinated

Baez, John

253

An improved real-time seismic network in the Central Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Mediterranean is a region of active tectonics characterised by the interaction of a number of varied and sometimes poorly understood processes. Superimposed on the convergent scenario of the African plate pushing northwestward, a NE-SW directed extensional regime is active in the Sicily Channel, expressed in the form of a seismically active east-west trending system of strike-slip lineaments and a series of pull-apart grabens. The offshore seismicity of the Sicily channel, generally limited to magnitudes below 4.5, is normally difficult to quantify precisely, due to poor station coverage, yet it is believed that its analysis will considerably improve our understanding of the processes affecting the region. We present recent improvements to real and virtual seismic networking in the Central Mediterranean, based at the Seismic Monitoring and Research Unit (SMRU), University of Malta. Within the project SIMIT (B1-2.19/11) funded by the Italia-Malta Operational Programme 2007-2013, earthquake monitoring on the Maltese Islands is being upgraded through the installation of a further two broadband stations, one of which will be on the smaller island of Gozo. A new network, ML (Malta Seismic Network), has been internationally registered with the FDSN. At the same time, the installation and implementation of SeisComP3 has enabled the setting up of a virtual, real-time Central Mediterranean network, made up of 18 stations in Southern Italy (including Sicily, Lampedusa and Pantelleria) belonging to the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, 3 stations in Tunisia (National Institute of Meteorology of Tunisia) and the 3 stations on the Maltese Islands. This will allow us to rapidly perform more accurate hypocentral locations in the region. The virtual network, which also incorporates a number of more distant stations, has been tuned to issue SMS alerts for potentially felt events in the Sicily Channel detected by the network, and for strong earthquakes elsewhere. Within the SIMIT project, the alert system will include Civil Protection departments in Malta and Sicily. Small magnitude earthquakes, especially those located to the south and south-east of the Maltese Islands, may still go undetected by the network. In this case, use is made of a single-station polarization analysis method (LESSLA) developed at SMRU. The integration of data from the above methods allows us to produce a more comprehensive seismicity map for the Sicily Channel, which will be interpreted in terms of the dynamics of the Sicily Channel Rift System. References: Agius, M. R., & Galea, P. (2011). A single-station automated earthquake location system at Wied Dalam Station, Malta. Seismological Research Letters, 82(4), 545-559.

Agius, Matthew; Galea, Pauline; D'Amico, Sebastiano

2014-05-01

254

Tuberculosis Epidemiology in Islands: Insularity, Hosts and Trade  

PubMed Central

Because of their relative simplicity and the barriers to gene flow, islands are ideal systems to study the distribution of biodiversity. However, the knowledge that can be extracted from this peculiar ecosystem regarding epidemiology of economically relevant diseases has not been widely addressed. We used information available in the scientific literature for 10 old world islands or archipelagos and original data on Sicily to gain new insights into the epidemiology of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). We explored three nonexclusive working hypotheses on the processes modulating bovine tuberculosis (bTB) herd prevalence in cattle and MTC strain diversity: insularity, hosts and trade. Results suggest that bTB herd prevalence was positively correlated with island size, the presence of wild hosts, and the number of imported cattle, but neither with isolation nor with cattle density. MTC strain diversity was positively related with cattle bTB prevalence, presence of wild hosts and the number of imported cattle, but not with island size, isolation, and cattle density. The three most common spoligotype patterns coincided between Sicily and mainland Italy. However in Sicily, these common patterns showed a clearer dominance than on the Italian mainland, and seven of 19 patterns (37%) found in Sicily had not been reported from continental Italy. Strain patterns were not spatially clustered in Sicily. We were able to infer several aspects of MTC epidemiology and control in islands and thus in fragmented host and pathogen populations. Our results point out the relevance of the intensity of the cattle commercial networks in the epidemiology of MTC, and suggest that eradication will prove more difficult with increasing size of the island and its environmental complexity, mainly in terms of the diversity of suitable domestic and wild MTC hosts. PMID:23923053

Acevedo, Pelayo; Romero, Beatriz; Vicente, Joaquin; Caracappa, Santo; Galluzzo, Paola; Marineo, Sandra; Vicari, Domenico; Torina, Alessandra; Casal, Carmen; de la Fuente, Jose; Gortazar, Christian

2013-01-01

255

The Pelagian Block (central Mediterranean): Exploration and new opportunities  

SciTech Connect

The Pelagian Block, extending from eastern Tunisia to offshore western Libya and northward to Malta and Sicily, is a complex foreland area structurally active since the Carboniferous, that separates western North Africa from southern Italy. The north (Sicily) and central parts of the Pelagian Block contain Triassic-Lower Jurassic peritidal carbonates with rare evaporites; Middle Jurassic-Eocene pelagic carbonates, and paralic to marine clastics of Oligocene to Pleistocene age, with Messinian evaporites. The Middle Jurassic/Eocene platform to pelagic carbonates of Sicily are gradually replaced southward by basin margin, marine to paralic carbonates and clastics. In eastern Tunisia, these rocks overlie Triassic-Lower Jurasic evaporites. Principal petroleum resources occur offshore SE Sicily, offshore Tunisia and in adjacent Libyan waters. The largest oil fields are Bouri (800 MMB recoverable reserves) and Ashtart (recoverable reserves of 250 MMB). The largest gas field is Miskar (recoverable reserves of 800 BCF). Smaller accumulations are distributed throughout the region. New oil discoveries, ranging in size from 8 MMB to 50 MMB, have recently been made onshore and in the shallow offshore. Proven and potential source beds for hydrocarbons occur in various paleotectonic settings: anoxic lagoons formed in the early continental rifting stages (Triassic/Liassic organic rich units of SE Sicily); subcontinental/paralic coals and shales (Lower Cretaceous of Tunisia); and deeper water anoxic basins (late Mesozoic and Tertiary organic sequences). Additional exploration opportunities are expected in undrilled or sparsely drilled acreage, with traditional plays similar to those tested in the past; or in new plays directed to the exploration of new reservoir objectives.

Zappaterra, E. [Chevron Co., London (United Kingdom)

1995-08-01

256

Descriptive Epidemiology of Human Thyroid Cancer: Experience From a Regional Registry and The “Volcanic Factor”  

PubMed Central

Thyroid cancer (TC), the most common endocrine tumor, has steadily increased worldwide due to the increase of the papillary histotype. The reasons for this spread have not been established. In addition to more sensitive thyroid nodule screening, the effect of environmental factors cannot be excluded. Because high incidences of TC were found in volcanic areas (Hawaii and Iceland), a volcanic environment may play a role in the pathogenesis of TC. In January 2002, the Regional Register for TC was instituted in Sicily. With a population of approximately five million inhabitants with similar genetic and lifestyle features, the coexistence in Sicily of rural, urban, industrial, moderate-to-low iodine intake, and volcanic areas provides a conducive setting for assessing the environmental influences on the etiology of TC. In Sicily, between 2002 and 2004, 1,950 new cases of TC were identified, with an age-standardized rate (world) ASR(w)?=?17.8/105 in females and 3.7/105 in males and a high female/male ratio (4.3:1.0). The incidence of TC was heterogeneous within Sicily. There were 2.3 times more cases in the Catania province (where most of the inhabitants live in the volcanic area of Mt. Etna): ASR(w)?=?31.7/105 in females and 6.4/105 in males vs. 14.1 in females and 3.0 in males in the rest of Sicily. Multivariate analysis documented that residents in the volcanic area of Mt. Etna had a higher risk of TC, compared to the residents in urban, industrial, and iodine deficient areas of Sicily. An abnormally high concentration of several chemicals was found in the drinking water of the Mt. Etna aquifer, which provides water to most of the residents in the Catania province. Our data suggest that environmental carcinogen(s) of volcanic origin may promote papillary TC. Additional analyses, including cancer biological and molecular features, will allow a better understanding of risk factors and etiopathogenetic mechanisms. PMID:23761783

Malandrino, Pasqualino; Scollo, Claudia; Marturano, Ilenia; Russo, Marco; Tavarelli, Martina; Attard, Marco; Richiusa, Pierina; Violi, Maria Antonia; Dardanoni, Gabriella; Vigneri, Riccardo; Pellegriti, Gabriella

2013-01-01

257

Descriptive epidemiology of human thyroid cancer: experience from a regional registry and the "volcanic factor".  

PubMed

Thyroid cancer (TC), the most common endocrine tumor, has steadily increased worldwide due to the increase of the papillary histotype. The reasons for this spread have not been established. In addition to more sensitive thyroid nodule screening, the effect of environmental factors cannot be excluded. Because high incidences of TC were found in volcanic areas (Hawaii and Iceland), a volcanic environment may play a role in the pathogenesis of TC. In January 2002, the Regional Register for TC was instituted in Sicily. With a population of approximately five million inhabitants with similar genetic and lifestyle features, the coexistence in Sicily of rural, urban, industrial, moderate-to-low iodine intake, and volcanic areas provides a conducive setting for assessing the environmental influences on the etiology of TC. In Sicily, between 2002 and 2004, 1,950 new cases of TC were identified, with an age-standardized rate (world) ASR(w)?=?17.8/10(5) in females and 3.7/10(5) in males and a high female/male ratio (4.3:1.0). The incidence of TC was heterogeneous within Sicily. There were 2.3 times more cases in the Catania province (where most of the inhabitants live in the volcanic area of Mt. Etna): ASR(w)?=?31.7/10(5) in females and 6.4/10(5) in males vs. 14.1 in females and 3.0 in males in the rest of Sicily. Multivariate analysis documented that residents in the volcanic area of Mt. Etna had a higher risk of TC, compared to the residents in urban, industrial, and iodine deficient areas of Sicily. An abnormally high concentration of several chemicals was found in the drinking water of the Mt. Etna aquifer, which provides water to most of the residents in the Catania province. Our data suggest that environmental carcinogen(s) of volcanic origin may promote papillary TC. Additional analyses, including cancer biological and molecular features, will allow a better understanding of risk factors and etiopathogenetic mechanisms. PMID:23761783

Malandrino, Pasqualino; Scollo, Claudia; Marturano, Ilenia; Russo, Marco; Tavarelli, Martina; Attard, Marco; Richiusa, Pierina; Violi, Maria Antonia; Dardanoni, Gabriella; Vigneri, Riccardo; Pellegriti, Gabriella

2013-01-01

258

Life histories and abundance of crustacean zooplankton in the outlet of Lake Superior, 1971-72  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In sampling throughout a year, at about 3-wk intervals, of the crustacean zooplankton discharged from Lake Superior through the St. Marys River, 30 species were collected, including three not previously recorded for the lake: the copepod Cyclops strenuus, and the cladocerans Alona costata and Alonella acutirostris. Five copepods, Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi, Diaptomus ashlandi, D. sicilis, Limnocalanus macrurus, and Senecella calanoides were present in the plankton throughout the year while three other copepods, Diaptomus minutus, Epischura lacustris, and Mesocyclops edax, along with all cladocerans, were present only during summer and fall. Five species of copepods, Diaptomus sicilis, D. minutus, Limnocalanus macrurus, Senecella calanoides, and Epischura lacustris produced a single generation annually; three other copepods and all cladocerans produced two or more generations. All species breed 1-3 mo later in Lake Superior than in lakes Michigan and Erie.

Selgeby, James H.

1975-01-01

259

Mantle-derived helium in sedimentary basins of Central Mediterranean: Geologic and tectonic constrains on fluids accumulation and migration.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geodynamics of the central Mediterranean is characterized by the interaction between the European plate and the African one. In this setting Sicily is a sector of the Appenine-Maghrebide accretionary prism, which is located between two areas affected by extensional tectonics (Sicily Channel to the south and the Thyrrenian back arc basin to the north). In the present study we present the first dataset of helium isotopic composition measured in fluids released from the central-western Sicily. With the aim to constrain the transfer system of fluids in this area we relate the results of geochemical investigations with the stratigraphy and structural setting, derived from field geology, deep boreholes and new seismic reflection, gravimetry and magnetometry data. Significant mantle-derived helium (0.4Sicily. CH4-dominated gases are released from mud volcanoes and feed everlasting fires mainly located in the central region, where upper Oligocene-Miocene terrigenous cover Mesozoic carbonatic units. The abundance of CH4, usually linked to the presence of hydrocarbons- and/or organic matter-rich layers, is almost exclusively linked to the Messinian evaporitic and pre-evaporitic levels (containing diatomites). On the other hand, CO2 is mainly associated to the thermal groundwaters circulating mainly in Mesozoic limestone and dolomite, which here constitute the bulk of the deformed wedge of the Sicilian chain (up to 15 km thick). In thermal waters, we found a positive correlation between water temperature, ranging between 22.1°C and 59°C, and helium isotopic ratio. Taking into consideration that helium rises from the mantle coupled to CO2 and others components, we discussed CO2 and CH4 coupled to helium. Our samples did no show any correlation between C/3He vs. R/Ra and only samples of the Sciacca thermal basin show C/3He in the typical ranges of the mantle fluids. CH4-dominated fluids shows a CH4/3He vs. R/Ra correlation that underlies a mixing between a 3He rich and CH4-poor term and a CH4-rich and 3He-poor one typical of crustal reservoir of gases. Our previous investigations showed up an heat excess coupled to the presence of mantle-derived helium in western Sicily, which was linked to the occurrence of melts rising from the mantle below the continental crust or intruding through lithospheric faults. This study shows that degassing of mantle derived fluids cover entirely the central-western Sicily and the transfer of mantle helium rich fluids through the crust is mainly regulated by fault-controlled advective flux. In particular: a) in the central-northern Sicily recent data from deep seismic reflection investigations (SiRiPro project), evidenced a dense network of faults that develops between the area of Caltanissetta and the central portion of the Madonie, involving both the deformed sedimentary units of the fold and thrust belt and the underlying crust and upper mantle; b) in the Sciacca area multichannel seismic profiles highlighted the occurrence of deep-seated faults (correlated with the N-S lineaments well known offshore in the Sicily Straits), also characterized by strike-slip component (as evidenced by the seismicity of the Belice valley), which involves the deeper portions of the chain; in addition gravimetry and magnetic data displayed a shallow crustal basement, whose involvement in the deformation suggests a link with the fault systems recognized in the overlying tectonic wedge.

Caracausi, Antonio; Grassa, Fausto; Pennino, Valentina; Rizzo, Andrea; Sulli, Attilio

2013-04-01

260

Helium isotopes and tectonics in southern Italy  

SciTech Connect

Geodynamic evolution of southern Italy can be understood within the framework of the Mediterranean-Alpine System. Subduction of a plate along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc under the Tyrrhenian Sea has been suggested by many geophysicists, although it is not yet confirmed and remains somewhat controversial. Helium isotope ratios provide useful information on the geotectonic structure of the region. The authors report here the {sup 3}H/{sup 4}He ratios of terrestrial gas samples from southern Italy. The observed {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are relatively high in the Eolian volcanic arc region and low in the other areas. Dichotomous explanations are presented. Firstly, volcanic arc-forearc hypothesis suggests the subduction along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc. Secondly, horizontal transport hypothesis is described based on the relationship between the ratios and radial distance from the recent spreading basin in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea.

Sano, Yuji; Wakita, Hiroshi (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Nuccio, M.P. (Univ. of Palermo (Italy)); Italiano, F.

1989-06-01

261

High-frequency wave propagation from mantle earthquakes in the Tyrrhenian Sea: New constraints for the geometry of the South Tyrrhenian Subduction Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Propagation of shear waves produced by 25 mantle earthquakes (80-600 km depth) in the subduction zone of the south Tyrrhenian Sea (southern Italy) has been investigated to infer the geometry and extent of the descending lithosphere. From all hypocentral depths high-frequency, high-amplitude shear waves are recorded at most of the stations in southern Italy and easternmost Sicily. This shear-wave energy is interpreted to travel as a guided wave within the descending slab. In contrast, shear waves are either not recorded at all or they are recorded as low-frequency, low-amplitude signals at stations located in the peninsular part of Italy north of the Calabrian arc, in western Sicily and in Sardinia. This systematic S-wave attenuation is interpreted in terms of an active and continuous slab correlated with and limited to the Calabrian arc.

Mele, Giuliana

262

Optical-digital measurements of energy reserves in Calanoid copepods: Intersegmental distribution and seasonal patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple optical-digital method to measure visible energy reserves in calanoid CO- pepods. Seasonal patterns (spring-fall) of triacylglycerol energy reserves in Diaptomus sicilis were determined in a hypereutrophic and in a saline prairie lake. In addition to optical measurement of energy reserves, two well-established chemical techniques (microgravirnetric and Iatroscan TLC- FID analyses) were used over the same period.

MICHAEL T. ARTS; MARLENE S. EVANS

1991-01-01

263

Seasonal patterns of total and energy reserve lipids of dominant zooplanktonic crustaceans from a hyper-eutrophic lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Seasonal patterns of lipid reserves and lipid classes of dominant zooplankton in a hyper-eutrophic lake were examined in relation to algal food resources. Triacylglycerol was the principle lipid energy reserve in all five species examined. During the height of the yearlyAphanizomenon flos-aquae bloom, lipid levels of the principle herbivores (Daphnia pulex andLeptodiaptomus sicilis) and an omnivore (Diacyclops bicuspidatus thomasi),

Michael T. Arts; Marlene S. Evans; Richard D. Robarts

1992-01-01

264

Reviews of Books  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pj. Heather. Goths and Romans, 332-489. New York: The Clarendon Press,Oxford University Press, 1991. Pp. xi, 378. $114.95 (CDN). Reviewed by Steven MuhlbergerCharles Tilly. Coercion, Capital, and European States, AD 990-1990. Oxfordand Cambridge, Mass.: Basil Blackwell, 1990. Pp. xi, 269. $39.95 (us). Reviewed by Jan BlommeDonald Matthew. The Norman Kingdom of Sicily. New York: CambridgeUniversity Press, 1992. Pp. xvi, 418.

Steven Muhlberger; Leuven Jan Blomme; James M. Powell; Michael Chaton; Donald C. Jackman; Gregory Evans Dowd; Charles R. Middleton; Joseph A. Fry; B. R. Tomlinson; Jocelyn Linnekin; Neville Thompson; Ann Pottinger Saab; Barry Eichengreen; Daniel J. Schroeter; Raymond F. Betts; G. Harries-Jenkins; John W. Bailey; Allen J. Greenberger; D. George Boyce; Roderic H. Davison; Dane Kennedy; Stephen Brooke; David B. Danbom; Gerard J. De Groot; Betty Miller Unterberger; Robert J. Young; Carole Fink; Hines H. Hall; Gerhard L. Weinberg; Priscilla Dale Jones; Alan S. Milward; M. L. Dockrill; David Stafford; Bo Petersson; Jacob Bercovitch; Melvyn P. Leffleh; Marvin R. Zahniser; Willard C. Frank Jr; Timothy M. Shaw; Callum Macdonald; Andrew Chandler; B. W. Muirhead; William J. Duiker; Michael Graham Fry; Colin Newbury; Robert Page; John M. Mackenzie; E. Timothy Smith; Donald Barry; T. B. Millar; Hendrik Spruyi; T. E. Vadney; Jack S. Levy; Sally Marks; John Simpson

1993-01-01

265

Characterizing Drought Risk in a Sicilian River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chapter summarizes the results of the application of proposed methodologies for drought characterization and risk assessment\\u000a in water supply systems to the Italian case study, namely the Simeto River basin in Sicily. In particular, after a general\\u000a description of the case study, the results of the drought identification, carried out by means of several drought indices\\u000a and methods such

Giuseppe Rossi; Brunella Bonaccorso; Vincenzo Nicolosi; Antonino Cancelliere

266

Shipping sheep: a zooarchaeology of Greek colonisation  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2 Principal regions of ancient Greece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.3 Map of Greece and Albania showing sites mentioned in this chapter. . . . . . . . . 11 2.4 Finds of Mycenaean pottery in the Adriatic and Ionian... regions of ancient Greece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3.2 Map showing sites of Greece, Albania and Sicily relating to discussions in this chapter of the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3...

Sanford, Jane

2012-06-28

267

Maecenas: Images of Ancient Greece and Rome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by Classics Professor Leo Curran of the University at Buffalo, this collection of images could be a useful resource for courses in the Classics, Ancient History, or Archaeology. The collection currently contains many high-quality photos from France and Italy, with separate sections for Sicily and Rome. The images are offered free for any non-commercial purpose, and the site is periodically updated with new photos.

1998-01-01

268

PARTIAL MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND RT-PCR DETECTION OF A PUTATIVE CLOSTEROVIRUS ASSOCIATED WITH OLIVE LEAF YELLOWING  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Electrophoretic analysis of extracts from cortical tis- sues of olive trees of cvs 'Biancolilla' and 'Nostrana' from Sicily (southern Italy) showing bright chrome yel- low discolourations of the leaves, consistently revealed a number of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) bands, the largest of which had a size (ca 15 kbp) similar to that of the full genomic dsRNA of some species

S. Sabanadzovic; N. Abou-Ghanem; P. La Notte; V. Savino; G. Scarito; G. P. Martelli; Bari Valenzano

2004-01-01

269

Spatial and temporal distribution of virioplankton and bacterioplankton in a Brackish Environment (Lake of Ganzirri, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal and spatial changes of viral and bacterial abundance were examined in relation to environmental factors and hydrography at five stations between May 2000 and July 2001 in the brackish lake of Ganzirri (Sicily, Italy). Virioplankton abundance ranged from 5.26 × 104 to 7.54 × 108VLP ml-1 (on average 1.38 × 108particles ml-1) and was significantly higher at the three

Silvana Vanucci; Vivia Bruni; Giuseppina Pulicanò

2005-01-01

270

Fluid flow systems of the Malta Plateau, Central Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Malta Plateau is a shallow, asymmetric, north–south striking ridge located between Sicily and the Maltese Islands. New 2D seismic and side scan sonar data sets, sub-bottom profiles and seabed samples are investigated to characterize fluid flow systems on the Malta Plateau, determine their origin, and improve our general understanding of fluid flow focusing in terms of structural and stratigraphic

Aaron Micallef; Christian Berndt; Godwin Debono

2011-01-01

271

Does lake age affect zooplankton diversity in Mediterranean lakes and reservoirs? A case study from southern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zooplankton assemblages of 51 lacustrine environments located in the middle of the Mediterranean Region were analysed to evaluate\\u000a the existence of an ‘age effect’ in determining their structure. The analysed datasets refer to two different geographic areas,\\u000a one comprising 30 natural and artificial lakes in Sicily and the other an arrangement of 21 analogous aquatic ecosystems located\\u000a at the bottom

Giuseppe Alfonso; Genuario Belmonte; Federico Marrone; Luigi Naselli-Flores

2010-01-01

272

Archimedes (287–212 BC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archimedes (ca. 287–212 BC) was born in Syracuse, in the Greek colony of Sicily. He studied mathematics at the Museum in Alexandria.\\u000a Archimedes systematized the design of simple machines and the study of their functions. He was probably the inventor of the\\u000a compound pulley and developed a rigorous theory of levers and the kinematics of the screw. He is the

Thomas G. Chondros

273

Extension of the astronomically calibrated (polarity) time scale to the Miocene\\/Pliocene boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early Pleistocene to late Pliocene astronormcally calibrated time scale of Shackleton et al. [1] and Hllgen [2] is\\u000aextended to the Mlocene\\/Pllocene boundary This is done by correlating the detailed record of CaCO 3 cycles in the Trubl and\\u000athe lower part of the overlying Narbone Formation (Rossello composite sechon, Sicily) to the astronomical record, using (1)\\u000amferred phase

F. J. Hilgen

1991-01-01

274

Hard X-ray latitude effect measured during a transatlantic balloon flight  

SciTech Connect

The hard X-ray latitude effect is reported in the range of McIlwain shell parameter L from 1.4 to 2.6 (earth radius units). The data were obtained with two X-ray scintillator detectors flown on board a transatlantic balloon launched from Trapani, Sicily. The data analysis method for measuring the flux from weak X-ray sources is also described.

Frontera, F. (CNR, Istituto Plasma Spazio, Frascati, Italy); Fuligni, F. (CNR, Istituto di Tecnologie e Studio delle Radiazioni Extraterrestri, Bologna, Italy)

1981-01-01

275

Source of the 1693 Catania earthquake and tsunami (southern Italy): New evidence from tsunami modeling of a locked subduction fault plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1693 Catania earthquake, which caused 60000 deaths in eastern Sicily and generated a 5–10 m high tsunami, is investigated. GPS data indicate ESE-WNW convergence in the Calabrian arc at 4–5 mm\\/yr. New high-resolution seismic data image active compression at the toe of the accretionary wedge. The lack of instrumentally recorded thrust earthquakes suggests the presence of a locked subduction

M.-A. Gutscher; J. Roger; M.-A. Baptista; J. M. Miranda; S. Tinti

2006-01-01

276

Incipient Crustal Stretching across AN Active Collision Belt: the Case of the Siculo-Calabrian Rift Zone (central Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Central Mediterranean, the differential roll-back of the subducting Nubia Plate caused the Neogene-Quaternary extrusion of the Calabrian arc onto the oceanic Ionian slab, and the opening of the oceanic Tyrrhenian Basin, in the overriding Eurasia Plate. The differential motion at the edges of the arc was largely accommodated along transform faults that propagated across the orogenic belt. Since the Late Quaternary, the southern edge of the arc has been replaced by the roughly N-S oriented Siculo-Calabrian Rift Zone (SCRZ) that formed as the NNW-directed normal faults of NE Sicily, crossing the orogenic belt, have linked the NNE-oriented Tyrrhenian margin of southern Calabria with the NNW-trending Africa-Ionian boundary of southeastern Sicily. Our study focused on the Sicily shoulder of the SCRZ, where the transition zone between the extensional belt and the still active Nubia-Eurasia convergent margin is characterized by two distinct mobile crustal wedges, both lying on an upwarped Mantle, where a re-orientations of the ?1 is combined with volcanism (e.g. Etna, Aeolian islands) and a huge tectonic uplift. In southeastern Sicily, the Hyblean-Etnean region evolved, since about 0.85 Ma, as an indipendent crustal wedge, moving towards the NNW and pointing to the active Mt. Etna volcano. A local ENE crustal stretching accompanied the traslation of the block and pre-dated the ESE-oriented extension governing the propagation of the southernmost branch of the SCR, which started at about 330 ka B.P.. Similarly, the Peloritani-Aeolian region, flanked by the 125 ka-old NE-Sicily branch of the rift zone, represents a mostly submerged crustal wedge that migrates towards the NE, diverging from the rest of the Sicily collision zone and pointing to the Stromboli volcano. The Peloritani-Aeolian block is characterized by the occurrence of a wide central NE-oriented collapsed basin contoured by an actively uplifting region, whose tectonic boundaries are evidenced by a sharp increase in the elevation of the marine terraces of the last 600 ka. In the two analysed crustal blocks, the crustal doming with the related basin collapses and the concurrent tectonic motion without any back-stop can be respectively related to the thermal anomalies and to the drag forces exerted by a hot Mantle flow, triggered by the opening of a vertical slab windows at the southern edge of the Calabrian arc. This process has favored the migration of hot Mantle material towards the sectors of larger rollback of the subduction hinge, producing the spectacular tectonic uplift and active magmatism of the region. The increase of the volume of the Mantle wedged in the subduction zone of the Calabrian arc has been also effective to accommodate the differential roll-back between the adjacent segments of Nubia Plate, thus replacing the motion along the pre-existing transform faults dissecting the orogenic belt. In this frame, the deformation of the Hyblean-Etnean and the Peloritani-Aeolian blocks heralded the development of the two Sicily branches of the SCRZ. The delayed crustal stretching responsible for the propagation of the rift zone across the orogenic belt can be framed in the dynamic of a still active convergent margin if interpreted as the result of the sliding of the crust along the Ionian flank of the Mantle flow.

Catalano, S.; Tortorici, G.; Romagnoli, G.; Pavano, F.

2012-12-01

277

Airborne EM for geothermal and hydrogeological mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the "VIGOR" project, aimed at assessing the geothermal potential of four regions in southern Italy, Airborne EM data have been acquired, modeled and interpreted. The system deployed was SkyTEM, a time-domain helicopter electromagnetic system designed for hydrogeophysical, environmental and mineral investigations. The AEM data provide, after data acquisition, analysis, processing, and modeling, a distribution volume of electrical resistivity, spanning an investigation depth from ground surface of few hundred meters, depending on resistivity condition. Resistivity is an important physical parameter for geothermal investigation, since it proved to be very effective in mapping anomalies due to hydrothermal fluid circulation, which usually has high salt content and produces clayey alteration minerals. Since the project required, among other issues, to define geothermal resources at shallow level, it was decided to perform a test with an airborne electromagnetic geophysical survey, to verify the advantages offered by the system in covering large areas in a short time. The geophysical survey was carried out in Sicily, Italy, in late 2011, over two test sites named "Termini" and "Western Sicily". The two areas were chosen on different basis. "Termini" area is covered by extensive geological surveys, and was going to be investigated also by means of electrical tomography in its northern part. Since geological condition of Sicily, even at shallow depth, is very complex, this area provided a good place for defining the resistivity values of the main geological units outcropping in the region. "Termini" survey has been also an occasion to define relations between resistivity distribution, lithological units and thermal conductivity. The "Western Sicily" area cover the main thermal manifestations of western Sicily, and the research target was to establish whether they are characterized by common hydrogeological or tectonic features that could be mapped by resistivity. SkyTEM data have been acquired in a series of flight lines and were then processed and inverted. In the "Termini" area the flight line spacing had 150 m separation. In the "Western Sicily" area two different line spacing were used: the 1 km spacing was used for the regional mapping, whereas for infill areas, around the main hydrothermal springs, the flight lines had 100 m spacing. The total number of flight line was 4580 km, and the explored surface was in excess of 2000 km2. After acquisition, data were processed to eliminate coupling with infrastructures, and noise. Inversions was then carried out using the quasi 3-D Spatially Constrained Inversion. The obtained resistivity volume has then been the base for a detailed lithological and geothermal interpretation. Lithological and geological maps were used to constrain surface condition and to understand the resistivity ranges of the different lithological units. On the base of resistivity values, lithological units were combined to establish the main litho-resistive units, then modeled at depth, down to achievable investigation depth. This detailed interpretative modeling was also the occasion of recognizing resistivity anomalies within carbonate units, which may possibly represent hydrogeological or hydrothermal bodies. The litho-resitive 3D model is now under investigation to verify how it can represent a viable way to image thermal conductivity variations at depth.

Menghini, A.; Manzella, A.; Viezzoli, A.; Montanari, D.; Maggi, S.

2012-12-01

278

From Africa to Europe and back: refugia and range shifts cause high genetic differentiation in the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea  

PubMed Central

Background The glacial-interglacial oscillations caused severe range modifications of biota. Thermophilic species became extinct in the North and survived in southern retreats, e.g. the Mediterranean Basin. These repeated extinction and (re)colonisation events led to long-term isolation and intermixing of populations and thus resulted in strong genetic imprints in many European species therefore being composed of several genetic lineages. To better understand these cycles of repeated expansion and retraction, we selected the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea. Fourty-one populations scattered over Europe and the Maghreb and one population of the sibling taxon M. lachesis were analysed using allozyme electrophoresis. Results We obtained seven distinct lineages applying neighbour joining and STRUCTURE analyses: (i) Morocco, (ii) Tunisia, (iii) Sicily, (iv) Italy and southern France, (v) eastern Balkans extending to Central Europe, (vi) western Balkans with western Carpathian Basin as well as (vii) south-western Alps. The hierarchy of these splits is well matching the chronology of glacial and interglacial cycles since the Günz ice age starting with an initial split between the galathea group in North Africa and the lachesis group in Iberia. These genetic structures were compared with past distribution patterns during the last glacial stage calculated with distribution models. Conclusions Both methods suggest climatically suitable areas in the Maghreb and the southern European peninsulas with distinct refugia during the last glacial period and underpin strong range expansions to the North during the Postglacial. However, the allozyme patterns reveal biogeographical structures not detected by distribution modelling as two distinct refugia in the Maghreb, two or more distinct refugia at the Balkans and a close link between the eastern Maghreb and Sicily. Furthermore, the genetically highly diverse western Maghreb might have acted as source or speciation centre of this taxon, while the eastern, genetically impoverished Maghreb population might result from a relatively recent recolonisation from Europe via Sicily. PMID:21777453

2011-01-01

279

Evaluating the capabilities of Sentinel-2 for quantitative estimation of biophysical variables in vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The red edge position (REP) in the vegetation spectral reflectance is a surrogate measure of vegetation chlorophyll content, and hence can be used to monitor the health and function of vegetation. The Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI) aboard the future ESA Sentinel-2 (S-2) satellite will provide the opportunity for estimation of the REP at much higher spatial resolution (20 m) than has been previously possible with spaceborne sensors such as Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) aboard ENVISAT. This study aims to evaluate the potential of S-2 MSI sensor for estimation of canopy chlorophyll content, leaf area index (LAI) and leaf chlorophyll concentration (LCC) using data from multiple field campaigns. Included in the assessed field campaigns are results from SEN3Exp in Barrax, Spain composed of 35 elementary sampling units (ESUs) of LCC and LAI which have been assessed for correlation with simulated MSI data using a CASI airborne imaging spectrometer. Analysis also presents results from SicilyS2EVAL, a campaign consisting of 25 ESUs in Sicily, Italy supported by a simultaneous Specim Aisa-Eagle data acquisition. In addition, these results were compared to outputs from the PROSAIL model for similar values of biophysical variables in the ESUs. The paper in turn assessed the scope of S-2 for retrieval of biophysical variables using these combined datasets through investigating the performance of the relevant Vegetation Indices (VIs) as well as presenting the novel Inverted Red-Edge Chlorophyll Index (IRECI) and Sentinel-2 Red-Edge Position (S2REP). Results indicated significant relationships between both canopy chlorophyll content and LAI for simulated MSI data using IRECI or the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) while S2REP and the MERIS Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index (MTCI) were found to have the strongest correlation for retrieval of LCC.

Frampton, William James; Dash, Jadunandan; Watmough, Gary; Milton, Edward James

2013-08-01

280

Evidence for non-uniform uplift rates in southern Italy on glacial-cycle timescales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies of sea level change, with accurate positional measurements and precise datings have been published for Italy in the past decade. The use of markers whose formation positions are closely linked to mean sea level allows precise estimates to be made of local sea-level change. If the data is from tectonically active zones then these observations must be corrected for tectonic vertical movements. Examples include the records from Huon Penisula, Barbados and Tahiti. Often the corrections are based on a long term rates estimated from Quaternary data and in the best cases the last integlacial (~125 ka BP) shoreline is used as reference level. Uncertainties in these tectonic corrections may in some instances exceed the accuracy of the age-height measurements of the more recent shorelines. In the Mediterranean tectonically active coastlines occur in many locations, including Crete (Pirazzoli et al., 1982), southwest coast of Greece (Dia et al.,1997, Kershaw et al.,2002) and southern Italy (Miyauchi et al.,1994). Other coastal areas such as south eastern Spain (Zazo et al., 2001), Sardinia (Antonioli et al.,1999) and southern Latium (Hearty and Dai Prà, 1986) appear to be stable on the glacial timescales. We have obtained new Holocenic uplift rate for eastern Sicily and southern Calabria using Holocene and earlier interglacial observational data from Sicily (Taormina and St. Alessio Cape, Stewart et al., 1997, Antonioli et al., in print 2003) and Calabria (Scilla, Antonioli et al., submitted 2002, and Ioppolo, unpublished data) together with new models for the eustatic and glacio-hydro-isostatic contributions to Holocene sea level change where the latter have been calibrated against data from 30 sites in Italy (Lambeck et al.,submitted).For both regions of eastern Sicily and southern Calabria the Holocene uplift rates are greater than the long term average rates based on the position of the last (MIS 5.5) and earlier interglacial shorelines.

Antonioli, F.; Ferranti, L.; Lambeck, K.; Verrubbi, V.

2003-04-01

281

Collision Versus Separation in Rollback: The Calabria Arc through the Apulia-Africa Narrow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The late Miocene-Quaternary southeastward flight of Calabria onto the African plate was driven by arc rollback. Mesozoic lithosphere subducted to the NW as Tyrrhenian lithosphere was generated by back-arc extension. During this retreat, the arc was confined between the E-W continental margin of Africa (Sicily) to the south and the NW-SE margin of the Apulian promontory to the NE. As these margins get closer together toward the SE, the arc became shorter by oblique collision and progressive emplacement of the forearc on both margins. The morphology of the current subducting slab as revealed by seismicity and by receiver functions suggests that the rollback hinge has reached beyond the narrowest gap between Sicily and Apulia and is now abutting the N-S margin of eastern Sicily. If so, the subduction front is now widening and continued subduction and southeastward rollback requires separation of the subducting plate from the African margin. This separation is akin to starting new subduction, a notoriously difficult geodynamic process. We propose that the breaching of the narrow is the common cause for a series of major changes affecting Calabria tectonics in the late Quaternary. They include: 1. The drastic slow-down of Calabrian rollback; 2. The clockwise rotation of Calabria, after it became pinned at the corner of the African margin; 3. The development of the Etna mega-volcano as a manifestation of incipient asthenospheric upwelling associated with the tear; 4. The longitudinal extension by boudinage of the forearc above the slab which is distributed over a progressively wider subducting plate; 5. Regional uplift because of flexural response to longitudinal stretching of the forearc and unloading of the lower plate. The onset of these phenomena is approximately timed to the mid Pleistocene, which is inferred to mark the breaching of the Africa-Apulia narrow.

Seeber, L. P.; Reitz, M. S.; Nagel, T. P.; Steckler, M. S.

2008-12-01

282

New enviromentally sensitive patch index - ESPI - for MEDALUS protocol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors propose an index that allows one to calculate with ease, the territorial effect of the sensitivity towards desertification, ESPI, in order to overcome the limit of MEDALUS protocol, that does not foresee an estimate of sensitivity to the desertification of a territorial patch (of municipal, provincial, regional, hydrographic area) through a single value. The index proposed by the authors has significant advantages, because it produces effective rankings, moreover classifications and consequent possibility to elaborate the comparative data with regard to different periods. The authors apply ESPI to sensitive areas of Sicily Region, articulated in eight decades of investigation (1921-2000).

Duro, A.; Piccione, V.; Ragusa, M. A.; Veneziano, V.

2014-12-01

283

Cytotoxic effect of eudesmanolides isolated from flowers of Tanacetum vulgare ssp. siculum.  

PubMed

A phytochemical analysis of the dichloromethane extract from the flowers of a subspecies of Tanacetum vulgare growing in Sicily was carried out. Five known sesquiterpene lactones with the eudesmane skeleton have been isolated and the cytotoxic activity of these compounds was tested in vitro on A549 (human lung carcinoma epithelial-like) and V79379A (Chinese hamster lung fibroblast-like) cells using the tetrazolium salt reduction (MTT) assay. All of tested compounds induced high time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects. PMID:22777187

Rosselli, Sergio; Bruno, Maurizio; Raimondo, Francesco Maria; Spadaro, Vivienne; Varol, Mehmet; Koparal, Ay?e Tansu; Maggio, Antonella

2012-01-01

284

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

285

Leptospira interrogans survey by PCR in wild rodents coming from different urban areas of Palermo, Italy.  

PubMed

DNA extracted from the kidneys of rodents captured in different urban areas of Palermo, Italy, had been analysed for the presence of pathogenic L. interrogans sensu latu DNA. PCR analysis had shown that in rodents captured close to green areas and small river up to 40 % animals give positive PCR results. Not many cases of human leptospirosis are reported in Sicilian island in which hot season is usually dry. But considering climate change toward subtropical aspect in Sicily, with hot humid summer and sudden thunderstorm, screening for L. interrogans sensu latu prevalence can be useful for leptospirosis risk analysis on human population. PMID:23427420

Vitale, Maria; Di Bella, Carobelo; Agnello, Stefano; Curro, Victoria; Vicari, Domenico; Vitale, Fabrizio

2007-01-01

286

The Myth of Icarus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ever since humans first saw birds soar through the sky, they have wanted to fly. The ancient Greeks and Romans pictured many of their gods with winged feet, and imagined mythological winged animals. According to the legend of Daedalus and Icarus, the father and son escaped prison by attaching wings made of wax and feathers to their bodies. Unfortunately, Icarus flew too near the sun, and the heat caused the wax and feathers to melt. The feathers fell off, and Icarus plummeted to the sea. Daedalus landed safely in Sicily.

2004-01-01

287

Astronomical kaleidoscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The entry contains two Moon eclipses (a picture of a total eclipse and a photo of a penumbral one), photographs of monuments of few greatest astronomers: Nikolay Kopernik, Tiho Brahe and Johannes Kepler, a photo from the JENAM-1995 (Catania, Sicily) as well as photographs of few astronomers related with Moldova and Romania: V. Grigorevskii, N. Donitch, V.Nadolschi, D. Mangeron, two nice clocks in Prague, as well as a map of the Sanctuary in Orheiul -Vechi (Bessarabia) with an supposed ancient calendar.

Gaina, Alex

2005-10-01

288

Special Issue: International Conference on Physics of Light-Matter Coupling in Nanostructures III  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3rd International Conference on Physics of Light-Matter Coupling in Nanostructures (PLMCN3) took place in Acireale, Sicily, Italy from 1-4 October 2003. The aim of this conference was to review the fundamental background for realization of a new generation of opto-electronic devices such as polariton lasers, new optical switches and emitters based on microcavities. The idea was to combine the experience of spectroscopists and theorists with that of specialists in crystals growth of wide-band semiconductors (GaN, CdTe, ZnSe, ZnO) and organic materials.

Kavokin, Alexey; Laussy, Fabrice P.

2004-04-01

289

Spatio-temporal behaviour of the deep chlorophyll maximum in Mediterranean Sea: Development of a stochastic model for picophytoplankton dynamics  

E-print Network

In this paper, by using a stochastic reaction-diffusion-taxis model, we analyze the picophytoplankton dynamics in the basin of the Mediterranean Sea, characterized by poorly mixed waters. The model includes intraspecific competition of picophytoplankton for light and nutrients. The multiplicative noise sources present in the model account for random fluctuations of environmental variables. Phytoplankton distributions obtained from the model show a good agreement with experimental data sampled in two different sites of the Sicily Channel. The results could be extended to analyze data collected in different sites of the Mediterranean Sea and to devise predictive models for phytoplankton dynamics in oligotrophic waters.

Denaro, G; La Cognata, A; Spagnolo, B; Bonanno, A; Basilone, G; Mazzola, S; Zgozi, S; Aronica, S; Brunet, C

2012-01-01

290

Volcanic Ash Monitoring and FOrecaSting between Sicilia and Malta arEa and sharinG of the resUlts foR aviatiOn safety: the VAMOS SEGURO project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mt. Etna, in Italy, is one of the most active volcanoes in the world and during its frequent explosive episodes, eruption columns rise to several kilometers and fine ash is dispersed hundreds kilometers away from the vent reaching the neighboring countries. The Maltese Islands, for example, are situated at the center of the Mediterranean, only 100 km south of Sicily and, due to the close proximity, have been already affected by the past Etna volcanic activity. A reliable monitoring and forecasting system of Etna volcanic ash has to include all areas that could be reached by volcanic ash. For this reason, a new research project named VAMOS SEGURO, has been recently funded by Programma di Cooperazione Transfrontaliera Italia-Malta 2007-2013, with the aim to reduce the impact that Etna's explosive activity has in the area between Sicily and Malta. This project is developed within a cooperation between the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica, Osservatorio Etneo, the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), Comune of Montedoro, in Caltanissetta, the University of Malta, and Consorzio Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM). In this project, several instruments (e.g. aerosol optical depth analyzer, microbalance, laser cascade instrument, meteorological stations, aethelometer) have been installed at Giordan lighthouse at Xewkija, in Gozo, managed by the University of Malta. Furthermore, an innovative Lidar system with scanning capability, has been designed and realized by CNISM and is able to indentify the area affected by volcanic ash in Sicily and quantify the ash concentration in atmosphere. The Lidar may be transported and installed in the INAF astronomical observatories of Noto and Serra La Nave, only 7 km away from the Etna summits, and in Montedoro. Finally, an automatic forecasting system produces dispersal maps for the region between Sicily and Malta and for a typical Etna scenario. Results of simulations are daily visible at www.ct.ingv.it/vamosseguro. The system is collecting measurements of ash and SO2 plumes and will provide warnings to the competent civil and aviation authorities in Catania and Malta during Etna eruptions.

Scollo, Simona; Azzopardi, Francelle; Boselli, Antonella; Coltelli, Mauro; Ellul, Raymond; Leto, Giuseppe; Pisani, Gianluca; Prestifilippo, Michele; Saliba, Martin; Schiavone, Joseph; Spata, Gaetano; Spinelli, Nicola; Wang, Xuan; Zanmar Sanchez, Ricardo

2013-04-01

291

Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy  

SciTech Connect

Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO2 stores. Italy and Sicily are regions of intense natural CO2 degassing from surface seeps. These seeps exhibit a variety of expressions, characteristics (e.g., temperature/ flux), and location environments. Here we quantify historical fatalities from CO2 poisoning using a database of 286 natural CO2 seeps in Italy and Sicily. We find that risk of human death is strongly influenced by seep surface expression, local conditions (e.g., topography and wind speed), CO2 flux, and human behavior. Risk of accidental human death from these CO2 seeps is calculated to be 10-8 year-1 to the exposed population. This value is significantly lower than that of many socially accepted risks. Seepage from future storage sites is modeled to be less than Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health risks from unplanned seepage at onshore storage sites can be adequately minimized.

Roberts, J.J.; Wood, R.A.; Haszeldine, R.S. [Scottish Carbon Capture and Storage, School of GeoSciences, Grant Institute, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JW, Scotland (United Kingdom)

2011-10-04

292

Benford's law predicted digit distribution of aggregated income taxes: the surprising conformity of Italian cities and regions  

E-print Network

The yearly aggregated tax income data of all, more than 8000, Italian municipalities are analyzed for a period of five years, from 2007 to 2011, to search for conformity or not with Benford's law, a counter-intuitive phenomenon observed in large tabulated data where the occurrence of numbers having smaller initial digits is more favored than those with larger digits. This is done in anticipation that large deviations from Benford's law will be found in view of tax evasion supposedly being widespread across Italy. Contrary to expectations, we show that the overall tax income data for all these years is in excellent agreement with Benford's law. Furthermore, we also analyze the data of Calabria, Campania and Sicily, the three Italian regions known for strong presence of mafia, to see if there are any marked deviations from Benford's law. Again, we find that all yearly data sets for Calabria and Sicily agree with Benford's law whereas only the 2007 and 2008 yearly data show departures from the law for Campania. ...

Mir, Tariq Ahmad; Cerqueti, Roy

2014-01-01

293

Antioxidant Properties of Berberis aetnensis C. Presl (Berberidaceae) Roots Extract and Protective Effects on Astroglial Cell Cultures  

PubMed Central

Berberis aetnensis C. Presl (Berberidaceae) is a bushy-spiny shrub common on Mount Etna (Sicily). We demonstrated that the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl contains prevalently berberine and berbamine, possesses antimicrobial properties, and was able to counteract the upregulation evoked by glutamate of tissue transglutaminase in primary rat astroglial cell cultures. Until now, there are no reports regarding antioxidant properties of B. aetnensis C. Presl collected in Sicily. Air-dried, powdered roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl were extracted, identified, and quantified by HPLC. We assessed in cellular free system its effect on superoxide anion, radicals scavenging activity of antioxidants against free radicals like the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. In primary rat astroglial cell cultures, exposed to glutamate, we evaluated the effect of the extract on glutathione levels and on intracellular production of reactive oxygen species generated by glutamate. The alkaloid extract of B. aetnensis C. Presl inhibited superoxide anion, restored to control values, the decrease of GSH levels, and the production of reactive oxygen species. Potent antioxidant activities of the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl may be one of the mechanisms by which the extract is effective against health disorders associated to oxidative stress. PMID:25177720

Campisi, Agata; Bonfanti, Roberta; Raciti, Giuseppina; Amodeo, Andrea; Mastrojeni, Silvana; Ragusa, Salvatore; Iauk, Liliana

2014-01-01

294

The tectonic setting of Mount Vesuvius and the correlation between its eruptions and the earthquakes of the Southern Apennines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mount Vesuvius is emplaced on a regional NE-SW-trending fault that accommodates the stretching of the lithosphere caused by a backward retreat of the Calabrian arc. The dynamics of the Calabrian arc controls the temporal occurrence of earthquakes in the Southern Apennines and in Sicily. By means of a detailed statistical approach, we identified a significant correlation between seismic events occurring in different subsets of this geodynamic domain: seismicity changes in the Southern Apennines follow those in the Calabrian arc after 18-21 years, while seismicity changes in Sicily follow those in the Calabrian arc after 8-10 years. The seismicity changes in these three areas appear also to have affected the eruptive activity of Vesuvius in the period 1631-1944. The major effusive-explosive eruptions of this period followed the seismicity changes in the Southern Apennines after 6-13 years and those in the Calabrian arc after 36-39 years. From a tectonic point of view, this indicates a direct link between the eruptive activity of Vesuvius and the dynamics of the Calabrian arc. The backward retreat of the arc produces strain pulses propagating to adjacent areas. From a volcanological point of view, we speculate that the arrival of an extension strain pulse in the area of Vesuvius may trigger the fast movement of magma-filled cracks that stay in unstable equilibrium in the roots of the volcano.

Marzocchi, Warner; Scandone, Roberto; Mulargia, Francesco

1993-11-01

295

Description of the Earth in the Works of Arabic Geographers from IX to XII Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The works of Arabic writers provide data about shape, position and size of the Earth, planets and zodiac signs. They include preserved maps of Ibn Haukal, Al-Masudi and Al-Idrisi. Al-Masudi (871-956/7) made a map of the world and wrote that the Earth is round, before the Christians in Europe were ready to accept that idea. The famous geographer and cartographer Al-Idrisi (IX/X., died in 903/913.) has lived on the court of Norman king Roger II of Sicily, and after his death on the court of his son William I on Sicily, where he obtained the data from European and Arabic geographers. On the basis of this data he wrote a work known entitled Roger's book. Besides this important work he made a celestial globe and a map of the world in the shape of a silver disk. The lines that marked the borders of seven regions of the inhabited world were engraved on this disk. The Arabs had excellent knowledge of Greek astronomy and accepted their division of the world in seven climatic zones.

Cvijanovic, I.

2012-12-01

296

Multi-Temporal Evaluation of Landslide Movements and Impacts on Buildings in San Fratello (Italy) By Means of C-Band and X-Band PSI Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work provides a multi-temporal and spatial investigation of landslide effects in the San Fratello area (Messina province within the Sicily region, Italy), by means of C-band and X-band Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) data, integrated with in situ field checks and a crack pattern survey. The Sicily region is extensively affected by hydrogeological hazards since several landslides regularly involved local areas across time. In particular, intense and catastrophic landslide phenomena have recently occurred in the San Fratello area; the last event took place in February 2010, causing large economic damage. Thus, the need for an accurate ground motions and impacts mapping and monitoring turns out to be significantly effective, in order to better identify active unstable areas and to help proper risk-mitigation measures planning. The combined use of historical and recent C-band satellites and current X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar sensors of a new generation permits spatially and temporally detection of landslide-induced motions on a local scale and to properly provide a complete multi-temporal evaluation of their effects on the area of interest. PSI ground motion rates are cross-compared with local failures and damage of involved buildings, recently recognized by in situ observations. As a result, the analysis of landslide-induced movements over almost 20 years and the validation of radar data with manufactured crack patterns, permits one to finally achieve a complete and reliable assessment in the San Fratello test site.

Bianchini, Silvia; Ciampalini, Andrea; Raspini, Federico; Bardi, Federica; Di Traglia, Federico; Moretti, Sandro; Casagli, Nicola

2014-04-01

297

Benford's law predicted digit distribution of aggregated income taxes: the surprising conformity of Italian cities and regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The yearly aggregated tax income data of all, more than 8000, Italian municipalities are analyzed for a period of five years, from 2007 to 2011, to search for conformity or not with Benford's law, a counter-intuitive phenomenon observed in large tabulated data where the occurrence of numbers having smaller initial digits is more favored than those with larger digits. This is done in anticipation that large deviations from Benford's law will be found in view of tax evasion supposedly being widespread across Italy. Contrary to expectations, we show that the overall tax income data for all these years is in excellent agreement with Benford's law. Furthermore, we also analyze the data of Calabria, Campania and Sicily, the three Italian regions known for strong presence of mafia, to see if there are any marked deviations from Benford's law. Again, we find that all yearly data sets for Calabria and Sicily agree with Benford's law whereas only the 2007 and 2008 yearly data show departures from the law for Campania. These results are again surprising in view of underground and illegal nature of economic activities of mafia which significantly contribute to tax evasion. Some hypothesis for the found conformity is presented.

Mir, Tariq Ahmad; Ausloos, Marcel; Cerqueti, Roy

2014-11-01

298

Modelling tsunamis in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Application to the Minoan Santorini tsunami sequence as a potential scenario for the biblical Exodus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical model which simulates the propagation of tsunamis in the Eastern Mediterranean has been developed. Several tsunami sources have been considered: earthquakes associated to geological faults, submarine landslides, entry of pyroclastic flows into the sea and the collapse of a volcano caldera. The model has been applied to different past events for which historic data or previous simulations exist, to test its performance. Then it has been applied to simulate tsunamis triggered by the explosion of Santorini volcano (17th century BC) in the Aegean Sea. While the model accounts for run-ups in the Aegean coasts, it fails to explain the isochronous tsunamigenic deposits reported in eastern Sicily and the levantine coasts. A scenario of a sequence of intense tectonics strain release triggering a series of tsunamis could better fit the whole dataset. Thus, a submarine landslide at the Gulf of Sirte may explain the Augias megaturbidite and the sedimentary deposits reported in Augusta Bay (Sicily). Similarly, a sequential tsunami in the eastern Nile Delta may explain the tsunamigenic deposits found in Israel and Gaza. Considering the former coastline at 3500 years BP, it could also provide a plausible scenario for the biblical sea crossing related in the Exodus.

Periáñez, R.; Abril, J. M.

2014-11-01

299

Preliminary interpretation of high resolution 3D seismic data from offshore Mt. Etna, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to gain knowledge about subsurface structures and its correlation to seafloor expressions, a hydro-acoustic dataset was collected during RV Meteor Cruise M86/2 (December 2011/January 2012) in Messina Straits and offshore Mt. Etna. Especially offshore Mt. Etna, the data reveals an obvious connection between subsurface structures and previously known morphological features at the sea floor. Therefore a high resolution 3D seismic dataset was acquired between Riposto Ridge and Catania Canyon close to the shore of eastern Sicily. The study area is characterized by a major structural high, which hosts several ridge-like features at the seafloor. These features are connected to a SW-NE trending fault system. The ridges are bended in their NE-SW direction and host major escarpments at the seafloor. Furthermore they are located directly next to a massive amphitheater structure offshore Mt. Etna with slope gradients of up to 35°, which is interpreted as remnants of a massive submarine mass wasting event off Sicily. The new 3D seismic dataset allows an in depth analysis of the ongoing deformation of the east flank of Mt. Etna.

Gross, F.; Krastel, S.; Chiocci, F. L.; Ridente, D.; Cukur, D.; Bialas, J.; Papenberg, C. A.; Crutchley, G.; Koch, S.

2013-12-01

300

Antioxidant properties of Berberis aetnensis C. Presl (Berberidaceae) roots extract and protective effects on astroglial cell cultures.  

PubMed

Berberis aetnensis C. Presl (Berberidaceae) is a bushy-spiny shrub common on Mount Etna (Sicily). We demonstrated that the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl contains prevalently berberine and berbamine, possesses antimicrobial properties, and was able to counteract the upregulation evoked by glutamate of tissue transglutaminase in primary rat astroglial cell cultures. Until now, there are no reports regarding antioxidant properties of B. aetnensis C. Presl collected in Sicily. Air-dried, powdered roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl were extracted, identified, and quantified by HPLC. We assessed in cellular free system its effect on superoxide anion, radicals scavenging activity of antioxidants against free radicals like the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. In primary rat astroglial cell cultures, exposed to glutamate, we evaluated the effect of the extract on glutathione levels and on intracellular production of reactive oxygen species generated by glutamate. The alkaloid extract of B. aetnensis C. Presl inhibited superoxide anion, restored to control values, the decrease of GSH levels, and the production of reactive oxygen species. Potent antioxidant activities of the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl may be one of the mechanisms by which the extract is effective against health disorders associated to oxidative stress. PMID:25177720

Campisi, Agata; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Bonfanti, Roberta; Raciti, Giuseppina; Amodeo, Andrea; Mastrojeni, Silvana; Ragusa, Salvatore; Iauk, Liliana

2014-01-01

301

Plate boundary evolution in the western-central Mediterranean: From the past to the present.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of the Calabrian and Gibraltar arcs and that of the margins of northern Africa and Sicily are part of the final phase of opening of the western Mediterranean basins. Jointly, they are the central topic of the TopoMed project concerning the plate boundary reorganization of the western-central Mediterranean, one of the projects of the TOPO-EUROPE programme (EUROCORES/ESF). The structure and evolution of the Gibraltar arc region are discussed in a separate presentation. This final stage of opening shows intriguing lateral variations from the Calabrian Arc, via the northern margin of Sicily to the North-African (Algerian) margin. In concert, they provide an excellent opportunity to study the evolution of an expanding oceanic realm that may be at the verge of entering a new phase of closure. Our studies encompass detailed analyses of deep penetration seismic data, multibeam bathymetry and field observations, and numerical model experiments addressing lithospheric scale process-oriented aspects. Special attention is given to the aspect that the region is embedded in a context of ongoing Africa-Eurasia plate convergence and to the role of structures, inherited from earlier stages of basin opening, in controlling the recent and ongoing evolution. For the Calabrian accretionary wedge the focus is on assessing the present state of deformation, including seismic activity, and other accompanying processes. We show that the Calabrian wedge is segmented (in direction along the arc) in two different lobes, the western and eastern lobe corresponding with detached and still continuous parts of the subducting slab, respectively. For the Northern Sicily margin we propose that its earlier history involving STEP faulting has preconditioned the lithosphere structure to the extent that it promotes initiation of a new southward-dipping subduction zone. The northern African margin is in a very special transitional situation in which the retreating northward subduction has come to an end, and new southward-dipping subduction may possibly be initiated. The study area is a regional scale natural laboratory in which the principal features of a Wilson cycle and their effect on surface tectonics, can be identified and investigated.

Wortel, Rinus; Faccenna, Claudio; Govers, Rob; Polonia, Alina; Baes, Marzieh

2013-04-01

302

Winter diet of lake herring (Coregonus artedi) in western Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and zooplankton samples were simultaneously collected through the ice in the Apostle Islands region of western Lake Superior to provide information on the winter feeding ecology of lake herring. Zooplankton constituted the entire diet of the 38 lake herring collected for this study. We found no evidence of piscivory, although it has been reported by anglers. Diet selectivities were calculated using a Wilcoxon signed-ranks test and showed a preference of lake herring for larger zooplankton, especially Diaptomus sicilis, whereas the smaller copepod, Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi, and immature copepod stages were selected against. These data document that overwintering copepods are food for a broad size range of lake herring in winter.

Link, Jason; Selgeby, James H.; Hoff, Michael H.; Haskell, Craig

1995-01-01

303

Abyssal undular vortices in the Eastern Mediterranean basin.  

PubMed

Abyssal temperature and velocity observations performed within the framework of the Neutrino Mediterranean Observatory, a project devoted to constructing a km(3)-scale underwater telescope for the detection of high-energy cosmic neutrinos, demonstrate cross-fertilization between subnuclear physics and experimental oceanography. Here we use data collected south of Sicily in the Ionian abyssal plain of the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) basin to show for the first time that abyssal vortices exist in the EM, at depths exceeding 2,500 m. The eddies consist of chains of near-inertially pulsating mesoscale cyclones/anticyclones. They are embedded in an abyssal current flowing towards North-Northwest. The paucity of existing data does not allow for an unambiguous determination of the vortex origin. A local generation mechanism seems probable, but a remote genesis cannot be excluded a priori. The presence of such eddies adds further complexity to the discussion of structure and evolution of water masses in the EM. PMID:22588296

Rubino, A; Falcini, F; Zanchettin, D; Bouche, V; Salusti, E; Bensi, M; Riccobene, G; De Bonis, G; Masullo, R; Simeone, F; Piattelli, P; Sapienza, P; Russo, S; Platania, G; Sedita, M; Reina, P; Avolio, R; Randazzo, N; Hainbucher, D; Capone, A

2012-01-01

304

Design and in-flight performance of the TIMR infrared multichannel radiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of the TIMR prototype multiwavelength radiometer, operating in the thermal IR spectral region, has been the optimization of the signal-to-noise ratio, in order to obtain an experimental validation of a new algorithm for remote sensing of weak water-vapor fields. The instrument has been integrated in a 125-kg gondola and was flown from the CNR base sited in Milo (Sicily) on August 1, 1988 by means of a 25,000-cu m balloon. The payload reached the ceiling altitude of 25 mb and was recovered on the sea after a successful 2-h flight. All the subsystems had nominal behavior, as shown by the housekeeping data and from the real-time scientific data quick-look. The paper presents the design details, the ground calibrations, and the in-flight performance of the instrument.

Ulivieri, C.; dall'Oglio, G.; Pizzo, L.; Matricardi, M.; Polcaro, V. F.

1989-10-01

305

Precipitation change in Southern Italy linked to global scale oscillation indexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates precipitation variability in five regions of Southern Italy (Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily) using a homogeneous database of about 70 rain gauges with more than 50 years of observation. First, a statistical analysis was performed through the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test in order to determine rainfall the trend on both yearly and seasonal scales. Then, the relationship between the rainfall and some teleconnection pattern indexes was investigated using Spearman's test. The results show remarkable statistically significant negative trends for annual and winter aggregations in most part of the series. Moreover, a strong correlation has emerged between the teleconnection patterns and precipitation in Southern Italy, particularly in winter and on the Tyrrhenian side of the study area.

Caloiero, T.; Coscarelli, R.; Ferrari, E.; Mancini, M.

2011-06-01

306

Ecotoxicological and human health risk in a petrochemical district of southern Italy.  

PubMed

An ecotoxicological investigation has been carried in the petrochemical district of Priolo (Sicily, Italy), one of the largest in Europe. Results indicated a severe mercury contamination in sediments sampled near a chloro-alkali plant. A clear bioavailability of this element was demonstrated in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (both native and translocated) and the benthic fish Mullus barbatus, which also exhibited marked genotoxic damages. The elevated mercury concentrations in marine organisms are a serious concern for human health; according to the national average fish consumption, the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of Hg would be easily exceeded by at least 4 to 12 fold. Such toxicological risk is of particular importance for pregnant women, being possibly involved in the elevated frequency of neonatal malformations. PMID:18378299

Ausili, Antonella; Gabellini, Massimo; Cammarata, Giuliano; Fattorini, Daniele; Benedetti, Maura; Pisanelli, Barbara; Gorbi, Stefania; Regoli, Francesco

2008-07-01

307

Characterization of the geographical origin of Pecorino Sardo cheese by casein stable isotope ((13)c/(12)c and (15)n/(14)n) ratios and free amino acid ratios.  

PubMed

The stable isotope ratios ((13)C/(12)C and (15)N/(14)N) of casein measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and some free amino acid ratios (His/Pro, Ile/Pro, Met/Pro, and Thr/Pro) determined by HPLC in samples of ewes' milk cheese from Sardinia, Sicily, and Apulia were found to be parameters independent of ripening time. Multivariate data treatments performed by applying both unsupervised (principal component analysis and cluster analysis) and supervised [linear discriminant analysis (LDA)] methods revealed good discrimination possibilities for the cheeses according to place of origin. In this respect, particularly significant were the variables Ile/Pro, Thr/Pro, (13)C/(12)C, and (15) N/(14)N ratios on which basis 100% discrimination and classification of the samples by LDA was obtained. PMID:11312872

Manca, G; Camin, F; Coloru, G C; Del Caro, A; Depentori, D; Franco, M A; Versini, G

2001-03-01

308

Regional scale analysis for the design of storage tanks for domestic rainwater harvesting systems.  

PubMed

A regional scale analysis for the design of storage tanks for domestic rain water harvesting systems is presented. The analysis is based on the daily water balance simulation of the storage tank by the yield-after-spillage algorithm as tank release rule. Water balances are applied to 17 rainfall gauging stations in Sicily (Italy). Compared with literature existing methods, a novel dimensionless parameter is proposed to better describe the intra-annual character of the rainfall patterns. As a result, easy-to-use regional regressive models to evaluate the water saving performance and the overflow discharges from the tank are provided along with a stepwise procedure for practical application. The regional models demonstrate good fits between model predictions and simulated values of both water savings and overflows from the tank. PMID:22678193

Campisano, A; Modica, C

2012-01-01

309

Status of NEMO Project  

SciTech Connect

The R and D activities of the NEMO Collaboration for the construction of a km{sup 3} scale underwater neutrino telescope are described. Results from about 10 years of site seeking and monitoring activities have demonstrated that a wide abyssal plain, about 80 km off-shore Capo Passero (Sicily), is the optimal site for the installation of the telescope. With the pilot project NEMO Phase-1, the NEMO Collaboration realized and installed at 2000 m depth at the underwater Test Site of the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud a fully equipped deep-sea facility to test prototypes and develop new technologies for a km{sup 3} neutrino telescope. The realization of an underwater infrastructure at 3500 m on the Capo Passero site is in progress (NEMO Phase-2). It will enable the validation of the technological solutions proposed at depths needed for the final km{sup 3} detector and a long term monitoring of the selected site.

Viola, S.

2010-03-01

310

Atmospheric carbon dioxide record from flask measurements at Lampedusa Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Air samples from Lampedusa Island, located south of Sicily in the Mediterranean sea, were collected weekly from May 1992 through December 2000 and analyzed for carbon dioxide content. "On the basis of annual averages calculated from monthly averages, CO2 levels at Lampedusa Island have risen from 360.80 in 1993 to 371.27 in 2000. The data show an average trend of +1.5 ppmv/y." The data from the study, newly available this month from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), include a plot of mean carbon dioxide concentration (ppmv) against time and a text table of the annual mean values. Methods, notes, and references are also provided.

Chamard, Paolo.; Ciattaglia, Luigi.; Di Sarra, Alcide.; Monteleone, Francesco.

2001-01-01

311

Nutraceutical potential of monofloral honeys produced by the Sicilian black honeybees (Apis mellifera ssp. sicula).  

PubMed

In the light of the growing interest in food and food products obtained through organic and environmentally friendly techniques, the present work represents the first approach to the evaluation of the biological profile of some Sicilian honeys produced in purity by the local black honeybees. Samples exhibited up to 10 times more total phenolics and higher antioxidant capacity than what already reported for the same variety of honeys produced by other honeybee subspecies from Sicily, other Italian regions and abroad. Noteworthy, the gallic acid contents in medlar and almond honeys represented the highest level of single phenolic acid reported in honey so far. A broad antimicrobial spectrum was showed by all of the honey samples and a good correlation between their inhibition capacity and polyphenolic contents was measured. Experimental results highlighted samples among the honeys characterised by the highest nutraceutical added value and most excellent quality. PMID:22497901

Tenore, Gian Carlo; Ritieni, Alberto; Campiglia, Pietro; Novellino, Ettore

2012-06-01

312

POEM: Physical Oceanography of the Eastern Miditerranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean as a whole communicates with the Atlantic Ocean through the narrow and shallow Gibraltar Strait. In recent years, scientific interest has been focused on the western Mediterranean and the Strait of Gibraltar through the execution of the Western Mediterranean Circulation Experiment [La Violette, 1987] and the 1985-1986 Gibraltar Experiment [Kinder and Bryden, 1987]. These experiments and other, related investigations, however, do not involve the eastern part from the Strait of Sicily to the easternmost Levantine Basin. The most recent phenomenological materials available about this part of the Mediterranean are the studies by Lacombe and Tchernia [1960, 1972]. More recently, El-Gindy and El-Din [1986] produced an analysis of historical oceanographic data available at the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris, collected in surveys of the Eastern Mediterranean during 1960—1972. Finally, a general survey of past efforts and investigations has just been written [Malanotte-Rizzoli and Hecht, 1987].

Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola; Robinson, Allan R.

313

Abundances of Demersal Sharks and Chimaera from 1994-2009 Scientific Surveys in the Central Mediterranean Sea  

PubMed Central

Bibliographic and data gathered in scientific bottom trawl surveys carried out off the Southern Coasts of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea), from 1994 to 2009 and between a depth of 10 and 800 m, were analysed in order to prepare a checklist of demersal sharks and chimaera, which are species sensitive to fisheries exploitation. Out of the 27 previously reported demersal shark and chimaera taxa in the Mediterranean, only 23 were found in literature and 20 sampled during the surveys in the investigated area. Among the species sampled in the surveys, only 2 ubiquitous (Squalusblainville and Scyliorhinuscanicula) and 3 deep-water (Chimaeramonstrosa, Centrophorusgranulosus and Galeusmelastomus) species showed a wide geographical distribution with a consistent abundance. Excluding the rare (such as Oxynotuscentrina) or uncommon shark (e.g. Squalusacanthias), the estimated frequencies of occurrence and abundance indexes show a possible risk of local extinction for the almost exclusively (e.g. angelshark, Squatina spp.) or preferential (e.g. Scyliorhinusstellaris) neritic species. PMID:24086386

Ragonese, Sergio; Vitale, Sergio; Dimech, Mark; Mazzola, Salvatore

2013-01-01

314

Preliminary Results from the GPS-Reflections Mediterranean Balloon Experiment (GPSR MEBEX)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment to collect bistatically scattered GPS signals from a balloon at 37 km altitude has been conducted. This experiment represented the highest altitude to date that such signals were successfully recorded. The flight took place in August 1999 over the Mediterranean sea, between a launch in Sicily and recovery near Nerpio, a town in the Sierra de Segura, Albacete province of Huelva, Spain. Results from this experiment are presented, showing the waveform shape as compared to theoretical calculations. These results will be used to validate analytical models which form the basis of wind vector retrieval algorithms. These algorithms are already being validated from aircraft altitudes, but may be applied to data from future spaceborne GPS receivers. Surface wind data from radiosondes were used for comparison. This experiment was a cooperative project between NASA, the IEEC in Barcelona, and the University of Colorado at Boulder.

Garrison, James L.; Ruffini, Giulio; Rius, Antonio; Cardellach, Estelle; Masters, Dallas; Armathys, Michael; Zavorotny, Valery

2000-01-01

315

Preliminary Results from the GPS-Reflections Mediterranean Balloon Experiment (GPSR-MEBEX)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment to collect bistatically scattered GPS signals from a balloon at 37 km altitude has been conducted. This experiment represented the highest altitude to date that such signals were successfully recorded. The flight took place in August 1999 over the Mediterranean sea, between a launch in Sicily and recovery near Nerpio, a town in the Sierra de Segura, Albacete province of Huelva, Spain. Results from this experiment are presented, showing the waveform shape as compared to theoretical calculations. These results will be used to validate analytical models which form the basis of wind vector retrieval algorithms. These algorithms are already being validated from aircraft altitudes, but may be applied to data from future spacebourne GPS receivers. Surface wind data from radiosondes were used for comparison. This experiment was a cooperative project between NASA, the IEEC in Barcelona, and the University of Colorado at Boulder.

Garrison, James L.; Ruffini, Giulio; Rius, Antonio; Cardellach, Estelle; Masters, Dallas; Armatys, Michael; Zavorotny, Valery; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

316

Molecular Structure of Celestine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pure celestine is colorless however it is rarely found is this form, and due to impurities, is most often sky blue in color. It was first discovered in Sicily Italy around 1781, and given its name in 1791 from the Latin word coelestis meaning heavenly, in reference to its color. Celestine, or celestite, has the same structure as Barite, BaSO4, and is often mistaken for one another. A simple flame test will reveal the identity: if the sample contains strontium, i.e. celestite, the flame will turn red, and if the sample contains barium, i.e. barite, the flame will turn green. Due to its strontium source, Celestine is used in fireworks and road flares, and also in the making of household varnishes and ceramics.

2002-08-14

317

Lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) diets in western Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We describe the diets of lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in western Lake Superior during the summers of 1996 and 1997. Both species consumed predominantly (> 71% by number) zooplankton, showing a preference for larger taxa. Diet overlap between the two species was low (Schoener's index = 0.42). Mysis was most important in rainbow smelt diets, whereas Diaptomus sicilis was most important in lake herring diets. Rainbow smelt selected larger taxa, and larger individuals within a taxon when compared to lake herring, although rainbow smelt tended to be smaller fish. Fish diets have changed relative to previous studies and may be reflecting changes in the zooplankton community. Continued changes in the fish and zooplankton community will alter predator-prey and energetic pathways, ultimately affecting growth and production of the ecosystem.

Johnson, T.B.; Brown, W.P.; Corry, T.D.; Hoff, M.H.; Scharold, J.V.; Trebitz, A.S.

2004-01-01

318

Lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) diets in western Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We describe the diets of lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in western Lake Superior during the summers of 1996 and 1997. Both species consumed predominantly (> 71% by number) zooplankton, showing a preference for larger taxa. Diet overlap between the two species was low (Schoener's index = 0.42). Mysis was most important in rainbow smelt diets, whereas Diaptomus sicilis was most important in lake herring diets. Rainbow smelt selected larger taxa, and larger individuals within a taxon when compared to lake herring, although rainbow smelt tended to be smaller fish. Fish diets have changed relative to previous studies and may be reflecting changes in the zooplankton community. Continued changes in the fish and zooplankton community will alter predatorprey and energetic pathways, ultimately affecting growth and production of the ecosystem.

Johnson, Timothy B.; Brown, William P.; Corry, Timothy D.; Hoff, Michael H.; Scharold, Jill V.; Trebitz, Anett S.

2004-01-01

319

Statistical characterisation of heavy metal contents in Paracentrotus lividus from Mediterranean Sea.  

PubMed

This work focuses on the estimation of Hg, As, Cr, Ni, Cu, V, Cd and Pb by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in 135 adult specimens of Paracentrotus lividus collected in different coastal areas of Sicily (Gela, Punta Secca, Ragusa (RG), Siracusa, Priolo, Catania, Messina, Milazzo, Brolo and Filicudi), in order to monitor the Mediterranean marine ecosystem by use of sea urchin as bioindicator. Moreover, the paper deals with the statistical classification of the tested samples according to the sampling area based on metal concentrations. The descriptive statistics findings were obtained and, a starting multivariate matrix was built. Data-sets were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis test to verify the significance of differences in metal concentrations, and then a factor analysis with principal components extraction was performed to try to differentiate urchin samples collected in different areas. The results showed that P. lividus is a suitable organism to be used as bioindicator. PMID:24498867

Salvo, Andrea; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Cicero, Nicola; Bruno, Maurizio; Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Di Bella, Giuseppa; Dugo, Giacomo

2014-01-01

320

Temples of Malta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unique Neolithic temples of Malta have a distinctive orientation toward the range SE-SSW (except for the Mnajdra South Temple which faces E). However, the motive for this preferred direction is not clear. If the motive was astronomical, then the builders could have targeted the bright stars of the Southern Cross and Centaurus. If the opposite direction is taken, then the target could have been the temple builders' ancestral home in Sicily and the surrounding islands. The orientation of the Mnajdra South Temple is remarkable and suggests an alignment with either sunrise midway between the solstices or the heliacal rising of the Pleiades around 3000 BC. The evidence for these alternatives is discussed.

Ventura, Frank; Hoskin, Michael

321

Ground deformations in the Island of Pantelleria (Italy): Insights into the dynamic of the current intereruptive period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Island of Pantelleria, located between the coasts of Sicily (Italy) and Tunisia, is deforming due to volcanic and tectonic activity. Here we use electro-optical distance meter, leveling, GPS, and differential interferometry synthetic aperture radar data to constrain the inter-eruptive deformation pattern. We observe subsidence affecting the main caldera of Pantelleria, in the central southern sector of the island. Subsidence is mainly related to hydrothermal cooling and/or fluid withdrawal from a shallow (4 km below sea level) magma chamber located beneath the caldera. The relationships between the caldera area and the remnant part of the island are also investigated through a review of petrographic, geochemical, and structural data.

Mattia, M.; Bonaccorso, A.; Guglielmino, F.

2007-11-01

322

The tectonic puzzle of the Messina area (Southern Italy): insights from new seismic reflection data.  

PubMed

The Messina Strait, that separates peninsular Italy from Sicily, is one of the most seismically active areas of the Mediterranean. The structure and seismotectonic setting of the region are poorly understood, although the area is highly populated and important infrastructures are planned there. New seismic reflection data have identified a number of faults, as well as a crustal scale NE-trending anticline few km north of the strait. These features are interpreted as due to active right-lateral transpression along the north-eastern Sicilian offshore, coexisting with extensional and right-lateral transtensional tectonics in the southern Messina Strait. This complex tectonic network appears to be controlled by independent and overlapping tectonic settings, due to the presence of a diffuse transfer zone between the SE-ward retreating Calabria subduction zone relative to slab advance in the western Sicilian side. PMID:23240075

Doglioni, Carlo; Ligi, Marco; Scrocca, Davide; Bigi, Sabina; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Carminati, Eugenio; Cuffaro, Marco; D'Oriano, Filippo; Forleo, Vittoria; Muccini, Filippo; Riguzzi, Federica

2012-01-01

323

The tectonic puzzle of the Messina area (Southern Italy): Insights from new seismic reflection data  

PubMed Central

The Messina Strait, that separates peninsular Italy from Sicily, is one of the most seismically active areas of the Mediterranean. The structure and seismotectonic setting of the region are poorly understood, although the area is highly populated and important infrastructures are planned there. New seismic reflection data have identified a number of faults, as well as a crustal scale NE-trending anticline few km north of the strait. These features are interpreted as due to active right-lateral transpression along the north-eastern Sicilian offshore, coexisting with extensional and right-lateral transtensional tectonics in the southern Messina Strait. This complex tectonic network appears to be controlled by independent and overlapping tectonic settings, due to the presence of a diffuse transfer zone between the SE-ward retreating Calabria subduction zone relative to slab advance in the western Sicilian side. PMID:23240075

Doglioni, Carlo; Ligi, Marco; Scrocca, Davide; Bigi, Sabina; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Carminati, Eugenio; Cuffaro, Marco; D'Oriano, Filippo; Forleo, Vittoria; Muccini, Filippo; Riguzzi, Federica

2012-01-01

324

Ocean bottom seismometers deployed in Tyrrhenian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Institute for Geophysics (IfG) at Hamburg University and the Research Center for Marine Geoscience (GEOMAR) of Kiel University have developed new, wideband ocean bottom seismic stations (OBS) for long-term, deep-sea deployments of up to 1 year. A first long-term pilot experiment of these stations was conducted in the Tyrrhenian Sea north of Sicily, in-cooperation with the first long-term, deep-sea test of the European Ocean Bottom Observatory GEOSTAR [Beranzoli et al., 2000] by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV). The seismic data retrieved prove that the new OBSs are useful for seismological studies. A large number of tele-seismic earthquakes have been recorded in good quality; waves originating from such events pass the mantle and crust below the network, and thus provide important constraints on their structure.

Dahm, Torsten; Thorwart, M.; Flueh, E. R.; Braun, Th.; Herber, R.; Favali, P.; Beranzoli, L.; D'Anna, G.; Frugoni, F.; Smriglio, G.

325

Dinoflagellate cysts from surface sediments of Syracuse Bay (Western Ionian Sea, Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence and abundance of dinoflagellate cysts were investigated for the first time at an Ionian locality along the south-eastern coast of Sicily, subject to spring-summer harmful algal events. Thirty-four cyst morphotypes were recognized belonging to 24 taxa identified at least at the genus level. Cyst abundance in surface sediments ranged from 43 to 828 cysts g -1 dry weight, with the highest numbers recorded at the most restricted station. Germination experiments allowed confirmation of species identification determined by cyst analysis and provided clonal cultures of Alexandrium minutum and Gymnodinium nolleri, two of the bloom-forming species in the area. This represents the first record of G. nolleri for the Mediterranean Sea.

Rubino, Fernando; Belmonte, Manuela; Caroppo, Carmela; Giacobbe, Mariagrazia

2010-02-01

326

Submarine pipeline inspection: The 12 years experience of TRANSMED and future developments  

SciTech Connect

TRANSMED is a submarine pipeline gas transportation system crossing the Sicily Channel, in the Mediterranean Sea, at a maximum water depth of 610 m. It went into operation in 1981. Initially composed of three lines, it has been increased to five lines and to a total length of 780 Km in the last year. In the present paper criteria, methodology and equipment used for the periodic inspection surveys of TRANSMED and for the management of gathered data are presented. The twelve years inspection activity and the relevant results of data analysis, mainly the historical evolution of scour induced free spans and the incidence of other hazards, are illustrated. Moreover, the critical aspects concerning data acquisition, processing and management are analyzed and the planned developments are presented.

Iovenitti, L.; Venturi, M. [Snamprogetti S.p.A., Fano (Italy). Offshore Division; Albano, G.; Touisi, E.H. [Mariconsult S.p.A., Milan (Italy)

1994-12-31

327

Recent advances in offshore pipeline technology  

SciTech Connect

Since the pioneering construction of the TRANSMED pipeline system across the Sicily Channel in the early 80`s, offshore pipeline technology has been progressing towards more and more difficult environments. Now the projects envisaged for the 90`s are venturing far beyond the challenges of the recent past. The scope of this paper is to present the recent research efforts aimed at tackling the main design aspects of the new challenges. Particular attention will be given to the experiences and achievements on the last few years in transmission pipelines across the European Continental Shelf, e.g. in the Central and Southern North Sea and across the Mediterranean Sea. Technologies, tools and purpose developed criteria will be discussed. The performance of current operating pipeline systems will be reviewed and incentives to rationalize design criteria and guidelines will be illustrated.

Bruschi, R.; Vitali, L. [Snamprogetti S.p.A., Fano (Italy)

1994-12-31

328

A multivariate statistical analysis coming from the NMR metabolic profile of cherry tomatoes (The Sicilian Pachino case)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied by means of High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance the metabolic profile of the famous Sicilian cherry tomato of Pachino. Thanks to its organoleptic and healthy properties, this particular foodstuff was the first tomato accredited by the European PGI (Protected Geographical Indication) certification of quality. Due to the relatively high price of the final product commercial frauds originated in the Italian and international markets. Hence, there is a growing interest to develop analytical techniques able to predict the origin of a tomato sample, indicating whether or not it originates from the area of Pachino, Sicily (Italy). In this paper we have determined the molar concentration of the metabolites constituent the PGI cherry tomato of Pachino. Furthermore, by means of a multivariate statistical analysis we have identified which metabolites are relevant for sample differentiation.

Mallamace, Domenico; Corsaro, Carmelo; Salvo, Andrea; Cicero, Nicola; Macaluso, Andrea; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Dugo, Giacomo

2014-05-01

329

Surface circulation in the central Mediterranean Sea as deduced from Lagrangian drifters in the 1990s  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface circulation in the central Mediterranean, including the Sicily Channel, the southern Tyrrhenian and western Ionian seas, is studied using the data of more than 150 satellite-tracked drifters for the period spanning 1990-99. Pseudo-Eulerian maps of mean flow, eddy variability and energy levels are produced using all the data, the data sorted by seasons and the data divided in major wind categories, to study the circulation variability at meso to seasonal scales, and in terms of the local wind forcing. In general, the new results revealed by the drifter data confirm the general characteristics of the surface circulation as detected in previous Eulerian investigations. However, they provide a new broad quantitative description of the central Mediterranean surface circulation and they shed light on the dynamics of the Channel at large, including the Tunisian shelf and the area south of Malta, which shows unexpected characteristics of the surface velocity field, sometimes stagnant or even directed the opposite way with respect to the currents flowing further to the north. In addition, the drifter dataset allows to underline the seasonal character of the surface circulation in the area, and to assess the importance of the wind forcing. It was found that when winds blow from the northwestern sector (like the Mistral) the surface eastward transport in the Sicily Channel is enhanced. In contrast, for opposing wind conditions (blowing from the southeastern sector), the transport trough the Channel is significantly reduced. The quasi-Lagrangian nature of the drifters is also exploited to estimate Lagrangian statistics, such as the auto-covariance, the horizontal diffusivity and the integral time and space scales. Diffusivities and scales ranging in 1-5×10 7 cm 2 s -1, 1-2 days and 10-30 km were found, respectively.

Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Zambianchi, Enrico

2007-04-01

330

Silica cycling in the ultra-oligotrophic eastern Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although silica is a key plant nutrient, there have been few studies aimed at understanding the Si cycle in the eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS). Here we use a combination of new measurements and literature values to explain the silicic acid distribution across the basin and to calculate a silica budget to identify the key controlling processes. The surface water concentration of ∼1 ?M, which is unchanging seasonally across the basin, was due to the inflow of western Mediterranean Sea (WMS) water at the Straits of Sicily. It does not change seasonally because there is only a sparse population of diatoms due to the low nutrient (N and P) supply to the photic zone in the EMS. The concentration of silicic acid in the deep water of the western Ionian Sea (6.3 ?M) close to the S Adriatic are an of formation was due to the preformed silicic acid (3 ?M) plus biogenic silica (BSi) from the dissolution of diatoms from the winter phytoplankton bloom (3.2 ?M). The increase of 4.4 ?M across the deep water of the EMS was due to silicic acid formed from in situ diagenetic weathering of aluminosilicate minerals fluxing out of the sediment. The major inputs to the EMS are silicic acid and BSi inflowing from the western Mediterranean (121 × 109 mol Si yr-1 silicic acid and 16 × 109 mol Si yr-1 BSi), silicic acid fluxing from the sediment (54 × 109 mol Si yr-1) and riverine (27 × 109 mol Si yr-1) and subterranean groundwater (9.7 × 109 mol Si yr-1) inputs, with only a minor direct input from dissolution of dust in the water column (1 × 109 mol Si yr-1). This budget shows the importance of rapidly dissolving BSi and in situ weathering of aluminosilicate minerals as sources of silica to balance the net export of silicic acid at the Straits of Sicily. Future measurements to improve the accuracy of this preliminary budget have been identified.

Krom, M. D.; Kress, N.; Fanning, K.

2014-08-01

331

The record of temperature, wind velocity and air humidity in the ? D and ? 18O of water inclusions in synthetic and Messinian halites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deuterium and oxygen isotope fractionations between liquid and vapor water were experimentally-determined during evaporation of a NaCl solution (35 g L -1) as a function of water temperature and wind velocity. In the case of a null wind velocity, slopes of ? D-? 18O trajectories of residual waters hyperbolically decrease with increasing water temperatures in the range 23-47 °C. For wind velocities ranging from 0.8 to 2.2 m s -1, slopes of the ? D-? 18O trajectories linearly increase with increasing wind velocity at a given water temperature. These experimental results can be modeled by using Rayleigh distillation equations taking into account wind-related kinetics effects. Deuterium and oxygen isotope compositions of water inclusions trapped by the precipitated halite crystals were determined by micro-equilibration techniques. These isotopic compositions accurately reflect those of the surrounding residual waters during halite growth. Isotopic compositions of water inclusions in twenty natural halites from the Messinian Realmonte mine in Sicily suggest precipitation temperatures of 34-4+10°C that match the homogenization temperatures obtained by microthermometry (median = 34 ± 5 °C). The similarity between the measured and experimental slopes of the ? D-? 18O evaporation trajectories suggests that the effect of wind was negligible during the genesis of these halite deposits. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions of water inclusions from Realmonte halite also define a linear trend whose extrapolation until intersection with the Mediterranean Meteoric Water Line allows the characterization of the water source with ? D and ? 18O values of -70 ± 10‰ and -11.5 ± 1.5‰, respectively. These results reveal that the huge amounts of salts deposited in Sicily result from the evaporation of seawater mixed with a dominant fraction (?50%) of meteoric waters most likely deriving from alpine fluvial discharge.

Rigaudier, Thomas; Lécuyer, Christophe; Gardien, Véronique; Suc, Jean-Pierre; Martineau, François

2011-08-01

332

A genotype-phenotype correlation in Sicilian patients with GJB2 biallelic mutations.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the genotype distribution of Sicilian patients with biallelic GJB2 mutations; to correlate genotype classes and/or specific mutations of GJB2 gene (35delG-non-35delG) with audiologic profiles. A total of 10 different mutations and 11 different genotypes were evidenced in 73 SNHL subjects; 35delG (90.36 % of cases) and IVS1+1 (13.69 %) were the most common mutations found in the cohort with a significant difference in the distribution between North and South Sicily. Audiological evaluation revealed a severe (16/73) to profound (47/73) hearing loss (HL) in 86.13 % of cases without significant difference between the degree of HL and the province of origin of the subjects (P = 0.727). The homozygous truncating (T/T) genotype was the most widespread (89.04 % of cases), with a severe-to-profound hearing impairment in 90.36 % of T/T class with respect to truncating/non-truncating (T/NT) and non-truncating/non-truncating (NT/NT) genotypes (P = 0.012). From the comparison of homozygous 35delG and 35delG/non-35delG genotypes, a more profound HL in the homozygous 35delG than in compound heterozygous 35delG/non-35delG (p < 0.0001) resulted. This study confirms that 35delG is the most common mutation in the Mediterranean area with a heterogeneous distribution of the genotypes between North and South Sicily; probands homozygotes for 35delG or presenting a T/T genotype are more apt to have a severe-to-profound HL. PMID:24627074

Martines, Francesco; Salvago, Pietro; Bartolotta, Caterina; Cocuzza, Salvatore; Fabiano, Carmelo; Ferrara, Sergio; La Mattina, Eleonora; Mucia, Marianna; Sammarco, Pietro; Sireci, Federico; Martines, Enrico

2014-03-14

333

When the Rule Becomes the Exception. No Evidence of Gene Flow between Two Zerynthia Cryptic Butterflies Suggests the Emergence of a New Model Group  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence that most parapatric cryptic/sister taxa are reproductively compatible across their areas of contact. Consequently, the biological species concept, which assumes absence of interbreeding, is becoming a not so effective criterion in evolutionary ecology. Nevertheless, the few parapatric sister taxa showing complete reproductive barriers represent interesting models to study speciation processes and the evolution of reproductive isolation. In this study, we examined contact populations in northwestern Italy of two butterfly species, Zerynthia polyxena and Z. cassandra, characterized by different genitalic morphotypes. We studied levels of divergence among 21 populations distributed from Sicily to France using three genetic markers (the mitochondrial COI and ND1 genes and the nuclear wingless gene) and genitalic geometric morphometrics. Moreover, we performed species distribution modelling to estimate different climatic requirements of Z. polyxena and Z. cassandra. We projected climatic data into glacial maximum scenarios in order to verify if and to which extent glacial cycles could have contributed to speciation processes. Genetic and morphometric analyses identified two main groups. All specimens showed a concordant pattern of diversification, including those individuals sampled in the contact area. Haplotype distribution and climatic models showed that during glacial maxima both species experienced a strong range contraction and presumably remained separated into different microrefugia in southern France, in the Italian Peninsula and on the islands of Elba and Sicily. Long term separation was probably favoured by reduced dispersal ability and high phylopatry, while genitalic diversification probably favoured interbreeding avoidance. Conversely, the aposematic wing pattern remained almost identical. We compared our results with those obtained in other species and concluded that Z. polyxena and Z. cassandra represent a valuable model in the study of speciation. PMID:23755277

Vovlas, Alessio; Chelazzi, Guido; Bonelli, Simona; Balletto, Emilio; Ciofi, Claudio

2013-01-01

334

Continental Supply and Climate Variations In Mediterranean Pliocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the Pliocene period to present day, the Mediterranean marine sedimentation is characterised by cycles resulting from climate variations, which are controlled by Earth orbital parameters. Theses cycles are evidenced in the sediment content vari- ation, particularly through composition and proportions of the material supplied by continents. Concerning mineral supply we were able to show alternations of humid pe- riods, during which fluvial supply is dominant, and arid periods, during which eolian supply from the southern borderlands of the Mediterranean is significant. Concerning organic supply, palynological study confirms theses climatic controls, emphasising the importance of fresh water runoff during humid periods. This synthetic image re- sults from the study of several Pliocene Mediterranean stratigraphical series located in Sicily (Lido Rosselo, Punta di Maiata, Punta Piccola), Calabria (Monte Singa, Vrica) or cored during Leg 160 ODP (Hole 964). References: FOUCAULT A. et MELIERES F. (1995).- Nature et origine des cy- cles sédimentaires métriques du Pliocène de l'Ouest méditerranéen d'après l'étude du contenu terrigène de la Formation Narbone (Punta Piccola, Sicile, Italie). C. R Ac. Sci. Paris, t. 321, II a, p. 869-876. MELIERES F., FOUCAULT A. and BLANC-VALLERON, M.M. (1998). Mineralogical record of cyclic climate changes in Mediterranean Mid-Pliocene deposits from Hole 964A (Ionian Basin) and from Punta Piccola (Sicily). In Robertson, A.H.F., Emeis, K.-C., Richter, C., and Camer- lenghi, A. (Eds.), 1998. Proc. ODP., Sci. Results, 160; College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), p. 219-226. FOUCAULT, A. and MELIERES, F. (2000). Palaeocli- mate cyclicity in central Mediterranean Pliocene sediments: the mineralogical signal. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 148: 311-323.

Foucault, Alain; Melieres, Frederic; Combourieu-Nebaout, Nathalie

335

Mitochondrial lineage sorting in action – historical biogeography of the Hyles euphorbiae complex (Sphingidae, Lepidoptera) in Italy  

PubMed Central

Background Mitochondrial genes are among the most commonly used markers in studies of species’ phylogeography and to draw conclusions about taxonomy. The Hyles euphorbiae complex (HEC) comprises six distinct mitochondrial lineages in the Mediterranean region, of which one exhibits a cryptic disjunct distribution. The predominant mitochondrial lineage in most of Europe, euphorbiae, is also present on Malta; however, it is nowadays strangely absent from Southern Italy and Sicily, where it is replaced by 'italica'. A separate biological entity in Italy is further corroborated by larval colour patterns with a congruent, confined suture zone along the Northern Apennines. By means of historic DNA extracted from museum specimens, we aimed to investigate the evolution of the mitochondrial demographic structure of the HEC in Italy and Malta throughout the Twentieth Century. Results At the beginning of the Twentieth Century, the European mainland lineages were also present at a moderate frequency in Southern Italy and Sicily. The proportion of 'italica' then steadily increased in this area from below 60 percent to near fixation in about 120 years. Thus, geographical sorting of mitochondrial lineages in the HEC was not as complete then as the current demography suggests. The pattern of an integral 'italica' core region and a disjunct euphorbiae distribution evolved very recently. To explain these strong demographic changes, we propose genetic drift due to anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation in combination with an impact from recent climate warming that favoured the spreading of the potentially better adapted 'italica' populations. Conclusions The pattern of geographically separated mitochondrial lineages is commonly interpreted as representing long term separated entities. However, our results indicate that such a pattern can emerge surprisingly quickly, even in a widespread and rather common taxon. We thus caution against drawing hasty taxonomic conclusions from biogeographical patterns of mitochondrial markers derived from modern sampling alone. PMID:23594258

2013-01-01

336

Lithospheric P- and S-wave velocity models of the Sicilian area using WAM tomography: procedure and assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present 3-D models of the P- and S-wave velocity distributions in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath Sicily, Calabria (Southern Italy), and surrounding submerged areas, obtained by tomographic inversion of traveltimes of regional body waves phases. Our method combines double-difference tomographic inversion with a post-processing procedure [Weighted Average Model method (WAM)]. This procedure was applied to a set of models consistent with the experimental data. We tested the ability of the WAM procedure to mitigate the uncertainty associated with the arbitrary nature of the many input parameters required for each inversion. The local reliability and resolution of the obtained models have been assessed through: synthetic tests, experimental tests carried out with independent data sets and unconventional tests based on the analysis of the internal consistency of the P- and S-velocity models. The tomographic images provide a detailed sketch of P- and S-wave velocity anomalies. These clearly show the shape of the Sicilian-Maghrebian belt beneath Sicily and Calabrian Arc at different depths. Low VP and Vs bodies are imaged beneath Stromboli and Marsili volcanoes in the southern Tyrrhenian, whereas high and low seismic velocities alternate beneath the Etna giving inferences on the possible depth of the mantle melting feeding the volcano. In the upper crust, the main sedimentary basins and tectonic features are also well imaged. Finally, tomographic cross sections show the trend of the Moho in the study area, where its depth ranges between 35 and 40 km beneath the Sicilian belt and between 15 and 22 km in the southern Tyrrhenian basin and Ionian Sea.

Calò, Marco; Parisi, Laura; Luzio, Dario

2013-10-01

337

Burial history influence on the generation of some Italian oils  

SciTech Connect

Many Italian oils were sourced by Triassic source rock; evidence of this exists in the Po Plain. In the Adriatic Sea, and offshore southern Sicily. Bulk and geochemical characteristics of these oils are quite dissimilar: heavy oils as well as gasolines were discovered. Such differences are partly attributable to the organic matter type and to environmental conditions, but the role of the source rock's burial histories is fundamental in determining oil characteristics. The different burial histories in these two areas definitely account for these differences. In the Po Plain, the Raethian Argilliti di Riva di Solto Formation, source rock of condensates of the Malossa area, started to generate very early as a consequence of the noticeable Rhaetian-Liassic subsidence. The generation of oil continued for a long geological time, but probably hydrocarbons were lost for the lack of traps. Only condensates, generated by the further Pliocene-Quaternary burial, were accumulated in the Neogene traps. In the western part of the Po Plain, Gaggiano and Villafortuna oils (34 and 40{degree} API), sourced by the Ladinian Meride Formation, were generated only during the sizeable Neogene-Quaternary subsidence. The high heating rate in this case probably enhanced expulsion efficiency, allowing secondary migration toward shallower depths and, consequently, preventing hydrocarbons from secondary cracking. Offshore in southern Sicily (Gela field), the recent subsidence (Pliocene-Pleistocene) is responsible for Triassic source rock maturation. In this case the shallower depth reached by the source rock and, consequently, the lower temperatures at which maturity occurred are partly responsible for the generation of heavy oils, even if other factors such as early expulsion due to tectonics and organic matter type probably play a more important role.

Mattavelli, L.; Novelli, L. (AGIP SPA, San Donato Milanese (Italy))

1990-05-01

338

Scenario analysis of Agro-Environment measure adoption for soil erosion protection in Sicilian vineyard (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the challenges in designing land use policies that address sustainability issues are inherent to the concept of Agro-Environmental Measures (AEM). Researchers, farmers and mainly policy makers need to evaluate the impact of new and existing policies for soil protection. In Europe, farmers commit themselves, for a minimum period of at least five years, to adopt environmentally-friendly farming techniques that undergone legal obligations. On the other hand, farmers receive payments that provide compensation for additional costs and income foregone resulting from applying those environmentally friendly farming practices in line with the stipulations of agri-environment contracts. In this context we prospect scenarios on soil erosion variations in a detailed case study after the application of Agro-Environmental Measures (AEM). The study area is located in the South part of Sicily. In a district area of 11,588 ha, 35.5 % is devoted to vineyard cultivation, 32.2 % is arable land and only 11.1 % cultivated to olive grow. 2416 ha are urbanized areas and other less important crops. A paired-site approach was chosen to study the difference in soil organic carbon stocks after AEM adoption, following criteria based on Conteh (1999) also applied in several research studies. For the purpose of comparison, the members of a paired site were selected to be similar with respect to the type of soil, slope, elevation, and drainage, but not to AEM. The comparisons were made between adjacent patches of land with different AEM, and a known history of land use and management. 100 paired sites (two adjacent plots) were chosen and three soil samples (0-30 cm depth) were collected in each plot (600 soil samples). The rainfall erosivity (R) factor (Mj mm ha-1 hour-1 year-1) was estimated with the formula specifically proposed for Sicily by Ferro and coauthors in 1999. The soil erodibility factor (K, in tons hour MJ-1 mm-1) was mapped on the base of soil texture and soil organic carbon content of the topsoil (averaged on the first 50 cm of soil depth) with the table published by Stone and Hilborn (2012). The slope-length and slope gradient (LS) factors were derived from the Digital Terrain Model of Sicily (20 x 20 m) using the formulas proposed by Wischmeier and Smith (1978), and revised by McCool et al. (1987 and 1989). The C factor were applied according previous studies in the same area and ranged among 0.22 and 0.12 and less than 0.10 using permanent species able to reduce erosion rate up to 90% (Gristina et al., 2006; Novara et al. 2011). The scenario analysis of the soil erosion reduction after the adoption of AEM could be used by policy makers as a base for the evaluation of the Payment for Ecosystem Service (PES) to be paid to farmers through the future Agro-Ecosystem measures incentives. Gristina, L., Bagarello, V., Ferro, V., Poma, I., 2006. Cover and management factor for Sicilian vineyard systems. In: 14th International Soil conservation Organization Conference—Water Management and Soil Conservation in Semi-arid Environments, 14-19 May 2006, Marrakech, Marocco (ISCO2006), pp. 1-4. A Novara, L Gristina, SS Saladino, A Santoro, A Cerda 2011 Soil erosion assessment on tillage and alternative soil managements in a Sicilian vineyard. Soil and Tillage Research 117, 140-147

Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Fantappiè, Maria; Costantini, Edoardo

2014-05-01

339

Numerical simulation and decomposition of kinetic energy in the Central Mediterranean: insight on mesoscale circulation and energy conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and temporal variability of eddy and mean kinetic energy of the Central Mediterranean region has been investigated, from January 2008 to December 2010, by mean of a numerical simulation mainly to quantify the mesoscale dynamics and their relationships with physical forcing. In order to understand the energy redistribution processes, the baroclinic energy conversion has been analysed, suggesting hypotheses about the drivers of the mesoscale activity in this area. The ocean model used is based on the Princeton Ocean Model implemented at 1/32° horizontal resolution. Surface momentum and buoyancy fluxes are interactively computed by mean of standard bulk formulae using predicted model Sea Surface Temperature and atmospheric variables provided by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast operational analyses. At its lateral boundaries the model is one-way nested within the Mediterranean Forecasting System operational products. The model domain has been subdivided in four sub-regions: Sardinia channel and southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Sicily channel, eastern Tunisian shelf and Libyan Sea. Temporal evolution of eddy and mean kinetic energy has been analysed, on each of the four sub-regions, showing different behaviours. On annual scales and within the first 5 m depth, the eddy kinetic energy represents approximately the 60 % of the total kinetic energy over the whole domain, confirming the strong mesoscale nature of the surface current flows in this area. The analyses show that the model well reproduces the path and the temporal behaviour of the main known sub-basin circulation features. New mesoscale structures have been also identified, from numerical results and direct observations, for the first time as the Pantelleria Vortex and the Medina Gyre. The classical kinetic energy decomposition (eddy and mean) allowed to depict and to quantify the permanent and fluctuating parts of the circulation in the region, and to differentiate the four sub-regions as function of relative and absolute strength of the mesoscale activity. Furthermore the Baroclinic Energy Conversion term shows that in the Sardinia Channel the mesoscale activity, due to baroclinic instabilities, is significantly larger than in the other sub-regions, while a negative sign of the energy conversion, meaning a transfer of energy from the Eddy Kinetic Energy to the Eddy Available Potential Energy, has been recorded only for the surface layers of the Sicily Channel during summer.

Sorgente, R.; Olita, A.; Oddo, P.; Fazioli, L.; Ribotti, A.

2011-08-01

340

Numerical simulation and decomposition of kinetic energies in the Central Mediterranean Sea: insight on mesoscale circulation and energy conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and temporal variability of eddy and mean kinetic energy of the Central Mediterranean Sea has been investigated, from January 2008 to December 2010, by mean of a numerical simulation mainly to quantify the mesoscale dynamics and their relationships with physical forcing. In order to understand the energy redistribution processes, the baroclinic energy conversion has been analysed, suggesting hypotheses about the drivers of the mesoscale activity in this area. The ocean model used is based on the Princeton Ocean Model implemented at 1/32° horizontal resolution. Surface momentum and buoyancy fluxes are interactively computed by mean of standard bulk formulae using predicted model Sea Surface Temperature and atmospheric variables provided by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast operational analyses. At its lateral boundaries the model is one-way nested within the Mediterranean Forecasting System operational products. The model domain has been subdivided in four sub-regions: Sardinia channel and southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Sicily channel, eastern Tunisian shelf and Libyan Sea. Temporal evolution of eddy and mean kinetic energy has been analysed, on each of the four sub-regions composing the model domain, showing different behaviours. On annual scales and within the first 5 m depth, the eddy kinetic energy represents approximately the 60 % of the total kinetic energy over the whole domain, confirming the strong mesoscale nature of the surface current flows in this area. The analyses show that the model well reproduces the path and the temporal behaviour of the main known sub-basin circulation features. New mesoscale structures have been also identified, from numerical results and direct observations, for the first time as the Pantelleria Vortex and the Medina Gyre. The classical the kinetic energy decomposition (eddy and mean) allowed to depict and to quantify the stable and fluctuating parts of the circulation in the region, and to differentiate the four sub-regions as function of relative and absolute strength of the mesoscale activity. Furthermore the Baroclinic Energy Conversion term shows that in the Sardinia Channel the mesoscale activity, due to baroclinic instabilities, is significantly larger than in the other sub-regions, while a negative sign of the energy conversion, meaning a transfer of energy from the Eddy Kinetic Energy to the Eddy Available Potential Energy, has been recorded only for the surface layers of the Sicily Channel during summer.

Sorgente, R.; Olita, A.; Oddo, P.; Fazioli, L.; Ribotti, A.

2011-05-01

341

Silica cycling in the ultra-oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although silica is a key plant nutrient there have been few studies aimed at understanding the Si cycle in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS). Here we use a combination of new measurements and literature values to explain the silicic acid distribution across the basin and to calculate a silica budget to identify the key controlling processes. The surface water concentration of ~ 1 ?M, which is unchanging seasonally across the basin was due to the inflow of Western Mediterranean Sea (WMS) water at the Straits of Sicily. It does not change seasonally because there is only a sparse population of diatoms due to the low nutrient (N and P) supply to the photic zone in the EMS. The concentration of silicic acid in the deep water of the western Ionian Sea (6.3 ?M) close to the S. Adriatic area of formation was due to the preformed silicic acid (3 ?M) plus biogenic silica (BSi) from the dissolution of diatoms from the winter phytoplankton bloom (3.2 ?M). The increase of 4.4 ?M across the deep water of the EMS was due to silicic acid formed from in-situ diagenetic weathering of alumina-silicate minerals fluxing out of the sediment. The major inputs to the EMS are silicic acid and BSi inflowing from the western Mediterranean (121 × 109 mol Si year-1 silicic acid and 16 × 109 mol Si year-1 BSi), silicic acid fluxing from the sediment (54 × 109 mol Si year-1), riverine (27 × 109 mol Si year-1) and subterranean ground water (9.7 × 109 mol Si year-1) inputs, with only a minor direct input from dissolution of dust in the water column (1 × 109 mol Si year-1). This budget shows the importance of rapidly dissolving BSi and in-situ weathering of alumino-silicate minerals as sources of silica to balance the net export of silicic acid at the Straits of Sicily. Future measurements to improve the accuracy of this preliminary budget have been identified.

Krom, M. D.; Kress, N.; Fanning, K.

2014-03-01

342

Quantitative reconstruction of the Holocene climate in the Mediterranean basin inferred from marine and continental pollen records: model/data comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Holocene period is particularly well investigated in the Mediterranean area by a large amount of data (palynologi¬cal, speleothems, or lake-level evidence). All these data show the Holocene to have a complex pat¬tern of climatic change across the Mediterranean region with strong and spatial and temporal variability. Recent studies based on lake-level records from Italy suggest a North-South climatic partition in the central Mediterranean through the Holocene (Magny et al., 2012). If the recent precipitation estimates based on pollen records of these Italian lakes seem support these interpretation (Peyron et al., 2012), given the scarcity of reliable palaeoclimatic records in the north and central-south Mediterranean, new evidence is needed to validate this hypothesis at the scale of the Mediterranean basin, particularly in East and West Mediterranean regions. This study aims to provide robust and precise quantitative estimates of the Holocene climate in the Mediterranean region based on: (1) A multi-method approach to better assess the error of reconstruction inherent in pollen-based climate predictions; (2) Four high-resolution pollen records taken from lakes located along a latitudinal gradient from the northern Italy to the south Italy. Three lakes are from peninsular Italy (Lake Ledro, Lake Accesa, Lake Trifoglietti), and one is from Sicily (Lake Pergusa). In addition, one pollen record is located in Greece (Tenaghi Philippon); (3) Six high-resolution pollen records taken from marine cores located along a longitudinal gradient from the Alboran Sea to the Aegean Sea (cores ODP 976, MD95-2043, MD90-917, MD04-2797, SL152, and NS14). These quantitative estimates of the Holocene climate will be compared to the simulations performed with a regional model (Brayshaw et al., 2010). We investigate climatic trends during the Holocene and test the hypothesis proposed by Magny et al., (2012) of opposite mid-Holocene summer precipitation regimes between the north-central and south Mediterranean, with a minimum in north central Italy and a maximum in Sicily. The use of the marine cores will help to test this hypothesis at the scale of the Mediterranean basin, particularly in East and West Mediterranean region to better understand the climate forcings. We also aim to test the reconstruction of the precipitation seasonality which can be validated by independent proxies obtained for same records, i.e. lake-levels, charcoal/fires (Magny et al., 2011; Vannière et al., 2011).

Peyron, Odile; Magny, Michel; Combourieu Nebout, Nathalie; Goring, Simon; Brayshaw, David; Joannin, Sebastien; Kouli, Katerina; de Beaulieu, Jacques-Louis; Brugiapaglia, Elisabetta E.; Kotthoff, Ulrich; Pross, Joerg; Sadori, Laura; Fletcher, William; Desprat, Stephanie

2013-04-01

343

Shear velocity structure of the Tyrrhenian region in relation to volcanism and tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a detailed 3D shear velocity model of the Tyrrhenian Sea and surrounding onshore areas down to about 160 km depth. The high resolution of the model is achieved through the measurement of interstation Rayleigh wave dispersion curves in a small regional setting with dense station coverage. The most noticeable structure is a pronounced, nearly ringshaped low velocity region at about 80 km depth surrounding the Tyrrhenian Sea: from Corsica to the western part of the Italian mainland, continuing to the western part of Sicily and Sardinia. The thickness of this low velocity region is constrained to a maximum of 40 km, and it is independent of the chosen inversion parameters or the background model. The low values of the shear velocity suggest the presence of fluids or melt. The lateral extent of the low velocity region beneath the Italian mainland is well correlated with the locations of subduction-related volcanism, but there is also a striking continuation of the anomalous low-velocity region along the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea towards (and beneath) the island of Corsica. The recent (<5 Ma) magmatism along the Italian peninsula and the older (5-9 Ma) magmatism of the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea are associated with the subduction of the Adriatic slab beneath the Apennines, indicating mantle contamination with continental crustal material. Slab rollback, the eastward migration of the Adriatic subduction zone during the last 15 My, has been invoked to explain the eastward decrease in the age of the volcanism along the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea. Our seismic results now suggest that the anomalous mantle is still present beneath Corsica and the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, although it does not produce any active volcanism anymore. The picture for the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea is different. Intriguingly, the sublithospheric low velocity anomaly does not continue to southeasternmost part of the Tyrrhenian Sea where the volcanism of the Aeolian arc is related to subduction of the steep, active Ionian slab. Instead, the seismic anomaly crosses the Tyrrhenian Sea from Vesuvius on the Italian mainland to the western part of Sicily, continuing to the southeast of Sardinia: a pattern which correlates with the locations of past subduction-related volcanism. It is striking that the Vavilov Basin in the central Tyrrhenian Sea, characterized by MORB-type volcanism, is a region of relatively normal upper shear velocities. We conclude that a relatively thin (< 40 km) layer of low shear velocity at a depth of about 80 km surrounds the Tyrrhenian Sea. In general, its lateral extent correlates remarkably well with volcanism with an imprint of (ancient) subduction. This suggests that the seismic velocity structure maps mantle domains of altered composition, probably associated with the presence of fluids or melts.

Paulssen, H.; Greve, S.

2012-12-01

344

Sea-level and climate forcing of the Sr isotope composition of marginal basins in the late Miocene Mediterranean Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sr isotope records from marginal marine basins track the mixing between sea water and local continental runoff. Because changes in sea level determine the amount of mixing between global marine and continental water, and climate affects the amount of continental runoff, both sea-level and climate changes can potentially be recorded in marine fossil Sr isotope composition. Our 128 new 87Sr/86Sr analyses on 73 oyster, foraminifera, and coral samples from eight late Miocene stratigraphic sections in southern Turkey, Crete, and Sicily show that 87Sr/86Sr in Mediterranean marginal basins started to depart from global ocean values several million years before the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC), with sub-basin 87Sr/86Sr commonly dropping 0.000100 below contemporaneous global ocean values. The marked departure coincided with tectonic uplift and basin shallowing along the margins of the Mediterranean Basin. In contrast, centrally-located basins within the Mediterranean (e.g., Cyprus, Sicily, Crete) only record departures during the MSC. Besides this general trend, our 57 new 87Sr/86Sr analyses from the astronomically tuned Lower Evaporite unit deposited during the MSC in the central Apennines (Italy) allow us to explore in detail the effect of sea-level and humidity changes on 87Sr/86Sr . Most of the variation in 87Sr/86Sr that we observe can be explained by changes in eustatic sea level, with greatest departures from global ocean values (with differences up to 0.000150) occurring during sea-level lowstands, which were characterized by relatively arid conditions in the Mediterranean. However, in a few cases, the greatest 87Sr/86Sr departures (up to 0.000300) occur during sea-level highstands, which are marked by more humid conditions. Because the correlations between peaks in Sr departures and highstands (humid conditions) occur only after episodes of prolonged aridity, variations of residence time of continental water (particularly groundwater) could have affected its Sr concentration, and hence the degree to which continental water could perturb 87Sr/86Sr in marine sub-basins. Although our results demonstrate that the forcing behind variations in Sr isotope composition in marginal marine basins is more complex than what is typically included in Sr isotope box models, they also imply that high-resolution records, particularly when combined with independent information on sea-level or climate changes, could offer unique insights into local tectonic, climatic, and sea-level variations.

Schildgen, T. F.; Cosentino, D.; Frijia, G.; Castorina, F.; Dudas, F. O.; Iadanza, A.; Cipollari, P.; Caruso, A.; Bowring, S. A.; Strecker, M. R.

2013-12-01

345

137Caesium distribution in the eastern Mediterranean Sea: recent changes and future trends.  

PubMed

A series of sampling campaigns were carried out in the eastern Mediterranean in the period 1995-1997, to examine the relationship between the distribution of 137Cs in the water column and water mass circulation. 137Cs concentration in the surface water ranges between 3.3 and 4.0 mBq/l all over the area, indicating that the input due to the Chernobyl accident has been transferred to deep water layers by convection processes. In fact, in the vertical profiles, relative maxima are observed in the intermediate (4 mBq/l) and deep waters (approximately 2.5 mBq/l) formed after the Chernobyl accident. A clear Chernobyl signal also traces the new deep waters formed in the Aegean Sea that, exiting from the Cretan Arc Straits, since 1991 are spreading in the bottom layer of the eastern Mediterranean. The changes in 137Cs vertical profiles related to the new thermohaline circulation of the intermediate and deep waters of the eastern Mediterranean are being monitored at a deep station in the western Ionian Sea. The 1997 profile shows a decrease in 137Cs concentration both in the Levantine intermediate water and in the eastern Mediterranean deep water with respect to 1996. The decrease in Levantine intermediate water is likely due to seasonal/interannual variability, while the changes in the deep layer are related to the spreading westward into the Ionian of the new Aegean dense water. Along the path towards the western Mediterranean, 137Cs content in the Levantine intermediate water decreases from approximately 4 mBq/l in the W-Ionian Sea to approximately 2 mBq/l at the western sill of the Sicily Straits, due to mixing with underlying water, with lower caesium content, near the Malta Sill. Time-series measurements at the western sill of the Sicily Straits show that, while 137Cs concentration in the surface water entering the eastern Mediterranean remained constant (approximately 3.5 mBq/l) in the period 1993-1997, its level in the Levantine intermediate water leaving the basin decreased from 3.5 to 2.0 mBq/l. PMID:10568266

Papucci, C; Delfanti, R

1999-09-30

346

Stratigraphy, sedimentology and structure of the Numidian Flysch thrust belt in northern Tunisia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Oligo-Miocene Numidian Flysch of northern Tunisia has long been divided into three distinct lithostratigraphic units considered as vertically superimposed: the lower unit or the "Zouza member", the middle unit or the "Kroumirie member" and the upper unit or the "Babouch member". According to this reconstruction the two first members are mostly Oligocene in age and only the third member was assigned as early Miocene in age. In this study, we present new biostratigraphic data, based on planktonic foraminiferal analysis, demonstrating that both the Zouza and the Kroumirie members are Oligocene-early Miocene in age and are, therefore, coeval. Four distinct facies associations have been identified within the Numidian Flysch including: (a) massive sandstones; (b) conglomerate; (c) an interbedded mudstone-sandstone association; and (d) a mudstone facies association. Slide-slump units and injectionite sands occur within the more mud-rich associations. The likely depositional setting is a muddy slope-apron system, cut locally by sand-rich channels, which fed channel-terminal lobe deposits. Paleocurrent data support strongly a flow from N and NW. Modal analysis, demonstrates that the Numidian sandstones are quartz-arenite type (QFL, 97.25:1.25:1.5) derived from middle to high grade-metamorphic and granitic rocks. Zircon geochronology, yielding ages of 514 ± 19 Ma from Tunisia and 550 ± 28 Ma from Sicily, would support the basement terrain that crops out along the Algerian coast and forms part of Calabro-Peloritani-Kabylian zone, as the most likely parental source of the Numidian Flysch for both Sicily and Tunisia. Zircon data from the Fortuna Formation yields ages of 1698 ± 67 Ma, which is more compatible with an African craton source ( Fildes et al., 2009). Structural consideration of the basal contact of the Numidian Flysch with the underlying Tellian rocks, as well as newly interpreted seismic data; confirm the allochthounous position of the Numidian complex and its displacement southward. Facies comparison with the equivalent Oligo-Miocene Bejaoua siliciclastic deposits outcropping towards the south shows that the Numidian complex is an "out-of-sequence thrust unit" and that the two Oligo-Miocene sedimentary systems are quite distinct and were sourced from wholly different source regions.

Sami, Riahi; Soussi, Mohamed; Kamel, Boukhalfa; Kmar, Ben Ismail Lattrache; Stow, Dorrik; Sami, Khomsi; Mourad, Bedir

2010-04-01

347

The island of Pantelleria: A case for the development of DMM-HIMU isotopic compositions in a long-lived extensional setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic and trace element compositions of basalts and pantellerites from the island of Pantelleria (Strait of Sicily) have been used to constrain the evolution of these magmas and their sources. All Pantelleria products have isotopic compositions that plot in Sr sbnd Pb, Nd sbnd Pb and Sr sbnd Nd space between DMM and HIMU oceanic mantle sources. The Pantelleria basalts have variable Ce/Pb, Nb/U and Th/U, and some have elevated 207Pb/ 204Pb and 208Pb/ 204Pb, which is indicative of the addition of an older component that resembles old enriched lithosphere sampled by potassic magmas in the circum-Tyrrhenian Sea. It is proposed that the relatively homogeneous pantellerites derive their Ce/Pb, Nb/U, and OIB-like Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions from a well-mixed crustal magma chamber supplied by heterogeneous basalts. We propose further that the radiogenic 206Pb/ 204Pb and 143Nd/ 144Nd, coupled with the unradiogenic Sr isotopic composition of some of the Pantelleria basalts, are inherited in a process involving chemical modification of the thinned lithospheric crust-mantle source by addition of basaltic (MORB) materials, a process that may have occurred intermittently at least since the Permo-Triassic. This process is responsible for lowering the Pb concentration and changing the U/Pb and Th/Pb ratios of portions of the lithospheric crust-mantle boundary. It is envisaged that the increase in ? and ? of the modified lithospheric mantle was caused by the addition of phases such as clinopyroxene and amphibole, crystallized in equilibrium with MORB. After chemical exchange with the asthenospheric mantle ceased during the Hercynian orogeny, this young (or rejuvenated) lithosphere evolved a radiogenic Pb isotopic composition. It is proposed that the isotopic differences observed between the volcanic rocks erupted in the Strait of Sicily and those erupted in the southern margin of the Tyrrhenian abyssal plain are primarily the result of mixing between magmas derived from a variably modified lithospheric source, some of it with OIB-type isotopic characteristics, that were developed by intermittent interaction with asthenospheric melts in a geodynamic regime dominated by extension.

Esperança, Sonia; Crisci, Gino M.

1995-12-01

348

Numerical Modeling of Thermal-Geochemical Processes in the Hydrothermal System of Pantelleria Island, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island of Pantelleria, located in the Sicily Channel, Central Mediterranean, (about 100 km from Sicily and 70 km from Tunisia), represents the emergent part of a quiescent Quaternary volcano. It has been affected by an intense recent volcano-tectonic activity. The rocks outcropping on the island are mainly lavas and pyroclastic deposits, mostly represented by pantellerites and trachytes. Surface geothermal manifestations are diffused in Pantelleria, with fumaroles, mofettes and hot springs with temperatures up to 98 °C. Since the 60s’, a number of pre-feasibility studies was carried out on the island, which underwent an extensive geothermal exploration during the early 90s’. The results of the exploration revealed a very promising zone in the southern part of the island, where the main geothermal manifestations are concentrated. Temperatures above 250°C were measured in exploratory drillings down to 1100 m b.g.l. (well PPT1). The intrusion of pure seawater likely occurs throughout the island, and deep geothermal reservoir recharge appears to be predominantly of marine origin, though contributions from meteoric water are also possible. A conceptual model of the system has been set up on the basis of a wide set of geological, geophysical and geochemical data obtained during the surveys. The TOUGHREACT simulator was used for the water-rock reaction simulations. A plug-flow model has been used to perform non-isothermal calculations. Boundary thermal conditions have been calibrated according to heat flow measurements and well temperature data. Water-rock interactions have been evaluated in successive steps. First, the saturation states of minerals of sampled geothermal fluids were computed at reservoir temperatures to determine the mineral phases which would likely be dissolving or precipitating. The composition of “synthetic”, nearly-equilibrated waters likely occurring at depth within the reservoir has been then numerically reconstructed. Next, the evolution of fluid and rock compositions with time has been monitored and compared with “real-world” data. Numerical simulations were able to reproduce the mineralogical assemblage found in the reservoir and to highlight the role of CO2 degassing in controlling the geochemical evolution of the system. Fluid geochemistry can be likely ascribed to a mixing among seawater, freshwater and volcanic gas.

Bellani, S.; Gherardi, F.

2009-12-01

349

Morpho-Bathymetry of the Specchio di Venere Crater Lake, Pantelleria Island, Italy: Integration of GPS Surveys with non-GPS Data and Evidence of Sedimentary Control on Lake Bottom Topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pantelleria is a Pleistocene strato-volcano island located in the Sicily Channel Rift Zone, about 100 km south-west of Sicily and 70 km north-east of Tunisia. Specchio di Venere is an endorheic lake located inside a calderic depression (Caldera Cinque Denti), showing a sub-circular shape (being ca 450 m long and ca 350 m wide) and a maximum depth of 12.5 m, with steeper slopes in its north-eastern area. The south-western sector of the lake is characterized by a diffused hydrothermal activity (low temperature fumarole vents and hydrothermal springs). Several morpho-bathymetric surveys, based on both direct sounding and echo-sounding methods, have been carried out into the lake, using different techniques for the planar positioning of the measure points: takeometers, metric ropes tightened on the opposite sides of the lake and, finally, differential single frequency GPS. A comparison between the different surveys clearly indicates that the low number of bathymetric measures carried out in pre-GPS surveys, due to difficulties of a precise and fast positioning of the measure points, heavily influenced the map of the lake floor. In particular, the interpretation of the lake floor morphology was the result of the archetypal idea of a lake, with parallel, iso-spaced bathymetric curves, merely reproducing the shape of the lake shoreline. After the advent of GPS techniques, in the framework of a research project financed by the Italian Civil Defence Department, a new survey was carried out on May 2007, further integrated by another measuring campaign on May 2009. The new bathymetric map, based on 445 depth points, not aligned along transects to avoid the generation of pseudo-structures due to the geometry of the measure points, revealed a quite different structure of the low-depth (maximum 2 m) south-western sector of the lake, whose morphology is probably to be related to interaction of the hydrothermal vent field with sedimentary processes, resulting in the formation of microbialites. Fig. 1 Specchio di Venere Crater Lake, Pantelleria Island, Italy

Madonia, P.; Cangemi, M.; Bellanca, A.; D'Alessandro, W.; Neri, R.; Failla, A.

2009-12-01

350

Arc lavas related to continental/oceanic subduction in southern Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lavas from quaternary volcanic activity around Sicily provide unique samples to study sources and processes involved in incipient continental collision, in this case between the African and European plates. Many authors recognize a history of both continental and oceanic subduction beneath Sicily and Italy in the last 10 million years. We are interested in whether the effects of these variable material inputs can be detected in the regional volcanoes. Many studies investigated the geochemistry of the Aeolian arc, but few focused on understanding spatial and temporal evolution of lavas within and in the vicinity of the Aeolian arc. In this study, samples including basalts, andesites and rhyolites were systematically collected from the Aeolian arc, Mt. Etna, Pantelleria Island, and Ustica Island (the latter three here-in referred to as the "anorogenic" volcanoes). Their major element compositions were measured by XRF at Washington State University, and the rare earth elements and isotopic compositions (Sr-Nd-Pb) were measured at Yale University using single collector and multi-collector ICP-MS, respectively. Our initial results show that the Aeolian Islands are characterized by a large range in K2O (1% - 5%) with small ranges in Na2O (2.7% - 4.2%), resulting in high K2O / Na2O ratios as compared to the anorogenic rocks of the region. The lavas from Aeolian Islands have 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7039 - 0.7063 and 143Nd/144Nd of 0.51265 - 0.51252, closer to continental values than those of anorogenic rocks. Pb isotopes of both the Aeolian volcanics and the anorogenic rocks have a small range (208Pb/204Pb = 39.0 - 39.7, 206Pb/204Pb= 19 - 20, and 207Pb/204Pb= 15.65 - 15.79), but anorogenic rocks are at the high end of the range. Spatial and temporal variations of major geochemical indices exist for both the Aeolian arc and anorogenic rocks. These variations suggest progressive geochemical influences on Aeolian lavas by subducted crustal materials.

Young, H. P.; Wang, Z.; Brandon, M. T.

2011-12-01

351

Effects of the new anti-mafia law on the proceeds of crime and on the Italian economy.  

PubMed

In 1982, the Italian authorities enacted a new law against the mafia conspiracy, which provided for the seizure and confiscation of property illegally acquired by criminals and their associates. This law is intended to strike at the accumulation of wealth of the mafiosi, which chiefly motivates their criminal activity. According to the established procedure, the district attorney or the chief of police are authorized to propose the seizure of property suspected of being derived from crimes, and a court of law decides either to accept or reject such a proposal and, where appropriate, orders the confiscation of illegally acquired assets. Two phenomena were identified, particularly in the southern part of Italy, which preceded the adoption of this new law: one was the establishment of an illegal sector of the economy with the development of a vast illicit market of drugs, and the other was an increase in the number of mafia firms and entrepreneurs. In some areas of western Sicily, for example at Palermo and Trapani, the income derived from illegal activities is estimated at approximately 15 to 20 per cent of the total gross income; the illicit sale of drugs nation-wide exceeds 10,000 billion lire, according to estimates. An assessment of the impact of the new law reveals positive results. In four provinces--Calabria, Campania, Lombardy and Sicily--property suspected of being derived from crimes was seized on 352 occasions and illegally acquired property was confiscated on 108 occasions during a period of 21 months following the adoption of the new law; 98 per cent of the seizures and all of the confiscations took place in the above-mentioned four provinces. The effective enforcement of the new law is, in the long run, expected to result in a movement from illegal to legal activity; if the risk involved in persisting in illegal activities becomes high enough, it should trigger a tendency towards avoiding involvement in the illegal activities and converting the assets into property shares protected by legal means. A certain tendency towards such "legalization" and investment in financial affairs rather than in real estate, agriculture and tertiary assets has already been observed. It is, however, unlikely that the mafia will be inclined to give up easily its profits derived from crime and its power of influence in society, and, consequently, it is expected that the confiscation of the illegally acquired properties will for a long time be the cornerstone of every effective struggle against criminal activity on a large scale. PMID:6570702

Arlacchi, P

1984-01-01

352

Napoli and Volcanism - Vesuvius and Mt. Etna  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For more than 240 million years the region now known as Italy has been the scene of episodic volcanic activity. East-southeast of Napoli (Naples) stands the imposing cone of Vesuvius, which erupted explosively in 79 A.D. to bury Pompeii and Herculaneum. More recently, when the crew of Space Shuttle mission STS-104 captured this view, Mt. Etna (Sicily, not seen in this image, but photographed the day before) was spewing ash and gas thousands of meters into the air, some of which can be seen as a brownish smear over Isola d' Ischia and the Tyrrhenian Sea. The Appenine ranges extend from northern Italy, down the boot of the peninsula and westward into Sicily. This photograph of the Appenino Napoletano is part of an 18-frame stereophoto mapping strip that spans the entire mountain chain. The almost 1200-km-long belt of volcanoes and folded/faulted mountains is a result of the ongoing collision of Africa and Eurasia, accompanied by the progressive closing of the Mediterranean Sea. Using overlapping pairs of stereophotos, and a special viewer, scientists can get a three-dimensional perspective on the ranges that surpasses any image viewed alone. For more information, see another image of Mt. Vesuvius, taken by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). References: Behncke, Boris, 2000, Vesuvio - The eruption of A.D. 79: Italy's Volcanoes - The Cradle of Volcanology [http://www.geo.mtu.edu/boris/VESUVIO_79.html (accessed 10/18/01)] Doglioni, C., and Flores, G., 1997, Italy, in Moores, E. M., and Fairbridge, R. W., editors, Encyclopedia of European and Asian Regional Geology: London, Chapman and Hall, p. 414-435 Shuttle photograph STS104-710-60 was taken 23 July 2001 from the orbiter Atlantis using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. The entire mapping series (of frames numbered in sequence from 50 through 68) can also be downloaded from the database and printed for stereo viewing and analysis. Searching and viewing of additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts is available at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

353

Mercury Degassing on Africa-Adriatic Tectonic Plate Margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beside anthropogenic influences, mercury in the environment can also be of natural origin. Among geologic sources, volcanic activity has been of main interest so far. Modern estimations of global natural emissions are between 2000 and 5200 tonnes per year. However, these estimates are very uncertain, thus more detailed and systematic research on natural sources of mercury is necessary. Tectonic activity is connected to certain phenomena such as degassing of Hg and other gases from active faults, geothermal activity, volcanoes, etc., especially on tectonic plate margins. Elemental mercury concentrations in air, soil gases and fluxes, as well as its speciation, in connection to tectonic activity, were studied in different environments such are karst cave (Postojna Cave), active volcano areas (Mt. Etna, Italy), and active tectonic areas in the Mediterranean Basin on Africa-Adriatic tectonic plate margin. Postojna Cave is characterized by elevated Hg (up to 150 ng m-3) air concentrations at certain areas in vicinity of active faults; however the concentrations showed also strong seasonal variations. Mt. Etna on Sicily is the largest and most active Mediterranean volcano. Concentrations of mercury in air in the vicinity of the volcano are relatively high (between 4 and 30 ng m-3) and rise towards the summit crater (65 to 130 ng m-3). Concentrations in sulphatare and fumaroles gases on the summit of the volcano can reach very high values (even up to 60 ?g m-3). The Mediterranean Basin is characterized by strong tectonic activity as a consequence of subduction of African plate under the Eurasian plate. A possible source of DGM (dissolved gaseous mercury in sea water) in deeper and bottom waters could be intensive tectonic activity of the seafloor, since higher concentrations and portions of DGM were found near the bottom at locations with strong tectonic activity (Alboran Sea, Strait of Sicily, Tyrrhenian Sea, Ionian Sea). Distribution of different mercury species in sediment and water of the Mediterranean Sea showed that the main source of mercury is geotectonic activity and its accompanying phenomena.

Kotnik, J.; Giammanco, S.; Horvat, M.; Fajon, V.

2009-12-01

354

European seafloor observatories for geophysical and environmental monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1995, projects and experiments under Italian coordination addressed to mono- and multi-disciplinary sea floor monitoring, have been undertaken. These initiatives have made use both of standard seismological modules, such as Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) and Hydrophones (OBH), and of new conceived modules specifically developed for multi-parameter deep sea monitoring. In the framework of the Tyrrhenian Deep Experiment (TYDE), in late 2000, a network of standard OBS and OBH made available by GEOMAR and Hamburg University, were deployed in the southernmost sector of the Tyrrhenian basin, in proximity of Aeolian volcanic arc. The network operated for about six months in local data acquisition and provided new insight of the seismic and volcanic activity of the area. TYDE schedule was also arranged in order to integrate the long-term mission of GEOSTAR multidisciplinary deep sea observatory. GEOSTAR operated at 2000 water depth for over six months, south-west of Ustica island, off-shore the western Sicily, and the seismological data acquired have been analysed together to the TYDE data. A third phase of the GEOSTAR project, named ORION-GEOSTAR 3, has been already funded by the European Commission. As a natural evolution of previous projects, ORION foresees the realization of a seafloor network with GEOSTAR acting as the main node in acoustic communication with other nodes to send commands and transfer data. A surface buoy will allow, as in GEOSTAR long-term mission, the communication to on-shore through satellite link. ORION will be tested at 3200 meter depth, north-east the Marsili underwater volcano (Tyrrhenian). A new observatory, SN-1, was derived from GEOSTAR. SN-1 is presently operating from October 2002 in the Ionian, at 2105 meter water depth, offshore the eastern coast of Sicily, in proximity of the Malta Escarpment. Thanks to an agreement between Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, SN-1 will be connected to an specifically already deployed submarine electro-optical cable to be powered and communicate data in real time. The prospective of a such experiment are to be considered also in the light of hazard warning and mitigation of risks. An overview of all the projects will be given and some of the scientific results presented.

Beranzoli, L.; Geostar-Orion(1) Tyde(2) Sn-1(3) Teams

2003-04-01

355

Seismic Hazard Maps for the Maltese Archipelago: Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Maltese islands form an archipelago of three major islands lying in the Sicily channel at about 140 km south of Sicily and 300 km north of Libya. So far very few investigations have been carried out on seismicity around the Maltese islands and no maps of seismic hazard for the archipelago are available. Assessing the seismic hazard for the region is currently of prime interest for the near-future development of industrial and touristic facilities as well as for urban expansion. A culture of seismic risk awareness has never really been developed in the country, and the public perception is that the islands are relatively safe, and that any earthquake phenomena are mild and infrequent. However, the Archipelago has been struck by several moderate/large events. Although recent constructions of a certain structural and strategic importance have been built according to high engineering standards, the same probably cannot be said for all residential buildings, many higher than 3 storeys, which have mushroomed rapidly in recent years. Such buildings are mostly of unreinforced masonry, with heavy concrete floor slabs, which are known to be highly vulnerable to even moderate ground shaking. We can surely state that in this context planning and design should be based on available national hazard maps. Unfortunately, these kinds of maps are not available for the Maltese islands. In this paper we attempt to compute a first and preliminary probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the Maltese islands in terms of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and Spectral Acceleration (SA) at different periods. Seismic hazard has been computed using the Esteva-Cornell (1968) approach which is the most widely utilized probabilistic method. It is a zone-dependent approach: seismotectonic and geological data are used coupled with earthquake catalogues to identify seismogenic zones within which earthquakes occur at certain rates. Therefore the earthquake catalogues can be reduced to the activity rate, the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter relationship and an estimate of the maximum magnitude. In this article we also defined a new seismogenic zones in the central Mediterranean never considered before. In order to determine the ground motion parameters related to a specified probability of exceedance, the above statistical parameters are combined with ground motion prediction equations. Seismic hazard computations have been performed within the island boundaries. The preliminary maps for PGA distribution on rock site obtained for a 10% probability of exceedance shows values ranging between 0.09-0.18 g whereas, SA for 0.2, 04, 1.0 s show values of about 0.21-0.40 g, 0.14-0.24 g and 0.05-0.08 g respectively.

D'Amico, S.; Panzera, F.; Galea, P. M.

2013-12-01

356

Shallow geothermal exploration using SkyTEM data: the VIGOR experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the "VIGOR" project, aimed at assessing the geothermal potential of four regions in southern Italy, helicopter geophysical electromagnetic (SkyTEM) data have been acquired, modeled and interpreted. The SkyTEM system provides, after data acquisition, analysis, processing and modeling, a distribution volume of electrical resistivity, spanning an investigation depth from ground surface of few hundred meters, depending on resistivity condition. Results were used also to characterize the main geological units outcropping in the region and extend the investigation at depth. Resistivity is an important physical parameter for geothermal investigation, since it proved to be very effective in mapping anomalies due to hydrothermal fluid circulation, which usually has high salt content and produces clayey alteration minerals. Besides, resistivity data may help in characterizing hydrogeological or tectonic features. The attempt is also to define relations between resistivity distribution, lithological units and thermal conductivity. The geophysical survey was carried out in Sicily, Italy, in late 2011, covering two areas. SkyTEM data have been acquired in a series of flight lines and were then processed and inverted. In the "Termini" area the flight line spacing had 150 m separation. In the "Western Sicily" area two different line spacing were used: the 1 km spacing was used for the regional mapping, whereas for infill areas, around the main hydrothermal springs, the flight lines had 100 m spacing. After acquisition, data were analysed and processed. Inversions were then carried out using the quasi 3-D Spatially Constrained Inversion (SCI). The obtained resistivity volume has then been the base for a detailed lithological and geothermal interpretation. Lithological and geological maps were used to constrain surface condition and to understand the resistivity ranges of the different lithological units. On the base of resistivity values, lithological units were combined to establish the main litho-electrical units, which were then modelled at depth, down to achievable investigation depth. This detailed interpretative modelling was the occasion of recognizing resistivity anomalies within carbonate units, which host the regional hydrothermal reservoir. The litho-electrical 3D model is also under investigation to verify how it can represent a viable way to image heat exchange properties at shallow depth. If we succeed in defining the relations between electrical resistivity, lithology, thermal conductivity and hydrogeological bodies, we would obtain a viable way to define, at depth, of the main parameters (thermal properties and fluid distribution) for defining shallow geothermal potential.

Santilano, Alessandro; Manzella, Adele; Viezzoli, Andrea; Menghini, Antonio; Donato, Assunta; Montanari, Domenico; Maggi, Sabino; Rizzo, Enzo

2013-04-01

357

Integrated management of TYLCV/TYLCSV on greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes in Southern Italy.  

PubMed

Tomato yellow leaf curl (TYLC) caused by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), vectored by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, is a major disease of tomato in Sardinia and Sicily, and is becoming a serious threat in Southern Italy too. TYLCSV was first reported in Calabria region in 1991, but apparently it was an occasional outbreak, and B. tabaci was not detected. Later, during the 2003-2004 winter, a serious epidemic was observed in protected tomato crops in Castrovillari, Cosenza province. TYLCV was first described in Sicily in 2003 and during 2004 in continental Italy. Both viruses were detected in winter 2005-2006 on the Basilicata Ionic coast, in the Metapontum area, both in protected and in open field tomato crops. Experiments were conducted in Calabria Region, Southern Italy, under controlled conditions in a group of greenhouses where several tomato crops were grown hydroponically to determine the separate and integrated effects of UV-reflective mulch (UVRM), Acibenzolar-S-methyl (Actigard) and the two insecticides Imidacloprid (ADMIRE 2F) and Thiamethoxam (ACTARA 25WG). Highly UV-reflective mulch covered plots were treated with Actigard and insecticides, both alone or in combination. TYLC disease incidence was determined from late August 2005 to late January 2006. The highly UVRM alone was effective in reducing disease incidence of about 28.6% at the end of October, and of 31.7% at the end of January. However, Actigard with UVRM significantly reduced TYLC disease incidence to 70% and 48.5%, in 2 months and 5 months after the first treatment, respectively. The insecticides with UVRM, resulted in a moderate reduction of disease incidence (22.5%) at the end of October. At the end of January a reduction in disease incidence due to insecticide applications was not significant. The use of Actigard combined with the insecticides on UVRM reduced the disease incidence (63.4% with Admire and 56.1% with Actara) at the end of January. Actigard alone or with insecticides on UVRM was effective in reducing disease incidences. Highly UVRM and Actigard were effective in reducing the primary spread of TYLCV/TYLCSV in greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes. Comparative analysis of their effects at different periods post-treatment suggests that multiple applications of Actigard may be necessary to reduce progress of this disease. PMID:17390886

Fanigliulo, A; Ferrara, L; Caligiuri, G; Comes, S; Momol, M T; Olson, S M; Crescenzi, A

2006-01-01

358

NEMO-SMO acoustic array: A deep-sea test of a novel acoustic positioning system for a km3-scale underwater neutrino telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the activities of the NEMO project, the installation of a 8-floors tower (NEMO-Phase II) at a depth of 3500 m is foreseen in 2012. The tower will be installed about 80 km off-shore Capo Passero, in Sicily. On board the NEMO tower, an array of 18 acoustic sensors will be installed, permitting acoustic detection of biological sources, studies for acoustic neutrino detection and primarily acoustic positioning of the underwater structures. For the latter purpose, the sensors register acoustic signals emitted by five acoustic beacons anchored on the sea-floor. The data acquisition system of the acoustic sensors is fully integrated with the detector data transport system and is based on an “all data to shore” philosophy. Signals coming from hydrophones are continuously sampled underwater at 192 kHz/24 bit and transmitted to shore through an electro-optical cable for real-time analysis. A novel technology for underwater GPS time-stamping of data has been implemented and tested. The operation of the acoustic array will permit long-term test of sensors and electronics technologies that are proposed for the acoustic positioning system of KM3NeT.

Viola, S.; Ardid, M.; Bertin, V.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Keller, P.; Lahmann, R.; Larosa, G.; Llorens, C. D.; NEMO Collaboration; SMO Collaboration

2013-10-01

359

Predictive mechanistic bioenergetics to model habitat suitability of shellfish culture in coastal lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative tools based on mechanistic modelling of functional traits able to enhance the sustainability of aquaculture and most other human activities (i.e. reducing the likelihood of detrimental impacts optimising productions), are especially important factors in the decision to site aquaculture facilities in coastal lakes, ponds and lagoons and, in the case of detrimental impact, to adopt mitigation measures. We tested the ability of mechanistic functional trait based models to predict life history traits of cultivable shellfish in shallow coastal lakes. Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) models were run to generate spatially explicit predictions of Mytilus galloprovincialis life history (LH) traits (e.g. body size and fecundity). Using fortnightly data of food supply and hourly data of body temperatures, and exploiting the power of mechanistic rules, we estimated the amount of faeces ejected by a fixed quantity of organisms cultivated in two shallow Southern Mediterranean (Sicily) lakes. These differed in terms of temperature and food density, implying large differences in life history traits of mussels in the two study areas. This information could help facilitate the selection of sites where environmental conditions are more suitable for aquaculture and contextually compatible with sustainability. The validation exercise obtained by comparing the predicted and observed data was nearly consistent. Therefore, a mechanistic functional traits-based model seems able to capture the link between habitat characteristics and functional traits of organisms, delineating the fundamental portion of an ecological niche, the possibility of predicting LH traits and potential ecological applications in the management of natural coastal resources.

Rinaldi, A.; Montalto, V.; Manganaro, A.; Mazzola, A.; Mirto, S.; Sanfilippo, M.; Sarà, G.

2014-05-01

360

Upstream-independent ribosomal RNA amplification analysis (URA): a new approach to characterizing the diversity of natural microbial communities.  

PubMed

Here, we propose an advanced method for recently developed fingerprinting strategies to analyse microbial populations by direct detection of 16S rRNA sequences occurring in natural habitats. The differential display (DD) technique, which is widely used to analyse for eukaryotic gene expression, was optimized to assess bacterial rRNA diversity in environmental samples. Double-stranded cDNAs of rRNAs were synthesized without a forward primer digested with endonuclease and ligated with a double-stranded adapter. The fragments obtained were then amplified using an adapter-specific extended primer and a 16S rDNA universal reverse primer pair displayed by electrophoresis on a polyacrylamide gel. We validated this approach by characterization of a microbial community colonizing a geothermal (48 degrees C) vent system located close to the eruption zone of the south-east crater of the Mount Etna volcano, Sicily. Analysis of the patterns of abundant 16S rRNA revealed a considerable diversity of metabolically active bacteria phylogenetically clustering within the Crenarchaeota, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Planctomycetales and Thermus divisions. Two sequence phylotypes were affiliated with uncultivated representatives of the recently described candidate division OP10 from a Yellowstone hot spring. PMID:11722547

Yakimov, M M; Giuliano, L; Timmis, K N; Golyshin, P N

2001-10-01

361

Performance assessment of a Robust Satellite Techniques (RST-FIRES) for forest fire detection and monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, an advanced satellite technique for forest fire detection and monitoring named RST-FIRES, based on the well known Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) approach, is presented. Performances of this technique, both in terms of reliability and sensitivity, have been analyzed in different (winter/summer) fire regimes, after 3 years of pre-operational sperimentation in 3 Italian Regions (Lombardy, Sicily and Basilicata). Results achieved by using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) have been compared with the ones obtained by using traditional multichannels and contextuals algorithms. The potential of RST-FIRES in promptly detecting the beginning of fire events by means of sensors like Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) flying aboard Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) geostationary satellites is also analyzed and discussed here. The achieved results demonstrates the high capabilities of RST-FIRES in indentifying even small fires with a very low (<10%) false positive rate under different observational conditions (day/night; winter/summer). In addition, they confirm the RST-FIRES potential to be used in operational contexts requiring to join reliable early warning and efficient support to decisions systems.

Mazzeo, G.; Filizzola, C.; Coviello, I.; Marchese, F.; Corrado, R.; Lacava, T.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

2012-04-01

362

The European wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris) as reservoir hosts of Troglostrongylus brevior (Strongylida: Crenosomatidae) lungworms.  

PubMed

The increasing reports of Troglostrongylus brevior lungworm in domestic cats from Italy and Spain raised questions on its factual distribution and on the role wildcats play as reservoirs of these parasites. Carcasses of 21 wildcats were collected in natural parks of southern Italy (i.e., Catania, Sicily n=5 and Matera, Basilicata n=16) and biometrically and genetically identified as Felis silvestris silvestris, but two as hybrids. Troglostrongylus brevior and Eucoleus aerophilus lungworms were found in 15 (71.4%) and 7 (33.3%) individuals, respectively, being five (23.8%) co-infected by the two species. Both lungworms showed an aggregated distribution in the host population, assessed by k-index (i.e., 0.69 for T. brevior and 0.42 for E. aerophilus). Although no statistical significant difference was recorded among age, gender and geographical location of wildcats, a larger rate of infection by T. brevior was assessed in yearlings (85.7%) than adults (64.3%). This is the first epidemiological study reporting T. brevior infection in the European wildcat and discusses the potential threat this may represent for the conservation of this endangered species of felids. In addition, given the large frequency of lungworm infection herein recorded, the role of wildcats as reservoir hosts of these parasites to domestic cats is discussed. PMID:25027610

Falsone, L; Brianti, E; Gaglio, G; Napoli, E; Anile, S; Mallia, E; Giannelli, A; Poglayen, G; Giannetto, S; Otranto, D

2014-09-15

363

Tidal signatures in Neogene to Quaternary mixed deposits of southern Italy straits and bays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the Neogene to Quaternary sedimentary successions cropping out in the southern Italy orogenic belt exhibit distinct stratigraphic intervals of mixed, silici-bioclastic arenites. These deposits represent bay- and strait-fill successions that accumulated during tectonically-driven, rapid transgressions in peripheral marine basins of the central Mediterranean, experiencing microtidal conditions similar to those presently existing in the Mediterranean Sea. The Upper Miocene to Middle Pleistocene successions of Basilicata, Calabria and NE Sicily, show laterally-accreted, cross-strata of mixed composition, with the siliciclastic fraction derived from either sedimentary or metamorphic rocks and the bioclastic fraction produced by an in situ or near situ heterozoan factory. Tidal cyclicity of semi-diurnal and diurnal to monthly and yearly periodicities has been detected in the studied deposits, where tidal bundling is revealed by the rhythmic alternation of siliciclastic and bioclastic set of laminae, repeated according to different cycles. This rhythmic signature appears to be more evident where randomly-occurring processes, such as waves, storms and currents, were mitigated by engulfed or strait palaeo-settings. Palaeo-bays preserved short-term tidal cycles in shoreface to offshore-transition mixed deposits because hydrodynamically isolated from open marine conditions and therefore subjected to tidal influence only during fair-weather periods. On the contrary, palaeo-straits recorded tidal cyclicities of longer duration in deeper mixed deposits subjected to steady tidal currents.

Longhitano, Sergio G.; Chiarella, Domenico; Di Stefano, Agata; Messina, Carlo; Sabato, Luisa; Tropeano, Marcello

2012-11-01

364

Impact of universal vaccination against varicella in Italy.  

PubMed

In Italy, the introduction of Universal Varicella Vaccination (UVV) has been decided but postponed, as a national programme, until 2015, when data from Regions which have already implemented it will be available. Starting from 2003, eight Italian Regions (Basilicata, Calabria, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Apulia, Sardinia, Sicily, Tuscany and Veneto) have progressively introduced UVV, in their immunization programme, with different schedules in children aged 13-15 months and 5-6 years, currently a two-dose schedule is adopted by all Regions. In June 2013, an Interregional Group on Varicella Vaccination (IGVV) has been established in order to assess the effectiveness of varicella vaccination with standardized and shared tools. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of varicella vaccination on the incidence and hospitalizations due to varicella and its complications in the period 2003-2012 in order to support the Italian decision makers on the future national adoption. Preliminary data showed that a general reduction of incidence and hospitalization rates was observed in the study period, resulting in relevant savings for the National Health Service. Immunization coverage with first dose at 24 months of age was high in all Regions (84%-95%) in 2012. Adverse events due to varicella vaccines were rare and without permanent sequelae. Underreporting of varicella cases and delays in the administration of the first dose of varicella vaccines were the main critical issues. In conclusion, solid evidences in support of universal UVV arise from the experiences available today in Italy. PMID:25483517

Bechini, Angela; Boccalini, Sara; Baldo, Vincenzo; Cocchio, Silvia; Castiglia, Paolo; Gallo, Tolinda; Giuffrida, Sandro; Locuratolo, Francesco; Tafuri, Silvio; Martinelli, Domenico; Prato, Rosa; Amodio, Emanuele; Vitale, Francesco; Bonanni, Paolo

2014-08-01

365

Mechanical properties of Municipal Solid Waste by SDMT  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: • The adoption of the SDMT for the measurements of MSW properties is proposed. • A comparison between SDMT results and laboratory tests was carried out. • A good reliability has been found in deriving waste properties by SDMT. • Results seems to be promising for the friction angle and Young’s modulus evaluation. - Abstract: In the paper the results of a geotechnical investigation carried on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) materials retrieved from the “Cozzo Vuturo” landfill in the Enna area (Sicily, Italy) are reported and analyzed. Mechanical properties were determined both by in situ and laboratory large-scale one dimensional compression tests. While among in situ tests, Dilatomer Marchetti Tests (DMT) is used widely in measuring soil properties, the adoption of the DMT for the measurements of MSW properties has not often been documented in literature. To validate its applicability for the estimation of MSW properties, a comparison between the seismic dilatometer (SDMT) results and the waste properties evaluated by laboratory tests was carried out. Parameters for “fresh” and “degraded waste” have been evaluated. These preliminary results seems to be promising as concerns the assessment of the friction angle of waste and the evaluation of the S-wave in terms of shear wave velocity. Further studies are certainly required to obtain more representative values of the elastic parameters according to the SDMT measurements.

Castelli, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.castelli@unikore.it [Geotechnical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Kore University of Enna, 94100 Enna (Italy); Maugeri, Michele [Geotechnical Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Catania, 95125 Catania (Italy)

2014-02-15

366

Petroleum geology of Tunisia  

SciTech Connect

Recent discoveries and important oil shows have proven the existence of hydrocarbons in newly identified depocenters and reservoirs. In general, except for some areas around the producing fields, Tunisia is largely underdrilled. The national company ETAP has decided to release data and to publish a synthesis on the petroleum geology of Tunisia. The geology of Tunisia provides a fine example of the contrast between Alpine folding, which typifies northern Tunisia and the African craton area of the Saharan part. Eastern Tunisia corresponds to an unstable platform forming plains or low hills and extending eastwards to the shallow Pelagian Sea. There are a wide variety of basins: central and northern Tunisia represents a front basin the Saharan Ghadames basin or the Chott trough are sag basins; the Gulf of Gabes was formed as a distension margin the Gulf of Hammamet is a composite basin and several transversal grabens cut across the country, including offshore, and are rift-type basins. All these features are known to be oil prolific throughout the world. Two large fields and many modest-size pools are known in Tunisia. Oil and gas fields in the surrounding countries, namely the Saharan fields of Algeria and Libya the large Bouri field offshore Tripolitania and discoveries in the Italian part of the Straits of Sicily, suggest a corresponding potential in Tunisia. Exposed paleogeographic and structural maps, balanced sections, and examples of fields and traps will support an optimistic evaluation of the future oil exploration in Tunisia.

Burollet, P.F. (CIFEG, Paris (France)); Ferjami, A.B.; Mejri, F. (ETAP, Tunis (Tunisia))

1990-05-01

367

Estimating soil erosion in Natura 2000 areas located on three semi-arid Mediterranean Islands.  

PubMed

A major initiative in Europe is the protection of its biodiversity. To accomplish this, specific areas from all countries of the European Union are protected by the establishment of the "Natura 2000" network. One of the major threats to these areas and in general to ecosystems is soil erosion. The objective of this study was to quantitatively estimate surface soil losses for three of these protected areas that are located on semi-arid islands of the Mediterranean. One Natura 2000 area was selected from each of the following islands: Sicily in Italy, Cyprus and Rhodes in Greece. To estimate soil losses, Gerlach troughs were used. These troughs were established on slopes that ranged from 35-40% in four different vegetation types: i) Quercus ilex and Quercus rotundifolia forests, ii) Pinus brutia forests, iii) "Phrygana" shrublands and iv) vineyards. The shrublands had the highest soil losses (270 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) that were 5-13 times more than the other three vegetation types. Soil losses in these shrublands should be considered a major concern. However, the other vegetation types also had high soil losses (21-50 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)). Conclusively, in order to enhance and conserve the biodiversity of these Natura 2000 areas protective management measures should be taken into consideration to decrease soil losses. PMID:23033694

Zaimes, George N; Emmanouloudis, Dimitris; Iakovoglou, Valasia

2012-03-01

368

Interactions between climate change, hydrology and soil erosion in different climatic zones in Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Italy, during last century the mean annual temperature (Tym) increased by 0.4°C/100 years in Northern areas (N) (continental zone) and by 0.7°C/100 years in Central (C) and Southern (S) parts (peninsular zones). A negative trend of annual rainfall (Py) was evident in both N and S areas. Extreme events had different tendencies, corresponding to increases in rainfall intensity and in drought conditions in both N and S areas. Climate change affects both vegetation water availability and runoff and erosion. Different results on climatic trends were obtained for smaller sub-regions of Southern Italy. Therefore, climate change studies at a regional level should also account for geographical factors (e.g. distance from the sea, elevation, aspect). In the current study trend in precipitation recorded during last century in three different climatic zones in Italy were investigated and compared. The three zones are: a typical Tuscan-Emilian Apennines watershed (the Reno river) located in the continental area, the Calabria region located in the peninsular zone, and the Sicily region, an island located in the South of Italy. For Reno river mountain watershed (2.597 km2), an attempt was made to gain some knowledge about the changes in the 20th century of the land use and of the climate, connected to the erosion soil risk. The Italian Apennines, from the 16th century, were exploited for farming and for agro forestry and pastoral activities. This human activities encouraged intense erosive processes, but an important factor controlling the intense morphodynamics is the contemporary increase of rainfall in the "Little Ice Age". From the beginning of the 1900, have been led two conflicting and simultaneous phenomena: population moving both to cities and valley bottoms and agricultural mechanization. Their consequences have been evident on land use: abandonment of unproductive fields, of forestry practices and enlargement of the remaining plots. The Calabria region is a long narrow peninsula extending for about 250 km North to South. A mountain range (the Apennines) running perpendicularly to the dominant moisture-bearing wind direction, causes rainfall and temperature variability dividing the region into two different areas: the Tyrrhenian and Ionian. Bioclimatic parameters, such as evapotranspiration, rain deficit and aridity index, and drought characteristics have been analysed to check the climate change effects on vegetation. Sicily is the largest island of the Mediterranean Sea. According to traditional geographical distinctions for making sub-regional analysis, Sicily was divided into three homogeneous sub-regions (North, East, and South). Each sub-region is separated from the others by mountain ranges and for this reason the rainfall pattern is different from area to area. Because of its particular geographic location in the centre of the Mediterranean Sea, Sicily was often investigated as a key region in order to explain the climate evolution within the Mediterranean basin. The measures on ephemeral gully erosion conducted in the small catchment of Raddusa permit some considerations on climate change response. The overall results showed the importance of the climate change analyses at a regional scale. The analysis carried out showed an increase of temperature (ranging from 0.1 and 2.2°C/100 years for the mean annual temperature) and a decrease of precipitation (ranging from 153 to 344 mm/100 years for the annual rainfall) over the two investigated regions located in South Italy (Calabria and Sisily). In the North Apennines Reno watershed the mean precipitation during 1926-2006 was 1315 mm, with a decrease of precipitation about 7% during the last period 1976-2006. In the same period the river water flow decreased of about 22% (Casalecchio gauge) referring to the 1926-2006 (average outflow of 705 mm). The temperature increased over 0,4°C with consequent decrease of the snow and frost. The calculated values of evapotranspiration ET0, which accounted for mean (Ta), maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) values of temper

Capra, A.; Pavanelli, D.

2010-03-01

369

The Genographic Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Alright, so you have a few relatives from Poughkeepsie who might be able to trace their ancestry back to a certain part of Sicily. But have you ever considered that all humans might be able to trace their origins back to a group of people residing in Africa some 60,000 years ago? It's quite a thought, and the National Geographic Society (working with a number of partners) has created this site to deal with such thought-provoking questions of our shared "deep" genetic and ancestral makeup. To start things off, visitors should read the "About the Project" area, which provides some background on the project's ambitious mission. After that, a look into the "Genetics Overview" area is a must, as it provides some of the basic scientific knowledge that serves as the basis for this project. Without a doubt, the highlight of the site is the "Atlas of the Human Journey", which takes visitors on a tour of the great migrations of humans over the past 60,000 years. Along the way, visitors will learn about the changing genetic makeup of humans and how they moved around the earth.

2006-01-01

370

Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizae on Biomass Production and Nitrogen Fixation of Berseem Clover Plants Subjected to Water Stress  

PubMed Central

Several studies, performed mainly in pots, have shown that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis can mitigate the negative effects of water stress on plant growth. No information is available about the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on berseem clover growth and nitrogen (N) fixation under conditions of water shortage. A field experiment was conducted in a hilly area of inner Sicily, Italy, to determine whether symbiosis with AM fungi can mitigate the detrimental effects of drought stress (which in the Mediterranean often occurs during the late period of the growing season) on forage yield and symbiotic N2 fixation of berseem clover. Soil was either left under water stress (i.e., rain-fed conditions) or the crop was well-watered. Mycorrhization treatments consisted of inoculation of berseem clover seeds with arbuscular mycorrhizal spores or suppression of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis by means of fungicide treatments. Nitrogen biological fixation was assessed using the 15N-isotope dilution technique. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis was able to mitigate the negative effect of water stress on berseem clover grown in a typical semiarid Mediterranean environment. In fact, under water stress conditions, arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis resulted in increases in total biomass, N content, and N fixation, whereas no effect of crop mycorrhization was observed in the well-watered treatment. PMID:24595111

Saia, Sergio; Amato, Gaetano; Frenda, Alfonso Salvatore; Giambalvo, Dario; Ruisi, Paolo

2014-01-01

371

Cropping systems and control of soil erosion in a Mediterranean environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research has been carried out over the years 1996-2010 in an area of the internal hill of Sicily region (Enna, c.da Geracello, 550 m a. s. l. 37° 23' N. Lat, 14° 21' E. Long) in the center of Mediterranean Sea, mainly devoted to durum wheat cultivation, using the experimental plots, established in 1996 on a slope of 26-28%, equipped to determine surface runoff and soil losses. The establishment consists of twelve plots, having 40 m length and 8 m width. In order to study the effect of different field crop systems in controlling soil erosion in slopes subjected to water erosion, the following systems were studied: permanent crops, tilled annual crops, no-tilled annual crops, set-aside. The used crops were: durum wheat, faba bean, rapeseed, subterranean clover, Italian ryegrass, alfalfa, sweetvetch, moon trefoil, barley, sweet sorghum, sunflower. The results pointed out that the cropping systems with perennial crops allowed to keep low the soil loss, while annual crop rotation determined a high amount of soil loss. Sod seeding showed promising results also for annual crop rotations.

Cosentino, Salvatore; Copani, Venera; Testa, Giorgio; Scalici, Giovanni

2013-04-01

372

Progress report on new antiepileptic drugs: a summary of the Sixth Eilat Conference (EILAT VI).  

PubMed

The Sixth Eilat Conference on New Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs) took place in Taormina, Sicily, Italy from 7th to 11th April, 2002. Basic scientists, clinical pharmacologists and neurologists from 27 countries attended the conference, whose main themes included dose-response relationships with conventional and recent AEDs, teratogenic effects of conventional and recent AEDs, update on clinical implications of AED metabolism, prevention of epileptogesis, and seizure aggravation by AEDs. According to tradition, the central part of the conference was devoted to a review of AEDs in development, as well to updates on AEDs, which have been marketed in recent years. This article summarizes the information presented on drugs in preclinical and clinical development, including carabersat (SB-204269), CGX-1007 (Conantokin-G), pregabalin, retigabine (D-23129), safinamide, SPD421 (DP-VPA), SPM 927, talampanel and valrocemide (TV 1901). Updates on fosphenytoin, gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin, zonisamide, new formulations of valproic acid, and the antiepileptic vagal stimulator device are also presented. PMID:12350382

Bialer, M; Johannessen, S I; Kupferberg, H J; Levy, R H; Loiseau, P; Perucca, E

2002-09-01

373

Genetic variation and population structure in the endangered Hermann's tortoise: the roles of geography and human-mediated processes.  

PubMed

The Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni) is an endangered land tortoise distributed in disjoint populations across Mediterranean Europe. We investigated its genetic variation by typing 1 mitochondrial locus and 9 nuclear microsatellites in approximately 300 individuals from 22 localities. Our goal was to understand the relative impact of natural and human-mediated processes in shaping the genetic structure and to identify the genetic priorities for the conservation of this species. We found that 1) all geographic areas are highly differentiated, mainly as a function of their distance but with a clear genetic discontinuity (F st values larger than 0.4) between the Eastern and the Western subspecies; 2) the contact zone between subspecies is located farthest to the west than previously believed, and it probably coincides with the delta of the largest Italian river; 3) extinction events due to climatic conditions in the Upper Palaeolithic and subsequent human-mediated translocations in the Neolithic possibly explain the unexpected similarity among Spain, Sicily, and Corsica. For conservation purposes, the large majority of genetic pools appears native although hybridization among subspecies, related to extensive 20th century trade of tortoises across Europe, is observed in Spain and some Italian samples. Most populations do not seem at immediate risk of low genetic variation, except the French population, which has very low nuclear genetic diversity (heterozygosity = 0.25) and where 50 out of 51 sampled animals shared the same mitochondrial sequence. In general, restocking and reintroduction plans should carefully consider the genetic background of the individuals. PMID:24154535

Perez, Melanie; Livoreil, Barbara; Mantovani, Sara; Boisselier, Marie-Catherine; Crestanello, Barbara; Abdelkrim, Jawad; Bonillo, Céline; Goutner, Vassilis; Lambourdière, Josie; Pierpaoli, Massimo; Sterijovski, Bogoljub; Tomovic, Ljiljana; Vilaça, Sibelle T; Mazzotti, Stefano; Bertorelle, Giorgio

2014-01-01

374

Close-range acoustic scattering from mud volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine mud volcanoes occur in many parts of the world's oceans and form an aperture for gas (mostly methane) and fluidized mud emission from the earth's interior. Their characteristics are of considerable interest to the geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and underwater acoustics communities. For the later community, mud volcanoes are important because they pose a potential source of clutter for active sonar. Close-range (single boundary interaction) scattering measurements from a mud volcano in the Straits of Sicily were conducted with a vertical source and receive array. The data show target strengths from 800-3600 Hz of 6-12 dB for a monostatic geometry with grazing angles of 3-5 degrees. The target strengths are very similar for vertically bi-static paths with incident grazing angles of 3-5 degrees and scattered angles of 33-45 degrees. The evidence suggests that the scattering mechanism is the mud volcano (carbonate) structure. [Work supported by the Office of Naval Research and NATO Undersea Research Centre.

Holland, Charles W.; Weber, Thomas C.; Etiope, Giuseppe

2005-04-01

375

The 9-bp deletion in region V of mtDNA: a risk factor of hearing loss and encephalomyopathy in Caucasian populations?  

PubMed

A deletion of one of the two copies of the 9-bp tandem repeat sequence (CCCCCTCTA), in the small non-coding/untranslated segment located between the cytochrome oxidase II and lysine tRNA genes of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), has previously been used as a polymorphic anthropological marker (MIC9D) for people of Africa and Asia, but it has been rarely reported in Europe. 32 Sicilian patients with syndromic hearing loss, negative for mutations in GJB2 and GJB6 genes, were tested for mtDNA known point mutations associated with syndromic or non-syndromic hearing loss by RFLP and/or direct sequencing. We identified the presence of the MIC9D in homoplasmy in lymphocytes and muscle of three subjects with sensorineural hearing loss and encephalomyopathy, two of these also presented moderate mental retardation. This deletion was absent in 300 Caucasian controls. Although further studies are warranted, our results suggest that the MIC9D polymorphism could have a susceptibility role in Caucasus, such as Sicily population. PMID:23354605

Borgione, Eugenia; Lo Giudice, Mariangela; Castello, Filippa; Musumeci, Sebastiano A; Di Blasi, Francesco D; Savio, Maria; Elia, Maurizio; Rizzo, Biagio; Barbarino, Giuliano; Romano, Salvatore; Calabrese, Giuseppe; Di Benedetto, Daniela; Scuderi, Carmela

2013-07-01

376

Seismic Vulnerability Evaluations Within The Structural And Functional Survey Activities Of The COM Bases In Italy  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes technical and functional surveys on COM buildings (Mixed Operative Centre). This activity started since 2005, with the contribution of both Italian Civil Protection Department and the Regions involved. The project aims to evaluate the efficiency of COM buildings, checking not only structural, architectonic and functional characteristics but also paying attention to surrounding real estate vulnerability, road network, railways, harbours, airports, area morphological and hydro-geological characteristics, hazardous activities, etc. The first survey was performed in eastern Sicily, before the European Civil Protection Exercise 'EUROSOT 2005'. Then, since 2006, a new survey campaign started in Abruzzo, Molise, Calabria and Puglia Regions. The more important issue of the activity was the vulnerability assessment. So this paper deals with a more refined vulnerability evaluation technique by means of the SAVE methodology, developed in the 1st task of SAVE project within the GNDT-DPC programme 2000-2002 (Zuccaro, 2005); the SAVE methodology has been already successfully employed in previous studies (i.e. school buildings intervention programme at national scale; list of strategic public buildings in Campania, Sicilia and Basilicata). In this paper, data elaborated by SAVE methodology are compared with expert evaluations derived from the direct inspections on COM buildings. This represents a useful exercise for the improvement either of the survey forms or of the methodology for the quick assessment of the vulnerability.

Zuccaro, G.; Cacace, F. [Studies Center Plinivs--Lupt, Univ. of Naples 'Federico II', Via Toledo 402--80134 Naples (Italy); Albanese, V.; Mercuri, C.; Papa, F.; Pizza, A. G.; Sergio, S.; Severino, M. [Italian Department of Civil Protection, Via Vitorchiano 2, 00189, Rome (Italy)

2008-07-08

377

Effects of alewife predation on zooplankton populations in Lake Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The zooplankton populations in southeastern Lake Michigan underwent striking, size-related changes between 1954 and 1966. Forms that decline sharply were the largest cladocerans (Leptodora kindtii, Daphnia galeata, and D. retrocurva), the largest calanoid copepods (Limnocalanus macrurus, Epischura lacustris, and Diaptomus sicilis), and the largest cyclopoid copepod (Mesocyclops edax). Two of these, D. galeata and M. edax (both abundant in 1954), became extremely rare. Certain medium-sized or small species increased in numbers: Daphnia longiremis, Holopedium gibberum, Polyphemus pediculus, Bosmina longirostris, Bosmina coregoni, Ceriodaphnia sp., Cyclops bicuspidatus, Cyclops vernalis, and Diaptomus ashlandi. Evidence is strong that the changes were due to selective predation by alewives. The alewife was uncommon in southeastern Lake Michigan in 1954 but had increased to enormous proportions by 1966; there was a massive dieoff in spring 1967, and abundance remained relatively low in 1968. The composition of zooplankton populations in 1968 generally had shifted back toward that of 1954, although D. galeata and M. edax remained rare. The average size, and size at onset of maturity, of D. retrocurva decreased noticeably between 1954 and 1966 but increased between 1966 and 1968.

Wells, LaRue

1970-01-01

378

Effect of Crop cultivation after Mediterranean maquis on soil carbon stock, ?13C spatial distribution and root turnover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was investigate the effect of land use change on soil organic carbon (SOC) stock and distribution in a Mediterranean succession. A succession composed by natural vegetation, cactus pear crop and olive grove, was selected in Sicily. The land use change from mediterranena maquis (C3 plant) to cactus pear (C4 plant) lead to a SOC decrease of 65% after 28 years of cultivation, and a further decrease of 14% after 7 years since the land use from cactus pear to olive grove (C3 plant). Considering this exchange and decrease as well as the periods after the land use changes we calculated the mean residence time (MRT) of soil C of different age. The MRT of C under Mediterranean maquis was about 142 years, but was 10 years under cactus pear. Total SOC and ?13 C were measured along the soil profile (0-75cm) and in the intra-rows in order to evaluate the distribution of new and old carbon derived and the growth of roots. After measuring of weight of cactus pear root, an approach was developed to estimate the turnover of root biomass. Knowledge of root turnover and carbon input are important to evaluate the correlation between carbon input accumulation and SOC stock in order to study the ability of C sink of soils with different use and managements.

Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Santoro, Antonino; La Mantia, Tommaso

2013-04-01

379

Trace element accumulation and distribution in the organs of Phragmites australis (common reed) and biomonitoring applications.  

PubMed

The concentrations of trace elements were studied in roots, rhizomes, stems, and leaves of Phragmites australis stands (common reeds), and in the corresponding samples of water and sediment from the mouth of the Imera Meridionale River (Sicily, Italy), an area affected by massive urbanization and intensive agriculture. The elements considered were Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Co, Fe, Mo, Pd, Pt, Rh, Sb, Se, Sr, Tl, and V. Concentrations in belowground organs were usually higher than aboveground tissues, and the general decreasing trend of element content was root>rhizome>leaf>stem. Trace element mobility was generally higher within the organs than in sediment to plant. Regarding Al, Fe, and V, the phytotoxic levels in roots and the low plant/root mobility, may indicate that roots are inherently tolerant to these metals, and act as filters to prevent toxic distribution in the plant. The high uptake of Pd and Rh showed that emissions of catalytic converters are one of the main health hazards of the study area. P. australis showed a direct response to the environmental conditions, and its application as a biomonitor should be considered. PMID:21316762

Bonanno, G

2011-05-01

380

Urban MEMS based seismic network for post-earthquakes rapid disaster assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we introduce a project for the realization of the first European real-time urban seismic network based on Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. MEMS accelerometers are a highly enabling technology, and nowadays, the sensitivity and the dynamic range of these sensors are such as to allow the recording of earthquakes of moderate magnitude even at a distance of several tens of kilometers. Moreover, thanks to their low cost and smaller size, MEMS accelerometers can be easily installed in urban areas in order to achieve an urban seismic network constituted by high density of observation points. The network is being implemented in the Acireale Municipality (Sicily, Italy), an area among those with the highest hazard, vulnerability and exposure to the earthquake of the Italian territory. The main objective of the implemented urban network will be to achieve an effective system for post-earthquake rapid disaster assessment. The earthquake recorded, also that with moderate magnitude will be used for the effective seismic microzonation of the area covered by the network. The implemented system will be also used to realize a site-specific earthquakes early warning system.

D'Alessandro, A.; Luzio, D.; D'Anna, G.

2014-09-01

381

An Overview of the Genetic Structure within the Italian Population from Genome-Wide Data  

PubMed Central

In spite of the common belief of Europe as reasonably homogeneous at genetic level, advances in high-throughput genotyping technology have resolved several gradients which define different geographical areas with good precision. When Northern and Southern European groups were considered separately, there were clear genetic distinctions. Intra-country genetic differences were also evident, especially in Finland and, to a lesser extent, within other European populations. Here, we present the first analysis using the 125,799 genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) data of 1,014 Italians with wide geographical coverage. We showed by using Principal Component analysis and model-based individual ancestry analysis, that the current population of Sardinia can be clearly differentiated genetically from mainland Italy and Sicily, and that a certain degree of genetic differentiation is detectable within the current Italian peninsula population. Pair-wise FST statistics Northern and Southern Italy amounts approximately to 0.001 between, and around 0.002 between Northern Italy and Utah residents with Northern and Western European ancestry (CEU). The Italian population also revealed a fine genetic substructure underscoring by the genomic inflation (Sardinia vs. Northern Italy?=?3.040 and Northern Italy vs. CEU?=?1.427), warning against confounding effects of hidden relatedness and population substructure in association studies. PMID:22984441

Di Gaetano, Cornelia; Voglino, Floriana; Guarrera, Simonetta; Fiorito, Giovanni; Rosa, Fabio; Di Blasio, Anna Maria; Manzini, Paola; Dianzani, Irma; Betti, Marta; Cusi, Daniele; Frau, Francesca; Barlassina, Cristina; Mirabelli, Dario; Magnani, Corrado; Glorioso, Nicola; Bonassi, Stefano; Piazza, Alberto; Matullo, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

382

Towards an Absolute Chronology for the Aegean Iron Age: New Radiocarbon Dates from Lefkandi, Kalapodi and Corinth  

PubMed Central

The relative chronology of the Aegean Iron Age is robust. It is based on minute stylistic changes in the Submycenaean, Protogeometric and Geometric styles and their sub-phases. Yet, the absolute chronology of the time-span between the final stages of Late Helladic IIIC in the late second millennium BCE and the archaic colonization of Italy and Sicily toward the end of the 8th century BCE lacks archaeological contexts that can be directly related to events carrying absolute dates mentioned in Egyptian/Near Eastern historical sources, or to well-dated Egyptian/Near Eastern rulers. The small number of radiocarbon dates available for this time span is not sufficient to establish an absolute chronological sequence. Here we present a new set of short-lived radiocarbon dates from the sites of Lefkandi, Kalapodi and Corinth in Greece. We focus on the crucial transition from the Submycenaean to the Protogeometric periods. This transition is placed in the late 11th century BCE according to the Conventional Aegean Chronology and in the late 12th century BCE according to the High Aegean Chronology. Our results place it in the second half of the 11th century BCE. PMID:24386150

Toffolo, Michael B.; Fantalkin, Alexander; Lemos, Irene S.; Felsch, Rainer C. S.; Niemeier, Wolf-Dietrich; Sanders, Guy D. R.; Finkelstein, Israel; Boaretto, Elisabetta

2013-01-01

383

Chlorpyrifos-methyl dissipation in a small adjacent water body following application to citrus.  

PubMed

Chlorpyrifos-methyl use in citrus, vineyards and vegetables is extensive and it has become an essential component of pest control in Southern European regions. The objective of this study was to assess surface water and sediment exposure to chlorpyrifos-methyl (RELDAN 22) under field conditions in a citrus orchard in Sicily (Italy). Pesticide drift loadings were measured in a small surface water body situated 0.5-1.0 m from the edge of the treated field. Measured drift values after the application were between 0.04% and 0.19% of the theoretical applied dose and were highly variable. However, the loadings were lower than those measured by other authors, also lower than predicted by regulatory drift models (95th percentile) typically used for aquatic risk assessment in Europe. Most of the variability occurred due to fluctuating wind speed and direction. In water samples collected in the surface water adjacent to the target field, chlorpyrifos-methyl was detected immediately after application, with concentrations ranging from less than the limit of quantification of the analytical method (0.05 microg/l) to a maximum of 0.08 microg/l. Predicted environmental concentrations in water, using the TOXSWA model, were similar to the measured data when measured drift data from the field experiment were used as inputs. PMID:15667842

Padovani, Laura; Capri, Ettore

2005-03-01

384