These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Sicily: Art and Invention  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Co-organized by the J. Paul Getty Museum, the Cleveland Museum of Art, and the Assessorato dei Beni Culturali e dell'IdentitÃÂà Siciliana, Sicily: Art and Invention celebrates 2013 as the Year of Italian Culture in the United States. To complement the exhibit (on view at the Getty Museum until August) the website is organized into five thematic sections: The Greeks in Sicily, Religion and Ritual, The Discoveries of Archimedes, Literature and Theater, and The Roman Conquest. The section on Archimedes includes a diagram of his water-raising screw, a Leaf from the Archimedes Palimpsest, and a short video discussing those of Archimedes' inventions still in use today. Teachers and parents may wish to note: the literature and theater section contains some possibly adult-only content, such as the Statue of Priapos, 250ââ‰ÂÂ212 B.C. [DS

2013-01-01

2

Smoke and Sediments in Sicily  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The waters along the shoreline of Sicily appear bright aquamarine in this image from April 7, 2002. Although other satellite images occasionally show lightening along the coast of Sicily and southern Italy, the water is unusually bright in this image. The bright water may have been caused by a recent storm that either stirred up sediment from relatively shallow sea bottom, or could be a springtime phytoplankton bloom. (Distinguishing phytoplankton from sediment is one of the challenges facing NASA researchers who study life in the oceans from satellites.) Another interesting feature of this image is the smoke plume from Mount Etna that is streaming almost directly to the East (right). Mt. Etna is one of the world's most active volcanos, and erupts up to several times a year. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

3

Coastal dynamics in western Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the evolution of the beaches plays a fundamental role in every territorial politics regarding the coastal band. More than half the world population lives in coastal regions which support a florid touristic activity in many countries. The beach constitutes, in terms of economic value, the most important element of the coastal system, but also the more fragile and morphologically variable. Thus, studying its evolutions is fundamental in order to adopt the best management of this complex, densely populated and economically interesting zone. In this regard, the western coast of Sicily (Italy) is an effective example. It took its origin from variation of the sea middle level (Quaternary), with the consequent formation of marine terraces. Morphologically, the shore is made up by low and rock coast alternating beaches. The historical evolution of the coast has been performed through the use of aerial images identifying, despite several uncertainties, the position of the shoreline. Indeed the shoreline position extracted from an aerial image is a wet/dry line that describes the instantaneous land-water boundary at the time of imaging rather than a "normal" or "average" condition. Each wave instantaneously influences the shoreline position and hence, to take into account shoreline oscillations due to wave motion. Even if from a conceptual point of view the shore line is defined as a border between the emerged earth and the sea, its perennial variability makes it difficult to determine. In order to start a correct management, a cognitive geomorphological study has been carried on, as well as a study of high strategic value and environmental sustainability. It was based on a continuous decisional process based on objectives defined by the UE, in order to classify the beaches and to define the characteristic which are necessary for a correct coastal management. This study has been fundamental to start a monitoring of the coast; moreover, it has shown vulnerabilities of the coastal band which are important to design plans of defense. Keywords: coast, shoreline, management

Liguori, Vincenzo; Manno, Giorgio; Agate, Francesca

2014-05-01

4

Persephone: her mythical return to Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this study is the myth of Demeter and Persephone, and, in particular, lesser-known aspects of this mythological tale related to its setting in Sicily. Persephone was the daughter of Demeter, the goddess of fertility. The myth tells about her rape by Hades, Lord of the Dead, who took her with him to the Underworld, where she was

Federica Mazzara

5

A crustal seismic profile across Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crustal reflection seismic profile, more than 100 km long, was recorded across central Sicily, from the Tyrrhenian shore to the Sicily Channel, to understand the deep structures and the collision mechanisms between Europe and Africa and the subsequent geodynamic evolution. The profile was acquired using explosive sources and 240 active channels recorded by a Sercel 408-XL, 24 bits A/D converter, with a 12 km spread and a 24-fold coverage. The data were processed following a non-conventional procedure in order to preserve the relative amplitudes of the reflections and to better investigate the Sicily deep structures down to the Moho. The main highlighted structures are the dramatic flexure of the Iblean crust, the huge, deeper than expected, trough of Caltanissetta consisting of deep seated thrusts and nappes, and the imbricate thrust system of rigid bodies characterizing the northern Maghrebian chain. We designed an ad hoc acquisition and processing in order to highlight these main geological features in the seismic stacked section. Moreover, the deepest parts of the Caltanissetta trough are imaged for the first time, and its bottom is now fixed at more than 7 s TWT. The giant crustal wedge flexuring the Iblean foreland and the Moho geometries are examinated.

Accaino, Flavio; Catalano, Raimondo; Di Marzo, Luigi; Giustiniani, Michela; Tinivella, Umberta; Nicolich, Rinaldo; Sulli, Attilio; Valenti, Vera; Manetti, Piero

2011-07-01

6

SICILY & THE AMALFI COAST FROM $3195 | OCTOBER 3 12, 2014  

E-print Network

TRANSPORTATION Ferry from island of Sicily to mainland Italy, and deluxe motor coach transfer from Reggio dinners; tea or coffee with all meals, plus wine with dinner Sample authentic regional specialties during

7

Cortical Dynamics, Sicily, Nov 2003 1 Dynamics of storage and  

E-print Network

? · Phasing of storage and recall ­ varying network plasticity over time PCs INs THETA 5-12Hz GAMMA 30-80Hz CaT Na CaL CaN H A DR? M? SOMA APICAL DENDRITES Distance DensityDensity Cortical Dynamics, Sicily #12;5 Cortical Dynamics, Sicily, Nov 2003 9 Ion Channel Dynamics · Voltage range and time course of

Graham, Bruce

8

Emergence and Phylodynamics of Citrus tristeza virus in Sicily, Italy  

PubMed Central

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) outbreaks were detected in Sicily island, Italy for the first time in 2002. To gain insight into the evolutionary forces driving the emergence and phylogeography of these CTV populations, we determined and analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the p20 gene from 108 CTV isolates collected from 2002 to 2009. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed that mild and severe CTV isolates belonging to five different clades (lineages) were introduced in Sicily in 2002. Phylogeographic analysis showed that four lineages co-circulated in the main citrus growing area located in Eastern Sicily. However, only one lineage (composed of mild isolates) spread to distant areas of Sicily and was detected after 2007. No correlation was found between genetic variation and citrus host, indicating that citrus cultivars did not exert differential selective pressures on the virus. The genetic variation of CTV was not structured according to geographical location or sampling time, likely due to the multiple introduction events and a complex migration pattern with intense co- and re-circulation of different lineages in the same area. The phylogenetic structure, statistical tests of neutrality and comparison of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates suggest that weak negative selection and genetic drift following a rapid expansion may be the main causes of the CTV variability observed today in Sicily. Nonetheless, three adjacent amino acids at the p20 N-terminal region were found to be under positive selection, likely resulting from adaptation events. PMID:23818960

Davino, Salvatore; Willemsen, Anouk; Panno, Stefano; Davino, Mario; Catara, Antonino; Elena, Santiago F.; Rubio, Luis

2013-01-01

9

Offshore wind farms in Italy: the Sicily case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today in the research for new energies, the wind rep resents a powerful source of energy, especially if used offshore. Because of the high initial investments, it is necessary to study the feasibility of the pot ential project. For Italy, the best places set up offshore wind far m are in Sardinia and Sicily. The studies carried out by Project

Cecilia Camporeale

2006-01-01

10

Cortical Dynamics, Sicily, Nov 2003 1 Dynamics of storage and  

E-print Network

? · Phasing of storage and recall ­ varying network plasticity over time PCs INs THETA 5-12Hz GAMMA 30-80Hz? M? SOMA APICAL DENDRITES Distance DensityDensity Cortical Dynamics, Sicily, Nov 2003 8 Distribution, Nov 2003 9 Ion Channel Dynamics · Voltage range and time course of: ­ activation / deactivation

Graham, Bruce

11

Wild food plants of popular use in Sicily  

PubMed Central

In the present work the authors report the result of their food ethnobotanical researches, which have been carried out in Sicily during the last thirty years. Data concerning 188 wild species used in the traditional Sicilian cuisine are reported. The authors underline those species that are partially or completely unknown for their culinary use and they illustrate other species that local inhabitants suggested in the prevention or treatment of symptomatologies caused by a refined diet, poor in vegetables. These data want to contribute to avoid the loss of traditional knowledge on uses and recipes concerning wild food botanicals, and to encourage further studies for those species that have not yet been sufficiently researched in their food chemical and nutritional profile. These studies may also suggest new applications for a few botanicals in medico-nutritional fields. The work includes also a short review of the seaweeds and mushrooms traditionally gathered and consumed in Sicily. PMID:17397527

Lentini, Francesca; Venza, Francesca

2007-01-01

12

Results of Skylab investigation over Italy. [Sicily and Sardinia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Multispectral high resolution photography of S190A was successfully applied to the detection of paleoriverbeds in flat lands. Results of SL-3 mission were compared to those of LANDSAT for two regional geological surveys (linear structures) on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia. On Sicily, the seasonal conditions were unfavorable for Skylab while LANDSAT played a major role in discovering long, unknown lineaments of great interest for the geodynamics of the area. On Sardinia, owing to the vegetation type and to the geomorphic conditions, the Skylab imagery was successfully employed to describe the network of linears, both regional and local. Results can be used to study the relationship between linears, actual fracturing and the occurrence of mineral deposits.

Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. M.; Tonelli, A. M. (principal investigators)

1975-01-01

13

Attenuation in Southeastern Sicily (Italy) by applying different coda methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attenuation in Southeastern Sicily has been investigated using 40aftershocks of the December 13 1990, earthquake. The quality factor ofcoda waves (Qc) was estimated in the frequency range 1.5–24 Hz,applying three different methods in time and frequency domains. On thewhole, a clear dependence of Qc on frequency was observed,according to the general law Q = Q0(f\\/f0)n . Thefrequency dependence relationships

E. Giampiccolo; G. Tusa; H. Langer; S. Gresta

2002-01-01

14

ESONET LIDO Demonstration Mission: the East Sicily node  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Off East Sicily (at 2100 m depth, 25 km off the harbour of Catania) a prototype of a cabled deep-sea observatory (NEMO-SN1) was set up and has been operational in real-time since 2005 (the cabled deep-sea multi-parameter station SN1, equipped with geophysical and environmental sensors and the cabled NEMO-O?DE, equipped with 4 broadband hydrophones). The Western Ionian Sea is one of the node sites for the upcoming European permanent underwater network (EMSO). Within the activities of the EC project ESONET-NoE some demonstration missions have been funded. The LIDO-DM (Listening to the Deep Ocean-Demonstration Mission) is one of these and is related to two sites, East Sicily and Iberian Margin (Gulf of Cadiz), the main aims being geo-hazards monitoring and warning (seismic, tsunami, and volcanic) and bio-acoustics. The LIDO-DM East Sicily installation represents a further major step within ESONET-NoE, resulting in a fully integrated system for multidisciplinary deep-sea science, capable to transmit and distribute data in real time to the scientific community and to the general public. LIDO-DM East Sicily hosts a large number of sensors aimed at monitoring and studying oceanographic and environmental parameters (by means of CTD, ADCP, 3-C single point current meter, turbidity meter), geophysical phenomena (low frequency hydrophones, accelerometer, gravity meter, vector and scalar magnetometers, seismometer, absolute and differential pressure gauges), ocean noise monitoring and identification and tracking of biological acoustic sources in deep sea. The latter will be performed using two tetrahedral arrays of 4 hydrophones, located at a relative distance of about 5 km, and at about 25 km from the shore. The whole system will be connected and powered from shore, by means of the electro-optical cable net installed at the East Sicily Site Infrastructure, and synchronised with GPS. Sensors data sampling is performed underwater and transmitted via optical fibre link, with optimal S/N ratio for all signals. This will also permit real-time data acquisition, analysis and distribution on-shore. Innovative electronics for the off-shore data acquisition and transmission systems has been designed, built and tested. A dedicated computing and networking infrastructure for data acquisition, storage and distribution through the internet has been also created. The deployment and connection of the deep sea structures will be performed using the dedicated ROV and Deep Sea Shuttle handling facilities (PEGASO, owned by INGV and INFN). LIDO-DM constitutes the enhancement of the Western Ionian site in view of the EMSO Research Infrastructure.

Riccobene, Giorgio; Favali, Paolo; Andrè, Michel; Chierici, Francesco; Pavan, Gianni; Esonet Lido Demonstration Mission Team

2010-05-01

15

ELSEVIER Tectonophysics 298 (1998) 243258 Astronomical dating of a tectonic rotation on Sicily and consequences  

E-print Network

to a transpressional event in the Sicilian fold-and-thrust belt and extension which formed troughs in the foreland, the Strait of Sicily. Thrust imbrication accompanying the transpressional event on Sicily induced the middle and reversed subchrons of the Rossello Composite were not antipodal. Contrary 0040-1951/98/$19.00 © 1998

Utrecht, Universiteit

16

Parents' attitudes and behaviours towards recommended vaccinations in Sicily, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Since a long time, Italy has maintained a dual system to administer childhood immunisations, that is a certain number of mandatory\\u000a vaccinations and a number of recommended vaccinations. The study aimed to explore the issues surrounding parental acceptance\\u000a or non-acceptance of the recommended vaccinations for children.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Parents of children aged 3-5 years of day-care centres in Sicily were asked to

Maria Anna Coniglio; Marco Platania; Donatella Privitera; Giuseppe Giammanco; Sarina Pignato

2011-01-01

17

The plants, rituals and spells that 'cured' helminthiasis in Sicily  

PubMed Central

Background The author reports on the plants, rituals and spells used against worms and the so-called scantu (fright) in some areas of Sicily. The work is based on ethnobotanical research carried out, prevalently, between 2002-2006, in some areas of Eastern, South-Eastern, North-Central and South-Central Sicily. Methods This research is based on dialogue. Senior 'healers' were contacted; furthermore, doctors, teachers, farmers and in general 'experts' with herbs and 'magic' rituals. Information was collected about the way the plants of folk medicine are prepared. The interviewees were also invited to recite prayers and spells against helminthiasis. Results The author has highlighted the importance of how, in some parts of Sicily, some ailments like helminthiasis and other correlated pathologies like scantu are 'treated' and, especially within the rural social classes, by folk medicine remedies, herbal practises, particular prayers, rituals and spells. Conclusion As regards health/illness, it should be noted that in the last ten years conventional medicine has provided very satisfactory results even resolving potentially mortal pathologies. However, in certain social classes, there is no real collaboration between conventional and folk medicine; so for some senior citizens, the 'healer' with his rituals and empirical and magical herbs is still the person to turn to for the 'cure' of particular ailments. Interest in these practises from ancestral heritage in an advanced country like Italy, is only relevant if the aim is to recoup a cultural identity which is already in decline. It is significant to report a piece: on 14 October 2007 the news on a well-known national Italian TV channel reported an interview with a 94 year-old man from Arbatax (Sardinia) referred to as a 'healer' because both his townspeople and others from all over the world go to him for his cures. He is not paid except in kind and has been known to cure St. Anthony's fire, burns, scalding and marine fungal infections, by smearing his saliva over the infected part and reciting 'special words'. PMID:18823529

Napoli, Mariangela

2008-01-01

18

Plant Remains from Early Iron Age in Western Sicily (Monte Polizzo, Salemi, and Selinunte)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During early Iron Age in western Sicily three different ethnic groups were settling in close vicinity: the indigenous Elymians as well as Greek and Phoenician\\/Punic colonies. Within the EU-project \\

Hans-Peter Stika; Andreas G. Heiss; Barbara Zach

2007-01-01

19

Coastal erosion in Sicily: geomorphologic impact and mitigation (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coast of Sicily region stretches about 1400 km, bathing three different seas: the North tract, from Messina to Capo San Vito wash to the Tyrrhenian Sea, the oriental side, from Messina to Capo Passero, wash to the Ionian Sea, and finally the southern side wash to the Mediterranean. Of these, 395 km are made up of beaches and 970 km from rocky shores. The coastal morph-type were analyzed in relation to their evolutionary trend (backspace or advancement of the seaside), can be summarized as follows: a low shores of torrent plain (Messina), low shores with salt (Trapani), low shores beaches edged with dunal systems, subject to backspace, where urbanization has reduced or eliminated the internal sand dunes, shores on marine terraces, with beaches at the foot (Agrigento) and high shores non-affected of real phenomena of backspace, but subject to often dangerous events of detachment and collapse of blocks (high rocky shores). The marine and coastal environment is a complex and articulated, in balance with the Earth's environment, in which live together, but through different dynamics strongly interacting, ecosystems and marine ecosystems typically transition. The increasing density of population concentrated along the shores, the gradual expansion of activities related to the use of marine and coastal resources, are some of the issues that threaten the delicate balance of nature and the sea coast. The sicilian coastal areas most subject to erosion are those in Ragusa shores areas in south-eastern of Sicily, where the critical areas interesting low coastline and high shores. Following the coast, between Capo Peloro and Milazzo (Messina),where the erosion affects the coast with a low of about 23 km. In the coastal between Capo St. Marco and Capo Feto (Trapani) the critical areas interesting the low coastline and, in part erodible bluffs. One of this case is localized in the town of Mazara del Vallo. In general, the phenomenon erosive affects almost all the sicilian coastal units, in low-coastline and mountainous, with average rates of 29%. The main methods available today for the protection of coastlines in Sicily, are falling in the first approximation in hard (structural), and soft and soft, based not only on nutrition artificial beaches but also on interventions with low environmental impact as the reduction of losses sediments. The right approach is not only in stabilizing the various shores, but also in not induce or accelerate the erosion of the adjacent areas. Indeed this impact accompanies almost all the hard interventions achieved in past years. It is essential to carry out a verification of the effectiveness of the defence of the coast from erosion and structural interventions of nourishment in terms of impact on coastal marine and coastal environment. We started a series of experimental analysis based on the application of new techniques for relief based on remote sensing as the major techniques performed with satellite radar (SAR), measurements morph-altitude high resolution made with the laser system by plane (LIDAR) and precise measurements on the behaviour of works and river mouths with intelligences cameras. The most dominant climate change involve the precipitation and temperature. Temperature is particularly important in snow-dominated basins and in coastal areas, the latter due to the impact of temperature on sea level. Moreover we must say that (as mentioned in 4th Report IPCC) the shores are projected to be exposed to increasing risks, including coastal erosion, due to climate change and sea level rise. Infrastructure in coastal areas is vulnerable to damage from sea-level rise, flooding, and other storms. This effect will be exacerbated by increasing human-induced pressures on coastal areas. Keywords: erosion, shores, coastal defend, monitoring.

Liguori, V.; Manno, G.

2009-04-01

20

Landslide hazard in the Nebrodi Mountains (Northeastern Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eastern sector of the Nebrodi Mountains (NE Sicily), a part of the Apenninic-Maghrebian orogenic chain, is characterized by an high landslide hazard. The village of S. Domenica Vittoria, which lies in the area, has been particularly affected by various landslide phenomena, with resulting damage to buildings and infrastructure. The rocks outcropping in the area belong to the Cretaceous Monte Soro Flysch; they consist of an alternation of argillaceous and calcareous beds at the base and argillaceous and quartzarenitic beds at the top. The lithotechnical characteristics of the formation and the steepness of the slopes in the area lead to an elevated instability, as testified by the widespread occurrence of sub-vertical arcuate cliffs (landslide scarps) and sub-horizontal areas (landslide terraces), typical of a landslide-controlled morphology. From a kinematics point of view, the observed phenomena can be referred to multiple rotational slides, flows, and complex landslides, often with a retrogressive development and enlargement. Triggering causes lie principally in the intense rainfalls that determine the decay of the geomechanical properties of the terrain and supply discontinuos groundwater circulation that is evident in seasonal springs. Human activity, such as the construction of roads and buildings on steep slopes and dispersal of water from supply systems and sewers has a significant impact as well. Due to the instability of the area, expansion of the village, which is already limited by the morphological conditions, is made difficult by the high hazard level, especially in the areas at higher elevations, where the principal landslide scarps are located, and even more on the rims of the scarps. Considering the high hazard level, S. Domenica Vittoria has been inserted by the National Geological Service among the sites in Sicily to be monitored by means of a GPS network. The survey carried out along the entire slope hosting the village has furnished the base for geological and geomorphological knowledge needed for the planning of the network, to identify the areas at landslide risk, where parts of the village lie, including the areas of expansion of the village, the main roads, and a portion of the Favoscuro river bed.

Cubito, A.; Ferrara, V.; Pappalardo, G.

2005-03-01

21

Correlates of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus seroprevalence in Sicily  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental factors, such as plants and soil, may influence Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) replication or immune responses. However, the relationship of such exposures to KSHV seroprevalence has not been established. Methods In 1154 randomly sampled adults (aged 32–92) throughout Sicily, KSHV antibodies were detected with four assays and a conservative algorithm. Seroprevalence was re-weighted to the population. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations of seroprevalence with interview data, including contact with 20 specific plants. Results KSHV seroprevalence was 8.5%, including 5.3% among men and 11.5% among women (P=0.22). In multivariate models, seroprevalence was consistently higher with residence in a smaller community during childhood (Ptrend?0.03) and working with plants/soil during adulthood (odds ratio?2.73). In such models, seroprevalence was higher with exposure to one plant (Hieracium, odds ratio?2.8), but it was lower with three others (Acanthus mollis, Taraxacum officinalis, and Trigonella foenum-graecum) and with cumulative exposure to all 20 plants (Ptrend=0.03). Other demographic, household, and water contact variables were unrelated to seroprevalence. Conclusions KSHV seroprevalence appears to be increased by contact with soil and to vary with certain plants. Corroboration and investigation of possible effects of soil and plant constituents on KSHV regulation and immune responses are needed. PMID:19777527

Pelser, Colleen; Vitale, Francesco; Whitby, Denise; Graubard, Barry I.; Messina, Angelo; Gafa, Lorenzo; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Anderson, Lesley A.; Romano, Nino; Lauria, Carmela; Goedert, James J.

2009-01-01

22

Astronomically oriented megaliths of the Monte Jato area (Sicily).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An imposing megalith is visible from many kilometres of distance near the top of the hill named Monte Arcivocalotto (Sicily). It is made by a single sandstone slab, shaped in triangular form with a large circular hole pierced at the centre. It is known to local people as U Campanaru ("The Bell Tower") and it was considered as a magic place until recently. The megalith is oriented toward the sunrise of the winter solstice, when the Sun rises at the hole centre, becoming visible from a very large distance. At a few kilometres, on the top of another hill, significantly named "Cozzo Perciata" ("Hill of the pierced one") a similar megalith was standing until to a few decades ago. It is presently collapsed, probably by a lighting, but the remains clearly show that it is oriented toward the summer solstice sunrise. Both megaliths have to be considered in the framework of the Eneolithic / Early Bronze Age worship centre of Pizzo Pietralunga, located halfway between Monte Arcivocalotto and Cozzo Perciata.

Scuderi, A.; Polcaro, V. F.; Mercadante, F.; Lo Cascio, P.; Maurici, F.

23

Hydrological and erosional response of a small catchment in Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 1/5 of the Italian territory is at risk of desertification involving over 40% of the South. Climate change is expected to worsen the desertification trend already observed. In Sicily, for instance, the semi-arid territory extension had been gradually increasing in the period from 1931 to 2000 up to 20% of the regional territory. Parallel to this, territories classified as humid decreased by 30%. A better knowledge of soil erosion by water is essential for planning effective soil and water conservation practices in semi-arid environment, where accurate soil loss predictions are difficult particularly in the absence of minimal data. In order to give a contribute to the understanding of hydrological and erosional dynamics in Mediterranean areas, a monitoring program of a small catchment started in 1996. The Cannata catchment (1.30 km2) is a mountainous tributary, ephemeral in flow, of the Flascio River located in eastern Sicily. Climate is Mediterranean semi-arid with a mean annual precipitation (1996-2005), measured in three different sites, equal to 715 ± 163 mm mainly falling between October and January. Mean monthly temperature is between 3°C (January) and 24°C (August). Land use monitoring highlighted the prevalence of pasture areas (ranging between 87% and 92% of the catchment area during the monitoring period). In the Cannata catchment the elevation ranges between 903 m and 1270 m above mean sea level with an average land slope of 21%. Water discharge has been measured continuously for about 10 years at the outlet of the catchment by means of a hydrometrograph station connected to a runoff water automatic sampler for the measurement of sediment concentration in the flow. Precipitation has a typically Mediterranean seasonal pattern, being minimal in summer and maximal in winter. Monthly runoff follows the pattern of precipitation although somewhat delayed during autumn due to the effect of water deficit in summer. The analysis of the 170 runoff events recorded shows that rainfall depth was the only significant driver of the response (r2=0.77), whereas rainfall intensity, usually assumed of main importance in Mediterranean semiarid areas, was not significant. Rainfall depths were also the only drivers of peak discharges during the events (r2=0.57); considering just the autumn events, when vegetation cover is lower than in winter and in spring, rainfall intensity was also a significant but fair driver of peak discharge (r2=0.36). Suspended sediment response (observed for 47 events during the observation period) was very linked to the runoff response. Rainfall, runoff and peak discharge of the events were good predictors of total suspended sediment load (r2=0.84, 0.85 and 0.84 respectively); I30 and I5 were just fair drivers of sediment yields (r2=0.40 and 0.28 respectively) independently of seasons.

Licciardello, Feliciana; Marcello Zimbone, Santo; Barbagallo, Salvatore; Gallart, Francesc

2014-05-01

24

Radium isotopes as tracers of submarine groundwater discharge in Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results derived from radium isotopes of a submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) intercomparison on the southern coast of Sicily are reported. Radium isotope samples were collected from seepage meters, active springs, shallow wells and a hole on the beach, and Mediterranean surface waters. Samples collected within a boat basin were highly enriched in all four radium isotopes with respect to offshore samples. This implies that there are strong nearshore sources of radium. Samples collected from seepage meters in the boat basin were about a factor of 2-3 higher in radium activity than overlying waters and had higher 224Ra/ 223Ra activity ratios (AR). A beach spring (presumed to originate in the artesian freshwater aquifer) was enriched in 226Ra relative to 228Ra. The "pier wells" and beach hole (presumed to represent the salty surficial aquifer) were enriched in 228Ra compared 226Ra. The different 228Ra/ 226Ra AR clearly defines these aquifers. Samples collected in the boat basin and offshore as well as samples collected in seepage bags within the boat basin fall between the isotopic composition of these sources. These observations imply that there are at least two sources of SGD supplying radium isotopes to the coastal waters. Seepage from the shallow aquifer contributes more SGD than the offshore springs. Overall, the surficial aquifer contributes 81% of SGD and the artesian aquifer contributes 19%. The estimated SGD flux for this coastline is 10 6 m 3 km -1 d -1. This is at least a factor of 5 greater than the flux based on a 222Rn model within the boat basin. Buoyancy associated with the artesian aquifer may facilitate exchange between the ocean and the surficial aquifer.

Moore, Willard S.

2006-05-01

25

Tsunami inundation scenarios of the city of Catania, Eastern Sicily, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern Sicily is one of the coastal areas most exposed to earthquake and tsunami in Italy and in the whole Mediterranean. The city of Catania lies on this coast, between the eastern base of Etna volcano and the Ionian Sea. Catania is an important town of the Southern Italy because of its both touristic and commercial activities. In this work

Roberto Tonini; Alberto Armigliato; Gianluca Pagnoni; Stefano Tinti

2010-01-01

26

Ecology and distribution of a controversial macrophyte in Sicily: Zannichellia peltata (Zannichelliaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new records of Zannichellia peltata Bertol. were reported from Sicily (Italy), together with the history of the taxonomic studies. This macrophyte, usually considered\\u000a as a synonym or subspecies of Z. palustris, was reported only twice from Italy over one century ago. Taxonomic relationships within the Zannichellia genus, habitat ecology and anthropogenic disturbance factors were also investigated.

Giuseppe Bonanno; Vincenzo Veneziano

2011-01-01

27

Risk management of road and rail transport of hazardous materials in Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Transportation Risk Analysis (TRA) tool has been used to accurately assess the risk associated to a variety of road and rail transportation cases representative of hazardous materials transport by land in Sicily. Due to the high risk level, some risk mitigation options have been investigated: the possibility of changing route and\\/or transport modalities have been examined for each transportation

Roberto Bubbico; Giuseppe Maschio; Barbara Mazzarotta; Maria Francesca Milazzo; Ettore Parisi

2006-01-01

28

Heavy metals in urban soils: a case study from the city of Palermo (Sicily), Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of V, Mn, Cd, Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Hg and Sb were measured on 70 topsoil samples collected from green areas and parks in the city of Palermo (Sicily) in order to: (1) assess the distribution of these heavy metals in the urban environment; (2) discriminate natural and anthropic contributions; and (3) identify possible sources of pollution.

Daniela Salvagio Manta; Massimo Angelone; Adriana Bellanca; Rodolfo Neri; Mario Sprovieri

2002-01-01

29

An AMS, structural and paleomagnetic study of quaternary deformation in eastern Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated structural, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and paleomagnetic study was carried out on Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary basins in eastern Sicily. These basins belong to three main tectonic domains: the Tyrrhenian hinterland domain, the Catania foredeep domain, and the Hyblean foreland domain. We sampled 329 oriented samples from 25 sites in selected areas from the different tectonic domains. The AMS

Francesca Cifelli; Federico Rossetti; Massimo Mattei; Ann Marie Hirt; Renato Funiciello; Luigi Tortorici

2004-01-01

30

Baseline Trace Metals in Seagrass, Algae, and Mollusks in a Southern Tyrrhenian Ecosystem (Linosa Island, Sicily)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace elements were analyzed in organisms collected at five sampling stations along coastal areas of Linosa Island, Sicily\\u000a (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in Posidonia oceanica L. Delile tissues, the two brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy and Cystoseira sp., and the two gastropod mollusks Monodonta turbinata Born and Patella caerulea

Marcelo Enrique Conti; Beatrice Bocca; Marta Iacobucci; Maria Grazia Finoia; Mauro Mecozzi; Anna Pino; Alessandro Alimonti

2010-01-01

31

Thematic maps for environmental and landscape compatibility in Sicily for projects on energy crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims at verifying the environmental and landscape compatibility of energy crop cultivation in Sicily, by means of georeferenced thematic maps. GIS was used to identify suitable areas for cultivation and each map is made up of a set of shapefiles which represent the desired themes to be highlighted at any given time. Processing thematic maps for environmental and

Giuseppina Marina D'Agosta; Agata Milazzo; Cristina Patanè

32

Rainfall thresholds for landslide early warning in Sicily: development and comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification of the characteristics of rainfall events potentially leading to landslides plays a key role in the implementation of early warning systems, oriented to reduce the victims and the damages caused by these natural hazards. Due to their geomorphological features and also to the lack of adequate mitigation infrastructures, hilly and mountainous parts of Sicily are systematically hit by landslides when intense rainfall events occur. In particular, debris flows are frequent in the Peloritani Mountains, in the north-eastern part of the island, while in many other parts of Sicily slower and deeper landslides and rockfalls are the most frequent types. While occurrence of the former type has caused victims and huge damage, occurrence of the latter types mainly has been responsible of several accidents in roads and railways, and has often made impassable important traffic links in Sicily. In this study rainfall thresholds for the initiation of landslides are assessed separately for different areas of Sicily which are approximately homogenous with respect to the type of landslide most likely to occur. Several sources of rainfall and landslide information are exploited and various types of empirical models are explored in order to identify the most adequate ones. Uncertainty in the thresholds is evaluated as well, by considering the rainfall events not associated to landslides. Results obtained for the analysed areas are then compared in order to understand which are the different rainfall conditions that lead to the different types of landslides and the related degree of uncertainty in triggering-threshold assessment.

Peres, D. J.; Cancelliere, A.

2012-04-01

33

Asphaltene-bearing mantle xenoliths from Hyblean diatremes, Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microscopic blebs of sulfur-bearing organic matter (OM) commonly occur between the secondary calcite grains and fibrous phyllosilicates in extensively serpentinized and carbonated mantle-derived ultramafic xenoliths from Hyblean nephelinite diatremes, Sicily, Italy. Rarely, coarse bituminous patches give the rock a blackish color. Micro Fourier transform infrared spectra (?-FTIR) point to asphaltene-like structures in the OM, due to partially condensed aromatic rings with aliphatic tails consisting of a few C atoms. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicates the occurrence of minor S?O (either sulphonyl or sulphoxide) functional groups in the OM. Solubility tests in toluene, thermo-gravimetric (TGA) and differential thermal (DTA) analyses confirm the presence of asphaltene structures. It is proposed that asphaltenes derive from the in situ aromatization (with decrease in H/C ratio) of previous light aliphatic hydrocarbons. Field evidence excludes that hydrocarbon from an external source percolated through the xenolith bearing tuff-breccia. The discriminating presence of hydrocarbon in a particular type of xenolith only and the lack of hydrocarbon in the host breccia matrix, are also inconsistent with an interaction between the ascending eruptive system and a supposed deep-seated oil reservoir. Assuming that the Hyblean unexposed basement consists of mantle ultramafics and mafic intrusive rocks having hosted an early abyssal-type hydrothermal system, one can put forward the hypothesis that the hydrocarbon production was related to hydrothermal activity in a serpentinite system. Although a bacteriogenesis or thermogenesis cannot be ruled out, the coexisting serpentine, Ni-Fe ores and hydrocarbon strongly suggest a Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) synthesis. Subsequent variations in the chemical and physical conditions of the system, for example an increase in the water/rock ratio, gave rise to partial oxidation and late carbonation of the serpentinite hosted hydrocarbon. Admitting an authigenic origin for most of the modal calcite (30-50% by volume) in these rocks, one can conclude as a general rule that un-carbonated serpentinites tectonically emplaced at shallow crustal levels are potential reservoir rocks (as well putative source rocks) for exploitable petroleum reserves.

Scirè, Salvatore; Ciliberto, Enrico; Crisafulli, Carmelo; Scribano, Vittorio; Bellatreccia, Fabio; Ventura, Giancarlo Della

2011-08-01

34

Vents Pattern Analysis at Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mount Etna is a composite stratovolcano located along the Ionian coast of eastern Sicily. It is characterized by basaltic eruptions, both effusive and explosive, occurred during a complex eruptive history over the last 500 ka. Flank eruptions occur at an interval of decades, mostly concentrated along the NE, S and W rift zones. A vent clustering at various scales is a common feature in many volcanic settings. In order to identify the clusters within the studied area, a spatial point pattern analysis is undertaken using vent positions, both known and reconstructed. It reveals both clustering and spatial regularity in the Etna region at different distances. The visual inspection of the vent spatial distribution suggests a clustering on the rift zones of Etna volcano. To confirm this evidence, a coarse analysis is performed by the application of ?2- and t-test simple statistics. Then, a refined analysis is performed by using the Ripley K-function (Ripley, 1976), whose estimator K(d), knowing the area of the study region and the number of vents, allow us to calculate the distance among two different location of events. The above estimator can be easier transformed by using the Besag L-function (Besag, 1977); the peaks of positive L(d)=[K(d)/?]1/2 -d values indicate clustering while troughs of negative values stand for regularity for their corresponding distances d (L(d)=0 indicates complete spatial randomness). Spatial pattern of flank vents is investigated in order to model the spatial distribution of likely eruptive vents for the next event, basically in terms of relative probabilities. For this, a Gaussian kernel technique is used, and the L(d) function is adopted to generate an optimal smoothing bandwidth based on the clustering behaviour of the Etna volcano. A total of 154 vents (among which 36 are reconstructed), related to Etna flank activity of the last 4.0 ka, is used to model future vent opening. The investigated region covers an area of 850 km2, divided into 3400 squared cells (50*68, each of 0.25 km2 of area). Due to the uncertainty of the reconstructed vent position, a circular error zone (with radius equal to the uncertainty) is associated to these vents. For uniformity, an error zone is also associated to the known positions; then, after considering a regular grid spaced of 100 m, we are looking for points inside the relative error zone. This approach yields to the new concept of point-vents, and a total of 6886 of these are retrieved. The obtained results evidence significant probability of future flank vent opening along S and NE rifts, as well as in the Valle del Bove, with minor probability to the W rift. References Besag, J. (1977), Comment's on Ripley's paper, J. Royal Stat. Soc., B39 (2), 193-195. Ripley, B. D. (1976), The second-order analysis of stationary point process, J. Appl. Prob., 13, 255-266.

Brancato, Alfonso; Tusa, Giuseppina; Coltelli, Mauro; Proietti, Cristina; Branca, Stefano

2014-05-01

35

Two Rare Northern Entoloma Species Observed in Sicily under Exceptionally Cold Weather Conditions  

PubMed Central

The biology and ecology of many Entoloma species is still poorly known as well as their geographical distribution. In Italy, there are no studies on the influence of weather on fungal abundance and richness and our knowledge on the ecology and distribution of Entoloma species needs to be improved. The discovery of two Entoloma species in Sicily (southern Italy), reported in the literature as belonging to the habitat of north European countries, was the basis leading to the assumption that anomalous climatic conditions could stimulate the growth of northern entolomas in the southernmost Mediterranean regions. The results of this study show that the presence of northern Entoloma species in Sicily is not influenced by the Mediterranean type of vegetation, by edaphic or altitudinal factors but by anomalous climatic trends of precipitations and temperatures which stimulate the fructification of basidiomata in correspondence with a thermal shock during autumn. PMID:22645481

Venturella, Giuseppe; Saitta, Alessandro; Mandracchia, Gerlando; Gargano, Maria Letizia

2012-01-01

36

Nitrate, sulphate and chloride contents in public drinking water supplies in Sicily, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water samples collected from public drinking water supplies in Sicily were analysed for electric conductivity and for their\\u000a chloride, sulphate and nitrate contents. The samples were collected as uniformly as possible from throughout the Sicilian\\u000a territory, with an average sampling density of about one sample for every 7,600 inhabitants. Chloride contents that ranged\\u000a from 5.53 to 1,302 mg\\/l were correlated strongly

Walter D’Alessandro; Sergio Bellomo; Francesco Parello; Pietro Bonfanti; Lorenzo Brusca; Manfredi Longo; Roberto Maugeri

37

Conservation studies on ornamental and building stones of north-eastern Sicily. Hydric and colorimetric investigations.  

PubMed

In this paper we report on the results regarding the hydric properties of lithic materials widely used in north-eastern Sicily. We report also on the hydrophobic properties of these stones treated with some preserving products (silanes, siloxanes, epoxides, perfluoropolyethers, acrylates, acrylsilicones). In addition, the quantitative colour readings of the untreated and treated stones are presented, together with their chromatic alterations after artificial UV weathering. Final considerations on the selection of the best regime treatment are also reported. PMID:11329769

Cardiano, P; Sergi, S; Lo Schiavo, S; Piraino, P

2001-01-01

38

Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in common buzzard ( Buteo buteo ) from Sicily (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we investigated the concentrations and distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated\\u000a biphenyls (PCBs) in intestine, liver, and muscle samples of 11 common buzzards (Buteo buteo) from Sicily used as bioindicator for monitoring pollution in environment. All samples of common buzzards were collected\\u000a at the “Recovery Center of Wild Fauna” of Palermo, through the Zooprophilactic Institute.

Patrizia Licata; Francesco Naccari; Giacomo Dugo; Vincenzo Fotia; Vincenzo Lo Turco; Angela Giorgia Potorti; Giuseppa Di Bella

39

Mediterranean island biogeography: Analysis of fern species distribution in the system of islets around Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article was to test the way in which geographical factors influence island floras in the Mediterranean basin, using ferns as target organisms, and the islands surrounding Sicily as location. A matrix with presence\\/absence data concerning fern taxa in the 16 islands studied was compiled. Cluster analysis, principal co-ordinates analysis (PCoA), principal components analysis (PCA) and a

Angelo Troia; Francesco Maria Raimondo; Pietro Mazzola

2011-01-01

40

Integrated Archaeological and Geophysical Surveys in the Historical Center of Augusta (Eastern Sicily, Italy).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Syracuse (Eastern Sicily, Italy) and its vast hinterland played a crucial role in the economy of ancient Sicily, largely because of the management, exploitation and trade of agricultural supply. Nevertheless, the socio-economic aspects of its territorial management and the relation between the countryside and coastal centres in the complex system of the Mediterranean markets have not yet been analysed in depth by scholars. Despite the historical, monumental and economic importance of the surrounding area of Syracuse in the Antiquity, the knowledge of the roman and medieval landscape and archaeological sites are still limited. The research undertaken by Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali - CNR of Catania (Sicily, Italy) attempted to remedy this omission by outlining a preliminary picture of the rich historical and archaeological heritage of Syracuse and its surrounding territory, which will be analysed using a multidisciplinary approach. Augusta, a town near Syracuse (Sicily), was founded by emperor Frederick of Suavia between 1232 and 1239. In medieval period, the area of Giardini Pubblici was the downtown and untill the XVII Cent. AD it was occupied by two urban blocks of buildings. In 1670 they were demolished to allow free area firing line from the near castle. Integrated archaeological and geophysical investigations allowed a wide range knowledge of the roman and medieval landscapes, archaeological sites and monumental remains. Particularly the geophysical surveys undertaken in the historical center of Augusta, by means Ground-penetrating Radar (GPR), allowed a 3D reconstruction of archaeological structures in the subsoil until the depth of about 4m. The geophysical survey has identified the building of medieval and modern urban settlement of Augusta and has allowed to recreate the urban plan and its transformation.

Malfitana, Daniele; Leucci, Giovanni; Fragalà, Giovanni; Cacciaguerra, Giuseppe; De Giorgi, Lara

2013-04-01

41

Survey on fluoride, bromide and chloride contents in public drinking water supplies in Sicily (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six hundred and sixty-seven water samples were collected from public drinking water supplies in Sicily and analysed for electric\\u000a conductivity and for their Cl?, Br? and F? contents. The samples were, as far as possible, collected evenly over the entire territory with an average sampling density\\u000a of about one sample for every 7,600 inhabitants. The contents of Cl? and Br?,

Walter D’Alessandro; Sergio Bellomo; Francesco Parello; Lorenzo Brusca; Manfredi Longo

2008-01-01

42

Integrated Archaeological and Geophysical Surveys at the archaeological site of Priolo (Eastern Sicily, Italy).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Syracuse (Eastern Sicily, Italy) and its vast hinterland played a crucial role in the economy of ancient Sicily, largely because of the management, exploitation and trade of agricultural supply. Nevertheless, the socio-economic aspects of its territorial management and the relation between the countryside and coastal centres in the complex system of the Mediterranean markets have not yet been analysed in depth by scholars. Despite the historical, monumental and economic importance of the surrounding area of Syracuse in the Antiquity, the knowledge of the roman landscape and archaeological sites are still limited. The research undertaken by Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali - CNR of Catania (Sicily, Italy) attempted to remedy this omission by outlining a preliminary picture of the rich historical and archaeological heritage of Syracuse and its surrounding territory, which will be analysed using a multidisciplinary approach. Three contexts are under exploration: Aguglia d'Agosta, an early roman funerary monument; Ponte Diddino, a middle-late roman villa; Tavoliere-Maccaudo, a roman and byzantine settlement. Integrated archaeological and geophysical investigations allowed a wide range knowledge of the roman-byzantine landscapes, archaeological sites and monumental remains. This researches conducted to solve specific archaeological problems which are part of a wider debate regarding the phenomena connected to the role of settlements, use of lands, etc. to establish new parameters for the development of ancient sicilian landscapes.

Leucci, G.; Malfitana, D.; Cacciaguerra, G.; Lanteri, R.; Fragalà, G.

2012-04-01

43

Crustal motion along the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary in the Calabrian Arc and Sicily and active extension in the Messina Straits from GPS measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate crustal deformation along the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary in Calabria and Sicily revealed by the GPS velocity field obtained by the combination of continuous site velocities with previous results from episodic campaigns. We recognize two distinct crustal domains characterized by different motions and styles of deformation. Convergence in Sicily is taken up by crustal shortening along the former Tyrrhenian

Nicola D’Agostino; Giulio Selvaggi

2004-01-01

44

The C8ORF38 homologue Sicily is a cytosolic chaperone for a mitochondrial complex I subunit  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial complex I (CI) is an essential component in energy production through oxidative phosphorylation. Most CI subunits are encoded by nuclear genes, translated in the cytoplasm, and imported into mitochondria. Upon entry, they are embedded into the mitochondrial inner membrane. How these membrane-associated proteins cope with the hydrophilic cytoplasmic environment before import is unknown. In a forward genetic screen to identify genes that cause neurodegeneration, we identified sicily, the Drosophila melanogaster homologue of human C8ORF38, the loss of which causes Leigh syndrome. We show that in the cytoplasm, Sicily preprotein interacts with cytosolic Hsp90 to chaperone the CI subunit, ND42, before mitochondrial import. Loss of Sicily leads to loss of CI proteins and preproteins in both mitochondria and cytoplasm, respectively, and causes a CI deficiency and neurodegeneration. Our data indicate that cytosolic chaperones are required for the subcellular transport of ND42. PMID:23509070

Zhang, Ke; Li, Zhihong; Jaiswal, Manish; Bayat, Vafa; Xiong, Bo; Sandoval, Hector; Charng, Wu-Lin; David, Gabriela; Haueter, Claire; Yamamoto, Shinya; Graham, Brett H.

2013-01-01

45

A crustal-upper mantle model for southeastern Sicily (Italy) from the integration of petrologic and geophysical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interdisciplinary approach is proposed to investigate the structure and composition of the Permo-Triassic basement of the Hyblean Plateau and Sicily Channel. Comparisons of published data on peridotites and spinels from different geodynamic settings, and new data on Hyblean spinels, reveal the affinity of the Hyblean basement with an ultra-slow spreading oceanic lithosphere, rather than with the Africa continental plate. Similar results derive from volcanic rocks of the studied area, whose Nb/Yb vs. Th/Yb ratio hints at their affinity with the MORB-OIB array, even excluding any possible contamination with continental crust lithologies, unlike North Africa lavas. The comparison of He isotopic ratios from Hyblean Plateau and Sicily Channel highlights their similarity with values measured in fluids emitted from the Rainbow and Logatchev hydrothermal fields in Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Based on petrologic and geochemical evidence for the oceanic nature of the Permo-Triassic basement in southeastern Sicily, and the occurrence of serpentinized harzburgite xenoliths in Hyblean diatremes, the P-wave velocity model proposed for the investigated area is used to estimate lithospheric pressure, density, degree of serpentinization and magnetic susceptibility also considering both abyssal and ophiolitic serpentinites. The resulting values suggest the presence of peridotites affected by different degrees of serpentinization (35-100 vol.%) ranging to a depth of 8-19 km. As a whole, combined seismic, gravimetric and magnetic data indicate the presence of a marked anomaly at a depth of about 19 km. As a consequence, we consider the Moho discontinuity as a serpentinization front, by fixing the relative top at a depth of 19 km. Our results suggest that the oceanic lithospheric model for southeastern Sicily could be broadened to the Sicily Channel, which is possibly correlated to the adjacent Ionian oceanic basin, inferred as belonging to the Oman-Iraq-Levantine-Sicily seaway.

Manuella, Fabio Carmelo; Brancato, Alfonso; Carbone, Serafina; Gresta, Stefano

2013-05-01

46

Soil radon monitoring in the NE flank of Mt. Etna (Sicily).  

PubMed

Soil radon has been monitored at a fixed location on the northeastern flank of Mt. Etna, a high-risk volcano in Sicily. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the recent volcanic activity on soil radon concentration. Continuous radon measurements have been performed since July 2001. While comparison between the trend in in-soil radon concentration and the acquired meteorological series (temperature, humidity and pressure) appear to confirm a general seasonal correlation, nevertheless particular anomalies suggest a possible dependence of the radon concentration on volcanic dynamics. PMID:16413194

Immè, G; La Delfa, S; Lo Nigro, S; Morelli, D; Patanè, G

2006-05-01

47

Fast geodetic strain-rates in eastern Sicily (southern Italy): New insights into block tectonics and seismic potential in the area of the great 1693 earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along the ?500 km long Sicily-Calabria segment of the Nubia-Eurasia plate boundary GPS data highlight a complex, and debated, kinematic pattern. We focus on eastern Sicily, where the style of crustal deformation rapidly changes in the space of few tens of kilometers. In southeastern Sicily, struck by the 1693 MW?7.4 earthquake, GPS measurements highlight a steep velocity gradient, with ?2.4 mm/yr of ?N-S shortening in ?10 km, changing to broader extension (?3 mm/yr in ?60 km) in northern Sicily and shortening in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea. GPS data and kinematic elastic block models highlight a complex fragmentation of the Sicilian domain into three tectonic blocks, which move independently from Nubia, describing an overall clockwise rotation of this crustal domain with respect to Eurasia. Shortening in southeastern Sicily is associated with a system of high-angle reverse faults resulting from tectonic inversion of extensional faults at the northern tip of the Hyblean plateau. Extension in northern Sicily occurs on a broader deformation belt, developed on the former Kumeta-Alcantara line, extending west of Mount Etna toward the southwestern Tyrrhenian Sea, accommodating the faster rotation of the northeastern Sicily block with respect to central Sicily. Although the seismic potential of inland faults is not negligible, our results strengthen the hypothesis that the Malta escarpment is the likely source of the large 1693 earthquake and tsunami. The observed kinematics appears only subordinately driven by the Nubia-Eurasia convergence and the dynamics of the Mediterranean subduction system is likely playing a major role in governing block motions and active tectonics in Sicily.

Mastrolembo Ventura, Brunella; Serpelloni, Enrico; Argnani, Andrea; Bonforte, Alessandro; Bürgmann, Roland; Anzidei, Marco; Baldi, Paolo; Puglisi, Giuseppe

2014-10-01

48

Vorticity and potential vorticity analysis for viscous bottom flow along the Sicily Channel (central Mediterranean Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dense water vein, i.e., the Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water (EMDW), which flows westward along the bottom of the Sicily Channel (Mediterranean Sea)shows an unexpected cross-channel tilting of the deep water interface around the main sill of the Channel. From cross-stream averages of the EMDW thickness and velocity, we here discuss a new diagnostic model for vertical vorticity (?) and potential vorticity (?) of this deep flow, and its cross-stream profile properties. Our model takes into account friction and mixing, which are important features for current crossing marine straits. We find that, approaching the main sill of the Sicily Channel, the current vorticity decreases because of sea bottom topography and friction, reaching large negative values over the Channel main sill. Downstream of the sill, the vorticity of the vein increases again reaching usual values. We demonstrate that friction tends to decrease ?as long as ? is positive but, once ?gecomes negative, the corresponding ?has a remarkable increase due to strong bottom friction in the sill region. These diagnoses on ? and ?for deep flow allow one to gain general insights on the stability, path and cross-sectional structure of deep currents flowing along straits, as well as on some morphodynamic features that may result from the interaction between the bottom current and the seafloor.

Falcini, Federico; Salusti, Ettore

2014-05-01

49

High frequency of OPA1 mutations causing high ADOA prevalence in south-eastern Sicily, Italy.  

PubMed

Optic atrophy type 1 (OPA1) gene mutation causes autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA, MIM #165500). Prevalence of ADOA ranges from 1:50,000 in most populations to 1:12,000 in Denmark. Seventy members of nine families were analysed for the presence of OPA1 gene mutations by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing. We identified three OPA1 gene mutations in 48 patients with variable signs of optic atrophy. Two mutations, c.784-21_784-22insAluYb8 and c.876_878delTGT, were found in two different families. The third mutation, c.869G>A, was found in 28 patients from seven families. The haplotype analysis data suggested that the c.869G>A mutation is a founder mutation. Our main result suggests a higher ADOA prevalence in south-eastern Sicily than previously found in Denmark. This is because of not only the founder effect but also to the presence of three different mutations in the geographical area of the study. Our hypothesis is that a combination of social pressure because of blindness and migration factors is involved. In fact, in Siracusa, a provincial capital in south-eastern Sicily, St. Lucy, the patron saint of the blind was born and died. PMID:21745197

Gallus, G N; Cardaioli, E; Rufa, A; Collura, M; Da Pozzo, P; Pretegiani, E; Tumino, M; Pavone, L; Federico, A

2012-09-01

50

A unique 4000 year long geological record of multiple tsunami inundations in the Augusta Bay (eastern Sicily, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the geological evidence for a 4000year long record of multiple tsunami inundations along the coast of the Augusta Bay (eastern Sicily) and discuss its implications. The research was carried out through a multi-theme approach which benefited from an extraordinarily long historical record that we used to guide detailed geomorphologic and geologic surveys, coring campaigns and laboratory analyses. Two

P. M. De Martini; M. S. Barbano; A. Smedile; F. Gerardi; D. Pantosti; P. Del Carlo; C. Pirrotta

2010-01-01

51

Description of two new Jujubinus species (Gastropoda: Trochidae) from the Sicily Channel, with notes on the Jujubinus curinii species complex.  

PubMed

Based on shell characters, two new species of the gastropod family Trochidae, Jujubinus eleonorae n. sp. and Jujubinus trilloi n. sp., from the Sicily Channel are described. Shells of the new taxa were collected in the lower infralittoral of the Skerki and Talbot Banks, respectively. The new taxa are compared with Jujubinus curinii Bogi & Campani, 2005, morphologically the most closely related species. PMID:24943636

Smriglio, Carlo; Di Giulio, Andrea; Mariottini, Paolo

2014-01-01

52

The diversity of terrestrial isopods in the natural reserve "Saline di Trapani e Paceco" (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in northwestern Sicily.  

PubMed

Ecosystems comprising coastal lakes and ponds are important areas for preserving biodiversity. The natural reserve "Saline di Trapani e Paceco" is an interesting natural area in Sicily, formed by the remaining strips of land among salt pans near the coastline. From January 2008 to January 2010, pitfall trapping was conducted in five sampling sites inside the study area. The community of terrestrial isopods was assessed using the main diversity indices. Twenty-four species were collected, only one of them endemic to western Sicily: Porcellio siculoccidentalis Viglianisi, Lombardo & Caruso, 1992. Two species are new to Sicily: Armadilloniscus candidus Budde-Lund, 1885 and Armadilloniscus ellipticus (Harger, 1878). This is high species richness for a single reserve in Sicily. The extended sampling period also allowed us to study species phenology. Most of the species exhibited higher activity in spring than in autumn while some species also exhibited lower activity in the summer. The species richness revealed that the study area is in an acceptable conservation status; Shannon and Pielou indices also confirmed a more or less even distribution of individuals belonging to different species. PMID:22536110

Messina, Giuseppina; Pezzino, Elisa; Montesanto, Giuseppe; Caruso, Domenico; Lombardo, Bianca Maria

2012-01-01

53

Feasibility study and assessment of the technical, administrative and financial viability of the Voltano desalination plant (Agrigento, Sicily)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Italian Ministry of Public Works has funded a study aimed at assessing the technical feasibility and financial viability of a disalination plant to be implemented in Agrigento, Sicily. The plant, with a design production capacity of 40,000 m3 and an estimated cost of € 120 million, will serve 19 municipalities of the Agrigento province with a total population of

Augusto Pretner; Mario Iannelli

2003-01-01

54

The role of native flower visitors in pollinating Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., naturalized in Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of insects in pollination and consequently in fruit set and quality was assessed in two commercial orchards of the cactus pear, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., in Agrigento Province, Sicily. In 1997, insects visiting flowers were sampled during May–June (the first bloom) and July (the second bloom, induced by the “scozzolatura” practise). More than 50 insect species belonging to

Gabriella Lo Verde; Tommaso La Mantia

2011-01-01

55

The role of native flower visitors in pollinating Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., naturalized in Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of insects in pollination and consequently in fruit set and quality was assessed in two commercial orchards of the cactus pear, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., in Agrigento Province, Sicily. In 1997, insects visiting flowers were sampled during May-June (the first bloom) and July (the second bloom, induced by the \\

Gabriella Lo Verde; Tommaso La Mantia

2011-01-01

56

GPS velocity and strain fields in Sicily and southern Calabria, Italy: Updated geodetic constraints on tectonic block interaction in the central Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an improved rendition of the geodetic velocity and strain fields in Sicily and southern Calabria obtained through the analysis of 18 years of GPS observations from continuous and survey station networks. The dense spatial coverage of geodetic data provides precise quantitative estimates of previously established first-order active kinematic features, including: i) a narrow east-west-elongated belt of contraction (˜1-1.5 mm/yr) extending offshore northern Sicily from Ustica to Stromboli across the Aeolian Islands; ii) a narrow east-west-trending contractional belt located along the northern rim of the Hyblean Plateau in southern Sicily, with shortening at up to 4.4 mm/yr; iii) right motion (˜3.6 mm/yr) on the Aeolian-Tindari-Letojanni fault (ATLF) system, a main shear zone extending from the Aeolian Islands to the Ionian coast of Sicily, with significant transpression and transtension partitioned between discrete sectors of the fault; iv) transtension (˜1 mm/yr) across the Sicily Channel between Sicily and North Africa. We use geodetic observations coupled to geological constraints to better elucidate the interplay of crustal blocks revealed in the investigated area. In particular, we focus on the ATLF, which forms the primary boundary between the Sicilian and Calabrian blocks. The ATLF juxtaposes north-south contraction between Sicily and the Tyrrhenian block with northwest-southeast extension in northeastern Sicily and Calabria. Contraction between Sicily and Tyrrhenian blocks probably arises from the main Europe-Nubia convergence, although Sicily has a component of lateral motion away from Nubia. We found that convergence is not restricted to the northern offshore, as commonly believed, but is widely accommodated between the frontal belt and the northern rim of the Hyblean foreland in southern Sicily. Geodetic data also indicate that active right shear on the ATLF occurs to the southeast of the mapped fault array in northern Sicily, suggesting the fault cuts through till the Ionian coast of the island. The small geodetic divergence between the Hyblean and Apulian blocks rimming on both sides the Calabria block and subjacent Ionian slab, coupled with marine geophysical evidences in the Ionian Sea lends credit to the proposed deep root of the ATLF and to a fragmentation of the Ionian domain.

Palano, M.; Ferranti, L.; Monaco, C.; Mattia, M.; Aloisi, M.; Bruno, V.; Cannavò, F.; Siligato, G.

2012-07-01

57

Relationships between seismicity and tectonic in northern Sicily and southern Tyrrhenian: some important open problems.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The widespread seismic activity which characterizes the Northern Sicily and its Tyrrhenian off-shore, is related to a very complex geodynamic context. The different tectonic structures are associated, first, to the collision between African and European Plate, and then to the evolution of Tyrrhenian Basin. Sicily represents the easternmost sector of Maghrebian Chain, built since Oligocene, by the foreland migration of foredeep-deformation front couple. The recent deformation pattern of Sicilian Maghrebides is interpreted as a result of brittle and brittle-ductile neotectonic structures with strike-slip kinematics developed since Middle-Late Miocene in the internal zones of thrust belt. This structures are related to recent Tyrrhenian opening. In particular, we tried to make a comparison among recent structure and seismicity in the hinge zone between northern Sicily and southern Tyrrhenian, corresponding to both emerged and submerged northern portion of the Maghrebian chain. This hinge zone is part of a wider W-E trending right-lateral shear zone, mainly characterized by both a synthetic NW-SE/W-E oriented, and antithetic left-lateral N-S/NE-SW fault systems, which has been affecting the tectonic edifice, since the Pliocene. The seismicity in the sicilian Maghrebides is mainly located in the hinge zone, either crustal or deeper, and limited in two main hypocentral sectors (Giunta et al., 2002b;Gueguen et al., 2002; Giunta et al., 2004; 2008). Deep seismicity, concentrated in north-eastern Sicily, is associated with the subduction of the Ionian lithospheric slab beneath the Calabrian arc, while the shallow seismicity results as expression of the brittle strain crossing the whole orogen (Neri et al., 1996). The seismogenic process complexity requires that descriptive models are based on a large amount of experimental information about both a huge number of earthquakes and the structural features of the main seismogenic volumes in the investigated area. At the moment, it is possible to describe in detail the source of single events if these are recorded by sufficiently dense arrays, while much still remains clear about the seismicity and the relationships between seismicity and recognized faults. In this context, where possible, we describe the relationships between the structures that were observed inland and interpreted offshore and clusters of seismic events, carefully relocated. The hypocentral distribution, the typical focal mechanisms and the principal deviatoric stresses have been related to the geometrical features of the seismogenic volumes, their mechanical heterogeneity, and the tectonic stress, following in part the Caputo and Sato (1996), and Audemard (2004) methodology. We defined firstly the neotectonic pattern of the study area using both aerial photos and field measurements. The geometrical relationships and/or the relative chronology of the identified tectonic structures were estimated by mesoscopic field analysis. In the second time, numerous volumes characterized by seismogenic homogeneity (clusters) have been obtained by the analysis of the seismological data. This analysis consisted in a preliminary location of the events, in their assignment to specific clusters or to the background seismicity (independent events) using statistical methods and in a subsequent relocation of the events of each cluster using a relative location technique. Moreover, the seismogenic processes, relative to the most numerous clusters, were characterized in the space, time and magnitude domains with statistical techniques. Some informations on the regional deviatoric stress field can be inferred from fault orientation and slip direction, assuming a mechanical homogeneity of the cluster-relate volume. The heterogeneity of seismogenic volumes of the crust and the mantle makes the kinematics of dislocations rather complex and a non-unique relation between faults geometry and the stress acting on these faults (Albarello, 2000). In order to constrain the stress field acting in a seismogenic volume by a set of focal mechanisms, and

Orioli, Silvia; Giunta, Giuseppe; Giorgianni, Alessandra; di Trapani, Francesco; Luzio, Dario

2009-04-01

58

Fatal cranial injury in an individual from Messina (Sicily) during the times of the Roman Empire.  

PubMed

Forensic and archaeological examinations of human skeletons can provide us with evidence of violence. In this paper, we present the patterns of two cranial lesions found on an adult male (T173) buried in a grave in the necropolis 'Isolato 96', Messina, Sicily, dating back to the Roman Empire (1st century BC - 1st century AD). The skull reveals two perimortem traumatic lesions, one produced by a sharp object on the right parietal bone and the other one on the left parietal bone, presumably the result of a fall. The interpretation of fracture patterns found in this cranium are an illustration of how forensic approaches can be applied with great benefit to archaeological specimens. PMID:24237811

Messina, Andrea Dario; Carotenuto, Giuseppe; Miccichè, Roberto; Sìneo, Luca

2013-11-01

59

Mixing Processes At The Eastern Sill In The Channel of Sicily (mediterranean Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The channel of Sicily represents the only connection between the western and the east- ern Mediterranean sea. The channel is often described as a three-layer system, where fresher water of Atlantic origin (MAW) is found in the upper layer, Levantine Interme- diate Water (LIW) occupies the lower one, and below the LIW a layer of Transitional Ionian Deep Water (TIDW) is found. In the Ionian sea LIW q-S characteristics are spread over a wide range of values while inside the channel LIW results much more homogenized. It is then a spontaneous question what is the mechanism of mixing at the eastern sill. Possible intermediate and deep waters mixing processes are thus inves- tigated through the analysis of the hydrographic data collected by R/V Urania during four surveys in 1996, 1997, 1998 and 1999 in the framework of SYMPLEX experi- ment. Both classical T-S characteristics and more innovative methodologies (such as Thorpe length determination) are used.

Buongiorno Nardelli, B.; Iudicone, D.; Marullo, S.; Santoleri, R.

60

Morphological and molecular characterization of Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) from Sicily  

PubMed Central

Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. parasitizing roots of lentil in Sicily, Italy, is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by a relatively high lip region with three annuli, mean stylet length of 16 ?m, with anteriorly flattened knobs, cylindrical body with a relatively anterior vulva, large and ovoid spermatheca full of sperm, plump tail with truncate, irregularly annulated terminus, and by the presence of males. Molecular ITS-RFLP and sequencing analyses of the new species showed clear differences from other most morphologically similar species, such as P. thornei and P. mediterraneus. Preliminary host range tests revealed that chickpea, pea, faba bean and durum wheat are good hosts of P. lentis n. sp., whereas common bean, alfalfa and barley are less robust hosts and tomato, bell pepper, eggplant, melon and sunflower are poor hosts for the nematode. PMID:19440258

De Luca, F.; Handoo, Z. A.; Di Vito, M.

2008-01-01

61

Contourites offshore Pantelleria Island (Sicily Channel, Mediterranean Sea): depositional, erosional and biogenic elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution seismic reflection profiles and multibeam bathymetry data collected in 2006 and 2008 around Pantelleria Island show the widespread occurrence of contourite drifts and erosional elements ~30 km from the narrowest part (~145 km) of the Sicily Channel, where water masses from the Eastern Mediterranean flow towards the Western Mediterranean. The contourite drifts are rather small (up to 10 km long and 3.3 km wide), at water depths of ~250-750 m. Most are elongated separated drifts with quite well-developed moats and crests, aligned roughly parallel to the regional bathymetric contours. Erosional elements include abraded surfaces, moats, scours and sub-circular depressions. In addition, a wide sector of the seafloor adjacent to a seamount located SW of Pantelleria Island is characterized by numerous biogenic build-ups colonized by deep-water corals ( Madrepora oculata). The spatial distribution of sediment drifts, erosional features and biogenic build-ups suggests an origin from a north-westward-flowing bottom current, in this case the outflow of Levantine Intermediate Water and transitional Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water via the Sicily Channel. These findings for the Pantelleria offshore sector demonstrate that contourite processes are able to concentrate a high variety of closely spaced depositional and erosional features even in small areas (in this case, about 2,000 km2). This Pantelleria focusing can plausibly be related to a particular configuration of the prevailing bottom-current regime in complex interaction with an uneven bathymetry shaped mainly by tectonic and volcanic activity. The distribution of bottom currents seems to be strongly influenced by morphological features ranging from major seabed obstacles, such as the Pantelleria volcanic complex and the so-called southwest seamount, to smaller-scale escarpments and banks. This is consistent with previous findings for Mediterranean and other settings characterized by neotectonics and large topographic features.

Martorelli, Eleonora; Petroni, Giorgia; Chiocci, Francesco Latino

2011-12-01

62

About the presence of Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot, 1917 (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Eastern Sicily, Italy.  

PubMed

The note reports the data of a three-year sand fly investigation (1997-99) carried out in Eastern Sicily (Italy) with the aim to study the distribution of Phlebotomus sergenti. The survey involved a densely inhabited area at the foot of Mount Etna and the area of Iblei mounts. A total of 9,095 sand flies, of which 63.4% males, were captured. Five species belonging to the genus Phlebotomus (P. perniciosus, P. perfiliewi, P. neglectus, P. sergenti and P. papatasi) and one to the genus Sergentomyia (S. minuta) were identified. Both the prevalence and distribution of the species were different within the two areas studied. In Mount Etna area, P. perniciosus (77.7%) was the prevalent species followed by S. minuta (19.8%), P. sergenti (2.0%), P. neglectus (0.3%) and P. papatasi (0.2%). While in Iblei mounts region S. minuta (84.5%) showed the highest prevalence, followed by P. perniciosus (14.4%), P. perfiliewi (0.9%) and P. neglectus (0.1%). Here, P. sergenti was a very rare species (< 0.02). P. sergenti was mostly associated to domestic habitats of peri-urban and urban zones located between two and 750 m a.s.l. The density values of P. sergenti, expressed as number of specimens/m2 of sticky trap, were between 0.3 and 5.5 with the highest value in the hilly collecting sites. The low observed abundance of P. sergenti does not allow to draw any prediction on the role that the species could play in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Sicily. PMID:15490752

D'Urso, V; Ruta, F; Khoury, C; Bianchi, R; Depaquit, J; Maroli, M

2004-09-01

63

The age of the Miocene-Pliocene boundary in the Capo Rossello area (Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed correlations of magnetostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy reveal that the basal Pliocene is equally complete in the Eraclea Minoa and Capo Rossello sections (Sicily) and the Singa section (Calabria), and that, in accordance with the model of the Pliocene flooding event in the Mediterranean, the deposition of the pelagic marls of the Trubi Formation started synchronously on Sicily and in adjacent Calabria. In addition, the data obtained from the Trubi in the Eraclea Minoa section allows the age of the Miocene-Pliocene boundary to be adjusted slightly from 4.83-4.84 [1] to 4.86 Ma because downward extrapolation of both sedimentation rate and average duration of small-scale sedimentary cycles in the Trubi yields this age for the boundary in this section. Linearly interpolated ages for the top of the Sphaeroidinellopsis acme and the first substantial increase in Globorotalia margaritae (the FOD of this species is non-existent in the Mediterranean Pliocene) at Eraclea Minoa arrive at 4.74 and 4.63 Ma respectively. Because of the detailed magnetostratigraphy and the very accurate dating of the Miocene-Pliocene boundary, it is preferable to select the Eraclea Minoa section as the boundary stratotype rather than the Capo Rossello section. Finally, this age of 4.86 Ma for the Miocene-Pliocene boundary suggests that the beginning of the Pliocene is connected with the termination of a series of latest Miocene glaciations and that the re-establishment of open marine conditions in the Mediterranean might be of glacio-eustatic origin.

Hilgen, F. J.; Langereis, C. G.

1988-12-01

64

Late Quaternary slip rates on the Acireale-Piedimonte normal faults and tectonic origin of Mt. Etna (Sicily)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mt. Etna is located along the east coast of Sicily, near the boundary between the continental crust of the Hyblean Plateau and the Mesozoic oceanic crust of the Ionian basin. The main active faults near Mt. Etna cut the base of its eastern flank, forming a 30 km long system of NNE- and NNW-trending, ene´chelon fault segments (the Acireale-Piedimonte system),

C. Monaco; P. Tapponnier; L. Tortorici; P. Y. Gillot

1997-01-01

65

Persistence and co-occurrence of demersal nurseries in the Strait of Sicily (central Mediterranean): Implications for fishery management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the nurseries of seven commercially important demersal species of the northern sector of the Strait of Sicily (central Mediterranean): red mullet, European hake, horned octopus, deep-water rose shrimp, greater forkbeard, Norway lobster and giant red shrimp. An eleven-year series of data collected through experimental trawling in the Strait of Sicily during spring and autumn was analyzed. The spatio-temporal persistence of the high-density aggregations (hot spots) of juvenile individuals in their first year of life was investigated to identify habitats that serve as nurseries. The density of recruits within the persistent nurseries was used as a proxy of the unit area contribution of individuals which recruit to the adult population. The spatial distribution patterns of the recruits of most the species were well defined and very stable in the long term. Persistent and potentially highly productive nurseries of European hake, deep-water rose shrimp and greater forkbeard were identified off the southern coast of Sicily. Persistent areas of recruits concentration were also observed for the other species investigated, but their specific potential contribution of individuals to the adult population was not substantial compared to adjacent grounds. The close or overlapped localization of sites which regularly host vulnerable life stages of different exploited species, revealed an area of great ecological significance which probably plays a major role in the dynamics of the fishery resources in the Strait of Sicily. Appropriate spatial protection measures of this area, including marine protected area designation, could complement conventional management approach for ensuring the long-term sustainability of these fisheries and stocks conservation.

Garofalo, G.; Fortibuoni, T.; Gristina, M.; Sinopoli, M.; Fiorentino, F.

2011-08-01

66

Variability of water mass properties in the Strait of Sicily in summer period of 1998-2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Strait of Sicily plays a crucial role in determining the water-mass exchanges and related properties between the western and eastern Mediterranean. Hydrographic measurements carried out from 1998 to 2013 allowed the identification of the main water masses present in the Strait of Sicily: a surface layer composed of Atlantic water (AW) flowing eastward, intermediate and deep layers mainly composed of Levantine intermediate water (LIW), and transitional eastern Mediterranean deep water (tEMDW) flowing in the opposite direction. Furthermore, for the first time, the signature of intermittent presence of western intermediate water (WIW) is also highlighted in the northwestern part of the study area (12.235° E, 37.705° N). The excellent area coverage allowed to highlight the high horizontal and vertical inter-annual variability affecting the study area and also to recognize the permanent character of the main mesoscale phenomena present in the surface water layer. Moreover, strong temperature-salinity correlations in the intermediate layer, for specific time intervals, seem to be linked to the reversal of surface circulation in the central Ionian Sea. The analysis of CTD data in deeper water layer indicates the presence of a large volume of tEMDW in the Strait of Sicily during the summers of 2006 and 2009.

Bonanno, A.; Placenti, F.; Basilone, G.; Mifsud, R.; Genovese, S.; Patti, B.; Di Bitetto, M.; Aronica, S.; Barra, M.; Giacalone, G.; Ferreri, R.; Fontana, I.; Buscaino, G.; Tranchida, G.; Quinci, E.; Mazzola, S.

2014-10-01

67

Paleoseismological multi-theme study of seismically induced geological effects at Vendicari (south-eastern Sicily).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong earthquakes can produce direct and permanent geological effects on the earth surface. Beyond surface faulting, other effects, such as landslides, liquefactions and ground deformations (seismites), take place in the epicentral area as a consequence of the seismic wave propagation in the sediments. Since the last three decades only, these features have been considered indicators of seismicity and their analysis (paleoseismological off-fault study) has been used as an useful tool for obtaining crucial information on the causative earthquake parameters. Such analyses are especially useful in areas where earthquakes occurred before the seismic instrument development or without clear evidence of surface faulting. Since paleoseismology is a youth discipline, the integration of innovative and multidisciplinary techniques and the updating of the case studies on seismites is of fundamental importance. During historical time south-eastern Sicily has been hit by strong earthquakes (M up to 7), such as the 1169, 1542 and 1693 events. Given the lack of surface faulting evidence, the real source location of these earthquakes is a still open question and represents the main gap of the Sicilian seismogenic framework, therefore paleosismological off-fault study can contribute to identify seismogenic sources. Along the NNE-SSW trending rocky coast of Vendicari, we detected a singular association of deformational structures affecting terrains up to Quaternary age. These structures are both soft sediment deformations (autoclastic breccias, diapyr-like injections, dikes and thyxotropic wedges), probably linked to liquefaction mechanisms, and fragile deformations, consisting of opened fractures generally filled by sediment (Neptunian dykes). With the aim to define the deformation mechanisms that affected the deposits at Vendicari, we studied in detail the local stratigraphic sequence and the deformational structures, performing a mesostructural study of the fractures and the analysis of the microscopic characteristic of the filling materials, as well. The systematic and paleostress analyses of the fractures highlighted a high variability in the architectural style and a high dispersion of the plane direction. This is probably linked to more than one deformative mechanism concurring in their development and masking the stress field. A coseismic brittle deformation, linked to the shaking and to the seismic wave propagation, and a lateral spreading and settlement mechanism with fissuring parallel to the coastline (driven by gravity under a moderate topographic gradients), are proposed as probable causes of the fracture development together with the tectonic stress field. However, the analysis of the fractures, filtered and cleaned up from the contribute of the disturb mechanisms, shows a stress field characterized by a probable NW-SE-trending ?1,which iscompatible with the active regional stress. The occurrence of violent coseismic deformation should be also testified by the development of the liquefaction-driven soft sediment deformations, observed in the area, that reveals the application of an horizontal shear stress and of a sudden high hydraulic pressure. The overall analysis of seismites at Vendicari highlights the occurrence of at least three triggering events, occurred after the Pleistocene age. They could be tentatively associate with the historical 1169, 1542 and 1693 earthquakes (I0 ?X) or with similar or strongest paleoevents, considering the minimum epicentral distances and the minimum intensity at a site (Is ? IX) for which an earthquake is capable to induce these association of seismites. The paleoseismological study at Vendicari allowed us to upgrade the paleoseimological off-fault techniques and to increase the study cases in Sicily. Moreover, this study provides, if integrated with similar studies at regional scale, new and useful information on ancient earthquakes in a high-seismicity area like eastern Sicily, for a better characterization of the seismogenic sources.

Pirrotta, Claudia; Serafina Barbano, Maria

2010-05-01

68

An integrated approach to investigate the seismotectonics of northern Sicily and southern Tyrrhenian  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with a comparison among recent structure and seismicity in the hinge zone between northern Sicily and southern Tyrrhenian, corresponding to both emerged and submerged northern portion of the Maghrebian chain. This hinge zone is part of a wider W-E trending right-lateral shear zone, mainly characterized by both a synthetic NW-SE/W-E oriented, and antithetic left-lateral N-S/NE-SW fault systems, which has been affecting the tectonic edifice, since the Pliocene. The inland structures have been mapped using aerial-photo interpretation, geological mapping and mesostructural analysis to reconstruct the stress regime in the study area. On the contrary, the offshore structures have been inferred from the available morpho-bathymetric and geological maps of the southern Tyrrhenian basin. A seismological analysis was carried out on a data set of about 11,000 seismic events occurred between January 1981 and December 2005 in the study area. The observed local magnitude is mainly comprised between 2.0 and 2.3, reaching in places peak values greater than 5.5. The distribution of the hypocenters allowed to recognize three major seismogenic zones. The deepest events (down to about 600 km) of the easternmost area are related to the Ionian lithospheric slab subducting beneath the Calabrian arc. A set of events is substantially depending by the Etna volcano activity. The third set of events is heterogeneously distributed mainly in the southern Tyrrhenian and in the eastern Sicily. This latter seismogenic zone is strictly connected to the deformation field active within the hinge zone. A statistical analysis of the seismological data allowed to individuate several clusters of events occurred in the hinge zone, which have been subsequently relocated with a relative location method. Furthermore, the seismogenic processes, relative to the most numerous clusters, were characterized in the space, time and magnitude domains with statistical techniques. The collected focal mechanisms, even if highlight the complexity of the relationships between seismogenic volumes of the clusters and single dislocations, also show some spatial trends useful to the seismotectonic analysis. On the whole, both structural and seismological data seem to be consistent with a neotectonic model related to NW-SE trending maximum compressional stress axis producing a non-coaxial strain, even if in particular areas different seismogenic conditions are possible, due to the accommodation of rock volumes leading a marked mechanical heterogeneity.

Giunta, Giuseppe; Luzio, Dario; Agosta, Fabrizio; Calò, Marco; Di Trapani, Francesco; Giorgianni, Alessandra; Oliveri, Eva; Orioli, Silvia; Perniciaro, Massimo; Vitale, Massimo; Chiodi, Marcello; Adelfio, Giada

2009-10-01

69

Factors Associated with Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet among Adolescents Living in Sicily, Southern Italy  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to examine the factors associated with increased Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence among a sample of Italian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1135 students (13–16 years) attending 13 secondary schools of Sicily, southern Italy. Validated instruments were used for dietary assessment and the KIDMED score to assess adolescents’ adherence to the MD. A higher adherence to the MD was associated with high socioeconomic status (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.03–2.26) and high physical activity (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02–1.70), whereas lower adherence was associated with living in an urban environment (OR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44–0.97) and being obese (OR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37–0.94). The adolescents’ KIDMED scores were inversely associated with adolescents’ intake of sweets, fast foods, fried foods, and sugary drinks, and directly with fruit, vegetables, pasta, fish, and cheese intakes. Urban-living adolescents were less likely to eat fruit and more prone to consume meat, sugary drinks, and fast food than rural-living adolescents. The latter were more likely to eat sweets and snacks. A general poor quality of food consumption in Italian adolescents away from the MD was reported, especially among those living in urban areas. PMID:24304608

Grosso, Giuseppe; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Scuderi, Alessandro; Matalone, Margherita; Platania, Alessio; Giorgianni, Gabriele; Rametta, Stefania; Nolfo, Francesca; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio

2013-01-01

70

Climate forcing of volcano lateral collapse: evidence from Mount Etna, Sicily.  

PubMed

In this study, we present evidence for early Holocene climatic conditions providing circumstances favourable to major lateral collapse at Mount Etna, Sicily. The volcano's most notable topographic feature is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 8 km cliff-bounded amphitheatre excavated from the eastern flank of the volcano. Its origin due to prehistoric lateral collapse is corroborated by stürtzstrom deposits adjacent to the amphitheatre's downslope outlet, but the age, nature and cause of amphitheatre excavation remain matters for debate. Cosmogenic (3)He exposure ages determined for eroded surfaces within an abandoned watershed flanking the Valle del Bove support channel abandonment ca 7.5 ka BP, as a consequence of its excavation in a catastrophic collapse event. Watershed development was largely dictated by pluvial conditions during the early Holocene, which are also implicated in slope failure. A viable trigger is magma emplacement into rift zones in the eastern flank of a water-saturated edifice, leading to the development of excess pore pressures, consequent reduction in sliding resistance, detachment and collapse. Such a mechanism is presented as one potential driver of future lateral collapse in volcanic landscapes forecast to experience increased precipitation or melting of ice cover as a consequence of anthropogenic warming. PMID:20403842

Deeming, K R; McGuire, B; Harrop, P

2010-05-28

71

Risk of classic Kaposi sarcoma with residential exposure to volcanic and related soils in Sicily  

PubMed Central

Purpose Before AIDS, endemic (African) Kaposi sarcoma (KS) was noted to occur in volcanic areas and was postulated to result from dirt chronically embedded in the skin of the lower extremities. The primary cause of all KS types is KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection, but co-factors contribute to the neoplasia. We investigated whether residential exposure volcanic or related soils was associated with the risk of classic Kaposi sarcoma (cKS) in Sicily. Methods Risk of incident cKS (n=141) compared to population-based KSHV seropositive controls (n=123) was estimated for residential exposure to four types of soil, categorized with maps from the European Soil Database and direct surveying. Questionnaire data provided covariates. Results Residents in communities high in luvisols were approximately 2.7-times more likely to have cKS than those in communities with no luvisols. Risk was not specific for cKS on the limbs, but it was elevated approximately 4–5-fold with frequent bathing or tap water drinking in high luvisols communities. Risk was unrelated to communities high in andosols, tephra, or clay soils. Conclusions Iron and alumino-silicate clay, major components of luvisols, may increase cKS risk, but formal investigation and consideration of other soil types and exposures are needed. PMID:19576540

Pelser, Colleen; Dazzi, Carmelo; Graubard, Barry I.; Lauria, Carmela; Vitale, Francesco; Goedert, James J.

2009-01-01

72

Adaptation and selection in the Senecio (Asteraceae) hybrid zone on Mount Etna, Sicily.  

PubMed

Hybrid zone theory provides a powerful theoretical framework for measuring and testing gene flow and selection. The Senecio aethnensis and Senecio chrysanthemifolius hybrid zone on Mount Etna, Sicily, was investigated to identify phenotypic traits under divergent selection and to assess the contributions of intrinsic and extrinsic selection against hybrids to hybrid zone maintenance. Senecio samples from 14 sites across Mount Etna were analyzed for 24 quantitative traits classified into four groups (QTGs), six allozymes and seven simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci to describe patterns of variation throughout the hybrid zone. Narrower cline widths or shifts in cline centre position were observed for three QTGs relative to the molecular clines, indicating that these traits are likely to be under extrinsic environmental selection. Altitude was key to describing species distributions, but dispersal and intrinsic selection against hybrids explained patterns at smaller spatial scales. The hybrid zone was characterized by strong selection against hybrids, high dispersal rates, recent species contact and few loci differentiating QTGs based on indirect measures. These results support the hypothesis that extrinsic and intrinsic selection against hybrids maintains the hybrid zone and species distinctiveness despite gene flow between the two Senecio species on Mount Etna. PMID:19594693

Brennan, Adrian C; Bridle, Jon R; Wang, Ai-Lan; Hiscock, Simon J; Abbott, Richard J

2009-08-01

73

Factors associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet among adolescents living in Sicily, Southern Italy.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to examine the factors associated with increased Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence among a sample of Italian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1135 students (13-16 years) attending 13 secondary schools of Sicily, southern Italy. Validated instruments were used for dietary assessment and the KIDMED score to assess adolescents' adherence to the MD. A higher adherence to the MD was associated with high socioeconomic status (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.03-2.26) and high physical activity (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02-1.70), whereas lower adherence was associated with living in an urban environment (OR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44-0.97) and being obese (OR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37-0.94). The adolescents' KIDMED scores were inversely associated with adolescents' intake of sweets, fast foods, fried foods, and sugary drinks, and directly with fruit, vegetables, pasta, fish, and cheese intakes. Urban-living adolescents were less likely to eat fruit and more prone to consume meat, sugary drinks, and fast food than rural-living adolescents. The latter were more likely to eat sweets and snacks. A general poor quality of food consumption in Italian adolescents away from the MD was reported, especially among those living in urban areas. PMID:24304608

Grosso, Giuseppe; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Scuderi, Alessandro; Matalone, Margherita; Platania, Alessio; Giorgianni, Gabriele; Rametta, Stefania; Nolfo, Francesca; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio

2013-12-01

74

Identification of D179H, a novel missense GJB2 mutation in a Western Sicily family.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study was to describe a novel missense mutation (p.D179H) found in a Western Sicily family and to examine the genetic and audiologic profiles of all family members by performing a GJB2 and GJB6 mutations analysis and a complete audiologic assessment. The proband was a 3-month-old infant with a congenital profound sensorineural hearing loss; direct sequencing of the GJB2 revealed the presence of a c.35delG mutation in the heterozygous state and a heterozygous G>C transition at nucleotide 535 in trans; this novel mutation, called p.D179H, resulted in an aspartic acid to histidine change at codon 179. It was also evidenced in the heterozygous state in two members of this family, both with normal hearing. No GJB6 mutations were evidenced in all subjects studied. Considering the genotypic and phenotypic analysis of all family members, we suggest, differently from the p.D179 N mutation previously reported, a recessive mode of inheritance. Functional studies on p.D179H have to be performed to confirm our hypothesis. PMID:23812555

Bartolotta, Caterina; Salvago, Pietro; Cocuzza, Salvatore; Fabiano, Carmelo; Sammarco, Pietro; Martines, Francesco

2014-06-01

75

Assessment of hazards and risks for landscape protection planning in Sicily.  

PubMed

Landscape protection planning is a complex task that requires an integrated assessment and involves heterogeneous issues. These issues include not only the management of a considerable amount of data to describe landscape features but also the choice of appropriate tools to evaluate the hazards and risks. The landscape assessment phase can provide fundamental information for the definition of a Landscape Protection Plan, in which the selection of norms for protection or rehabilitation is strictly related to hazards, values and risks that are found. This paper describes a landscape assessment methodology conducted by using GIS, concerning landscape hazards, values and risk. Four hazard categories are introduced and assessed concerning urban sprawl and erosion: landscape transformations by new planned developments, intensification of urban sprawl patterns, loss of agriculture land and erosion. Landscape value is evaluated by using different thematic layers overlaid with GIS geoprocessing. The risk of loss of landscape value is evaluated, with reference to the potential occurrence of the previously assessed hazards. The case study is the Province of Enna (Sicily), where landscape protection is a relevant issue because of the importance of cultural and natural heritage. Results show that high value landscape features have a low risk of loss of landscape value. For this reason, landscape protection policies assume a relevant role in landscapes with low-medium values and they should be addressed to control the urban sprawl processes that are beginning in the area. PMID:22766043

La Rosa, Daniele; Martinico, Francesco

2013-09-01

76

Distribution of morphological cells in the southern littoral of Sicily (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A geomorphologic approach, combined with GIS spatial analysis, was used to investigate a 90 Km long coastal sector in Southern Sicily, Italy. Applied methodology allowed the determination of coastal erosion/accretion areas, general sediment circulation patterns and littoral cell distribution. The investigated littoral is recording important coastal erosion problems, mainly linked to the construction of ports and harbours. Such structures, as well as natural headlands, divide the littoral in morphological cells. Most important artificial limits are observed in correspondence with the ports and harbours of Scoglitti, Punta Secca, Donnalucata and Pozzallo and a haulage zone at Marina di Ragusa. Scoglitti, Punta Secca, Marina di Ragusa and Donnalucata structures work as „transit" limits which generate accretion on the west side parts and erosion on the east side parts. Pozzallo port works as a „convergent" limit because it records accretion at both sides. Most important natural structures are observed at Punta Zafaglione, P. Braccetto and Cava d'Aliga and they work as convergent, divergent and transit limits. Free limits also exist but their location changes according to wave approaching characteristics. The knowledge of littoral cell distribution acquires a great importance in the investigated littoral for the management of coastal erosion processes, which may be mitigated by the installation of by-passing systems in ports and harbours.

Anfuso, G.; Martínez Del Pozo, J. A.; Monaca, A.

2009-04-01

77

Paleomagnetism of Pleistocene volcanic rocks from Pantelleria Island (Sicily Channel), Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A paleomagnetic investigation has been carried out on Pleistocene volcanic rocks from Pantelleria, in the Sicily Channel. This island is characterised by a bimodal volcanism of peralkaline rhyolite to trachyte and basalt composition. The radiometric data indicate that volcanic activity started around 324 ka BP. Samples have been collected from 30 sites in 16 volcanic units spanning activity during the last 150 ka. Magnetic properties vary systematically with lithotype and indicate high-Ti titanomagnetite to magnetite as the main carriers of magnetisation. Stable characteristic remanent magnetisation (ChRM) directions isolated by alternating fields (Af) demagnetisation show normal polarity consistent with emplacement during the Brunhes chron and vary within the paleosecular variation (PSV) range. However, the inclinations are low as compared with the geocentric axial dipole (GAD) inclination at Pantelleria, especially for volcanic units younger than 50 ka. The mean ChRM direction computed from 27 sites is D=358.8°, I=46.9° ( k=30, ?95=5.2°), and the inclination anomaly is ? I=-8.1°. Both tectonic movements and the presence of large magnetic anomalies around the island of Pantelleria fail to explain this low inclination, which may therefore be related to a significant long-lived, non-dipolar field contribution in the area over the past 150 kyr.

Zanella, Elena

1998-08-01

78

Chlorophyll distribution and variability in the Sicily Channel (Mediterranean Sea) as seen by remote sensing data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remotely sensed ocean chlorophyll concentration is related to the presence of phytoplankton in the upper ocean layers. Its spatial and temporal variability significantly differs from region to region, originating from both purely ecological factors and local environmental conditions (e.g. species involved, grazing, light and nutrient availability, temperature, etc.). As a result, various physical processes are known to significantly affect chlorophyll distribution especially in coastal areas. Among these, wind-driven upwelling, river discharge, cross-shelf exchanges related to local dynamics and horizontal advection due to larger scale dynamics are often invoked as dominant mechanisms. In this work, we investigate which physical process mostly contributes to the phytoplankton variability in the Channel of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea), based on satellite estimates of surface chlorophyll (CHL) concentration, kinetic energy (KE) and sea surface temperature (SST). An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis is applied to the three time series, spanning the 1998-2006 period. The main patterns of variability of each parameter and the physical processes associated with KE and SST modes are identified. The successive cross-correlation analysis shows that most of the CHL variability (explained variance 78%) is induced by the seasonal advection of the Atlantic Waters (r=0.7), while wind-driven upwelling, generally considered the main process modulating phytoplankton growth in the area, only explains 1.4% of the total CHL variance. Well known Coastal upwelling explains only 0.5% of chlorophyll variability.

Rinaldi, Eleonora; Buongiorno Nardelli, Bruno; Volpe, Gianluca; Santoleri, Rosalia

2014-04-01

79

Lava flow-field morphology: A case study from Mount Etna, Sicily  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The morphology of lava flows is often taken as an indicator of the broad chemical composition of the lava, especially when interpreting extraterrestrial volcanoes using spacecraft images. The historical lavas of the active volcano Mount Etna in Sicily provide an excellent opportunity to examine the controls on flow field morphology. In this study only flow produced by flank eruptions after the middle of the 18th century are examined. The final form of a flow-field may be more indicative of the internal plumbing of the volcano, which may control such factors as the effusion, rate, duration of eruption, volume of available magma, rate of de-gassing, and lava rheology. Different flow morphologies on Etna appear to be a good indicator of differing conditions within the volcanic pile. Thus the spatial distribution of different flow types on an extraterrestrial volcano may provide useful information about the plumbing conditions of that volcano, rather than necessarily providing information on the composition of materials erupted.

Guest, J. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Duncan, A. M.

1987-01-01

80

Aflatoxin M1 in raw, UHT milk and dairy products in Sicily (Italy).  

PubMed

A survey on 73 milk samples from different animal breeds and 24 dairy products samples from Sicily, Italy, was carried out for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) by LC-fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity cleanup. AFM1 was detected in 48% and 42% of the milk and dairy samples at concentration ranges between <5.0-16.0 and <5.0-18.0 ng L(-1), respectively. Within the raw milk samples, 92% had an AFM1 content below 5.0 ng L(-1), in 7% of the cases it was in the range 5.0-10.0 ng L(-1) and 1% was contaminated between 10.0 and 20.0 ng L(-1). For the dairy products, ultra-high-temperature treated (UHT) milk, milk cream and cheese, the incidence was 42%, of which 83% contained less than 5.0 ng L(-1) and 17% contained 10.0-20.0 ng L(-1) AFM1. The levels of contamination found justify continuous monitoring for public health and to reduce consumer exposure. PMID:24779902

Santini, Antonello; Raiola, Assunta; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Macaluso, Andrea; Bognanno, Matteo; Galvano, Fabio; Ritieni, Alberto

2013-01-01

81

Geophysical monitoring of a complex geologic framework: the multi-disciplinary sensor networks in Sicily (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2004 the Osservatorio Etneo INGV has begun a new approach to the geophysical monitoring of volcanic and seismic areas of Sicily (Italy) where the core is a new type of remote infrastructure able to efficiently accommodate different kinds of sensor. In particular our multi-parametric network is mainly focused on the monitoring of different geophysical parameters (seismic ground velocity and acceleration, infrasound and ground deformation GPS).The whole seismic network consists of 66 broad band digital stations, 19 analog stations, 13 accelerometric stations and 12 infrasonic stations, for a total of 110 stations while the Continuous GPS network consist of 80 stations. Every station is equipped with solar panels in order to satisfy the power requirements of the instruments and with satellite-based communication systems. In this work we show both the technical solutions of this integrated network and its main advantages, if compared with older kinds of remote stations. Moreover we show some examples of the more interesting scientific results achieved thank to this technologically advanced network.

Cantarero, M.; Di Prima, S.; Mattia, M.; Patanè, D.; Rossi, M.

2012-04-01

82

Rockfall hazard assessment along a road on Peloritani Mounts (northeastern Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hazard assessment has been performed on rock slopes impending over a segment of the Taorminese Road, which connects two popular tourist destinations in northeastern Sicily: the urban centers of Taormina and Castelmola. The road crosses steep, rock slopes, with a complex geological and tectonic history. The section of the road close to Castelmola is often affected by rockfall phenomena, causing injury to people and serious damage to buildings and traffic. The study analyzes the geostructural setting of the unstable rock masses, by evaluating their mechanical properties and the kinematics of potential failures. Rockfall simulations confirm that falling rocks would involve the Taorminese Road with different kinetic energy rates and prove useful for suggesting the most suitable mitigation technologies for future remedial works. The modified Rockfall Hazard Rating System has been applied to highlight the different levels of hazard along the road. The compiled hazard map shows that the slopes need urgent remedial works, especially because Taorminese is the only access road to Castelmola and its interruption would lead to the isolation of the entire village.

Pappalardo, G.; Mineo, S.; Rapisarda, F.

2013-12-01

83

Rockfall hazard assessment along a road on the Peloritani Mountains (northeastern Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hazard assessment has been performed on rock slopes impending over a segment of the Taorminese Road, which connects two popular tourist destinations in northeastern Sicily: the urban centers of Taormina and Castelmola. The road crosses steep rock slopes with a complex geological and tectonic history. The section of the road close to Castelmola is often affected by rockfall phenomena, causing injury to people and serious damage to buildings and traffic. The study analyzes the geostructural setting of the unstable rock masses, by evaluating their mechanical properties and the kinematics of potential failures. Rockfall simulations confirm that falling rocks would involve the Taorminese Road with different kinetic energy rates and prove useful for suggesting the most suitable mitigation technologies for future remedial works. The modified Rockfall Hazard Rating System has been applied to highlight the different levels of hazard along the road. The compiled hazard map shows that portions of the slopes need urgent remedial works, especially because Taorminese is the only access road to Castelmola and its interruption would lead to the isolation of the village.

Pappalardo, G.; Mineo, S.; Rapisarda, F.

2014-10-01

84

Sustainability evaluation of Sicily's lemon and orange production: an energy, economic and environmental analysis.  

PubMed

The island of Sicily has a long standing tradition in citrus growing. We evaluated the sustainability of orange and lemon orchards, under organic and conventional farming, using an energy, environmental and economic analysis of the whole production cycle by using a life cycle assessment approach. These orchard systems differ only in terms of a few of the inputs used and the duration of the various agricultural operations. The quantity of energy consumption in the production cycle was calculated by multiplying the quantity of inputs used by the energy conversion factors drawn from the literature. The production costs were calculated considering all internal costs, including equipment, materials, wages, and costs of working capital. The performance of the two systems (organic and conventional), was compared over a period of fifty years. The results, based on unit surface area (ha) production, prove the stronger sustainability of the organic over the conventional system, both in terms of energy consumption and environmental impact, especially for lemons. The sustainability of organic systems is mainly due to the use of environmentally friendly crop inputs (fertilizers, not use of synthetic products, etc.). In terms of production costs, the conventional management systems were more expensive, and both systems were heavily influenced by wages. In terms of kg of final product, the organic production system showed better environmental and energy performances. PMID:23850762

Pergola, M; D'Amico, M; Celano, G; Palese, A M; Scuderi, A; Di Vita, G; Pappalardo, G; Inglese, P

2013-10-15

85

Post-Messinian evolutionary relationships across the Sicilian channel: Mitochondrial and nuclear markers link a new green toad from Sicily to African relatives  

PubMed Central

Background Little attention has been paid to the consequences of the last landbridge between Africa and Sicily on Mediterranean biogeography. Previous paleontological and scarce molecular data suggest possible faunal exchange later than the well-documented landbridge in the Messinian (5.3 My); however, a possible African origin of recent terrestrial Sicilian fauna has not been thoroughly tested with molecular methods. To gain insight into the phylogeography of the region, we examine two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers (one is a newly adapted intron marker) in green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) across that sea barrier, the Strait of Sicily. Results Extensive sampling throughout the western Mediterranean and North Africa revealed a deep sister relationship between Sicilian (Bufo siculus n.sp.) and African green toads (B. boulengeri) on the mitochondrial and nuclear level. Divergence times estimated under a Bayesian-coalescence framework (mtDNA control region and 16S rRNA) range from the Middle Pliocene (3.6 My) to Pleistocene (0.16 My) with an average (1.83 to 2.0 My) around the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, suggesting possible land connections younger than the Messinian (5.3 My). We describe green toads from Sicily and some surrounding islands as a new endemic species (Bufo siculus). Bufo balearicus occurs on some western Mediterranean islands (Corsica, Sardinia, Mallorca, and Menorca) and the Apennine Peninsula, and is well differentiated on the mitochondrial and nuclear level from B. siculus as well as from B. viridis (Laurenti), whose haplotype group reaches northeastern Italy, north of the Po River. Detection of Calabrian B. balearicus haplotypes in northeastern Sicily suggests recent invasion. Our data agree with paleogeographic and fossil data, which suggest long Plio-Pleistocene isolation of Sicily and episodic Pleistocene faunal exchange across the Strait of Messina. It remains unknown whether both species (B. balearicus, B. siculus) occur in sympatry in northern Sicily. Conclusion Our findings on green toads give the first combined mitochondrial and nuclear sequence evidence for a phylogeographic connection across the Strait of Sicily in terrestrial vertebrates. These relationships may have implications for comparative phylogeographic research on other terrestrial animals co-occurring in North Africa and Sicily. PMID:18294389

2008-01-01

86

[Environment and health in Gela (Sicily): present knowledge and prospects for future studies].  

PubMed

The study area includes the Municipalities of Gela, Niscemi and Butera located in the South of Sicily, Italy. In 1990 it was declared Area at High Risk of Environmental Crisis. In 2000 part of it was designated as Gela Reclamation Site of National Interest, RSNI. The site includes a private industrial area, public and marine areas, for a total of 51 km(2). Gela populationin 2008 was 77,145 (54,774 in 1961). Sea level:46 m. Total area: 276 km(2). Grid reference: 37 degrees 4' 0" N, 14 degrees 15' 0" E. Niscemi and Butera are located border to Gela. Populations are respectively 26,541 and 5,063. Sea level respectively: 332 m and 402 m. Close to the city of Gela, the industrial area, operating since 1962, includes chemical production plants, a power station and an oil refinery plant, one of the larger in Europe, refining 5 millions tons of crude per year. From the beginning the workforces decreased from 7,000 to the current 3,000 units. Over the years, these industrial activities have been a major source of environmental pollution. Extremely high levels of toxic, persistent and bio-accumulating chemical pollutants have been documented. Many relevant environmental and health data are available. Prior to the studies described in the present publication, their use in order to identify environmental pressures on health has been limited. Nevertheless, since several years different epidemiological studies have provided evidence of the occurrence of health outcomes significantly higher than in neighbouring areas and compared to regional data. In 2007 a Multidisciplinary Working Group has been established, to analyze the existing data on pollution-exposure-effect and to complete current knowledge on the cycle of pollutants, from migration in the environment to health impact. The present publication is a collection of contribution of this group of experts, supported by the following projects: Evaluation of environmental health impact and estimation of economic costs at of National Interest Remediation Sites coordinated by the Italian National Institute of Health on behalf of the Ministry for the Environment and Technical Assistance of WHO Health and Environment Centre to the Sicilian Region to develop plans for environmental remediation. Results describe the state of contamination of a variety of environmental matrices in the area. Other contributions are addressed to understanding action mechanisms of main pollutants and their environmental pathways, as well as to identifying crucial knowledge to be used for studying the environment-health relations. A specific attention has been paid to pollutants migration in the environment and to the potential exposure of the population. Appropriate markers of exposure and physiological changes are described and referred to the chemical substances identified in the environment in Gela. Details are given about the genotoxic and endocrine disrupting potential, and about the potential association between markers of exposure and diseases observed in excess in the same area. Indications to develop specific biomarkers for Index Substances and human biomonitoring surveys for populations exposed to environmental risk are presented and discussed. A specific multiple-exposure risk assessment procedure is proposed for Index Substances. Epidemiological studies useful to describe the health status of Gela population are summarized. One report deals with the occupational and residential analyses of male petrochemical workers, born in Sicily, employed from 1960 to the end of 1993, followed up for mortality from 1960 to 2002. Major findings were amarked healthy worker effect and an increased lung cancer risk for residence in Gela. The analyses of death certificates from 1995 to 2002 and of hospital discharge records from 2001 to 2007 confirm the potentialities of these current statistics for ecological studies: they depict the poor health conditions of Gela residents compared to other neighbouring municipalities in a 40-km range. Infact, the overall mortality rate for tumor and non-tumor causes in Ge

Musmeci, Loredana; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Carere, Mario; Cori, Liliana

2009-01-01

87

Observed Changes In Extreme Precipitation In The North Eastern Side Of Sicily (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Italy, the occurrence of flash floods due to heavy storms, and related consequences on socio-economic activities, become more and more serious and worrying every year. Although, such natural disasters mainly depend on an intensive and usually unplanned soil exploitation, however there is a widespread belief that the effects of climate change plays a major role in worsening the current situation. In particular, many studies have shown that in the last century the average number of rainy days is decreased, whereas precipitation intensity is increased at the same time, as more and more heavy rainfall occur in shorter periods. In Sicily region, the province of Messina is the one with the largest number of sites under flash flood threatening, many of which are located along the Ionian side. As an example, on October 1, 2009, an heavy storm has produced landslides and floodings which have caused 37 victims and more than 2000 evacuated people, as well as severe damages to buildings, infrastructures and economic activities. In this study, preliminary results of a research aimed at investigating the occurrence of changes in precipitation field over North Eastern side of Sicily (Italy), in recent decades are illustrated, with special reference to extreme values. In particular, daily precipitation series with at least 45 years of records starting from 1951 are selected among those observed at the meteorological stations located along the Ionian side of Messina province. First, an analysis to assess the presence of trends in annual and seasonal precipitation amount, number of rainy days and average intensity is carried out based on the Sequential Mann-Kendall test for non linear trend detection. With respect to annual values, both the number of rainy days and rainfall amount series show a decreasing trend for all the investigated series. With regard to the average intensity, only the series corresponding to Ganzirri station show a significant decreasing trend. Such results are also confirmed by the trend analysis carried out on the six-monthly records from October to March, which is the period providing the most part of the contribution to the total annual precipitation (more than 75 % on average). Then, in order to understand whether changes in precipitation are due to a change in the number of days with heavy precipitation or with light precipitation, an analysis of daily rainfall amounts belonging to specific classes defined by thresholds, corresponding to fixed percentiles of daily precipitation, has been carried out. Threshold values have been derived after fitting probability distributions to each station's wet day data for each month of the year. Results show that the detected decrease in the number of rainy days cannot be ascribed to one class only, whereas decrease in rainfall amount is mainly due to the lower classes for all the stations, which implies a general reduction in the amount of light and moderate rain. No trends are identified for the average intensity. Further researches are ongoing to analyze the effect of detected trends on the assessment of the return period of critical events recently occurred along the investigated area.

Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Bonaccorso, Brunella

2013-04-01

88

Constraining sediment supply controls on stratigraphy: Case studies from Sicily, Calabria and Abruzzo, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitude, locus and characteristics of sediment export from catchments to basins play a fundamental role in controlling depositional stratigraphy. A predictive understanding of this process therefore requires (i) data illustrating the characteristics of sediment delivery within catchments; (ii) constraints on how this supply signal evolves down-system and (iii) knowledge of how this signal is "sampled" in the geological record. First we present detailed data on the distribution and magnitude of grain size export from > 40 tectonically-perturbed catchments across Sicily, Calabria and Abruzzo, where we have excellent constraints on tectonic uplift rates, lithology and hydraulic geometry. We demonstrate that for catchments in topographic steady-state, grain size release is strongly controlled by rock type, but is insensitive to local uplift rates that are < 1 mm/yr. In contrast, for catchments responding transiently to tectonics, sediment release is strongly controlled by the degree of tectonic perturbation. We derive estimates of the volume and grain size distribution of sediment exported to the straits of Messina as a whole, and we use terrace data to show there has been little change to this signal in the last 200 kyr. Second, we investigate how sediment supply variables control stratigraphy using a self-similarity depositional model based on dimensionless relative mobility functions of fluvial gravel. This approach offers a powerful way to explore the key controls on stratigraphic fining rates and demonstrates that the spread and magnitude of grain size release plays a crucial role in determining stratigraphy in the proximal hanging-wall basins of normal faults.

Whittaker, A. C.; Erhardt, S.; Duller, R. A.; Armitage, J. J.; Allen, P. A.

2012-12-01

89

Aircraft in situ and remote sensing measurements of emissions from Etna volcano, Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanoes emit particles (silicates and sulphate aerosol) and gases (e.g., water and sulphur dioxide) which influence the radiative balance of the atmosphere. The rate at which sulphur dioxide oxidises to sulphate aerosol is poorly constrained and measurements of downwind abundance are required to quantify the rate at which this process occurs. During July and November 2011, a series of measurements were performed in emissions from Etna Volcano, Sicily, using the University of Applied Sciences (Dusseldorf) research aircraft. Both in situ and remote sensing instrumentation was simultaneously deployed to quantify the down-wind characteristics of gases and particles in the plume emitted by the volcano. In situ particle characteristics were measured using a Grimm 1.109 optical particle counter (microparticles 0.25-32 microns) and Grimm 1320 diffusion electrometer (nanoparticles 25-300 nanometers). Column abundance of sulphur dioxide was measured using a vertically-pointing differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS). These measurements were compared to horizontal pathlength-integrated measurements of sulphur dioxide from the Airborne Volcanic Imaging Object Detector (AVOID). Down-wind plume dispersion was discriminated through a series of aircraft transects below and through the volcanic plume. The emissions contained large amounts of nanoparticles relative to microparticles, which reflects gas-phase nucleation of sulphate aerosol. The AVOID system discriminated horizontal layering of volcanic aerosol at altitudes of up to 12,000 ft from a detection range of >50 km. Plume boundaries were discriminated using a combination of the in situ and DOAS measurements in order to compare to the pathlength-integrated measurements from AVOID.

Vogel, A.; Weber, K.; Fischer, C.; Prata, A. J.; Durant, A. J.

2012-04-01

90

Formation of secondary carbonates and native sulphur in sulphate-rich Messinian strata, Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbially formed authigenic carbonates accompanied by native sulphur are present in the 'Calcare Solfifero' below a thick succession of gypsum deposited during the Messinian salinity crisis in Sicily. We sampled these carbonates and associated sulphur in five former sulphur mines to subject them to a detailed petrographic and geochemical study in order to explore their different modes of formation. Native sulphur formed in conjunction with microbial sulphate reduction, which is reflected in its depletion in 34S ( ?34S values as low as - 2‰ vs. V-CDT) and an enrichment of 34S in the residual sulphate ( ?34S values as high as + 61‰). The oxidation of organic matter by sulphate reduction increased alkalinity, inducing precipitation of secondary carbonate minerals. A set of authigenic limestones lacking sulphate minerals, but characterized by pseudomorphs after gypsum and high ?18O values (as high as + 9‰ vs. V-PDB) reflects syngenetic mineral formation within evaporitic settings. Low ?13C values (as low as - 52‰ vs. V-PDB) reveal that these carbonate phases were formed by microbial sulphate reduction coupled to the oxidation of biogenic methane. Another set of authigenic carbonates that replaced sulphate minerals is typified by low ?18O values (as low as - 4‰). These carbonates formed epigenetically during later diagenesis following compaction. Dissolution of gypsum or anhydrite by meteoric waters delivered the sulphate for microbial sulphate reduction. Low carbon isotope values of these carbonates (- 29 to - 5‰) indicate that carbonate was derived from the oxidation of crude oil and possibly minor methane, partly involving different degrees of admixture of dissolved carbonate from other sources. Although the studied rocks with their vast amounts of secondary carbonate minerals and sulphur seem to indicate a similar genesis at first glance - having formed by biogeochemical transformations of sulphate and hydrocarbons - this study reveals that these processes can occur at different times in variable geological environments.

Ziegenbalg, S. B.; Brunner, B.; Rouchy, J. M.; Birgel, D.; Pierre, C.; Böttcher, M. E.; Caruso, A.; Immenhauser, A.; Peckmann, J.

2010-05-01

91

Climate change effects on hydropower potential of the Alcantara river basin in Sicily (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years an increasing attention has been paid to hydropower generation, since it is a renewable, efficient, and reliable source of energy, as well as an effective tool to reduce the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases resulting from human activities. At the same time, however, hydropower is high vulnerable to global warming, because water resources are closely linked to climate changes. Indeed, the effects of climate change on water availability are expected to affect hydropower generation with special reference to Southern countries which are supposed to face dryer conditions in the next decades. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of future climate change on the hydrological regime of the Alcantara river basin, Eastern Sicily (Italy), based on Monte Carlo simulations. Synthetic series of daily rainfall and temperature are generated, based on observed data, through a first order Markov chain and an ARMA model respectively, for the current scenario and two future scenarios at 2025. In particular, the mean and standard deviation values of daily rainfall and temperature at 2025, calculated using simulations of the Hadley Centre Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Model (HadCM3), are adopted to generate future scenarios of precipitation and temperature. Synthetic series for the two climatic scenarios are, then, introduced as input into the IHACRES model to simulate the hydrological response of the basin. The effects of climate change are, then, investigated by analysing potential modification of the resulting flow duration curves and utilisation curves, which allow to estimate a site's energy potential for the design of run-of-river hydropower plants.

Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Bonaccorso, Brunella

2013-04-01

92

Trace elements in scalp hair of children living in differing environmental contexts in Sicily (Italy).  

PubMed

We present here data about trace elements in human scalp hair samples to test whether they are valuable to reflect environmental exposure and contamination by trace elements. The study compares contents of trace elements in scalp hair from a total of 336 children, aged 11-13 years old, living in various geographical areas of Sicily (southern Italy) characterized by differing environmental conditions. Nineteen elements (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Sr, U, V and Zn) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Coverage intervals (CI) formulated by the elemental composition of hair samples from the Palermo subjects were compared with the median content of hair from children living in the other study areas. Statistical analysis showed that Al, Ba, Sr and Zn concentrations differed significantly between gender, higher concentrations being observed in girls' hair. Children living close to the volcanic area had higher concentrations of As, Cr, Mn, Ni, Rb, Sb, U, V and Zn. Those living in an area with several old quarries had higher levels of Al, As, Pb, Rb and U. The hair of children living near the Pace del Mela industrial area contained higher levels of As, Ba, Mn, Pb, Rb, Sr and U. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) between Palermo and the other sites allowed to better assess which variables contribute towards differentiating the groups. Our observations suggest that human hair can be used to monitor exposure to several metals, provided that sampling and analytical procedures, together with statistical treatment of data, are carried out according to standardized protocols. PMID:22522426

Dongarrà, G; Varrica, D; Tamburo, E; D'Andrea, D

2012-09-01

93

Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in lanner Falco biarmicus feldeggli Schlegel chicks and lanner prey in Sicily, Italy.  

PubMed

This paper reports on research conducted to elucidate the risk posed to the Sicilian population of the endangered lanner falcon Falco biarmicus feldeggii Schlegel by organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), as part of a wider study on contaminant risk to the lanner. Seventeen lanner nest sites were studied in northern and central Sicily. Sampling (in 2005) and analysis were carried out for selected OC pesticides and PCB congeners in lanner chick blood (15 chicks from 6 nest sites) and in two of the main lanner prey species, magpie Pica pica (36 individuals from 6 lanner nest sites) and rock dove Columba livia (10 individuals from 2 lanner nest sites). No OC and PCB residues were found in lanner chick blood above the detection limits, except for one solitary congener PCB153 (21.8 ng g(-1) wet weight), suggesting that these contaminants do not pose a significant risk to lanner chicks in the study area. Magpie and dove appeared mostly free of contamination with OC pesticides, though contamination levels were significantly higher in magpie than in dove. The presence of exceptional DDE and HEOD values in approximately 8% of the P. pica sample, and one P. pica sample showing recent DDT contamination, may indicate a local OC pesticide hazard to some lanner. Future research to further elucidate the contaminant risk to lanner in Sicily is suggested. PMID:18833798

Movalli, Paola; Lo Valvo, Mario; Pereira, M Glória; Osborn, Daniel

2008-09-01

94

Ground penetrating radar survey finalized to the recovery of the ``S. Agata alla Badia'' church in Catania (eastern Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous archaeological sites dating to the greek-roman period have been found in the underground of the city of Catania (eastern Sicily, Italy). Their presence is a testimony of the several settlements that have followed in this area over time. In this work we have conducted electromagnetic surveys, consisting of ten georadar profiles, inside the church of “S. Agata alla Badia”, damaged during the earthquake occurred in eastern Sicily on 13 December 1990. The aim was to investigate the area where the church is located to obtain information useful for its structural recovery. Mechanical drillings were also carried out to reconstruct the local stratigraphy, which could be complicated by the presence of underground cavities and artefacts, as evidenced by recent excavations beneath the Catania Cathedral, in the nearby Piazza Duomo. From the interpretation of the GPR data, the presence of ancient masonry structures underlying the recent foundations was highlighted. In addition, the GPR survey allowed us to identify and locate reflective horizons in the subsurface, probably due to the presence of materials with different state of aggregation and/or to buried structures.

Imposa, S.; Barone, F.; Gresta, S.; Leone, A.

2009-08-01

95

Variability of water mass properties in the Strait of Sicily in summer period of 1998-2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Strait of Sicily plays a crucial role in determining the water mass exchanges and related properties between western and eastern Mediterranean. The presence of sills to the east and west of the Strait of Sicily and the complex seabed topography modulate the thermohaline circulation of the Mediterranean basin. An anti-estuarine circulation is mainly characterized, from a dynamic point of view, by a two-layer system: a surface layer composed of Atlantic Water (AW) flowing eastward, essentially dominated by mesoscale processes, and a subsurface layer composed of Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) flowing in the opposite direction; the topography appears to play an important role. Furthermore, there are transition water masses with variable hydrological characteristics. The dataset here studied is a time series 16 years long (1998-2013), which highlights the high horizontal and vertical interannual variability affecting the study area. Strong temperature-salinity correlations, in the intermediate layer, for specific time intervals, could be linked to the reversal of sub-surface circulation in the Central Ionian Sea. Moreover, a long-term monitoring of the hydrographic properties of water masses across this strait allow the modelers to assess the performance of hydrological models of this area.

Bonanno, A.; Placenti, F.; Basilone, G.; Mifsud, R.; Genovese, S.; Patti, B.; Di Bitetto, M.; Aronica, S.; Barra, M.; Giacalone, G.; Ferreri, R.; Fontana, I.; Buscaino, G.; Tranchida, G.; Quinci, E. M.; Mazzola, S.

2014-03-01

96

Post-Messinian evolutionary relationships across the Sicilian channel: Mitochondrial and nuclear markers link a new green toad from Sicily to African relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little attention has been paid to the consequences of the last landbridge between Africa and Sicily on Mediterranean biogeography. Previous paleontological and scarce molecular data suggest possible faunal exchange later than the well-documented landbridge in the Messinian (5.3 My); however, a possible African origin of recent terrestrial Sicilian fauna has not been thoroughly tested with molecular methods. To gain

Matthias Stöck; Alessandra Sicilia; Natalia M Belfiore; David Buckley; Sabrina Lo Brutto; Mario Lo Valvo; Marco Arculeo

2008-01-01

97

Holocene hydrological changes in south-western Mediterranean as recorded by lake-level fluctuations at Lago Preola, a coastal lake in southern Sicily, Italy  

E-print Network

at Lago Preola, a coastal lake in southern Sicily, Italy Michel Magny a,*, Boris Vannière a , Camilla Calo, Switzerland c Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Via S. Maria 53, 56126 Pisa, Italy d IGC-CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, 56100 Pisa, Italy e Dipartimento di Colture Arboree, Facoltà di Agraria, Viale delle Scienze 11, I-90128

Bern, Universität

98

Structural, Ams and Paleomagnetic Data On Plio-pleistocene Sedimentary Basins In Eastern Sicily: Deformative Pattern In A Back Arc, Foredeep To Foreland System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results from an integrated structural, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), and paleomagnetic study on Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary basins in Eastern Sicily. These basins belong to three main tectonic domains, from north to south: the Tyrrhenian extensional hinterland domain, the Quaternary compressional foredeep do- main, and the Hyblean foreland domain. We sampled 310 oriented cylindrical samples from 23 sites in

F. Cifelli; M. Mattei; F. Rossetti; A. M. Hirt; R. Funiciello

2002-01-01

99

SHORT REPORT: SURVEILLANCE OF LEISHMANIA SP. AMONG SAND FLIES IN SICILY (ITALY) USING A FLUOROGENIC REAL-TIME POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum is a complex zoonotic disease, resulting in cutaneous and visceral manifestations in both dogs and humans. The present study involved a published Taqman fluorogenic real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for surveillance of Leishmania sp. parasites among sand flies trapped in two provinces in Sicily, Catania and Agrigento, during the summer and fall of 2003.

EDUARDO GÓMEZ-SALADÍN; CARL W. DOUD; MICHELE MAROLI

100

Risk of classic Kaposi sarcoma with exposures to plants and soils in Sicily  

PubMed Central

Background Ecologic and in vitro studies suggest that exposures to plants or soil may influence risk of Kaposi sarcoma (KS). Methods In a population-based study of Sicily, we analyzed data on contact with 20 plants and residential exposure to 17 soils reported by 122 classic KS cases and 840 sex- and age-matched controls. With 88 KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) seropositive controls as the referent group, novel correlates of KS risk were sought, along with factors distinguishing seronegatives, in multinomial logistic regression models that included matching variables and known KS cofactors - smoking, cortisone use, and diabetes history. All plants were summed for cumulative exposure. Factor and cluster analyses were used to obtain scores and groups, respectively. Individual plants and soils in three levels of exposure with Ptrend ? 0.15 were retained in a backward elimination regression model. Results Adjusted for known cofactors, KS was not related to cumulative exposures to 20 plants [per quartile adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73 - 1.25, Ptrend = 0.87], nor was it related to any factor scores or cluster of plants (P = 0.11 to 0.81). In the elimination regression model, KS risk was associated with five plants (Ptrend = 0.02 to 0.10) and with residential exposure to six soils (Ptrend = 0.01 to 0.13), including three soils (eutric regosol, chromic/pellic vertisol) used to cultivate durum wheat. None of the KS-associated plants and only one soil was also associated with KSHV serostatus. Diabetes was associated with KSHV seronegativity (ORadj 4.69, 95% CI 1.97 - 11.17), but the plant and soil associations had little effect on previous findings that KS risk was elevated for diabetics (ORadj 7.47, 95% CI 3.04 - 18.35) and lower for current and former smokers (ORadj 0.26 and 0.47, respectively, Ptrend = 0.05). Conclusions KS risk was associated with exposure to a few plants and soils, but these may merely be due to chance. Study of the effects of durum wheat, which was previously associated with cKS, may be warranted. PMID:21126363

2010-01-01

101

Timing and recurrence of failure within NE Gela Basin, Sicily Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine mass movements represent a common phenomenon in the evolution of continental margins. In order to enhance knowledge on trigger mechanisms and assess the geologic risk of slope failure, many studies focus on extensive and voluminous slide complexes, since these may have catastrophic and largely unpredictable consequences for offshore infrastructures and coastal communities alike. However, rather thick and complex deposits often hinder the definition of internal structures and hence the recognition of individual failure events. Small-scaled slide complexes are uniquely positioned in this context, as full data coverage often allows for a more detailed evaluation of the timing and recurrence rates of failure. We present evidence from a multidisciplinary study combining high-resolution acoustic data with deep-drilled core material (MeBo type) from a prominent example - the NE portion of Gela Basin within Sicily Channel, Central Mediterranean Sea. Morphological data (Kongsberg Simrad EM120 and EM1002 multibeam echosounder) and subsurface imagery (Atlas parametric sediment echosounder) from this submarine landslide complex between 200 and 700 m water depth reveal multiple slope failures and stacked mass transport deposits of varying thicknesses and lateral distributions. Correlations of the acoustic data to 14C-dated core material (GeoB14401, 35.5 mbsf) drilled through the stacked mass transport deposits suggest the occurrence of four major failure events within the basin during the last ~30 ka. Failure times of these events relate to different palaeo-environments including (1) the MIS2/3 boundary, (2) the Last Glacial Maximum [LGM], (3) the deposition of Sapropel S1 equivalent, and (4) the late Holocene. In addition to these major events, the occasional presence of reworked shelf-benthic foraminifera species within the core sedimentary record hints towards the presence of additional, small-scaled events during the period of the LGM chronozone. Frequent failure of limited sediment volumes might have counteracted the development of major events during this time. However, the fact that these features, indicating sediment instability, are not resolvable in the acoustic record highlights the benefits of an integrated/multidisciplinary approach in identifying individual failure events within a slide complex.

Kuhlmann, Jannis; Asioli, Alessandra; Trincardi, Fabio; Huhn, Katrin

2014-05-01

102

A Case Study in Archaeoseismology: the Collapses of the Temples at Selinunte (South-Western Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the results of a research that was carried out to further our knowledge of the active faults in south-western Sicily. The only seismic event of particular significance that is known to have occurred is that of 15 January 1968 (Io= XMCS, Me 6.5) in the Belice valley. The archaeological park of Selinunte, the largest in the Mediterranean area, with its great temples and evidence of spectacular collapses, has been taken as a source of information capable of analysis by means of the methodological approach of archaeoseismology. The identification of the seismic indicators at Selinunte necessitated a detailed analysis of both old and new archaeological evidence, together with a critical re-examination of all the archaeological literature and existing documents dating from to the eighteenth century, together with travelers' accounts of that time. The history of the archaeological deposits, spoliation, and excavations has been reconstructed. These data are reinterpreted in the light of both the new discoveries of the most recent research, and of a number of methodological criteria already used in previous works on archaeoseismology. This long and complex analysis was carried out in 1998-99 with Anna Muggia, Clemente Marconi and Enzo Boschi in the research programme of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia. It resulted in the identification of two seismic events that struck Selinunte and led to the collapse of the temples. The chronology of the earthquakes can be dated, for the first, to a period between the fourth and third century BC; for the second, to a period between the sixth and the thirteen century AD. Although the time span proposed, particularly for the second earthquake, is very broad, it does not mean that this earthquake is in anyway hypothetical from a geophysical point of view. Its traces are clear, but the long periods when the site was abandoned mitigate against the fixing of a precise date for the event. In order to reach the conclusions it was necessary in addition to analyze and visualize in a systematic way the direction of collapse of the temples. This work provided new information for an archaeological identification of the two seismic events, as well as making an important contribution from the seismic point of view, namely data on the direction of collapse and the general relationship of these data to the whole Selinunte site. These results now make it possible to engage on new paleoseismic research into the location of the faults involved, and engineering research to construct a model of the response of the temples to a seismic event, and calculate an possible acceleration value.

Guidoboni, E.

2001-12-01

103

Degradation of stone materials in the archaeological context of the Greek-Roman Theatre in Taormina (Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work results on the degradation phenomena of stone materials in the Ancient Theatre of Taormina, one of the most important Greek-Roman monuments of Sicily, are reported. Artificial stone materials in different conservation conditions were investigated. Samples of salt efflorescences from brick walls and degraded setting mortars were taken from the open gallery in “ summa cavea”. The chemical, physical and structural characterization was performed by means of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), both in situ and ex situ. Results showed that the deterioration of stone materials is due to the aggressive action of the environment agents. Soluble salts, such as chlorides, sulphates and nitrates, were found in efflorescence samples. Mortars were affected by a decomposition process induced by sulphates’ attack.

Brai, M.; Casaletto, M. P.; Gennaro, G.; Marrale, M.; Schillaci, T.; Tranchina, L.

2010-09-01

104

New insights on 3D crustal structure in southeastern Sicily (Italy) and tectonic implications from an adaptive mesh seismic tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adaptive mesh double-difference tomography algorithm (tomoADD) was applied to absolute and differential P, S and S-P data to determine three dimensional VP, VS and VP/ VS variations and event locations in southeastern Sicily (Italy). The obtained velocity images highlight vertical and lateral heterogeneities that can be associated with different geological units and main tectonic features. In particular, the sharp velocity contrasts are consistent with previously recognized active faults, allowing us to better determine their shapes and geometries at depth. Moreover, a striking correspondence between areas ruptured by earthquakes and velocity anomalies is observed. In fact, seismicity is mostly confined in the high velocity volumes and/or along the high-low velocity boundaries at mid-crustal depths, whereas it tends to avoid regions with lower than average VP and VS values and higher VP/ VS ratios.

Scarfì, Luciano; Giampiccolo, Elisabetta; Musumeci, Carla; Patanè, Domenico; Zhang, Haijiang

2007-04-01

105

Geomorphology of the NE Sicily continental shelf controlled by tidal currents, canyon head incision and river-derived sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NE Sicily continental shelf, imaged by multibeam bathymetry data and CHIRP/sparker seismic profiles, is less than 5 km-wide, and is located in a tectonically active margin characterized by strong regional uplift rates. In this paper, we show how variations of geomorphic elements in the study area are tied to spatial and temporal changes in the driving forces that control the seafloor processes. This study demonstrates that the geomorphology of continental shelves can vary over very short spatial scales depending on the uneven distribution of sediment supply from rivers and sediment transfer both across and along the shelf by oceanographic currents. In the northeastern part, three sandwave fields were mapped in the highstand sediment wedge that, due to the small size of rivers, is restricted to the inner shelf. The sandwave fields are found in proximity of the Messina Straits, a shallow water sill with strong tidal currents between the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian Seas. The bedform fields have sandwaves of variable shape, wavelength and orientation, reflecting along-shelf variations of tidal current strength and sediment grain size distribution. In the southwestern shelf, rivers are larger and form deltas that shape a considerable part of the shelf, often having their distal, still channelized delta front at the shelf edge. In some cases, deltas are built close to the heads of canyons and a large volume of the river-borne sediments is directly fed to the deep sea through delta front terminal distributary channels. Where rivers are small, the outer shelf lacks recent river borne sediment and presents a relict morphology consisting of submerged coastal systems formed during previous sea-level lowstands. The tectonics of the study area mainly consist of structures that have a NNE-SSW trend similar to the extensional faults responsible for the Siculo-Calabrian Rift Zone in the nearby emerged areas. Our study extends the area affected by the regional deformation belt into the NE Sicily offshore.

Gamberi, Fabiano; Rovere, Marzia; Mercorella, Alessandra; Leidi, Elisa; Dalla Valle, Giacomo

2014-07-01

106

Modelling a strike-slip fault system affecting porous carbonates in Favignana Island (Sicily, southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigating the deformation processes as well as the characteristics and distribution of their end-products is a crucial issue to improve geo-fluid exploitation in carbonate reservoirs (?50% of natural geo-fluids). Indeed, besides the primary controls on the petrophysical properties of limestones, which are due to nature and organization/shape of the constituent elements (i.e. grains, pores, cement, clay minerals), both containment and migration of fluids in these rocks are influenced by fault zones and fractures. In this contribution we integrate quantitative structural analysis and numerical modelling approaches aiming at testing a new workflow useful to create a 3D discrete fracture network (DFN) model of a reservoir starting from outcrop data collected in Favignana Island (Sicily, southern Italy). The presence of several quarries in the Island provides 3D exposures of ?25 m-thick Lower-Pleistocene high-porosity grainstones crosscut by two conjugate sets of strike-slip faults. This fault system, documented by Tondi et al. (2012), is comprised of three types of structure: single compactive shear bands (CSB); zones of bands (ZB); and, faults. CSBs are narrow tabular features with porosity less than the surrounding host rocks, and have thicknesses and displacements on the order of a few mm. The growth process for these structures involves localizing further deformation within zones of closely-spaced CSBs and, possibly, along continuous slip surfaces within fault rocks overprinting older ZBs. The transitions from one growth step to another are recorded by different values of the dimensional parameters (i.e. length, thickness and displacement) for the structures. These transitions are also reflected by the ratios and distributions of the dimensional parameters. The DFN model was built by means of the Fracture Modelling module of the commercial software package Move from Midland Valley©. The analysis of an aerial photo was performed firstly to delimit the outcrop perimeter and geometry, needed to construct the model, and then to identify the major faults. The intensity of CSBs and ZBs, was calculated by integrating the distribution laws of the dimensional parameters (Tondi et al., 2012) with the lineament analysis tool of Move. The variation in intensity of deformation was used to guide the modelling of deformed zones, both within the fault zones and in the host rock in order to obtain a DFN reflecting a deformation pattern similar to the natural one. The DFN was then used to model the effect of deformation on the permeability of the host rock. Here, unlike in tight rocks where deformation generally increases permeability, the CSBs and ZBs reduce permeability whilst slip surfaces within the fault cores enhance fault-parallel fluid flow. Thus, by varying the porosity values attributed to CSBs, ZBs and slip surfaces the resulting DFN model was imposed to have a reduced permeability in CSBs and ZBs (relative to the host rock and the slip surfaces). This semi-automated process of lineament analysis followed by the use of power law distributions to model sub-seismic scale CSBs and ZBs is proposed as a potential modelling route for reservoir scale assessment of structural deformation controls on permeability in porous carbonate reservoirs.

Cilona, A.; Tondi, E.; Agosta, F.; Johnson, G.; Shackleton, R.

2012-12-01

107

Probability hazard map for future vent opening at Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mount Etna is a composite stratovolcano located along the Ionian coast of eastern Sicily. The frequent flank eruptions occurrence (at an interval of years, mostly concentrated along the NE, S and W rift zones) lead to a high volcanic hazard that, linked with intense urbanization, poses a high volcanic risk. A long-term volcanic hazard assessment, mainly based on the past behaviour of the Etna volcano, is the basic tool for the evaluation of this risk. Then, a reliable forecast where the next eruption will occur is needed. A computer-assisted analysis and probabilistic evaluations will provide the relative map, thus allowing identification of the areas prone to the highest hazard. Based on these grounds, the use of a code such BET_EF (Bayesian Event Tree_Eruption Forecasting) showed that a suitable analysis can be explored (Selva et al., 2012). Following an analysis we are performing, a total of 6886 point-vents referring to the last 4.0 ka of Etna flank activity, and spread over an area of 744 km2 (divided into N=2976 squared cell, with side of 500 m), allowed us to estimate a pdf by applying a Gaussian kernel. The probability values represent a complete set of outcomes mutually exclusive and the relative sum is normalized to one over the investigated area; then, the basic assumptions of a Dirichlet distribution (the prior distribution set in the BET_EF code (Marzocchi et al., 2004, 2008)) still hold. One fundamental parameter is the the equivalent number of data, that depicts our confidence on the best guess probability. The BET_EF code also works with a likelihood function. This is modelled by a Multinomial distribution, with parameters representing the number of vents in each cell and the total number of past data (i.e. the 6886 point-vents). Given the grid of N cells, the final posterior distribution will be evaluated by multiplying the a priori Dirichlet probability distribution with the past data in each cell through the likelihood. The probability hazard map shows a tendency to concentrate along the NE and S rifts, as well as Valle del Bove, increasing the difference in probability between these areas and the rest of the volcano edifice. It is worthy notice that a higher significance is still evident along the W rift, even if not comparable with the ones of the above mentioned areas. References Marzocchi W., Sandri L., Gasparini P., Newhall C. and Boschi E.; 2004: Quantifying probabilities of volcanic events: The example of volcanic hazard at Mount Vesuvius, J. Geophys. Res., 109, B11201, doi:10.1029/2004JB00315U. Marzocchi W., Sandri, L. and Selva, J.; 2008: BET_EF: a probabilistic tool for long- and short-term eruption forecasting, Bull. Volcanol., 70, 623 - 632, doi: 10.1007/s00445-007-0157-y. Selva J., Orsi G., Di Vito M.A., Marzocchi W. And Sandri L.; 2012: Probability hazard mapfor future vent opening atthe Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy, Bull. Volcanol., 74, 497 - 510, doi: 10.1007/s00445-011-0528-2.

Brancato, Alfonso; Tusa, Giuseppina; Coltelli, Mauro; Proietti, Cristina

2014-05-01

108

Geological record of the 365 A.D. Crete tsunami in south-eastern Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five years ago we started a coring campaign with the purpose to identify evidence for tsunami inundations along the coastal areas of eastern Sicily, that were affected in historical times by devastating tsunamis, generated both by local earthquakes, such as the 1169, 1693 and 1908 events, and by distant seismic sources, such as those belonging to the Aegean subduction zone (e.g. the A.D. 365 Crete earthquake). Following a multi-theme approach, we used the available historical information to address geomorphological study of the coastal landscape: aerial-photographs analysis, satellite images interpretation and field surveys allowed us to select areas likely invaded by tsunami waves in the past, representing potential trap-site for high energy deposits sedimentation and preservation. Given the variability in the nature of tsunami deposit characteristics, they are not uniquely identifiable, and other kinds of high energy deposits may share some of their features. Despite the abundant literature regarding diagnostic criteria for tsunami deposits, their distinction from storm and hurricane deposits remains a debated issue. We present the geological evidence of a tsunami inundation that left continuous onshore sandy deposit inside the Pantano Morghella along the south-eastern Sicilian coast. Pantano Morghella an almost flat area, about 1.3 km long and 0.8 km wide, surrounded by Upper Cretaceous lavas and volcanoclastic deposits, Late Cretaceous limestone calciruditi, calcarenites and marls. To the east Quaternary deposits, beach sands and 3 m high, partially cemented, dunal system (Holocene and Late Pleistocene) separate the Pantano from the sea forming the intertidal pond with a little channel from which sea water can rush into. The site was partially used as salt-pans in the recent past. In this site, we dug 33 cores down to a maximum depth of 5.80 m, from 200 m up to 1200 m from the coastline. The sedimentological core analysis reveals a fine stratigraphic sequence mainly composed by clay and silty clay, interrupt by a yellow sandy layer (about 8-10 cm thick) at about one meter of depth. Paleontological analyses show that the sandy samples have different macro and microfauna composition with respect to those samples collected above and below characterized by a lagoonal assemblage. The sandy layer, mainly composed by well-rounded yellowish carbonatic clasts, is made of several reworked foraminifera (both planktonic and benthonic), few well preserved littoral benthic foraminifera, marine macro fossil fragments and few lagoonal specimens. The deposit shows similarity with the local beach sand and it also presents a landward thinning. X-Ray analysis performed on some selected cores shows that the sandy layer is characterized by a fining upward granulometry and a sharp basal contact, possibly erosional. Summarizing, we investigated spatial distribution and lithofacies of this peculiar deposit and observed the following properties as typical of high energy deposition event: (1) the deposit covers the surface almost continuously on gentle topography and extend inland for about 1200 meters; (2) its thickness varies across local surface undulation; (3) the foraminiferal assemblage contains several reworked marine planktonic and benthonic specimens with some lagoonal species; (4) the deposit is characterized by erosive basal contact. Moreover, its composition consisting of a single structureless bed of normally graded sand, its thickness decreasing with distance from the sea and its landward limit represent attributes that strongly suggest a tsunami origin. Radiocarbon dating, performed on three samples collected just above, within and below the sandy anomalous layer, gives ages close in time, confirming a sudden deposition due to a high energy event occurred in the interval 270-650 A.D. Comparing this age with the historical tsunami catalogue, we can hypothesize that the sandy layer represents the geological record of the 365 A.D. Crete tsunami.

Gerardi, Flavia; Serafina Barbano, Maria; de Martini, Paolo Marco; Pirrotta, Claudia; Smedile, Alessandra; Pinzi, Stefania; Del Carlo, Paola

2010-05-01

109

Active thrusting as a possible seismogenic source in Sicily (Southern Italy): Some insights from integrated structural–kinematic and seismological data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new seismogenic interpretation of mainland and central-southern Sicily, based on an integrated structural–kinematic–seismological approach. Through analysis of available structural and geophysical data, the tectonic setting, the major kinematic units and the crust geometry of the Sicilian southward-verging fold-and-thrust belt system are schematized in sections and in map form. The depth-contour lines of the outermost basal thrust

Giusy Lavecchia; Federica Ferrarini; Rita de Nardis; Francesco Visini; Maria Serafina Barbano

2007-01-01

110

Towards management of coastal erosion problems and human structure impacts using GIS tools: case study in Ragusa Province, Southern Sicily, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geomorphologic approach, combined with GIS spatial analysis, was used to investigate a 90-km long coastal sector in Southern\\u000a Sicily, Italy, affected by important erosive processes. Applied methodology allowed the creation of a database involving a\\u000a range of coastal characteristics thereby providing helpful information on coastal processes and general sediment circulation\\u000a patterns. Coastal erosion, mainly linked to the construction of

G. Anfuso; J. A. Martínez del Pozo

2005-01-01

111

Quantifying the controls on grain size export from tectonically perturbed catchments: Case studies from Sicily, Calabria and Abruzzo, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitude, locus and characteristics of sediment export from catchments to neighbouring basins plays a significant role in controlling depositional stratigraphy. Fundamentally, the boundary conditions for sediment release from catchments are set by tectonics and climate, modulated by lithologic, hydrologic and geomorphic controls operating over the relevant time or length scale. A predictive understanding of sediment export to basins therefore requires (i) the integration of data illustrating the characteristics of sediment delivery within catchments and (ii) detailed constraints on how this supply signal evolves down-system, for a wide range of controlling variables. Here we address this challenge. Firstly, we present a detailed data study linking hillslope sediment supply to trunk stream grain size evolution for three catchments with drainage areas > 30 km2 in northern Sicily where tectonic uplift rates are > 1 mm/yr and where lithologies are well-mapped, using both sieved weight fraction and Wolman point count methodologies. We find that sediment input from coarse debris flows, rather than landslides, plays a dominant role in setting channel grain size and that coarse-fraction sediment export from catchments is intimately linked to channel-hillslope geomorphic coupling. Secondly, we present detailed data on grain size export from the outlets of more than 40 tectonically perturbed catchments across Sicily, Calabria and Abruzzo, where we have excellent constraints on tectonic uplift rates, lithology and catchment hydraulic geometry. We demonstrate that for catchments in topographic steady-state, grain size release is strongly controlled by rock type, but is insensitive to drainage area and local uplift rates that are < 1 mm/yr. In contrast, for catchments responding transiently to tectonics, the calibre of sediment release is strongly controlled by the degree of tectonic perturbation. The southern Italian data-sets allow us to provide first order estimates of the volume and grain size distribution of sediment exported to the straits of Messina as a whole, and we use terrace data to show there has been little change to this sediment release signal in the last 200 kyr. Together, these results allow us to evaluate the relative importance of upstream source controls in setting the characteristics of sediment release from tectonically perturbed catchments to basins and provide new data to test the outputs of sediment routing system models.

Whittaker, A.; Erhardt, S.; Norori-McCormac, A.; Knight, F.

2012-04-01

112

Building stone employed in the historical monuments of Eastern Sicily (Italy). An example: the ancient city centre of Catania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An archaeometric study of the stone materials employed in the Late Baroque historical monuments of the ancient city centre of Catania was carried out. Lithological maps of a selection of monuments, transferred to a digital format, revealed that the stone materials are both magmatic and sedimentary rocks, the colours of which are matched in a peculiar type of bichromy. Particular attention focused on sedimentary rocks, which consist of various types of limestone quarried near the city of Syracuse (Hyblean Plateau, south-eastern Sicily). Carbonate rocks were characterised in terms of mineralogy, petrography and geochemistry, by studying rock samples from both monuments and historical extraction sites. Results showed that, although only one name was historically attributed to the above lithotypes (i.e. “Pietra di Siracusa‘’), they were quarried from many locations and, as they belong to various geological formations, they therefore exhibit great variety. In order to examine the durability of Hyblean limestones employed in works of cultural heritage interest, salt crystallisation tests were carried out according to standard procedure norms (UNI EN 12370 (1999) Determination of resistance to crystallisation of salts, 6p). Results are consistent with the forms of deterioration observed in the monuments, and highlight the close relationship between textural characteristics and damage. Our purpose is to provide a basic tool, which may be useful both for conserving monuments of cultural heritage and for their restoration.

Punturo, Rosalda; Russo, Laura G.; Giudice, Antonino Lo; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Pezzino, Antonino

2006-05-01

113

Mixibius parvus sp. nov. and Diphascon (Diphascon) ziliense sp. nov., two new species of Eutardigrada from Sicily.  

PubMed

Two new species, Mixibius parvus sp. nov. and Diphascon (Diphascon) ziliense sp. nov. are described from Sicily. Mixibius parvus sp. nov. has three macroplacoids and a microplacoid and differs from M. tibetanus, the only other known species of the genus with those characteristics, in having a wrinkled cuticle without true small tubercles, a shorter microplacoid, smaller claw pt index values, and in lacking a cuticular bar on the first three pairs of the legs.Diphascon (Diphascon) ziliense sp. nov. lacks eye spots, has a pharyngeal bulb with two macroplacoids and a septulum, and possesses lunules and cuticular bars on the legs. It is similar to D. (D.) ramazzottii and D. (D.) procerum but differs from them in characters of the cuticular ornamentation and, in addition, from D. (D.) ramazzottii in having lunules and slightly longer claws in proportion to the body size and to the buccal tube. The new species differs from D. (D.) procerum in having stouter claws with a wider common portion and with the main branches shorter in proportion to the total length of the respective claws. PMID:24871024

Lisi, Oscar; Sabella, Giorgio; Pilato, Giovanni

2014-01-01

114

A polyphasic approach to the identification of ochratoxin A-producing black Aspergillus isolates from vineyards in Sicily.  

PubMed

Aspergillus strains belonging to section Nigri isolated during a two year survey in eight Sicilian vineyards located on the slopes of Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy) were analysed analyzed in order to characterize species responsible for ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination of grapes. The polyphasic approach permitted analysis of biodiversity of Aspergillus isolates in relation to their morphology, ochratoxigenicity and genetic variability. We assessed OTA production by A. carbonarius, A. niger, A. tubingensis and A. japonicus using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A. carbonarius isolates were the strongest OTA producers. A subset of 66 representative strains was selected for further DNA-based characterization. PCR assays using species-specific primers discriminated between A. niger, A. carbonarius and A. japonicus on the basis of the target sequences for each species. The PCR-based methods matched morphological characterization in identifying all the black aspergilli (BA) isolates tested, whereas RFLP analysis with RsaI of isolates positive to PCRs with A. niger specific primers identified three A. tubingensis isolates. The identification of thirteen isolates was further confirmed by ITS analysis. By this method, each of the isolates was identified and assigned to an Aspergillus species. The fAFLP analysis of 40 isolates highlighted the power of this technique to discriminate different species and single strains, to verify the presence of mixed populations in the same vineyard, through homogeneous species clusters. No correlation was observed between the clusters and OTA production level or origin. PMID:18687497

Oliveri, C; Torta, L; Catara, V

2008-09-30

115

Pollen competition among two species of Senecio (Asteraceae) that form a hybrid zone on Mt. Etna, Sicily.  

PubMed

Hybridization between interfertile, sympatric or parapatric, plant species can be reduced significantly by conspecific pollen advantage (CPA), whereby conspecific pollen has an advantage over heterospecific pollen in terms of ovule fertilization. We examined CPA in two interfertile species of Senecio, S. aethnensis, and S. chrysanthemifolius (Asteraceae), which form a hybrid zone on Mt. Etna, Sicily. Individuals of both species were pollinated with pollen mixtures containing 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100% heterospecific pollen, and offspring were genotyped to determine if they were products of conspecific or heterospecific pollen fertilizing the ovules. The mean proportion of hybrid offspring produced on S. aethnensis plants was not significantly different to that expected based on the proportion of heterospecific pollen applied to the flower head. However, S. chrysanthemifolius mother plants showed moderate CPA, with the proportion of hybrid offspring significantly less than expected. Seed set or seed germination was not reduced, hence the CPA found for S. chrysanthemifolius acts before ovule fertilization. The consequences of asymmetry in CPA on the reproductive isolation of S. aethnensis are briefly discussed, along with other mechanisms that may play a role in the maintenance of the hybrid zone on Mt. Etna. PMID:21652452

Chapman, Mark A; Forbes, David G; Abbott, Richard J

2005-04-01

116

Sicily and the development of Econophysics: the pioneering work of Ettore Majorana and the Econophysics Workshop in Palermo  

E-print Network

Sicily has played an important role in the development of the new research area named "Econophysics". In fact some key ideas supporting this new hybrid discipline were originally formulated in a pioneering work of the Sicilian born physicist Ettore Majorana. The article he wrote was entitled "The value of statistical laws in physics and social sciences". I will discuss its origin and history that has been recently discovered in the study of Stefano Roncoroni. This recent study documents the true reasons and motivations that triggered the pioneering work of Majorana. It also shows that the description of this work provided by Edoardo Amaldi was shallow and misleading. In the second part of the talk I will recollect the first years of development of econophysics and in particular the role of the "International Workshop on Econophysics and Statistical Finance" held in Palermo on 28-30 September 1998 and the setting in 1999 of the "Observatory of Complex Systems" the research group on Econophysics of Palermo Univ...

Mantegna, Rosario N

2014-01-01

117

Geological record of tsunami inundations in Pantano Morghella (south-eastern Sicily) both from near and far-field sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of tsunami deposits from the Pantano Morghella area provided geological evidence for two inundations occurred along the south-eastern Ionian coast of Sicily. Pantano Morghella is a large pond characterised by a fine-grained sedimentation indicating a low-energy depositional environment. Two anomalous yellow sandy layers found at different depths indicate the occurrence of high-energy marine inundations. We studied sedimentological and paleontological features of the anomalous deposits as well as their spatial distribution observing the following properties: different facies with respect to the local stratigraphic sequence; erosive bases, rip-up clasts and broken elements testifying violent deposition mechanisms; macro and micro fauna of marine environment; relatively constant thickness throughout most of the depositional zone with thinning at the distal end; large sand sheets that extend inland. These observations, jointly with their infrequency in the sedimentary record and the age indicating a fast deposition, provided strong evidence for tsunami inundations. Correlations between anomalous layers and historical tsunamis are supported by radiocarbon and OSL dating results. The younger deposit is likely due to the 1908 near-source tsunami, whereas the flooding of the oldest event is most likely associated with a far and large source, the Crete 365 AD earthquake.

Gerardi, F.; Smedile, A.; Pirrotta, C.; Barbano, M. S.; De Martini, P. M.; Pinzi, S.; Gueli, A. M.; Ristuccia, G. M.; Stella, G.; Troja, S. O.

2012-04-01

118

The significance of slab-crusted lava flows for understanding controls on flow emplacement at Mount Etna, Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slab-crusted flows on Mount Etna, Sicily are defined here as those whose crust has ridden on the flow core without significant disruption or deformation and have a high length to width ratio. They typically erupt from ephemeral boccas as late-stage products on dominantly aa flow fields, such as that of the 1983 eruption on Mount Etna. Slab-crusted flows tend to inflate mainly as they approach and after they reach the maximum length of slab-crust formation, the flow interior acting as a preferential pathway for injecting lava under a stable crust. Coalescence of vesicles under successive crusts causes separation between core and crust giving a new cooling surface within the flow, on which ropy surfaces (and occasionally aa textures) of limited areal extent may develop. Slab-crusted flows tend to form at ephemeral boccas together with other surface textural types including toes, ropy pahoehoe sheets and aa flows. This suggests that, on Etna, slab-crusted flows form from lava of the same rheological properties as both aa and pahoehoe textured flows. They do not represent a transition between aa and pahoehoe as argued for toothpaste flows in Hawaii. We conclude that slab-crusted flows on Etna owe their morphology to a relatively high critical ratio of effusion rate to advance rate, related to vent cross-sectional area and the slope over which the flow forms.

Guest, John E.; Stofan, Ellen R.

2005-04-01

119

A radiometric and petrographic interpretation of discrepancies on uranium content in samples collected at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).  

PubMed

The main goal of this work is to evaluate a correlation between anomalous Uranium (U) content and petrographic features of some soil and rock samples collected at Alte Madonie Mounts region (North-central Sicily, Italy). A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in "Marinelli" beakers for 20 days before the measurement to ensure that radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi was reached. Gamma-ray spectrometric analysis was used to quantify radioactivity concentrations. Mineralogical and chemical features of the samples were determined by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope - Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM-EDS) analyses. The average values of concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ac and (40)K were respectively 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1) while the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1). Linear relationships were observed between (226)Ra, (228)Ac and (40)K concentrations: the activities of (226)Ra and (228)Ac were comparable, while those of (40)K were about 10 times greater. An exception was highlighted for a group of samples where (226)Ra activities were much higher than expectations. Chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples have made it possible to justify these anomalies. PMID:24389108

Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

2014-03-01

120

Gully erosion susceptibility assessment by means of GIS-based logistic regression: A case of Sicily (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research aims at characterizing susceptibility conditions to gully erosion by means of GIS and multivariate statistical analysis. The study area is a 9.5 km2 river catchment in central-northern Sicily, where agriculture activities are limited by intense erosion. By means of field surveys and interpretation of aerial images, we prepared a digital map of the spatial distribution of 260 gullies in the study area. In addition, from available thematic maps, a 5 m cell size digital elevation model and field checks, we derived 27 environmental attributes that describe the variability of lithology, land use, topography and road position. These attributes were selected for their potential influence on erosion processes, while the dependent variable was given by presence or absence of gullies within two different types of mapping units: 5 m grid cells and slope units (average size = 2.66 ha). The functional relationships between gully occurrence and the controlling factors were obtained from forward stepwise logistic regression to calculate the probability to host a gully for each mapping unit. In order to train and test the predictive models, three calibration and three validation subsets, of both grid cells and slope units, were randomly selected. Results of validation, based on ROC (receiving operating characteristic) curves, attest for acceptable to excellent accuracies of the models, showing better predictive skill and more stable performance of the susceptibility model based on grid cells.

Conoscenti, Christian; Angileri, Silvia; Cappadonia, Chiara; Rotigliano, Edoardo; Agnesi, Valerio; Märker, Michael

2014-01-01

121

Concentration and reference interval of trace elements in human hair from students living in Palermo, Sicily (Italy).  

PubMed

Trace element contents in specimens of hair collected from 137 children aged 11-13 years old, living in Palermo (Sicily, Italy) were determined by ICP-MS. This work reports analytical data for the following 19 elements: Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Sr, U, V and Zn. The most abundant chemical elements were zinc and copper (Zn > Cu), with concentrations exceeding 10 ?g/g (Zn = 189.2 ?g/g; Cu = 22.9 ?g/g). Other elements with concentrations greater than 1 ?g/g were, in order of abundance, Al>Sr>Ba>Pb. The remaining elements were all below 1 ?g/g. The average elemental concentrations in hair were statistically compared by Kolmogorov-Smirnov's test taking children's gender into account. Al, Ba, Cr, Li, Rb, Sb, Sr, V and Zn were statistically different according to gender, with significance p < 0.001. This study thus confirms the need for hair analysis to differentiate female data from those of males. IUPAC coverage intervals and coverage uncertainties for trace elements in the analysed hair samples are also reported. PMID:21787726

Dongarrà, G; Lombardo, M; Tamburo, E; Varrica, D; Cibella, F; Cuttitta, G

2011-07-01

122

Découverte du foraminifère Colaniella Likharev dans le Permien supérieur de la vallée du Sosio (Sicile)First occurrence of the foraminifer Colaniella Likharev in the Upper Permian from the Sosio Valley (Sicily).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The foraminifers Colaniella ex gr. parva (Colani) and Colaniella ex gr. minima (Wang) are described for the first time in Late Permian calcarenitic sediments of the Pietra di Salomone (Sosio Valley, Sicily). These species, also recognised in redeposited intervals of the Triassic Monte Facito Formation (Southern Apennine, Lagonegro Basin), are here illustrated for the first time. Their simultaneous presence indicates a Midian to Dzhulfian possibly Dorashamian? age. The age of the redeposition of the calcarenites and calcirudites, in Sicily and in Southern Apennine, is consequently Latest Permian (Dorashamian), or younger.

Jenny-Deshusses, Catherine; Martini, Rossana; Zaninetti, Louisette

2000-06-01

123

Marine hazard evaluation for the coasts of Catania and Siracusa, eastern Sicily, Italy, and implication for a local sea monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A project for the planning of a coastal defense system for the provinces of Catania and Siracusa, in Sicily, is in the stage of feasibility analysis at the Building and Construction Interdepartmental Center for Industrial Research (CIRI), of the University of Bologna, with the focus on protection against extreme waves, such as tsunamis and storm waves. The eastern coast of Sicily, encompassing the coasts of Catania and Siracusa, is one of the most hazardous areas in Italy and in the Mediterranean as regards tsunamis, and it is also affected by extreme sea storms. The main goal of the project is to study the feasibility of a local Tsunami Warning System addressing near and far sources of seismic and landslide origin and to plan a sea-monitoring system capable to detect anomalous conditions for a wide spectral range of waves covering tsunamis as well as storms. The first phase of the project is the hazard assessment for extreme events, which is preparatory to the second phase, i.e. the feasibility study of a sea level and sea currents monitoring system based on new technologies. The coastal hazard assessment includes the identification of possible tsunami sources and the estimation of the tsunami threats, which allows one to recognize the most exposed coastal areas to tsunamis events. The identification of tsunami sources is made from literature and catalogs, while the use of numerical simulations of tsunamis is needed for tsunami hazard assessment and to evaluate the coastal inundation. The tsunami simulations are also a key information for the planning of the monitoring network, since it allows to characterize the signal that should be detected. As regards storm waves, we propose to extend the temporal base for the estimation of the significant wave height and other relevant statistics with the use of geophysical data, since recent works from literature suggest that the actual statistics for eastern Sicily might be underestimated.

Bressan, Lidia; Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano

2013-04-01

124

Active tectonics along the submarine slope of south-eastern Sicily and the source of the 11 January 1693 earthquake and tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South-eastern Sicily has been affected by large historical earthquakes, including the 11 January 1693 earthquake, considered the largest magnitude earthquake in the history of Italy (Mw = 7.4). This earthquake was accompanied by a large tsunami (tsunami magnitude 2.3 in the Murty-Loomis scale adopted in the Italian tsunami catalogue by Tinti et al., 2004), suggesting a source in the near offshore. The fault system of the eastern Sicily slope is characterised by NNW-SSE-trending east-dipping extensional faults active in the Quaternary. The geometry of a fault that appears currently active has been derived from the interpretation of seismic data, and has been used for modelling the tsunamigenic source. Synthetic tide-gauge records from modelling this fault source indicate that the first tsunami wave polarity is negative (sea retreat) in almost all the coastal nodes of eastern Sicily, in agreement with historical observations. The outcomes of the numerical simulations also indicate that the coastal stretch running from Catania to Siracusa suffered the strongest tsunami impact, and that the highest tsunami waves occurred in Augusta, aslo in agreement with the historical accounts. A large-size submarine slide (almost 5 km3) has also been identified along the slope, affecting the footwall of the active fault. Modelling indicates that this slide gives non-negligible tsunami signals along the coast; though not enough to match the historical observations for the 1693 tsunami event. The earthquake alone or a combination of earthquake faulting and slide can possibly account for the large run up waves reported for the 11 January 1693 event.

Argnani, A.; Armigliato, A.; Pagnoni, G.; Zaniboni, F.; Tinti, S.; Bonazzi, C.

2012-05-01

125

Propagation of a lithospheric tear fault (STEP) through the western boundary of the Calabrian accretionary wedge offshore eastern Sicily (Southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rollback of a segmented slab of oceanic lithosphere is typically accompanied by vertical lithospheric tear fault(s) along the lateral slab edge(s) and by strike slip movement in the upper plate, defined as a STEP fault (Subduction Tear Edge Propagator). The Neogene evolution of the Central Mediterranean is dominated by the interaction between the slow Africa-Eurasia convergence and the SE-ward rollback of the Ionian slab, that leads to the back-arc opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Here, we present post-stack time migrated and pre-stack depth migrated Archimede (1997) multichannel seismic lines, that were acquired offshore eastern Sicily, at the foot of the Malta escarpment. First, we identify the recent deformation along the lateral ramp of the Calabrian accretionary wedge. Towards the east, the Calabrian wedge is formed by the accretion of the post-evaporitic sediments, above a decollement at the base of the Messinian evaporites. At the latitude of Syracuse, 50 km east of the Malta escarpment, a major N150°E trending crustal scale and vertical fault slices through the entire accretionary wedge. This fault cuts by several kilometers, through the pre-evaporitic Messinian sediments and into the basement. The vertical offset along this vertical fault decreases from north to south, and the fault is no longer observed on the seismic lines, 50 km SE of the Alfeo seamount. A previously published Moho depth isocontour map, offshore Sicily and the recent GPS data, combined with the presence of strike slip movements NE onshore Sicily, allow us to identify this 200 km long crustal-scale fault as the surface expression of a STEP fault. The presence of syntectonic Pleistocene sediments on top this crustal-scale fault suggests a recent lithospheric vertical movement of the STEP fault, in response to the rollback of the Ionian slab and to the SE-ward advance of the Calabria-Peloritan block.

Gallais, Flora; Graindorge, David; Gutscher, Marc-André; Klaeschen, Dirk

2013-08-01

126

Multi-scale properties of strike-slip faults crosscutting the Pleistocene carbonate grainstones of Favignana Island (NW Sicily, Italy).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After detailed field (stratigraphic and structural) and laboratory analyses of intact and deformed rocky outcrops, we studied the multi-scale properties of strike-slip faults nucleated and developed in Pleistocene carbonate grainstones of Favignana Island (Sicily, Italy). This skeletal carbonate rocks ranging in thickness between 5 and 20 meters make up the whole eastern side of the Island, where they unconformably lie on silicoclastic deposits of the Upper Pliocene. The studied structures are very similar to those one affecting carbonate grainstones of San vito Lo Capo Peninsula (Sicily, Italy) and already documented in a recent paper. There strain localization into narrow bands encompass first compaction, shear, pressure solution formation, their subsequent shearing, and finally cataclasis. The transitions from one deformation process to another, which were likely controlled by changes in the material properties, are recorded by different ratios and dissimilar distributions of the fault dimensional attributes. In Favignana Island, the results of our study allow us to: (i) indentify two conjugate sets of faults trending NW and NNE, characterized by right-lateral and left-lateral kinematics, respectively; (ii) document the progression of the deformation from single compactive shear bands, with an offset ranging between mm's to cm's, to zones of compactive shear bands, characterized by a larger amount of offset with discontinuous cataclasis and slip surfaces, and finally to well developed faults, with an inner cataclastic core surrounded by wider damage zones made up of compactive shear bands, joints, and possible dilational bands; (iii) decipher that linkage processes, responsible for fault development, took place by mechanical interaction of adjacent individual structures at any deformation stage (single bands, zone of shear bands or well developed faults) with formation of characteristic ramp and eye structures. Based on their internal architecture and petrophysical properties, the studied strike-slip faults behave as combined barrier-conduit hydraulic structures to fluid flow. The single compactive shear bands, the shear band zones, and the cataclastic cores of the faults have a lower porosity relative to the surrounding carbonate host rocks, and therefore form seals for cross-fault fluid flow. On the contrary, the discrete and undulated slip surfaces present either within or at the edges of the fault cores enhance the along-fault fluid flow. Finally, the detailed analyses of macro- and mesostructural features exposed in Favignana Island show that the overall deformation pattern in the area may be interpreted in terms of strike-slip tectonics driven by a current stress field geometry characterized by a NW oriented maximum compression. The stress field acting in the area appears to be directly controlled by the convergence between the African and European plates. The present-day Africa motion along NNW-SSE- to NW-SE-directed vectors is substantiated by geological, seismological, VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) and global positioning system data.

Cilona, Antonino; Agosta, Fabrizio; Giunta, Giuseppe; Renda, Pietro; Tondi, Emanuele

2010-05-01

127

Problems in Using Underground Water Temperatures in Volcanic Surveillance: the Case of Volcano Island (Eolian Islands, Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring underground water temperatures in a network of wells, together with many other geochemical and geophysical data, is a useful tool in medium-long term surveillance of active volcanic areas. The study case here presented deals with Volcano Island (Eolian Islands, Sicily, Italy). About 20 years of observations are presented; they have been acquired either during spot campaigns, every 1-3 months, either by continuous monitoring (sampling period of 2 hours). Although the interested active volcanic area has an extension of few square kilometers, data analysis pointed out a surprising variability in space and time of the information acquired, and in particular: a) Monthly temperature variations show a frequency related to the hydrological cycle, except some wells located in a piezometric high (Camping Sicilia well) or in distal positions respect to the La Fossa Crater (EAS and Discarica wells). b) Some wells subjected to continuous monitoring, affected (Le Calette) or not (Camping Sicilia) by seasonal variations, show high frequency (from few hours to few days) pulsation of several Celsius degrees. The above mentioned variations are sometimes related to seismic events (Gulf of Patti earthquakes, April 2002). c) Water table elevations from sea level, measured at the same time of temperature, highlight the presence of some wells (EAS, Casamento) where the piezometric surface is normally below the sea, despite they are very near to the coast line. The elements above discussed point out the presence of a complex multi-layered aquifer, with very different interactions between fresh, sea and volcanic waters, that are reflected in space and time variations of measured B.H.T. values. The implementation of an accurate hydrogeological model is then to be considered as preventive and fundamental in order to correctly design a surveillance activity based on underground fluids monitoring in this area.

Madonia, P.; Capasso, G.; Favara, R.

2002-12-01

128

Primary origin of some trachytoid magmas: Inferences from naturally quenched glasses in hydrothermally metasomatized gabbroic xenoliths (Hyblean area, Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermally-modified gabbroic xenoliths from the Hyblean tuff-breccia deposits (Sicily) consist of albitized plagioclase, Fe-Mg-rich clays, aegirine-augite, ± zeolites, titanite, apatite, magnetite, and hydrothermal zircon. Pockets of silicate glass with perlitic cracking occur in some samples forming 15-20% (by volume) of the rock modal assemblage. Electron microprobe analyses show the trachytic composition of the glass, with generally peralkaline sodic affinity [molar Al 2O 3/(Na 2O + K 2O) ~ 0.8 (average value); molar Al 2O 3/(Na 2O + K 2O + CaO) ~ 0.7 (average value); Na 2O/K 2O (wt.%) = 1.7-2.3]. The glass trace element abundances, obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses are consistent with those of world-wide trachytes (e.g. Zr/Ti = 0.15-018; Nb/Y = 0.73-1). Relatively high abundances of Cl (700-1600 ppm) and F (> 500 ppm) were also detected in the glass. Careful macroscopic and microscopic observations exclude the possibility that external silicate melt infiltrated the xenolith. The occurrence of glass pockets between the mafic clay assemblages and the feldspar grains, along with comparisons between chemical compositions of the glass and the surrounding minerals, suggest that the glass is due to the melting of a eutectoid system consisting of Na-rich alkali feldspar, Fe-Mg-rich clays and aegirine-augite. Halogens had probably played an important role in the partial melting process by decreasing the melting temperature of modal minerals, especially feldspar. The occurrence of these trachytic glasses lends support to petrologic models suggesting that partial melting of a hydrothermally altered, brine-rich oceanic crust induced by shallow-seated basic intrusions can produce primary trachytoid melts. This may explain the "Daly-gap" characterizing some oceanic within-plate volcanoes.

Viccaro, Marco; Scribano, Vittorio; Cristofolini, Renato; Ottolini, Luisa; Manuella, Fabio C.

2009-12-01

129

Comparison of Advanced Differential Interferometric SAR methods for the retrieval of surface deformation in south-east Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study provides a comparative analysis of Advanced Differential Interferometric SAR (A-DInSAR) methods and processing approaches. State-of-the-art A-DInSAR techniques, such as Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) or the Small BASeline (SBAS) approach are powerful geodetic tools with a large potential for an operational, cost-effective mapping of surface deformations up to an accuracy of 1 mm/y on a regional scale. Both approaches focus on different characteristics of the scatterers within a resolution cell. While PSI extracts the phase change by analyzing stable, dominant scatterers, the SBAS technique is sensitive to stable, but distributed scatterers. In order to assess the practical implications of the two approaches we processed a 8-year spanning time-series of ENVISAT ASAR data for the heterogeneous, rural environment in south-eastern Sicily, Italy and its hinterland. Different natural and anthropogenic induced deformation phenomena are present within the study area. In addition to the PSI and SBAS approach, a combined method, called Multi-Temporal Interferometry (MTI), was applied using the StaMPS software. The density of retrieved points was confronted to the different land cover classes. In addition, deviations between the different methods are presented. The results reveal the complimentary character of both approaches for the study site and suggest that the MTI approach is favorable for wide area analysis. Validation with GPS measurements from the INGV network was undertaken and the integration in the framework of the SISTEM approach, where different measurements are combined, allowed for the derivation of three-dimensional surface deformation.

Vollrath, Andreas; Zucca, Francesco; Stramondo, Salvatore; Guglielmino, Francesco; Bonforte, Alessandro

2014-05-01

130

Geogenic and atmospheric sources for volatile organic compounds in fumarolic emissions from Mt. Etna and Vulcano Island (Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, fluid source(s) and processes controlling the chemical composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in gas discharges from Mt. Etna and Vulcano Island (Sicily, Italy) were investigated. The main composition of the Etnean and Volcano gas emissions is produced by mixing, to various degrees, of magmatic and hydrothermal components. VOCs are dominated by alkanes, alkenes and aromatics, with minor, though significant, concentrations of O-, S- and Cl(F)-substituted compounds. The main mechanism for the production of alkanes is likely related to pyrolysis of organic-matter-bearing sediments that interact with the ascending magmatic fluids. Alkanes are then converted to alkene and aromatic compounds via catalytic reactions (dehydrogenation and dehydroaromatization, respectively). Nevertheless, an abiogenic origin for the light hydrocarbons cannot be ruled out. Oxidative processes of hydrocarbons at relatively high temperatures and oxidizing conditions, typical of these volcanic-hydrothermal fluids, may explain the production of alcohols, esters, aldehydes, as well as O- and S-bearing heterocycles. By comparing the concentrations of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) in the fumarolic discharges with respect to those of background air, it is possible to highlight that they have a geogenic origin likely due to halogenation of both methane and alkenes. Finally, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) abundances appear to be consistent with background air, although the strong air contamination that affects the Mt. Etna fumaroles may mask a possible geogenic contribution for these compounds. On the other hand, no CFCs were detected in the Vulcano gases, which are characterized by low air contribution. Nevertheless, a geogenic source for these compounds cannot be excluded on the basis of the present data.

Tassi, F.; Capecchiacci, F.; Cabassi, J.; Calabrese, S.; Vaselli, O.; Rouwet, D.; Pecoraino, G.; Chiodini, G.

2012-09-01

131

Maximum burial and unroofing of Mt. Judica recess area in Sicily: implication for the Apenninic-Maghrebian wedge dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We integrated X-ray diffraction (XRD) data concerning the illite content in mixed-layer illite-smectite with data derived from Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) on H-rich organic matter to constrain the burial-exhumation path of the Mt. Judica sedimentary succession cropping out in tectonic window in Eastern Sicily. Thermal structural model constrained by organic and inorganic thermal parameters showed that the Mt. Judica succession experienced paleo-temperatures in the range of 100-130 °C in deep diagenetic conditions and early mature stage of hydrocarbon generation. Specifically, the illite content in mixed-layer I-S ranges from 50 to 76% and FTIR-derived indexes suggest a thermal maturity equivalent to VRo values of at least 0.5-0.7%. As a whole, the Mt. Judica succession experienced maximum tectonic burial (ranging between 2.4 and 3.2 km) during the Middle Miocene as a result of the emplacement of the allochthonous units atop it. The subsequent breaching phase characterized by up-thrust geometries, and erosion during Pliocene times ruled out the Mt. Judica exhumation. This last tectonic phase did not overprint thermal maturity because the extent of overthrusting was negligible when compared with the magnitude of vertical movements. Restoration of balanced cross sections revealed an increase of shortening from the salient to the Mt. Judica recess with values from 12.3 to 23.9 km, consistent with the increase of tectonic thickening of the fold-and-thrust belt. Integration of maximum burial and shortening values along the curvature of the Sicilian fold-and-thrust belt allowed us to reconstruct the wedge paleo-geometry in the Mt. Judica recess area, to investigate the along-strike variations of the tectonic overburden, and to discuss the geodynamic causes of these changes. These results were compared with theoretical models of wedge dynamics.

Di Paolo, Lea; Aldega, Luca; Corrado, Sveva; Mastalerz, Maria

2012-03-01

132

Historical and Geological Evidence for Seismic Origin of Newly Recognized Landslides in Southeastern Sicily, and Its Significance inTerms of Hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Old, large, and dormant landslides were unexpectedly found in southeastern Sicily, a territory of known seismicity but commonly considered as landslide-free or almost so. Purposely undertaken investigations revealed that: (1) these landslides are scarcely compatible with the local geoclimatic environment; (2) they usually show low-angle basal shear surfaces, despite the fact that the properties of the forming material are generally good; (3) they fulfill the known relationships between earthquake magnitude and epicenter-landslide distance; (4) sources coeval with high-energy historical earthquakes occurred in 1169, 1542 and 1693 testify to the occurrence of earthquake-triggered landsliding; and (5) documentary material (presented here for the first time) correlates with certainty a specific landslide to the 1693 earthquake. This geological and historical evidence, accompanied by the absence of contrasting elements, leads us to conclude that these landslides are earthquake-triggered. Because of their typological and geometrical characteristics, nearly all landslides can be reactivated, which has serious implications in terms of hazard, particularly with respect to lines of communication. Obviously, every action aimed at preventing or mitigating risks must start from the awareness of the causative processes, a condition substantially unsatisfied at the moment in SE Sicily. The paper concludes by emphasizing the opportunity not to trust excessively beliefs that, although shared, have never been really checked.

Pantano, Francesca Gringeri; Nicoletti, Pier Giorgio; Parise, Mario

2002-01-01

133

Application of a cross correlation-based picking algorithm to an active seismic experiment in Sicily and Aeolian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of the arrival time of seismic waves or picking is of great importance in many seismology applications. Traditionally, picking has been carried out by human operators. This process is not systematic and relies completely on the expertise and judgment of the analysts. The limitations of manual picking and the increasing amount of data daily stored in the seismic networks worldwide distributed and in active seismic experiments lead to the development of automatic picking algorithms. Current conventional algorithms work with single signals, such as the "short-term average over long-term average" (STA/LTA) algorithm, autoregressive methods or the recently developed "Adaptive Multiband Picking Algorithm" (AMPA). This work proposes a correlation-based picking algorithm, whose main advantage is the fact of using the information of a set of signals, improving the signal to noise ratio and therefore the picking accuracy. The main advantage of this approach is that the algorithm does not require to set up sophisticated parameters, in contrast to other automatic algorithms. The accuracy of the conventional STA/LTA algorithm, the recently developed AMPA algorithm, an autoregressive method, and a preliminary version of the cross correlation-based picking algorithm were assessed using a huge data set composed by active seismic signals from experiments in Tenerife Island (January 2007, Spain). The experiment consisted of the deployment of a dense seismic network on Tenerife Island (125 seismometers in total) and the shooting of air-guns around the island with the Spanish oceanographic vessel Hespérides (6459 air shots in total). Only 110937 signals (13.74% of the total) had the signal to noise ratio enough to be manually picked. Results showed that the use of the cross correlation-based picking algorithm significantly increases the number of signals that can be considered in the tomography. A new active seismic experiment will cover Sicily and Aeolian Islands (TOMO-ETNA MED-SUV.ISES) under the European MED-SUV project. The Spanish oceanographic vessel Sarmiento de Gamboa will shot about 2600 and 4000 air-guns in the Ionian and Tyrrhenian Seas, respectively. The shots will be recorded in 150 seismic stations. Thus, close to 1 million P-waves arrivals will be generated. Since the sources and receivers locations are known and considering that the vessel will travel a small distance between two consecutive shots, a cross correlation-based picking algorithm will be used to obtain the arrival time.

Diaz, Alejandro; Álvarez, Isaac; De la Torre, Ángel; García, Luz; Benítez, Ma Carmen; Cortés, Guillermo

2014-05-01

134

New contributions to the debate on the cause of the January 11th, 1693 tsunami in eastern Sicily (Italy): earthquake or offshore landslide source (or may be both)?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eastern Sicily is among the most exposed regions in Italy and in the whole Mediterranean to tsunami hazard and risk. The historical tsunamis recorded here were generally associated to moderate-to-large magnitude earthquakes. The largest tsunami documented in the area occurred on January 11th, 1693. It followed the highest-magnitude earthquake (7.4) of the Italian seismic history. The tsunami, whose first significant motion was a retreat along the entire eastern Sicily coastline, produced the most devastating effects at Augusta (15 meters run-up) and Catania, being relevant at Siracusa and Messina too. A lively debate exists on whether the earthquake was the only source of the tsunami, or other causes (such as submarine landslides, possibly triggered by the earthquake) contributed to the tsunami generation. In the framework of the EC funded project TRANSFER, we investigate both hypotheses, starting from suitable onshore and offshore faults as well as from offshore landslide bodies, and hence simulating numerically the ensuing tsunami and comparing the results with the available historical information. We base on the results obtained during recent offshore surveys, in particular the multichannel seismic survey MESC2001, carried out in year 2001 on board the R/V Urania of the Italian National Council of Researches (CNR), which mapped both active normal faults and a number of possible landslide bodies along the Hyblaean-Malta escarpment, the most prominent tectonic structure found just few kilometres offshore eastern Sicily. From the modelling point of view, the initial condition for the earthquake- generated tsunamis coincides with the vertical coseismic deformation of the seafloor. Instead, the landslide motion is simulated through the Lagrangian block model UBO-BLOCK2, developed at the University of Bologna. Finally, the finite-element code UBO-TSUFE, implemented by the same research team, is used to simulate the tsunami generation and propagation. The main conclusions are: 1) if the earthquake is postulated to be the only responsible for the tsunami, then the historical information can be reproduced only by assuming an offshore tectonic source; 2) taking into account the largest of the mapped landslides, we are able to reproduce quite satisfactorily both the first polarity and the size distribution of the tsunami; 3) we cannot rule out the idea that there was a concurrent contribution of the earthquake and of the landslide in generating the tsunami.

Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.; Zaniboni, F.; Pagnoni, G.; Argnani, A.

2007-12-01

135

New observations of local seismicity by the SN-1 seafloor observatory in the Ionian Sea, off-shore Eastern Sicily (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismicity in Eastern Sicily as recorded by the Submarine Network-1 seafloor observatory (SN-1) in the period from 2002 October to 2003 May is examined with the aim of identifying the as yet poorly known seismogenic zones placed in the Ionian basin, where some of the strongest earthquakes have occurred. A comparison between the seismic recordings of land networks and the seafloor station has allowed us to focus on low-magnitude seismicity only recorded by SN-1. We have analysed 239 high-quality events from among a total of 485 seismic signals not included in the land-based network bulletins. The waveform features and the possible source zones for those events are investigated by means of polarization and particle motion techniques. Most of the 239 events (213) are characterized by high values of rectilinearity typical of P- and S-arrival particle motions, while the remaining 26 events have different polarization features, with an emergent first phase and prevalently planar polarization. We have interpreted the latter signals as being associated to submarine landslides. From particle motion analysis, we have determined the azimuthal distribution of the events and the incidence angles of P waves in respect to the Observatory with the aim of determining their distribution in relation to the active but scarcely known structural setting of the off-shore area. Moreover, the integrated locations of some earthquakes occurring in the study area and recorded by SN-1 and land stations was performed to determine the apparent P-wave velocity necessary to calculate source-station distances. As an additional result of the integration, we have obtained more accurate locations of earthquakes occurring in the coastal and off-shore areas of Eastern Sicily, associated with reduced horizontal and vertical errors and significantly lower values of azimuthal gaps. Lastly, a location distribution of the 213 analysed events was obtained by setting two conditions: (1) a maximum epicentral distance to a fixed depth coinciding with the depth of the seafloor station and (2) a minimum epicentral distance associated to the maximum depth of events. Accordingly, two patterns of seismicity were determined for the maximum and the minimum expected spread of the hypocentres. The main features of both patterns are a diffuse seismicity in the Western Ionian basin with a major epicentre density SE of SN-1 and a depth of most of the events within 60 km. Local magnitude determination was also performed, taking into account an attenuation law proposed for Southeastern Sicily. Despite the uncertainties in the location distribution using single-station recordings, the results show diffuse seismicity all around SN-1 and, in particular, in the off-shore area.

Sgroi, Tiziana; Beranzoli, Laura; Di Grazia, Giuseppe; Ursino, Andrea; Favali, Paolo

2007-05-01

136

Characterisation and antimicrobial activity of the volatile components of the flowers of Magydaris tomentosa (Desf.) DC. collected in Sicily and Algeria.  

PubMed

The essential oils of the flowers of Magydaris tomentosa (Desf.) DC. (Apiaceae) collected in Sicily (MSi) and Algeria (MAl), respectively, were obtained by hydrodistillation, and their compositions were analysed. The analyses allowed the identification and quantification of 23 components in MSi and 60 compounds in MAl, respectively, showing a very different profile in the composition of the two populations. The main components of MSi were cembrene (28.2%), ?-springene (17.5%) and ?-springene (14.8%), also present in MAl but in lesser amount (0.4%, 1.8% and 0.9%, respectively), whereas the principal constituents of MAl were (E)-nerolidol (35.4%), ?-costol (13.3%) and ?-costol (6.8%). Both MSi and MAl exhibited a significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis (minimum inhibitory concentration = 25 and 12.5 ?g/mL, respectively). The chemotaxonomy markers of the species were identified. PMID:24871127

Khaoukha, Guesmia; Ben Jemia, Mariem; Amira, Smain; Laouer, Hocine; Bruno, Maurizio; Scandolera, Elia; Senatore, Felice

2014-01-01

137

SMART: a spatially explicit bio-economic model for assessing and managing demersal fisheries, with an application to italian trawlers in the strait of sicily.  

PubMed

Management of catches, effort and exploitation pattern are considered the most effective measures to control fishing mortality and ultimately ensure productivity and sustainability of fisheries. Despite the growing concerns about the spatial dimension of fisheries, the distribution of resources and fishing effort in space is seldom considered in assessment and management processes. Here we propose SMART (Spatial MAnagement of demersal Resources for Trawl fisheries), a tool for assessing bio-economic feedback in different management scenarios. SMART combines information from different tasks gathered within the European Data Collection Framework on fisheries and is composed of: 1) spatial models of fishing effort, environmental characteristics and distribution of demersal resources; 2) an Artificial Neural Network which captures the relationships among these aspects in a spatially explicit way and uses them to predict resources abundances; 3) a deterministic module which analyzes the size structure of catches and the associated revenues, according to different spatially-based management scenarios. SMART is applied to demersal fishery in the Strait of Sicily, one of the most productive fisheries of the Mediterranean Sea. Three of the main target species are used as proxies for the whole range exploited by trawlers. After training, SMART is used to evaluate different management scenarios, including spatial closures, using a simulation approach that mimics the recent exploitation patterns. Results evidence good model performance, with a noteworthy coherence and reliability of outputs for the different components. Among others, the main finding is that a partial improvement in resource conditions can be achieved by means of nursery closures, even if the overall fishing effort in the area remains stable. Accordingly, a series of strategically designed areas of trawling closures could significantly improve the resource conditions of demersal fisheries in the Strait of Sicily, also supporting sustainable economic returns for fishermen if not applied simultaneously for different species. PMID:24465971

Russo, Tommaso; Parisi, Antonio; Garofalo, Germana; Gristina, Michele; Cataudella, Stefano; Fiorentino, Fabio

2014-01-01

138

SMART: A Spatially Explicit Bio-Economic Model for Assessing and Managing Demersal Fisheries, with an Application to Italian Trawlers in the Strait of Sicily  

PubMed Central

Management of catches, effort and exploitation pattern are considered the most effective measures to control fishing mortality and ultimately ensure productivity and sustainability of fisheries. Despite the growing concerns about the spatial dimension of fisheries, the distribution of resources and fishing effort in space is seldom considered in assessment and management processes. Here we propose SMART (Spatial MAnagement of demersal Resources for Trawl fisheries), a tool for assessing bio-economic feedback in different management scenarios. SMART combines information from different tasks gathered within the European Data Collection Framework on fisheries and is composed of: 1) spatial models of fishing effort, environmental characteristics and distribution of demersal resources; 2) an Artificial Neural Network which captures the relationships among these aspects in a spatially explicit way and uses them to predict resources abundances; 3) a deterministic module which analyzes the size structure of catches and the associated revenues, according to different spatially-based management scenarios. SMART is applied to demersal fishery in the Strait of Sicily, one of the most productive fisheries of the Mediterranean Sea. Three of the main target species are used as proxies for the whole range exploited by trawlers. After training, SMART is used to evaluate different management scenarios, including spatial closures, using a simulation approach that mimics the recent exploitation patterns. Results evidence good model performance, with a noteworthy coherence and reliability of outputs for the different components. Among others, the main finding is that a partial improvement in resource conditions can be achieved by means of nursery closures, even if the overall fishing effort in the area remains stable. Accordingly, a series of strategically designed areas of trawling closures could significantly improve the resource conditions of demersal fisheries in the Strait of Sicily, also supporting sustainable economic returns for fishermen if not applied simultaneously for different species. PMID:24465971

Russo, Tommaso; Parisi, Antonio; Garofalo, Germana; Gristina, Michele; Cataudella, Stefano; Fiorentino, Fabio

2014-01-01

139

Permian fusulinids from Sicily  

E-print Network

of tectum and coarsely alveolar keriotheca, with thickness in 5th volu- tion 107 to 127 microns. It displays moderate ‘`rugosity," consisting of sharp indentations of tectum (Pl. 7, fig. 4). Septa strongly but irregu- larly folded from pole to pole. In our... there are superficial similarities to sev- eral species of Schwagerina, such as S. longissi- moidea (BEEDE). It differs from this group in the "rugosity" of its spirotheca. It is the youngest member of the genus presently known, most species being restricted to beds...

Skinner, J. W.; Wilde, G. L.

1966-06-22

140

Microplate kinematics, strain accumulation and geodetic fault slip rates along the Sicily-Calabria segment (southern Italy) of the Nubia-Eurasia plate boundary from the analysis and modeling of dense GPS networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sicily and Calabria regions (Southern Italy) are among the most seismically active areas of the Mediterranean basin. The highest seismic moment rates align along the Calabro-Peloritani arc, a tectonically complex segment of the central Mediterranean plate boundary zone, whose Neogene to Quaternary evolution is generally interpreted in terms of slow relative Africa-Eurasia plate convergence and fast subduction and roll-back

B. Mastrolembo Ventura; E. Serpelloni; R. Burgmann; P. Baldi

2010-01-01

141

Preliminary results of a multi-scale structural analisys in an analogue carbonate reservoir (Hyblean Plateau, Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the aim of studying the multi-scale fault architecture and permeability in hydrocarbon-rich porous carbonate rocks, we are currently involved in a project focused on the structural analysis of fractured and faulted platform-to-ramp carbonates cropping out in the Hyblean Plateau (Sicily, Italy). The Hyblean Plateau is part of the Maghrebian foreland and forms the northern portion of the African plate. The plateau is a NE-oriented structural high crosscut by a large-scale N10°-20°E oriented strike-slip fault system, named Scicli-Ragusa, which was affected by right-lateral kinematics during the Upper Miocene-Lower Pliocene. Some authors documented a recent activity of the Scicli-Ragusa fault system, during the Quaternary, characterized by left-lateral kinematics. The portion of the Hyblean Plateau crosscut by this fault system represents an excellent example of an outcropping analogue of a fractured carbonate reservoir. By taking advantage of the several oil shows located along the Scicli-Ragusa fault system, we combine stratigraphic-structural analyses, both at outcrop and microscopic scales, to assess the structural control exerted by faults and fractures on hydrocarbon migration and storage. The field work focused on the geological mapping, at 1:10.000 scale, on detailed stratigraphic characterization of the outcropping layered carbonates (Ragusa Fm.) and on traditional faults and fractures analysis. Sample collection was also performed in order to conduct, in the laboratory, optical microscope and image analyses. The Oligo-Miocenic Ragusa Fm. is comprised of two main members: i) the lower Leonardo Member, which is characterised by well-cemented carbonate packstones intercalated with marl-rich levels; ii) the upper Irminio Member, characterised by an alternation of well-cemented and poorly-cemented grainstones/packstones. According to both orientations and kinematics, we grouped the fault segments of the Scicli-Ragusa fault system into three major sets: (i) NNE-striking faults with predominant right-lateral kinematics, (ii) ENE-striking faults with left-lateral kinematics, and (iii) NE-striking faults characterized by normal slip. Conversely, based on the fault attributes we subdivided the outcropping faults into four main categories: (i) Major faults, comprised of well-developed fault cores (made up of cataclastic rocks and main slip surfaces) flanked by thicker fault damage zones, which are up to 18 km-long and have throws in the order of 100's of meters. (ii) Medium faults containing thin and discontinuous fault cores of brecciated and cataclastic fault rocks and through-going slip surfaces encompassed within the fault damage zones, which are long up to several 100's of meters and have throws up to 10's of meters. (iii) Small faults made up of isolated and discontinuous fault cores of faults breccias and through-going slip surfaces, which are up to a few m-long and have throws in order of several 10's of cm and a few meters. (iv) Incipient faults consist, predominantly, of sheared pre-existing fractures confined within the individual carbonate beds; the maximum throw < 10 cm. The meso-structural analysis performed to define the background deformation allowed us to identify mainly three different typology of structures: i) joints, ii) stylolites, and iii) shear bands. On the basis of their abutting relationships first originated bed-parallel stylolites and then two coeval sets of bed perpendicular joints. Shear bands nucleated by shearing of previously formed bed-parallel and bed-perpendicular structures. Another important data came out from preliminary microscope analysis carried out within mines of tar rich carbonates. Here, shear bands within porous layers behaved as a seal for oil migration whereas joints, localized in well cemented layers, acted as conduct for hydrocarbons. Finally, as planned work, we are going to combine fault architecture data with petrophysical analyses conducted on samples belonging to different structural domains in order to define hydraulic behaviours of the studied faults.

Cilona, Antonino; Agosta, Fabrizio; Criscenti, Alessandro; Dipasquale, Mario; Giunta, Giuseppe; Napoli, Giuseppe; Occhipinti, Rosario; Renda, Pietro; Tondi, Emanuele

2010-05-01

142

Microplate kinematics, strain accumulation and geodetic fault slip rates along the Sicily-Calabria segment (southern Italy) of the Nubia-Eurasia plate boundary from the analysis and modeling of dense GPS networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sicily and Calabria regions (Southern Italy) are among the most seismically active areas of the Mediterranean basin. The highest seismic moment rates align along the Calabro-Peloritani arc, a tectonically complex segment of the central Mediterranean plate boundary zone, whose Neogene to Quaternary evolution is generally interpreted in terms of slow relative Africa-Eurasia plate convergence and fast subduction and roll-back of the Ionian lithosphere beneath the Calabrian Arc, accompanied by fast back-arc extension in the Tyrrhenian Sea. GPS velocities, according to a large spectrum of geophysical and geological data, support the view that the present-day kinematics and geodynamics of the area significantly differ from the ones that governed its tectonic evolution. In particular, the rates and orientation of the present-day Nubia-Eurasia convergence along the Ionian-Calabrian segment are largely debated, and this uncertainty negatively impact our still incomplete knowledge of the kinematics and seismic potential of active faults in the area. In this work we use a new and dense GPS velocity field to constraint the rates and styles of contemporary crustal deformation and to study the kinematics of plates and microplates in the central Mediterranean region. NE-Sicily is confirmed as the area displaying the largest velocity gradients, and the region accommodates a clear change in the regional kinematics. The largest earthquakes in the study region occur at on-land, or partially offshore, and mostly blind normal faults along the Calabro-Peloritani arc. Fortunately, recently available dense GPS arrays along the Messina Straits (NE-Sicily) and the Crati Valley (Calabria) allow us to determine, through the use of dislocation modeling and model optimization techniques, some first order geometric and kinematic features of the interseismic elastic strain build up of these seismogenic fault systems. However, given the tectonic complexity of the study region, it is not clear at which level the measured velocity gradients across known active normal faults may be affected by additional elastic contributes due to unknown or offshore active faults. By developing a regional elastic block model, which accounts for both crustal block rotations and strain loading at block-bounding faults, we find that the measured velocity gradients across NE-Sicily and Calabria are likely to be significantly affected by the elastic strain contribution of the possibly locked Calabrian subduction interface. This longer wavelength signal can be presently super-imposed on the observed velocity gradients on-land, and the inferred slip rates on the NE-Sicily and Calabria active faults are impacted by elastic strain from the Ionian subduction system.

Mastrolembo Ventura, B.; Serpelloni, E.; Burgmann, R.; Baldi, P.

2010-12-01

143

Recent, allopatric, homoploid hybrid speciation: the origin of Senecio squalidus (Asteraceae) in the British Isles from a hybrid zone on Mount Etna, Sicily.  

PubMed

Homoploid hybrid speciation occurs through stabilization of a hybrid segregate (or segregates) isolated by premating and/or postmating barriers from parent taxa. Theory predicts that ecological and spatial isolation are of critical importance during homoploid hybrid speciation, and all confirmed homoploid hybrid species are ecologically isolated from their parents. Until recently, such species have been identified long after they originated, and consequently it has not been possible to determine the relative importance of spatial and ecological isolation during their origin. Here we present evidence for the recent origin (within the past 300 years) of a new homoploid hybrid species, Senecio squalidus (Asteraceae), in the British Isles, following long-distance dispersal of hybrid material from a hybrid zone between S. aethnensis and S. chrysanthemifolius on Mount Etna, Sicily, Italy. Historical records show that such hybrid material from Sicily was introduced to the Oxford Botanic Garden in Britain in the early part of the 18th century and that S. squalidus began to spread from there after approximately 90 years. A survey of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA/intersimple sequence repeats (RAPD/ISSR) marker variation demonstrated that S. squalidus is a diploid hybrid derivative of S. aethnensis and S. chrysanthemifolius that grow at high and low altitudes, respectively, on Mount Etna and that form a hybrid zone at intermediate altitudes. Senecio squalidus contained 11 of 13 RAPD/ISSR markers that were recorded at high frequency in S. chrysanthemifolius but were absent or occurred at low frequency in S. aethnensis, and 10 of 13 markers for which the reverse was true. Bayesian admixture analysis showed that all individuals of S. squalidus surveyed were of mixed ancestry with relatively high mean proportions of ancestry derived from both S. chrysanthemifolius and S. aethnensis (0.644 and 0.356, respectively). We argue that long-distance isolation of hybrid material from its parents on Mount Etna would have helped favor the origin and establishment of S. squalidus in the British Isles, regardless of whether the initial hybrid material introduced to Britain was preadapted to local conditions. PMID:16526502

James, Juliet K; Abbott, Richard J

2005-12-01

144

A retrospective study on acute health effects due to volcanic ash exposure during the eruption of Mount Etna (Sicily) in 2002  

PubMed Central

Background Mount Etna, located in the eastern part of Sicily (Italy), is the highest and most active volcano in Europe. During the sustained eruption that occurred in October-November 2002 huge amounts of volcanic ash fell on a densely populated area south-east of Mount Etna in Catania province. The volcanic ash fall caused extensive damage to infrastructure utilities and distress in the exposed population. This retrospective study evaluates whether or not there was an association between ash fall and acute health effects in exposed local communities. Methods We collected the number and type of visits to the emergency department (ED) for diseases that could be related to volcanic ash exposure in public hospitals of the Province of Catania between October 20 and November 7, 2002. We compared the magnitude of differences in ED visits between the ash exposure period in 2002 and the same period of the previous year 2001. Results We observed a significant increase of ED visits for acute respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and ocular disturbances during the ash exposure time period. Conclusions There was a positive association between exposure to volcanic ash from the 2002 eruption of Mount Etna and acute health effects in the Catania residents. This study documents the need for public health preparedness and response initiatives to protect nearby populations from exposure to ash fall from future eruptions of Mount Etna. PMID:23924394

2013-01-01

145

The use of TIMS data to estimate the SO2 concentrations of volcanic plumes: A case study at Mount Etna, Sicily  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data were acquired over Mount Etna, Sicily, on 29 July 1986. The volcanic activity at that time was characterized by the steady effusion of gas from the Bocca Nuova (BN), Chasm, and Southeast craters. The Northeast crater, quiet at the time of the TIMS overflight, was the site of Strombolian eruptive activity between 31 July and 24 Sep. 1986. In aerial photographs of the Etna summit region acquired during the TIMS overflight, the SO2-rich plume is visible due to the scattering of sunlight by the entrained aerosols. In the TIMS imagery, the plume is revealed by the strong absorption of SO2 between 8 and 9 microns. This absorption feature falls within the first three channels of TIMS, with the strongest absorption falling within Channel 2. Following decorrelation processing, the plume is visible in color-composites of TIMS channels 2, 3, and 5. To estimate the concentration of SO2 within the plume, the LOWTRAN 7 radiative transfer code was used to model the radiance spectra measured by TIMS.

Realmuto, Vincent J.

1992-01-01

146

Long- and short-term deformation along the active northern margin of the hyblean plateau (se sicily) from multidisciplinary data: evidence for a new potential seismogenic source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A geologic and geodetic integrated analysis of the northern margin of the Hyblean Plateau (SE Sicily) has been carried out in order to test the relation of the active deformation, recorded by GPS data, and the long-term tectonic evolution, recorded by structural and morphological data, with potential seismogenic sources of the region, where high level (MCS I0 = X - XI) historical seismicity occurred. To date, seismotectonic models have alternatively related the main seismogenic sources to the incipient rifting that reactivated the Malta Escarpment in the Ionian off-shore or to the still active NW-SE trending Nubia-Eurasia convergence, that remobilized the northern tectonic boundary of the Hyblean Plateau. In this region, the new data reveal that the active deformation can be framed in the flexural tectonics developed during the late stages of the Nubia-Eurasia plate convergence. Geodetic and geological data provide a coherent kinematic picture that is compatible with the occurrence of a blind ramp thrust along the NW margin of the Hyblean Plateau. This study demonstrates that the onshore seismicity of the Hyblean region can be confidently referred to active compressional dynamics. Additionally, our data candidate the inferred blind thrust, located to the south of the Scordia-Lentini graben, as a major potential seismogenic source that might be considered in interpreting the historical seismicity of the region.

Bonforte, Alessandro; Catalano, Stefano; Maniscalco, Rosanna; Pavano, Francesco; Romagnoli, Gino; Sturiale, Giovanni; Tortorici, Giuseppe

2014-05-01

147

Late Triassic tholeiitic magmatism in Western Sicily: A possible extension of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) in the Central Mediterranean area?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Triassic basaltic rocks crop out in the Lercara area in Western Sicily. Major and trace element composition, as well as Sr-Nd isotopic ratios (87Sr/86Sri = 0.7074 - 0.7076; ?Ndi = from - 0.69 to - 1.09) of the Lercara rocks shows many similarities with Large Ion Lithophile Elements (LILE)- and Light Rare Earth Elements (LREE)-rich tholeiitic basalts of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), that erupted during the Mesozoic fragmentation of the Pangea supercontinent and subsequent opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean. The geochemical features of the Lercara igneous rocks, together with the spatial distribution of the ~ 200 Ma old CAMP rocks are unlikely to be associated with the arrival of a thermal anomaly in the form of a mantle plume and are more compatible with adiabatic melting of passively upwelling sub-lithospheric mantle. The original melts variably interacted with lower crustal rocks before reaching the surface. AFC modeling suggests two distinct differentiation paths including either simple mixing or assimilation-fractional crystallization processes involving lower crustal rocks. These interactions with continental crust indicate that an ocean basement most probably had not yet formed.

Cirrincione, R.; Fiannacca, P.; Lustrino, M.; Romano, V.; Tranchina, A.

2014-02-01

148

Partitioning between "wedge-top" river- and wave-dominated successions: an example from the late Tortonian — early Messinian Terravecchia Formation (NW Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed field sedimentological and facies analyses have been performed in the Terravecchia Formation cropping out in NW Sicily, in order to differentiate and describe, for the first time, wave- and river-dominated shallow-marine (deltaic) siliciclastic successions. The latter were deposited filling syntectonic basins, developed between the late Tortonian and early Messinian time, within the wedge-top depozone of the Sicilian Foreland Basin System. It has been observed that river-dominated successions, recording the deposition of small fan-deltas are characterized by fining- to coarsening upward, transgressive-regressive sequences which were mostly deposited filling relatively narrow and often oversupplied basins. These basins were probably located in a proximal sector of the wedge-top depozone, closer to emergent sectors of the chain and probably sheltered from the main marine areas. Wavedominated successions, on the other hand, are characterized by upward fining, mostly transgressive sequences which were deposited filling wider basins open to major marine regions and located in a more distal position of the wedge-top depozone. The documented partitioning between river- and wave-dominated successions, as a function of the position of the sedimentary basin within the wedge-top depozone, is coherent with data from analyses of the deformational patterns of the Terravecchia Formation in this study area. Furthermore, the data here presented could be considered as a preliminary database for future characterization and analysis of siliciclastic reservoirs from Sicilian outcrop analogues.

Gugliotta, Calogero

2011-09-01

149

Synsedimentary-tectonic, soft-sediment deformation and volcanism in the rifted Tethyan margin from the Upper Triassic-Middle Jurassic deep-water carbonates in Central Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pizzo Lupo section (Sicanian Mts, central Sicily) is an Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic condensed deep-water succession, where the relationships among synsedimentary tectonic, soft-sediment deformations, volcanism and lithological changes reflect the evolution of a rift-basin. The morphostructural setting of the studied basin appears as a gently dipping slope where a fault-delimited area (graben to halfgraben) was developed. The instability of the sea floor, related to the seismic shocks, was the cause of the gravity-driven deformational sedimentary structures (slumping, breccia channelized bodies). The partly stratified basaltic rocks, with disorganized and chaotic stratification, suggest the occurrence of a volcanic complex located in neighbouring areas. A regional comparison with the tectono-sedimentary evolution of the pelagic drowning platform succession (i.e. Trapanese domain Auct.), outcropping in adjacent areas, suggests that these different domains were close to each other during the studied period forming a stepped margin platform-to-basin system. The environmental changes, synsedimentary tectonic activity and gravity-driven phenomena were the result of repeated events occurred during a long time interval, spanning from Late Triassic to Early Jurassic.

Basilone, Luca; Lena, Gabriele; Gasparo-Morticelli, Maurizio

2014-07-01

150

Distribution of rare earth elements in marine sediments from the Strait of Sicily (western Mediterranean Sea): evidence of phosphogypsum waste contamination.  

PubMed

Concentrations of rare earth elements (REE), Y, Th and Sc were recently determined in marine sediments collected using a box corer along two onshore-offshore transects located in the Strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea). The REE+Y were enriched in offshore fine-grained sediments where clay minerals are abundant, whereas the REE+Y contents were lower in onshore coarse-grained sediments with high carbonate fractions. Considering this distribution trend, the onshore sediments in front of the southwestern Sicilian coast represent an anomaly with high REE+Y concentrations (mean value 163.4 ?g g(-1)) associated to high Th concentrations (mean value 7.9 ?g g(-1)). Plot of shale-normalized REE+Y data of these coastal sediments showed Middle REE enrichments relative to Light REE and Heavy REE, manifested by a convexity around Sm-Gd-Eu elements. These anomalies in the fractionation patterns of the coastal sediments were attributed to phosphogypsum-contaminated effluents from an industrial plant, located in the southern Sicilian coast. PMID:21130477

Tranchida, G; Oliveri, E; Angelone, M; Bellanca, A; Censi, P; D'Elia, M; Neri, R; Placenti, F; Sprovieri, M; Mazzola, S

2011-01-01

151

Flash floods and debris flow in the city area of Messina, North-East part of Sicily, Italy in October 2009: the case of the Giampilieri catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flash floods are phenomena in which the important hydrologic processes are occurring on the same spatial and temporal scales as the intense precipitation. Most of the catchment in the North-East part of Sicily (Italy) are small, with a steep slope, and characterized by short concentration times. These characteristics make those catchment prone to flash flood formation, as demonstrated by events that occurred in the area around Messina in the North-East part of Sicily, Italy in the last recent years. The events occurred on 25th October 2007 in the Mastroguglielmo torrent on the ionic sea coast, on 11th December 2008 in the Elicona catchment on the Tyrrhenian sea coast and on 1st October 2009 in Racinazzi and Giampilieri torrents on the ionic sea coast are an example of flash floods and debris flow events that caused not only significant economic damages to property, buildings, roads and bridges but also, for this that concern the 1st October 2009 flash flood event, loss of human life. This work is aimed by the 1st October 2009 flash flood and debris flow event where a devastating flooding was caused by a very intense rainfall concentrated over the Messina area. The storm caused severe flash floods in many villages around the city of Messina, such as Giampilieri, Scaletta Zanclea, Altolia Superiore and Molino with forty casualties and significant damage to property, buildings, roads and bridges estimated close to 200 million Euro. Main focus of this work is to perform a post event analysis of the 2009 flash flood event, putting together available meteorological and hydrological data in order to get better insight into temporal and spatial variability of the rain storm, the soil moisture condition and the consequent flash floods in the catchment of the Giampilieri catchment. Starting from these information another objective has been, then, to document the post-failure stage of event concerning slid materials. With the help of GIS technology and particularly spatial analysis, volume of debris gone down for the Giampilieri catchment has been calculated. The event was investigated using observed data from a raingauge network and hydraulic evidences. Statistical analysis using GEV distribution was performed and rainfall return period (storm severity) was estimated. Further, measured rainfall data and rainfall-runoff modeling were used to analyze the hydrological behaviour and to reconstruct flood and debris hydrographs. The study confirmed that post-flood investigation should focus on discharges and hydrological response of the catchment rather than simply analyzing statistical characteristics of rainfall. Thanks to LIDAR data produced immediately after the event, issued one meter precision DEM has been compared with a two meter precision one provided two years before. GIS maps with landslide and material deposit areas have been produced and analyzed.

Aronica, G. T.; Brigandi, G.; Morey, N.

2010-09-01

152

large-scale structural pattern as the result of the interplay between compression and extension during chain building: the case of the Sicily Belt (Central Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are very close relationships between chains building and contemporaneous basins formation in terms of spatial and structural interdependence, mutual compensation of sediments, tectonic interaction and simultaneous evolution. In fact, extensional tectonics has been worldwide documented as a process that contributes to the evolution of orogenic belts. The dynamics of wedge growth may partly dictate by localised extensional forces which may support basin formation both in the back of the wedge (piggy-back basins) and in its toe region (foredeep-foreland basins). The evolution of chain-foredeep-foreland systems is characterised by contractional structures coupled by extensional deformations, both at the chain-foredeep and at the foredeep-foreland transition zone. As a consequence, the architecture of most foredeep depressions is generally envisioned as controlled by active regional thrusts and coeval subsidiary normal faults in their inner and outer edges. These structures may contribute to accommodate flexure of foreland plates induced by the load of advancing thrust sheets. The connection between thrusting-and-folding evolution (including thermal and mechanical perturbations of the continental lithosphere induced by mountain building) and the wedge failure towards the extensional collapse in collisional settings is poorly argued and two main different models are known: I) syn-orogenic extension (extensional tectonics contemporaneous with shortening induced by the overstepping at the back of an accretionary wedge during continuous deeper subduction) and II) post-orogenic extension (often explained as the result of crustal change in stress path related to gravitational collapse of the previously thickened and thermally weakened lithosphere). Syn-orogenic extension observed during the build-up of the mountain belt is usually restricted to the upper brittle crust and to the brittle-ductile transition. A kinematic model relative to the chain building lack for the Sicily Belt, including folding-and-thrusting and extension interactions. Sicily, located in the Central Mediterranean, is considered as part of the Tertiary Alpine-Himalayan suture zone. The Sicilian Thrust System (STS) is a south-verging fold-and-thrust belt and represents the South-eastern arcuate portion of the Apennine-Maghrebides thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belt. The STS is made of a lot of thrust sheets, including Mesozoic-Lower Tertiary pre-orogenic multilayered sedimentary sequence and occupies the larger part of the island. The thrust stack owes its origin to the deformation of pre-orogenic strata deposited in different palaeogeographic domains belonging to the Northern Africa passive margin. The belt developed during the Neogene, following the closure of the Tethys Ocean and the continental collision between the Sardo-Corso Block and the Africa margin. The thrust pile was detached from the underlying basement during Miocene-Pliocene time interval and experienced both faulting, folding and stretching. A general hinterland-to-foreland thrust propagation is recorded in the syn-orogenic deposits. The recognised regional-scale structural setting allow us to reconstruct tectonic evolution: I) piggy-back thrusting from the early Oligocene to the Langhian, inducing the building of the Inner Sicilian Chain (ISC) that migrated progressively forelandwards. Extensional deformations were active only in the foredeep-foreland system; II) piggy-back thrusting from the Langhian to the Tortonian, inducing the building of the Middle Sicilian Chain (MSC) that migrated progressively forelandwards. Extensional deformations were active both in the foredeep-foreland system and in the ISC as the result of incipient supercritical wedge taper conditions; III) wedge failure (ISC+MSC) from the Tortonian to the earliermost Pliocene, inducing generalised extensional deformations in the chain-foredeep-foreland system; IV) new onset of piggy-back thrusting since the early Pliocene for renewed subcritical wedge taper conditions, allowed the building of the Outer Sicilian Chain (OSC) an

Nigro, Fabrizio; Renda, Pietro; Favara, Rocco; Salvaggio, Gaetano

2010-05-01

153

The use of multispectral thermal infrared image data to estimate the sulfur dioxide flux from volcanoes: A case study from Mount Etna, Sicily, July 29, 1986  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have found that image data acquired with NASA's airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) can be used to make estimates of the SO2 content of volcanic plumes. TIMS image data are most applicable to the study of partially transparent SO2 plumes, such as those released during quiescent periods or nonexplosive eruptions. The estimation procedure is based on the LOWTRAN 7 radiative transfer code, which we use to model the radiance perceived by TIMS as it views the ground through an SO2 plume. The input to the procedure includes the altitudes of the aircraft and ground, the altitude and thickness of the SO2 plume, the emissivity of the ground, and altitude profiles of the atmospheric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. We use the TIMS data to estimate both ground temperatures beneath a plume and SO2 concentrations within a plume. Applying our procedure to TIMS data acquired over Mount Etna, Sicily, on July 29, 1986, we estimate that the SO2 flux from the volcano was approximately 6700 t d(exp -1). The use of TIMS to study SO2 plumes represents a bridge between highly localized methods, such as correlation spectroscopy or direct sampling, and small-scale mapping techniques involving satellite instruments such as the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer or Microwave Limb Sounder. We require further airborne experiments to refine our estimation procedure. This refinement is a necessary preparation for the schedueled 1998 launch of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer, which will allow large-scale multispectral thermal infrared image data to be collected over virtually any volcano on Earth at least once every 16 days.

Realmuto, Vincent J.; Abrams, Michael J.; Buongiorno, M. Fabrizia; Pieri, David C.

1994-01-01

154

Interspecific crossing and genetic mapping reveal intrinsic genomic incompatibility between two Senecio species that form a hybrid zone on Mount Etna, Sicily.  

PubMed

Studies of hybridizing species can reveal much about the genetic basis and maintenance of species divergence in the face of gene flow. Here we report a genetic segregation and linkage analysis conducted on F2 progeny of a reciprocal cross between Senecio aethnensis and S. chrysanthemifolius that form a hybrid zone on Mount Etna, Sicily, aimed at determining the genetic basis of intrinsic hybrid barriers between them. Significant transmission ratio distortion (TRD) was detected at 34 (?27%) of 127 marker loci located in nine distinct clusters across seven of the ten linkage groups detected, indicating genomic incompatibility between the species. TRD at these loci could not be attributed entirely to post-zygotic selective loss of F2 individuals that failed to germinate or flower (16.7%). At four loci tests indicated that pre-zygotic events, such as meiotic drive in F1 parents or gametophytic selection, contributed to TRD. Additional tests revealed that cytonuclear incompatibility contributed to TRD at five loci, Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM) incompatibilities involving epistatic interactions between loci contributed to TRD at four loci, and underdominance (heterozygote disadvantage) was a possible cause of TRD at one locus. Major chromosomal rearrangements were probably not a cause of interspecific incompatibility at the scale that could be examined with current map marker density. Intrinsic genomic incompatibility between S. aethnensis and S. chrysanthemifolius revealed by TRD across multiple genomic regions in early-generation hybrids is likely to impact the genetic structure of the natural hybrid zone on Mount Etna by limiting introgression and promoting divergence across the genome. PMID:24595365

Brennan, A C; Hiscock, S J; Abbott, R J

2014-09-01

155

Observing scoria cone growth and lava flow development in the Bocca Nuova crater, Mount Etna, Sicily (2012), using repeat terrestrial laser scanner measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In July 2012, following the cessation of the 2011 - 2012 sequence of fire fountaining events from the flanks of the South East crater, magmatic activity began in the Bocca Nuova summit crater of Mount Etna (Sicily). The activity was characterised by mild Strombolian explosions and gentle lava effusion, and began constructing a small scoria cone within the crater. Here, we present analysis of a sequence of terrestrial laser scans, time-lapse camera and satellite data that captured scoria cone growth and lava flow development between 17 - 21 July, 2012. Activity over the observation period comprised Strombolian explosions at a recurrence interval of ~1 - 10 seconds, and a short lava flow (approximately 20 m wide and 120 m long) emanating from the vent region. On 17, 19 and 21 July, a Riegl LPM-321 terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) was deployed on the western rim of the Bocca Nuova, ~350m from the active vent and used to capture a single scan on each day to cover the cone, lava flow and crater wall. High-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from these scans were used to calculate volumetric change and growth rate of the cone. A maximum elevation gain of ~15 m and an increase in volume of ~84000 m3 (equivalent to 0.24 m3s-1) was observed over the four-day period. The lava flow was also repeatedly scanned at 10-minute intervals over a 90-minute period on 21 July. By combining these TLS data with concurrently collected thermal and visual imagery, a detailed time-series analysis of flow velocities and decimetric topographic changes will be used to assess lava flux and estimate rheological properties.

Slatcher, N.; James, M. R.; Calvari, S.; Ganci, G.; Browning, J.

2012-12-01

156

Raised Holocene paleo-shorelines along the Capo Schisò coast, Taormina: New evidence of recent co-seismic deformation in northeastern Sicily (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed mapping of geomorphological, biological and archaeological sea-level markers around the Capo Schisò volcanic headland, a few kilometers south of Taormina, north-eastern Sicily, has documented the occurrence of three Holocene paleo-shorelines raised at different altitudes. The uppermost shoreline (PS1) is represented by a fossiliferous beach deposit that is heavily eroded and only few small sections, at elevations ranging between ˜3 and ˜5 m above the present sea-level, are visible. The middle shoreline (PS2) was found at a maximum altitude of ˜3 m and is represented by algal rims, remnants of barnacle bands and vermetid concretions, and by a fossiliferous beach deposit. The lowermost shoreline (PS3) includes remnants of algal rims, vermetid concretions, fossil barnacle bands and a beachrock, and reaches an elevation of 1.60-1.80 m. New radiocarbon dating results, integrated with published ages from nearby paleo-shoreline outcrops, constrains for the Taormina region an average uplift rate of 1.7-1.8 mm/yr in the last 5 ka, and the occurrence of three co-seismic uplift events at 4.4-3.9 ka, 2.1-1.8 ka and ?1.0 ka ago. Abrupt displacements are tentatively attributed to footwall uplift along an offshore normal fault, but further investigations are needed to better constrain the causative source of past earthquakes. Notwithstanding, based on coastal tectonic analysis, this paper provides a new assessment of age and recurrence time of Holocene earthquakes in a historically strong seismogenic area.

Spampinato, Cecilia Rita; Scicchitano, Giovanni; Ferranti, Luigi; Monaco, Carmelo

2012-04-01

157

Tsunami hazard for the city of Catania, eastern Sicily, Italy, assessed by means of Worst-case Credible Tsunami Scenario Analysis (WCTSA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eastern Sicily is one of the coastal areas most exposed to earthquakes and tsunamis in Italy. The city of Catania that developed between the eastern base of Etna volcano and the Ionian Sea is, together with the neighbour coastal belt, under the strong menace of tsunamis. This paper addresses the estimation of the tsunami hazard for the city of Catania by using the technique of the Worst-case Credible Tsunami Scenario Analysis (WCTSA) and is focused on a target area including the Catania harbour and the beach called La Plaia where many human activities develop and many important structures are present. The aim of the work is to provide a detailed tsunami hazard analysis, firstly by building scenarios that are proposed on the basis of tectonic considerations and of the largest historical events that hit the city in the past, and then by combining all the information deriving from single scenarios into a unique aggregated scenario that can be viewed as the worst virtual scenario. Scenarios have been calculated by means of numerical simulations on computational grids of different resolutions, passing from 3 km on a regional scale to 40 m in the target area. La Plaia beach results to be the area most exposed to tsunami inundation, with inland penetration up to hundreds of meters. The harbour turns out to be more exposed to tsunami waves with low frequencies: in particular, it is found that the major contribution to the hazard in the harbour is due to a tsunami from a remote source, which propagates with much longer periods than tsunamis from local sources. This work has been performed in the framework of the EU-funded project SCHEMA.

Tonini, R.; Armigliato, A.; Pagnoni, G.; Zaniboni, F.; Tinti, S.

2011-05-01

158

The influence of erosional processes on the visibility of Permanent Scatterers Features from SAR remote sensing on Mount Etna (E Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of 1549 DInSAR interferograms, covering the period from 2003 to 2010, has highlighted significant motion along the entire set of the active faults identified by advanced DInSAR analyses (i.e. Permanent Scatterers Features, PSF), affecting the Mount Etna volcano, in eastern Sicily. In the analysed period, the absence of significant seismicity producing co-seismic ground deformation suggests that the overall deformation that has been recognized on the interferograms is to be associated with interseismic, almost continuous creep which is, well documented along most of the active faults. According to field evidence, the structures should accumulate displacements resulting in their permanent visibility on the interferograms, progressively increases through time. This expected behaviour has been recognised only for part of the entire set of structures. Other tectonic features, in fact, show episodic appearances, alternating with periods of absence of ground displacement on the interferograms, simulating a stick-slip mechanism of deformation, conflicting with field evidence. This apparently incongruous behaviour can be interpreted as the result of topographic changes due to the combination of the tectonic displacements with related amounts of the differential erosion and deposition across the fault line. The comparison between the history of the appearances and the monthly rainfall in the region seems to demonstrate that these structures appear when one of the two interacting processes governing the topographic changes around the fault, i.e. tectonic vs. erosional, prevails over the other. Otherwise, the same structures are not evident on the interferograms when the two components are in balance.

Catalano, S.; Bonforte, A.; Guglielmino, F.; Romagnoli, G.; Tarsia, C.; Tortorici, G.

2013-09-01

159

Oxidative stress and DNA repair and detoxification gene expression in adolescents exposed to heavy metals living in the Milazzo-Valle del Mela area (Sicily, Italy)  

PubMed Central

Background The area of Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily, Italy) is considered at high risk of environmental crisis by regional authorities. Objective To measure oxidative-stress, DNA repair and detoxification genes in school children living near the industrial area and in age-matched controls. Methods The parent study was a biomonitoring investigation evaluating heavy metal urine levels in 226 children aged 12–14 years, living in the high risk area, and in 29 age-matched controls living 45 km far from the industrial site. In the present study 67 exposed adolescents and 29 controls were included. Samples were analyzed for urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8OHdG) levels, and gene expression of OGG1 (DNA repair gene), NQO1, ST13, and MT1A (detoxifying genes). Results Urinary cadmium was higher (p = 0.0004) in exposed [geometric mean, 0.46 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 0.3–0.56] than in control adolescents [geometric mean, 0.26 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 0.2–0.3]. Chromium was also significantly elevated in exposed [geometric mean, 1.52 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 1.19–1.93] compared with controls [geometric mean, 1.25 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 1.05–1.48; p = 0.02]. Urinary 8-OHdG concentration was greater in exposed than in controls (71.49 vs 61.87 µg/L, p = 0.02), and it was correlated with cadmium levels (r = 0.46, p < 0.0001), and with the combined exposure index (r = 0.43, p < 0.0001). Moreover, cadmium levels showed a robust correlation with OGG1 and MT1A gene expression levels (r = 0.44, p < 0.0001; r = 0.39, p < 0.0001, respectively). Finally, OGG1 and MT1A were over-expressed in adolescents from Milazzo-Valle del Mela area compared with controls (p = 0.0004; p < 0.0001, respectively). Conclusions Continuous exposure at relatively low concentrations of heavy metals is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage and impaired expression of DNA repair and detoxification genes in adolescents. PMID:24936443

Pizzino, Gabriele; Bitto, Alessandra; Interdonato, Monica; Galfo, Federica; Irrera, Natasha; Mecchio, Anna; Pallio, Giovanni; Ramistella, Vincenzo; Luca, Filippo De; Minutoli, Letteria; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica

2014-01-01

160

Human reponses to historical eruptions of Etna (Sicily) from 1600 to present and their implications for present-day disaster planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mount Etna in northeastern Sicily (Italy) rises to over 3000 m, covers an area of ca.1750 km2 and is the most active volcano in Europe. Observations of Etna by literate observers stretch back to the classical era and one of the earliest references to an eruption of Etna was by Pindar in his Pythian Odes, to the event of ca. 474-479 B.C. The history of its activity has been reconstructed by scholars up to the present day and records of eruptions are reasonably complete from the early fifteenth century, reliable from 1669, and document the threats and destruction to human settlements and livelihoods. Effusive and explosive activity has occurred continually throughout the historical period and eruptions of Mount Etna have presented numerous eruption styles, from persistent central crater activity, to periodic flank eruptions. From 1600 to 1669 the activity of Etna was characterised by a high volumetric output of lava with a mean eruption rate of 1.19 m3s-1, this was followed by a pause from flank eruptions and the re-establishment of significant activity from the middle of the eighteenth century. After 1750 the output of lava by flank eruptions was lower than in the previous century, with the mean eruption rate falling to 0.18 m3s-1. This paper summarises: the characteristics of the eruptions that occurred between the period of 1600 to present; the particularities of the societal responses over time and the role of the authorities; and, the important lessons this history holds for the management of present-day civil defence planning in the region. People responded to the eruptions at three levels: as members of a family and extended family; as members of a community and, as citizens of the State. The State, however, was a minor player in responding to these eruptions until the early nineteenth century as the State then became more involved in each successive eruption as the responses moved to a more industrial nature rather than pre-industrial. Today emergencies are closely managed by central government, through the Ministry of Civil Protection (Dipartimento della Protezione Civile - founded in 1992), who can call on the expertise of local authorities (comuni) and scientific bodies, especially the National Institute of Geophysics and Vulcanology in Catania (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologica INGV - sezione Catania). The nature of the society living on the flanks of Mount Etna has changed over the past nine decades, especially since the late 1960s, and the increasing exposure to volcanic and volcano-related hazards in the Etna Region is strengthening the need for improved communication amongst social scientists, civil defence authorities, the media and the local communities. Educating local people about how to react when a disaster strikes is viewed as an increasingly important element in Civil Defence planning, with examples of how people coped successfully in the past being used to inform people today. Effective communication both in terms of, raising awareness and ensuring that non-scientists have properly understood the associated hazard implications, and implementing emergency responses, is critical in facilitating more effective hazard prevention plans.

Sangster, H.; Chester, D. K.; Duncan, A. M.

2012-04-01

161

Flash floods and debris flow: how the risk could can be better managed? The case of the events in Sicily on October 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flash floods are phenomena in which the important hydrologic processes are occurring on the same spatial and temporal scales as the intense precipitation. Most of the catchments of the Messina area in the North-East part of Sicily (Italy), are prone to flash flood formation. They are, in fact, small, with a steep slope, and characterised by short concentration times. Moreover, those catchments are predominantly rural in the upper mountainous part, while the areas next to the outlet are highly urbanized with areas that cover not only the floodplain but also the river bed itself as the main roads were previously part of the torrent. This situation involve an high risk of economic losses and human life in case of flash flood in these areas. In the last years the area around Messina has been interested by severe flash floods and debris flow. The events occurred on 25th October 2007 in the Mastroguglielmo torrent and 1st October 2009 on Racinazzi and Gianpilieri torrents are an example of flash floods and debris flow events that caused not only significant economic damages to property, buildings, roads and bridges but also, for this that concern the 1st October 2009 flash flood, loss of human life. The main focus of this work is, basing on the post event analysis of the 2009 flash flood event, to try to understand which could be the better preventive measures and mitigation strategies that can be provided for a better risk management in these areas too many times affected by devastating events. Flood management can be controlled by either structural or non-structural measures. Adoption of a certain measure depends critically on the hydrological and hydraulic characteristics of the river system and the region. Flash flood management includes a number of phases that should be included in any management strategy like prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. Forecasting based on hydrological precursors based on the soil moisture condition at the beginning of an event has been investigated in order to test is this kind of approach can be useful as flash flood forecasting system. This kind of approach, associated with the use of LAM (Limited Area Modelling) approach could, in fact, increase the forecast lead time. When an efficient flash flood forecasting system can be difficult to apply, a good risk management and some structural action can be contemplated to improve the safety of the people and the properties. In these cases, hazard maps associated to several scenarios that cover the geographical areas which have been flooded and those that could be flooded, can be a practical alternative. These areas shall be shown according to several scenarios and, for each scenarios, the degree of danger will also be provided by expressing the water depth, the flow velocity or the combination of these and the identification of areas which could be subject to bank overflowing and debris flow deposition.

Aronica, Giuseppe T.; Brigandi', Giuseppina

2010-05-01

162

Mantle melting in within-plate continental settings: Sr-Nd-Pb and U-series isotope constraints in alkali basalts from the Sicily Channel (Pantelleria and Linosa Islands, Southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of the mantle sources of the Na-alkaline magmas erupted within the continental rift of the Sicily Channel and their melting behaviour are here investigated through the determination of Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios and U-series disequilibria on basaltic volcanic rocks from Linosa and Pantelleria. The isotope data, along with trace element ratios are used to assess the possible role of the interaction with the continental crust and/or the Sub-Continental Lithospheric Mantle (SCLM). The data show little variation in Sr and Nd isotopes and a continuous trend toward more radiogenic Pb isotope composition from Linosa to the oldest mafic activity of Pantelleria (i.e. Paleo-Pantelleria), with intermediate values measured in the youngest Pantelleria lavas (Neo-Pantelleria). Pantelleria basalts have ubiquitous 230Th-excess ranging from 7% to 20%. These data suggest the magmas are originated within the asthenospheric mantle, with little or no interaction with either the continental crust or the SCLM. The increasing FOZO-like character of the studied magmas and the variation of some key trace element ratios (e.g. Rb/La) argue for an increasing role of recycled oceanic material in the form of eclogite/pyroxenite dispersed within the mantle sources of these magmas. A completely distinct isotope composition is recorded in Neo-Pantelleria hawaiites from Khartibucale, which show significantly higher 87Sr/86Sr and lower 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb, (238U/232Th) and (230Th/232Th), but comparable (230Th/238U) with respect to all the other rocks studied. These rocks cannot be considered co-genetic with other Pantelleria basalts and are interpreted either as related to interaction with partial melts of the SCLM or to be originated from a mantle source enriched by recycled crustal material (EM-like). 235U-231Pa disequilibria were also measured in one Neo-Pantelleria hawaiite and one Neo-Pantelleria basalt. The coupled (230Th/238U) = 1.20 and (231Pa/235U) = 1.39 of the latter were used to perform quantitative dynamic melting models in order to constrain physical parameters of mantle melting in the Sicily Channel. The combined modelling yielded positive solutions only for high DU/DTh (? 2.5) and low melting rates (? < 1 × 10- 4 kg/m3/a). These data argue against any important role for amphibole in the genesis of these magmas and are consistent with a peridotite source possibly well mixed with recycled components. The modelled values of ? can also be converted into estimates of the upwelling rate of the mantle that are compatible with slow passive upwelling along the Sicily Channel rift.

Avanzinelli, Riccardo; Braschi, Eleonora; Marchionni, Sara; Bindi, Luca

2014-02-01

163

The CIRCEE-HR survey in the Calabrian arc and offshore E Sicily (Ionian Sea and Southern Italy): investigating active faults, recent deformation and the deep marine paleoseismic record (turbidites)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(CIRCEE-HR - Calabrian arc Ionian sea Research and Catastrophic historical EarthquakE s in southern italy - a High Resolution seismic survey) We report on a recent marine geophysical and geological survey conducted onboard the R/V Le Suroit from 2-24 October in the Ionian Sea, offshore Eastern Sicily. The primary aim of the CIRCEE-HR cruise proposal was to conduct a neo-tectonic study of the Calabrian subduction zone offshore Southern Italy, a region struck repeatedly by the most destructive earthquakes in European history. The CIRCEE-HR survey targeted the region struck by the 1693 Catania earthquake (60,000 killed) and the 1908 Messina earthquakes, which produced intensity X-XI shaking and tsunamis. The 1908 (normal faulting mechanism) earthquake triggered a turbidite flow that ruptured submarine cables. The source of some strong historical earthquakes (1169, 1542, 1693) remains unknown. Several crustal scale structures have been proposed as being seismogenic: the Malta escarpment, a lithospheric tear fault (STEP), the subduction fault plane and other related faults. The main objectives of the cruise were therefore to seek evidence of active faults associated with these structures, and to characterize the degree of activity of the Calabria accretionary wedge (sedimentary deformation, dewatering processes) in order to better assess its seismogenic potential. Another major objective is to try to determine the typical recurrence interval for large earthquakes in the region (by coring and dating of turbidites triggered by great earthquakes). The Augias mega-turbidite dated either 3.5 ka (Cita et al., 1996) or 365 AD (Polonia et al., 2013) covers the entire floor of the Ionian abyssal plain with a thickness of 10-15m representing a volume of > 100km3. This layer serves as a stratigraphic marker to identify recent deformation in the abyssal domain. The methods applied were 72-channel high-resolution seismic profiles and sub-bottom profiling (chirp) (with 1200km of profiles planned) as well as some targeted bathymetric swathmapping surveys (in areas <3000m depth, not previously well mapped), and gravity coring of the turbidite deposits (28 coring sites planned). Map of the Ionian Sea - E Sicily margin, with planned seismic profiles shown as red lines and planned sediment coring sites as red triangles

Gutscher, M.; Babonneau, N.; Cattaneo, A.; Gallais, F.; Graindorge, D.; San Pedro, L.

2013-12-01

164

Obsidian provenance determination using the beam stability controlled BSC-XRF and the PIXE-alpha portable spectrometers of the LANDIS laboratory: the case of the Via Capuana settlement in Licodia Eubea (Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade about 800 obsidian artifacts coming from various archaeological sites of Sicily have been analyzed using the BSC-XRF (beam stability controlled-x-ray fluorescence) and PIXE-alpha (particle induced x-ray emission, using low-energy alpha particles) portable spectrometers developed at the Landis laboratory of the LNS-INFN and IBAM-CNR in Catania (Italy). The portable BSC-XRF system allows the non-destructive analysis of Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Nb trace concentrations, which are considered to be characteristic of the obsidian samples and consequently are indicative of the provenance quarries. Quantitative data on the above trace-element concentrations were deduced using a method that makes use of a multi-parameter linear regression. The portable PIXE-alpha spectrometer allows the quantitative determination of the matrix major elements, from Na to Zn. In this paper the updated versions of the instrumental devices and methods are presented together with a review of all the obtained data from various Sicilian sites. Results on compositional data for trace elements and major elements allowed us to identify Lipari and Pantelleria islands as the only two sources of the analyzed samples. Recent data about the Via Capuana settlement in Licodia Eubea are also presented and discussed for the first time.

Pappalardo, L.; Romano, F. P.; Bracchitta, D.; Massimino, A.; Palio, O.; Rizzo, F.

2013-12-01

165

Two new tardigrade species from Sicily.  

PubMed

Two new species of tardigrades are described from Sicilian moss samples: Macrobiotus insuetus sp. nov. and Diphascon (Diphascon) procerum sp. nov.        Macrobiotus insuetus sp. nov. is a species of the harmsworthi-group characterized by both posterior and anterior claws of the hind legs, which are different in shape from those of the first three leg pairs. The IV claws have extended basal tract where the branches are joined and the secondary branch breaks at near right angle to the primary branch and is clearly shorter than the main branch and the secondary branch of claws I-III. The eggs are not areolated and have conical processes with a reticular ornamentation.        Diphascon (D.) procerum sp. nov. has a delicate cuticular ornamentation of very small tubercles, almost dots; two macroplacoids and septulum are present; thin accessory points are present on the main branches of the slender claws; lunules are absent but the base of the external claws of the hind legs are enlarged and slightly indented; a cuticular bar is present near the internal claw of the first three leg pairs and two cuticular bars are present on the hind legs between the base of the claws and near the base of the anterior claw.  PMID:24869688

Pilato, Giovanni; Sabella, Giorgio; Lisi, Oscar

2014-01-01

166

Sicily statement on evidence-based practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A variety of definitions of evidence-based practice (EBP) exist. However, definitions are in themselves insufficient to explain the underlying processes of EBP and to differentiate between an evidence-based process and evidence-based outcome. There is a need for a clear statement of what Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) means, a description of the skills required to practise in an evidence-based manner and

Martin Dawes; William Summerskill; Paul Glasziou; Antonino Cartabellotta; Janet Martin; Kevork Hopayian; Franz Porzsolt; Amanda Burls; James Osborne

2005-01-01

167

Sicily statement on evidence-based practice  

PubMed Central

Background A variety of definitions of evidence-based practice (EBP) exist. However, definitions are in themselves insufficient to explain the underlying processes of EBP and to differentiate between an evidence-based process and evidence-based outcome. There is a need for a clear statement of what Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) means, a description of the skills required to practise in an evidence-based manner and a curriculum that outlines the minimum requirements for training health professionals in EBP. This consensus statement is based on current literature and incorporating the experience of delegates attending the 2003 Conference of Evidence-Based Health Care Teachers and Developers ("Signposting the future of EBHC"). Discussion Evidence-Based Practice has evolved in both scope and definition. Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) requires that decisions about health care are based on the best available, current, valid and relevant evidence. These decisions should be made by those receiving care, informed by the tacit and explicit knowledge of those providing care, within the context of available resources. Health care professionals must be able to gain, assess, apply and integrate new knowledge and have the ability to adapt to changing circumstances throughout their professional life. Curricula to deliver these aptitudes need to be grounded in the five-step model of EBP, and informed by ongoing research. Core assessment tools for each of the steps should continue to be developed, validated, and made freely available. Summary All health care professionals need to understand the principles of EBP, recognise EBP in action, implement evidence-based policies, and have a critical attitude to their own practice and to evidence. Without these skills, professionals and organisations will find it difficult to provide 'best practice'. PMID:15634359

Dawes, Martin; Summerskill, William; Glasziou, Paul; Cartabellotta, Antonino; Martin, Janet; Hopayian, Kevork; Porzsolt, Franz; Burls, Amanda; Osborne, James

2005-01-01

168

Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in Sicily.  

PubMed

Eight Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs)-DYS19, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393 and DYS385-were typed in a population sample (n=255) of unrelated Sicilian males from nine different towns on the main island and from the island of Pantelleria. PMID:15990263

Robino, C; Inturri, S; Gino, S; Torre, C; Di Gaetano, C; Crobu, F; Romano, V; Matullo, G; Piazza, A

2006-06-01

169

Tsunami risk assessments in Messina, Sicily - Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a first detailed tsunami risk assessment for the city of Messina where one of the most destructive tsunami inundations of the last centuries occurred in 1908. In the tsunami hazard evaluation, probabilities are calculated through a new general modular Bayesian tool for Probability Tsunami Hazard Assessment. The estimation of losses of persons and buildings takes into account data collected directly or supplied by: (i) the Italian National Institute of Statistics that provides information on the population, on buildings and on many relevant social aspects; (ii) the Italian National Territory Agency that provides updated economic values of the buildings on the basis of their typology (residential, commercial, industrial) and location (streets); and (iii) the Train and Port Authorities. For human beings, a factor of time exposition is introduced and calculated in terms of hours per day in different places (private and public) and in terms of seasons, considering that some factors like the number of tourists can vary by one order of magnitude from January to August. Since the tsunami risk is a function of the run-up levels along the coast, a variable tsunami risk zone is defined as the area along the Messina coast where tsunami inundations may occur.

Grezio, A.; Gasparini, P.; Marzocchi, W.; Patera, A.; Tinti, S.

2012-01-01

170

SO2 flux measurements at Mount Etna (Sicily)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1987, over 220 measurements of the SO2 flux at Mount Etna have been carried out using a correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) with different measuring techniques (mainly with COSPEC mounted on ground-based vehicle). This paper reports and analyzes the data obtained between October 1987 and December 1991. During this period, three distinct time intervals characterized by particular SO2 emission patterns were

Tommaso Caltabiano; Romolo Romano; Gennaro Budetta

1994-01-01

171

Spatial vent opening probability map of Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We produce a spatial probability map of vent opening (susceptibility map) at Etna, using a statistical analysis of structural features of flank eruptions of the last 2 ky. We exploit a detailed knowledge of the volcano structures, including the modalities of shallow magma transfer deriving from dike and dike-fed fissure eruptions analysis on historical eruptions. Assuming the location of future vents will have the same causal factors as the past eruptions, we converted the geological and structural data in distinct and weighted probability density functions, which were included in a non-homogeneous Poisson process to obtain the susceptibility map. The highest probability of new eruptive vents opening falls within a N-S aligned area passing through the Summit Craters down to about 2,000 m a.s.l. on the southern flank. Other zones of high probability follow the North-East, East-North-East, West, and South Rifts, the latter reaching low altitudes (˜400 m). Less susceptible areas are found around the faults cutting the upper portions of Etna, including the western portion of the Pernicana fault and the northern extent of the Ragalna fault. This structural-based susceptibility map is a crucial step in forecasting lava flow hazards at Etna, providing a support tool for decision makers.

Cappello, A.; Neri, M.; Acocella, V.; Gallo, G.; Vicari, A.; Del Negro, C.

2012-11-01

172

Classification and formation of lava levees on Mount Etna, Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the 1975 subterminal lava flows and sections through the larger flank lavas on Mount Etna show that there are four principal types of levees formed in Etnean lavas: initial, accretionary, rubble, and overflow. Initial levees are formed because of the yield strength of these non-Newtonian lavas and are thought to determine channel width. The other types of levees

R. S. J. Sparks; H. Pinkerton; G. Hulme

1976-01-01

173

The July–August 2001 eruption of Mt. Etna (Sicily)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The July–August 2001 eruption of Mt. Etna stimulated widespread public and media interest, caused significant damage to tourist facilities, and for several days threatened the town of Nicolosi on the S flank of the volcano. Seven eruptive fissures were active, five on the S flank between 3,050 and 2,100 m altitude, and two on the NE flank between 3,080 and 2,600 m

Boris Behncke; Marco Neri

2003-01-01

174

High-frequency source localization in the Strait of Sicily  

E-print Network

be accounted for by including a time dependent modelling of the water column sound speed profile. Keywords-- Source localization, focalization, high-frequen- cies, shallow water. I. INTRODUCTION Matched-field processing (MFP) is an inversion tech- nique that allows for locating a sound source in the ocean using

Jesus, Sérgio M.

175

Bioindication of volcanic mercury (Hg) deposition around Mt Etna (Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mt. Etna is a major natural source of Hg to the Mediterranean region. Total mercury concentrations, [Hg]tot, in Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut) leaves sampled 7-13 km from Etna's vents (during six campaigns in 2005-2011) were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. [Hg]tot in C. sativa was greatest on Etna's SE flank reflecting Hg deposition from the typically overhead volcanic plume. When adjusted for leaf age, [Hg]tot in C. sativa also increased with recent eruptive activity. [Hg]tot in C. sativa was not controlled by [Hg]tot in soils, which instead was greatest on the (upwind) NW flank and correlated strongly with soil organic matter (% Org). Our results suggest that at least ~1% of Hg emitted from Etna is deposited proximally, supporting recent measurement and model results which indicate that GEM (Hg0; the dominant form of Hg in high temperature magmatic gases) is oxidised rapidly to RGM and Hgp in ambient temperature volcanic plumes. Samples of C. sativa and soils were also collected in July and September 2012 alongside SO2 and acid gas diffusion tube samples. These new samples will enable us to investigate Hg accumulation over a single growth season with reference to the exposure of vegetation to volcanic gases and particles.

Martin, R.; Witt, M. L.; Sawyer, G. M.; Watt, S.; Bagnato, E.; Calabrese, S.; Aiuppa, A.; Delmelle, P.; Pyle, D. M.; Mather, T. A.

2012-12-01

176

Slope instability in a historical and architectural interest site: the Agrigento hill (Sicily-Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of landslides are an issue for many urban cities and their cultural heritage, especially where both natural factors and human actions are join. Indeed in these cases, both the geological-geomorphological area predisposition and the continuous human actions increase the possibility occurrence of a landslide. In order to study these landslides and their natural hazard, a multi-disciplinary approach is necessary. Agrigento (37°19'18''N; 13°35'22''E), founded around 580 b.C. along the Sicilian southern coast, is an example of a possible impacts of landslides on cultural heritage. This work discusses the geological, geomorphological and hydrological data results, performed in order to study and the monitoring the landslide on the north side of the Agrigento hill (335 m a.s.l.), on which is localized the antique cathedral (sixteenth century) and the old city. The hill geology is a typical regressive Plio-Pleistocene succession and their lithology are clays (Monte Narbone formation) , calcarenites , sands and silts of the Agrigento formation. The landslide phenomena, current since 1315, involves a calcarenitic pack (Pleistocene), weakly cemented, highly porous, fractured and fissured (E-W). This phenomena from 1924, at different times, have produced various types of instability such as: falls, flows and complex movements. From 7 March 2005 have been reactivated fractures of the calcarenitic pack, already highlighted by studies in 1966. These fractures have triggered slope movements damaging the cathedral and the various historic buildings. In order to reduce the risk and thus safeguard the monuments and the activity in this area, carried out the several studies. Since 2005, the landslide is the subject both geological-geomorphological studies and a continuous monitoring, which have used different techniques of different disciplines: interferometric analysis, interpretation of aerial and satellite imagery, geophysical investigations, stratigraphic survey, etc. The results of this studies carried out the landslide kinematics and the lithology involved, in this way it was possible to suggest targeted intervention. Keywords: rotational landslide, rockfall, hazard, architectural heritage.

Liguori, Vincenzo; Manno, Giorgio

2014-05-01

177

Epidemiology and clinical features of cystic hydatidosis in Western Sicily: A ten-year review  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess retrospectively the epidemiological and clinical aspects of cystic echinococcosis (CE) and to evaluate follow-up and response to treatment in patients affected by CE. METHODS: From January 2000 to December 2010, all patients affected by CE at the Infectious Diseases Units of the University of Catania and of Basilotta Hospital in Nicosia-Enna, were enrolled as participants in the study. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data were collected for each patient. Diagnosis of CE was performed using clinical imaging and laboratory parameters. Response to treatment was categorized as follows: “cure” as the disappearance or complete calcification of cyst/s; “improvement” as a reduction in the diameter and/or number of existing cysts; and “impairment” as an increase in the diameter and/or number of existing cyst/s and the onset of relapses (i.e., the onset of new cyst/s and an increase in the diameter of previously existing cyst/s and/or complications. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) titers and eosinophil percentages were evaluated at diagnosis, at six months after the initiation of treatment and again in the case of relapse. Hyper-eosinophilia was defined as an eosinophil percentage of ? 6%. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients were diagnosed with CE in our Unit during the research period, with a male-female ratio of 2:1. At the time of diagnosis, 40% of patients presented a single CE cyst. Sixty percent showed multi-organ involvement. The liver-lung localization ratio was 2:1. Patients below the age of 50 at diagnosis were more likely to have multiple cysts (73.7% vs 35.5%, P < 0.05). Regarding treatment, 30 patients were treated medically and 16 surgically. Fourteen patients were treated both medically and surgically. Relapses were seen to be less frequent in patients treated with albendazole before and after surgery. Complete cure or an improvement was achieved in 23 patients. Impairment was observed in one patient. Two patients showed no improvement. Relapses were more frequent in those patients treated before 2005. At diagnosis, 71% of patients were positive for specific CE IgE, and 56.3% showed an eosinophil percentage of ? 6%. Patients who were diagnosed with hyper-eosinophilia developed complications more frequently than the other patients, but did not suffer relapses. CONCLUSION: On the basis of our results, we propose cystic echinococcosis screening for family members of patients, appropriate pre- and post-surgery treatment and the assessment of anti-echinococcus IgE titer or eosinophil percentage as a therapy response marker in settings with limited resources. PMID:24409062

Cappello, Elisa; Cacopardo, Bruno; Caltabiano, Eleonora; Li Volsi, Sigismindo; Chiara, Rosa; Sapienza, Mauro; Nigro, Luciano

2013-01-01

178

Fluorine speciation in topsoils of three active volcanoes of Sicily (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorine is one of the many environmental harmful elements released by volcanic activity. The content of total oxalate-extractable and water-extractable fluorine was determined in 96 topsoils of three active volcanic systems of southern Italy (Mt Etna, Stromboli and Vulcano). Total fluorine (F) content ( F TOT) ranges from 112 to 7,430 mg kg-1, F extracted with oxalate ( F OX) ranges from 16 to 2,320 mg kg-1 (2-93% of F TOT) and F extracted with distilled water ( F_{{{text{H}}_{{text{2}}} {text{O}}}} ) ranges from 1.7 to 159 mg kg-1 (0.2-40 % of F TOT). Fluorine in the sampled topsoils derives both from the weathering of volcanic rocks and ashes and from the enhanced deposition due to volcanic gas emissions either from open-conduit passive degassing (Mt Etna and Stromboli) or from a fumarolic field (Vulcano). Fluorine accumulation in the studied soils does not generally present particular environmental issues except for a few anomalous sites at Vulcano, where measured contents could be dangerous both for vegetation and for grazing animals.

D'Alessandro, Walter; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco

2008-11-01

179

Soil CO 2 degassing along tectonic structures of Mount Etna (Sicily): the Pernicana fault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide emissions from the soil have been investigated along lines of equally spaced sampling points perpendicular to the Pernicana fault on Mt Etna. Anomalous values of soil CO2 have been found not only along the fault plane, but also along directions parallel to it, both to the N and to the S of the main fault. The acquired data

Mariano Valenza; S GURRIERI

1997-01-01

180

Fluoro-edenitic fibres in the sputum of subjects from Biancavilla (Sicily): a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background An excess of mortality for malignant neoplasms of the pleura in Biancavilla, promoted an investigation for pleural mesothelioma, disclosing 17 cases. As the absence of known sources of asbestos exposure, a local stone quarry, located near the inhabited area, used for the extraction of building materials, was investigated. Amphibolic fibres were found in the quarry and identified as fluoro-edenite "new end-member of the edenite / fluoro-edenite series" and recognized as the fluoro-edenite holotype by International Mineralogical Association – Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names. A pilot study was performed to verify the feasibility of using spontaneous sputum as an exposure indicator for these fibres, in a context in which the use of aerosol-induced sputum technique would not be easily accepted. Methods Hypothesizing a behaviour of the new fibre analogous to that of asbestos, the determination of the free fibres and the ferruginous bodies in spontaneous sputum was carried out. Phase Contrast Optical Microscope and an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope fitted with X-ray energy dispersive analysis system (micro-analysis) were used to examine the samples. The criteria for inclusion in the study were: 1) subjects hospitalized for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptoms, 2) age ? 45 years, 3) residence in Biancavilla for at least 30 years. Results The preliminary findings are related to 12 subjects (7 females and 5 males). Uncoated fibres (with length > 5 ?m, diameter < 3 ?m, aspect ratio 3.1) and ferruginous bodies were searched. Six out of twelve subjects (4 females, 2 males) had at least one of the three samples positive for the presence of fluoro-edenite, confirmed by micro-analysis. The fibre concentration found in the sputum ranged from 0.04 to 10 fibres/g; the length from 20 to 40 ?m, the diameter was < 0.5 ?m. No ferruginous bodies were found in any of the samples. The four women with a positive sample were housewives. Of the two men with a positive sample, one was a farmer and the other a mason. Therefore, it may be assumed that the exposure to fluoro-edenitic fibres was mainly environmental. Conclusion The occurrence of the pleural mesothelioma cases and the presence of fluoro-edenitic fibres in spontaneous sputum, evidence the need to study the biological activity of fluoro-edenitic fibres and the implementation of epidemiological monitoring systems. PMID:16780574

Putzu, Maria Grazia; Bruno, Caterina; Zona, Amerigo; Massiccio, Marilena; Pasetto, Roberto; Piolatto, Pier Giorgio; Comba, Pietro

2006-01-01

181

A GIS tool for Integrated Hazard Evaluation on the faults of Mt. Etna (Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pilot GIS-based system has been implemented for the assessment and analysis of hazard related to active fault systems affecting the eastern and southern flanks of Mt. Etna. The system structure was developed in ArcGis® environment and consists of different thematic datasets that include spatially-referred arc-features and associated Database. Arc-type features, geo-referred into WGS84 Ellipsoid UTM zone 33 Projection, are represented by the four fault systems that develop in the analyzed region and other vector layers (i.e. the main lifelines) specifically added for the hazard evaluation. In any case, the backbone of the GIS-based system is constituted by the large amount of information which was stored and properly geocoded in a digital database. This consists of thirty alpha-numeric fields which include all fault parameters available from literature such us length, location, slip rate etc. Although the system has been constructed according to the most common procedures used by GIS developer, the architecture and content of the Database represent a powerful tool in modeling hazard at Mt. Etna. On the other hand, layering different geographic information and managing Database (topological querying) achieved information can easily and quickly be represented in a great diversity of hazard and vulnerability maps which can be produced following the implementation of specific predicting models.

Barreca, G.; Bonforte, A.; Neri, M.

2012-04-01

182

Viewing places: GIS applications for examining the perception of space in the mountains of Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are increasingly used to appreciate how past people experienced their world. Two key approaches, visibility and cost surface studies, have been the dominant form of analysis to help archaeologists to reconstruct and visualize space, in other words to help archaeologists understand what it was like to be ‘there’ in the past. This paper seeks to question

Matthew Fitzjohn

2007-01-01

183

Aerobiological monitoring applications in the Etnean volcanic plume evaluation (Mt. Etna, Sicily) and correlation with allergopathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the study of the application of a Hirst-type impact volumetric sampler (IVS) in the sampling of volcanic\\u000a ash continuously emitted by Mt. Etna. This methodology is commonly used for measuring the atmospheric concentration of airborne\\u000a pollen grains and fungal spores. This study was undertaken between April 2003 and January 2005, when a series of ash emissions\\u000a occurred;

Benedetto Diana; Anna Maria Finocchiaro; Santo La Delfa; Giuseppe Patanè; Ferdinando Presti; Maria Timpanaro; Giovanni Tringali

2006-01-01

184

Geomorphology of the western Ionian Sea between Sicily and Calabria, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the westernmost Ionian Sea lies a steep, tectonically active marine basin influenced by turbidity currents generated by terrigenous river input from the adjacent mountains and strong tidal currents propagating through the Strait of Messina. Like many young marine rifts, the basin is lined by steep streams draining the uplifting coasts and supplying sediment across narrow shelves. However, unlike many rifts, this basin is semi-enclosed. The present study explores the seabed morphology and sediment structures in this complex environmental setting, based on multibeam sonar, chirp profiler and seismic reflection data collected in 2006. Offshore channels include many that can be directly linked to onshore streams, suggesting that hyperpycnal flows are important for their formation. Near the Strait of Messina in depths shallower than 400 m, the channels are subdued, plausibly explained as an effect of strong tidal currents. The Messina Channel is characterised by abundant mass-wasting features along its outer bends, particularly on the Calabrian side. Coincidence of the channel course with faults suggests that the channel is structurally controlled in places. The chirp profiles generally show only shallow penetration, the evidence for coarse texture being consistent with the steep gradient of the basin that inhibits deposition from turbidity currents. By contrast, some locally discontinuous mounds exhibiting layered sub-bottom reflectors in the chirp profiles are interpreted as modern levee deposits formed from channelised turbidity current overspill. Overall, this semi-enclosed basin shows little evidence of substantial accumulations associated with modern turbidity current activity, any contemporaneous sediment supply evidently bypassing the area to be deposited in the Ionian Trench; as a consequence, this trench should be an archive of local slope failure and flood events.

Goswami, Rajasmita; Mitchell, Neil C.; Argnani, Andrea; Brocklehurst, Simon H.

2014-10-01

185

Essential oil composition of Tanacetum vulgare subsp. siculum (Guss.) Raimondo et Spadaro (Asteraceae) from Sicily.  

PubMed

Ninety-four components of the essential oils from aerial parts and capitula of Tanacetum vulgare subsp. siculum (Guss.) Raimondo et Spadaro were detected. Alpha-Thujone, beta-thujone and 1,8-cineole were the main constituents of the oils. The analysis allows the assignment of this Tanacetum species to the thujone chemotype. PMID:19476007

Formisano, Carmen; Senatore, Felice; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Bellone, Gabriella; Spadaro, Vivienne

2009-04-01

186

Carbonate stromatolites from a Messinian hypersaline setting in the Caltanissetta Basin, Sicily: petrographic evidence of  

E-print Network

: petrographic evidence of microbial activity and related stable isotope and rare earth element signatures ELVIRA. Evidence of bacterial involvement in carbonate formation is recorded in three dolomite-rich stromatolite or absorbed into developing crystal faces. Biofilm-like remains occur in voids between the filaments

Riding, Robert

187

Cryptic structural trends revealed by Cenozoic sedimentation on the Malta-Sicily shelf  

SciTech Connect

Fault control of sedimentation patterns affects upper Miocene carbonate deposition. Fault trends, northeasterly or northwesterly, appear to exert major controls on sedimentation and represent the principal fractures seen on geologic maps of the islands. Evidence, however, shows a regionally persistent north-south facies alignment apparent throughout the Cenozoic. A reactivated Mesozoic basement fracture pattern is thought to control this alignment. Probable mesozoic sedimentation controls and facies distributions on the Malta shelf thus influence trap generation and hydrocarbon migration.

Pedley, H.M. (Univ. of Hull (England))

1988-08-01

188

Potential tsunami impact on a refinery in North-Eastern Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial facilities located in coastal areas subject to tsunami hazards may be at risk of tsunami impact and damage. Furthermore, if hazardous materials are present these can be accidentally released impacting nearby residents and dispersing into the environment. We have analysed the potential impact of two tsunami scenarios originating in the Tyrrhenian Sea and their consequences at an industrial facility

A. M. Cruz; G. Franchello; E. Krausmann

2009-01-01

189

WTE plant planned for Palermo (Sicily, Italy) (Translation of Italian text by Lucia Rigamonti)  

E-print Network

scrubbing with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), activated carbon injection to remove acid gases, heavy metals the characterization and the proximate and ultimate analysis of this dry fraction. The WTE plant will recover energy and will have three lines. Each line will be equipped with a water-cooled mobile grate combustor. The emission

Columbia University

190

landforms evolution in collisional-dominated settings: the case of Northern Sicily (Central Mediterranean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the young mountain chains underwent to emersion, the different crustal blocks which compose the belt may be subjected to differentiate tilting during uplift. The tilting process may be revealed both by the stratal pattern of the syn-uplifting deposits or deduced by the function altitude\\/area ratio. The prevailing of the uplift rate with respect to the tilting rate (and vice

Fabrizio Nigro; Pietro Renda; Rocco Favara

2010-01-01

191

Spatiotemporal probability of vent opening at Mt Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We produced a spatiotemporal probability map of vent opening at Mt Etna, using a statistical analysis of structural features of the flank eruptions of the last 2000 years. The methodology is based on the hypothesis that the location and frequency of future events will have the same causal factors as the eruptions occurring in the past. The study is supported by a detailed knowledge of the volcano structures, including the modalities of shallow magma transfer deriving from dike and dike-fed fissure eruptions analysis on historical eruptions. The geological and structural data are converted in distinct and weighted probability density functions (PDFs), exploiting both spatial and temporal recurrence rates. The spatiotemporal probability map is obtained through a non-homogeneous Poisson process, where the expected recurrence rate per unit area is calculated as the weighted sum of the PDFs, with the weights derived from a backward/forward analysis to highlight the presence of temporal trends in the history of the volcano. The highest probability of new eruptive vents opening at Mt Etna falls within a N-S aligned area passing through the Summit Craters down to about 2000 m a.s.l. on the southern flank. Four other zones of high probability follow respectively the North-East, East-North-East, West and South Rifts, the latter reaching low altitudes (~400 m). Less susceptible areas prone to the opening of new vents were found around the faults cutting the upper portions of Mt Etna, including the western portion of the Pernicana fault system and the northern extent of the Ragalna fault system. The spatiotemporal probability map of vent opening provides detailed recurrence rates (events expected per unit area per unit time) and will hence be an important resource to predict the future timing and location of Etna eruptions. This structural-based map is the first and perhaps most important step in assessing lava flow hazards at Mt Etna, and thus represents a support tool for decision makers.

Cappello, A.; Bilotta, G.; Neri, M.; Acocella, V.; Gallo, G.; Del Negro, C.

2012-04-01

192

Degassing driving crystallization of plagioclase phenocrysts in lava tube stalactites on Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basaltic lava flows can form tubes in response to the cooling of the outer surface. We collected lava stalactites (frozen lava tears) and sampled lava from the ceilings of three lava tubes on Mount Etna. Comparison of the petrographic characters between ceiling lavas and relative stalactites reveals surprising differences in the groundmass textures and crystal compositions. Major and trace element contents in stalactites show only a slight increase in alkali and SiO2 compared to ceiling lava, whereas significant differences exist in composition and textures between plagioclases within the ceiling lava and those within the stalactites, being in the last case definitively more An-rich. We advance the hypothesis that the high temperature reached in the cave caused the exsolution of the volatiles still trapped in the dripping melt. The volatiles, mainly H2O, formed bubbles and escaped from the melt; such a water-loss might have promoted the silicate polymerization in the stalactites resulting in the growth of An-rich plagioclase phenocrysts. Our results have important implications: in fact plagioclase phenocrysts are usually associated with intratelluric growth and are often considered as the main petrologic evidence for the existence of a magma chamber. The textural and chemical features of plagioclases in stalactites prove that phenocryst growth in syn to post-eruptive conditions is plausible and clearly explains the relatively low viscosity of many phenocryst-rich lava flows on Mount Etna, as well as on many other volcanoes around the world. Therefore, we can conclude that plagioclase phenocrysts cannot exclusively be considered as having originated within a magma chamber.

Lanzafame, Gabriele; Ferlito, Carmelo

2014-10-01

193

A Late Holocene record of tsunamis in the Augusta Bay area (eastern Sicily, Italy): historical vs geological data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of hazard plans based on realistic inundation scenarios was dramatically highlighted in December 2004. These scenarios are generally based on numerical models of tsunami wave propagation that can become more realistic and accurate when calibrated with the distribution of true inundated locations and the frequency of event occurrence. This information is generally acquired by historical reports, usually limited

P. de Martini; M. Barbano; A. Smedile; F. Gerardi; D. Pantosti; P. Del Carlo; C. Pirrotta

2009-01-01

194

A revision of the structure and stratigraphy of pre-Green Tuff ignimbrites at Pantelleria (Strait of Sicily)  

E-print Network

of eruptive typologies and magnitudes: pyroclastic flows, Plinian to strombolian pumice fallout and lava flows.jvolgeores.2012.10.009 #12;2 Abstract At Pantelleria, peralkaline silicic magmas were erupted across a range. In this paper we focus on the intermediate cycle of eruptive activity which is bracketed by ignimbrite units

Boyer, Edmond

195

The evolution of lava flow-fields: observations of the 1981 and 1983 eruptions of Mount Etna, Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eruptions of Mount Etna in 1981 on the north flank and 1983 on the south flank of the volcano were of strikingly different character. The former was a short duration, high effusion rate eruption producing for the most part a simple flow-field; the latter was of relatively long duration and low effusion rate, producing a compound flow-field of overlapping

J. E. Guest; C. R. J. Kilburn; H. Pinkerton; A. M. Duncan

1987-01-01

196

Mobility and fluxes of major, minor and trace metals during basalt weathering and groundwater transport at Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations and fluxes of major, minor and trace metals were determined in 53 samples of groundwaters from around Mt Etna, in order to evaluate the conditions and extent of alkali basalt weathering by waters enriched in magma-derived CO2 and the contribution of aqueous transport to the overall metal discharge of the volcano. We show that gaseous input of magmatic

Alessandro Aiuppa; Patrick Allard; Walter D’Alessandro; Agnes Michel; Francesco Parello; Michel Treuil; Mariano Valenza

2000-01-01

197

Salinity variations in the water resources fed by the Etnean volcanic aquifers (Sicily, Italy): natural vs. anthropogenic causes.  

PubMed

In this paper, in an attempt to reveal possible changes connected to natural or anthropogenic causes, the main results of hydrogeochemical monitoring carried out at Mount Etna are evaluated. We report on the salinity contents of the groundwaters that flow in fractured volcanics, which make up the flanks of the volcano. These waters, analyzed for major ion chemistry, were sampled regularly from 1994 to 2004. Basing on nonparametric Sen's slope estimator, time series of groundwater composition reveal that the salinity of most of the Etnean aquifers increased by 0.5% to 3.5% each year during this period. This change in the water chemistry is clearly referable to the overexploitation of the aquifers. This increasing trend needs to be inverted urgently; otherwise, it will cause a shortage of water in the near future, because the maximum admissible concentration of salinity for drinking water will be exceeded. PMID:20198508

D'Alessandro, Walter; Bellomo, Sergio; Bonfanti, Pietro; Brusca, Lorenzo; Longo, Manfredi

2011-02-01

198

Soil CO 2 degassing on Mt Etna (Sicily) during the period 1989–1993: discrimination between climatic and volcanic influences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wide variations were measured in the diffuse CO2 flux through the soils in three selected areas of Mt Etna between August 1989 and March 1993. Degassing of CO2 from the area of Zafferana Etnea-S. Venerina, on the eastern slope of the volcano, has been determined to be more strongly influenced by meteorological parameters than the other areas. The seasonal component

Salvatore Giammanco; Sergio Gurrieri; Mariano Valenza

1995-01-01

199

Volcanic and anthropogenic contribution to heavy metal content in lichens from Mt. Etna and Vulcano island (Sicily).  

PubMed

Major and trace element concentrations were determined in two lichen species (Parmelia conspersa and Xanthoria calcicola) from the island of Vulcano and all around Mt. Etna. In both areas, the average concentrations of Al, Ca, Mg, Fe, Na, K, P and Ti are substantially greater than those of other elements. Several elements (Br, Pb, Sb, Au, Zn, Cu) resulted enriched with respect to the local substrates. The Br and Pb enrichment factors turned out to be the highest among those calculated in both areas. Data indicate that mixing between volcanic and automotive-produced particles clearly explains the range of Pb/Br shown by lichen samples. Sb is also enriched, revealing a geogenic origin at Vulcano and a prevailing anthropic origin at Mt. Etna. Distribution maps of the enrichment factors show a generalized enrichment of Au and Zn near Mt. Etna, whereas Cu appears to be enriched prevalently in the NE-SE area. The highest levels of Au and Cu at Vulcano occur E-SE from the craters, following the prevailing wind direction. PMID:15092945

Varrica, D; Aiuppa, A; Dongarrà, G

2000-05-01

200

Mobility and fluxes of major, minor and trace metals during basalt weathering and groundwater transport at Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily)  

SciTech Connect

The concentrations and fluxes of major, minor and trace metals were determined in 53 samples of groundwaters from around Mt. Etna, in order to evaluate the conditions and extent of alkali basalt weathering by waters enriched in magma-derived CO{sub 2} and the contribution of aqueous transport to the overall metal discharge of the volcano. The authors show that gaseous input of magmatic volatile metals into the Etnean aquifer is small or negligible, being limited by cooling of the rising fluids. Basalt leaching by weakly acidic, CO{sub 2}-charged water is the overwhelming source of metals and appears to be more extensive in two sectors of the S-SW (Paterno) and E (Zafferana) volcano flanks, where out flowing groundwaters are the richest in metals and bicarbonate of magmatic origin. Thermodynamic modeling of the results allows evaluation of the relative mobility and chemical speciation of various elements during their partitioning between solid and liquid phases through the weathering process. At Mt. Etna, poorly mobile elements (Al, Th, Fe) are preferentially retained in the solid residue of weathering, while alkalis, alkaline earth and oxo-anion-forming elements (As, Se, Sb, Mo) are more mobile and released to the aqueous system. Transition metals display an intermediate behavior and are strongly dependent on either the redox conditions (Mn, Cr, V) or solid surface-related processes (V, Zn, Cu).

Aiuppa, A.; Allard, P.; D'Alessandro, W.; Michel, A.; Parello, F.; Treuil, M.; Valenza, M.

2000-06-01

201

Mobility and fluxes of major, minor and trace metals during basalt weathering and groundwater transport at Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentrations and fluxes of major, minor and trace metals were determined in 53 samples of groundwaters from around Mt Etna, in order to evaluate the conditions and extent of alkali basalt weathering by waters enriched in magma-derived CO 2 and the contribution of aqueous transport to the overall metal discharge of the volcano. We show that gaseous input of magmatic volatile metals into the Etnean aquifer is small or negligible, being limited by cooling of the rising fluids. Basalt leaching by weakly acidic, CO 2-charged water is the overwhelming source of metals and appears to be more extensive in two sectors of the S-SW (Paternò) and E (Zafferana) volcano flanks, where out flowing groundwaters are the richest in metals and bicarbonate of magmatic origin. Thermodynamic modeling of the results allows to evaluate the relative mobility and chemical speciation of various elements during their partitioning between solid and liquid phases through the weathering process. The facts that rock-forming minerals and groundmass dissolve at different rates and secondary minerals are formed are taken into account. At Mt. Etna, poorly mobile elements (Al, Th, Fe) are preferentially retained in the solid residue of weathering, while alkalis, alkaline earth and oxo-anion-forming elements (As, Se, Sb, Mo) are more mobile and released to the aqueous system. Transition metals display an intermediate behavior and are strongly dependent on either the redox conditions (Mn, Cr, V) or solid surface-related processes (V, Zn, Cu). The fluxes of metals discharged by the volcanic aquifer of Etna range from 7.0 × 10 -3 t/a (Th) to 7.3 × 10 4 t/a (Na). They are comparable in magnitude to the summit crater plume emissions for a series of elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, U, V, Li) with lithophile affinity, but are minor for volatile elements. Basalt weathering at Mt Etna also consumes about 2.1 × 10 5 t/a of magma-derived carbon dioxide, equivalent to ca. 7% of contemporaneous crater plume emissions. The considerable transport of some metals in Etna's aquifer reflects a particularly high chemical erosion rate, evaluated at 2.3?10 5 t/a, enhanced by the initial acidity of magmatic CO 2-rich groundwater.

Aiuppa, Alessandro; Allard, Patrick; D'Alessandro, Walter; Michel, Agnes; Parello, Francesco; Treuil, Michel; Valenza, Mariano

2000-06-01

202

Levels of Heavy Metals in Adolescents Living in the Industrialised Area of Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Northern Sicily)  

PubMed Central

In the Milazzo-Valle del Mela area, the presence of industrial plants and the oil refinery make local residents concerned for their health. For this reason, we evaluated the levels of heavy metals in 226 children aged 12–14 years, living in the 7 municipalities of the area. A control age-matched population (n = 29) living 45?km far from the industrial site was also enrolled. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury, nickel, and vanadium were analysed in 24?h urine samples, while lead concentration was evaluated in blood samples. A questionnaire regarding life style and risk perception was also administered. Adolescents from Milazzo-Valle del Mela had cadmium levels significantly higher compared to either controls??(P < 0.0001) or the reference values of the European Germany Environmental Survey (GerES-IV) and the American National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Furthermore, children had higher perception of living in a high-risk environment. The present data, for the first time, clearly indicate that adolescents living in Milazzo-Valle del Mela have increased body concentration of cadmium, which may be harmful to human health. These results deserve particular attention by the local and regional government to initiate prevention programmes in this susceptible population. PMID:25328531

Interdonato, Monica; Mecchio, Anna; Cuspilici, Antonino; Minutoli, Letteria; Squadrito, Francesco

2014-01-01

203

Repeating volcano-tectonic earthquakes at Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy): characterization and evidences of crustal changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repeating volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes, taking place at Mt. Etna during 1999-2009, were detected and analyzed to investigate their behavior. We found 735 families amounting to 2479 VT earthquakes, representing ~38% of all the analyzed VT earthquakes. Over 70% of the families comprise 2 or 3 VT earthquakes and only 20 families by more than 10 events. More than half of the families have a lifetime shorter than 0.5 day and only ~10% longer than 1 year. On the basis of these results, most of the detected families were considered 'burst-type', i.e., show swarm-like occurrence, and hence their origin cannot be explained by a temporally constant tectonic loading. Indeed, since the analyzed earthquakes take place in a volcanic area, the rocks are affected not only by tectonic stresses related to the fairly steady regional stress field but also by local stresses, caused by the volcano, such as magma batch intrusions/movements and gravitational loading. We focused on five groups of families characterized by the best repeatability over time, namely high number of events and long lifetime, located in the north-eastern, eastern and southern flanks of the volcano. Unlike the first four groups, which similarly to most of the detected families show swarm-like VT occurrences, group 'v', located in the north-eastern sector, exhibits a more 'tectonic' behavior with the events making up such a group spread over almost the entire analyzed period. It is clear how both occurrence and slip rates do not remain constant but vary over time, and such changes are time-related to the occurrence of the 2002-2003 eruption. We searched for waveform variations in VT earthquakes belonging to the group 'v' and found changes that took place mainly in the 2002-2003 period. These consisted in a decreasing similarity of the late seismogram windows, highlighted by cross correlation analysis, as well as in delays, increasing proportionally to lapse time, detected by coda wave interferometry. Such variations, mainly evident at the stations located in the north-eastern flank of volcano, were likely due to medium changes taking place in this region. In particular, medium velocity decreases were inferred to occur in 2002-2003, followed by successive increases. The velocity decrease was interpreted as being caused by the opening or enlargement of cracks, produced by intruding magma bodies, ground intense deformation and/or VT earthquake activity, accompanying the 2002-2003 Mt. Etna eruption. On the other hand, the subsequent velocity increases were interpreted as resulting from healing processes.

Cannata, Andrea; Alparone, Salvatore; Ursino, Andrea

2014-05-01

204

Experimental constraints on depths of fractionation of mildly alkalic basalts and associated felsic rocks: Pantelleria, Strait of Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pantelleria, Italy, is a continental rift volcano consisting of alkalic basalt, trachyte, and pantellerite. At 1 atm along the FMQ buffer, the least-evolved basalt (Mg #= 58.5% norm ne) yields olivine on the liquidus at ˜1,180° C, followed by plagioclase, then by clinopyroxene, and by titanomagnetite and ilmenite at ˜ 1,075°. After ˜70% crystallization, the residual liquid at ˜1,025° is

Gail A. Mahood; Don R. Baker

1986-01-01

205

Food safety in hospital: knowledge, attitudes and practices of nursing staff of two hospitals in Sicily, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Food hygiene in hospital poses peculiar problems, particularly given the presence of patients who could be more vulnerable than healthy subjects to microbiological and nutritional risks. Moreover, in nosocomial outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, the mortality risk has been proved to be significantly higher than the community outbreaks and highest for foodborne outbreaks. On the other hand, the common

Cecilia Buccheri; Alessandra Casuccio; Santo Giammanco; Marco Giammanco; Maurizio La Guardia; Caterina Mammina

2007-01-01

206

International School of Innovative Technology for Cleaning the Environment, Ettore Majorana Centre for Scientific Culture: Erice, Sicily, Italy  

SciTech Connect

The International School of Innovative Technology for Cleaning the Environment was founded at the Ettore Majorana Centre for Scientific Culture (EMCSC), the seat of the World Laboratory Mediterranean Branch, in 1989. The School primarily organizes and hosts training courses and advanced study courses addressing state-of-the-art technologies to clean the environment, minimize waste generation, prevent pollution, and identify strategies to choose environmentally resilient sites and processes for new industrial installations. The School also participates in facilitating multi-national research projects for developing countries under the auspices of the World Laboratory and other sponsoring agencies.

Ragaini, R.C.

1994-06-01

207

Dynamic map of an evolving plumbing system: Combining geochemical modeling and volcano monitoring at Mt. Etna, Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our ability to monitor volcanoes (using seismic signals, gas fluxes, satellite based observations, ground deformation and various imaging tools) as well as our understanding of melt reservoirs that feed eruptions have evolved tremendously in recent years. The complex plumbing systems that are thought to feed eruptions are, however, difficult to relate to the monitoring signals. Here we demonstrate that compositional zoning of magmatic minerals can be used to track the pathways taken by different packages of melt in a complex plumbing network. Sequential kinetic modelling of such zoning patterns allows the timescales of residence and melt migration through the plumbing network to be inferred, providing a dynamic picture of the evolution of the plumbing system as an eruption cycle evolves. These results can be correlated with surface monitoring data, providing a connection between intensive thermodynamic variables recorded in the chemistry of melts and minerals and signals measured at the surface that are interpreted to be resulting from movement of melts at depth. We illustrate the approach using the chemical stratigraphy recorded in olivine crystals from the eruptive products of the 1991-1993 SE flank eruption of Mt. Etna. Detailed compositional mapping and diffusion modeling of olivine crystals from lavas erupted between December 1991 and March 1992 shows that the plumbing system of the volcano consisted of at least three different magmatic environments that mix and exchange crystals and melts. Quantification of the history of melt transfer and mixing as recorded in the zoning patterns of the olivine crystals yield two dominant pathways of melt migration through this complex network. The time scales of magma mixing and transfer between reservoirs and the surface range between a few days and up to two years, a range that coincides with the very characteristic active nature of Etna. We also find that although the eruption might have been triggered by addition and mixing of new magma into the plumbing system (pre-eruptive mixing), the eruption and related magma evacuation enhanced the mixing at depth or in the conduit (syn-eruptive mixing). Comparison of the monitoring data and the eruptive activity at the summit craters with the time scales of magma mixing at depths shows that the increasing mixing intensity close to the eruption onset (14 December 1991) is mainly marked by an overall increase of the summit activity and a likewise continuous increase of the radial tilt component. Extension of our observations gained from the 1991-1993 plumbing system to interpret the various monitoring signals observed during the current eruptive period at Mt. Etna should enable us to obtain more realistic inversions of these data and better predict the course of future eruptions.

Kahl, M.; Chakraborty, S.; Costa Rodriguez, F.; Pompilio, M.

2010-12-01

208

Analysis of Mosses and Soils for Quantifying Heavy Metal Concentrations in Sicily: A Multivariate and Spatial Analytical Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

-  DOI: http:\\/\\/dx.doi.org\\/10.1065\\/espr2006.01.006 \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background   The use of vegetal organisms as indicators of contamination of the environment is partially replacing traditional monitoring\\u000a techniques. Amongst the vegetal organisms available, mosses appear to be good bioindicators and are used for monitoring anthropogenic\\u000a and natural fall-out on soils. This study has two objectives: the evaluation of the concentrations of heavy metals in soils\\u000a and mosses

Paola Gramatica; Francesco Battaini; Elisa Giani; Ester Papa; Robert J. A. Jones; Damiano Preatoni; Roberto M. Cenci

2006-01-01

209

"Preliminary Analysis On Correlations Between Spatial Distribution Of Chlorophyll-a And Experimental Data Of Biomass On The Sicily Channel  

E-print Network

"Preliminary Analysis On Correlations Between Spatial Distribution Of Chlorophyll as upwelling areas, temperature fronts, ocean colors and the presence of large amounts of chlorophyllFluorescence (in progress)(in progress) #12;Our studies centered on relationship between chlorophyll-a and fish

Spagnolo, Filippo

210

Focal parameters of seismic sources during the 1981 and 1983 eruption at Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study 50 seismic events, preceding and accompanying the eruptions occurring in 1981 and 1983, have been considered. Seismic moments, fault radii, stress drops and seismic energies have been calculated using Brune’s model (J Geophys Res 75:4997 5009, 1970; J Geophys Res 76:5002, 1971); site, anelastic attenuation along the propagation path, geometrical spreading and interaction with the free surface effects are taken into account. For each event we have also estimated the equivalent Wood Anderson magnitude (MWAeq) (Scherbaum and Stoll in Bull Seism Soc Am 73:1321 1343, 1983); relations among all these source parameters have been determined. Furthermore, the hypothesis of self-similarity (Aki in J Geophys Res 72:1217 1231, 1967) is not verified for events with seismic moments <1012 N-m: in fact the relationship between log-stress drop and log-moment is linear up to a moment of 1012 N-m (events of 1981 eruption), while for higher moments (events of 1983 eruption) the slope of the regression line is not significantly different from zero. We suppose that such a behaviour is related to a heterogeneous medium with barriers on the faults. Finally, the main conclusion is that eruptions of 1981 and 1983 differ from one another both in eruptive and seismic aspects; analysis of seismic energies indicates an increase in Mt. Etna’s activity, confirmed by studies performed on the following lateral eruption of 1991 1993 (Patanè et al. in Bull Volcanol 47:941 952, 1995), occurring on the same structural trend.

Imposa, Sebastiano

2008-09-01

211

Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) program: Study of geological structure of Sicily and other Italian areas. [Sardinia and the Gulf of Orosei  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The usefulness of thermal inertia mapping in discriminating geolithological units was investigated using Sardinia and the Gulf of Orosei as test sites. Software designed for LANDSAT data were modified and improved for HCMM tapes. A first attempt was made to compare the geological cross section, the topography, the IR radiance, and the thermal inertia along selected profiles of the test site. Thermal inertia profiles appear smoothed in comparison with the thermal radiance. The lowest apparent thermal inertia (ATI) was found on granitic and basaltic outcrops where their image is of sufficient extent, while ATI is higher on carbonatic and dolomitic or moist deposits. Almost every fault is marked by a jump of ATI, the interval being sometimes of the order of one pixel. This seems to demonstrate the ability of ATI to detect contacts or tectonically disturbed zones with a good resolution. It seems more difficult to measure the differences in ATI between homogeneous materials having different lithology. Ground surveys conducted and a simulation model of diurnal temperatures of rocks having different thermal inertia are discussed.

Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. (principal investigators); Zilioli, E.; Marini, A.; Brivio, P. A.; Tosi, N.

1981-01-01

212

Distribution of trace metals, aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment cores from the Sicily Channel and the Gulf of Tunis (south?western Mediterranean Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the framework of the IAEA's Technical Co?operation project RAF7\\/004, international research cruises were carried out in 2004 to assess the distribution of radionuclides and micropollutants in the south?western Mediterranean Sea. Sediments samples had variable concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ranging from 0.2 to 1.8 µg g and 26.9 to 364.4 ng g, respectively, in the

Nadia Mzoughi; Lassaad Chouba

2011-01-01

213

A rapid method to assess fire-related debris flow hazard in the Mediterranean region: An example from Sicily (southern Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased atmospheric temperatures during the high-pressure which characterise the Mediterranean climate in the dry summer time, coupled with an increase in the intensity of storms in the following wet season over recent years, increase the risk of summer fires as well as debris flows and floods in the autumn and\\/or in the following years. In addition, the diffuse urbanization of

M. Bisson; M. Favalli; A. Fornaciai; F. Mazzarini; I. Isola; G. Zanchetta; M. T. Pareschi

2005-01-01

214

GC-MS analysis of the essential oils of ripe fruits, roots and flowering aerial parts of Elaeoselinum asclepium subsp. meoides growing in Sicily.  

PubMed

The compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the ripe fruits, flowering aerial parts and roots of Elaeoselinum asclepium (L.) Bertol subsp. meoides (Desf.) Fiori (Apiaceae) were determined by GC-MS analysis. All the analyzed parts were very rich in alpha-pinene (77.1%, 92.2% and 60.8%, respectively). Other compounds detected in appreciable amounts were beta-pinene (4.3%, 4.0% and 8.2%), and sabinene (11.9% in ripe fruits; 12.8% in aerial parts). The plant synthesizes different classes of monoterpenes, including pinane, camphane, thujane, menthane, and fenchane derivatives, besides some acyclic monoterpenes. Trace amounts of sesquiterpenes and diterpenes were also detected. PMID:20734952

Bader, Ammar; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Flamini, Guido

2010-07-01

215

A two-component mantle extending from Hyblean Plateau to Mt Etna (Eastern Sicily) as inferred by an integrated approach with noble gases, trace elements and isotope geochemistry.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out a geochemical investigation of the mantle beneath Hyblean and Etnean area through ultramafic xenoliths (peridotites and pyroxenites) retained in Miocenic age Hyblean volcanics and primitive Etnean lavas and tephra, respectively. Major and trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes (whole rock and /or minerals) were analysed together with noble gases entrapped in fluid inclusions hosted in olivines and pyroxenes phenocrysts. The geochemical results from Hyblean xenoliths study highlighted the presence of two distinct compositional groups: the peridotites, featured by a more enriched geochemical fingerprint (3He/4He ~7 Ra, 143Nd/144Nd ~0.5129 and Zr/Nb ~ 4) and the pyroxenites, characterized by a more primitive character (3He/4He up to 7.6 Ra, 143Nd/144Nd ~0.5130 and Zr/Nb ~30). Our interpretation is that metasomatic processes interested the Hyblean lithosphere and the pyroxenites (former primitive mantle melts) represent the metasomatizing agent. During their ascent these primitive melts permeated the peridotitic mantle at different levels, producing a variable degree of refertilization. The metasomatic processes affected distributions of both trace elements and noble gases, even though these geochemical tracers displayed very different sensitivity to the effects of metasomatic mixing between two end-members. The investigated primitive Etnean magmas showed a variable REE enrichment respect to MORB (Lan/Ybn =11-26) and isotopic values of Sr, Nd and He in the following ranges: 143Nd/144Nd = 0.512869-0.512896; 86Sr/87Sr = 0.70330-0.70370; 3He/4He = 7-7.6 Ra. A variable melting degree of a common mantle source together with a variable level of crystallization and crustal contamination is hypothesised to explain the variations exhibited by the above Etnean dataset. Numerical simulation performed on MELT code allowed to estimate the trace elements content of the Etnean mantle source. These results, joined to the most primitive isotopic values of He- Sr- Nd among the investigated products helped to geochemically characterize the mantle beneath the Etnean area, suggesting a strict relation with that Hyblean. Indeed, the modeled Etnean source locates on the mixing zone between the Hyblean peridotite and pyroxenite, so testifying a simultaneous contribution of two components in the genesis of the investigated lavas and supporting the hypothesis of an heterogeneous and metasomatized lithosphere common to both areas.

Correale, A.; Martelli, M.; Paonita, A.; Rizzo, A.; Rotolo, S.

2012-04-01

216

A common feeding system of the NE and S rifts as revealed by the bilateral 2002/2003 eruptive event at Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mount Etna volcano is often characterized by bilateral eruptive events, involving both the south (S) and the north east (NE) rifts. The last event occurred in 2002-2003 from October 27 to January 28. A detailed, stratigraphically time-controlled sampling of lavas and tephra of the southern eruptive fissure was performed in order to (1) track the petrological features of products during the eruption and (2) integrate the results with those previously obtained on the NE rift. Whole-rock composition and textural observations were implemented by major and minor element analyses of plagioclases in lavas and tephra from both sides of the volcano. Fractionation models constrained by mass balance (major and trace elements) and Rayleigh calculations suggest that magmas are linked by the same liquid line of descent by fractionating 9.11 % of a mineral assemblage of Cpx (52.69 %), Plg (21.41), and Ol (7.46 %). These new data allowed us to identify at least two feeding episodes through the southern fissure and infer that high-K2O porphyritic magmas, emitted on both the S and NE rifts, derives by fractionation from the same parent magma. However, lavas and tephra from the southern flank were slightly more primitive. Textural and petrological study of plagioclase moreover indicates that chemical-physical conditions in the deep feeding system were similar for magmas erupting from both rifts as suggested by the presence of dissolved rounded cores in both lavas. Magmas evolved differently on the S and the NE rifts only at shallow levels. Comparison with published seismotectonic data supports the idea that the main magma feeding the eruption on October 27 ascended along the same pathway at depth and was intercepted by the fracture system of the S and NE rifts at shallow depth, between 6 and 3 km b.s.l.

Giacomoni, P. P.; Ferlito, C.; Alesci, G.; Coltorti, M.; Monaco, C.; Viccaro, M.; Cristofolini, R.

2012-12-01

217

Degassing of SO 2 and CO 2 at Mount Etna (Sicily) as an indicator of pre-eruptive ascent and shallow emplacement of magma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied soil CO2 emissions together with crater SO2 fluxes from Mt Etna during the period July 1997 to March 1999. This period was characterized by high levels of volcanic activity, and ended with the onset of a 10month-long sub-terminal eruption on February 4, 1999. Soil CO2 degassing was measured at two sites (P39 on the lower SW flank of

Nicola Bruno; Tommaso Caltabiano; Salvatore Giammanco; Romolo Romano

2001-01-01

218

2013 Dragon Symposium, 3-7 June 2013, Palermo, Sicily, Italy Time-variable gravity: generated from a simulated data set according to  

E-print Network

to be launched in autumn 2013) for mass variation detection in the system Earth. Since the three SWARM satellites, Graz, Austria, oliver.baur@oeaw.ac.at T. Reubelt Institute of Geodesy, University of Stuttgart

Stuttgart, Universität

219

Chemical composition and free radical scavenging activity of the essential oil of Achillea ligustica growing wild in Lipari (Aeolian Islands, Sicily).  

PubMed

In the present study the chemical composition of the essential oils from aerial parts and flowers of Achillea ligustica All., collected in Lipari (Aeolian Islands) was evaluated by GC and GC-MS. (Z)-Chrysanthenyl acetate was the most abundant component of both oils (29.6% in A1 and 27.8% in F1), followed by viridiflorol (16.8% in A1 and 21.6% in F1), bornyl acetate (8.7% in A1 and 11.6% in F1) and 1,8-cineole (7.4% in A1 and 9.3% in F1). A comparison was made of the composition of the different populations studied so far. Futhermore, the free radical scavenging activity of the oil was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. PMID:24427958

Rouis, Zyed; Maggio, Antonella; Venditti, Alessandro; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

2013-11-01

220

A measles outbreak in Catania, Sicily: the importance of high vaccination coverage and early notification of cases for health and economic reasons.  

PubMed

Measles is a paediatric exanthematous disease. Even though vaccination has dramatically reduced measles morbidity and mortality, outbreaks still occur due to insufficient vaccination coverage and importation of the virus from endemic regions. Although child vaccination coverage in Italy has been broadened (from 74% in 2000 to 90.1% in 2011), outbreaks are still observed at a regional level. We describe epidemiological and clinical characteristics of cases reported from January 2009 to May 2010 to the Epidemiology Service of the Provincial Health Authority of Catania. We obtained demographic data and vaccination status from the database of the Epidemiology Service and clinical features and laboratory data from medical records. In all, 522 cases were notified: 286 males (54%), median age 12 years (interquartile range (IQR) 4-18); 401 cases (77%) were notified by the hospital, and 121 (23%) by general practitioners. Only one patient had been previously vaccinated. 52 cases were hospitalized, median age 18 years (IQR 17-23). We observed hypertransaminasaemia in 20 patients (38%), thrombocytopenia in 22 patients (42%) and a creatine phosphokinase increase in 16 (30%). Complications (pneumonia, haemorrhagic cystitis, acute hepatitis) occurred in 10 patients (19%), all older than 18. Recent outbreaks show that immunization practices are still insufficient. Most cases were recorded in adolescents and young adults; even if the vaccine has limited virus circulation in childhood, it did not prevent the infection of other age groups. The number of notifications also suggests that the phenomenon is underestimated. In order to monitor the disease we need early notification of cases and increased vaccination coverage. PMID:25269964

Celesia, Benedetto Maurizio; Fontana, Rossella; Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Cuccia, Mario; Bellissimo, Francesco; Rapisarda, Liliana; Rinnone, Sebastiano; Rapisarda, Venerando; Pavone, Piero; Cacopardo, Bruno; Nunnari, Giuseppe

2014-09-01

221

Human responses to eruptions of Etna (Sicily) during the late-Pre-Industrial Era and their implications for present-day disaster planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarises: the characteristics of eruptions that occurred between 1792/3 and 1923; the ways in which human responses evolved during the period and the lessons this history holds for the management of present-day volcanic and volcano-related disasters. People responded to eruptions at three levels: as members of a family and extended family; through the mutual support of a village or larger settlement and as citizens of the State. During the study period and with the exception of limited financial aid and preservation of law and order, the State was a minor player in responding to eruptions. Families and extended families provided shelter, accommodation and often alternative agricultural employment; whilst supportive villages communities displayed a well developed tendency to learn from experience (e.g. innovating techniques to bring land back into cultivation and avoiding the risks of phreatic activity as lava encountered water and saturated ground) and providing labour to enable household chattels and agricultural crops to be salvaged from land threatened with lava incursion. Eruptions were widely believed to be 'Acts of God', with divine punishment frequently being invoked as a primary cause of human suffering. Elaborate rituals of propitiation were performed to appease a supposed angry God, but this world-view did not produce a fatalistic attitude amongst the population preventing people from coping with disasters in a generally effective manner. Despite present day emergencies being handled by the State and its agencies, some features of nineteenth century responses remain in evidence, including salvaging all that may be easily removed from a building and/or agricultural holding, and explanations of disaster which are theistic in character. Lessons from eruptions that occurred between 1792/3 to 1923 are that the former should be encouraged, whilst the latter does not prevent people acting to preserve life and property or obeying the authorities. Earthquakes are one category of hazard that caused major damage during, or associated with, several historic eruptions especially those of 1865, 1883 and 1911. This study highlights the vulnerability of the Etna region to this hazard which remains largely un-ameliorated. Attempts to divert lava flows occurred during the 1832, 1879 and 1923 eruptions.

Chester, David K.; Duncan, Angus M.; Sangster, Heather

2012-05-01

222

The role of weight status, gender and self-esteem in following a diet among middle-school children in Sicily (Italy)  

PubMed Central

Background Weight-related issues such as obesity, dieting and eating disorders in adolescents are major public health problems. Moreover, undertaking a diet tends to be common among school children and the reasons for doing so are not always related to weight status. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the role of body mass index (BMI), gender and self-esteem in the adoption of a diet in middle-school Sicilian children. Methods The survey included middle-school children in some Sicilian provinces. Weight status was determined by sex-specific body mass index for age according to the international BMI cut-off proposed by Cole. Classic chi-square test and linear trend chi-square were used to compare percentages. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were computed to study the risk of dieting according to weight status (with the underweight group as the reference group), gender, self-esteem adjusted for province. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) along with associated p-values were furnished. Results The survey showed that 45.2% of the children were of average-weight, 6.6% were underweight, 12.6% were overweight and 2.9% were clinically obese. The missing data were up to 32.8%. Regarding dieting, 26.3% of the children stated that they had been on a diet during the last three months, 56.4% claimed they had not, and 17.2% did not answer. Age was not associated with dieting (p = 0.76). More girls than boys had undertaken a diet (31.4% versus 21.4%, p < 0.0001). Self-esteem had an influence on the choice of following a diet; in fact, 40.8%, 28.5% and 20.9% of the children with negative, normal and positive self-esteem were following a diet (trend p < 0.0001). The multivariate analysis showed that self-esteem seemed to influence more girls than boys (p = 0.06), and stratified analysis by gender indicated that it seemed more influent in girls (p = 0.0008) than in boys (p = 0.01). Conclusions In addition to the relation between dieting and BMI, our results highlight the link between dieting, gender and self-esteem. We underline the importance of interventions within the context of health education in order to improve global self-esteem and to encourage proper eating habits to prevent weight-related health problems. PMID:20459776

2010-01-01

223

Distribution of liver disease in a cohort of immigrants in Sicily: analysis of day-hospital admissions in a migration medicine unit.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of liver disease and its aetiology in a cohort of immigrants. We retrospectively examined the hospital discharge charts of all the immigrant patients presenting at our day hospital from July 2009 to June 2013, and after evaluating the anamnestic, clinical and laboratory data on these charts we identified subjects with liver disease and its various aetiologies. The total sample population consisted of 1218 patients, of whom 112 (9.2%) had a diagnosis of liver disease. More than two-thirds of the latter (67.8%) came from Africa, while 15.2% were from Asia and 17.0% from Eastern Europe. In most patients the disease was related to HBV (44.6%), followed by alcohol (25%) and then HCV or cryptogenic disease (both 15.2%). Forty-six patients had undergone liver biopsy, which showed eight cases of varying degrees of liver steatosis, 29 cases with a variable severity of chronic liver disease, eight cases with a definite picture of liver cirrhosis and one case of alcoholic hepatitis. These data show that a significant proportion of our immigrant population has liver disease and that the most frequent cause is hepatitis B infection. PMID:25269961

Affronti, Marco; Affronti, Andrea; Soresi, Maurizio; Giannitrapani, Lydia; Campagna, Elisa; Tramuto, Fabio; Brunori, Giuseppe; Montalto, Giuseppe

2014-09-01

224

Flash floods and debris flow in the city area of Messina, north-east part of Sicily, Italy in October 2009: the case of the Giampilieri catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper concerns the analysis of the 1 October 2009 flash flood and debris flow event caused by a very intense rainfall concentrated over the Messina area. The storm caused severe flash floods in many villages around the city of Messina, such as Giampilieri, Scaletta Zanclea, Altolia Superiore and Molino, with 38 casualties and significant damages to property, buildings, roads and bridges estimated close to 550 million Euro. The main focus of this work is to perform a post event analysis, putting together available meteorological and hydrological data in order to get better insight into temporal and spatial variability of the rain storm, the soil moisture conditions and the consequent flash flood in the Giampilieri catchment. The event was investigated using observed data from a raingauge network. Statistical analysis using GEV distribution was performed and rainfall return period (storm severity) was estimated. Further, measured rainfall data and rainfall-runoff modelling were used to estimate soil moisture conditions, to analyse the hydrological behaviour and to reconstruct flood hydrograph. With the help of GIS technology and particularly spatial analysis, the volume of debris which has gone down into the Giampilieri village was also calculated. GIS maps with landslide and material deposit areas were produced and analysed.

Aronica, G. T.; Brigandí, G.; Morey, N.

2012-05-01

225

Implicit Theories of Intelligence and Personality, Self-Efficacy in Problem Solving, and the Perception of Skills and Competences in High School Students in Sicily, Italy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various theories of intelligence and personality (TIP) help explain the implicit beliefs that an individual develops about the functioning of his intelligence and personality. Such beliefs are defined "implicit" because the individual might not be fully aware of his or her belief system. The results from scientific research on the TIP suggest that…

Pirrone, Concetta; Commodari, Elena

2013-01-01

226

Basin-scale assessment of water resource availability in climate change scenarios through a grid-based approach: an application to Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change resulting from the enhanced greenhouse effect is expected to have great implications for hydrological cycle and for existing surface and groundwater resources systems. The effects of climate variability and climate change have to be fully considered in current water management and planning, since water availability, quality and streamflow are sensitive to changes in temperature and precipitation regimes. Since

L. Liuzzo; L. V. Noto; G. La Loggia

2009-01-01

227

An Investigation of the Seasonal Pattern of Mannitol Content in Deciduous and Evergreen Species of the Oleaceae Growing in Northern Sicily  

PubMed Central

In several species of the Oleaceae, mannitol, already present at considerable levels, accumulates in response to stress. This family comprises both deciduous and evergreen species, and we investigated the role of mannitol in deciduous malacophyll and evergreen sclerophyll species growing under the same conditions in the field. The relationship between mannitol content and changes in rainfall or temperature was also studied. The mannitol content of leaves of Fraxinus ornus L., F. angustifolia Vahl., Olea europaea L. and Phillyrea media L. was determined by gas chromatography. Leaf samples were collected once a month for 1 year. In the two ash species, the seasonal pattern of mannitol content appeared the same: a gradual increase in spring, peaking in summer, followed by a gradual decrease. The mannitol content was similar in both species, ranging between 260 and 720 µmol g–1 d. wt. The seasonal pattern of mannitol content in Olea and Phillyrea was similar for both species, but unlike that of Fraxinus did not show a summer peak. Rainfall was negatively correlated with the seasonal increase of mannitol content in ash. Mannitol content increased gradually during drought, reaching a maximum value at the end of the dry season. Temperature did not have a direct influence on mannitol content. In Olea and Phillyrea, variations in mannitol content were poorly correlated with rainfall or temperature, indicating that mannitol does not have a primary role in the response of these species to the hot, dry summer conditions. PMID:12197521

ODDO, ELISABETTA; SAIANO, FILIPPO; ALONZO, GIUSEPPE; BELLINI, ENRICO

2002-01-01

228

The effect of steam-heating processes on the chemical and isotopic composition of the shallow thermal aquifer in Vulcano Island (Aeolian Arc, Sicily).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a comprehensive study of major-ion chemistry, dissolved gases, and stable isotopes measured in water wells at Vulcano Island since 1988. Particularly, we focus on chemical and hydrological modifications of groundwaters observed in the last two decades, interpreted according to a quantitative model describing steam condensation and boiling phenomena in shallow water bodies (Federico et al., 2010). According to this model, we infer that (i) strong isotope enrichment observed in some shallow thermal waters can result from an increasing mass rate of condensing deep vapor, even in water being meteoric in origin; (ii) the high pCO2 measured in the coldest and peripheral waters are explained by the progressive CO2 enrichment in the vapor phase during multistep boiling; and (iii) the high Cl- and SO4-- contents in the hottest waters can be attributed to the direct condensation (single-step) of volcanic vapor. The model also takes into account both the mass fluxes and the compositions of the involved endmembers (steam and shallow groundwater), which provides important inferences on the modifications observed during the periods of increasing mass and heat input from depth occurred at Vulcano Island. The volcanic crisis that occurred in 1988-1993 profoundly affected the composition of some thermal wells that were more-directly affected by ascending vapour. In particular, higher Cl-, SO4--, and HCO3- contents, temperature, and pCO2 values were measured. These variations are all explained by a different composition of the vapor entering the aquifer paralleled by a higher mass rate relative to the shallow meteoric endmember. Minor effects on the shallow thermal aquifer are observed during the following periods of increasing heat and mass flux from depth, mostly recorded in the crater area. This implies that the shallow thermal aquifer is affected by magmatic fluids ascending along central conduits only when there is a significant increase in the heat and mass fluxes from depth, which are able to vaporize the deep hydrothermal aquifer and modify the chemical and isotopic compositions of a larger portion of the volcanic edifice. Otherwise, the shallow thermal aquifer is chiefly affected by the vapor separating from the 400°C- hydrothermal system and, therefore, by its P-T conditions. On these grounds, once apportioned the effect of rainwater, we tentatively evaluate the effect of variations of physico-chemical conditions of the hydrothermal aquifer on both the water level and the composition of sampled thermal waters.

Capasso, G.; Federico, C.; Madonia, P.; Paonita, A.

2012-04-01

229

Yeast ecology of vineyards within Marsala wine area (western Sicily) in two consecutive vintages and selection of autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.  

PubMed

In this work, the yeast ecology associated with the spontaneous fermentation of Grillo cultivar grapes from 10 vineyards was analyzed from grape harvest till complete consumption of must sugars. The microbiological investigation started with the plate count onto two culture media to distinguish total yeasts (TY) and presumptive Saccharomyces (PS). Yeasts were randomly isolated and identified by a combined genotypic approach consisting of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 5.8S rRNA gene and 26S rRNA and sequencing of D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene, which resulted in the recognition of 14 species belonging to 10 genera. The distribution of the yeasts within the vineyards showed some differences in species composition and concentration levels among 2008 and 2009 vintages. Due to the enological relevance, all Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates were differentiated applying two genotypic tools (interdelta analysis and microsatellite multiplex PCR of polymorphic microsatellite loci) that recognized 51 strains. Based on the low production of H(2)S, acetic acid and foam, ethanol resistance, growth in presence of high concentrations of potassium metabisulphite (KMBS) and CuSO(4) and at low temperatures, 14 strains were selected and used as starter to ferment grape must at 13 °C and 17 °C in presence of 100 mg/L of KMBS. Three strains (CS160, CS165 and CS182) showed optimal technological aptitudes. PMID:22877686

Settanni, Luca; Sannino, Ciro; Francesca, Nicola; Guarcello, Rosa; Moschetti, Giancarlo

2012-12-01

230

Propagation of a lithospheric tear fault (STEP) through the western boundary of the Calabrian accretionary wedge offshore eastern Sicily (Southern Italy)  

E-print Network

1 Propagation of a lithospheric tear fault (STEP) through the western boundary of the Calabrian of oceanic lithosphere is typically accompanied by vertical lithospheric tear fault(s) along the lateral slab on top this crustal-scale fault suggests a recent lithospheric vertical movement of the STEP fault

Boyer, Edmond

231

Distribution of REEs in box-core sediments offshore an industrial area in SE Sicily, Ionian Sea: evidence of anomalous sedimentary inputs.  

PubMed

The distribution of rare earth elements and yttrium (REEs+Y) has been investigated in box-core sediments recovered from four stations in the Sicilian coastal zone seawards of Augusta, one of the most industrialized and contaminated areas in the Mediterranean region. Shale-like REE patterns and low Y/Ho ratios (close to the chondritic ratio) suggest a dominant terrigenous (geogenic) source for REE. Slight enrichment of LREE over the HREE is interpreted as due to preferential adsorptive transfer of LREE from seawater to sediment particles. Samples from offshore cores exhibit slightly positive Gd and negative Ce anomalies. It is here hypothesized that main drivers of anthropogenic Gd flux towards the offshore are dredged contaminated materials that, recovered from the Augusta Bay, have been repeatedly discharged offshore. Consistent with the redox-chemistry of Ce, these anomalous sedimentary inputs induce a decrease of O(2) concentration in the sediment, which in turn triggers Ce regeneration. PMID:19735932

Di Leonardo, Rossella; Bellanca, Adriana; Neri, Rodolfo; Tranchida, Giorgio; Mazzola, Salvo

2009-10-01

232

Millennial-scale phase relationships between ice-core and Mediterranean marine records: insights from high-precision 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Green Tuff of Pantelleria, Sicily Strait  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of annually-resolved polar ice records extending back to 70 ka, marine and continental paleoclimate studies have now matured into a discipline where high-quality age control is essential for putting on an equal pace layer-counted timescale models and Late Quaternary sedimentary records. High-resolution U-Th dating of speleothem records and 40Ar/39Ar dating of globally recorded geomagnetic excursions have recently improved the time calibration of Quaternary archives, reflecting the cross-disciplinary effort made to synchronize the geologic record at the millennial scale. Yet, tie-points with such an absolute age control remain scarce for paleoclimatic time-series extending beyond the radiocarbon timescale, most notably in the marine record. Far-travelled tephra layers recorded both onland and offshore provide an alternative in such instance to synchronize continental and marine archives via high-resolution 40Ar/39Ar dating of the parent volcanic eruption. High-resolution 40Ar/39Ar data are reported herein for one such volcanic marker, the Green Tuff of Pantelleria and its Y-6 tephra equivalent recorded throughout the Central and Eastern Mediterranean. Published radiochronometric and ?18O orbitally-tied ages for this marker horizon scatter widely from about 41 ka up to 56 ka. Our new 40Ar/39Ar age at 45.7 ± 1.0 ka (2?) reveals that previous estimates are biased by more than their reported errors would suggest, including recent orbital tuning of marine records hosting the tephra bed that are reevaluated in the context of this study. This improved estimate enables potential phase lags and leads to be studied between deep-sea and terrestrial archives with unrivaled (near-millennial) 40Ar/39Ar precision in the marine record.

Scaillet, S.; Vita-Scaillet, G.; Rotolo, S. G.

2013-10-01

233

Effects of fish farming waste to sedimentary and particulate organic matter in a southern Mediterranean area (Gulf of Castellammare, Sicily): a multiple stable isotope study ( ? 13C and ? 15N)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis was used to investigate the dispersion area of waste material coming from fish farming activities in the western Mediterranean. Tests were conducted to see if uneaten feed and faecal material isotopic signals, originating from fish farms, could be detected in particulate organic matter (POM) and sedimentary organic matter (SOM). The detectable dispersion distance (from

G Sarà; D Scilipoti; A Mazzola; A Modica

2004-01-01

234

Mars Electromagnetic Sounding Experiment (MARSES): Comparative and Calibration Studies on the Example Spatial and Temporal Variations Subsurface Geoelectrical Sections of the Saltwater Interface on Sicily (Donnalucata Beach) and Shelter Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MARSES is the sounding instrument program on the base new portable geophysical instrumentation developed of searching for water, water-ice, or permafrost layers existing in some depth under the visible surface of Mars.

Ozorovich, Y. R.; Lukomski, A. K.; Zoubkov, B. V.; Babkin, F. V.

2003-07-01

235

Scenarios of tsunami impact in the town of Catania, Italy: a combination of numerical modelling results and vulnerability considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catania is one of the most important towns in Sicily, and more generally in southern Italy, due to its long historical and cultural tradition and to active industrial, commercial and touristic activities. Catania is located along the coast of eastern Sicily, which is well known to be one of the coastal areas most exposed to earthquake and tsunami hazard and

S. Tinti; R. Tonini; G. Pagnoni; S. Gallazzi; A. Manucci; A. Armigliato; F. Zaniboni

2009-01-01

236

1st Semester 2005/2006, period a & b Dr Benedikt Lowe  

E-print Network

for "encounters"/"conversations" Plato, Euthydemus Aristotle, Topics and Rhetoric Sophists Public disputations;Plato. Plato (c.427-347 BC) Student and follower of Socrates until 399 B.C. 399-387 BC: Plato travels widely, including Italy and Sicily 387 BC: Plato founds the Academy 362 BC: Plato is invited to Sicily

Löwe, Benedikt

237

Middle Oligocene extension in the Mediterranean Calabro-Peloritan belt (Southern1 Italy). Insights from the Aspromonte nappes-pile.2  

E-print Network

). Insights from the Aspromonte nappes-pile.2 3 Heymes, T., Bouillin, J.-P., Pêcher, A., Monié, P15 nappes with a top-to-the-SE vergence, i.e in a direction orthogonal to the belt trend and16 Northeastern Sicily and Northern Calabria. In Sicily, the age of nappe piling is Alpine, as18 evidenced

Boyer, Edmond

238

Impact of human activities on the central Mediterranean offshore: Evidence from Hg distribution in box-core sediments from the Ionian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total Hg concentrations have been measured for five box-core sediments collected seawards of the Augusta industrial area (SE Sicily). In more coastal sediments, upcore increasing Hg concentrations, exceeding the Hg background concentration estimated for the Strait of Sicily, indicate Hg contamination over time due to the industrial area development. Strong correlation between total organic C (TOC) and Hg concentrations was

Rossella Di Leonardo; Adriana Bellanca; Massimo Angelone; Marcella Leonardi; Rodolfo Neri

2008-01-01

239

Maurolico [Marul, Marol], Francesco (1494-1575)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Born in Messina, Italy, became a Benedictine and acted in several civil posts in Sicily. He observed the nova of 1572, now known as `TYCHO's supernova', and wrote new editions of classical Greek mathematics, most published after his death....

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

240

Synoikism, Urbanization, and Empire in the Early Hellenistic Period  

E-print Network

for tribute in the Delian league, 106 but at least by theareas not included in the Delian league, from Sicily to Asialeague, to which most Kykladic states belonged, and controlling the temple of Delian

Boehm, Ryan Anthony

2011-01-01

241

Released upon receipt but intended for us8  

E-print Network

a whale." The mambars of Captain Scott's antarctic expedition called clouda o f this t m e soan over Mount with particular mountains bear individual names, In the lee of Mount Etna, in Sicily, generally resting over

242

Foreign Fishery Developments The Sicilian  

E-print Network

. Economic Role Sicily's 300 billion lire (US$385 mil- lion) fIshing industry plays a significant role section on Problems). Coastal tuna fishing, formerly a virtual Sicilian monopoly, has declined drasti

243

Lower Permian cephalopods from the Texas Colorado River Valley  

E-print Network

geographically andstratigraphically. This latter genus, which ranges from Lower to Upper Permian, inclusive, has been found in Texas, Coahuila, Wyoming, Sicily, Croatia, Armenia, the Ural region, Novaya Zemlya, Kashmir (and possibly the Transalai Range), several... geographically andstratigraphically. This latter genus, which ranges from Lower to Upper Permian, inclusive, has been found in Texas, Coahuila, Wyoming, Sicily, Croatia, Armenia, the Ural region, Novaya Zemlya, Kashmir (and possibly the Transalai Range), several...

Miller, A. K.; Youngquist, W.

1947-08-29

244

AE monitoring of the Syracuse Athena Temple: Scale invariance in the timing of ruptures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present a comparative statistical analysis between the time series of the acoustic emission (AE) events detected from the\\u000a ancient Greek Athena temple in Syracuse (Eastern Sicily, UNESCO World Heritage List since 2005), and the time series of small\\u000a and intermediate earthquakes occurred in this part of Sicily during the AE monitoring period. The waiting-time distributions\\u000a for both time series

G. Niccolini; G. Durin; G. Lacidogna; A. Manuello; A. Carpinteri

245

Lunnoe zatmenie -330, sept. 20 i problema izmereniya dolgoty v antichnoj geografii %t The -330, Sept. 20 lunar eclipse and the problem of the determination of longitude in ancient geography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attempt to reconstruct the Hipparchus system of is proposed. The offered analysis of certain passages in the treatises of Ptolemy, Pliny, and Strabo allows to trace the latent semantic connection between them and to advance a hypothesis to clarify it. Ptolemy's passage (sect. 3) states Hipparchus to propose in his geography a certain system of meridians and to use the -330, Sept. 20 eclipse to determine the relative longitudes of Arbela and Carthage. Pliny's evidence (4) shows that Hipparchus must have known about the observation of this eclipse from Sicily, which demands to situate this island far eastward of Carthage. Strabo's data (5) confirm that Hipparchus, while criticising Eratosthenes, suggested situating Sicily far eastward of Carthage. Ptolemy's data (6) show that Marinus, whose work Ptolemy's geography was based on, in his early redaction, must situate Sicily farther eastward than in the final variant. Posidonius' passage (7) demonstrates the latitude of Sicily in Ptolemy's geography to go back to Hipparchus. In "Almagest" (9) the longitude of Babylon (relative to Alexandria) is directly ascribed to Hipparchus and the longitude of Rome agrees with that of Sicily in Pliny's evidence. The data of Ptolemy's geography (9.3-9.5) permit that Arbela and Babylon were situated on the same meridian initially. All these enable us to suggest that Hipparchus determined the longitudes not only of Arbela and Babylon, but also of Babylon and Sicily, Alexandria and Rome.

Shcheglov, D. A.

246

MARSES: Possibilities of Long-Term Monitoring Spatial and Temporal Variations and Changes of Subsurface Geoelectrical Section on the Base Results of the Geophysical Survey Salt/Water Interface and Groundwater Mapping on the Marina Di Ragusa, Sicily and Shalter Island, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A main task of the MARSES monitoring system is to examine changes in the subsurface properties of local areas regolith on the Martian surface on the basis of the database of various soil slices in terrestrial conditions.

Ozorovich, Yu. R.; Lukomsky, A. K.; Potemkin, S. A.

2004-03-01

247

Project Copernicus: Cooperation Programme in Europe on Nature and Industry through Coordinated University Study. Round Table. Unesco-Standing Conference of Rectors, Presidents, and Vice Chancellors of the European Universities (CRE) (Catania, Sicily, April 5-8, 1989). Number 32. Papers on Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Project COPERNICUS (Cooperation Programme in Europe for Research on Nature and Industry through Coordinated University Studies) Round Table report considers efforts to identify priorities and objectives of the new alliance between the higher education community, industry, and international organizations in addressing today's environmental…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

248

Oil spill hazard assessment using a reverse trajectory method for the Egadi marine protected area (Central Mediterranean Sea).  

PubMed

The Egadi Marine Protected Area (MPA) on the western side of the Sicily Channel (Central Mediterranean) is exposed to a high risk of oil pollution from the tanker routes connecting the eastern and western basins of the Mediterranean Sea. Areas where an oil spill would do most damage, and thus where surveillance should be concentrated, are identified in this study by Lagrangian tracers tracked backwards in time from points along the MPA perimeter using data spanning six years from 2006 to 2011. Results indicate that the areas where oil surveillance would be most beneficial are segments of the tanker routes south of Sicily (highly frequented) and north of Sicily (scarcely frequented), both extending about 150 miles from November to March and 100 miles in the other months. The third route, close to the Tunisian shore, is the most frequented by oil tankers but the threat period is limited to November and December. PMID:24934441

Ciappa, Achille; Costabile, Salvatore

2014-07-15

249

Postmortem changes of human bodies on the bathyal sea floor--two cases of aircraft accidents above the open sea.  

PubMed

Forensic taphonomy in the marine context recently received growing attention. However, only limited information is available about the fate of human bodies at greater sea depth. Following two fatal aircraft accidents (west of Namibia, south of Sicily) human remains were recovered from a depth of 540-580 m (both cases) after 3 months (Namibia)/34 days (Sicily). In the Namibia case fully skeletonized bones were lifted. In the Sicily case a complete, dressed body was found exhibiting a partially skeletonized skull, starting adipocere formation and pink teeth. The rate and mode of decomposition of human bodies in the deep sea varies considerably and is mainly influenced by the local faunal composition. Of special relevance for the understanding of both cases was the oceanographic observation that the highly efficient necrophageous lyssianassids are abundant off Namibia but are rare in the Mediterranean, emphasizing the importance of collaboration of forensic and marine scientists in such case work. PMID:18637978

Dumser, Thomas K; Türkay, Michael

2008-09-01

250

The Astronomical Orientation of Ancient Greek Temples  

PubMed Central

Despite its appearing to be a simple question to answer, there has been no consensus as to whether or not the alignments of ancient Greek temples reflect astronomical intentions. Here I present the results of a survey of archaic and classical Greek temples in Sicily and compare them with temples in Greece. Using a binomial test I show strong evidence that there is a preference for solar orientations. I then speculate that differences in alignment patterns between Sicily and Greece reflect differing pressures in the expression of ethnic identity. PMID:19936239

Salt, Alun M.

2009-01-01

251

NEMO\\\\onde: a submarine station for real-time monitoring of acoustic background installed at 2000 m depth in the Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) Collaboration installed, 25 km E offshore the port of Catania (Sicily) at 2000 m depth, an underwater laboratory to perform long-term tests of prototypes and new technologies for an underwater high energy neutrino km$^3$-scale detector in the Mediterranean Sea. In this framework the collaboration deployed and successfully operated for about two years, starting form January

L. Cosentino; M. Favetta; G. Larosa; G. Pavan; D. J. Romeo; S. Privitera; F. Speziale

2008-01-01

252

Long-term measurements of acoustic background noise in very deep sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) Collaboration installed, 25 km E offshore the port of Catania (Sicily) at 2000 m depth, an underwater laboratory to perform long-term tests of prototypes and new technologies for an underwater high energy neutrino km-scale detector in the Mediterranean Sea. In this framework the Collaboration deployed and successfully operated for about two years, starting from January

G. Riccobene

2009-01-01

253

Problems and contradictions in the constitution of a southern european metropolitan area: Catania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Metropolitan Area of Catania has been created with a Regional law of 1986 (together with that of Palermo and Messina). With its 27 municipalities and for its characteristics it resembles, more than any other area in Sicily, a Metropolitan Area (MA), that is, a complex urban system in continuos evolution and at an advanced stage of the urban life

Luca Ruggiero

2001-01-01

254

Small-Scale Sicilian Fisheries: Opinions of Artisanal Fishers and Sociocultural Effects in Two MPA Case Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine resource management and related stakeholder conflicts have been clearly defined in recent decades as pressing issues worldwide. This article provides a comparative study of the management regimes of the Gulf of Castellammare Fishery Reserve and the Egadi Islands Marine Reserve in Sicily, Italy. What managers in these two reserves have neglected to include in management is a social science

AMBER H. HIMES

2003-01-01

255

Epidemiological assessment of Respiratory Syncytial Virus infection in hospitalized infants, during the season 2005–2006 in Palermo, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the leading cause of hospitalization for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in young children worldwide. We evaluate the epidemiological and clinical patterns of RSV infection in infants hospitalized for LRTI in in Palermo, South Italy, Sicily. METHODS: We collected the demographic details of infants hospitalized to G. Di Cristina Children's Hospital in Palermo for

Paola Di Carlo; Amelia Romano; Ludovico Salsa; Alessandra Gueli; Antonella Poma; Fortunata Fucà; Piera Dones; Mirella Collura; Diego Pampinella; Delia Motisi; Giovanni Corsello

2009-01-01

256

A new expression of the slope length factor to apply USLE-MM at Sparacia experimental area (Southern Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicting soil loss due to water erosion by empirical models is useful to assess the severity of the phenomenon in an area of interest and to predict the effect of alternative soil erosion control practices. The USLE scheme cannot be used at the Sparacia experimental area (Sicily, South Italy) to predict event soil loss per unit plot area, Ae, because

V. Bagarello; V. Ferro; V. Pampalone

257

First study of fault trench stratigraphy at Mt. Etna volcano, Southern Italy: understanding Holocene surface faulting along the Moscarello fault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleoseismology, the study of past earthquakes based on their geological record in the stratigraphy and landscape, is a successful newly developing field of research. The application of fault trench studies in volcanic environments is one of the youngest branches of paleoseismology. In this paper, we present the results of the first exploratory trenches excavated at Mt. Etna in Sicily, the

Raffaele Azzaro; Domenico Bella; Luca Ferreli; Alessandro Maria Michetti; Federica Santagati; Leonello Serva; Eutizio Vittori

2000-01-01

258

Intraspecific variation and evolutionary trends in Capparis spinosa L. (Capparaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?In order to investigate the variability of the polymorphic Capparis spinosa L., a comparative study was carried out in Sicily on subsp. spinosa and subsp. rupestris. Autecology, phenology, quantitative morphology, plant architecture and leaf development of several populations were examined.\\u000a These data reveal a parapatric distribution of the two subspecies and support their present taxonomic treatment. Subsp. spinosa is widespread

S. Fici

2001-01-01

259

Supplementary data Multiple hit hypotheses for  

E-print Network

to date Inhibits synaptic vesicle priming [2] PARK2 600116 Parkin Autosomal recessive in early onset forms PARK6 605909 PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) Autosomal recessive early onset [8] Three related families in Sicily Mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase [9] PARK7 606324 DJ-1 Autosomal recessive [10

Sulzer, David

260

The Heavy metal chemistry of atmospheric particulate matter emitted by mount etna volcano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the chemical composition of atmospheric particulate matter, collected by air filtration in the plumes from various active craters and vents at Mount Etna, Sicily, in June 1976, allowed to estimate a discharge of particulate elements to the atmosphere shown to be representative of Mount Etna long-term activity. For some enriched trace elements in this volcanic aerosol (Cu, Zn,

P. Buat-Ménard; M. Arnold

1978-01-01

261

Thermal radiance observations of an active lava flow during the June 1984 eruption of Mount Etna  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal budget of an active lava flow observed on 20 June 1984 from the Southeast crater of Mount Etna, Sicily, Italy, was analyzed from data taken by the Landsat Thematic Mapper. The Thematic Mapper images constitute one of the few satellite data sets of sufficient spatial and spectral resolution to allow calibrated measurements on the distribution and intensity of

David C. Pieri; Lori S. Glaze; Michael J. Abrams

1990-01-01

262

Recent seismicity and tomographic modeling of the Mount Etna plumbing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monitoring of seismic activity in eastern Sicily (southern Italy) has been recently improved, in the framework of the Poseidon Project, to investigate both tectonics and volcanic processes of Mount Etna. This effort has produced a homogeneous and complete data set which we use to image the deep structure of the volcano and to define the space and time distribution

C. Chiarabba; A. Amato; E. Boschi; F. Barberi

2000-01-01

263

De zwarte dood op herhaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besmettelijke ziekten zijn fantastische oorlogswapens. Niet voor niets katapulteerden de Tartaren in de veertiende eeuw lijken met builenpest over de vestingmuur van de handelsnederzetting van de Genuezen op de Krim. Na de capitulatie vertrokken de gezonde, maar wel besmette Genuezen naar Sicilie. Vandaar werd heel Europa in slechts vijf jaar geïnfecteerd. De zwarte dood kostte vijfentwintigmiljoen mensen - een kwart

A. J. Boekestijn

2004-01-01

264

Sewage pollution impact on Mediterranean rocky-reef fish assemblages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sewage outfalls on subtidal fish assemblages were studied along the NW coasts of Malta (Sicily channel, Mediterranean Sea) by means of underwater visual census. The presence of two spatially distinct outfalls discharging untreated wastewaters allowed to use a balanced symmetrical after control\\/impact (ACI) design that consisted of two putatively impacted locations and two controls, with four sites

Ernesto Azzurro; Marco Matiddi; Emanuela Fanelli; Paolo Guidetti; Gabriele La Mesa; Alfonso Scarpato; Victor Axiak

2010-01-01

265

Evolution of lava flow-fields at Mount Etna, 27-28 October 1999, observed by Landsat 7 ETM+  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper + (ETM+) data are presented which document the thermal characteristics of a series of lava flows emplaced at Mount Etna volcano, Sicily, during 27-28 October 1999. By examining the composition of the short-wave infrared (SWIR) signal emitted from the flow surface, we identified distinctive flow units. The first unit appears to comprise recently active lava

Robert Wright; Luke P. Flynn; Andrew J. Harris

2001-01-01

266

Abstract Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper + (ETM+) data are presented which document the thermal  

E-print Network

characteristics of a series of lava flows emplaced at Mount Etna volcano, Sicily, during 27­28 October 1999- served on Kilauea, Hawaii. Model predictions of the maximum length that such flows could attain compare · Lava flow-field evolution · Landsat ETM+ Introduction Mount Etna is the largest active volcano

Wright, Robert

267

Democratic Leadership between Inside and Outside: Meditations on Herodotus and Thucydides 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

I want to begin with a famous incident from Thucydides, and a corresponding but somewhat less famous pair of incidents from Herodotus. At the beginning of book 6 of the Peloponnesian War Thucydides tells us: In the same winter the Athenians resolved to sail against Sicily, and if possible, to conquer it. They were for the most part ignorant of

Michael S. Kochin

268

A Silver Anniversary: The first 25 years of the Kenneth Spencer Research Library  

E-print Network

with this are three manuscripts of works attributed to Aristotle, including the pseudo-Aristotelian work "De porno", trans­ lated from Hebrew into Latin by King Manfred of Sicily. It is clear from the presence of these four works together in their 15th century...

1994-01-01

269

Pleistocene Calabrian and Sicilian bioprovinces  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Pleistocene, southern Calabria was the area through which several mammalian taxa dispersed into the Sicilian island via the Straits of Messina. The rich fossil record of Sicily allowed for the construction of a fairly detailed bio-chronological frame that is dated by correlation of vertebrate bearing deposits with marine deposits. At present five Faunal Complexes (F.C.), characterised by the

Laura Bonfiglio; Gabriella Mangano; Antonella Cinzia Marra; Federico Masini; Marco Pavia; Daria Petruso

2002-01-01

270

Since 1992, the SFSU Women's Association (UWA) has sponsored 20 cruises generating  

E-print Network

DISCOUNT of $100/person, available to past Princess passengers who book prior to August 31, 2014, with only, ITALY (SICILY). ARR 7 a.m., DEP 5 p.m. o DAY 7. NAPLES, ITALY (for Capri and Pompeii). ARR 7 a.m., DEP 6

271

Multidisciplinary characterisation of raw materials used for 'ghiara  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work deals with new data on the raw materials used for the production of typical ghiara mortars, widely employed in historical buildings of Catania downtown (Eastern Sicily, Southern Italy). Ghiara aggregates are interpreted as the product of thermal transformation of soils rich in organic matter as a consequence of heating induced by the flowing lavas of Mt. Etna volcano

Donatella Barca; Cristina M. Belfiore; Mauro F. La Russa; Teresa Pelle; Antonio Pezzino; Fabio Scarciglia; Marco Viccaro

2010-01-01

272

Genotyping of human DNA recovered from mosquitoes found on a crime scene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many mosquitoes species are man parasitical biters commonly found in the south of Italy by crime scene investigators. Some authors already demonstrated the possibility of amplifying human DNA from blood meals of Diptera species using various methods for epidemiological issues. Here we describe a casework that occurred in Sicily: a person was killed in a room where no traces were

S. Spitaleri; C. Romano; E. Di Luise; E. Ginestra; L. Saravo

2006-01-01

273

NSF Lake Tahoe Workshop on Collaborative Virtual Reality and Visualization (CVRV 2003), October 2628, 2003 Collaborative Visualization of an Archaeological Excavation  

E-print Network

­28, 2003 1 Collaborative Visualization of an Archaeological Excavation Hrvoje Benko, Edward Ishak data from an archaeological excavation. The dig site was on top of Monte Polizzo, a mountain in western Sicily, where a team of archaeologists [19] have been excavating an ancient Elymian acropolis built be

Benko, Hrvoje

274

International School of biological Magnetic Resonance 9th Course: biophysics and structure  

E-print Network

for Scientific Culture Co-organizers of the course: Jody Puglisi and Elisabetta viani Program ERICE-SICILY: 22. 9:30-11:00 J. Puglisi Principles of spectroscopy. (1) 11:00-11:30 Coffee break 11:30-1:00 A. Mc Electron Microscopy: Principles and Methods. 16:00-16:30 Coffee break 16:30-17:30 J. Puglisi Principles

Puglisi, Joseph

275

Genetics of the early stages of invasion of the Lessepsian rabbitfish Siganus luridus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the initial stages of dispersal and settlement are of great interest in understanding the dynamics of biological invasions and in designing management responses. A newly settled population of the Lessepsian rabbitfish migrant Siganus luridus, that arrived in Linosa Island (Sicily Strait) in 2000, offered a unique opportunity to examine the genetic variability of the early phase of invasion

Ernesto Azzurro; Daniel Golani; Giuseppe Bucciarelli; Giacomo Bernardi

2006-01-01

276

Comparing Knowledge of ?-Thalassemia in Samples of Italians, Italian-Americans, and Non-Italian-Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the level of ?-thalassemia awareness among Italians living on the eastern side of Sicily (Bronte, Catania, and Tortorici, Messina), Italian-Americans, and Americans of other ethnic backgrounds (Other-Americans). A questionnaire was developed which asked respondents knowledge questions about both ?-thalassemia and Down Syndrome. Five hundred questionnaires were distributed, and 456 were ultimately returned

Christina Armeli; Steven J. Robbins; Deborah Eunpu

2005-01-01

277

Burkholderia cepacia Complex Infection in Italian Patients with Cystic Fibrosis: Prevalence, Epidemiology, and Genomovar Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence, epidemiology, and genomovar status of Burkholderia cepacia complex strains recovered from Italian cystic fibrosis (CF) patients were investigated using genetic typing and species identification methods. Four CF treatment centers were examined: two in Sicily, one in central Italy, and one in northern Italy. B. cepacia complex bacteria were isolated from 59 out of 683 CF patients attending these

ANTONELLA AGODI; ESHWAR MAHENTHIRALINGAM; MARTINA BARCHITTA; VIVIANA GIANNINO; AGATA SCIACCA; STEFANIA STEFANI

2001-01-01

278

Mary Italiano oral history interview by Gary Mormino, April 20, 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an oral history interview with Mary Italiano, a native of Ybor City born in 1903. Her grandfather, an immigrant from Sicily, had a grocery store and fruit stand on the corner of Seventh Street and Seventeenth Avenue. Italiano worked in the family business as a child, left school after fifth grade, and married when she was fifteen, to

Mary Italiano; Gary Ross Mormino

1978-01-01

279

environmental toxicology and pharmacology 3 4 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 160169 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com  

E-print Network

environmental toxicology and pharmacology 3 4 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 160­169 Available online at www.1016/j.etap.2012.03.005 #12;environmental toxicology and pharmacology 3 4 ( 2 0 1 2 ) 160­169 161 Fig. 1 in differing environmental contexts in Sicily (Italy) G. Dongarrà , D. Varrica, E. Tamburo, D. D'Andrea Dip. di

Short, Daniel

280

Regional assessment of soil erosion using the distributed model SEMMED and remotely sensed data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil erosion model for Mediterranean regions (SEMMED) is presented and used to produce regional maps of simulated soil loss for two Mediterranean test sites: one in southern France and one in Sicily. The model demonstrates the integrated use of (1) multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images to account for vegetation properties, (2) a digital terrain model in a GIS

S. M. de Jong; M. L. Paracchini; F. Bertolo; S. Folving; J. Megier; A. P. J. de Roo

1999-01-01

281

How the first dwarf planet became the asteroid Ceres  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery on 1 January 1801 of an object between Mars and Jupiter was the most remarkable astronomical discovery since the planet Uranus had been found in 1781. Its discoverer, Giuseppe Piazzi at Palermo Observatory in Sicily, was quick to name it Ceres Ferdinandea. But the discovery was considered so important that it sparked national rivalries. In Germany, the much

Clifford J. Cunningham; Brian G. Marsden; Wayne Orchiston

2009-01-01

282

A decision support system for urban waste management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a decision support system, for urban waste management in a regional area, to be used for evaluating general policies for service organisation of the collection and for identifying areas suitable for locating waste treatment and disposal plants. The Decision Support System (DSS) is applied to a selected provinces in Sicily. The decision support system allows the generation

P. Haastrup; V. Maniezzo; M. Mattarelli; F. Mazzeo Rinaldi; I. Mendes; M. Paruccini

1998-01-01

283

Ester Saletta, MA.Phil. (Bergamo, Italy) Hermann Broch and Giuseppe Antonio Borgese: a human and literary friendship  

E-print Network

1 Ester Saletta, MA.Phil. (Bergamo, Italy) Hermann Broch and Giuseppe Antonio and journalist from southern Italy (Sicily), but he too was forced to leave his. He then decided to return to Italy after the end of the World War II

Qian, Ning

284

Original article Apis mellifera ruttneri, a new honey bee subspecies  

E-print Network

Original article Apis mellifera ruttneri, a new honey bee subspecies from Malta WS Sheppard MC subspecies, similar to the situation with endemic island honey bees of Sicily (A m sicula). These findings region. Recent importations of non-native honey bee subspecies present a clear threat to conservation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

285

Short Communication Molecular phylogenetics reveals Messinian, Pliocene, and Pleistocene  

E-print Network

colonizations of islands by North African shrews Sylvain Dubey a,b,*, Kazuhiro Koyasu a,c , Roumen Parapanov by dwarf elephants, dwarf hippos, and giant rodents (Sondaar, 1977). All of these mammals became extinct cave, in both cases associated with dwarf elephants. At that time, the extant shrew of Sicily

Alvarez, Nadir

286

Plato (428-347 BC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Philosopher, real name said to be Aristocles, with `Plato' a nickname (`broad') derived either from the breadth of his knowledge, shoulders, or forehead, born in Athens, Greece, taught by Socrates, and travelled in Egypt, Sicily and Italy. Back in Athens, he founded, in 387 BC, a school of learning called the Academy, devoted to research and instruction in philosophy and the sciences, particularl...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

287

INTRODUCTION One of the paradigms of plate tectonics is that plate bound-  

E-print Network

independent ge- odynamic processes was proposed by Doglioni and Carminati (2002) for northeastern Italy, where to the Apennines subduction and affected by the Pannonian back-arc extension. In the western Mediterranean, Italy ABSTRACT The northwestern side of the Sicily Channel in the central Mediterranean has been shaped

Doglioni, Carlo

288

The Black HandTerror by Letter in Chicago  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alien conspiracy theory argues that organized crime in American society evolved in a linear fashion beginning with the Mafia in Sicily, emerging in the form of the Black Hand in America's immigrant colonies, and culminating in the development of the Cosa Nostra in America's urban centers. This research challenges the alien conspiracy theory by reviewing the history of Black

Robert M. Lombardo

2002-01-01

289

Indications of temporal water masses variability at the junction of Eastern and Western Mediterranean sub-basins (ODP Site 963) during the Middle Pleistocene Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study and comparison of the dinocyst record with the G. bulloides delta18Omicr fluctuations obtained from the same stratigraphic levels from ODP Holes 963 A\\/B reveal some good correspondence during the lower and upper part of the studied section and some discrepancy during the middle part. Site 963 is located in the Strait of Sicily which separates the Eastern from

M. D. Papanikolaou; M. J. Head

2009-01-01

290

History, space, and power: theoretical and methodological problems in the research on areas at (industrial) risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article discusses methods and theoretical problems in the research on areas at industrial risk, using examples and problems deriving from studies conducted in Sicily, as well as the review of a number of contemporary studies. The author argues that much of the contemporary research on areas at risk focuses on the ‘elites’ (environmental movements, boards of citizens, and

Pietro Saitta

2011-01-01

291

A papal matchmaker: Principle and pragmatism during Innocent III's pontificate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scholars have yet to recognize the complexity of the match-making policies of Innocent III (1198–1216) concerning the proposed marriages for Otto of Brunswick, Frederick of Sicily, and Elena of Gallura. This article analyzes five marriage projects whereby Innocent used a mixture of canonical principle and pragmatism to further not only the welfare of his protégés, wards and kin but also

Constance M. Rousseau

1998-01-01

292

Tuberculosis Epidemiology in Islands: Insularity, Hosts and Trade  

PubMed Central

Because of their relative simplicity and the barriers to gene flow, islands are ideal systems to study the distribution of biodiversity. However, the knowledge that can be extracted from this peculiar ecosystem regarding epidemiology of economically relevant diseases has not been widely addressed. We used information available in the scientific literature for 10 old world islands or archipelagos and original data on Sicily to gain new insights into the epidemiology of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). We explored three nonexclusive working hypotheses on the processes modulating bovine tuberculosis (bTB) herd prevalence in cattle and MTC strain diversity: insularity, hosts and trade. Results suggest that bTB herd prevalence was positively correlated with island size, the presence of wild hosts, and the number of imported cattle, but neither with isolation nor with cattle density. MTC strain diversity was positively related with cattle bTB prevalence, presence of wild hosts and the number of imported cattle, but not with island size, isolation, and cattle density. The three most common spoligotype patterns coincided between Sicily and mainland Italy. However in Sicily, these common patterns showed a clearer dominance than on the Italian mainland, and seven of 19 patterns (37%) found in Sicily had not been reported from continental Italy. Strain patterns were not spatially clustered in Sicily. We were able to infer several aspects of MTC epidemiology and control in islands and thus in fragmented host and pathogen populations. Our results point out the relevance of the intensity of the cattle commercial networks in the epidemiology of MTC, and suggest that eradication will prove more difficult with increasing size of the island and its environmental complexity, mainly in terms of the diversity of suitable domestic and wild MTC hosts. PMID:23923053

Acevedo, Pelayo; Romero, Beatriz; Vicente, Joaquin; Caracappa, Santo; Galluzzo, Paola; Marineo, Sandra; Vicari, Domenico; Torina, Alessandra; Casal, Carmen; de la Fuente, Jose; Gortazar, Christian

2013-01-01

293

Slab-rollback induced upper mantle upwelling near lateral slab edges: A new mechanism for generating intra-plate magmatism in the central Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most volcanism on Earth is associated with plate boundaries and can thus be explained in a plate tectonic framework. Intra-plate volcanism, however, cannot directly be explained with plate tectonic theory. Intraplate volcanism is frequently explained with the plume model, in which a relatively fixed buoyant plume rises from the lower mantle to the surface and, as the overlying plate moves with respect to the plume source, produces a linear hotspot track along which the age of volcanoes progressively changes. This model has been applied to linear volcanic chains such as the Hawaii-Emperor Ridge in the Pacific and the Walvis Ridge in the Atlantic Ocean. Other intra-plate volcanism that does not occur in linear chains and does not show a preferred age progression in a specific geographical direction is more difficult to explain with the plume model, and might require an alternative explanation. There are several examples of intraplate volcanism on Earth located close to lateral slab edges, suggesting that they might be genetically related to these slab edges. One example of such volcanism is located in Sicily in the Mediterranean, which took place at ~7.0-1.1 Ma on the Iblean plateau and at 0.5 Ma to Present to form Mount Etna. The volcanics are located in close proximity but are laterally offset with respect to the Eolian magmatic arc and the Calabrian subduction zone, where Ionian oceanic lithosphere is subducting west-northwestward below Calabria. The volcanics in Sicily can therefore not be interpreted as arc volcanism. Previous work, primarily based on the geochemistry and petrology of the volcanics, suggests that the volcanism resulted from a plume. The volcanics in Sicily and surrounding seas, however, do not align along a linear chain and show no lateral age progression. Here it is proposed that Mount Etna and the Iblean volcanics are related to decompression melting of upper mantle material that is flowing around the southern Ionian slab edge to accommodate east-directed rollback of the Ionian slab that started at ~8 Ma. Three-dimensional fluid dynamic models of progressive subduction demonstrate that rollback-induced mantle return flow occurs in a quasi-toroidal fashion with a component of downwelling directly below and above the slab, and a component of upwelling next to the subduction zone with maximum upwelling observed next to the sub-slab region and reduced upwelling next to the mantle wedge region. Significant upwelling is observed at 90-430 km depth and extends 55-660 km away from the projected distance of inferred arc magmatism at the slab edge. The models can thereby explain the large spatial separation of up to 400 km between volcanism in Sicily and the magmatic arc during the last ~7 Myr, the contemporaneous activity of arc magmatism in the Tyrrhenian Sea and volcanism in Sicily, and the intra-plate character of the volcanics in Sicily. Finally, it explains a broad slow S-wave anomaly at ~300 km depth below Sicily, and more local low Qp and high Vp/Vs anomalies at 50-150 km depth below northeastern Sicily.

Schellart, W. P.

2010-12-01

294

Chemical composition and biological activity of Salvia verbenaca essential oil.  

PubMed

Salvia verbenaca L. (syn. S. minore) is a perennial herb known in the traditional medicine of Sicily as "spaccapetri" and is used to resolve cases of kidney stones, chewing the fresh leaves or in decoction. The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from aerial parts of S. verbenaca collected in Piano Battaglia (Sicily) on July 2009, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oil was strongly characterized by fatty acids (39.5%) and carbonylic compounds (21.2%), with hexadecanoic acid (23.1%), (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid (11.1%) and benzaldehyde (7.3%) as the main constituents. The in vitro activity of the essential oil against some microorganisms in comparison with chloramphenicol by the broth dilution method was determined. The oil exhibited a good activity as inhibitor of growth of Gram + bacteria. PMID:21834249

Canzoneri, Marisa; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Russo, Alessandra; Cardile, Venera; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice

2011-07-01

295

Remote sensing techniques from helicopter for water quality and air pollution control  

SciTech Connect

Aircraft remote sensing provides a number of benefits, allowing to vary the detection parameters, giving better resolution, and being little affected by weather conditions and no replaceable under emergency situations. Also as a part of projects funded by the Commission of the European Communities, through the Regional Government of Sicily, applications of remote sensing techniques were carried out from helicopter over selected study areas in Sicily, for water quality and air pollution control. In particular, remotely-sensed data were acquired, using LASER techniques and thermal infrared imagery, for the monitoring of water quality and the assessment of oil pollution. Furthermore, air quality was investigated, using LASER techniques and correlation spectroscopy. In a perspective of integration, the investigations carried out proved effective and useful, confirming the important role of the helicopter as monitoring platform for environmental remote sensing applications. 6 refs., 11 figs.

Geraci, A.L.; Landolina, F.F. [Univ. of Catania, Sicily (Italy)

1996-11-01

296

NEMO\\\\onde: a submarine station for real-time monitoring of acoustic background installed at 2000 m depth in the Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) Collaboration installed, 25 km\\u000aE offshore the port of Catania (Sicily) at 2000 m depth, an underwater\\u000alaboratory to perform long-term tests of prototypes and new technologies for an\\u000aunderwater high energy neutrino km$^3$-scale detector in the Mediterranean Sea.\\u000aIn this framework the collaboration deployed and successfully operated for\\u000aabout two years, starting form January

S. Aiello; F. Ameli; I. Amore; M. Anghinolfi; A. Anzalone; G. Barbarino; M. Battaglieri; R. Bellotti

2008-01-01

297

Analysis of tsunami impact scenarios at an oil refinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work analyses the potential consequences of two tsunami scenarios and their impacts on an oil refinery located in Sicily.\\u000a Two credible tsunamis originating in the Tyrrhenian Sea were selected based on historical data. The potential for damage and\\u000a hazardous materials releases resulting from the tsunami impacts to a refinery was assessed. The results obtained by the JRC\\u000a tsunami propagation

Ana Maria Cruz; Elisabeth Krausmann; Giovanni Franchello

2011-01-01

298

Ustica Island (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy): from shoaling to emergent stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ustica is a volcanic island located in the southern Tyrrhenian sea, ~60 km NW of Sicily. As usual for volcanic ocean islands, its exposed part (8.6 km2, 248 m max elevation, mostly of Pleistocene age), is a small fraction of the whole edifice which rises from ~2000 m depth. Its 5-pointed-star shape is slightly elongated in a NE direction. A

L. B. Marinoni; G. Pasquaré; L. Vezzoli

2003-01-01

299

The fusulinid genera Polydiexodina and Skinnerina  

E-print Network

. Of this number, in addition to the two original species, only two others, P. mexicana DUNBAR and P. oregonensis BosTwicK & NESTELL, now appear actually to belong to Polydiexodina; all four are known only from North America. Of the re- maining 17 species and one... genus which is associated in Sicily with a lower Guadalupian ammonoid fauna. Polydiexodina praecursor has an elongate subcylindrical shape, as does P. douglasi. Both have sporadic supplementary tunnels but no median tunnel. BOSTWICK & NESTELL (1965...

Skinner, J. W.

1971-12-01

300

Sulfur emissions from Mt. Etna  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of three measuring trips to the Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily), field measurements and measurements by aircraft were carried out in the plume of the volcano to determine the concentration distributions and emission rates for the sulfur compounds H2S, SO2, and SO42-. Furthermore, the removal of H2S and SO2 and the production of SO42- in the dispersing plume

Wolfgang Jaeschke; Harald Berresheim; Hans-W. Georgii

1982-01-01

301

He, Ar, O, Sr and Nd isotope constraints on the origin and evolution of Mount Etna magmatism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 0.5 Ma history of the origin and evolution of Mount Etna, Sicily has been investigated by analysing the isotopic composition of He, Ar, O, Sr and Nd in 21 selected lava samples. The near constancy of the isotopic compositions of oxygen delta18O = 5.4 +\\/- 0.3%) and of helium trapped in olivine phenocrysts (6.7 +\\/- 0.4 Ra) is interpreted

Bernard Marty; Thomas Trull; Patricia Lussiez; Isabelle Basile; Jean-Claude Tanguy

1994-01-01

302

Dinoflagellate cysts from surface sediments of Syracuse Bay (Western Ionian Sea, Mediterranean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence and abundance of dinoflagellate cysts were investigated for the first time at an Ionian locality along the south-eastern coast of Sicily, subject to spring–summer harmful algal events. Thirty-four cyst morphotypes were recognized belonging to 24 taxa identified at least at the genus level. Cyst abundance in surface sediments ranged from 43 to 828cystsg?1 dry weight, with the highest

Fernando Rubino; Manuela Belmonte; Carmela Caroppo; Mariagrazia Giacobbe

2010-01-01

303

Volcano Watch Satellite Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Wisconsin's Space Science and Engineering Center displays these satellite images of the world's ten most active volcanoes. Users can view images of the Colima Volcano in Central Mexico or Mount Etna in Sicily, Italy. The latest images are updated every half-hour. Also, a Java animation feature splices together the last four images to show a simulation over a two-hour period.

304

Identification of Parietaria judaica Pollen Allergens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parietaria judaica pollen allergens, fractionated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to nitrocellulose membranes, were identified using 52 sera collected in Australia and Sicily from P. judaica pollen-allergic patients. IgE-binding pollen components transferred to nitrocellulose were detected by reaction with 125I-anti-human IgE and autoradiography. Nine pollen components, ranging in molecular weight (MW) from approximately 10,000 to 80,000 daltons, bound IgE

S. A. Ford; B. A. Baldo; D. Geraci; D. Bass

1986-01-01

305

Reviews of Books  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pj. Heather. Goths and Romans, 332-489. New York: The Clarendon Press,Oxford University Press, 1991. Pp. xi, 378. $114.95 (CDN). Reviewed by Steven MuhlbergerCharles Tilly. Coercion, Capital, and European States, AD 990-1990. Oxfordand Cambridge, Mass.: Basil Blackwell, 1990. Pp. xi, 269. $39.95 (us). Reviewed by Jan BlommeDonald Matthew. The Norman Kingdom of Sicily. New York: CambridgeUniversity Press, 1992. Pp. xvi, 418.

Steven Muhlberger; Leuven Jan Blomme; James M. Powell; Michael Chaton; Donald C. Jackman; Gregory Evans Dowd; Charles R. Middleton; Joseph A. Fry; B. R. Tomlinson; Jocelyn Linnekin; Neville Thompson; Ann Pottinger Saab; Barry Eichengreen; Daniel J. Schroeter; Raymond F. Betts; G. Harries-Jenkins; John W. Bailey; Allen J. Greenberger; D. George Boyce; Roderic H. Davison; Dane Kennedy; Stephen Brooke; David B. Danbom; Gerard J. De Groot; Betty Miller Unterberger; Robert J. Young; Carole Fink; Hines H. Hall; Gerhard L. Weinberg; Priscilla Dale Jones; Alan S. Milward; M. L. Dockrill; David Stafford; Bo Petersson; Jacob Bercovitch; Melvyn P. Leffleh; Marvin R. Zahniser; Willard C. Frank Jr; Timothy M. Shaw; Callum Macdonald; Andrew Chandler; B. W. Muirhead; William J. Duiker; Michael Graham Fry; Colin Newbury; Robert Page; John M. Mackenzie; E. Timothy Smith; Donald Barry; T. B. Millar; Hendrik Spruyi; T. E. Vadney; Jack S. Levy; Sally Marks; John Simpson

1993-01-01

306

Modern pollen assemblages as climate indicators in southern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim and Location Our aim is to develop pollen–climate inference models for southern Europe and to test their performance and inference power by cross-validation with modern climate data. Surface sediments collected from lakes along a climate gradient from the winter-cold\\/summer-wet Alps to winter-wet\\/summer-dry Sicily were analysed for modern pollen assemblages.\\u000a\\u000aMethods For each lake, mean monthly temperatures, seasonal precipitation and

Walter Finsinger; Oliver Heiri; Verushka Valsecchi; Willy Tinner; André F. Lotter

2007-01-01

307

Semi-automatic recognition and mapping of rainfall induced shallow landslides using optical satellite images  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for the semi-automatic recognition and mapping of recent rainfall induced shallow landslides. The method exploits VHR panchromatic and HR multispectral satellite images, and was tested in a 9.4km2 area in Sicily, Italy, where on 1 October 2009 a high intensity rainfall event caused shallow landslides, soil erosion, and inundation. Pre-event and post-event images of the study

A. C. Mondini; F. Guzzetti; P. Reichenbach; M. Rossi; M. Cardinali; F. Ardizzone

2011-01-01

308

Colonisation process of vegetative fragments of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile on rubble mounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seagrass colonise new areas via the dispersion of seeds or vegetative fragments. Independent of the manner of colonization,\\u000a habitat requirements need to be met for the successful establishment of seagrasses. Here we report on the colonization process\\u000a of Posidonia oceanica in a highly disturbed area: a gas pipeline trench at Capo Feto (SW Sicily, Italy). A trench dredged through a

G. Di Carlo; F. Badalamenti; A. C. Jensen; E. W. Koch; S. Riggio

2005-01-01

309

Lactobacillus casei, dominant species in naturally fermented Sicilian green olives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of lactic acid bacteria in naturally fermented green olives, collected from different areas of Sicily. Both classical biochemical tests and PCR\\/Restriction Fragments Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of 16S rDNA were used to characterize the isolates. The identity of the isolates was obtained by the partial sequencing analysis of the 16S rDNA. The BioMerieux

Cinzia L. Randazzo; Cristina Restuccia; A. Daniele Romano; Cinzia Caggia

2004-01-01

310

Evidence for genetic epistasis in human insulin resistance: the combined effect of PC1 (K121Q) and PPAR?2 (P12A) polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulin resistance is believed to be under the control of several genes often interacting each other. However, whether genetic epistasis does in fact modulate human insulin sensitivity is unknown. In 338 healthy unrelated subjects from Sicily, all nondiabetic and not morbidly obese, we investigated whether two gene polymorphisms previously associated with insulin resistance (namely PC-1 K121Q and PPAR?2 P12A) affect

R. Baratta; R. Di Paola; D. Spampinato; G. Fini; A. Marucci; A. Coco; R. Vigneri; L. Frittitta; V. Trischitta

2003-01-01

311

Supervised and Unsupervised Analysis Applied to Strombolian E.Q  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper we analyze seismic signals recorded in September 1997 in Stromboli (Sicily) during explosive eruptions. First,\\u000a we analyze the data via an unsupervised techniques using the Mixture of Gaussians algorithm (MoG) and the Principal Component\\u000a Analysis (PCA) to discover the structure of the data. Experts distinguish two types of signals related to two different type\\u000a of Strombolian explosive

Cinzia Avossa; Flora Giudicepietro; Maria Marinaro; Silvia Scarpetta

2003-01-01

312

Archimedes (287–212 BC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archimedes (ca. 287–212 BC) was born in Syracuse, in the Greek colony of Sicily. He studied mathematics at the Museum in Alexandria.\\u000a Archimedes systematized the design of simple machines and the study of their functions. He was probably the inventor of the\\u000a compound pulley and developed a rigorous theory of levers and the kinematics of the screw. He is the

Thomas G. Chondros

313

Observations of mount etna seismicity during the 2002–2003 eruption based on deep-sea gravimeter data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns observations made by a broadband deep-sea gravimeter installed on the plat-form of the SN-1 multiparameter\\u000a seafloor observatory. The observatory was deployed at a distance of 25 km from the east coast of Sicily in southern Italy\\u000a at a depth of 2105 m and was operated in a self-contained mode from October 2002 to February 2003 (134 days).

V. Iafolla; V. Milyukov; S. Nozzoli

2008-01-01

314

Incipient Crustal Stretching across AN Active Collision Belt: the Case of the Siculo-Calabrian Rift Zone (central Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Central Mediterranean, the differential roll-back of the subducting Nubia Plate caused the Neogene-Quaternary extrusion of the Calabrian arc onto the oceanic Ionian slab, and the opening of the oceanic Tyrrhenian Basin, in the overriding Eurasia Plate. The differential motion at the edges of the arc was largely accommodated along transform faults that propagated across the orogenic belt. Since the Late Quaternary, the southern edge of the arc has been replaced by the roughly N-S oriented Siculo-Calabrian Rift Zone (SCRZ) that formed as the NNW-directed normal faults of NE Sicily, crossing the orogenic belt, have linked the NNE-oriented Tyrrhenian margin of southern Calabria with the NNW-trending Africa-Ionian boundary of southeastern Sicily. Our study focused on the Sicily shoulder of the SCRZ, where the transition zone between the extensional belt and the still active Nubia-Eurasia convergent margin is characterized by two distinct mobile crustal wedges, both lying on an upwarped Mantle, where a re-orientations of the ?1 is combined with volcanism (e.g. Etna, Aeolian islands) and a huge tectonic uplift. In southeastern Sicily, the Hyblean-Etnean region evolved, since about 0.85 Ma, as an indipendent crustal wedge, moving towards the NNW and pointing to the active Mt. Etna volcano. A local ENE crustal stretching accompanied the traslation of the block and pre-dated the ESE-oriented extension governing the propagation of the southernmost branch of the SCR, which started at about 330 ka B.P.. Similarly, the Peloritani-Aeolian region, flanked by the 125 ka-old NE-Sicily branch of the rift zone, represents a mostly submerged crustal wedge that migrates towards the NE, diverging from the rest of the Sicily collision zone and pointing to the Stromboli volcano. The Peloritani-Aeolian block is characterized by the occurrence of a wide central NE-oriented collapsed basin contoured by an actively uplifting region, whose tectonic boundaries are evidenced by a sharp increase in the elevation of the marine terraces of the last 600 ka. In the two analysed crustal blocks, the crustal doming with the related basin collapses and the concurrent tectonic motion without any back-stop can be respectively related to the thermal anomalies and to the drag forces exerted by a hot Mantle flow, triggered by the opening of a vertical slab windows at the southern edge of the Calabrian arc. This process has favored the migration of hot Mantle material towards the sectors of larger rollback of the subduction hinge, producing the spectacular tectonic uplift and active magmatism of the region. The increase of the volume of the Mantle wedged in the subduction zone of the Calabrian arc has been also effective to accommodate the differential roll-back between the adjacent segments of Nubia Plate, thus replacing the motion along the pre-existing transform faults dissecting the orogenic belt. In this frame, the deformation of the Hyblean-Etnean and the Peloritani-Aeolian blocks heralded the development of the two Sicily branches of the SCRZ. The delayed crustal stretching responsible for the propagation of the rift zone across the orogenic belt can be framed in the dynamic of a still active convergent margin if interpreted as the result of the sliding of the crust along the Ionian flank of the Mantle flow.

Catalano, S.; Tortorici, G.; Romagnoli, G.; Pavano, F.

2012-12-01

315

Airborne EM for geothermal and hydrogeological mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the "VIGOR" project, aimed at assessing the geothermal potential of four regions in southern Italy, Airborne EM data have been acquired, modeled and interpreted. The system deployed was SkyTEM, a time-domain helicopter electromagnetic system designed for hydrogeophysical, environmental and mineral investigations. The AEM data provide, after data acquisition, analysis, processing, and modeling, a distribution volume of electrical resistivity, spanning an investigation depth from ground surface of few hundred meters, depending on resistivity condition. Resistivity is an important physical parameter for geothermal investigation, since it proved to be very effective in mapping anomalies due to hydrothermal fluid circulation, which usually has high salt content and produces clayey alteration minerals. Since the project required, among other issues, to define geothermal resources at shallow level, it was decided to perform a test with an airborne electromagnetic geophysical survey, to verify the advantages offered by the system in covering large areas in a short time. The geophysical survey was carried out in Sicily, Italy, in late 2011, over two test sites named "Termini" and "Western Sicily". The two areas were chosen on different basis. "Termini" area is covered by extensive geological surveys, and was going to be investigated also by means of electrical tomography in its northern part. Since geological condition of Sicily, even at shallow depth, is very complex, this area provided a good place for defining the resistivity values of the main geological units outcropping in the region. "Termini" survey has been also an occasion to define relations between resistivity distribution, lithological units and thermal conductivity. The "Western Sicily" area cover the main thermal manifestations of western Sicily, and the research target was to establish whether they are characterized by common hydrogeological or tectonic features that could be mapped by resistivity. SkyTEM data have been acquired in a series of flight lines and were then processed and inverted. In the "Termini" area the flight line spacing had 150 m separation. In the "Western Sicily" area two different line spacing were used: the 1 km spacing was used for the regional mapping, whereas for infill areas, around the main hydrothermal springs, the flight lines had 100 m spacing. The total number of flight line was 4580 km, and the explored surface was in excess of 2000 km2. After acquisition, data were processed to eliminate coupling with infrastructures, and noise. Inversions was then carried out using the quasi 3-D Spatially Constrained Inversion. The obtained resistivity volume has then been the base for a detailed lithological and geothermal interpretation. Lithological and geological maps were used to constrain surface condition and to understand the resistivity ranges of the different lithological units. On the base of resistivity values, lithological units were combined to establish the main litho-resistive units, then modeled at depth, down to achievable investigation depth. This detailed interpretative modeling was also the occasion of recognizing resistivity anomalies within carbonate units, which may possibly represent hydrogeological or hydrothermal bodies. The litho-resitive 3D model is now under investigation to verify how it can represent a viable way to image thermal conductivity variations at depth.

Menghini, A.; Manzella, A.; Viezzoli, A.; Montanari, D.; Maggi, S.

2012-12-01

316

Evaluating the capabilities of Sentinel-2 for quantitative estimation of biophysical variables in vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The red edge position (REP) in the vegetation spectral reflectance is a surrogate measure of vegetation chlorophyll content, and hence can be used to monitor the health and function of vegetation. The Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI) aboard the future ESA Sentinel-2 (S-2) satellite will provide the opportunity for estimation of the REP at much higher spatial resolution (20 m) than has been previously possible with spaceborne sensors such as Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) aboard ENVISAT. This study aims to evaluate the potential of S-2 MSI sensor for estimation of canopy chlorophyll content, leaf area index (LAI) and leaf chlorophyll concentration (LCC) using data from multiple field campaigns. Included in the assessed field campaigns are results from SEN3Exp in Barrax, Spain composed of 35 elementary sampling units (ESUs) of LCC and LAI which have been assessed for correlation with simulated MSI data using a CASI airborne imaging spectrometer. Analysis also presents results from SicilyS2EVAL, a campaign consisting of 25 ESUs in Sicily, Italy supported by a simultaneous Specim Aisa-Eagle data acquisition. In addition, these results were compared to outputs from the PROSAIL model for similar values of biophysical variables in the ESUs. The paper in turn assessed the scope of S-2 for retrieval of biophysical variables using these combined datasets through investigating the performance of the relevant Vegetation Indices (VIs) as well as presenting the novel Inverted Red-Edge Chlorophyll Index (IRECI) and Sentinel-2 Red-Edge Position (S2REP). Results indicated significant relationships between both canopy chlorophyll content and LAI for simulated MSI data using IRECI or the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) while S2REP and the MERIS Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index (MTCI) were found to have the strongest correlation for retrieval of LCC.

Frampton, William James; Dash, Jadunandan; Watmough, Gary; Milton, Edward James

2013-08-01

317

From Africa to Europe and back: refugia and range shifts cause high genetic differentiation in the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea  

PubMed Central

Background The glacial-interglacial oscillations caused severe range modifications of biota. Thermophilic species became extinct in the North and survived in southern retreats, e.g. the Mediterranean Basin. These repeated extinction and (re)colonisation events led to long-term isolation and intermixing of populations and thus resulted in strong genetic imprints in many European species therefore being composed of several genetic lineages. To better understand these cycles of repeated expansion and retraction, we selected the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea. Fourty-one populations scattered over Europe and the Maghreb and one population of the sibling taxon M. lachesis were analysed using allozyme electrophoresis. Results We obtained seven distinct lineages applying neighbour joining and STRUCTURE analyses: (i) Morocco, (ii) Tunisia, (iii) Sicily, (iv) Italy and southern France, (v) eastern Balkans extending to Central Europe, (vi) western Balkans with western Carpathian Basin as well as (vii) south-western Alps. The hierarchy of these splits is well matching the chronology of glacial and interglacial cycles since the Günz ice age starting with an initial split between the galathea group in North Africa and the lachesis group in Iberia. These genetic structures were compared with past distribution patterns during the last glacial stage calculated with distribution models. Conclusions Both methods suggest climatically suitable areas in the Maghreb and the southern European peninsulas with distinct refugia during the last glacial period and underpin strong range expansions to the North during the Postglacial. However, the allozyme patterns reveal biogeographical structures not detected by distribution modelling as two distinct refugia in the Maghreb, two or more distinct refugia at the Balkans and a close link between the eastern Maghreb and Sicily. Furthermore, the genetically highly diverse western Maghreb might have acted as source or speciation centre of this taxon, while the eastern, genetically impoverished Maghreb population might result from a relatively recent recolonisation from Europe via Sicily. PMID:21777453

2011-01-01

318

Analysis of satellite precipitation products referred to a local area in the Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitation measurement is a key factor for several scientific disciplines, research activities and management of human activities related to water resources. Climatology, meteorology and hydrology can be considered three main sectors in which precipitation estimation is carefully addressed although with different peculiarities. In order to retrieve precipitation information several products have been developed related to different information sources, methodologies and final products features. In this study we select a specific area in Sicily island (Italy) having high density rain gauges to evaluate of satellite precipitation products. Sicily has an area of 26,000 km2 and the gauge density of the network considered in this study is about 250 km2/gauge. It is an island in the Mediterranean sea with variegated climatology and morphology, which is considered as an interesting test site for satellite precipitation products on the European mid-latitude area. Four only satellite products (CMORPH, PERSIANN, TMPA-RT, PERSIANN-CCS) along with two adjusted products (TMPA and PERSIANN Adjusted) have been selected for the study. Evaluation and comparisons between selected products is performed with reference to data provided by the gauge network of Sicily and using statistical and visualization tools. An interpolation procedure has been adopted to compare reference rain-gauge network data to satellite products. An effort to organize and characterize evaluation tools within a simplified application framework has been done. Then three evaluation index groups have been identified corresponding to related application groups. Results show that bias is considerable for all satellite products although adjusted products are effective reducing it. Climatic considerations are reported to address this issue along with an overall analysis of the PMW retrieval algorithm performances. A convective/stratiform classification procedure is used to relate precipitation features to satellite information and retrieval algorithms. A strong convective component is present probably due to the study area morphology. It results affecting PMW capability to retrieve information since most of the precipitation event are convective in nature.

Noto, L. V.; Lo Conti, F.; Hsu, K.; Sorooshian, S.

2011-12-01

319

Trace elements in scalp hair of children chronically exposed to volcanic activity (Mt. Etna, Italy).  

PubMed

The aim of this survey was to use scalp hair as a biomonitor to evaluate the environmental exposure to metals and metalloids of schoolchildren living around the Mt. Etna area, and to verify whether the degree of human exposure to trace elements is subject to changes in local environmental factors. Twenty trace elements were determined in 376 samples of scalp hair from schoolboys (11-13 years old) of both genders, living in ten towns located around the volcanic area of Mt. Etna (Sicily). The results were compared with those (215 samples) from children living in areas of Sicily characterized by a different geological setting (reference site). As, U and V showed much higher concentrations at the volcanic site whereas Sr was particularly more abundant at the reference site. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) indicated an Etna factor, made up of V, U and Mn, and a second factor, concerning the reference site, characterized by Ni and Sr, and to a lesser extent by Mo and Cd. Significant differences in element concentrations were also observed among three different sectors of Mt. Etna area. Young people living in the Mt. Etna area are naturally exposed to enhanced intakes of some metals (V, U, Mn) and non-metals (e.g., As) than individuals of the same age residing in other areas of Sicily, characterized by different lithologies and not influenced by volcanic activity. The petrographic nature of local rocks and the dispersion of the volcanic plume explain the differences, with ingestion of water and local food as the most probable exposure pathways. PMID:24126132

Varrica, D; Tamburo, E; Dongarrà, G; Sposito, F

2014-02-01

320

Evidence for non-uniform uplift rates in southern Italy on glacial-cycle timescales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies of sea level change, with accurate positional measurements and precise datings have been published for Italy in the past decade. The use of markers whose formation positions are closely linked to mean sea level allows precise estimates to be made of local sea-level change. If the data is from tectonically active zones then these observations must be corrected for tectonic vertical movements. Examples include the records from Huon Penisula, Barbados and Tahiti. Often the corrections are based on a long term rates estimated from Quaternary data and in the best cases the last integlacial (~125 ka BP) shoreline is used as reference level. Uncertainties in these tectonic corrections may in some instances exceed the accuracy of the age-height measurements of the more recent shorelines. In the Mediterranean tectonically active coastlines occur in many locations, including Crete (Pirazzoli et al., 1982), southwest coast of Greece (Dia et al.,1997, Kershaw et al.,2002) and southern Italy (Miyauchi et al.,1994). Other coastal areas such as south eastern Spain (Zazo et al., 2001), Sardinia (Antonioli et al.,1999) and southern Latium (Hearty and Dai Prà, 1986) appear to be stable on the glacial timescales. We have obtained new Holocenic uplift rate for eastern Sicily and southern Calabria using Holocene and earlier interglacial observational data from Sicily (Taormina and St. Alessio Cape, Stewart et al., 1997, Antonioli et al., in print 2003) and Calabria (Scilla, Antonioli et al., submitted 2002, and Ioppolo, unpublished data) together with new models for the eustatic and glacio-hydro-isostatic contributions to Holocene sea level change where the latter have been calibrated against data from 30 sites in Italy (Lambeck et al.,submitted).For both regions of eastern Sicily and southern Calabria the Holocene uplift rates are greater than the long term average rates based on the position of the last (MIS 5.5) and earlier interglacial shorelines.

Antonioli, F.; Ferranti, L.; Lambeck, K.; Verrubbi, V.

2003-04-01

321

Miocene reef facies of pelagian block, central Mediterranean  

SciTech Connect

Miocene reefs outcrop in the Maltese Islands, southeastern Sicily, and the pelagian island of Lampedusa. Several rapid eustatic sea level fluctuations affected these late Tortonian-early Messinian build-ups; normal salinities appear to have been maintained during these events. In addition to sea floor topography, reef development appears to have been controlled by turbulence. Encruster-dominated patch reefs are typical of platform and shallow ramp situations where turbulence is high. Branching and massive coral assemblages are typical of fore-reef curtains and steep slope substrates.

Pedley, H.M.

1988-02-01

322

[Agueda of Catania: the patron saint of patients with breast diseases].  

PubMed

For those suffering from breast cancer, Agatha is their patron saint. She was a beautiful Christian maiden, from Catania, Sicily, who dedicated her life to God. As she rejected the love proposals of consul Quintiliano, she suffered cruel tortures. One of the tortures she suffered was to have her breast cut off, with iron shears, a detail that furnished to the Christian medieval iconography, the peculiar characteristic of Agatha. Catania honors Agatha as her patron saint and throughout the region around Mt. Etna. Saint Agatha's feast day is February 5. All of those dedicated to the treatment and prevention of breast cancer are known as "the soldiers of Saint Agatha". PMID:22089679

Ortiz-Hidalgo, Carlos

2011-01-01

323

Nuclear transport erupts on the slopes of Mount Etna.  

PubMed

Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) mediate the active transport of large substrates and allow the passive diffusion of small molecules into the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. The EMBO Workshop on the Mechanisms of Nuclear Transport focused on NPCs and on the soluble nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery. This meeting, organized by Valérie Doye (Institut Curie, Paris) and Ed Hurt (University of Heidelberg), was held within view of Mount Etna at Taormina, Sicily (November 1-5, 2003). Presentations emphasized the dynamic properties of the nuclear trafficking machinery, and demonstrated the continuity of nuclear transport with processes in the nucleus and cytoplasm. PMID:14755266

Powers, Maureen A; Dasso, Mary

2004-02-01

324

From NEMO to KM3NeT-Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The KM3NeT-Italy Collaboration has entered the production stage of an 8 tower apparatus that will be deployed at about 100 km off the Sicily coast. The architecture of the system is based on the NEMO Phase2 prototype tower which is taking data since the deployment in March 2013. In order to optimize production costs, power consumption, and usability, some components have been re-engineered by taking advantage of the previously gained experience and technological progress. The aim of this contribution is to give an overview of the main features that characterize the new apparatus.

Nicolau, Carlo A.

2014-04-01

325

Volcanic Ash Monitoring and FOrecaSting between Sicilia and Malta arEa and sharinG of the resUlts foR aviatiOn safety: the VAMOS SEGURO project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mt. Etna, in Italy, is one of the most active volcanoes in the world and during its frequent explosive episodes, eruption columns rise to several kilometers and fine ash is dispersed hundreds kilometers away from the vent reaching the neighboring countries. The Maltese Islands, for example, are situated at the center of the Mediterranean, only 100 km south of Sicily and, due to the close proximity, have been already affected by the past Etna volcanic activity. A reliable monitoring and forecasting system of Etna volcanic ash has to include all areas that could be reached by volcanic ash. For this reason, a new research project named VAMOS SEGURO, has been recently funded by Programma di Cooperazione Transfrontaliera Italia-Malta 2007-2013, with the aim to reduce the impact that Etna's explosive activity has in the area between Sicily and Malta. This project is developed within a cooperation between the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica, Osservatorio Etneo, the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), Comune of Montedoro, in Caltanissetta, the University of Malta, and Consorzio Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM). In this project, several instruments (e.g. aerosol optical depth analyzer, microbalance, laser cascade instrument, meteorological stations, aethelometer) have been installed at Giordan lighthouse at Xewkija, in Gozo, managed by the University of Malta. Furthermore, an innovative Lidar system with scanning capability, has been designed and realized by CNISM and is able to indentify the area affected by volcanic ash in Sicily and quantify the ash concentration in atmosphere. The Lidar may be transported and installed in the INAF astronomical observatories of Noto and Serra La Nave, only 7 km away from the Etna summits, and in Montedoro. Finally, an automatic forecasting system produces dispersal maps for the region between Sicily and Malta and for a typical Etna scenario. Results of simulations are daily visible at www.ct.ingv.it/vamosseguro. The system is collecting measurements of ash and SO2 plumes and will provide warnings to the competent civil and aviation authorities in Catania and Malta during Etna eruptions.

Scollo, Simona; Azzopardi, Francelle; Boselli, Antonella; Coltelli, Mauro; Ellul, Raymond; Leto, Giuseppe; Pisani, Gianluca; Prestifilippo, Michele; Saliba, Martin; Schiavone, Joseph; Spata, Gaetano; Spinelli, Nicola; Wang, Xuan; Zanmar Sanchez, Ricardo

2013-04-01

326

Contract Enforcement, Institutions and Social Capital: the Maghribi Traders Reappraised  

E-print Network

to the right way ... so that I would not be forced to make known his doings to the communities of Israel in east and west, and in particular to the community of Jerusalem and the head of the high council there. I had hoped that he would spare me from... greatly reduce his costs by arranging for a Maghribi trader in another location, say Palermo in Sicily, to act as his agent in selling his goods in Palermo. But distance and delays in communication meant that any agent had scope for opportunistic...

Edwards, J; Ogilvie, Sheilagh

327

Astronomical kaleidoscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The entry contains two Moon eclipses (a picture of a total eclipse and a photo of a penumbral one), photographs of monuments of few greatest astronomers: Nikolay Kopernik, Tiho Brahe and Johannes Kepler, a photo from the JENAM-1995 (Catania, Sicily) as well as photographs of few astronomers related with Moldova and Romania: V. Grigorevskii, N. Donitch, V.Nadolschi, D. Mangeron, two nice clocks in Prague, as well as a map of the Sanctuary in Orheiul -Vechi (Bessarabia) with an supposed ancient calendar.

Gaina, Alex

2005-10-01

328

Characterization of chitinolytic bacteria and histological aspects of Shell Disease Syndrome in European spiny lobsters (Palinurus elephas) (Fabricius 1787).  

PubMed

The present research reports the first description of Shell Disease Syndrome in European spiny lobsters Palinurus elephas (Fabricius 1787), which occurred in an experimental aquaculture facility in Sicily (Italy). Both bacterial characterization and histopathological examination of the exoskeleton at site of lesions was carried out. Infected specimens showed tail fan erosions, and in one case uropod ulceration and complete loss of periods. Identified species included: Listonella anguillarum 50.5%, Vibrio parahaemolyticus 27.5% and Vibrio alginolyticus 22%. Microscopic evaluation of lesions indicate the presence of inflammatory responses, which include melanization and pseudomembrane formation, similar to those described for other crustaceans affected by SDS. PMID:20361978

Mancuso, M; Costanzo, M T; Maricchiolo, G; Gristina, M; Zaccone, R; Cuccu, D; Genovese, L

2010-07-01

329

A unique lower mantle source for Southern Italy volcanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Italy volcanism is characterized by the unusual occurrence of volcanic rocks with ocean-island basalt (OIB)-like characteristics, in particular at Etna and Iblean Mts in Sicily. The geochemical properties of the source of the Italian magmatism are usually explained by a north-south binary mixing between a mantle- and a crustally-derived end-members. The nature of the mantle end-member is, however, not agreed upon. One type of interpretation invokes a mixture of depleted mantle (DMM) and high U/Pb (HIMU) end-members [Gasperini, D., Blichert-Toft, J., Bosch, D., Del Moro, A., Macera, P., Albarède, F., 2002. Upwelling of deep mantle material through a plate window: Evidence from the geochemistry of Italian basaltic volcanics, J. Geophys. Res. 107, 2367-2386], whereas an alternative view holds that the mantle end-member is unique and homogeneous, and similar to the FOZO- or C-type end-member identified in oceanic basalts [Bell, K., Castorina, F., Lavecchia, G., Rosatelli, G., Stoppa, F., 2004. Is there a mantle plume below Italy? EOS 85, 541-547]. Because mixing does not produce linear relationships between the isotopic compositions of different elements, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to the Pb isotope compositions of the Italian volcanics inclusive 36 of Sicily volcanoes. We demonstrate that HIMU cannot be an end-member of the Italian volcanics, but rather that the common component C (˜FOZO), which we interpret as reflecting the lower mantle, best represents the mantle source of the Italian magmatism. Our PCA calculation shows that the first principal component alone, which we take to be a mixture of two geochemical end-members, C and a crustally-derived component, explains 99.4% of the whole data variability. In contrast, the DMM end-member (the second principal component) is only present in the volcanics from the Tyrrhenian Sea floor. The C-like end-member, well represented by the Etna and Iblean Mts (Sicily), has relatively low 3He/ 4He ratios suggesting upwellings of lower mantle material from the 670 km transition zone. A slab detachment beneath the central-Southern Italy and probably the Sicily could account for the particular character of Italian magmatism.

Cadoux, Anita; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Pinti, Daniele L.; Albarède, Francis

2007-07-01

330

Spatio-temporal behaviour of the deep chlorophyll maximum in Mediterranean Sea: Development of a stochastic model for picophytoplankton dynamics  

E-print Network

In this paper, by using a stochastic reaction-diffusion-taxis model, we analyze the picophytoplankton dynamics in the basin of the Mediterranean Sea, characterized by poorly mixed waters. The model includes intraspecific competition of picophytoplankton for light and nutrients. The multiplicative noise sources present in the model account for random fluctuations of environmental variables. Phytoplankton distributions obtained from the model show a good agreement with experimental data sampled in two different sites of the Sicily Channel. The results could be extended to analyze data collected in different sites of the Mediterranean Sea and to devise predictive models for phytoplankton dynamics in oligotrophic waters.

Denaro, G; La Cognata, A; Spagnolo, B; Bonanno, A; Basilone, G; Mazzola, S; Zgozi, S; Aronica, S; Brunet, C

2012-01-01

331

Cytotoxic effect of eudesmanolides isolated from flowers of Tanacetum vulgare ssp. siculum.  

PubMed

A phytochemical analysis of the dichloromethane extract from the flowers of a subspecies of Tanacetum vulgare growing in Sicily was carried out. Five known sesquiterpene lactones with the eudesmane skeleton have been isolated and the cytotoxic activity of these compounds was tested in vitro on A549 (human lung carcinoma epithelial-like) and V79379A (Chinese hamster lung fibroblast-like) cells using the tetrazolium salt reduction (MTT) assay. All of tested compounds induced high time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects. PMID:22777187

Rosselli, Sergio; Bruno, Maurizio; Raimondo, Francesco Maria; Spadaro, Vivienne; Varol, Mehmet; Koparal, Ay?e Tansu; Maggio, Antonella

2012-01-01

332

Cyrnolutra castiglionis, une nouvelle forme de loutre (Mustelidae, Lutrinae), dans un dépôt du Pléistocène moyen «Castiglione 3CG»(Oletta, Haute-Corse)Cyrnolutra castiglionis, a new otter (Mustelidae, Lutrinae) from the Middle Pleistocene 'Castiglione 3CG' deposit (Oletta, Corsica).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some otter remains have been collected from the Middle Pleistocene deposit of Castiglione cave (Oletta, Corsica). These remains are compared with the other Pleistocene lutrines found in Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, and Sicily. They are also compared to the recent Lutra lutra. The metrical and morphological comparisons make it possible to identify this new extinct Corsican otter which can be attributed to the subfamily Lutrinae, to a new genus Cyrnolutra, and to a new species Cyrnolutra castiglionis. The Castiglione otter was probably very well adapted to a riverine aquatic way of life.

Pereira, Elisabeth; Salotti, Michelle

2000-07-01

333

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

334

The Myth of Icarus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ever since humans first saw birds soar through the sky, they have wanted to fly. The ancient Greeks and Romans pictured many of their gods with winged feet, and imagined mythological winged animals. According to the legend of Daedalus and Icarus, the father and son escaped prison by attaching wings made of wax and feathers to their bodies. Unfortunately, Icarus flew too near the sun, and the heat caused the wax and feathers to melt. The feathers fell off, and Icarus plummeted to the sea. Daedalus landed safely in Sicily.

2004-01-01

335

Epidemiological assessment of Respiratory Syncytial Virus infection in hospitalized infants, during the season 2005-2006 in Palermo, Italy  

PubMed Central

Objectives Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the leading cause of hospitalization for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in young children worldwide. We evaluate the epidemiological and clinical patterns of RSV infection in infants hospitalized for LRTI in in Palermo, South Italy, Sicily. Methods We collected the demographic details of infants hospitalized to G. Di Cristina Children's Hospital in Palermo for LRTI between November 2005 and May 2006. We also included all cases occurred in newborns hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) Of Palermo. Results During the studied period, 335/705 hospitalized infants for LRTI were enrolled in the study. The trend of hospitalization started in late winter and lasting until May 2006 with an epidemic peak in spring. 178/335 infants tested for viral infection showed RSV disease. Three cases occurred in preterm newborns hospitalized from birth in NICU. The likelihood to be RSV+, rather than RSV negative (RSV-) was higher for infants < 6 months and lower for infants with history of breast feeding (P < 0.05). RSV infection was associated with a higher likelihood to be admitted to intensive care unit and to a longer hospitalization and oxygen therapy. Conclusion The study shows that, in Sicily, RSV is an important cause of LRTI in infants. The seasonal distribution shows that both LRTI and RSV infections peak in late spring, in contrast to Northern Italy. Our data could help to define the regional appropriate start of prophylactic interventions. PMID:19490666

Di Carlo, Paola; Romano, Amelia; Salsa, Ludovico; Gueli, Alessandra; Poma, Antonella; Fuca, Fortunata; Dones, Piera; Collura, Mirella; Pampinella, Diego; Motisi, Delia; Corsello, Giovanni

2009-01-01

336

Burkholderia cepacia Complex Infection in Italian Patients with Cystic Fibrosis: Prevalence, Epidemiology, and Genomovar Status  

PubMed Central

The prevalence, epidemiology, and genomovar status of Burkholderia cepacia complex strains recovered from Italian cystic fibrosis (CF) patients were investigated using genetic typing and species identification methods. Four CF treatment centers were examined: two in Sicily, one in central Italy, and one in northern Italy. B. cepacia complex bacteria were isolated from 59 out of 683 CF patients attending these centers (8.6%). For the two geographically related treatment centers in Sicily, there was a high incidence of infection caused by a single epidemic clone possessing the cblA gene and belonging to B. cepacia genomovar III, recA group III-A, closely related to the major North America-United Kingdom clone, ET12; instability of the cblA sequence was also demonstrated for clonal isolates. In summary, of all the strains of B. cepacia encountered in the Italian CF population, the genomovar III, recA group III-A strains were the most prevalent and transmissible. However, patient-to-patient spread was also observed with several other genomovars, including strains of novel taxonomic status within the B. cepacia complex. A combination of genetic identification and molecular typing analysis is recommended to fully define specific risks posed by the genomovar status of strains within the B. cepacia complex. PMID:11474009

Agodi, Antonella; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Barchitta, Martina; Giannino, Viviana; Sciacca, Agata; Stefani, Stefania

2001-01-01

337

Transition of Mount Etna lavas from a mantle-plume to an island-arc magmatic source.  

PubMed

Mount Etna lies near the boundary between two regions that exhibit significantly different types of volcanism. To the north, volcanism in the Aeolian island arc is thought to be related to subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. On Sicily itself, however, no chemical or seismological evidence of subduction-related volcanism exists, and so it is thought that the volcanism-including that on Mount Etna itself-stems from the upwelling of mantle material, associated with various surface tectonic processes. But the paucity of geological evidence regarding the primary composition of magma from Mount Etna means that its source characteristics remain controversial. Here we characterize the trace-element composition of a series of lavas emitted by Mount Etna over the past 500 kyr and preserved as melt inclusions inside olivine phenocrysts. We show that the compositional change in primary magmas from Mount Etna reflects a progressive transition from a predominantly mantle-plume source to one with a greater contribution from island-arc (subduction-related) basalts. We suggest that this is associated with southward migration of the Ionian slab, which is becoming juxtaposed with a mantle plume beneath Sicily. This implies that the volcanism of Mount Etna has become more calc-alkaline, and hence more explosive, during its evolution. PMID:11528476

Schiano, P; Clocchiatti, R; Ottolini, L; Busà, T

2001-08-30

338

Status of the KM3NeT project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

KM3NeT is a deep-sea research infrastructure being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea. It will be installed at three sites: KM3NeT-Fr, offshore Toulon, France, KM3NeT-It, offshore Portopalo di Capo Passero, Sicily (Italy) and KM3NeT-Gr, offshore Pylos, Peloponnese, Greece. It will host the next generation Cherenkov neutrino telescope and nodes for a deep sea multidisciplinary observatory, providing oceanographers, marine biologists, and geophysicists with real time measurements. The neutrino telescope will search for Galactic and extra-Galactic sources of neutrinos, complementing IceCube in its field of view. The detector will have a modular structure and consists of six building blocks, each including about one hundred Detection Units (DUs). Each DU will be equipped with 18 multi-PMT digital optical modules. The first phase of construction has started and shore and deep-sea infrastructures hosting the future KM3NeT detector are being prepared in France near Toulon and in Italy, near Capo Passero in Sicily. The technological solutions for KM3NeT and the expected performance of the detector are presented and discussed.

Margiotta, A.

2014-04-01

339

Multi-Temporal Evaluation of Landslide Movements and Impacts on Buildings in San Fratello (Italy) By Means of C-Band and X-Band PSI Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work provides a multi-temporal and spatial investigation of landslide effects in the San Fratello area (Messina province within the Sicily region, Italy), by means of C-band and X-band Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) data, integrated with in situ field checks and a crack pattern survey. The Sicily region is extensively affected by hydrogeological hazards since several landslides regularly involved local areas across time. In particular, intense and catastrophic landslide phenomena have recently occurred in the San Fratello area; the last event took place in February 2010, causing large economic damage. Thus, the need for an accurate ground motions and impacts mapping and monitoring turns out to be significantly effective, in order to better identify active unstable areas and to help proper risk-mitigation measures planning. The combined use of historical and recent C-band satellites and current X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar sensors of a new generation permits spatially and temporally detection of landslide-induced motions on a local scale and to properly provide a complete multi-temporal evaluation of their effects on the area of interest. PSI ground motion rates are cross-compared with local failures and damage of involved buildings, recently recognized by in situ observations. As a result, the analysis of landslide-induced movements over almost 20 years and the validation of radar data with manufactured crack patterns, permits one to finally achieve a complete and reliable assessment in the San Fratello test site.

Bianchini, Silvia; Ciampalini, Andrea; Raspini, Federico; Bardi, Federica; Di Traglia, Federico; Moretti, Sandro; Casagli, Nicola

2014-04-01

340

Modelling tsunamis in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Application to the Minoan Santorini tsunami sequence as a potential scenario for the biblical Exodus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical model which simulates the propagation of tsunamis in the Eastern Mediterranean has been developed. Several tsunami sources have been considered: earthquakes associated to geological faults, submarine landslides, entry of pyroclastic flows into the sea and the collapse of a volcano caldera. The model has been applied to different past events for which historic data or previous simulations exist, to test its performance. Then it has been applied to simulate tsunamis triggered by the explosion of Santorini volcano (17th century BC) in the Aegean Sea. While the model accounts for run-ups in the Aegean coasts, it fails to explain the isochronous tsunamigenic deposits reported in eastern Sicily and the levantine coasts. A scenario of a sequence of intense tectonics strain release triggering a series of tsunamis could better fit the whole dataset. Thus, a submarine landslide at the Gulf of Sirte may explain the Augias megaturbidite and the sedimentary deposits reported in Augusta Bay (Sicily). Similarly, a sequential tsunami in the eastern Nile Delta may explain the tsunamigenic deposits found in Israel and Gaza. Considering the former coastline at 3500 years BP, it could also provide a plausible scenario for the biblical sea crossing related in the Exodus.

Periáñez, R.; Abril, J. M.

2014-11-01

341

The Cathedral of S. Giorgio in Ragusa Ibla (Italy): characterization of construction materials and their chromatic alteration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cathedral of St. Giorgio in Ragusa Ibla (Sicily) is one of the most important Baroque monuments of eastern Sicily. The restoration of the monument underway has put forward notable questions regarding the stone materials used and their state of degradation. The façade appears to be made mainly of a creamy white calcarenite, and of mortars and plasters. However, detailed analysis has highlighted a more complex use of the raw material. The mortar and plaster have a different composition in regards to their architectural use while the natural stone material is distinguished not only by a creamy-white calcarenite but also by a dark coloured bituminous calcarenite (pitch rock), which now appears whiter because of superficial chromatic alterations. This process was reproduced in the laboratory using an accelerated aging technique on samples of bituminous calcarenite, which allowed the cause of the alternation to be identified as photo-oxidation of the asphaltenes. Following this process of photo-oxidation, other forms of chromatic alterations affected the façade (brown orange-coloured patinas). FTIR, Scanning Electron Microscope and thin section microscopic observation allowed the characterization of also the products of this process to be carried out, highlighting the complex mechanism which the processes underwent.

Barone, Germana; La Russa, Mauro Francesco; Lo Giudice, Antonino; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Pezzino, Antonino

2008-08-01

342

Description of the Earth in the Works of Arabic Geographers from IX to XII Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The works of Arabic writers provide data about shape, position and size of the Earth, planets and zodiac signs. They include preserved maps of Ibn Haukal, Al-Masudi and Al-Idrisi. Al-Masudi (871-956/7) made a map of the world and wrote that the Earth is round, before the Christians in Europe were ready to accept that idea. The famous geographer and cartographer Al-Idrisi (IX/X., died in 903/913.) has lived on the court of Norman king Roger II of Sicily, and after his death on the court of his son William I on Sicily, where he obtained the data from European and Arabic geographers. On the basis of this data he wrote a work known entitled Roger's book. Besides this important work he made a celestial globe and a map of the world in the shape of a silver disk. The lines that marked the borders of seven regions of the inhabited world were engraved on this disk. The Arabs had excellent knowledge of Greek astronomy and accepted their division of the world in seven climatic zones.

Cvijanovic, I.

2012-12-01

343

Benford's law predicted digit distribution of aggregated income taxes: the surprising conformity of Italian cities and regions  

E-print Network

The yearly aggregated tax income data of all, more than 8000, Italian municipalities are analyzed for a period of five years, from 2007 to 2011, to search for conformity or not with Benford's law, a counter-intuitive phenomenon observed in large tabulated data where the occurrence of numbers having smaller initial digits is more favored than those with larger digits. This is done in anticipation that large deviations from Benford's law will be found in view of tax evasion supposedly being widespread across Italy. Contrary to expectations, we show that the overall tax income data for all these years is in excellent agreement with Benford's law. Furthermore, we also analyze the data of Calabria, Campania and Sicily, the three Italian regions known for strong presence of mafia, to see if there are any marked deviations from Benford's law. Again, we find that all yearly data sets for Calabria and Sicily agree with Benford's law whereas only the 2007 and 2008 yearly data show departures from the law for Campania. ...

Mir, Tariq Ahmad; Cerqueti, Roy

2014-01-01

344

Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy  

PubMed Central

Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO2 stores. Italy and Sicily are regions of intense natural CO2 degassing from surface seeps. These seeps exhibit a variety of expressions, characteristics (e.g., temperature/flux), and location environments. Here we quantify historical fatalities from CO2 poisoning using a database of 286 natural CO2 seeps in Italy and Sicily. We find that risk of human death is strongly influenced by seep surface expression, local conditions (e.g., topography and wind speed), CO2 flux, and human behavior. Risk of accidental human death from these CO2 seeps is calculated to be 10-8 year-1 to the exposed population. This value is significantly lower than that of many socially accepted risks. Seepage from future storage sites is modeled to be less that Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health risks from unplanned seepage at onshore storage sites can be adequately minimized. PMID:21911398

Roberts, Jennifer J.; Wood, Rachel A.; Haszeldine, R. Stuart

2011-01-01

345

Benford's law predicted digit distribution of aggregated income taxes: the surprising conformity of Italian cities and regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The yearly aggregated tax income data of all, more than 8000, Italian municipalities are analyzed for a period of five years, from 2007 to 2011, to search for conformity or not with Benford's law, a counter-intuitive phenomenon observed in large tabulated data where the occurrence of numbers having smaller initial digits is more favored than those with larger digits. This is done in anticipation that large deviations from Benford's law will be found in view of tax evasion supposedly being widespread across Italy. Contrary to expectations, we show that the overall tax income data for all these years is in excellent agreement with Benford's law. Furthermore, we also analyze the data of Calabria, Campania and Sicily, the three Italian regions known for strong presence of mafia, to see if there are any marked deviations from Benford's law. Again, we find that all yearly data sets for Calabria and Sicily agree with Benford's law whereas only the 2007 and 2008 yearly data show departures from the law for Campania. These results are again surprising in view of underground and illegal nature of economic activities of mafia which significantly contribute to tax evasion. Some hypothesis for the found conformity is presented.

Mir, Tariq Ahmad; Ausloos, Marcel; Cerqueti, Roy

2014-11-01

346

Dust Streams from Tunisia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On October 6, 2001, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this true-color image of a large dust storm blowing northeastward across the Mediterranean Sea from Tunisia. According to Joseph Prospero, professor of atmospheric science at the University of Miami, there is an unusual arc-shaped 'front' to the dust cloud. The storm's shape suggests that the source of the dust is rather small and that the meteorology driving it rather unusual. The dust seems to be coming out of the wadis, dry lakebeds and riverbeds, at the base of the Tell Atlas Mountains in northern Tunisia and eastern Algeria. The dust appears to be blowing toward the island of Sicily, Italy (toward the upper righthand corner). Also notice there is a relatively thin plume of smoke emanating eastward from the top of Mount Etna on Sicily. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

347

Modeling the dispersal of Levantine Intermediate Water and its role in Mediterranean deep water formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper demonstrates the importance of Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) in the deep water formation process in the Mediterranean using the modular ocean general circulation model at 0.25° resolution, 19 vertical levels, over the entire Mediterranean with an open Gibraltar strait. LIW formation is strongly prescribed in the Rhodes Gyre region by Haney [1971] relaxation, while in other regions, surface salinity relaxation is much reduced by applying the `mixed' thermohaline surface boundary conditions. Isopycnal diagnostics are used to trace water mass movements, and volume fluxes are monitored at straits. Low viscosity and diffusion are used to permit baroclinic eddies to play a role in water mass dispersal. The overall water budget is measured by an average flux at Gibraltar of 0.8 Sv, of which 0.7 Sv is exchanged with the eastern basin at Sicily. LIW (density around 28.95) spreads rapidly after formation throughout the entire Levantine due to baroclinic eddies. Toward the west, LIW accumulates in the northern and central Ionian, with some entering the Adriatic through Otranto and some mixing southward in eddies and exiting to the western Mediterranean through Sicily. LIW is converted to deep water in the south Adriatic at an average rate of 0.4 Sv. Water exchange through the Otranto strait appears to be buoyancy driven, with a strong bias to the end of winter (March-April), while at Sicily the exchange has a strong symmetric seasonal cycle, with maximum transport of 1.1 Sv in December indicating the effects of wind driving. LIW pathways in the west are complex and variable. In the Tyrrhenian, intermediate water becomes uniform on isopycnal surfaces due to eddy stirring. West of Sardinia, two LIW boundary currents are formed in the Balearic basin; one flows northward up the west coast of Sardinia and Corsica, and one westward along the northern African coast. The northward current is consistent with observations, while the westward current is intermittent for the first 10 years, often breaking up into eddies which enter the basin interior. Some observations of high-salinity waters near the African coast may support this interpretation. LIW retains a subsurface salinity maximum of 38.4-38.5 practical salinity units (psu) when reaching the northwestern Mediterranean, contrasting with surface waters fresher than 38.0 psu. West Mediterranean deep water is formed below 1500 m depth with climatological characteristics, when it is mixed and cooled during winter convection in Lions Gyre.

Wu, Peili; Haines, Keith

1996-03-01

348

Time evolution of complex networks: commuting systems in insular Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to study the dynamics of the commuting system of two insular regions of Italy, Sardinia and Sicily, inspected as complex networks. The authors refer to a 20-year time period and take into account three census data sets about the work and study-driven inter-municipal origin-destination movements of residential inhabitants in 1981, 1991 and 2001. Since it is likely that the number of municipalities (in this case, the vertices of the system) does not display sharp variations, the authors direct the study to the variation of the properties emerging through both a topological and a weighted network representation of commuting in the time periods indicated.

de Montis, Andrea; Caschili, Simone; Chessa, Alessandro

2011-03-01

349

Archeops: A High Resolution, Large Sky Coverage Balloon Experiment for Mapping CMB Anisotropies  

E-print Network

Archeops is a balloon-borne instrument dedicated to measuring cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies at high angular resolution (8 arcminutes) over a large fraction (25%) of the sky in the millimetre domain. Based on Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) technology, cooled bolometers (0.1 K) scan the sky in total power mode with large circles at constant elevation. During the course of a 24-hour Arctic-night balloon flight, Archeops will observe a complete annulus on the sky in four frequency bands centered at 143, 217, 353 and 545 GHz with an expected sensitivity to CMB fluctuations of \\~100muK for each of the 90 thousand 20 arcminute average pixels. We describe the instrument and its performance obtained during a test flight from Trapani (Sicily) to Spain in July 1999.

A. Benoit; P. Ade; A. Amblard; R. Ansari; E. Aubourg; J. Bartlett

2001-06-08

350

The impact of dredge-fill on Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows: regression and patterns of recovery.  

PubMed

Posidonia oceanica meadows can be severely damaged by dredge-fill operations. We report on the construction of gas pipelines that occurred between 1981 and 1993 in SW Sicily, Italy. A large portion of the meadow was mechanically removed, and the excavated trench was filled with a mosaic of substrates, ranging from sand to consolidated rock debris. Meadow loss and recovery were quantified over 7 years after the end of operations. We recorded an overall loss of 81.20 ha of meadow. Substrate strongly affected recovery as the percent cover by P. oceanica consistently increased on calcareous rubble, reaching values of 44.37 ± 3.05% in shallow sites after 7 years, whereas no significant increase occurred on other substrates. As in the Mediterranean Sea exploitation of coastal areas continues to grow with consequent impacts on P. oceanica meadows, this case study illustrates how artificial rubble-like materials could be employed to support the restoration of damaged meadows. PMID:21256527

Badalamenti, Fabio; Alagna, Adriana; D'Anna, Giovanni; Terlizzi, Antonio; Di Carlo, Giuseppe

2011-03-01

351

The wind and thermally driven circulation of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Part II: the Baroclinic case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared with other interesting parts of the World Ocean, little is known of the eastern Mediterranean and major issues of the Mediterranean circulation are still unsolved. Among them, the most crucial one is: what is the dominant driving mechanism of the eastern Mediterranean general circulation: (1) the wind stress; (2) the thermohaline surface fluxes; (3) the inflow forcing at the Sicily Straits? What is the relative importance of these three forcing functions? Is it the same in the different sub-basins comprising the eastern Mediterranean? What modelling factors are important for the simulation of the seasonal cycle and is the general circulation overall dominated by the annual mean or seasonal signal? To answer the above questions we have carried out an extensive and thorough series of numerical experiments using a multilevel model of the circulation, suitable for coarse-resolution studies but endowed with active thermodynamics and allowing for realistic geometry (coastlines, islands, bottom relief). The model is used in a three-level version as the minimum one capable of simulating the vertical superposition of different water masses observed in the eastern Mediterranean. The climatological monthly averages of wind-stress, thermal and evaporative fluxes and inflow at Sicily are used to drive the model. In Part I of the present study it was shown that the seasonal cycle present in the wind-stress curl induces a strongly seasonal barotropic circulation comprising the entire eastern Mediterranean. This seasonal gyre reverses from being cyclonic in winter to anticyclonic in summer. The inclusion of baroclinicity, however, profoundly modifies the purely wind-driven, barotropic circulation, eliminating the strong seasonality and the winter-to-summer reversal. The first important result is that the general circulation pattern now consists of a succession of sub-basin-scale gyres, with a seasonal modulation emphasizing the cyclonic centres in winter and the anticyclonic ones in summer, according to the vorticity input by the wind. When surface thermal forcing is included, the winter-to-summer differences become very small and the yearly pattern is dominant. The second important result is that the intercomparisons of the various numerical experiments in which each driving mechanism is studied in isolation from the others allows us to classify unambiguously the three forcing mechanisms in order of relative importance in driving the circulation in the different sub-basins of the eastern Mediterranean. Specifically, for the Ionian Sea and Sea of Crete the dominant forcing is the inflow at the Straits of Sicily while for the Levantine Sea thermohaline fluxes are the main driving function. The wind-stress forcing induces a seasonal fluctuation only in the meandering path of the Atlantic jet entering the Ionian Sea through the Sicily Straits. We finally carry out a 'central experiment', the most realistic one in which all forcing functions drive the circulation that we compare quantitatively with other model results and qualitatively with observations. Major features can be recognized and are shown to be persistent all year long. These features are also found in the dynamic heights of the general hydrographic surveys of the Physical Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean (POEM) programme. The only POEM feature not reproduced by the model, an intense anticyclonic region in the south eastern Levantine, may be attributed to errors and specifically underestimates, of the available thermal fluxes whose effect is partially overcome by the wind-stress forcing. This anticyclonic cell is in fact obtained when the model is driven by the thermal fluxes alone. Overall, the model results compare well with the observational evidence provided by the POEM surveys and the thermohaline vertical circulation cell reproduced by the model is consistent with the preliminary results of the transient-tracer survey POEM-V-87. Finally, many of the persistent features found in the model circulation patterns can be related to the strong control exerted by

Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola; Bergamasco, Andrea

1991-04-01

352

Regional scale analysis for the design of storage tanks for domestic rainwater harvesting systems.  

PubMed

A regional scale analysis for the design of storage tanks for domestic rain water harvesting systems is presented. The analysis is based on the daily water balance simulation of the storage tank by the yield-after-spillage algorithm as tank release rule. Water balances are applied to 17 rainfall gauging stations in Sicily (Italy). Compared with literature existing methods, a novel dimensionless parameter is proposed to better describe the intra-annual character of the rainfall patterns. As a result, easy-to-use regional regressive models to evaluate the water saving performance and the overflow discharges from the tank are provided along with a stepwise procedure for practical application. The regional models demonstrate good fits between model predictions and simulated values of both water savings and overflows from the tank. PMID:22678193

Campisano, A; Modica, C

2012-01-01

353

Dinoflagellate cysts from surface sediments of Syracuse Bay (Western Ionian Sea, Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence and abundance of dinoflagellate cysts were investigated for the first time at an Ionian locality along the south-eastern coast of Sicily, subject to spring-summer harmful algal events. Thirty-four cyst morphotypes were recognized belonging to 24 taxa identified at least at the genus level. Cyst abundance in surface sediments ranged from 43 to 828 cysts g -1 dry weight, with the highest numbers recorded at the most restricted station. Germination experiments allowed confirmation of species identification determined by cyst analysis and provided clonal cultures of Alexandrium minutum and Gymnodinium nolleri, two of the bloom-forming species in the area. This represents the first record of G. nolleri for the Mediterranean Sea.

Rubino, Fernando; Belmonte, Manuela; Caroppo, Carmela; Giacobbe, Mariagrazia

2010-02-01

354

Revision of the Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) species group in the western Palaearctic (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Ennominae).  

PubMed

The Palaearctic Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) species group is revised (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Ennominae). Four taxa are considered valid at species level: H. fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758), H. pinicolaria (Bellier, 1861), H. compararia (Staudinger, 1894) and one new species, H. mediterranea, from Italy: Sicily, Calabria and Molise. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: Ellopia cedricola Wehrli, 1919, from Turkey is downgraded to subspecies of Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) (revised status), Hylaea fasciaria cleui Leraut, 1993, from France is downgraded from subspecies to synonymy with H. fasciaria fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) (new synonymy) and Ellopia compararia Staudinger, 1894, from Algeria is raised from subspecies of Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) to species status (revised status). Hemithea squalidaria O. G. Costa, 1848 from southern Italy was placed in the genus Hylaea, but it is reverted to its original combination as its taxonomic status is uncertain. Adults, male and female genitalia and distribution maps are illustrated for all species. DNA barcodes are presented for most taxa studied. PMID:24871188

Sihvonen, Pasi; Skou, Peder; Flamigni, Claudio; Fiumi, Gabriele; Hausmann, Axel

2014-01-01

355

Biogas from Marine Macroalgae: a New Environmental Technology — Life Cycle Inventory for a Further LCA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this paper is to analyze the innovative process of production of biogas (via fermentation processes) using marine macroalgae as feedstock in a pilot project plant in Augusta (Sicily, Italy). Algae, during their growth, have the capacity to assimilate nutrients and thus subsequent harvesting of the algal biomass recovers the nutrients from biowaste sources giving the possibility to transform negative environmental externalities in positive mainly in terms of eutrophication and climate change impact categories. The paper presents a novel environmental technology for the production of biogas and 2nd generation biofuel (liquid biomethane) after an upgrading process through the use of a cryogenic technology. The paper would also like to make the first attempt at understanding the possibility to implement this innovative technology in the Latvian context. The first calculations and assumptions for the Life Cycle Inventory for a further Life Cycle Assessment are presented.

Romagnoli, Francesco; Blumberga, Dagnija; Gigli, Emanuele

2010-01-01

356

Hard X-ray astronomy at IAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of hard X-ray emission from compact galactic sources and extragalactic objects are reviewed which have been carried out in Italy since 1976. The studies include observations of galactic binary systems and peculiar stars, deep surveys of extragalactic sources, observations of the galactic hard X-ray background, and the monitoring of transient X-ray sources, gamma-ray bursts, and X-ray bursters. Attention is given to early balloon experiments, sounding-rocket flights, later balloon experiments with multiwire spectroscopic proportional counters, equatorial balloon flights in India, and an abortive trans-Atlantic balloon flight from Sicily that was terminated over Spain. Some future programs are discussed, including a deep survey of the hard X-ray sky, deep-space observations of single galactic and extragalactic sources, and the development of an imaging telescope for soft gamma-ray astronomy.

Ubertini, P.

1981-03-01

357

Biological effect of Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) waste matter. Note I: diuretic activity.  

PubMed

In this work we studied in rat the diuretic activity of Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) waste matter. The cladodes, flowers and non commerciable fruits were collected in S. Cono (CT, Sicily) cultivation. Acute and chronic diuretic activity of 15% infusion of cladodes, flowers and fruits were assayed. Natriuresis, kaliuresis and the activity on fructose-induced hyperuricemia was also studied. The results show that O. ficus indica cladode, fruit and flower infusions significantly increase diuresis. This effect is more marked with the fruit infusion and it is particularly significant during the chronic treatment. The fruit infusion shows also antiuric effect. In all experiments cladode, flower and fruit infusions showed a modest but not significant increase in natriuresis and kaliuresis. PMID:11744290

Galati, E M; Tripodo, M M; Trovato, A; Miceli, N; Monforte, M T

2002-01-01

358

Precipitation change in Southern Italy linked to global scale oscillation indexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates precipitation variability in five regions of Southern Italy (Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily) using a homogeneous database of about 70 rain gauges with more than 50 years of observation. First, a statistical analysis was performed through the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test in order to determine rainfall the trend on both yearly and seasonal scales. Then, the relationship between the rainfall and some teleconnection pattern indexes was investigated using Spearman's test. The results show remarkable statistically significant negative trends for annual and winter aggregations in most part of the series. Moreover, a strong correlation has emerged between the teleconnection patterns and precipitation in Southern Italy, particularly in winter and on the Tyrrhenian side of the study area.

Caloiero, T.; Coscarelli, R.; Ferrari, E.; Mancini, M.

2011-06-01

359

Nutraceutical potential of monofloral honeys produced by the Sicilian black honeybees (Apis mellifera ssp. sicula).  

PubMed

In the light of the growing interest in food and food products obtained through organic and environmentally friendly techniques, the present work represents the first approach to the evaluation of the biological profile of some Sicilian honeys produced in purity by the local black honeybees. Samples exhibited up to 10 times more total phenolics and higher antioxidant capacity than what already reported for the same variety of honeys produced by other honeybee subspecies from Sicily, other Italian regions and abroad. Noteworthy, the gallic acid contents in medlar and almond honeys represented the highest level of single phenolic acid reported in honey so far. A broad antimicrobial spectrum was showed by all of the honey samples and a good correlation between their inhibition capacity and polyphenolic contents was measured. Experimental results highlighted samples among the honeys characterised by the highest nutraceutical added value and most excellent quality. PMID:22497901

Tenore, Gian Carlo; Ritieni, Alberto; Campiglia, Pietro; Novellino, Ettore

2012-06-01

360

Alps vs. Apennines: The paradigm of a tectonically asymmetric Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alps and Apennines developed along opposite subductions, which inverted the tethyan passive continental margins located along the boundaries of Europe, Africa and the Adriatic plates. The Alps have higher morphological and structural elevation, two shallow, slow subsiding foreland basins. The Apennines have rather low morphological and structural elevation, one deep and fast subsiding foreland basin. While the Alps sandwiched the whole crust of both upper and lower plates, the Apennines rather developed by the accretion of the upper crust of the lower plate alone. Alpine relics are boudinated in the hangingwall of the Apennines, stretched by the Tyrrhenian backarc rifting. Relative to the upper plate, the subduction hinge moved toward it in the Alps from Cretaceous to Present, whereas it migrated away in the Apennines from late Eocene to Present, apart in Sicily where since Pleistocene(?) it reversed. The asymmetry appears primarily controlled by the slab polarity with respect to the westward drift of the lithosphere.

Carminati, Eugenio; Doglioni, Carlo

2012-04-01

361

Source and nature of inhaled atmospheric dust from trace element analyses of human bronchial fluids.  

PubMed

Rapid volcanic eruptions quickly ejecting large amounts of dust provoke the accumulation of heavy metals in people living in surrounding areas. Analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage samples (BAL) collected from people exposed to the paroxysmal 2001 Etna eruption revealed a strong enrichment of many toxic heavy metals. Comparing the BAL to the dust composition of southeastern Sicily, we found that only V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and U enrichment could be related to the volcanic event, whereas Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb contents come from the dissolution of particles of anthropogenic origin. Furthermore, the nature of these inhaled anthropogenic particles was revealed by anomalous La and partially Ce concentrations in BAL that were consistent with a mixture of road dust and petroleum refinery emissions. Our results indicate that trace element distribution in BAL is a suitable tracer of human exposure to different sources of inhaled atmospheric particulates, allowing investigations into the origin of source materials inhaled by people subjected to atmospheric fallout. PMID:21692480

Censi, Paolo; Zuddas, Pierpaolo; Randazzo, Loredana A; Tamburo, Elisa; Speziale, Sergio; Cuttitta, Angela; Punturo, Rosalda; Aricò, Pietro; Santagata, Roberta

2011-08-01

362

Erupting Volcano Mount Etna  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Expedition Five crew members aboard the International Space Station (ISS) captured this overhead look at the smoke and ash regurgitated from the erupting volcano Mt. Etna on the island of Sicily, Italy in October 2002. Triggered by a series of earthquakes on October 27, 2002, this eruption was one of Etna's most vigorous in years. This image shows the ash plume curving out toward the horizon. The lighter-colored plumes down slope and north of the summit seen in this frame are produced by forest fires set by flowing lava. At an elevation of 10,990 feet (3,350 m), the summit of the Mt. Etna volcano, one of the most active and most studied volcanoes in the world, has been active for a half-million years and has erupted hundreds of times in recorded history.

2002-01-01

363

Molecular Structure of Celestine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pure celestine is colorless however it is rarely found is this form, and due to impurities, is most often sky blue in color. It was first discovered in Sicily Italy around 1781, and given its name in 1791 from the Latin word coelestis meaning heavenly, in reference to its color. Celestine, or celestite, has the same structure as Barite, BaSO4, and is often mistaken for one another. A simple flame test will reveal the identity: if the sample contains strontium, i.e. celestite, the flame will turn red, and if the sample contains barium, i.e. barite, the flame will turn green. Due to its strontium source, Celestine is used in fireworks and road flares, and also in the making of household varnishes and ceramics.

2002-08-14

364

Characterisation of lipid fraction of marine macroalgae by means of chromatography techniques coupled to mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this work the characterisation of the lipid fraction of several species of marine macro algae gathered along the eastern coast of Sicily is reported. Two species of green marine algae (Chloropyceae), two species of red marine algae (Rhodophyceae) and four species of brown marine algae (Pheophyceae) were evaluated in terms of fatty acids, triacylglycerols, pigments and phospholipids profile. Advanced analytical techniques were employed to fully characterise the lipid profile of these Mediterranean seaweeds, such as GC-MS coupled to a novel mass spectra database supported by the simultaneous use of linear retention index (LRI) for the identification of fatty acid profile; LC-MS was employed for the identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs), carotenoids and phospholipids; the determination of accurate mass was carried out on carotenoids and phospholipids. Quantitative data are reported on fatty acids and triacylglycerols as relative percentage of total fraction. PMID:24128566

Ragonese, Carla; Tedone, Laura; Beccaria, Marco; Torre, Germana; Cichello, Filomena; Cacciola, Francesco; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

2014-02-15

365

A multivariate statistical analysis coming from the NMR metabolic profile of cherry tomatoes (The Sicilian Pachino case)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied by means of High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance the metabolic profile of the famous Sicilian cherry tomato of Pachino. Thanks to its organoleptic and healthy properties, this particular foodstuff was the first tomato accredited by the European PGI (Protected Geographical Indication) certification of quality. Due to the relatively high price of the final product commercial frauds originated in the Italian and international markets. Hence, there is a growing interest to develop analytical techniques able to predict the origin of a tomato sample, indicating whether or not it originates from the area of Pachino, Sicily (Italy). In this paper we have determined the molar concentration of the metabolites constituent the PGI cherry tomato of Pachino. Furthermore, by means of a multivariate statistical analysis we have identified which metabolites are relevant for sample differentiation.

Mallamace, Domenico; Corsaro, Carmelo; Salvo, Andrea; Cicero, Nicola; Macaluso, Andrea; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Dugo, Giacomo

2014-05-01

366

[The necklace from the 660 grave in Megara Iblea].  

PubMed

The article analyzes the 660 grave in Megara Iblea, a Greek colony in Sicily, in which a woman has been buried. On her breast a magnificent neckless was found, made of amulets recalling the travel of the sun during the summer solstice. Some objects allude to solar cults (a cock; round pendants), others seem to came from Gallia and Macedonia (summer far West and East), others recall archeological contexts such as tombs in Marvinci, in the Vardar Valley, and allude to relations with female practices of medicine and magic and to female roles characterized by extraordinary powers, due to being descendants of the Sun god. These solar symbols, joint with the discovery of many little objects, typical of children burials, allow to hypotize a relation with the cult of Mater Matuta and seem to point out a difficult or anomalous pregnancy or birth. PMID:21941988

Verger, Stéphane

2011-01-01

367

Trimethoxysilylpolymethacrylate as new material for stone conservation. Porosimetric and colorimetric investigations.  

PubMed

Aimed to obtain new materials for the conservation of stone substrates, we report here on the synthesis of a polymer which has been obtained by inducing polymerization on a methacrylate monomer functionalized by alchoxysilane groups. Two lithotypes, the Comiso calcarenite and Mistretta quartzite, stones largely used in artworks of north-eastern Sicily, were treated with the above polymer and its conserving efficacy evaluated in terms of porosimetric features, hydric properties and appearance. The collected data were compared to those provided, under the same experimental conditions, by an ethylmethacrylate/methylmethacrylate copolymer and an alkylalchoxysilane, products widely employed in the protection of stones. Experiments aimed to test the durability of the above polymer against UV artificial ageing are also reported. PMID:12185747

Cardiano, Paola; Sergi, Sergio; Lo Schiavo, Sandra; Piraino, Pasquale

2002-01-01

368

Lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) diets in western Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We describe the diets of lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in western Lake Superior during the summers of 1996 and 1997. Both species consumed predominantly (> 71% by number) zooplankton, showing a preference for larger taxa. Diet overlap between the two species was low (Schoener's index = 0.42). Mysis was most important in rainbow smelt diets, whereas Diaptomus sicilis was most important in lake herring diets. Rainbow smelt selected larger taxa, and larger individuals within a taxon when compared to lake herring, although rainbow smelt tended to be smaller fish. Fish diets have changed relative to previous studies and may be reflecting changes in the zooplankton community. Continued changes in the fish and zooplankton community will alter predatorprey and energetic pathways, ultimately affecting growth and production of the ecosystem.

Johnson, Timothy B.; Brown, William P.; Corry, Timothy D.; Hoff, Michael H.; Scharold, Jill V.; Trebitz, Anett S.

2004-01-01

369

Lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) diets in western Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We describe the diets of lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in western Lake Superior during the summers of 1996 and 1997. Both species consumed predominantly (> 71% by number) zooplankton, showing a preference for larger taxa. Diet overlap between the two species was low (Schoener's index = 0.42). Mysis was most important in rainbow smelt diets, whereas Diaptomus sicilis was most important in lake herring diets. Rainbow smelt selected larger taxa, and larger individuals within a taxon when compared to lake herring, although rainbow smelt tended to be smaller fish. Fish diets have changed relative to previous studies and may be reflecting changes in the zooplankton community. Continued changes in the fish and zooplankton community will alter predator-prey and energetic pathways, ultimately affecting growth and production of the ecosystem.

Johnson, T. B.; Brown, W. P.; Corry, T. D.; Hoff, M. H.; Scharold, J. V.; Trebitz, A. S.

2004-01-01

370

The use of tree-rings and foliage as an archive of volcanogenic cation deposition.  

PubMed

Tree cores (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio) and leaves (Castanea sativa) from the flanks of Mount Etna, Sicily were analysed by ICP-MS to investigate whether volcanogenic cations within plant material provide an archive of a volcano's temporal and spatial depositional influence. There is significant compositional variability both within and between trees, but no systematic dendrochemical correlation with periods of effusive, explosive or increased degassing activity. Dendrochemistry does not provide a record of persistent but fluctuating volcanic activity. Foliar levels of bioaccumulated cations correspond to modelled plume transport patterns, and map short-term volcanic fumigation. Around the flanks of the volcano foliar variation is greater for volatile cations (Cs, Cd, Pb) than for lithophilic cations (Ba, Sr), consistent with trace-metal supply from volcanic aerosol during quiescent periods. PMID:17239510

Watt, Sebastian F L; Pyle, David M; Mather, Tamsin A; Day, Jason A; Aiuppa, Alessandro

2007-07-01

371

Metabolomic investigation of Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck 1819) caged in aquatic environments.  

PubMed

Environmental metabolomics was applied to assess the metabolic responses in transplanted mussels to environmental pollution. Specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis, sedentary filter-feeders, were caged in anthropogenic-impacted and reference sites along the Augusta coastline (Sicily, Italy). Chemical analysis revealed increased levels of PAHs in the digestive gland of mussels from the industrial area compared with control, and marked morphological changes were also observed. Digestive gland metabolic profiles, obtained by 1H NMR spectroscopy and analyzed by multivariate statistics, showed changes in metabolites involved in energy metabolism. Specifically, changes in lactate and acetoacetate could indicate increased anaerobic fermentation and alteration in lipid metabolism, respectively, suggesting that the mussels transplanted to the contaminated field site were suffering from adverse environmental condition. The NMR-based environmental metabolomics applied in this study results thus in it being a useful and effective tool for assessing environmental influences on the health status of aquatic organisms. PMID:22818846

Fasulo, Salvatore; Iacono, Francesco; Cappello, Tiziana; Corsaro, Carmelo; Maisano, Maria; D'Agata, Alessia; Giannetto, Alessia; De Domenico, Elena; Parrino, Vincenzo; Lo Paro, Giuseppe; Mauceri, Angela

2012-10-01

372

The Complex I Subunit NDUFA10 Selectively Rescues Drosophila pink1 Mutants through a Mechanism Independent of Mitophagy  

PubMed Central

Mutations in PINK1, a mitochondrially targeted serine/threonine kinase, cause autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). Substantial evidence indicates that PINK1 acts with another PD gene, parkin, to regulate mitochondrial morphology and mitophagy. However, loss of PINK1 also causes complex I (CI) deficiency, and has recently been suggested to regulate CI through phosphorylation of NDUFA10/ND42 subunit. To further explore the mechanisms by which PINK1 and Parkin influence mitochondrial integrity, we conducted a screen in Drosophila cells for genes that either phenocopy or suppress mitochondrial hyperfusion caused by pink1 RNAi. Among the genes recovered from this screen was ND42. In Drosophila pink1 mutants, transgenic overexpression of ND42 or its co-chaperone sicily was sufficient to restore CI activity and partially rescue several phenotypes including flight and climbing deficits and mitochondrial disruption in flight muscles. Here, the restoration of CI activity and partial rescue of locomotion does not appear to have a specific requirement for phosphorylation of ND42 at Ser-250. In contrast to pink1 mutants, overexpression of ND42 or sicily failed to rescue any Drosophila parkin mutant phenotypes. We also find that knockdown of the human homologue, NDUFA10, only minimally affecting CCCP-induced mitophagy, and overexpression of NDUFA10 fails to restore Parkin mitochondrial-translocation upon PINK1 loss. These results indicate that the in vivo rescue is due to restoring CI activity rather than promoting mitophagy. Our findings support the emerging view that PINK1 plays a role in regulating CI activity separate from its role with Parkin in mitophagy. PMID:25412178

Pogson, Joe H.; Wilson, Emma; Mortiboys, Heather; Whitworth, Alexander J.

2014-01-01

373

Application of Two Quality Indices as Monitoring and Management Tools of Rivers. Case Study: The Imera Meridionale River, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60), the water resources of the member states of the European Community should reach good quality standards by 2015. Although such regulations illustrate the basic points for a comprehensive and effective policy of water monitoring and management, no practical tools are provided to face and solve the issues concerning freshwater ecosystems such as rivers. The Italian government has developed a set of regulations as adoption of the European Directive but failed to indicate feasible procedures for river monitoring and management. On a local scale, Sicilian authorities have implemented monitoring networks of watersheds, aiming at describing the general conditions of rivers. However, such monitoring programs have provided a relatively fragmentary picture of the ecological conditions of the rivers. In this study, the integrated use of environmental quality indices is proposed as a methodology able to provide a practical approach to river monitoring and management. As a case study, the Imera Meridionale River, Sicily’s largest river, was chosen. The water quality index developed by the U.S. National Sanitation Foundation and the floristic quality index based on the Wilhelm method were applied. The former enabled us to describe the water quality according to a spatial-temporal gradient, whereas the latter focused on the ecological quality of riparian vegetation. This study proposes a holistic view of river ecosystems by considering biotic and abiotic factors in agreement with the current European regulations. How the combined use of such indices can guide sustainable management efforts is also discussed.

Bonanno, Giuseppe; Giudice, Rosa Lo

2010-04-01

374

Lithospheric P- and S-wave velocity models of the Sicilian area using WAM tomography: procedure and assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present 3-D models of the P- and S-wave velocity distributions in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath Sicily, Calabria (Southern Italy), and surrounding submerged areas, obtained by tomographic inversion of traveltimes of regional body waves phases. Our method combines double-difference tomographic inversion with a post-processing procedure [Weighted Average Model method (WAM)]. This procedure was applied to a set of models consistent with the experimental data. We tested the ability of the WAM procedure to mitigate the uncertainty associated with the arbitrary nature of the many input parameters required for each inversion. The local reliability and resolution of the obtained models have been assessed through: synthetic tests, experimental tests carried out with independent data sets and unconventional tests based on the analysis of the internal consistency of the P- and S-velocity models. The tomographic images provide a detailed sketch of P- and S-wave velocity anomalies. These clearly show the shape of the Sicilian-Maghrebian belt beneath Sicily and Calabrian Arc at different depths. Low VP and Vs bodies are imaged beneath Stromboli and Marsili volcanoes in the southern Tyrrhenian, whereas high and low seismic velocities alternate beneath the Etna giving inferences on the possible depth of the mantle melting feeding the volcano. In the upper crust, the main sedimentary basins and tectonic features are also well imaged. Finally, tomographic cross sections show the trend of the Moho in the study area, where its depth ranges between 35 and 40 km beneath the Sicilian belt and between 15 and 22 km in the southern Tyrrhenian basin and Ionian Sea.

Calò, Marco; Parisi, Laura; Luzio, Dario

2013-10-01

375

New GPS constraints on the kinematics of the Apennines subduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the velocity field of the Italian area derived from continuous GPS observations from 2003 to 2007. The GPS sites were installed by different institutions and for different purposes; they cover the whole country with a mean inter-site distance of about 60 km and provide a valuable source of data to map the present day kinematics of the region. The absolute ITRF2005 rotation poles and rates of Eurasia, Africa and Adriatic plates are estimated, to study the kinematics along their boundaries in the Apennines belt. The Corsica-Sardinia block, coherently moving as the Eurasia plate, is used as reference of the upper plate for the Apennines subduction zone. We apply a simple kinematic model to estimate the rates and spatial pattern of the subduction along the Apennines. We identify at least four different, independently moving, lower plates, i.e., the Adriatic (diverging and internally segmented), Ionian, Sicily and Africa (converging) plates with different subduction rates. The conservative estimates of the subduction rate are ~ 5 mm/yr in the Calabrian Arc, ~ 1.5 mm/yr in Sicily, and ~ 0.9 mm/yr in the northern Apennines. This variegate mixture of behaviors seems to reflect the variable lithospheric thickness and composition of the lower plates inherited from the Mesozoic rifting. An unexpected along strike contraction is observed along the western side of the central-northern Apennines. Velocities are estimated both relative to Eurasia, and relative to the deep and shallow hotspot reference frames (HSRF). The hotspot representation seems more coherent with the geophysical and geological constraints along the subduction system, in which the Adriatic and Ionian plates move SW-ward and their deeper slab portions provide an obstacle to the opposite relative mantle flow. All these patterns better reconcile if the subduction process is conceived as a passive feature controlled by the far field plate velocities and the relative "eastward" mantle flow acting on a disrupted slab.

Devoti, Roberto; Riguzzi, Federica; Cuffaro, Marco; Doglioni, Carlo

2008-08-01

376

Mitochondrial lineage sorting in action - historical biogeography of the Hyles euphorbiae complex (Sphingidae, Lepidoptera) in Italy  

PubMed Central

Background Mitochondrial genes are among the most commonly used markers in studies of species’ phylogeography and to draw conclusions about taxonomy. The Hyles euphorbiae complex (HEC) comprises six distinct mitochondrial lineages in the Mediterranean region, of which one exhibits a cryptic disjunct distribution. The predominant mitochondrial lineage in most of Europe, euphorbiae, is also present on Malta; however, it is nowadays strangely absent from Southern Italy and Sicily, where it is replaced by 'italica'. A separate biological entity in Italy is further corroborated by larval colour patterns with a congruent, confined suture zone along the Northern Apennines. By means of historic DNA extracted from museum specimens, we aimed to investigate the evolution of the mitochondrial demographic structure of the HEC in Italy and Malta throughout the Twentieth Century. Results At the beginning of the Twentieth Century, the European mainland lineages were also present at a moderate frequency in Southern Italy and Sicily. The proportion of 'italica' then steadily increased in this area from below 60 percent to near fixation in about 120 years. Thus, geographical sorting of mitochondrial lineages in the HEC was not as complete then as the current demography suggests. The pattern of an integral 'italica' core region and a disjunct euphorbiae distribution evolved very recently. To explain these strong demographic changes, we propose genetic drift due to anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation in combination with an impact from recent climate warming that favoured the spreading of the potentially better adapted 'italica' populations. Conclusions The pattern of geographically separated mitochondrial lineages is commonly interpreted as representing long term separated entities. However, our results indicate that such a pattern can emerge surprisingly quickly, even in a widespread and rather common taxon. We thus caution against drawing hasty taxonomic conclusions from biogeographical patterns of mitochondrial markers derived from modern sampling alone. PMID:23594258

2013-01-01

377

Contrasting patterns of climatic changes during the Holocene across the Italian Peninsula reconstructed from pollen data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake-level records from Italy suggest that patterns of precipitation in the central Mediterranean during the Holocene were divided between the north and south, but a scarcity of reliable palaeoclimatic records in the north and central-southern Mediterranean means new evidence is needed to validate this hypothesis. We provide robust quantitative estimates of Holocene climate in the Mediterranean region using four high-resolution pollen records from northern (Lakes Ledro and Accesa) and southern (Lakes Trifoglietti and Pergusa) Italy. Multiple methods are used to provide an improved assessment of the palaeoclimatic reconstruction uncertainty. The multi-method approach uses the pollen-based weighted averaging, weighted-average partial least-squares regression, modern analogue technique, and the non-metric multidimensional scaling/generalized additive model methods. We use independent lake-level data to validate the precipitation reconstructions. Our results support a climatic partition between northern and southern Italy during the Holocene, confirming the hypothesis of opposing mid-Holocene summer precipitation regimes in the Mediterranean. The northern sites (Ledro, Accesa) are characterized by minima for summer precipitation and lake levels during the early to mid-Holocene, while the southern sites (Trifoglietti, Pergusa) are marked by maxima for precipitation and lake levels at the same time. Both pollen-inferred precipitation and lake levels indicate the opposite pattern during the late Holocene, a maximum in northern Italy and a minimum in southern Italy/Sicily. Summer temperatures show the same partitioning, with warm conditions in northern Italy and cool conditions in Sicily during the early/mid-Holocene, and a reversal during the late Holocene. Comparison with marine cores from the Aegean Sea suggests that climate trends and gradients observed in Italy show strong similarities with those recognized from the Aegean Sea, and more generally speaking in the eastern Mediterranean.

Peyron, O.; Magny, M.; Goring, S.; Joannin, S.; de Beaulieu, J.-L.; Brugiapaglia, E.; Sadori, L.; Garfi, G.; Kouli, K.; Ioakim, C.; Combourieu-Nebout, N.

2013-06-01

378

Continental Supply and Climate Variations In Mediterranean Pliocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the Pliocene period to present day, the Mediterranean marine sedimentation is characterised by cycles resulting from climate variations, which are controlled by Earth orbital parameters. Theses cycles are evidenced in the sediment content vari- ation, particularly through composition and proportions of the material supplied by continents. Concerning mineral supply we were able to show alternations of humid pe- riods, during which fluvial supply is dominant, and arid periods, during which eolian supply from the southern borderlands of the Mediterranean is significant. Concerning organic supply, palynological study confirms theses climatic controls, emphasising the importance of fresh water runoff during humid periods. This synthetic image re- sults from the study of several Pliocene Mediterranean stratigraphical series located in Sicily (Lido Rosselo, Punta di Maiata, Punta Piccola), Calabria (Monte Singa, Vrica) or cored during Leg 160 ODP (Hole 964). References: FOUCAULT A. et MELIERES F. (1995).- Nature et origine des cy- cles sédimentaires métriques du Pliocène de l'Ouest méditerranéen d'après l'étude du contenu terrigène de la Formation Narbone (Punta Piccola, Sicile, Italie). C. R Ac. Sci. Paris, t. 321, II a, p. 869-876. MELIERES F., FOUCAULT A. and BLANC-VALLERON, M.M. (1998). Mineralogical record of cyclic climate changes in Mediterranean Mid-Pliocene deposits from Hole 964A (Ionian Basin) and from Punta Piccola (Sicily). In Robertson, A.H.F., Emeis, K.-C., Richter, C., and Camer- lenghi, A. (Eds.), 1998. Proc. ODP., Sci. Results, 160; College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), p. 219-226. FOUCAULT, A. and MELIERES, F. (2000). Palaeocli- mate cyclicity in central Mediterranean Pliocene sediments: the mineralogical signal. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 148: 311-323.

Foucault, Alain; Melieres, Frederic; Combourieu-Nebaout, Nathalie

379

Post flash flood field investigations and analysis: the event of 22 November 2011 in the Longano catchment, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 22 November 2011, an exceptional rainstorm hit the North-East part of Sicily (Italy) producing local heavy rainfall, mud-debris flow and flash flooding. The storm was concentrated on the Tyrrhenian Sea coast, near the city of Barcellona within the Longano catchment (26 km2). It started at 5.00 am and lasted for approximately 11 hours, with a return period greater than 100 years yet for 2 hours duration and greater than 300 years yet for 3 hours'. The aim of this work is to investigate the flood response in order to document the rainfall and flood properties and to analyze the characteristics of the event water balance. Fine resolution distributed rainfall estimates were obtained by combining observations from the Monte Lauro Doppler C-band weather radar, satellite data and the raingauge network. Satellite data were used to correct for the severe beam blocking due to the effect of orography on the radar beam propagation. A detailed study of the hydrological response of the catchment was performed by means of a rainfall-runoff modeling and flood frequency analysis. To ensure model simulation accuracy, the model results were compared with peak discharges obtained from post flood field estimates based on high water marks and cross section surveying. Peak flood timing from the model were contrasted with data gathered from witnesses interviews and video recordings. The estimated flood peak discharge of the Longano river in the city of Barcellona is around 230 m3/s, indicating a very intense response which is in the range of the extreme events for similar size catchments in Sicily. Flood inundation and propagation in the city were modeled using a 2D hydraulic model based on De Saint Venant equations previously calibrated using the observations concerning water depths and flow velocities. A geomorphological survey was also conducted to document erosion and sedimentation processes associated to the extreme flood.

Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Cavalli, Marco; Gaume, Eric; Marchi, Lorenzo; Naso, Susanna; Borga, Marco

2014-05-01

380

When the Rule Becomes the Exception. No Evidence of Gene Flow between Two Zerynthia Cryptic Butterflies Suggests the Emergence of a New Model Group  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence that most parapatric cryptic/sister taxa are reproductively compatible across their areas of contact. Consequently, the biological species concept, which assumes absence of interbreeding, is becoming a not so effective criterion in evolutionary ecology. Nevertheless, the few parapatric sister taxa showing complete reproductive barriers represent interesting models to study speciation processes and the evolution of reproductive isolation. In this study, we examined contact populations in northwestern Italy of two butterfly species, Zerynthia polyxena and Z. cassandra, characterized by different genitalic morphotypes. We studied levels of divergence among 21 populations distributed from Sicily to France using three genetic markers (the mitochondrial COI and ND1 genes and the nuclear wingless gene) and genitalic geometric morphometrics. Moreover, we performed species distribution modelling to estimate different climatic requirements of Z. polyxena and Z. cassandra. We projected climatic data into glacial maximum scenarios in order to verify if and to which extent glacial cycles could have contributed to speciation processes. Genetic and morphometric analyses identified two main groups. All specimens showed a concordant pattern of diversification, including those individuals sampled in the contact area. Haplotype distribution and climatic models showed that during glacial maxima both species experienced a strong range contraction and presumably remained separated into different microrefugia in southern France, in the Italian Peninsula and on the islands of Elba and Sicily. Long term separation was probably favoured by reduced dispersal ability and high phylopatry, while genitalic diversification probably favoured interbreeding avoidance. Conversely, the aposematic wing pattern remained almost identical. We compared our results with those obtained in other species and concluded that Z. polyxena and Z. cassandra represent a valuable model in the study of speciation. PMID:23755277

Vovlas, Alessio; Chelazzi, Guido; Bonelli, Simona; Balletto, Emilio; Ciofi, Claudio

2013-01-01

381

Scenarios of tsunami impact in the town of Catania, Italy: a combination of numerical modelling results and vulnerability considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catania is one of the most important towns in Sicily, and more generally in southern Italy, due to its long historical and cultural tradition and to active industrial, commercial and touristic activities. Catania is located along the coast of eastern Sicily, which is well known to be one of the coastal areas most exposed to earthquake and tsunami hazard and risk in Italy and in the whole Mediterranean. The most famous event hitting the town was the earthquake of 11 January, 1693 (M=7.4) which almost completely ruined the city and that was followed by a violent tsunami, impacting the entire eastern Sicily coast and producing very relevant effects in Catania. The high level of tsunami hazard is accompanied also by a high level of vulnerability to tsunamis. This is the reason why Catania is one of the five test sites that were chosen in the framework of the EU-funded SCHEMA project for the tsunami vulnerability assessment along the Mediterranean coasts. Building reliable scenarios of tsunami impact requires on one side to develop numerical simulations of worst-case events on the basis of the known tsunami history and of the tectonics and geological evolution of the area, on the other side to characterise the vulnerability of the town, possibly distinguishing which areas area most exposed to a tsunami threat. As to the first point, it appears reasonable to adopt the 11 January 1693 event as the reference for the development of the numerical scenarios. The important fact is that a debate on the source of the 1693 tsunami is still ongoing as it is not clear whether the tsunami was generated by the earthquake only or by a submarine landslide or by a combination of these causes. So different hypotheses must be taken into account as regards the generation of the tsunami, and numerical scenarios of tsunami propagation and impact must be run for each hypothesis. All simulations are carried out by means of the numerical finite-difference code UBO-TSUFD, developed an maintained at the Department of Physics of the University of Bologna, Italy. Regarding the vulnerability assessment, at a first glance Catania presents three coastal areas with different characteristics. South of Catania, an extended flat area is delimited seaward by a very long sandy beach striking N-S (the so-called Playa di Catania); the area counts a large number of summer houses and resorts; moreover, the airport of Catania Fontanarossa is built at just about 1.5-2 km from the sea. North of Catania the coastline is instead very rocky, steep and high, with very few settlements facing along this coast. These two very different zones are divided by the port of Catania, which is very close to the city centre but is separated from it by the ancient walls of the city. Combining the results coming from the numerical simulations with the preliminary considerations on the tsunami vulnerability, we determine for each considered tsunamigenic source which part of the town presents the highest exposure to possible future tsunami impacts.

Tinti, S.; Tonini, R.; Pagnoni, G.; Gallazzi, S.; Manucci, A.; Armigliato, A.; Zaniboni, F.

2009-04-01

382

Vertical Crustal Movements in Italy from Tide Gauge and Satellite Altimetry data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our goal is to determine vertical crustal movement rates from tide gauge and satellite altimetry measurements. Tide gauges measure sea level, but as they are fixed to the coast, they sense both sea surface height variations and vertical crustal movements. Satellite altimetric measurements determine sea surface height variations directly and can be used to separate the crustal signal from the sea surface height variations in tide gauge measurements. We apply the methodology to the Southern Italy, an area of broad scientific interest, due to its high seismic risk and its location as standpoint for a great bridge that should connect Sicily to the Italian mainland, but it can be exported to any parts of the world where tide gauge observations are available. Along the Italian coastline 26 tide gauge stations with 10-years of continuous data are available. We have explored the sea level data statistically, including a study of the space-time variation of rates, of the optimal way of calculating rates and of the correlation-coefficients between stations. The tidal sea level change rates have a relatively large variability, greatly ascribable to the short time interval of analysis (10 years), and are comprised between -5 and +9 mm/yr with an approximate uncertainty of 0.5 mm/yr. The satellite altimetric data pose a challenge to the joint analysis, due to very different time resolution (10 days versus hourly sampling of tide gauges), sparse spatial sampling of the Mediterranean due to track distances, and the difficulty in acquiring altimetric data in the vicinity of the coast. We have analyzed the satellites Topex/Poseidon and Jason1. The study of Envisat data is under way and it could provide more detailed data, since its track distance is sensibly shorter, even if time sampling interval is 35 days. We explore also the satellite altimetric data statistically, investigating the correlation matrices of the data and the time-space variation of the sea surface change rates. We move along the tracks, trying to approach the coast as near as possible. We construct time series with 10 day sampling interval at discrete locations with the criterion of covering the Mediterranean homogeneously. We calculate histograms as we go near the coast and we find that at a distance of about 45 km from the coast the number of points drastically is reduced leading to a time series with many interruptions. We also find that the sea surface change rates derived from the altimeter have an even greater variability compared to the tide gauges for the same years, showing that changes far from the coast are greater than near the coast. We discuss the problem of how to use the altimeter data in those cases in which the tracks are far from the tide gauges, as is the case for the satellite Topex/Poseidon and the tectonically interesting tide gauge stations of Sicily and Calabria. An adequate space-time interpolation of the satellite data produces maps of spatial variations of sea surface change that are used in the study of the differential sea level rates of tide gauges. We show that geologically consistent crustal uplift rates are found for the highly seismic area of eastern Sicily and Calabria.

Braitenberg, Carla; Lavinia, Tunini; Barbara, Grillo; Nagy, Ildiko'

2010-05-01

383

Shallow geothermal exploration using SkyTEM data: the VIGOR experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the "VIGOR" project, aimed at assessing the geothermal potential of four regions in southern Italy, helicopter geophysical electromagnetic (SkyTEM) data have been acquired, modeled and interpreted. The SkyTEM system provides, after data acquisition, analysis, processing and modeling, a distribution volume of electrical resistivity, spanning an investigation depth from ground surface of few hundred meters, depending on resistivity condition. Results were used also to characterize the main geological units outcropping in the region and extend the investigation at depth. Resistivity is an important physical parameter for geothermal investigation, since it proved to be very effective in mapping anomalies due to hydrothermal fluid circulation, which usually has high salt content and produces clayey alteration minerals. Besides, resistivity data may help in characterizing hydrogeological or tectonic features. The attempt is also to define relations between resistivity distribution, lithological units and thermal conductivity. The geophysical survey was carried out in Sicily, Italy, in late 2011, covering two areas. SkyTEM data have been acquired in a series of flight lines and were then processed and inverted. In the "Termini" area the flight line spacing had 150 m separation. In the "Western Sicily" area two different line spacing were used: the 1 km spacing was used for the regional mapping, whereas for infill areas, around the main hydrothermal springs, the flight lines had 100 m spacing. After acquisition, data were analysed and processed. Inversions were then carried out using the quasi 3-D Spatially Constrained Inversion (SCI). The obtained resistivity volume has then been the base for a detailed lithological and geothermal interpretation. Lithological and geological maps were used to constrain surface condition and to understand the resistivity ranges of the different lithological units. On the base of resistivity values, lithological units were combined to establish the main litho-electrical units, which were then modelled at depth, down to achievable investigation depth. This detailed interpretative modelling was the occasion of recognizing resistivity anomalies within carbonate units, which host the regional hydrothermal reservoir. The litho-electrical 3D model is also under investigation to verify how it can represent a viable way to image heat exchange properties at shallow depth. If we succeed in defining the relations between electrical resistivity, lithology, thermal conductivity and hydrogeological bodies, we would obtain a viable way to define, at depth, of the main parameters (thermal properties and fluid distribution) for defining shallow geothermal potential.

Santilano, Alessandro; Manzella, Adele; Viezzoli, Andrea; Menghini, Antonio; Donato, Assunta; Montanari, Domenico; Maggi, Sabino; Rizzo, Enzo

2013-04-01

384

Napoli and Volcanism - Vesuvius and Mt. Etna  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For more than 240 million years the region now known as Italy has been the scene of episodic volcanic activity. East-southeast of Napoli (Naples) stands the imposing cone of Vesuvius, which erupted explosively in 79 A.D. to bury Pompeii and Herculaneum. More recently, when the crew of Space Shuttle mission STS-104 captured this view, Mt. Etna (Sicily, not seen in this image, but photographed the day before) was spewing ash and gas thousands of meters into the air, some of which can be seen as a brownish smear over Isola d' Ischia and the Tyrrhenian Sea. The Appenine ranges extend from northern Italy, down the boot of the peninsula and westward into Sicily. This photograph of the Appenino Napoletano is part of an 18-frame stereophoto mapping strip that spans the entire mountain chain. The almost 1200-km-long belt of volcanoes and folded/faulted mountains is a result of the ongoing collision of Africa and Eurasia, accompanied by the progressive closing of the Mediterranean Sea. Using overlapping pairs of stereophotos, and a special viewer, scientists can get a three-dimensional perspective on the ranges that surpasses any image viewed alone. For more information, see another image of Mt. Vesuvius, taken by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). References: Behncke, Boris, 2000, Vesuvio - The eruption of A.D. 79: Italy's Volcanoes - The Cradle of Volcanology [http://www.geo.mtu.edu/boris/VESUVIO_79.html (accessed 10/18/01)] Doglioni, C., and Flores, G., 1997, Italy, in Moores, E. M., and Fairbridge, R. W., editors, Encyclopedia of European and Asian Regional Geology: London, Chapman and Hall, p. 414-435 Shuttle photograph STS104-710-60 was taken 23 July 2001 from the orbiter Atlantis using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. The entire mapping series (of frames numbered in sequence from 50 through 68) can also be downloaded from the database and printed for stereo viewing and analysis. Searching and viewing of additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts is available at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

385

A simple method to directly retrieve reference evapotranspiration from geostationary satellite images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of FAO-56 methodology for the assessment of reference evapotranspiration, ET0, is challenging in areas of the world with sparse meteorological network stations. For this reason alternative procedures using remotely observed data have been proposed in the literature. In this work, a simplified version of the Makkink approach [J. Inst. Wat. Eng. 11: 277-288, 1957] was tested in a typical Mediterranean environment (Sicily, Italy). The implemented Makkink approach (MAK) uses remotely estimated solar radiation derived from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite data and in situ observations of air temperature to assess ET0 at daily time scale. Alternatively, taking advantage of well-defined relationships that exist between seasonality, elevation and air temperature, a deterministic procedure for estimating air temperature inputs used in the MAK approach (named RS) was also tested. This approach allows the assessment of daily ET0 without the need of auxiliary air temperature ground observations. A comparison between the FAO-56 and MAK approaches was performed for 45 sites in Sicily over the period 2007-2010. Assuming FA0-56 as the benchmark, the average accuracy of the MAK methodology was 0.4 mm d-1, with a relative error of 12%. Similar to other applications of the same procedure, the MAK approach showed a slightly underestimation of ET0 high values; however, an average regression slope of 0.96 (and negligible intercept) suggests a satisfactory agreement with the FAO-56 modeled values. Air temperature observations acquired during 2002-2006 were used to calibrate the deterministic relation between air temperature, seasonality (as a function of the DOY) and orography (as a function of elevation). For the period 2007-2010, the RS approach performs similarly to MAK, with an average difference of less than 0.05 mm d-1. Analysis of monthly, seasonal and yearly ET0 maps shows a slight decrease in RS performance during June and July; nevertheless, the differences between MAK and RS approaches are negligible at all analyzed temporal scales.

Cammalleri, C.; Ciraolo, G.

2013-04-01

386

Silica cycling in the ultra-oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although silica is a key plant nutrient there have been few studies aimed at understanding the Si cycle in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS). Here we use a combination of new measurements and literature values to explain the silicic acid distribution across the basin and to calculate a silica budget to identify the key controlling processes. The surface water concentration of ~ 1 ?M, which is unchanging seasonally across the basin was due to the inflow of Western Mediterranean Sea (WMS) water at the Straits of Sicily. It does not change seasonally because there is only a sparse population of diatoms due to the low nutrient (N and P) supply to the photic zone in the EMS. The concentration of silicic acid in the deep water of the western Ionian Sea (6.3 ?M) close to the S. Adriatic area of formation was due to the preformed silicic acid (3 ?M) plus biogenic silica (BSi) from the dissolution of diatoms from the winter phytoplankton bloom (3.2 ?M). The increase of 4.4 ?M across the deep water of the EMS was due to silicic acid formed from in-situ diagenetic weathering of alumina-silicate minerals fluxing out of the sediment. The major inputs to the EMS are silicic acid and BSi inflowing from the western Mediterranean (121 × 109 mol Si year-1 silicic acid and 16 × 109 mol Si year-1 BSi), silicic acid fluxing from the sediment (54 × 109 mol Si year-1), riverine (27 × 109 mol Si year-1) and subterranean ground water (9.7 × 109 mol Si year-1) inputs, with only a minor direct input from dissolution of dust in the water column (1 × 109 mol Si year-1). This budget shows the importance of rapidly dissolving BSi and in-situ weathering of alumino-silicate minerals as sources of silica to balance the net export of silicic acid at the Straits of Sicily. Future measurements to improve the accuracy of this preliminary budget have been identified.

Krom, M. D.; Kress, N.; Fanning, K.

2014-03-01

387

Sea-level and climate forcing of the Sr isotope composition of marginal basins in the late Miocene Mediterranean Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sr isotope records from marginal marine basins track the mixing between sea water and local continental runoff. Because changes in sea level determine the amount of mixing between global marine and continental water, and climate affects the amount of continental runoff, both sea-level and climate changes can potentially be recorded in marine fossil Sr isotope composition. Our 128 new 87Sr/86Sr analyses on 73 oyster, foraminifera, and coral samples from eight late Miocene stratigraphic sections in southern Turkey, Crete, and Sicily show that 87Sr/86Sr in Mediterranean marginal basins started to depart from global ocean values several million years before the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC), with sub-basin 87Sr/86Sr commonly dropping 0.000100 below contemporaneous global ocean values. The marked departure coincided with tectonic uplift and basin shallowing along the margins of the Mediterranean Basin. In contrast, centrally-located basins within the Mediterranean (e.g., Cyprus, Sicily, Crete) only record departures during the MSC. Besides this general trend, our 57 new 87Sr/86Sr analyses from the astronomically tuned Lower Evaporite unit deposited during the MSC in the central Apennines (Italy) allow us to explore in detail the effect of sea-level and humidity changes on 87Sr/86Sr . Most of the variation in 87Sr/86Sr that we observe can be explained by changes in eustatic sea level, with greatest departures from global ocean values (with differences up to 0.000150) occurring during sea-level lowstands, which were characterized by relatively arid conditions in the Mediterranean. However, in a few cases, the greatest 87Sr/86Sr departures (up to 0.000300) occur during sea-level highstands, which are marked by more humid conditions. Because the correlations between peaks in Sr departures and highstands (humid conditions) occur only after episodes of prolonged aridity, variations of residence time of continental water (particularly groundwater) could have affected its Sr concentration, and hence the degree to which continental water could perturb 87Sr/86Sr in marine sub-basins. Although our results demonstrate that the forcing behind variations in Sr isotope composition in marginal marine basins is more complex than what is typically included in Sr isotope box models, they also imply that high-resolution records, particularly when combined with independent information on sea-level or climate changes, could offer unique insights into local tectonic, climatic, and sea-level variations.

Schildgen, T. F.; Cosentino, D.; Frijia, G.; Castorina, F.; Dudas, F. O.; Iadanza, A.; Cipollari, P.; Caruso, A.; Bowring, S. A.; Strecker, M. R.

2013-12-01

388

Stratigraphy, sedimentology and structure of the Numidian Flysch thrust belt in northern Tunisia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Oligo-Miocene Numidian Flysch of northern Tunisia has long been divided into three distinct lithostratigraphic units considered as vertically superimposed: the lower unit or the "Zouza member", the middle unit or the "Kroumirie member" and the upper unit or the "Babouch member". According to this reconstruction the two first members are mostly Oligocene in age and only the third member was assigned as early Miocene in age. In this study, we present new biostratigraphic data, based on planktonic foraminiferal analysis, demonstrating that both the Zouza and the Kroumirie members are Oligocene-early Miocene in age and are, therefore, coeval. Four distinct facies associations have been identified within the Numidian Flysch including: (a) massive sandstones; (b) conglomerate; (c) an interbedded mudstone-sandstone association; and (d) a mudstone facies association. Slide-slump units and injectionite sands occur within the more mud-rich associations. The likely depositional setting is a muddy slope-apron system, cut locally by sand-rich channels, which fed channel-terminal lobe deposits. Paleocurrent data support strongly a flow from N and NW. Modal analysis, demonstrates that the Numidian sandstones are quartz-arenite type (QFL, 97.25:1.25:1.5) derived from middle to high grade-metamorphic and granitic rocks. Zircon geochronology, yielding ages of 514 ± 19 Ma from Tunisia and 550 ± 28 Ma from Sicily, would support the basement terrain that crops out along the Algerian coast and forms part of Calabro-Peloritani-Kabylian zone, as the most likely parental source of the Numidian Flysch for both Sicily and Tunisia. Zircon data from the Fortuna Formation yields ages of 1698 ± 67 Ma, which is more compatible with an African craton source ( Fildes et al., 2009). Structural consideration of the basal contact of the Numidian Flysch with the underlying Tellian rocks, as well as newly interpreted seismic data; confirm the allochthounous position of the Numidian complex and its displacement southward. Facies comparison with the equivalent Oligo-Miocene Bejaoua siliciclastic deposits outcropping towards the south shows that the Numidian complex is an "out-of-sequence thrust unit" and that the two Oligo-Miocene sedimentary systems are quite distinct and were sourced from wholly different source regions.

Sami, Riahi; Soussi, Mohamed; Kamel, Boukhalfa; Kmar, Ben Ismail Lattrache; Stow, Dorrik; Sami, Khomsi; Mourad, Bedir

2010-04-01

389

Late reproduction at lower risk in Sardinia island: a case of reproductive longevity?  

PubMed

Population of Sardinia Island is characterized by geographical and historical isolation, a deep-rooted tendency to postpone childbearing, and a demographic and genetic structure largely different from that of continental Italy and other European countries. Based on such differences we investigated whether the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome associated with late reproduction was different between the Sardinian population and two mainland areas (North+Centre and South+Sicily), representative of different Italian socio-economic contexts. In particular we suggest that parents, who show aptitude to late childbearing associated with a reduced risk of adverse pregnancy outcome, enjoy "reproductive longevity". Data set come from the National Institute of Statistics and concern all 1990-98 Italian birth records (n=4 830 742). We considered three types of adverse pregnancy outcome: i) stillbirths of the total births, ii) very preterm births (<32 gestation weeks) of the live births, iii) very low birthweight births (<1.5 Kg) of the live births after exclusion of very preterm births. Using logistic regression models we investigated whether the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome associated with maternal or paternal ageing followed differing trends between areas. Moreover we evaluated the Odds Ratio of the three types of adverse outcome as a function of maternal and paternal age and education, and delivery rank. We found that in the three areas the risks increase with parental ageing, but in Sardinia the increase is less rapid than in the mainland. In particular with respect to South+Sicily, in Sardinian mothers=35 years and fathers=40 years the OR is 25% lower for stillbirth and preterm birth, and 19% lower for low birthweight. We suggest that the aptitude to late and successful childbearing may be a peculiar trait of the Sardinian population, indicative of "reproductive longevity". The possibility of identifying populations where a relevant proportion of mothers show the character might promote case-control studies focused on the possible determinants and measures of prevention and/or protection against the adverse effect of late reproduction. PMID:19934474

Astolfi, Paola; De Pasquale, Antonio; Zonta, Laura A

2008-01-01

390

Numerical simulation and decomposition of kinetic energies in the Central Mediterranean Sea: insight on mesoscale circulation and energy conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and temporal variability of eddy and mean kinetic energy of the Central Mediterranean Sea has been investigated, from January 2008 to December 2010, by mean of a numerical simulation mainly to quantify the mesoscale dynamics and their relationships with physical forcing. In order to understand the energy redistribution processes, the baroclinic energy conversion has been analysed, suggesting hypotheses about the drivers of the mesoscale activity in this area. The ocean model used is based on the Princeton Ocean Model implemented at 1/32° horizontal resolution. Surface momentum and buoyancy fluxes are interactively computed by mean of standard bulk formulae using predicted model Sea Surface Temperature and atmospheric variables provided by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast operational analyses. At its lateral boundaries the model is one-way nested within the Mediterranean Forecasting System operational products. The model domain has been subdivided in four sub-regions: Sardinia channel and southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Sicily channel, eastern Tunisian shelf and Libyan Sea. Temporal evolution of eddy and mean kinetic energy has been analysed, on each of the four sub-regions composing the model domain, showing different behaviours. On annual scales and within the first 5 m depth, the eddy kinetic energy represents approximately the 60 % of the total kinetic energy over the whole domain, confirming the strong mesoscale nature of the surface current flows in this area. The analyses show that the model well reproduces the path and the temporal behaviour of the main known sub-basin circulation features. New mesoscale structures have been also identified, from numerical results and direct observations, for the first time as the Pantelleria Vortex and the Medina Gyre. The classical the kinetic energy decomposition (eddy and mean) allowed to depict and to quantify the stable and fluctuating parts of the circulation in the region, and to differentiate the four sub-regions as function of relative and absolute strength of the mesoscale activity. Furthermore the Baroclinic Energy Conversion term shows that in the Sardinia Channel the mesoscale activity, due to baroclinic instabilities, is significantly larger than in the other sub-regions, while a negative sign of the energy conversion, meaning a transfer of energy from the Eddy Kinetic Energy to the Eddy Available Potential Energy, has been recorded only for the surface layers of the Sicily Channel during summer.

Sorgente, R.; Olita, A.; Oddo, P.; Fazioli, L.; Ribotti, A.

2011-05-01

391

Numerical simulation and decomposition of kinetic energy in the Central Mediterranean: insight on mesoscale circulation and energy conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and temporal variability of eddy and mean kinetic energy of the Central Mediterranean region has been investigated, from January 2008 to December 2010, by mean of a numerical simulation mainly to quantify the mesoscale dynamics and their relationships with physical forcing. In order to understand the energy redistribution processes, the baroclinic energy conversion has been analysed, suggesting hypotheses about the drivers of the mesoscale activity in this area. The ocean model used is based on the Princeton Ocean Model implemented at 1/32° horizontal resolution. Surface momentum and buoyancy fluxes are interactively computed by mean of standard bulk formulae using predicted model Sea Surface Temperature and atmospheric variables provided by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast operational analyses. At its lateral boundaries the model is one-way nested within the Mediterranean Forecasting System operational products. The model domain has been subdivided in four sub-regions: Sardinia channel and southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Sicily channel, eastern Tunisian shelf and Libyan Sea. Temporal evolution of eddy and mean kinetic energy has been analysed, on each of the four sub-regions, showing different behaviours. On annual scales and within the first 5 m depth, the eddy kinetic energy represents approximately the 60 % of the total kinetic energy over the whole domain, confirming the strong mesoscale nature of the surface current flows in this area. The analyses show that the model well reproduces the path and the temporal behaviour of the main known sub-basin circulation features. New mesoscale structures have been also identified, from numerical results and direct observations, for the first time as the Pantelleria Vortex and the Medina Gyre. The classical kinetic energy decomposition (eddy and mean) allowed to depict and to quantify the permanent and fluctuating parts of the circulation in the region, and to differentiate the four sub-regions as function of relative and absolute strength of the mesoscale activity. Furthermore the Baroclinic Energy Conversion term shows that in the Sardinia Channel the mesoscale activity, due to baroclinic instabilities, is significantly larger than in the other sub-regions, while a negative sign of the energy conversion, meaning a transfer of energy from the Eddy Kinetic Energy to the Eddy Available Potential Energy, has been recorded only for the surface layers of the Sicily Channel during summer.

Sorgente, R.; Olita, A.; Oddo, P.; Fazioli, L.; Ribotti, A.

2011-08-01

392

The 1908 tsunami effects along the Messina Straits (Southern Italy): a contribution for predicting inundation scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1908 Southern Calabria - Messina earthquake is one of the strongest seismic events of the 20th century in the Mediterranean area. Southern Calabria and North-eastern Sicily were severely damaged (maximum Intensity XI MCS), particularly along the coastal area between South Reggio Calabria and Scilla, and between South Messina and Capo Peloro. Messina and Reggio Calabria were almost completely destroyed; the victims were at least 80,000. The seismic event was followed, few minutes later, by a Sieberg - Ambraseys Intensity 6 tsunami (Tinti et al., 2004). It produced a large inundation along the Sicilian and Calabrian coast, with run-up exceeding in many localities 10 m, and up to 13 m at Pellaro (Calabrian coast), and 11.70 m at Sant'Alessio (Sicilian coast). The maximum on-land water penetration was 600 meters at Pellaro (along La Fiumarella stream), and almost 700 meters in the Catania Plain (Sicily), at the mouth of the Simeto river. Based on a carefully screening of contemporary documents, i.e. technical reports (Franchi, 1909; Mercalli, 1909; Novarese, 1909; Omori, 1909; Platania, 1909; Sabatini, 1909; Baratta, 1910), newspapers and other archive material, a geo-database, reporting the tsunami characteristics and effects, has been performed. The collected data enable us to evaluate the potential impact of an analogous future tsunami event in the Messina Strait area. Particularly, run-up and flooding data have been used to construct the potential inundation maps related to 155 km of the Sicilian coast (from Peloro Cape to Brucoli village) and to 98 km of the Calabrian coast (from Bagnara village to Spartivento Cape). The results show that a future comparable tsunami is expected to inundate an area of about 33 sq km along the Sicilian coast (8,7 sq km with water height > 3 m) and about 9,8 sq km along the Calabrian coast (5,2 sq km with water height > 3 m). Maximum risk is located in the area between Pellaro and Lazzaro villages, south of Reggio Calabria, where high values of run up and ingression are expected to hit an highly urbanized coastal area. For example, the population of Lazzaro village increased from 1259 inhabitants in 1901 to 3260 in 2001; it has been reflected in the almost total urbanization of coastal areas. Even in numerous sectors of the Sicilian coast the expected inundation will impact highly urbanized areas: according to CORINE Land Cover 2000, these areas are classified primarily as "residential zones", primarily "continuous" and subordinately "discontinuous".

di Manna, P.; Blumetti, A. M.; Comerci, V.; Guerrieri, L.; Serva, L.; Vittori, E.

2009-04-01

393

Lichen-rock interaction in volcanic environments: evidences of soil-precursor formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The weathering action of the lichens Lecidea fuscoatra (L.) Ach. and Stereocaulon vesuvianum Pers. on basaltic rock collected on the slopes of Mt. Etna (Sicily) at 1550 m a.s.l. has been studied using optical (OM) and electron (SEM) microscopy equipped with microanalytical device (EDS). Biological factors associated with lichen growth play a major role in the weathering of minerals on bare rocks and contribute to the preliminary phases of soil formation. The present work investigates the biogeophysical and biogeochemical weathering associated to the growth of epilithic lichens on lava flows from Mt. Etna (Sicily) and Mt. Vesuvius (Campania). The chosen lichen species were the crustose Lecidea fuscoatra (L.) Ach., the foliose Xanthoparmelia conspersa and the fructicose Stereocaulon vesuvianum Pers. An integrated approach based on the study of both disturbed and undisturbed samples of lichenized rock was applied in order to appreciate the complexity of the rock-lichen interface environment in terms of micromorphological, mineralogical and chemical properties. XRD and XRF analyses coupled to microscopical (OM), submicroscopical (SEM) and microanalitical (EDS) observations were the used techniques. In both study environments, the chemical, mineralogical and micromorphological properties of the uncoherent materials found at the lichen-rock interface suggest they consist of rock fragments eroded from the surroundings and accumulated in cavities and fissures of the rough lava flows. According to the thallus morphology, the lichens colonizing the lava preserve the interface materials from further aeolic and water erosion, provide these materials of organic matter and moisture, entrap allochtonous quartz and clay minerals. The calcium oxalate production by L. fuscoatra and X. conspersa, the Al enrichment around S. vesuvianum hyphae and the occurrence of Fe-oxide phases at the rock-lichen interface are evidences of lichens interaction with the underlying sediments. Indeed, according to the young age of the basaltic lava the recent lichen colonization results in a physical reorganization and chemical modification of the interface materials, which are not necessarily produced by the lichen action on the rock substrate. In volcanic environment, the ability of lichens to retain considerable amount of unconsolidated material, which becomes mixed with organic matter, produced by decomposition of the thallus, and trap atmospheric dust may contribute to the andosolization process. Accumulation of Al and Fe, found at the rock-lichen interface likely as organo-metal complexes, can be considered initial stage of Al and Fe active phases formation, distinguishing features of Andosols development. The simple chelating oxalic acid, produced by the lichens, may be involved in the formation of organo-metal complexes.

Vingiani, S.; Adamo, P.; Terribile, F.

2012-04-01

394

Spatial variability in the trophic ecology and biology of the deep-sea shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea in the Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trophic ecology, energy and reproductive states of the deep-water shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea, widely distributed along the slopes of the Mediterranean Sea Basins, were analysed in eight areas spread along ca. 3000 km in order to identify patterns in the habitat conditions supporting the species. From W to E the areas were situated between the north side of Eivissa (39°12?N, 1°20?E, in the Balearic Basin) and off Mersin, Turkey (36°15?N, 34°19?E, in the Levantine Sea). Trends identified mainly as a function of longitude from west to east were: (i) higher ?15N, parallel to ?15N shifts in the top 200 m of the water column for partic