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1

Sicily: Art and Invention  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Co-organized by the J. Paul Getty Museum, the Cleveland Museum of Art, and the Assessorato dei Beni Culturali e dell'IdentitÃ?  Siciliana, Sicily: Art and Invention celebrates 2013 as the Year of Italian Culture in the United States. To complement the exhibit (on view at the Getty Museum until August) the website is organized into five thematic sections: The Greeks in Sicily, Religion and Ritual, The Discoveries of Archimedes, Literature and Theater, and The Roman Conquest. The section on Archimedes includes a diagram of his water-raising screw, a Leaf from the Archimedes Palimpsest, and a short video discussing those of Archimedes' inventions still in use today. Teachers and parents may wish to note: the literature and theater section contains some possibly adult-only content, such as the Statue of Priapos, 250ââ?¬â??212 B.C. [DS

2013-01-01

2

Aquaculture in Sicily: Ecological and Economic Aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In Sicily, the main Italian island, both intensive and extensive systems of culture of euryhaline fish species have been developed.\\u000a In Sicily in 1998, the production was 200 t, 20% of the national produce. In order for aquaculture to be successful, activity\\u000a must not cause unacceptable modifications in water quality or interfere with other uses, such as tourism or industry

Paolina Curro; Vincenzo Maccarrone

3

Coastal dynamics in western Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the evolution of the beaches plays a fundamental role in every territorial politics regarding the coastal band. More than half the world population lives in coastal regions which support a florid touristic activity in many countries. The beach constitutes, in terms of economic value, the most important element of the coastal system, but also the more fragile and morphologically variable. Thus, studying its evolutions is fundamental in order to adopt the best management of this complex, densely populated and economically interesting zone. In this regard, the western coast of Sicily (Italy) is an effective example. It took its origin from variation of the sea middle level (Quaternary), with the consequent formation of marine terraces. Morphologically, the shore is made up by low and rock coast alternating beaches. The historical evolution of the coast has been performed through the use of aerial images identifying, despite several uncertainties, the position of the shoreline. Indeed the shoreline position extracted from an aerial image is a wet/dry line that describes the instantaneous land-water boundary at the time of imaging rather than a "normal" or "average" condition. Each wave instantaneously influences the shoreline position and hence, to take into account shoreline oscillations due to wave motion. Even if from a conceptual point of view the shore line is defined as a border between the emerged earth and the sea, its perennial variability makes it difficult to determine. In order to start a correct management, a cognitive geomorphological study has been carried on, as well as a study of high strategic value and environmental sustainability. It was based on a continuous decisional process based on objectives defined by the UE, in order to classify the beaches and to define the characteristic which are necessary for a correct coastal management. This study has been fundamental to start a monitoring of the coast; moreover, it has shown vulnerabilities of the coastal band which are important to design plans of defense. Keywords: coast, shoreline, management

Liguori, Vincenzo; Manno, Giorgio; Agate, Francesca

2014-05-01

4

Atlantic water in the Strait of Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical and recently acquired hydrographic and current meter data are used to study the behavior and the annual cycle of the surface layer of Atlantic Water (AW) within the Sicilian Channel section of the Strait of Sicily. From January to March the surface layer isotherms and isohalines are much more steeply sloped toward the African coast. The transition from winter

G. M. R. Manzella; T. S. Hopkins; P. J. Minnett; E. Nacini

1990-01-01

5

The surface circulation in the Sicily Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six hydrological cruises March April May July August and October were realized in the section between Cap- Bon and Mazara Dell Vallo during 2003 our section covers only the half of the Channel The analysis of thermohaline parameters the daily composites NOAA AVHRR images and the satellite track of drifter buoys allowed us to confirm that the AW inflowing into the Sicily Channel circulates along two principal ways The first one is anticlockwise along the continental slope The second is in the central part of the channel and its trajectory is more complicated and follows a multiple vortex structures This circulation is permanent between Tunisia and Sicily and presents a very high variability The incoming AW is in general warmer than resident water and remained close to the Tunisian slope The analysis of all this data confirms the necessity to complete those results by altimetric and thermohaline data in extended area around the strait This allows us to better estimate the water masses transport across the Sicily Channel

Ben Ismail, S.; Gana, S.; Sammari, C.

6

A revision of the 1693 eastern Sicily earthquake and  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1693 earthquake was a disastrous event affecting eastern Sicily, southern Italy, where it caused over 60,000 victims and total destruction of several villages and towns in the districts of Siracusa, Ragusa, and Catania. The earthquake was followed by a tsunami that struck the Ionian coasts of Sicily and the Messina Strait and was probably observed even in the Aeolian

Alessio Piatanesi; Stefano Tinti

1998-01-01

7

A revision of the 1693 eastern Sicily earthquake and tsunami  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1693 earthquake was a disastrous event affecting eastern Sicily, southern Italy, where it caused over 60,000 victims and total destruction of several villages and towns in the districts of Siracusa, Ragusa, and Catania. The earthquake was followed by a tsunami that struck the Ionian coasts of Sicily and the Messina Strait and was probably observed even in the Aeolian

Alessio Piatanesi; Stefano Tinti

1998-01-01

8

The plants, rituals and spells that 'cured' helminthiasis in Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The author reports on the plants, rituals and spells used against worms and the so-called scantu (fright) in some areas of Sicily. The work is based on ethnobotanical research carried out, prevalently, between 2002-2006, in some areas of Eastern, South-Eastern, North-Central and South-Central Sicily. METHODS: This research is based on dialogue. Senior 'healers' were contacted; furthermore, doctors, teachers, farmers

Mariangela Napoli

2008-01-01

9

Athens Kusadasi Santorini Zakynthos Sicily Amalfi/Positano Rome Florence/Pisa Monte Carlo Marseille Barcelona  

E-print Network

Athens · Kusadasi · Santorini · Zakynthos · Sicily · Amalfi/Positano Rome · Florence/Pisa · Monte of Santorini, and take in the pine-covered mountains of Zakynthos. Sail to legendary Sicily, charming Amalfi

McConnell, Terry

10

Ramana Rao Kompella IMC 2004, Sicily, Italy On Scalable Attack Detection in the  

E-print Network

Ramana Rao Kompella IMC 2004, Sicily, Italy On Scalable Attack Detection in the Network Ramana Kompella, Sumeet Singh, George Varghese #12;Ramana Rao Kompella IMC 2004, Sicily, Italy Motivation ÿ ImpactS as an example. #12;Ramana Rao Kompella IMC 2004, Sicily, Italy Collateral Damage Network Core Attacker ISP

Kompella, Ramana Rao

11

Emergence and Phylodynamics of Citrus tristeza virus in Sicily, Italy  

PubMed Central

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) outbreaks were detected in Sicily island, Italy for the first time in 2002. To gain insight into the evolutionary forces driving the emergence and phylogeography of these CTV populations, we determined and analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the p20 gene from 108 CTV isolates collected from 2002 to 2009. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed that mild and severe CTV isolates belonging to five different clades (lineages) were introduced in Sicily in 2002. Phylogeographic analysis showed that four lineages co-circulated in the main citrus growing area located in Eastern Sicily. However, only one lineage (composed of mild isolates) spread to distant areas of Sicily and was detected after 2007. No correlation was found between genetic variation and citrus host, indicating that citrus cultivars did not exert differential selective pressures on the virus. The genetic variation of CTV was not structured according to geographical location or sampling time, likely due to the multiple introduction events and a complex migration pattern with intense co- and re-circulation of different lineages in the same area. The phylogenetic structure, statistical tests of neutrality and comparison of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates suggest that weak negative selection and genetic drift following a rapid expansion may be the main causes of the CTV variability observed today in Sicily. Nonetheless, three adjacent amino acids at the p20 N-terminal region were found to be under positive selection, likely resulting from adaptation events. PMID:23818960

Davino, Salvatore; Willemsen, Anouk; Panno, Stefano; Davino, Mario; Catara, Antonino; Elena, Santiago F.; Rubio, Luis

2013-01-01

12

SICILY & THE AMALFI COAST FROM $3195 | OCTOBER 3 12, 2014  

E-print Network

seemingly untouched by time. Discover sun-bleached Greek temples, Roman ruins and ancient theaters amidst, the ancient city of Syracuse, the Amalfi Coast, the historic city center of Naples, and the archaeological streets, and groves of lemon trees INCLUDED FEATURES ACCOMMODATIONS Four nights in Taormina Mare, Sicily

13

Wild food plants of popular use in Sicily  

PubMed Central

In the present work the authors report the result of their food ethnobotanical researches, which have been carried out in Sicily during the last thirty years. Data concerning 188 wild species used in the traditional Sicilian cuisine are reported. The authors underline those species that are partially or completely unknown for their culinary use and they illustrate other species that local inhabitants suggested in the prevention or treatment of symptomatologies caused by a refined diet, poor in vegetables. These data want to contribute to avoid the loss of traditional knowledge on uses and recipes concerning wild food botanicals, and to encourage further studies for those species that have not yet been sufficiently researched in their food chemical and nutritional profile. These studies may also suggest new applications for a few botanicals in medico-nutritional fields. The work includes also a short review of the seaweeds and mushrooms traditionally gathered and consumed in Sicily. PMID:17397527

Lentini, Francesca; Venza, Francesca

2007-01-01

14

A revision of the 1693 eastern Sicily earthquake and tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1693 earthquake was a disastrous event affecting eastern Sicily, southern Italy, where it caused over 60,000 victims and total destruction of several villages and towns in the districts of Siracusa, Ragusa, and Catania. The earthquake was followed by a tsunami that struck the Ionian coasts of Sicily and the Messina Strait and was probably observed even in the Aeolian Islands. Historical documents on sea waves and flooding, though not abundant, allow us to form a picture of the tsunami first attack and inundation. The first water movement all along the Sicilian coastline was a strong sea withdrawal, followed by a violent sea return and coastal flooding. The main purpose of this research is to put constraints on the focal mechanism of this earthquake on the basis of the available documents on the tsunami (1) by simulating tsunami from different possible sources via numerical modeling based on finite element technique and shallow water approximation and (2) by choosing the source best fitting the tsunami data as the most plausible cause for this tsunami. The relevance of this study should also be evaluated in light of the circumstance that no certain indication on the earthquake fault can be deduced from the available macroseismic data alone. Solving the source problem for this event, one of the largest occurring in southeastern Sicily in historical times, is a significant contribution to understanding the seismotectonic regime of the region and to assessing the related earthquake and tsunami hazard/risk with implications on mitigation policies.

Piatanesi, Alessio; Tinti, Stefano

1998-02-01

15

ESONET LIDO Demonstration Mission: the East Sicily node  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Off East Sicily (at 2100 m depth, 25 km off the harbour of Catania) a prototype of a cabled deep-sea observatory (NEMO-SN1) was set up and has been operational in real-time since 2005 (the cabled deep-sea multi-parameter station SN1, equipped with geophysical and environmental sensors and the cabled NEMO-O?DE, equipped with 4 broadband hydrophones). The Western Ionian Sea is one of the node sites for the upcoming European permanent underwater network (EMSO). Within the activities of the EC project ESONET-NoE some demonstration missions have been funded. The LIDO-DM (Listening to the Deep Ocean-Demonstration Mission) is one of these and is related to two sites, East Sicily and Iberian Margin (Gulf of Cadiz), the main aims being geo-hazards monitoring and warning (seismic, tsunami, and volcanic) and bio-acoustics. The LIDO-DM East Sicily installation represents a further major step within ESONET-NoE, resulting in a fully integrated system for multidisciplinary deep-sea science, capable to transmit and distribute data in real time to the scientific community and to the general public. LIDO-DM East Sicily hosts a large number of sensors aimed at monitoring and studying oceanographic and environmental parameters (by means of CTD, ADCP, 3-C single point current meter, turbidity meter), geophysical phenomena (low frequency hydrophones, accelerometer, gravity meter, vector and scalar magnetometers, seismometer, absolute and differential pressure gauges), ocean noise monitoring and identification and tracking of biological acoustic sources in deep sea. The latter will be performed using two tetrahedral arrays of 4 hydrophones, located at a relative distance of about 5 km, and at about 25 km from the shore. The whole system will be connected and powered from shore, by means of the electro-optical cable net installed at the East Sicily Site Infrastructure, and synchronised with GPS. Sensors data sampling is performed underwater and transmitted via optical fibre link, with optimal S/N ratio for all signals. This will also permit real-time data acquisition, analysis and distribution on-shore. Innovative electronics for the off-shore data acquisition and transmission systems has been designed, built and tested. A dedicated computing and networking infrastructure for data acquisition, storage and distribution through the internet has been also created. The deployment and connection of the deep sea structures will be performed using the dedicated ROV and Deep Sea Shuttle handling facilities (PEGASO, owned by INGV and INFN). LIDO-DM constitutes the enhancement of the Western Ionian site in view of the EMSO Research Infrastructure.

Riccobene, Giorgio; Favali, Paolo; Andrè, Michel; Chierici, Francesco; Pavan, Gianni; Esonet Lido Demonstration Mission Team

2010-05-01

16

Mobile laser spectrofluorometer for natural waters monitoring in Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new laser spectrofluorometric apparatus has been recently developed and assembled in the mobile laboratory ENVILAB of at ENEA Research Center of Frascati. The instrumentation was utilized from October 20 to 25,2003 in the measurement campaign carried on in Sicily within the activities of the "RIADE project" (Integrated Research for the Application of Innovative Technologies and Processes for the Struggle Against Desertification) in order to monitor waters in areas at risk of desertification. During the campaign, the concentrations of dissolved (proteins and humic acids) and suspended (algae) organic substances have been measured in natural waters of Sicilian sites (near Syracuse and Licata).

Aristipini, P.; Del Bugaro, D.; Fiorani, L.; Loreti, S.; Palucci, A.

2005-06-01

17

Analyses of water, core material, and elutriate samples collected near Sicily Island, Louisiana (Sicily Island area levee project)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples consisting of composited core material were collected from five areas by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide data on the impact of proposed channel excavation and levee construction in the Sicily Island area, Louisiana. Samples of receiving water from the five areas, selected to represent the water that will contact the proposed dredged material of the levee fill material, also were collected. Chemical and physical analyses were performed on samples of core material and native water and on elutriate samples of specific core material-receiving water mixtures. The results of these analyses are presented without interpretation. (USGS)

Demcheck, Dennis K.; Dupuy, Alton J.

1980-01-01

18

Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in ticks in Sicily.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia and Babesia/Theileria species was analysed in questing and feeding adult ticks in Sicily. A total of 678 ticks were collected and analysed in this study. Of these, 29 were questing ticks and 649 were collected from infested cattle, sheep, goats or dogs. Tick species analysed included Rhipicephalus bursa, R. turanicus, R. sanguineus, Hyalomma lusitanicum, H. marginatum, Dermacentor marginatus, Ixodes ricinus, R. (Boophilus) annulatus and Haemaphysalis punctata. With the exception of R. annulatus and H. punctata for which only eight and 15 ticks were analysed, respectively, all tick species were found to be infected. Most ticks were found to be infected with a single pathogen genus. Data obtained from questing ticks was analysed to test for differences between tick species in the prevalence of infection for different pathogens. These preliminary results suggested that the most important vectors of pathogens that may affect human and/or animal health in Sicily are R. turanicus for Anaplasma spp. and D. marginatus for Rickettsia spp. For Ehrlichia spp. and Babesia/Theileria spp., R. turanicus/D. marginatus and H. lusitanicum may be the most important vectors but additional studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:20537102

Torina, A; Alongi, A; Scimeca, S; Vicente, J; Caracappa, S; de la Fuente, J

2010-04-01

19

Municipal waste management in Sicily: Practices and challenges  

SciTech Connect

There are numerous problems yet to be solved in waste management and although efforts towards waste recovery and recycling have been made, landfills are still the most common method used in the EU and many other industrialised countries. Thermal disposal, particularly incineration, is a tested and viable alternative. In 2004, only 11% of the annual waste production of Italy was incinerated. Sicily, with over five million inhabitants, is the second largest region in Italy where waste management is now a critical problem. The use of landfills can no longer be considered a satisfactory environmental solution; therefore, new methods have to be chosen and waste-to-energy plants could provide an answer. This paper gives details of municipal solid waste management in Sicily following a new Waste Management Plan. Four waste-to-energy plants will generate electricity through a steam cycle; the feedstock will become the residue after material recovery, which is calculated as 20-40% weight of the collected municipal solid waste.

Messineo, Antonio [Department of Energy and Environmental Researches (DREAM), University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Palermo 90128 (Italy)], E-mail: messineo@dream.unipa.it; Panno, Domenico [Department of Energy and Environmental Researches (DREAM), University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Palermo 90128 (Italy)

2008-07-01

20

Groundwater Nitrate Contamination Risk Assessment in Canicattì area (Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwaters play a dominant role in the Sicily, because as most part of Mediterranean countries this island is interested by the phenomenon of desertification and the quality of the groundwater reservoir is one of the most important aim for the management policy strategies. During last decade most of the Italian regions the nitrate levels in river and groundwaters have increased gradually over mainly as a consequence of large-scale agricultural application of manure and fertilizers, thereby threatening drinking water quality. The excessive use of chemicals and fertilizers increases the risk to pollution of surface and groundwater from diffuse source, an important reflex to human health and the environment. The studied area is located in Canicattì (central Sicily, Italy), the current land use (grape, olive grove and almond) is the main source of groundwater pollution. In order to investigate the effect of the over farming on the groundwater quality we report the study on the potential risk of contamination from nitrate of agricultural origin through the join of the application of two parametric methods: the IPNOA method (the intrinsic nitrate contamination risk from Agricultural sources) applied to define the Nitrate Vulnerable Zones and the SINTACS method applied to determine the aquifer vulnerability to contamination.

Pisciotta, Antonino; Cusimano, Gioacchino; Favara, Rocco

2010-05-01

21

The plants, rituals and spells that 'cured' helminthiasis in Sicily  

PubMed Central

Background The author reports on the plants, rituals and spells used against worms and the so-called scantu (fright) in some areas of Sicily. The work is based on ethnobotanical research carried out, prevalently, between 2002-2006, in some areas of Eastern, South-Eastern, North-Central and South-Central Sicily. Methods This research is based on dialogue. Senior 'healers' were contacted; furthermore, doctors, teachers, farmers and in general 'experts' with herbs and 'magic' rituals. Information was collected about the way the plants of folk medicine are prepared. The interviewees were also invited to recite prayers and spells against helminthiasis. Results The author has highlighted the importance of how, in some parts of Sicily, some ailments like helminthiasis and other correlated pathologies like scantu are 'treated' and, especially within the rural social classes, by folk medicine remedies, herbal practises, particular prayers, rituals and spells. Conclusion As regards health/illness, it should be noted that in the last ten years conventional medicine has provided very satisfactory results even resolving potentially mortal pathologies. However, in certain social classes, there is no real collaboration between conventional and folk medicine; so for some senior citizens, the 'healer' with his rituals and empirical and magical herbs is still the person to turn to for the 'cure' of particular ailments. Interest in these practises from ancestral heritage in an advanced country like Italy, is only relevant if the aim is to recoup a cultural identity which is already in decline. It is significant to report a piece: on 14 October 2007 the news on a well-known national Italian TV channel reported an interview with a 94 year-old man from Arbatax (Sardinia) referred to as a 'healer' because both his townspeople and others from all over the world go to him for his cures. He is not paid except in kind and has been known to cure St. Anthony's fire, burns, scalding and marine fungal infections, by smearing his saliva over the infected part and reciting 'special words'. PMID:18823529

Napoli, Mariangela

2008-01-01

22

Coastal erosion in Sicily: geomorphologic impact and mitigation (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coast of Sicily region stretches about 1400 km, bathing three different seas: the North tract, from Messina to Capo San Vito wash to the Tyrrhenian Sea, the oriental side, from Messina to Capo Passero, wash to the Ionian Sea, and finally the southern side wash to the Mediterranean. Of these, 395 km are made up of beaches and 970 km from rocky shores. The coastal morph-type were analyzed in relation to their evolutionary trend (backspace or advancement of the seaside), can be summarized as follows: a low shores of torrent plain (Messina), low shores with salt (Trapani), low shores beaches edged with dunal systems, subject to backspace, where urbanization has reduced or eliminated the internal sand dunes, shores on marine terraces, with beaches at the foot (Agrigento) and high shores non-affected of real phenomena of backspace, but subject to often dangerous events of detachment and collapse of blocks (high rocky shores). The marine and coastal environment is a complex and articulated, in balance with the Earth's environment, in which live together, but through different dynamics strongly interacting, ecosystems and marine ecosystems typically transition. The increasing density of population concentrated along the shores, the gradual expansion of activities related to the use of marine and coastal resources, are some of the issues that threaten the delicate balance of nature and the sea coast. The sicilian coastal areas most subject to erosion are those in Ragusa shores areas in south-eastern of Sicily, where the critical areas interesting low coastline and high shores. Following the coast, between Capo Peloro and Milazzo (Messina),where the erosion affects the coast with a low of about 23 km. In the coastal between Capo St. Marco and Capo Feto (Trapani) the critical areas interesting the low coastline and, in part erodible bluffs. One of this case is localized in the town of Mazara del Vallo. In general, the phenomenon erosive affects almost all the sicilian coastal units, in low-coastline and mountainous, with average rates of 29%. The main methods available today for the protection of coastlines in Sicily, are falling in the first approximation in hard (structural), and soft and soft, based not only on nutrition artificial beaches but also on interventions with low environmental impact as the reduction of losses sediments. The right approach is not only in stabilizing the various shores, but also in not induce or accelerate the erosion of the adjacent areas. Indeed this impact accompanies almost all the hard interventions achieved in past years. It is essential to carry out a verification of the effectiveness of the defence of the coast from erosion and structural interventions of nourishment in terms of impact on coastal marine and coastal environment. We started a series of experimental analysis based on the application of new techniques for relief based on remote sensing as the major techniques performed with satellite radar (SAR), measurements morph-altitude high resolution made with the laser system by plane (LIDAR) and precise measurements on the behaviour of works and river mouths with intelligences cameras. The most dominant climate change involve the precipitation and temperature. Temperature is particularly important in snow-dominated basins and in coastal areas, the latter due to the impact of temperature on sea level. Moreover we must say that (as mentioned in 4th Report IPCC) the shores are projected to be exposed to increasing risks, including coastal erosion, due to climate change and sea level rise. Infrastructure in coastal areas is vulnerable to damage from sea-level rise, flooding, and other storms. This effect will be exacerbated by increasing human-induced pressures on coastal areas. Keywords: erosion, shores, coastal defend, monitoring.

Liguori, V.; Manno, G.

2009-04-01

23

Landslide hazard in the Nebrodi Mountains (Northeastern Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eastern sector of the Nebrodi Mountains (NE Sicily), a part of the Apenninic-Maghrebian orogenic chain, is characterized by an high landslide hazard. The village of S. Domenica Vittoria, which lies in the area, has been particularly affected by various landslide phenomena, with resulting damage to buildings and infrastructure. The rocks outcropping in the area belong to the Cretaceous Monte Soro Flysch; they consist of an alternation of argillaceous and calcareous beds at the base and argillaceous and quartzarenitic beds at the top. The lithotechnical characteristics of the formation and the steepness of the slopes in the area lead to an elevated instability, as testified by the widespread occurrence of sub-vertical arcuate cliffs (landslide scarps) and sub-horizontal areas (landslide terraces), typical of a landslide-controlled morphology. From a kinematics point of view, the observed phenomena can be referred to multiple rotational slides, flows, and complex landslides, often with a retrogressive development and enlargement. Triggering causes lie principally in the intense rainfalls that determine the decay of the geomechanical properties of the terrain and supply discontinuos groundwater circulation that is evident in seasonal springs. Human activity, such as the construction of roads and buildings on steep slopes and dispersal of water from supply systems and sewers has a significant impact as well. Due to the instability of the area, expansion of the village, which is already limited by the morphological conditions, is made difficult by the high hazard level, especially in the areas at higher elevations, where the principal landslide scarps are located, and even more on the rims of the scarps. Considering the high hazard level, S. Domenica Vittoria has been inserted by the National Geological Service among the sites in Sicily to be monitored by means of a GPS network. The survey carried out along the entire slope hosting the village has furnished the base for geological and geomorphological knowledge needed for the planning of the network, to identify the areas at landslide risk, where parts of the village lie, including the areas of expansion of the village, the main roads, and a portion of the Favoscuro river bed.

Cubito, A.; Ferrara, V.; Pappalardo, G.

2005-03-01

24

Acoustic evaluation of anchovy larvae distribution in relation to oceanography in the Cape Passero area (Strait of Sicily)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the paper is to present the results of a study on the relationship between ichthyoplanktonic distribution and the hydrographic features in the Cape Passero area (Strait of Sicily). Acoustic, physical, and biological data were collected during two multidisciplinary research surveys performed during the summer in 2002 and 2003 in the Strait of Sicily. The oceanographic surveys ‘Ansic

A. Bonanno; S. Goncharov; S. Mazzola; S. Popov; A. Cuttitta; B. Patti; G. Basilone; A. Di Nieri; C. Patti; S. Aronica; G. Buscaino

2006-01-01

25

Analysis of shallow landsliding and debris flows triggered by extreme precipitation: the October 1, 2009 event in Giampilieri (Sicily)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work aims to document and analyze the geomorphic impact of the flash flood event which affected the area of Giampilieri (Sicily) on October 1, 2009. The event was caused by a deep cyclone developed in the Southern part of the Mediterranean basin producing an intense rainstorm over the Ionic sea coast of Sicily, Italy. The analysis of the event

G. Aronica; P. Tarolli; D. Penna; M. Borga

2010-01-01

26

Astronomically oriented megaliths of the Monte Jato area (Sicily).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An imposing megalith is visible from many kilometres of distance near the top of the hill named Monte Arcivocalotto (Sicily). It is made by a single sandstone slab, shaped in triangular form with a large circular hole pierced at the centre. It is known to local people as U Campanaru ("The Bell Tower") and it was considered as a magic place until recently. The megalith is oriented toward the sunrise of the winter solstice, when the Sun rises at the hole centre, becoming visible from a very large distance. At a few kilometres, on the top of another hill, significantly named "Cozzo Perciata" ("Hill of the pierced one") a similar megalith was standing until to a few decades ago. It is presently collapsed, probably by a lighting, but the remains clearly show that it is oriented toward the summer solstice sunrise. Both megaliths have to be considered in the framework of the Eneolithic / Early Bronze Age worship centre of Pizzo Pietralunga, located halfway between Monte Arcivocalotto and Cozzo Perciata.

Scuderi, A.; Polcaro, V. F.; Mercadante, F.; Lo Cascio, P.; Maurici, F.

27

Risk assessment of treated municipal wastewater reuse in Sicily.  

PubMed

In Italy, the restrictive approach for treated wastewater reuse in agriculture has led to some difficulties in promoting this practice. In order to assess the health risk associated with the use of wastewater in agriculture, an experiment was conducted in an open field near the constructed wetland (CW) system of San Michele di Ganzaria (Eastern Sicily), during the irrigation seasons 2004-2009. In particular the impact on tomato crops of drip and sub-drip irrigation with treated municipal wastewater, as well as effects of wastewater reuse on the irrigation system, main production features, hydrological soil behaviour, and microbial soil and products contamination were investigated. Notwithstanding the fact that globally CW effluents did not match microbiological standards for wastewater reuse of Italian legislation, the median infection risk (function of the recommended tolerable additional disease burden of 10(-6) DALY (disability-adjusted life year) loss per person per year) suggested by the 2006 World Health Organization Guidelines for rotavirus, Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium for lettuce irrigation under unrestricted irrigation scenario was achieved. PMID:23128625

Aiello, Rosa; Cirelli, Giuseppe L; Consoli, Simona; Licciardello, Feliciana; Toscano, Attilio

2013-01-01

28

Correlates of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus seroprevalence in Sicily  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental factors, such as plants and soil, may influence Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) replication or immune responses. However, the relationship of such exposures to KSHV seroprevalence has not been established. Methods In 1154 randomly sampled adults (aged 32–92) throughout Sicily, KSHV antibodies were detected with four assays and a conservative algorithm. Seroprevalence was re-weighted to the population. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations of seroprevalence with interview data, including contact with 20 specific plants. Results KSHV seroprevalence was 8.5%, including 5.3% among men and 11.5% among women (P=0.22). In multivariate models, seroprevalence was consistently higher with residence in a smaller community during childhood (Ptrend?0.03) and working with plants/soil during adulthood (odds ratio?2.73). In such models, seroprevalence was higher with exposure to one plant (Hieracium, odds ratio?2.8), but it was lower with three others (Acanthus mollis, Taraxacum officinalis, and Trigonella foenum-graecum) and with cumulative exposure to all 20 plants (Ptrend=0.03). Other demographic, household, and water contact variables were unrelated to seroprevalence. Conclusions KSHV seroprevalence appears to be increased by contact with soil and to vary with certain plants. Corroboration and investigation of possible effects of soil and plant constituents on KSHV regulation and immune responses are needed. PMID:19777527

Pelser, Colleen; Vitale, Francesco; Whitby, Denise; Graubard, Barry I.; Messina, Angelo; Gafà, Lorenzo; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Anderson, Lesley A.; Romano, Nino; Lauria, Carmela; Goedert, James J.

2009-01-01

29

Investigation of suitable sites for Wave Energy Converters around Sicily (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of wave energy along the coasts of Sicily (Italy) is presented with the aim of selecting possible sites for the implementation of Wave Energy Converters (WECs). The analysis focuses on the selection of hot-spot-areas of energy concentration. A third-generation model was adopted to reconstruct the wave data along the coast over a period of 14 years. The reconstruction was performed using the wave and wind data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. The analysis of wave energy allowed us to characterise the most energetic zones, which are located on the western side of Sicily and on the Strait of Sicily. Moreover, the estimate of the annual wave power on the entire computational domain identified eight interesting sites. The main features of the sites include relatively high wave energy and proximity to the coast, which may be possible sites for the implementation of WEC farms.

Iuppa, C.; Cavallaro, L.; Vicinanza, D.; Foti, E.

2015-02-01

30

The ethnic minorities of southern Italy and Sicily: relationships through surnames.  

PubMed

Surnames of grandparents were collected from children in the primary schools of the Albanian-Italian, Croat-Italian and Greek-Italian villages of southern Italy and Sicily. The coefficients of relationships by isonymy show almost no relationship with ethnicity. Ethnolinguistic minorities of southern Italy and Sicily are geographically subdivided into two main clusters: the first cluster comprises the Albanian, Croat and Greek communities of the Adriatic area; and the second cluster comprises the Albanian and Greek communities of the Ionian, Thirrenian and Sicilian areas. PMID:11316393

Vienna, A; Peña Garcia, J A; Mascie-Taylor, C G; Biondi, G

2001-01-01

31

Hydrological and erosional response of a small catchment in Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 1/5 of the Italian territory is at risk of desertification involving over 40% of the South. Climate change is expected to worsen the desertification trend already observed. In Sicily, for instance, the semi-arid territory extension had been gradually increasing in the period from 1931 to 2000 up to 20% of the regional territory. Parallel to this, territories classified as humid decreased by 30%. A better knowledge of soil erosion by water is essential for planning effective soil and water conservation practices in semi-arid environment, where accurate soil loss predictions are difficult particularly in the absence of minimal data. In order to give a contribute to the understanding of hydrological and erosional dynamics in Mediterranean areas, a monitoring program of a small catchment started in 1996. The Cannata catchment (1.30 km2) is a mountainous tributary, ephemeral in flow, of the Flascio River located in eastern Sicily. Climate is Mediterranean semi-arid with a mean annual precipitation (1996-2005), measured in three different sites, equal to 715 ± 163 mm mainly falling between October and January. Mean monthly temperature is between 3°C (January) and 24°C (August). Land use monitoring highlighted the prevalence of pasture areas (ranging between 87% and 92% of the catchment area during the monitoring period). In the Cannata catchment the elevation ranges between 903 m and 1270 m above mean sea level with an average land slope of 21%. Water discharge has been measured continuously for about 10 years at the outlet of the catchment by means of a hydrometrograph station connected to a runoff water automatic sampler for the measurement of sediment concentration in the flow. Precipitation has a typically Mediterranean seasonal pattern, being minimal in summer and maximal in winter. Monthly runoff follows the pattern of precipitation although somewhat delayed during autumn due to the effect of water deficit in summer. The analysis of the 170 runoff events recorded shows that rainfall depth was the only significant driver of the response (r2=0.77), whereas rainfall intensity, usually assumed of main importance in Mediterranean semiarid areas, was not significant. Rainfall depths were also the only drivers of peak discharges during the events (r2=0.57); considering just the autumn events, when vegetation cover is lower than in winter and in spring, rainfall intensity was also a significant but fair driver of peak discharge (r2=0.36). Suspended sediment response (observed for 47 events during the observation period) was very linked to the runoff response. Rainfall, runoff and peak discharge of the events were good predictors of total suspended sediment load (r2=0.84, 0.85 and 0.84 respectively); I30 and I5 were just fair drivers of sediment yields (r2=0.40 and 0.28 respectively) independently of seasons.

Licciardello, Feliciana; Marcello Zimbone, Santo; Barbagallo, Salvatore; Gallart, Francesc

2014-05-01

32

WTE plant planned for Palermo (Sicily, Italy) (Translation of Italian text by Lucia Rigamonti)  

E-print Network

WTE plant planned for Palermo (Sicily, Italy) (Translation of Italian text by Lucia Rigamonti) The WTE plant is planned as an addition to the "Palermo system", to be located at the same site (Bellolampo) as a new sorting plant and the present landfill that receives the MSW produced in Palermo

Columbia University

33

Morphological and molecular characterization of Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) from Sicily  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. parasitizing roots of lentil in Sicily, Italy, is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by a high lip region with three annuli, stylet mean length of 16 micrometers with anteriorly flattened knobs, cylindrical body with a relatively anterior vulva, l...

34

Heavy metals in urban soils: a case study from the city of Palermo (Sicily), Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of V, Mn, Cd, Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Hg and Sb were measured on 70 topsoil samples collected from green areas and parks in the city of Palermo (Sicily) in order to: (1) assess the distribution of these heavy metals in the urban environment; (2) discriminate natural and anthropic contributions; and (3) identify possible sources of pollution.

Daniela Salvagio Manta; Massimo Angelone; Adriana Bellanca; Rodolfo Neri; Mario Sprovieri

2002-01-01

35

Estimating the value of natural resources under legal constraints: an application to marine resources in Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we use the Contingent Evaluation methodology to develop an economic evaluation of natural resources in a protected marine area of Sicily. Assuming a nonnormal distribution for the ML estimation, the article shows that a variant of the stochastic utility model appears to capture well the dependence of the willingness to pay (WTP) on the socioeconomic characteristics of

Pasquale L. Scandizzo; Marco Ventura

2010-01-01

36

Tsunami inundation scenarios of the city of Catania, Eastern Sicily, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern Sicily is one of the coastal areas most exposed to earthquake and tsunami in Italy and in the whole Mediterranean. The city of Catania lies on this coast, between the eastern base of Etna volcano and the Ionian Sea. Catania is an important town of the Southern Italy because of its both touristic and commercial activities. In this work

Roberto Tonini; Alberto Armigliato; Gianluca Pagnoni; Stefano Tinti

2010-01-01

37

Occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes infecting cereals in Sicily, Italy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During 2008 and 2009, a survey on specific composition, frequency and geographical distribution of cyst nematodes living on cereals was conducted in Sicily (Italy). Heterodera latipons Franklin and H. hordecalis Andersson appeared to be the most common species in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) a...

38

Asphaltene-bearing mantle xenoliths from Hyblean diatremes, Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microscopic blebs of sulfur-bearing organic matter (OM) commonly occur between the secondary calcite grains and fibrous phyllosilicates in extensively serpentinized and carbonated mantle-derived ultramafic xenoliths from Hyblean nephelinite diatremes, Sicily, Italy. Rarely, coarse bituminous patches give the rock a blackish color. Micro Fourier transform infrared spectra (?-FTIR) point to asphaltene-like structures in the OM, due to partially condensed aromatic rings with aliphatic tails consisting of a few C atoms. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicates the occurrence of minor S?O (either sulphonyl or sulphoxide) functional groups in the OM. Solubility tests in toluene, thermo-gravimetric (TGA) and differential thermal (DTA) analyses confirm the presence of asphaltene structures. It is proposed that asphaltenes derive from the in situ aromatization (with decrease in H/C ratio) of previous light aliphatic hydrocarbons. Field evidence excludes that hydrocarbon from an external source percolated through the xenolith bearing tuff-breccia. The discriminating presence of hydrocarbon in a particular type of xenolith only and the lack of hydrocarbon in the host breccia matrix, are also inconsistent with an interaction between the ascending eruptive system and a supposed deep-seated oil reservoir. Assuming that the Hyblean unexposed basement consists of mantle ultramafics and mafic intrusive rocks having hosted an early abyssal-type hydrothermal system, one can put forward the hypothesis that the hydrocarbon production was related to hydrothermal activity in a serpentinite system. Although a bacteriogenesis or thermogenesis cannot be ruled out, the coexisting serpentine, Ni-Fe ores and hydrocarbon strongly suggest a Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) synthesis. Subsequent variations in the chemical and physical conditions of the system, for example an increase in the water/rock ratio, gave rise to partial oxidation and late carbonation of the serpentinite hosted hydrocarbon. Admitting an authigenic origin for most of the modal calcite (30-50% by volume) in these rocks, one can conclude as a general rule that un-carbonated serpentinites tectonically emplaced at shallow crustal levels are potential reservoir rocks (as well putative source rocks) for exploitable petroleum reserves.

Scirè, Salvatore; Ciliberto, Enrico; Crisafulli, Carmelo; Scribano, Vittorio; Bellatreccia, Fabio; Ventura, Giancarlo Della

2011-08-01

39

Western Sicily (Italy), a key area for understanding geothermal system within carbonate reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil exploration in western Sicily started in the late 1950s when several exploration wells were drilled, and continued with the acquisition of many seismic reflection profiles and the drilling of new wells in the1980s. The geological interpretation of these data mainly provided new insights for the definition of geometric relationships between tectonic units and structural reconstruction at depth. Although it has not produced completely satisfactory results for oil industry, this hydrocarbon exploration provided a great amount of data, resulting very suitable for geothermal resource assessment. From a geothermal point of view western Sicily is, indeed, a very promising area, with the manifestation at surface of several thermal springs, localized areas of high heat flux and thick carbonates units uninterruptedly developing from surface up top great depths. These available data were often collected with the modalities and purposes typical of oil exploration, not always the finest for geothermal exploration as in the case of temperature measurements. The multidisciplinary and integrated review of these data, specifically corrected for geothermal purposes, and the integration with new data acquired in particular key areas such as the Mazara Del Vallo site in the southern part of western Sicily, allowed us to better understand this medium-enthalpy geothermal system, to reconstruct the modalities and peculiarities of fluids circulation, and to evaluate the geothermal potentialities of western Sicily. We suggest that western Sicily can be taken as a reference for the understanding of geothermal systems developed at a regional scale within carbonate rocks. This study was performed within the framework of the VIGOR project (http://www.vigor-geotermia.it).

Montanari, D.; Bertini, G.; Botteghi, S.; Catalano, R.; Contino, A.; Doveri, M.; Gennaro, C.; Gianelli, G.; Gola, G.; Manzella, A.; Minissale, A.; Montegrossi, G.; Monteleone, S.; Trumpy, E.

2012-12-01

40

Vents Pattern Analysis at Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mount Etna is a composite stratovolcano located along the Ionian coast of eastern Sicily. It is characterized by basaltic eruptions, both effusive and explosive, occurred during a complex eruptive history over the last 500 ka. Flank eruptions occur at an interval of decades, mostly concentrated along the NE, S and W rift zones. A vent clustering at various scales is a common feature in many volcanic settings. In order to identify the clusters within the studied area, a spatial point pattern analysis is undertaken using vent positions, both known and reconstructed. It reveals both clustering and spatial regularity in the Etna region at different distances. The visual inspection of the vent spatial distribution suggests a clustering on the rift zones of Etna volcano. To confirm this evidence, a coarse analysis is performed by the application of ?2- and t-test simple statistics. Then, a refined analysis is performed by using the Ripley K-function (Ripley, 1976), whose estimator K(d), knowing the area of the study region and the number of vents, allow us to calculate the distance among two different location of events. The above estimator can be easier transformed by using the Besag L-function (Besag, 1977); the peaks of positive L(d)=[K(d)/?]1/2 -d values indicate clustering while troughs of negative values stand for regularity for their corresponding distances d (L(d)=0 indicates complete spatial randomness). Spatial pattern of flank vents is investigated in order to model the spatial distribution of likely eruptive vents for the next event, basically in terms of relative probabilities. For this, a Gaussian kernel technique is used, and the L(d) function is adopted to generate an optimal smoothing bandwidth based on the clustering behaviour of the Etna volcano. A total of 154 vents (among which 36 are reconstructed), related to Etna flank activity of the last 4.0 ka, is used to model future vent opening. The investigated region covers an area of 850 km2, divided into 3400 squared cells (50*68, each of 0.25 km2 of area). Due to the uncertainty of the reconstructed vent position, a circular error zone (with radius equal to the uncertainty) is associated to these vents. For uniformity, an error zone is also associated to the known positions; then, after considering a regular grid spaced of 100 m, we are looking for points inside the relative error zone. This approach yields to the new concept of point-vents, and a total of 6886 of these are retrieved. The obtained results evidence significant probability of future flank vent opening along S and NE rifts, as well as in the Valle del Bove, with minor probability to the W rift. References Besag, J. (1977), Comment's on Ripley's paper, J. Royal Stat. Soc., B39 (2), 193-195. Ripley, B. D. (1976), The second-order analysis of stationary point process, J. Appl. Prob., 13, 255-266.

Brancato, Alfonso; Tusa, Giuseppina; Coltelli, Mauro; Proietti, Cristina; Branca, Stefano

2014-05-01

41

Application of Skylab imagery to some geological and environmental problems in Italy. [and Sicily  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four topics are considered: regional geology of Sicily, volcanic surveillance in southern Italy, hydrogeology (with special regard given to the discovery and mapping of paleoriverbeds), and crop investigation. The discovery of unknown lineaments and structures in Sicily contributes to the geological knowledge of this region and in particular to the mechanical phenomena involving the upper part of the crust. An attempt was made to relate the status of vegetation surrounding Etna volcano to the magmatic gas escapes filtering through the soil. False-color Skylab images were used to analyze the vigor of the Etnean forestal belt vegetation canopy in order to map possible gas-vent ways as well as the 'active' microfractures. In northern Italy, buried channels were mapped in the Venetian Plain, and a tentative cost-benefit evaluation was done in the field of vegetational studies, both disease detection and species inventory were performed in the Po River Delta and in northwestern Italy.

Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. M.; Tonelli, A. M.

1975-01-01

42

Two Rare Northern Entoloma Species Observed in Sicily under Exceptionally Cold Weather Conditions  

PubMed Central

The biology and ecology of many Entoloma species is still poorly known as well as their geographical distribution. In Italy, there are no studies on the influence of weather on fungal abundance and richness and our knowledge on the ecology and distribution of Entoloma species needs to be improved. The discovery of two Entoloma species in Sicily (southern Italy), reported in the literature as belonging to the habitat of north European countries, was the basis leading to the assumption that anomalous climatic conditions could stimulate the growth of northern entolomas in the southernmost Mediterranean regions. The results of this study show that the presence of northern Entoloma species in Sicily is not influenced by the Mediterranean type of vegetation, by edaphic or altitudinal factors but by anomalous climatic trends of precipitations and temperatures which stimulate the fructification of basidiomata in correspondence with a thermal shock during autumn. PMID:22645481

Venturella, Giuseppe; Saitta, Alessandro; Mandracchia, Gerlando; Gargano, Maria Letizia

2012-01-01

43

Fluctuation of sardine and anchovy abundance in the Strait of Sicily investigated by acoustic surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assembles the main results of the research carried out during the last several years on the application of hydro-acoustic technology to the evaluation of biomass and distribution of small-pelagic-fish species off the southern coast of Sicily. The biomass estimates and the population-density charts presented concern the two main species: sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus). Six acoustic

A. Bonanno; B. Patti; S. Goncharov; G. Basilone; A. Cuttitta; G. Buscaino; J. García Lafuente; A. García; V. Palumbo; M. Cancemi; S. Mazzola

44

MORB-type neon in an enriched mantle beneath Etna, Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noble gas elemental and isotopic compositions were determined for five CO2–CH4 samples collected around Etna, Sicily, to investigate the geochemical features of the mantle beneath the volcano. The samples contain mantle-derived noble gases. The measured helium isotopic ratios (3He\\/4He) vary between 5.9 and 6.4 times atmospheric ratio (Ra=1.4×10?6), which are comparable to the ratios of olivines (6.1–8.2Ra) in the lavas

Shun'ichi Nakai; Hiroshi Wakita; Mario P Nuccio; Franco Italiano

1997-01-01

45

Geology of the Strait of Sicily: An example of geological mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Strait of Sicily is a comparatively shallow-water threshold which divides the Mediterranean into western and eastern deep-water hollows. The author composed a geologic map of the bottom of the Sicilian Strait and adjacent aquatories with a scale of 1:500,000. This map is based on the geologic-geophysical data of Soviet and foreign investigations (including more than 15,000 km of seismic

Yutsis

1988-01-01

46

Metasomatic events recorded in ultramafic xenoliths from the Hyblean area (Southeastern Sicily, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of ultramafic xenoliths from the Hyblean area (Sicily) show prime evidence for mantle metasomatism, namely: 1)\\u000a Spinel-facies depleted harzburgite veined by phlogopite-bearing clinopyroxenite; 2) Amphibole-bearing harzburgite; and 3)\\u000a Al-spinel websterite. (2) and (3) exhibit glassy pockets having respectively mugearitic and basanitic compositions, but a\\u000a little amount of glass with low Ca and very low alkalis in (2). Glasses

Vittorio Scribano; Marco Viccaro; Renato Cristofolini; Luisa Ottolini

2009-01-01

47

Feeding Habits of Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853) in the Sicily Strait  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subtropical grapsid crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853) is one of the most recent alien decapods found in the Mediterranean, where it was discovered at\\u000a Linosa (Pelagie Islands, Sicily Strait) in summer 1999. At present, the invasion of this species has been recorded in several\\u000a other insular localities. We studied the feeding habits of the crab in an

V. Puccio; M. Relini; E. Azzurro; L. Orsi Relini

2006-01-01

48

Feeding habits of Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853) in the Sicily Strait  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subtropical grapsid crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853) is one of the most recent alien decapods found in the Mediterranean, where it was discovered at\\u000a Linosa (Pelagie Islands, Sicily Strait) in summer 1999. At present, the invasion of this species has been recorded in several\\u000a other insular localities. We studied the feeding habits of the crab in an

V. Puccio; M. Relini; E. Azzurro; L. Orsi Relini

49

On particular ignimbrites of the Island of Pantelleria (channel of sicily)  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the Island of Pantelleria (Channel of Sicily) several layers of particular ignimbrites have been found. Their properties\\u000a can be explained only by admitting a great fluidity of the deposited material. Such a low viscosity is abnormal for sodarhyolitic\\u000a or sodatrachytic melts and demonstrates that the temperature must have been exceptionally high, as it is possible only in\\u000a the case

L. Villari

1969-01-01

50

Late Pleistocene human evolution in Sicily: comparative morphometric analysis of Grotta di San Teodoro craniofacial remains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paleoanthropological remains from Grotta di San Teodoro near Acquedolci (province of Messina, Italy) represent the oldest and largest skeletal collection yet found documenting human settlement of Sicily. The sample, attributed to the Late Epigravettian (between 14,000 and 10,000 years B.P.), consists of seven variously complete adult individuals (San Teodoro 1–7). We compare the cranial sample to an array of

Giuseppe D'Amore; Sylvia Di Marco; Giandonato Tartarelli; Renzo Bigazzi; Luca Sineo

2009-01-01

51

Integrated Archaeological and Geophysical Surveys in the Historical Center of Augusta (Eastern Sicily, Italy).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Syracuse (Eastern Sicily, Italy) and its vast hinterland played a crucial role in the economy of ancient Sicily, largely because of the management, exploitation and trade of agricultural supply. Nevertheless, the socio-economic aspects of its territorial management and the relation between the countryside and coastal centres in the complex system of the Mediterranean markets have not yet been analysed in depth by scholars. Despite the historical, monumental and economic importance of the surrounding area of Syracuse in the Antiquity, the knowledge of the roman and medieval landscape and archaeological sites are still limited. The research undertaken by Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali - CNR of Catania (Sicily, Italy) attempted to remedy this omission by outlining a preliminary picture of the rich historical and archaeological heritage of Syracuse and its surrounding territory, which will be analysed using a multidisciplinary approach. Augusta, a town near Syracuse (Sicily), was founded by emperor Frederick of Suavia between 1232 and 1239. In medieval period, the area of Giardini Pubblici was the downtown and untill the XVII Cent. AD it was occupied by two urban blocks of buildings. In 1670 they were demolished to allow free area firing line from the near castle. Integrated archaeological and geophysical investigations allowed a wide range knowledge of the roman and medieval landscapes, archaeological sites and monumental remains. Particularly the geophysical surveys undertaken in the historical center of Augusta, by means Ground-penetrating Radar (GPR), allowed a 3D reconstruction of archaeological structures in the subsoil until the depth of about 4m. The geophysical survey has identified the building of medieval and modern urban settlement of Augusta and has allowed to recreate the urban plan and its transformation.

Malfitana, Daniele; Leucci, Giovanni; Fragalà, Giovanni; Cacciaguerra, Giuseppe; De Giorgi, Lara

2013-04-01

52

Late Quaternary uplift of northeastern Sicily: relation with the active normal faulting deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evaluation of the vertical displacement-rate of the Late Quaternary marine terraces along the Ionian coast of northeastern Sicily (southern Italy) has been adopted as a tool to reconstruct the Late Quaternary deformation affecting the aseismic area, intervening between the Calabrian arc and the eastern Sicily seismogenic regions. The methodology adopted, based on computer elaboration of the field data, provided the amount of the uplift recorded since 124 ka, partitioned in the time, with the resolution of the oxygen isotope timescale (OIT) stages. The main result of the analysis is the recognition of a recently deformed sector of the coast, corresponding to the area of underlap between the seismogenic faults of southern Calabria and eastern Sicily. The deformation path of the Late Quaternary shorelines is consistent with the occurrence of an active normal fault in the off-shore of the area. This tectonic feature, that crosses through a main crustal barrier, represents the link between the two sets of seismogenic faults that cut through the weakened sectors of the crust. The resulting picture clearly indicates the influence of crustal properties on the geometry of the active fault belt and on the distribution of the main seismic events along the active "Siculo-Calabrian Rift Zone".

Catalano, Stefano; De Guidi, Giorgio

2003-11-01

53

Analysis of the thermal infrared signal linked to hydrologic structure in the Tunisian-Sicily Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six hydrological cruises March April May July August and October were realized in the section between Cap- Bon and Mazara Dell Vallo during 2003 our section covers only the half of the Channel The analysis of thermohaline parameters the daily composites NOAA AVHRR images and the satellite track of drifter buoys allowed us to confirm that the AW inflowing into the Sicily Channel circulates along two principal ways The first one is anticlockwise along the continental slope The second is in the central part of the channel and its trajectory is more complicated and follows a multiple vortex structures This circulation is permanent between Tunisia and Sicily and presents a very high variability The incoming AW is in general warmer than resident water and remained close to the Tunisian slope The analysis of all this data confirms the necessity to complete those results by altimetric and thermohaline data in extended area around the strait This allows us to better estimate the water masses transport across the Sicily Channel

Ben Ismail, S.; Gana, S.; Sammari, C.

54

An Ancient Mediterranean Melting Pot: Investigating the Uniparental Genetic Structure and Population History of Sicily and Southern Italy  

PubMed Central

Due to their strategic geographic location between three different continents, Sicily and Southern Italy have long represented a major Mediterranean crossroad where different peoples and cultures came together over time. However, its multi-layered history of migration pathways and cultural exchanges, has made the reconstruction of its genetic history and population structure extremely controversial and widely debated. To address this debate, we surveyed the genetic variability of 326 accurately selected individuals from 8 different provinces of Sicily and Southern Italy, through a comprehensive evaluation of both Y-chromosome and mtDNA genomes. The main goal was to investigate the structuring of maternal and paternal genetic pools within Sicily and Southern Italy, and to examine their degrees of interaction with other Mediterranean populations. Our findings show high levels of within-population variability, coupled with the lack of significant genetic sub-structures both within Sicily, as well as between Sicily and Southern Italy. When Sicilian and Southern Italian populations were contextualized within the Euro-Mediterranean genetic space, we observed different historical dynamics for maternal and paternal inheritances. Y-chromosome results highlight a significant genetic differentiation between the North-Western and South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, the Italian Peninsula occupying an intermediate position therein. In particular, Sicily and Southern Italy reveal a shared paternal genetic background with the Balkan Peninsula and the time estimates of main Y-chromosome lineages signal paternal genetic traces of Neolithic and post-Neolithic migration events. On the contrary, despite showing some correspondence with its paternal counterpart, mtDNA reveals a substantially homogeneous genetic landscape, which may reflect older population events or different demographic dynamics between males and females. Overall, both uniparental genetic structures and TMRCA estimates confirm the role of Sicily and Southern Italy as an ancient Mediterranean melting pot for genes and cultures. PMID:24788788

Sarno, Stefania; Boattini, Alessio; Carta, Marilisa; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Yao, Daniele Yang; Ciani, Graziella; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata

2014-01-01

55

The account books of the Spanish inquisition in Sicily (1500–1550) as a source for the study of material culture in a Mediterranean country  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article attempts to use the account books of the Spanish Inquisition in Sicily as a source for the study of material culture in a Mediterranean country at the beginning of the Modern Period. Situated on a crossroads between the world of Islam and Christian Europe, Sicily was a unique place of encounter. The articles found in Sicilian homes of

Nadia Zeldes

1999-01-01

56

Crustal motion along the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary in the Calabrian Arc and Sicily and active extension in the Messina Straits from GPS measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate crustal deformation along the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary in Calabria and Sicily revealed by the GPS velocity field obtained by the combination of continuous site velocities with previous results from episodic campaigns. We recognize two distinct crustal domains characterized by different motions and styles of deformation. Convergence in Sicily is taken up by crustal shortening along the former Tyrrhenian

Nicola D’Agostino; Giulio Selvaggi

2004-01-01

57

A crustal-upper mantle model for southeastern Sicily (Italy) from the integration of petrologic and geophysical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interdisciplinary approach is proposed to investigate the structure and composition of the Permo-Triassic basement of the Hyblean Plateau and Sicily Channel. Comparisons of published data on peridotites and spinels from different geodynamic settings, and new data on Hyblean spinels, reveal the affinity of the Hyblean basement with an ultra-slow spreading oceanic lithosphere, rather than with the Africa continental plate. Similar results derive from volcanic rocks of the studied area, whose Nb/Yb vs. Th/Yb ratio hints at their affinity with the MORB-OIB array, even excluding any possible contamination with continental crust lithologies, unlike North Africa lavas. The comparison of He isotopic ratios from Hyblean Plateau and Sicily Channel highlights their similarity with values measured in fluids emitted from the Rainbow and Logatchev hydrothermal fields in Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Based on petrologic and geochemical evidence for the oceanic nature of the Permo-Triassic basement in southeastern Sicily, and the occurrence of serpentinized harzburgite xenoliths in Hyblean diatremes, the P-wave velocity model proposed for the investigated area is used to estimate lithospheric pressure, density, degree of serpentinization and magnetic susceptibility also considering both abyssal and ophiolitic serpentinites. The resulting values suggest the presence of peridotites affected by different degrees of serpentinization (35-100 vol.%) ranging to a depth of 8-19 km. As a whole, combined seismic, gravimetric and magnetic data indicate the presence of a marked anomaly at a depth of about 19 km. As a consequence, we consider the Moho discontinuity as a serpentinization front, by fixing the relative top at a depth of 19 km. Our results suggest that the oceanic lithospheric model for southeastern Sicily could be broadened to the Sicily Channel, which is possibly correlated to the adjacent Ionian oceanic basin, inferred as belonging to the Oman-Iraq-Levantine-Sicily seaway.

Manuella, Fabio Carmelo; Brancato, Alfonso; Carbone, Serafina; Gresta, Stefano

2013-05-01

58

Geodetic and geological evidence of active tectonics in south-western Sicily (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated geological, geodetic and marine geophysical data provide evidence of active deformation in south-western Sicily, in an area spatially coincident with the macroseismic zone of the destructive 1968 Belice earthquake sequence. Even though the sequence represents the strongest seismic event recorded in Western Sicily in historical times, focal solutions provided by different authors are inconclusive on possible faulting mechanism, which ranges from thrusting to transpression, and the seismogenic source is still undefined. Interferometric (DInSAR) observations reveal a differential ground motion on a SW-NE alignment between Campobello di Mazara and Castelvetrano (CCA), located just west of the maximum macroseismic sector. In addition, new GPS campaign-mode data acquired across the CCA alignment documents NW-SE contractional strain accumulation. Morphostructural analysis allowed to associate the alignment detected through geodetic measurements with a topographic offset of Pleistocene marine sediments. The on-land data were complemented by new high-resolution marine geophysical surveys, which indicate recent contraction on the offshore extension of the CCA alignment. The discovery of archaeological remains displaced by a thrust fault associated with the alignment provided the first likely surface evidence of coseismic and/or aseismic deformation related to a seismogenic source in the area. Results of the integrated study supports the contention that oblique thrusting and folding in response to NW-SE oriented contraction is still active. Although we are not able to associate the CCA alignment to the 1968 seismic sequence or to the historical earthquakes that destroyed the ancient Greek city of Selinunte, located on the nearby coastline, our result must be incorporated in the seismic hazard evaluation of this densely populated area of Sicily.

Barreca, G.; Bruno, V.; Cocorullo, C.; Cultrera, F.; Ferranti, L.; Guglielmino, F.; Guzzetta, L.; Mattia, M.; Monaco, C.; Pepe, F.

2014-12-01

59

Estimation of drought transition probabilities in Sicily making use of exogenous variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought monitoring and forecasting play a very important role for an effective drought management. A timely monitoring of drought features and/or forecasting of an incoming drought do make possible an effective mitigation of its impacts, more than in the case of other natural disasters (e.g. floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, etc.). An accurate selection of indices, able to monitor the main characteristics of droughts, is essential to help decision makers to implement appropriate preparedness and mitigation measures. Among the several proposed indices for drought monitoring, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) has found widespread use to monitor dry and wet periods of precipitation aggregated at different time scales. Recently, some efforts have been made to analyze the role of SPI for drought forecasting, as well as to estimate transition probabilities between drought classes. In the present work, a model able to estimate transition probabilities from a current SPI drought class or from a current SPI value to future classes, corresponding to droughts of different severities, is presented and extended in order to include information provided by an exogenous variable, such as a large scale climatic index as the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAO). The model has been preliminarily applied and tested with reference to SPI series computed on average areal precipitation in Sicily island, Italy, making use of NAO as exogenous variable. Results seem to indicate that winter drought transition probabilities in Sicily are generally affected by NAO index. Furthermore, the statistical significance of such influence has been tested by means of a Montecarlo analysis, which indicates that the effect of NAO on drought transition in Sicily should be considered significant.

Bonaccorso, Brunella; di Mauro, Giuseppe; Cancelliere, Antonino; Rossi, Giuseppe

2010-05-01

60

Risk factors for the persistence of bovine brucellosis in Sicily from 2008 to 2010.  

PubMed

Bovine brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease, responsible for economic and reproductive losses in farmed animals. Despite the application of control and eradication measures, after several years the brucellosis situation still remains problematic in Sicily, one of the regions with the highest prevalence of infection in Italy. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the possible risk factors influencing the presence of bovine brucellosis in Sicily. Data on existing cattle herds in Sicily and on their structure in 2008, 2009 and 2010 were extracted from the national database (NDb) of holdings and animals. Several possible brucellosis risk factors were considered, in particular herd-related factors and the performances of the control activities carried out by the veterinary services and recorded into national animal health information system (SANAN). Statistical analysis (?(2) and Mann-Whitney tests) and spatial cluster analysis using a simple spatial Bernoulli model were performed. The multivariable logistic regression was also performed using SPSS for Windows. The spatial distribution of infected herds shows two main clusters of infection, in Messina and in Siracusa provinces. The results of the statistical analysis performed show that the infection is associated to the largest herds (P<0.0001) and to beef and mixed herds (P<0.0001). A significant association can be observed between the infected status in 2010 and presence of positive animals in 2008 or in 2009 (P<0.0001). This article shows the importance of detailed and reliable epidemiological data through information systems, allowing a continuous monitoring of the health status of animal populations and also the evaluation and re-planning of veterinary activities. PMID:23287716

Calistri, Paolo; Iannetti, Simona; Atzeni, Marcello; Di Bella, Calogero; Schembri, Pietro; Giovannini, Armando

2013-07-01

61

Application and comparison of tsunami vulnerability models in the gulf of Siracusa, Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Siracusa is one of the most important cities of the eastern coast of Sicily, that according to historical records and to the present knowledge of the tectonic setting is exposed to tsunamis generated by landslides on the Hyblean-Malta escarpment and by local and remote (Eastern Hellenic Arc) earthquakes. For this reason the area of Siracusa and Augusta has been selected as one of the test sites where to conduct specific studies within the European FP7 project ASTARTE. In this context, this work focuses on the tsunami vulnerability of buildings that are found in the coastal zone subject to inundation in the Gulf of Siracusa. The classification of buildings is carried out following two different schemes, namely the SCHEMA and PTVA (Papathoma Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment) method. The former was developed in the frame of the EU project SCHEMA and applied to a number of sites, including the city of Catania which is located along the same coast of Sicily, to the north of the area under study here. The latter was proposed by Papathoma (2003) and applied in the original form in the city of Heraklion, Crete, and in subsequent refined versions in Stromboli, Tyrrhenian sea, and in other regions of the world (United States, Australia and Indian Ocean). In our study, the classification of buildings in the potentially flooded areas starts from digital databases (e.g. CTR and CTN) produced by the region of Sicily, which provides building size and location and some other few parameters. In a second step, use is made of satellite imagery which allows a better classification, usually sufficient for the SCHEMA method but not for the PTVA approach. The next step consists in a field survey in the most exposed areas to determine the attributes necessary for the PTVA method and also to confirm the data obtained in the second step. This study highlights similarities and differences of the two vulnerability models, also posing attention to the resources that each classification requires.

Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano; Rallo, Francesco

2014-05-01

62

Calibration and validation of rainfall thresholds for shallow landslide forecasting in Sicily, southern Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Empirical rainfall thresholds are tools to forecast the possible occurrence of rainfall-induced shallow landslides. Accurate prediction of landslide occurrence requires reliable thresholds, which need to be properly validated before their use in operational warning systems. We exploited a catalogue of 200 rainfall conditions that have resulted in at least 223 shallow landslides in Sicily, southern Italy, in the 11-year period 2002-2011, to determine regional event duration-cumulated event rainfall (ED) thresholds for shallow landslide occurrence. We computed ED thresholds for different exceedance probability levels and determined the uncertainty associated to the thresholds using a consolidated bootstrap nonparametric technique. We further determined subregional thresholds, and we studied the role of lithology and seasonal periods in the initiation of shallow landslides in Sicily. Next, we validated the regional rainfall thresholds using 29 rainfall conditions that have resulted in 42 shallow landslides in Sicily in 2012. We based the validation on contingency tables, skill scores, and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for thresholds at different exceedance probability levels, from 1% to 50%. Validation of rainfall thresholds is hampered by lack of information on landslide occurrence. Therefore, we considered the effects of variations in the contingencies and the skill scores caused by lack of information. Based on the results obtained, we propose a general methodology for the objective identification of a threshold that provides an optimal balance between maximization of correct predictions and minimization of incorrect predictions, including missed and false alarms. We expect that the methodology will increase the reliability of rainfall thresholds, fostering the operational use of validated rainfall thresholds in operational early warning system for regional shallow landslide forecasting.

Gariano, S. L.; Brunetti, M. T.; Iovine, G.; Melillo, M.; Peruccacci, S.; Terranova, O.; Vennari, C.; Guzzetti, F.

2015-01-01

63

Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations in western Sicily: Controlling factors, triggering mechanisms, and morphoevolutionary models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD) phenomena affecting areas of various geological and geomorphological settings in western Sicily is described. Western Sicily is underlain by a thin-skinned imbricate wedge of Meso-Cenozoic carbonate and siliciclastic rocks that formed by the stacking of several thrust nappes over the Iblean foreland. Locally, the original thrust sheets are folded and cut by high-angle faults. Large areas of western Sicily now display high relief energy due to Plio-Pleistocene block-faulting and uplifting, and the Quaternary morphogenetic phases are characterised by incision, thereby triggering widespread DSGSDs. To identify controlling factors and triggering causes and to develop reliable morphoevolutionary models for the DSGSDs of western Sicily, a geomorphological study based on field surveys and aerial-photography interpretations was performed. Previous geomorphological data relating to well-known examples of DSGSDs were reconsidered, leading to remarkable revisions of the interpretative models in certain cases. New data were subsequently collected, enabling recognition of additional DSGSD phenomena. The whole body of data involves a total of 27 DSGSDs affecting areas in two specific geological settings: (1) areas with flat thrust surfaces, where differential settlements, back-tilting, lateral spreads in competent rocks overlying marls and clays, large topples, and/or block-type slope movements may develop; and (2) areas where deep-rooted carbonate units come into lateral contact with clayey-marly units along high-angle faults, where lateral spreads in brittle homogeneous rocks, sinking, and/or rock flows may occur. These DSGSD phenomena are associated with different evolutionary stages, allowing a morphoevolutionary model to be defined for the two geological conditions. For these two different morphoevolutionary models, the following structural features play an important role in the development of DSGSDs: (1) where carbonate bodies overlie clayey-marly rocks, triggering of the DSGSDs traces back to deformation of a ductile substratum that follows the exhumation of the flat thrust planes and the underlying clayey-marly rocks due to block-faulting and/or stream incision; and (2) where homogeneous carbonate rocks hundreds of metres thick crop out, the DSGSDs are triggered by very high relief energy and tensile stress that follow the combined actions of Quaternary block-faulting and stream deepening associated with differential erosion.

Di Maggio, Cipriano; Madonia, Giuliana; Vattano, Marco

2014-03-01

64

Interannual variability of water mass properties in the Tunisia-Sicily Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analysed in situ CTD data collected on 36 joint Tunisian-Italian oceanographic cruises in the Tunisia-Sicily Channel (Cap Bon-Mazara del Vallo section) from 1995 to 2009 in order to identify the water masses in the region and to estimate the interannual variability of their hydrological characteristics. Besides the well-known AW (Atlantic Water) and LIW (Levantine Intermediate Water), other water masses have been identified though their presence is neither as steady nor as stable as the aforementioned ones. The WIW (Western Intermediate Water) flows beneath the AW towards the eastern basin while the IW (Ionian Water), with a highly intermittent character, flows within the subsurface layer towards the western basin. The flow of subsurface water (WIW and IW) is affected by intense mixing which modifies the water masses, tending to make them disappear. Moreover, the same hydrological time series produced interesting results concerning the increase in both temperature and salinity in the Tunisia-Sicily Channel. This trend especially concerns the deeper layers (LIW and tEMDW, i.e. transitional Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water) and we hypothesise that this is a direct response to climatic change occurring in the eastern basin.

Ben Ismail, Sana; Schroeder, Katrin; Sammari, Chérif; Gasparini, Gian Pietro; Borghini, Mireno; Aleya, Lotfi

2014-07-01

65

Congestion analysis to evaluate the efficiency and appropriateness of hospitals in Sicily.  

PubMed

Over the past twenty years, important changes in the Italian National Health System have been made in order to obtain significant improvements in the efficiency, appropriateness and quality of health care delivery, while reducing health expenditure. In this paper we proposed a multidimensional approach to assess the impact of organization inappropriateness on the efficiency evaluation of hospitals in Sicily for the year 2009. This study was based on cross-sectional data for 116 (out of 129) short-term, acute-care hospitals. The analysis considered beds, physicians, nurses and other personnel as inputs, ordinary discharges and day-hospital admissions as desirable outputs and inappropriate discharges and day-hospitals as undesirable outputs of the health care process. We refer to output-congestion to measure the loss of desirable outcome, which is related to the simultaneous occurrence of inappropriateness. The main findings of our analysis indicate that most of the measured overall inefficiency of Sicilian hospitals could be attributed to congestion and pure technical inefficiency and that congestion was statistically different among hospital trusts, local public hospitals and for-profit hospitals and along the provinces. In Sicily, significant shares of inputs are still employed to supply inappropriate care, with the effect of producing less desirable health care outcomes than expected. PMID:25561357

Matranga, Domenica; Sapienza, Francesca

2015-03-01

66

Fast geodetic strain-rates in eastern Sicily (southern Italy): New insights into block tectonics and seismic potential in the area of the great 1693 earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along the ˜500 km long Sicily-Calabria segment of the Nubia-Eurasia plate boundary GPS data highlight a complex, and debated, kinematic pattern. We focus on eastern Sicily, where the style of crustal deformation rapidly changes in the space of few tens of kilometers. In southeastern Sicily, struck by the 1693 MW˜7.4 earthquake, GPS measurements highlight a steep velocity gradient, with ˜2.4 mm/yr of ˜N-S shortening in ˜10 km, changing to broader extension (˜3 mm/yr in ˜60 km) in northern Sicily and shortening in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea. GPS data and kinematic elastic block models highlight a complex fragmentation of the Sicilian domain into three tectonic blocks, which move independently from Nubia, describing an overall clockwise rotation of this crustal domain with respect to Eurasia. Shortening in southeastern Sicily is associated with a system of high-angle reverse faults resulting from tectonic inversion of extensional faults at the northern tip of the Hyblean plateau. Extension in northern Sicily occurs on a broader deformation belt, developed on the former Kumeta-Alcantara line, extending west of Mount Etna toward the southwestern Tyrrhenian Sea, accommodating the faster rotation of the northeastern Sicily block with respect to central Sicily. Although the seismic potential of inland faults is not negligible, our results strengthen the hypothesis that the Malta escarpment is the likely source of the large 1693 earthquake and tsunami. The observed kinematics appears only subordinately driven by the Nubia-Eurasia convergence and the dynamics of the Mediterranean subduction system is likely playing a major role in governing block motions and active tectonics in Sicily.

Mastrolembo Ventura, Brunella; Serpelloni, Enrico; Argnani, Andrea; Bonforte, Alessandro; Bürgmann, Roland; Anzidei, Marco; Baldi, Paolo; Puglisi, Giuseppe

2014-10-01

67

The diversity of terrestrial isopods in the natural reserve "Saline di Trapani e Paceco" (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in northwestern Sicily.  

PubMed

Ecosystems comprising coastal lakes and ponds are important areas for preserving biodiversity. The natural reserve "Saline di Trapani e Paceco" is an interesting natural area in Sicily, formed by the remaining strips of land among salt pans near the coastline. From January 2008 to January 2010, pitfall trapping was conducted in five sampling sites inside the study area. The community of terrestrial isopods was assessed using the main diversity indices. Twenty-four species were collected, only one of them endemic to western Sicily: Porcellio siculoccidentalis Viglianisi, Lombardo & Caruso, 1992. Two species are new to Sicily: Armadilloniscus candidus Budde-Lund, 1885 and Armadilloniscus ellipticus (Harger, 1878). This is high species richness for a single reserve in Sicily. The extended sampling period also allowed us to study species phenology. Most of the species exhibited higher activity in spring than in autumn while some species also exhibited lower activity in the summer. The species richness revealed that the study area is in an acceptable conservation status; Shannon and Pielou indices also confirmed a more or less even distribution of individuals belonging to different species. PMID:22536110

Messina, Giuseppina; Pezzino, Elisa; Montesanto, Giuseppe; Caruso, Domenico; Lombardo, Bianca Maria

2012-01-01

68

Differential Greek and northern African migrations to Sicily are supported by genetic evidence from the Y chromosome  

PubMed Central

The presence or absence of genetic heterogeneity in Sicily has long been debated. Through the analysis of the variation of Y-chromosome lineages, using the combination of haplogroups and short tandem repeats from several areas of Sicily, we show that traces of genetic flows occurred in the island, due to ancient Greek colonization and to northern African contributions, are still visible on the basis of the distribution of some lineages. The genetic contribution of Greek chromosomes to the Sicilian gene pool is estimated to be about 37% whereas the contribution of North African populations is estimated to be around 6%. In particular, the presence of a modal haplotype coming from the southern Balkan Peninsula and of its one-step derivates associated to E3b1a2-V13, supports a common genetic heritage between Sicilians and Greeks. The estimate of Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor is about 2380 years before present, which broadly agrees with the archaeological traces of the Greek classic era. The Eastern and Western part of Sicily appear to be significantly different by the ?2-analysis, although the extent of such differentiation is not very high according to an analysis of molecular variance. The presence of a high number of different haplogroups in the island makes its gene diversity to reach about 0.9. The general heterogeneous composition of haplogroups in our Sicilian data is similar to the patterns observed in other major islands of the Mediterranean, reflecting the complex histories of settlements in Sicily. PMID:18685561

Di Gaetano, Cornelia; Cerutti, Nicoletta; Crobu, Francesca; Robino, Carlo; Inturri, Serena; Gino, Sarah; Guarrera, Simonetta; Underhill, Peter A; King, Roy J; Romano, Valentino; Cali, Francesco; Gasparini, Mauro; Matullo, Giuseppe; Salerno, Alfredo; Torre, Carlo; Piazza, Alberto

2009-01-01

69

Malta Escarpment fault zone offshore eastern Sicily: Pliocene-Quaternary tectonic evolution based on new multichannel seismic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Malta Escarpment represents the dominant morphological feature offshore eastern Sicily, linking the deep Ionian basin to the east with the Hyblean carbonate platform to the west. Interpretation of purposely acquired multichannel seismic data allows division of the Malta Escarpment into two portions characterized by different tectonic structures. Along the segment south of Siracusa the Malta Escarpment is not affected

A. Argnani; C. Bonazzi

2005-01-01

70

Seismically induced environmental effects in costal areas : the 1783, 1905 and 1908 earthquakes in Calabria and Sicily, (Southern Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calabria and Sicily's Coast, particularly in the Messina Strait, is one of the most seismically active areas of the Southern Italy. Since 1783, there have been seven earthquakes with magnitude ranging between 6.0 and 7.2 These earthquakes have produced wide damages on the MCS Intensities scale of X or greater. The high rate of seismic activity in the region is

S. Porfido; E. Esposito; C. Violante; M. Sacchi; L. Guerrieri; L. Serva; S. Sciarrotta

2009-01-01

71

Study of tsunami hazard associated with large earthquakes along the coasts of Calabria and Sicily (southern Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Messina Straits, the eastern coast of Sicily and the Tyrrhenian coasts of Calabria are known to have been affected by large tsunamis. Since development of urban, industrial and tourist settlements is remarkably increased in recent years on the coastal zones here as well as elsewhere in southern Italy, the problem of evaluating the effect of possible future events on coastal

S. Tinti; A. Armigliato; G. Pagnoni

2003-01-01

72

A Modelling Study For The Baroclinic Circulation In The Sicily Channel: Mesoscale Dynamics and Eddy-mean Flow Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mesoscale dynamics and the ddy-mean flow interactions in the Sicily Channel area are studied by an high resolution, primitive equations, sigma coordinate model. Since one of the purpose of this study is to attempt to quantify the processes govern- ing the purely baroclinic dynamics, no atmospheric forcings are used in this frame- work. Two numerical experiments are basically analysed

E. Napolitano; G. Sannino; V. Artale; S. Marullo

2002-01-01

73

GPS velocity and strain fields in Sicily and southern Calabria, Italy: Updated geodetic constraints on tectonic block interaction in the central Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an improved rendition of the geodetic velocity and strain fields in Sicily and southern Calabria obtained through the analysis of 18 years of GPS observations from continuous and survey station networks. The dense spatial coverage of geodetic data provides precise quantitative estimates of previously established first-order active kinematic features, including: i) a narrow east-west-elongated belt of contraction (˜1-1.5 mm/yr) extending offshore northern Sicily from Ustica to Stromboli across the Aeolian Islands; ii) a narrow east-west-trending contractional belt located along the northern rim of the Hyblean Plateau in southern Sicily, with shortening at up to 4.4 mm/yr; iii) right motion (˜3.6 mm/yr) on the Aeolian-Tindari-Letojanni fault (ATLF) system, a main shear zone extending from the Aeolian Islands to the Ionian coast of Sicily, with significant transpression and transtension partitioned between discrete sectors of the fault; iv) transtension (˜1 mm/yr) across the Sicily Channel between Sicily and North Africa. We use geodetic observations coupled to geological constraints to better elucidate the interplay of crustal blocks revealed in the investigated area. In particular, we focus on the ATLF, which forms the primary boundary between the Sicilian and Calabrian blocks. The ATLF juxtaposes north-south contraction between Sicily and the Tyrrhenian block with northwest-southeast extension in northeastern Sicily and Calabria. Contraction between Sicily and Tyrrhenian blocks probably arises from the main Europe-Nubia convergence, although Sicily has a component of lateral motion away from Nubia. We found that convergence is not restricted to the northern offshore, as commonly believed, but is widely accommodated between the frontal belt and the northern rim of the Hyblean foreland in southern Sicily. Geodetic data also indicate that active right shear on the ATLF occurs to the southeast of the mapped fault array in northern Sicily, suggesting the fault cuts through till the Ionian coast of the island. The small geodetic divergence between the Hyblean and Apulian blocks rimming on both sides the Calabria block and subjacent Ionian slab, coupled with marine geophysical evidences in the Ionian Sea lends credit to the proposed deep root of the ATLF and to a fragmentation of the Ionian domain.

Palano, M.; Ferranti, L.; Monaco, C.; Mattia, M.; Aloisi, M.; Bruno, V.; Cannavò, F.; Siligato, G.

2012-07-01

74

Regional debris flow susceptibility assessment using HRDEM: Example of the city area of Messina (Sicily, Italy).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow landslide and debris flows are among the most dangerous natural hazards triggered by extreme meteorological events. These phenomena have recently caused catastrophic scenarios in Italy (e.g. in Sarno-Quindici and Giampilieri) and, according to expected changes in the climate pattern, an increasing frequency of these phenomena is expected. The aim of this research is to assess the debris flow susceptibility in the Giampilieri area (Sicily) using a spatially-distributed debris flow runout model based on topographic information. The application of the model starts with the identification of the source areas from which debris flows are propagated on the basis of frictional laws and flow direction algorithms. The area selected for this study is located in the Ionian sector of the Peloritanian area in Sicily, in the South part of Messina (Sicily) and includes the villages of Giampilieri, Briga Itala and Scaletta Zanclea. There, the 1stOctober 2009 thousands of debris and mud flows were activated by a cumulative rainfall of about 160 mm in 6 hours, which followed two previous rainfalls events occurred on16th September (76 mm in six hours) and 23rd - 24th September (190 mm in 10 hours). Among the catchments hit by the 2009 event, the Giampilieri basin (10 km2) has been chosen as sub area in order to set the algorithms for the spreading assessment and the friction parameters of the model. In this catchment, a complete inventory of the source areas and accumulation zone was created by photointerpretation of post event images. Moreover, volume and velocity estimations of the mobilized material have been carried out. The susceptibility was evaluated using the source areas of the 2009 event and its accuracy was estimated by the comparison of the results with the accumulation areas and the velocity and volume estimated. In a second step we performed the analysis at the medium scale on the whole area hit by the 2009 event using the parameters calibrated on the Giampilieri basin. The presented approach of debris ?ow susceptibility analysis demonstrates that a simple assessment of the debris ?ow spreading calculated using defined source areas and calibrated on past events, provided good results for consequent hazard and risk studies.

Cama, Mariaelena; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mathieu, Alexandre; Remaître, Alexandre; Rotigliano, Edoardo

2014-05-01

75

Prevalence of sensitization to Anisakis simplex among professionally exposed populations in Sicily.  

PubMed

Anisakis simplex (AS) is a cause of allergic sensitization and potential occupational risk is suggested in fishermen and workers assigned to fish processing and sale. A cross-sectional study was conducted in order to assess possible health effects of occupational exposure to AS in workers recruited from western Sicily fisheries sector. Social, demographic, and occupation-related data were collected. Serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgE levels to AS (threshold >0.35 kU/L) were determined by an fluoroimmunoassay technique. Ninety-four subjects with potential occupational exposure (fishmongers, fishermen, fish industry employees) were recruited. Specific AS IgEs were detected in 20.2% of the study population. AS IgE seroprevalence was elevated 6.7-fold (p = .03) among fishermen/sailors compared with fish industry workers. The study suggested the importance to adopt specific prevention strategies against exposure to AS in the occupational setting. PMID:22524649

Mazzucco, Walter; Lacca, Guido; Cusimano, Rosanna; Provenzani, Ambra; Costa, Antonella; Di Noto, Anna Maria; Massenti, Maria Fatima; Leto-Barone, Maria Stefania; Lorenzo, Gabriele Di; Vitale, Francesco

2012-01-01

76

Characterization of blue decorated Renaissance pottery fragments from Caltagirone (Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renaissance blue decorated pottery fragments from the archaeological site of Caltagirone (Sicily, Italy) were analysed by scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS). The samples were dated back to 16th century AD on the basis of archaeological observations. The micro-chemical analyses were performed on the ceramic body and the surface decorated layer of the samples. Particularly, the investigation was addressed the characterization of the coating blue decorations. The obtained results allowed us to clearly identify smalt as pigment. Also the presence of arsenic (As) was revealed and the Co/As ratio values were calculated and related to the different process used for the pigment preparation. Further spectroscopic analyses, performed through X-ray absorbance spectroscopy (XAS), carried out at the Co K-edge, confirmed the micro-analytical results and permitted us to identify the oxidation form and the local environment of cobalt atoms.

Barilaro, D.; Crupi, V.; Interdonato, S.; Majolino, D.; Venuti, V.; Barone, G.; La Russa, M. F.; Bardelli, F.

2008-07-01

77

Neolithic ceramic findings from western Sicily. Chemical-physical and mineralogical characterization.  

PubMed

This paper presents the results of a study that is part of a wider research program regarding the knowledge of the initial living phases of Sicilian agricultural and pastoral societies. Three ceramic samples attributed to the medium initial Neolithic (NEO1 and NEO2) and to the first neolithic (NEO3), recovered in two different archaeological sites of the western Sicily, have been analysed. Chemical, mineralogical and spectroscopic data point out a similarity between NEO1 and NEO3 samples; compositional and morphological differences instead have been observed in the NEO2 sample. The firing temperatures of the samples have been estimated by Mössbauer spectroscopy; they are lower than 500 degrees C for the samples NEO1 and NEO3, and about 700 degrees C for NEO2. PMID:11836958

Rivarola, E; Bellia, S; Donato, I D; Orecchio, S; Ponterio, R; Tusa, S

2001-01-01

78

The Hyblean xenolith suite (Sicily): an unexpected legacy of the Ionian-Tethys realm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extensive study of a great number of deep-seated xenoliths from Tortonian tuff-breccia pipes in the Hyblean area (Sicily) revealed the following fundamental evidence: (1) typical continental crust rocks are completely absent in the entire xenolith suite; (2) mantle ultramafics are more abundant than gabbroids; (3) sheared oxide-gabbros, closely resembling those from oceanic fracture zones, are relatively common; (4) secondary mineral assemblages, compatible with alteration processes in serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal systems, occur both in peridotites and gabbros. Among the products of this hydrothermal activity, organic compounds, having abiotic origin via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, occur in some hydrothermally altered gabbro and ultramafic xenoliths, as well as in hydrothermal clays. Moreover, the U-Pb dating of hydrothermal zircon grains, hosted in a xenolith of metasomatized tectonic breccia, indicated an Early-Middle Triassic age of the fossil hydrothermal system. Another line of evidence for the oceanic nature of the Hyblean-Pelagian basement is the complete absence of continental crust lithologies (granites, felsic metaigneous, and metasedimentary rocks) in outcrops and in boreholes, and the oceanic affinity of the Tertiary volcanic rocks from the Hyblean Plateau and the Sicily Channel (Pantelleria and Linosa Islands), which lack of any geochemical signature for continental crust contamination. A reappraisal of existing geophysical data pointed out that serpentinites form the dominant lithologies in the lithospheric basement of the Hyblean-Pelagian area down to a mean depth of 19 km, which represents the regional Moho considered as the serpentinization front, marking the transition from serpentinites to unaltered peridotites. On these grounds, we confirm that Hyblean xenoliths contain mineralogical, compositional, and textural evidence for tectonic, magmatic, and hydrothermal processes indicating the existence of fossil oceanic core complexes, in the geotectonic framework of the Paleo-Mesozoic, ultra-slow spreading, Ionian-Tethys Ocean forming the present Ionian-Hyblean-Pelagian domain.

Manuella, Fabio Carmelo; Scribano, Vittorio; Carbone, Serafina; Brancato, Alfonso

2015-02-01

79

A Molecular Survey of Rickettsia felis in Fleas from Cats and Dogs in Sicily (Southern Italy)  

PubMed Central

Rickettsia felis, the agent of flea-borne spotted fever, has a cosmopolitan distribution. Its pathogenic role in humans has been demonstrated through molecular and serologic tests in several cases. The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is considered the main reservoir and the biological vector. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and occurrence of R. felis in fleas collected from dogs and cats in various sites of Palermo (Sicily). Between August and October 2012, 134 fleas were collected from 42 animals: 37 fleas from 13 dogs and 97 fleas from 29 cats. Two species of fleas were identified: 132 Ctenocephalides felis (98.51%) collected on all animals and only two C. canis (1.49%) on one dog. Out of 132 C. felis, 34 (25.76%), 12 from dogs (32.43%) and 22 (22.68%) from cats, were positive for R. felis DNA by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), confirmed by sequencing. The only two C. canis fleas were negative. About half of examined animals (47.62%, 20/42) were infested with at least one infected flea; in particular 46.15% of dogs (6/13) and 48.28% of cats (14/29). It seems that in the Palermo district there is a peri-domestic cycle, with a relatively high prevalence of R. felis infection in the cat flea, an insect widely diffused in home environments and which can frequently bite humans. The results also suggest that R. felis should be considered in the human differential diagnosis of any spotted-like fever or febrile illness without a clear source of infection in Sicily, especially if the patient is known to have been exposed to flea bites. PMID:25203839

Giudice, Elisabetta; Di Pietro, Simona; Alaimo, Antonio; Blanda, Valeria; Lelli, Rossella; Francaviglia, Francesco; Caracappa, Santo; Torina, Alessandra

2014-01-01

80

Persistence and co-occurrence of demersal nurseries in the Strait of Sicily (central Mediterranean): Implications for fishery management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the nurseries of seven commercially important demersal species of the northern sector of the Strait of Sicily (central Mediterranean): red mullet, European hake, horned octopus, deep-water rose shrimp, greater forkbeard, Norway lobster and giant red shrimp. An eleven-year series of data collected through experimental trawling in the Strait of Sicily during spring and autumn was analyzed. The spatio-temporal persistence of the high-density aggregations (hot spots) of juvenile individuals in their first year of life was investigated to identify habitats that serve as nurseries. The density of recruits within the persistent nurseries was used as a proxy of the unit area contribution of individuals which recruit to the adult population. The spatial distribution patterns of the recruits of most the species were well defined and very stable in the long term. Persistent and potentially highly productive nurseries of European hake, deep-water rose shrimp and greater forkbeard were identified off the southern coast of Sicily. Persistent areas of recruits concentration were also observed for the other species investigated, but their specific potential contribution of individuals to the adult population was not substantial compared to adjacent grounds. The close or overlapped localization of sites which regularly host vulnerable life stages of different exploited species, revealed an area of great ecological significance which probably plays a major role in the dynamics of the fishery resources in the Strait of Sicily. Appropriate spatial protection measures of this area, including marine protected area designation, could complement conventional management approach for ensuring the long-term sustainability of these fisheries and stocks conservation.

Garofalo, G.; Fortibuoni, T.; Gristina, M.; Sinopoli, M.; Fiorentino, F.

2011-08-01

81

Late Quaternary palaeohydrology of Lake Pergusa (Sicily, southern Italy) as inferred by stable isotopes of lacustrine carbonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten meters of lacustrine deposits retrieved from Lake Pergusa (Sicily, southern Italy) were investigated through stable isotope\\u000a composition (carbon and oxygen) of authigenic carbonate (calcareous muds) and freshwater shells. The core chronology was established\\u000a through three AMS dates, and by correlation with a previously dated nearby core. Stable isotope data show that the lake water\\u000a evolution was mainly dominated by

Giovanni Zanchetta; Alessandra Borghini; Anthony E. Fallick; Francesco P. Bonadonna; Gabriello Leone

2007-01-01

82

Artemisia arborescens L.: essential oil composition and effects of plant growth stage in some genotypes from Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils from aerial parts of several Artemisia arborescens L. populations, collected in five different localities of Sicily, were analyzed by gas chromatograph–flame ionization detector (GC–FID) and GC–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) in order to study the chemical composition and its variability due to phenological stage. Forty-three compounds, accounting for more than 92% of the oil, were identified. Monoterpene fraction with the

Marcello Militello; Alessandra Carrubba; María Amparo Blázquez

2012-01-01

83

Ground penetrating radar survey finalized to the recovery of the “S. Agata alla Badia” church in Catania (eastern Sicily, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous archaeological sites dating to the greek-roman period have been found in the underground of the city of Catania (eastern\\u000a Sicily, Italy). Their presence is a testimony of the several settlements that have followed in this area over time. In this\\u000a work we have conducted electromagnetic surveys, consisting of ten georadar profiles, inside the church of “S. Agata alla Badia”,

S. Imposa; F. Barone; S. Gresta; A. Leone

2009-01-01

84

Predicting storm triggered debris flow events: application to the 2009 Ionian-Peloritan disaster (Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main assumption on which landslide susceptibility assessment by means of stochastic modelling lays is that the past is the key to the future. As a consequence, a stochastic model able to classify a past known landslide scenario should be able to predict a future unknown one as well. However, storm triggered landslide events in the Mediterranean region could pose some limits on the operative validity of such expectation, as they typically result by a randomness in time recurrence and magnitude. This is the case of the 2007/09 couple of storm events, which recently hit north-eastern Sicily resulting in largely different disaster scenarios. The purpose of this study is to test whether a susceptibility model based on stepwise binary logistic regression is able to predict a storm triggered debris flow scenario. The study area is the small catchment of the Itala torrent (10 km2), which drains from the southern Peloritan Mountains eastward to the Ionian sea, in the province of the Messina territory (Sicily, Italy). The shallow landslides activated in the occasion of two close intense rainfall events have been mapped by integrating remote and field surveys, producing two event inventories which include 73 landslides, activated in 2007, and 616 landslides, triggered by the 2009 storm. The set of predictors were derived from a 2 m cell digital elevation model and a 1 : 50 000 scale geologic map. The topic of the research was explored by performing two types of validation procedures: self-validation, based on the random partition of each event inventory and chrono-validation, based on the time partition of the landslide inventory. It was therefore possible to analyse and compare the performances both of the 2007-calibrated model in predicting the 2009 landslides (forward chronovalidation) and vice versa of the 2009-calibrated model in predicting the 2007 landslides (backward chronovalidation). Both the two predictions resulted in largely acceptable performances, in terms of fitting, skill and reliability. However, a loss of performance and differences in the selected predictors between the self-validated and the chrono-validated models which are linked to the characteristics of the two triggering storms are highlighted.

Cama, M.; Lombardo, L.; Conoscenti, C.; Rotigliano, R.

2015-03-01

85

Tsunami vulnerability analysis in the coastal town of Catania, Sicily: methodology and results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catania lies on the eastern coast of Sicily and is one of the most important towns in Sicily as regards history, tourism and industry. Recent analyses conducted in the frame of the project TRANSFER have shown that it is exposed not only to tsunamis generated locally, but also to distant tsunamis generated in the western Hellenic arc. In the frame of the European project SCHEMA different scenarios covering local sources such as the 11 January 1693 event and the 1908 case as well as remote sources such as the 365 AD tsunami have been explored through numerical modelling in order to assess the vulnerability of the area to tsunami attacks. One of the primary outcomes of the scenario analysis is the quantification of the inundation zones (location, extension along the coast and landward). Taking the modelling results on flooding as input data, the analysis has focussed on the geomorphological characteristics of the coasts and on the buildings and infrastructure typology to make evaluation of the vulnerability level of the Catania area. The coast to the south of the harbour of Catania is low and characterized by a mild slope: topography reaches the altitude of 10 m between 300-750 m distance from the shoreline. Building density is low, and generally tourist structures prevail on residential houses. The zone north of the harbour is high-coast, with 10 m isoline usually close to the coastline, and little possibility for flood to penetrate deep inland. Here there are three small marinas with the corresponding services and infrastructure around, and the city quarters consists of residential buildings. Vulnerability assessment has been carried out by following the methodology developed by the SCHEMA consortium, distinguishing between primary (type and material) and secondary criteria (e.g. ground, age, foundation, orientation, etc.) for buildings, and by adopting a building damage matrix, basically depending on building type and water inundation depth. Data needed for such analysis have been retrieved from satellite images such as Google and validated through ad hoc local surveys with the collaboration of the local civil protection agency.

Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano; Gallazzi, Sara; Tonini, Roberto; Zaniboni, Filippo

2010-05-01

86

Geological and geophysical evidences for mud diapirism in south-eastern Sicily (Italy) and geodynamic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent investigation on the northern margin of the Hyblean Plateau in south-eastern Sicily highlights the occurrence of a clayey diapiric intrusion into the foreland carbonate series. The piercing body, exposed along a ?270 long and ?30 m deep NE-SW elongated quarry, consists of serpentinite-bearing clayey material. As suggested by the internal contractional features and by its geometric relations with the adjacent rocks, the clayey body intruded in the foreland series producing on its flanks a set of domino-arranged normal faults which nucleated as a result of gravitative collapse. Taking into account previous petrological studies, which provided information about the origin of the mud, a deep geodynamic model for the northern part of the Hyblean Plateau is here presented. The mud diapirs originated from the uprising of pre-existing serpentinite bodies and others products of alteration probably developed along an ancient ridge-transform intersection where a hydrothermally altered mantle wedge occurred. This interpretation is supported by seismic, magnetic and gravimetric anomalies beneath the analyzed area and has implications on its geodynamic evolution.

Barreca, Giovanni

2014-12-01

87

Assessment of hazards and risks for landscape protection planning in Sicily.  

PubMed

Landscape protection planning is a complex task that requires an integrated assessment and involves heterogeneous issues. These issues include not only the management of a considerable amount of data to describe landscape features but also the choice of appropriate tools to evaluate the hazards and risks. The landscape assessment phase can provide fundamental information for the definition of a Landscape Protection Plan, in which the selection of norms for protection or rehabilitation is strictly related to hazards, values and risks that are found. This paper describes a landscape assessment methodology conducted by using GIS, concerning landscape hazards, values and risk. Four hazard categories are introduced and assessed concerning urban sprawl and erosion: landscape transformations by new planned developments, intensification of urban sprawl patterns, loss of agriculture land and erosion. Landscape value is evaluated by using different thematic layers overlaid with GIS geoprocessing. The risk of loss of landscape value is evaluated, with reference to the potential occurrence of the previously assessed hazards. The case study is the Province of Enna (Sicily), where landscape protection is a relevant issue because of the importance of cultural and natural heritage. Results show that high value landscape features have a low risk of loss of landscape value. For this reason, landscape protection policies assume a relevant role in landscapes with low-medium values and they should be addressed to control the urban sprawl processes that are beginning in the area. PMID:22766043

La Rosa, Daniele; Martinico, Francesco

2013-09-01

88

Sustainability evaluation of Sicily's lemon and orange production: an energy, economic and environmental analysis.  

PubMed

The island of Sicily has a long standing tradition in citrus growing. We evaluated the sustainability of orange and lemon orchards, under organic and conventional farming, using an energy, environmental and economic analysis of the whole production cycle by using a life cycle assessment approach. These orchard systems differ only in terms of a few of the inputs used and the duration of the various agricultural operations. The quantity of energy consumption in the production cycle was calculated by multiplying the quantity of inputs used by the energy conversion factors drawn from the literature. The production costs were calculated considering all internal costs, including equipment, materials, wages, and costs of working capital. The performance of the two systems (organic and conventional), was compared over a period of fifty years. The results, based on unit surface area (ha) production, prove the stronger sustainability of the organic over the conventional system, both in terms of energy consumption and environmental impact, especially for lemons. The sustainability of organic systems is mainly due to the use of environmentally friendly crop inputs (fertilizers, not use of synthetic products, etc.). In terms of production costs, the conventional management systems were more expensive, and both systems were heavily influenced by wages. In terms of kg of final product, the organic production system showed better environmental and energy performances. PMID:23850762

Pergola, M; D'Amico, M; Celano, G; Palese, A M; Scuderi, A; Di Vita, G; Pappalardo, G; Inglese, P

2013-10-15

89

Relationships between a new slope morphometric index and calanchi erosion in northern Sicily, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Italian badlands, or "calanchi", are common landforms in Mediterranean areas including central and southern Italy. Calanchi landforms may be compared to small hydrographic basins. These landforms are characterised by dense, hierarchical and rapidly evolving drainage systems carved into steep clayey slopes and by a sharply alternating pattern of furrows and narrow, generally sharp crests. This work presents a study of morphometric characteristics and a statistical analysis for two sites in northern Sicily (Italy), on outcrops of silty-clay deposits affected by active erosion processes, which give this area a typical calanchi landscape. In particular, factors closely linked to the characteristics of the hydrographic network and slope morphometry were considered and analysed. The initial geometry of the slopes was reconstructed and statistically compared with that of the current calanchi slopes including the drainage network. A new morphometric index (Morphometric Slope Index, MSI) was defined to represent the initial slope geometry as a whole. This index was found to be effective in defining the structure of hydrographic networks, summarising the characteristics and type of slope evolution, and quantifying the rate of soil erosion. The rate was determined based on both linear (gully erosion) and areal (landslides, sheet and rill erosion) morphogenetic processes, and our analysis based on MSI indicates the dominance of areal erosion. MSI could also be used for basins larger than calanchi to represent the characteristics of geomorphic processes.

Buccolini, Marcello; Coco, Laura; Cappadonia, Chiara; Rotigliano, Edoardo

2012-05-01

90

Aflatoxin M? in raw, UHT milk and dairy products in Sicily (Italy).  

PubMed

A survey on 73 milk samples from different animal breeds and 24 dairy products samples from Sicily, Italy, was carried out for the presence of aflatoxin M? (AFM1) by LC-fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity cleanup. AFM1 was detected in 48% and 42% of the milk and dairy samples at concentration ranges between <5.0-16.0 and <5.0-18.0 ng L?¹, respectively. Within the raw milk samples, 92% had an AFM1 content below 5.0 ng L?¹, in 7% of the cases it was in the range 5.0-10.0 ng L?¹ and 1% was contaminated between 10.0 and 20.0 ng L?¹. For the dairy products, ultra-high-temperature treated (UHT) milk, milk cream and cheese, the incidence was 42%, of which 83% contained less than 5.0 ng L?¹ and 17% contained 10.0-20.0 ng L?¹ AFM1. The levels of contamination found justify continuous monitoring for public health and to reduce consumer exposure. PMID:24779902

Santini, Antonello; Raiola, Assunta; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Macaluso, Andrea; Bognanno, Matteo; Galvano, Fabio; Ritieni, Alberto

2013-01-01

91

Factors Associated with Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet among Adolescents Living in Sicily, Southern Italy  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to examine the factors associated with increased Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence among a sample of Italian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1135 students (13–16 years) attending 13 secondary schools of Sicily, southern Italy. Validated instruments were used for dietary assessment and the KIDMED score to assess adolescents’ adherence to the MD. A higher adherence to the MD was associated with high socioeconomic status (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.03–2.26) and high physical activity (OR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02–1.70), whereas lower adherence was associated with living in an urban environment (OR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44–0.97) and being obese (OR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37–0.94). The adolescents’ KIDMED scores were inversely associated with adolescents’ intake of sweets, fast foods, fried foods, and sugary drinks, and directly with fruit, vegetables, pasta, fish, and cheese intakes. Urban-living adolescents were less likely to eat fruit and more prone to consume meat, sugary drinks, and fast food than rural-living adolescents. The latter were more likely to eat sweets and snacks. A general poor quality of food consumption in Italian adolescents away from the MD was reported, especially among those living in urban areas. PMID:24304608

Grosso, Giuseppe; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Scuderi, Alessandro; Matalone, Margherita; Platania, Alessio; Giorgianni, Gabriele; Rametta, Stefania; Nolfo, Francesca; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio

2013-01-01

92

Study of tsunami hazard associated with large earthquakes along the coasts of Calabria and Sicily (southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Messina Straits, the eastern coast of Sicily and the Tyrrhenian coasts of Calabria are known to have been affected by large tsunamis. Since development of urban, industrial and tourist settlements is remarkably increased in recent years on the coastal zones here as well as elsewhere in southern Italy, the problem of evaluating the effect of possible future events on coastal environment and structures has become a critical issue for civil protection and for the economic and balanced growth of the littoral zones. To this purpose, basic seismotectonic information on active faults and numerical simulations of tsunamis provide an indispensable tool to evaluate hazard, vulnerability and risk associated with plausible scenarios of disasters. The two most destructive tsunamis reported to have occurred in Calabria and Sicily were caused by the earthquakes of January 11, 1693 in eastern Sicily and of December 28, 1908 in the Messina Straits. Here we explore different scenarios of tsunami impact taking into account some of the most reliable fault models that are proposed in the literature. The simulations are performed by means of a finite-element code which implements and solves the non-linear Navier-Stokes equations in the shallow water approximation. Special attention is devoted to the study of the action of the water waves on the most important coastal towns in the source region. Very interesting features are expectedly played by the local coastal morphology and by harbour structures: for example, in the case of Augusta, the peninsula on which the town is built and the breakwaters of the Augusta harbour have the effect to screen the tsunami waves reducing sensibly their amplitude within the harbour basin, which is a non-trivial fact, that not always is reported to occur for tsunamis attacking harbours.

Tinti, S.; Armigliato, A.; Pagnoni, G.

2003-04-01

93

Origin and Diet of the Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers on the Mediterranean Island of Favignana (Ègadi Islands, Sicily)  

PubMed Central

Hunter-gatherers living in Europe during the transition from the late Pleistocene to the Holocene intensified food acquisition by broadening the range of resources exploited to include marine taxa. However, little is known on the nature of this dietary change in the Mediterranean Basin. A key area to investigate this issue is the archipelago of the Ègadi Islands, most of which were connected to Sicily until the early Holocene. The site of Grotta d’Oriente, on the present-day island of Favignana, was occupied by hunter-gatherers when Postglacial environmental changes were taking place (14,000-7,500 cal BP). Here we present the results of AMS radiocarbon dating, palaeogenetic and isotopic analyses undertaken on skeletal remains of the humans buried at Grotta d’Oriente. Analyses of the mitochondrial hypervariable first region of individual Oriente B, which belongs to the HV-1 haplogroup, suggest for the first time on genetic grounds that humans living in Sicily during the early Holocene could have originated from groups that migrated from the Italian Peninsula around the Last Glacial Maximum. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses show that the Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic hunter-gatherers of Favignana consumed almost exclusively protein from terrestrial game and that there was only a slight increase in marine food consumption from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene. This dietary change was similar in scale to that at sites on mainland Sicily and in the rest of the Mediterranean, suggesting that the hunter-gatherers of Grotta d’Oriente did not modify their subsistence strategies specifically to adapt to the progressive isolation of Favignana. The limited development of technologies for intensively exploiting marine resources was probably a consequence both of Mediterranean oligotrophy and of the small effective population size of these increasingly isolated human groups, which made innovation less likely and prevented transmission of fitness-enhancing adaptations. PMID:23209602

Mannino, Marcello A.; Catalano, Giulio; Talamo, Sahra; Mannino, Giovanni; Di Salvo, Rosaria; Schimmenti, Vittoria; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Messina, Andrea; Petruso, Daria; Caramelli, David; Richards, Michael P.; Sineo, Luca

2012-01-01

94

Post-Messinian evolutionary relationships across the Sicilian channel: Mitochondrial and nuclear markers link a new green toad from Sicily to African relatives  

PubMed Central

Background Little attention has been paid to the consequences of the last landbridge between Africa and Sicily on Mediterranean biogeography. Previous paleontological and scarce molecular data suggest possible faunal exchange later than the well-documented landbridge in the Messinian (5.3 My); however, a possible African origin of recent terrestrial Sicilian fauna has not been thoroughly tested with molecular methods. To gain insight into the phylogeography of the region, we examine two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers (one is a newly adapted intron marker) in green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) across that sea barrier, the Strait of Sicily. Results Extensive sampling throughout the western Mediterranean and North Africa revealed a deep sister relationship between Sicilian (Bufo siculus n.sp.) and African green toads (B. boulengeri) on the mitochondrial and nuclear level. Divergence times estimated under a Bayesian-coalescence framework (mtDNA control region and 16S rRNA) range from the Middle Pliocene (3.6 My) to Pleistocene (0.16 My) with an average (1.83 to 2.0 My) around the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, suggesting possible land connections younger than the Messinian (5.3 My). We describe green toads from Sicily and some surrounding islands as a new endemic species (Bufo siculus). Bufo balearicus occurs on some western Mediterranean islands (Corsica, Sardinia, Mallorca, and Menorca) and the Apennine Peninsula, and is well differentiated on the mitochondrial and nuclear level from B. siculus as well as from B. viridis (Laurenti), whose haplotype group reaches northeastern Italy, north of the Po River. Detection of Calabrian B. balearicus haplotypes in northeastern Sicily suggests recent invasion. Our data agree with paleogeographic and fossil data, which suggest long Plio-Pleistocene isolation of Sicily and episodic Pleistocene faunal exchange across the Strait of Messina. It remains unknown whether both species (B. balearicus, B. siculus) occur in sympatry in northern Sicily. Conclusion Our findings on green toads give the first combined mitochondrial and nuclear sequence evidence for a phylogeographic connection across the Strait of Sicily in terrestrial vertebrates. These relationships may have implications for comparative phylogeographic research on other terrestrial animals co-occurring in North Africa and Sicily. PMID:18294389

2008-01-01

95

Culture and biology: surnames in evaluating genetic relationships among the ethnic minorities of Southern Italy and Sicily.  

PubMed

Surnames of grandparents were collected from children in the primary schools of the Albanian-Italian, Croat-Italian, and Greek-Italian villages. The coefficients of relationships by isonymy show almost no relationship with ethnicity. Ethnolinguistic minorities of Southern Italy and Sicily are geographically subdivided in two main clusters: the first cluster comprises the Albanian, Croat, and Greek communities of the Adriatic area; and the second cluster comprises the Albanian communities of the Ionian, Thirrenian and Sicilian area. The Greeks of Reggio Calabria Province are completely separated from the other communities. PMID:11787541

Vienna, A; Biondi, G

2001-06-01

96

The subsidence history of the northern Hyblean plateau margin, southeastern Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southeastern corner of Sicily is dominated by the Hyblean plateau which is composed of carbonate rocks of Triassic to Miocene age. The plateau forms part of the African foreland which collided during Tertiary times with the Calabrian Arc giving rise to the Maghrebian thrust belt. The present study attempts to reconstruct the subsidence history of the northern Hyblean plateau. During the Neogene climax of the plate collision this area has been a centre for widespread basaltic volcanic activity (8-1 Ma) and uplift. At the close of the collisional events (Pliocene-Early Pleistocene) the area under consideration has been affected by subsidence and the progressive consumption of the northern margin of the Hyblean plateau led to the development of the modern foredeep. A quantitative analysis was done by one-dimensional Airy backstripping of seven deep wells located on this crucial part of the Hyblean plateau. The results of the analysis show that the subsidence history of the northern Hyblean plateau area is characterized by four main phases, similar to other domains in the central and eastern Mediterranean basins. These phases are: (a) Neotethyan rifting during Late Triassic-Early Jurassic time; (b) a slow thermal subsidence from Early Jurassic until Late Cretaceous time, leading to the formation of a widespread Mesozoic carbonate platform; (c) compressional phase during Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene time, which resulted in the formation of fold systems; and (d) uplift and subsidence events during the middle Tertiary which are probably the result of the continued collision of the European-African plates. After the Early Pleistocene, unlike other terranes within the Mediterranean, an uplift occurred in the northern Hyblean plateau following the Upper Miocene-Lower Pleistocene massive volcanic activity. This uplift is probably associated with the latest stages of thrusting along the frontal part of the Maghrebian thrust belt.

Yellin-Dror, A.; Grasso, M.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Tibor, G.

1997-12-01

97

A radiometric and petrographic approach to risk assessment at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).  

PubMed

The main goal of this work was to assess the radiological hazard at Alte Madonie Mounts region (north-central Sicily, Italy) in response to rumours of an increase in the incidence of cancer in this area. A correlation between the natural radionuclide contents and the petrographic features of the soil and rock samples was also evaluated. A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in 'Marinelli' beakers for 20 d prior to measurement to ensure that a radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi had been reached. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to quantify the radioactivity concentrations. To determine (238)U and (232)Th activities, the 609.3-keV line from (214)Bi in secular equilibrium with (226)Ra and the 911-keV line from (228)Ac, with which (232)Th can be assumed to be in equilibrium, were used, respectively. The gamma transition of 1461 keV was used to determine (40)K activity. The average values of the concentrations of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K were 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1), respectively, whereas the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1), respectively. A linear relationship was found between the activity values of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K. An exception was found for a group of samples in which the (214)Bi activities were much higher than expected. The chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples permitted the justification of these anomalies. The results of the primordial radionuclide contents are reassuring from a radiation protection point of view because the activities of the uranium and thorium series products and of the (40)K do not present a significant radiological hazard. PMID:24106332

Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

2014-03-01

98

Incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Sicily: A population based study.  

PubMed

Our objective was to investigate incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in Sicily, southern Italy, by means of a population based study. We included people with ALS resident in five Sicilian provinces, whose onset occurred in the two-year period 2005-2006 (population at 31 December 2006: 3,481,096 inhabitants). A multisource case-finding procedure was adopted and patients were classified as affected by ALS according to revised El Escorial criteria. During the two-year surveillance period, 97 patients meeting eligibility criteria included 57 males (58.8%) and 40 females (41.2%). Crude annual incidence rate was 1.4/100,000 person years (95% CI 1.33-1.47). The incidence rate was higher in males (1.71/100,000; CI 1.61-1.81) than in females (1.11/100,000; CI 1.01-1.21). Standardized incidence rate for the total population in the 45-74-years-old age group was 3.22 (CI 3.11-3.33). Prevalence rate was 6.0/100,000 (CI 5.97-6.03), higher in males (7.1/100,000; CI 7.02-7.18) than females (4.9/100,000; CI 4.86-4.94). In conclusion, ALS rates observed in the present study are higher in males than females, with a peak of incidence at 70 years of age in both genders. These findings are consistent with those of other population based European studies. PMID:22409362

Ragonese, Paolo; Cellura, Eleonora; Aridon, Paolo; D'amelio, Marco; Spataro, Rossella; Taiello, Alfonsa Claudia; Maimone, Davide; La Bella, Vincenzo; Savettieri, Giovanni

2012-05-01

99

Impact of SLA assimilation in the Sicily Channel Regional Model: model skills and mesoscale features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of the assimilation of MyOcean Sea Level Anomalies along track data on the analyses of the Sicily Channel Regional Model was studied. The numerical model has a resolution of 1/32° degrees and is capable to reproduce mesoscale and sub-mesoscale features. The impact of the SLA assimilation is studied by comparing a simulation (SIM, which does not assimilate data) with two analyses, AN0 and AN1, assimilating different reprocessing versions (V0 and V1) of the same set of Along Track altimetric measurements. The quality of the analyses was evaluated by computing RMSE of the misfits between analyses background and observations (sea level) before assimilation. A qualitative evaluation of the ability of the analyses to reproduce mesoscale structures is accomplished by comparing model results with Ocean Color and SST satellite data, able to detect such features on the ocean surface. CTD profiles allowed to evaluate the impact of the SLA assimilation along the water column. We found a significant improvement for AN1 solution in terms of SLA rmse in respect to SIM (the averaged RMSE of AN1 SLA misfits over 1.5 years is about 0.5 cm smaller than SIM) and a weaker improvement in respect to the assimilation of the V0 dataset (0.1 cm average over the same period). Comparison with CTD data shows a questionable improvement produced by the assimilation process in terms of vertical features: AN1 is better in temperature while for salinity it get worse than SIM at the surface. The qualitative comparison of simulation and analyses with synoptic satellite independent data proves that SLA assimilation of V1 data allows to correctly reproduce some dynamical features (above all the circulation in the Ionian portion of the domain) and mesoscale structures otherwise misplaced or neglected both by SIM and AN0.

Olita, A.; Dobricic, S.; Ribotti, A.; Fazioli, L.; Cucco, A.; Dufau, C.; Sorgente, R.

2012-02-01

100

Staphylococcal food poisoning case and molecular analysis of toxin genes in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from food in Sicily, Italy.  

PubMed

A case of staphylococcal food poisoning was observed in two individuals of the same family after consumption of primosale, a semiripened sheep cheese produced in Sicily. Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the cheese produced enterotoxin C (SEC) and carried both the enterotoxin C (sec) and the toxic shock syndrome toxin (tsst-1) gene. Following this case, an extensive survey was conducted on 971 food samples (raw milk, cheese, meat, and food preparations). S. aureus was detected in 102 of 971 food samples, from all types of food with the exception of ricotta cheese. The tsst-1 gene was present in 42% of the strains, either alone or in combination with other toxin genes. The enterotoxin C gene was the most represented enterotoxin, but it was only found in dairy products. Six S. aureus isolates carried the sea gene alone, two isolates carried both sea and seb, and one isolate carried both sea and sec. A significant percentage (46%) of all isolates carried a toxin gene, creating significant concern that virulent S. aureus can be transmitted through food in Sicily. PMID:25384106

Vitale, Maria; Scatassa, Maria Luisa; Cardamone, Cinzia; Oliveri, Giuseppa; Piraino, Chiara; Alduina, Rosa; Napoli, Concetta

2015-01-01

101

Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in lanner Falco biarmicus feldeggli Schlegel chicks and lanner prey in Sicily, Italy.  

PubMed

This paper reports on research conducted to elucidate the risk posed to the Sicilian population of the endangered lanner falcon Falco biarmicus feldeggii Schlegel by organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), as part of a wider study on contaminant risk to the lanner. Seventeen lanner nest sites were studied in northern and central Sicily. Sampling (in 2005) and analysis were carried out for selected OC pesticides and PCB congeners in lanner chick blood (15 chicks from 6 nest sites) and in two of the main lanner prey species, magpie Pica pica (36 individuals from 6 lanner nest sites) and rock dove Columba livia (10 individuals from 2 lanner nest sites). No OC and PCB residues were found in lanner chick blood above the detection limits, except for one solitary congener PCB153 (21.8 ng g(-1) wet weight), suggesting that these contaminants do not pose a significant risk to lanner chicks in the study area. Magpie and dove appeared mostly free of contamination with OC pesticides, though contamination levels were significantly higher in magpie than in dove. The presence of exceptional DDE and HEOD values in approximately 8% of the P. pica sample, and one P. pica sample showing recent DDT contamination, may indicate a local OC pesticide hazard to some lanner. Future research to further elucidate the contaminant risk to lanner in Sicily is suggested. PMID:18833798

Movalli, Paola; Lo Valvo, Mario; Pereira, M Glória; Osborn, Daniel

2008-09-01

102

Seasonal circulation and mass flux estimates in the western Sicily Strait derived from a variational inverse section model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal hydrographic conductivity-temperature-depth surveys and moored current meter measurements have been analysed using an inverse approach in order to highlight the main features of the circulation in the western Sicily Strait during 2003. The variational inverse section model combines different types of constraints to seek for a continuous flow field satisfying data and physical assumptions within prescribed prior error bars. It is based on a finite element discretization that allows an appropriate resolution of very irregular topography. The corresponding results, consistent with data and dynamics, are providing new insight into the circulation of the surface and intermediate layers in conjunction with transport and formal error estimates during five hydrographic cruises. In the upper layer, these insights include the southward Atlantic Tunisian Current (ATC) off the Cap Bon Coasts, its high variability at short time-scales and its recirculation during October. For the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) regime, a detailed view of the circulation in the western Sicily Strait is given evidencing its recirculation at the western sill during the same period. Transports for both ATC and LIW are computed and found to be maximum in spring and decrease in summer and fall.

Ferjani, Dhouha; Gana, Slim

2010-10-01

103

Holocene hydrological changes in south-western Mediterranean as recorded by lake-level fluctuations at Lago Preola, a coastal lake in southern Sicily, Italy  

E-print Network

at Lago Preola, a coastal lake in southern Sicily, Italy Michel Magny a,*, Boris Vannière a , Camilla Calo, Switzerland c Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Via S. Maria 53, 56126 Pisa, Italy d IGC-CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, 56100 Pisa, Italy e Dipartimento di Colture Arboree, Facoltà di Agraria, Viale delle Scienze 11, I-90128

Bern, Universität

104

Fast geodetic strain-rates in eastern Sicily (southern Italy): new insights into block tectonics and seismic potential in the area of the great 1693 earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sicily and Calabria lye at the boundary between the converging Nubia and Eurasian plates and this sector of the plate boundary is consensually recognized as a key area for understanding the ongoing kinematics and geodynamics of the Mediterranean region. The kinematics of the complex tectonic blocks mosaic that characterizes the central Mediterranean, and particularly southern Italy, is, infact, still matter of debate. The increasing number of GPS stations available from mid-2000, particularly from continuous GPS networks, suggest a partially independent motion of this block with respect to Nubia. Interseismic GPS velocities in Eastern Sicily show two significant velocity gradients along a SSENNW direction, highlighting a contraction of ~2 mm/yr and an extension of ~2.5 mm/yr that are accommodated within a few tens of kilometers in correspondence of the northern rim of the Hyblean Plateau, the locus of the 1693 (Mw ~7.4) event, and the Nebrodi mountains, respectively. This complex velocity pattern suggests that different active tectonic structures likely contribute to the observed crustal deformation. This also suggests a significant internal deformation of the Sicily block, which deserves further investigation. In this work we first develop a kinematic block model to test different hypotheses about the tectonic blocks configuration in the study area. Then we model the observed ~N-S velocity gradients in eastern Sicily running a suite of block models, while varying the geometric parameters (dip angle and locking depth) and the top-edge position of the fault bounding the SES block to the north. Our kinematic analysis and performed statistical tests confirm the hypothesis of a kinematic independence of Sicily with respect to both Nubia and Eurasia, and highlights a more complex internal fragmentation of the tectonic blocks into three blocks, a north-eastern (NES), a central (CS) and a south-eastern (SES) Sicily crustal blocks. Results from the NNW-SSE velocity gradient modeling in Eastern Sicily, analyzed in terms of chisquares statistics, suggest that it is not explainable as strain accumulation on a single fault structure but it's likely the sum of the elastic contribution from two fault systems: an ~E-W trending subvertical fault located roughly along the Kumeta-Alcantara lineament, with a transtensional component of motion, and a WSW-ENE striking and NW dipping, high-angle, poorly locked, reverse fault extending south of Mount Etna.

Mastrolembo Ventura, B.; Serpelloni, E.; Argnani, A.; Bonforte, A.; Burgmann, R.; Anzidei, M.; Baldi, P.; Puglisi, G.

2013-12-01

105

Bioweathering of a basalt from Etna (Sicily) by the moss Grimmia pulvinata (Hedw.) Sm.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lichens and mosses, as pioneer plants, firstly colonize rocky surfaces enhancing biogeophysical and biogeochemical degradation of their substrates. Indeed, the contact area between the lithological substrates and the cryptogams is considered a simplified environment for studying the mechanisms of bioweathering, which, in many cases, characterize the initial stages of pedogenesis. In this paper we report the results of a study conducted for the recognition and characterization of the bioweathering processes of a basaltic lava present on the slopes of Mt Etna (western Sicily) at an altitude of 1550 m above sea level, associated with the growth of the moss Grimmia pulvinata (Hedw.) Sm. The Etnean rock, characterised by a porphiric structure, is mainly made by a microcrystalline groundmass in which are immersed abundant phenocrysts of plagioclase, augite and rare olivine crystals. The groundmass shows the same mineral assemblage. With the use of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, we determined the chemical composition of the fresh rock, of the materials collected at the rock-moss interface and of the plant tissues. The X-ray diffraction has allowed to have detailed information on the mineralogy of the bioaltered rocky and interface materials. Scanning electron microscope observations and microanalytical investigations carried out on fragments of rock colonized by moss showed a significant disintegration of the rock and the presence of crystals with tabular habit, containing Cu and Fe, aligned tangentially to the surface of Grimmia pulvinata rhizoids. The weathered material covered by the moss cushion has the chemical and physical characteristics of low pedogenized soils. The high value of the C/N ratio has to be referred to the presence of plant residues with high resistance to mineralize. The significant amount of plant available phosphorus, as assessed by Olsen extraction, confirmed the possibility that the bryophytes constitute important reserves of phosphorus, playing, in particular environments, a significant role in defining the biogeochemical cycle of the nutrient. With the use of FT-IR spectroscopy the humic acids separated from the organic material present in the "protosoil" and from the moss have been characterized. Limited differences were detected compared to humic acids commonly found in soils. In particular, different is the quantitative contribution of the functional groups that characterize the molecular organization of carbohydrates, organic acids and nitrogen constituents.

Giordano, S.; Vingiani, S.; Adamo, P.

2012-04-01

106

MORB-type neon in an enriched mantle beneath Etna, Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noble gas elemental and isotopic compositions were determined for five CO2-CH4 samples collected around Etna, Sicily, to investigate the geochemical features of the mantle beneath the volcano. The samples contain mantle-derived noble gases. The measured helium isotopic ratios (3He/4He) vary between 5.9 and 6.4 times atmospheric ratio (Ra=1.4×10-6), which are comparable to the ratios of olivines (6.1-8.2Ra) in the lavas of the same volcano [1]. Neon in the samples is enriched in both 20Ne and 21Ne (20Ne/22Ne 9.95-10.7, 21Ne/22Ne 0.030-0.037), indicating derivation from the mantle. The ?(20Ne/22Ne)/?(21Ne/ 22Ne) values are identical with that of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB), indicating a similarity in the time-integrated (U/Ne) ratio between the Etnean magma source and the depleted upper mantle (MORB source). Argon in the samples has 40Ar/36Ar ratios up to of 1800, which are higher than in atmosphere. These ratios are positively correlated with the 20Ne/22Ne ratios, indicating a mantle origin of the radiogenic argon. Compared with olivines from the Etnean lavas [1], the argon in our natural gas samples is less contaminated by atmospheric argon. Two samples from a CO2 well show small but resolvable excess of 129Xe and 134,136Xe. The volcanic rocks of Etna, ranging from tholeiites to alkaline, are enriched in incompatible elements. Nd, Sr and Pb isotopes of the volcanic rocks indicate that the magma source is isotopically heterogeneous and contain a component with high Sr, Pb and low Nd isotopic ratios derived from a mantle region which has been enriched in incompatible elements for a few million years [2,3,4] relative to the depleted upper mantle. The helium isotopic ratios of the gas samples are lower than those of MORB and are consistent with geochemical signatures of the solid elements in the Etnean volcanic rocks. However, the observed MORB-type neon is on a MORB correlation array without accumulation of nucleogenic 21Ne. This apparent decoupling may be explained by a recent mixing of the depleted upper mantle (MORB source) with fluid enriched in both incompatible elements and radiogenic 4He. When the fluid was formed with a small degree of partial melting, fractionation of radiogenic 4He from nucleogenic 21Ne could have occurred because of smaller partition coefficient of He than Ne.

Italiano, F.; Nuccio, M. P.; Wakita, H.; Nakai, S.

1997-12-01

107

MORB-type neon in an enriched mantle beneath Etna, Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noble gas elemental and isotopic compositions were determined for five CO 2-CH 4 samples collected around Etna, Sicily, to investigate the geochemical features of the mantle beneath the volcano. The samples contain mantle-derived noble gases. The measured helium isotopic ratios ( 3He/ 4He) vary between 5.9 and 6.4 times atmospheric ratio ( Ra=1.4×10 -6), which are comparable to the ratios of olivines (6.1-8.2 Ra) in the lavas of the same volcano [1]. Neon in the samples is enriched in both 20Ne and 21Ne ( 20Ne/ 22Ne 9.95-10.7, 21Ne/ 22Ne 0.030-0.037), indicating derivation from the mantle. The ?( 20Ne/ 22Ne)/ ?( 21Ne/ 22Ne) values are identical with that of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB), indicating a similarity in the time-integrated (U/Ne) ratio between the Etnean magma source and the depleted upper mantle (MORB source). Argon in the samples has 40Ar/ 36Ar ratios up to of 1800, which are higher than in atmosphere. These ratios are positively correlated with the 20Ne/ 22Ne ratios, indicating a mantle origin of the radiogenic argon. Compared with olivines from the Etnean lavas [1], the argon in our natural gas samples is less contaminated by atmospheric argon. Two samples from a CO 2 well show small but resolvable excess of 129Xe and 134,136Xe. The volcanic rocks of Etna, ranging from tholeiites to alkaline, are enriched in incompatible elements. Nd, Sr and Pb isotopes of the volcanic rocks indicate that the magma source is isotopically heterogeneous and contain a component with high Sr, Pb and low Nd isotopic ratios derived from a mantle region which has been enriched in incompatible elements for a few million years [2,3,4] relative to the depleted upper mantle. The helium isotopic ratios of the gas samples are lower than those of MORB and are consistent with geochemical signatures of the solid elements in the Etnean volcanic rocks. However, the observed MORB-type neon is on a MORB correlation array without accumulation of nucleogenic 21Ne. This apparent decoupling may be explained by a recent mixing of the depleted upper mantle (MORB source) with fluid enriched in both incompatible elements and radiogenic 4He. When the fluid was formed with a small degree of partial melting, fractionation of radiogenic 4He from nucleogenic 21Ne could have occurred because of smaller partition coefficient of He than Ne.

Nakai, Shun'ichi; Wakita, Hiroshi; Nuccio, Mario P.; Italiano, Franco

1997-12-01

108

Persistence of phlebotomine Leishmania vectors in urban sites of Catania (Sicily, Italy).  

PubMed

BackgroundPioneering research on ¿Mediterranean Kala-Azar¿ carried out by Adler and Theodor early in the past century (~1930s) had identified Catania city (Sicily) as a major focus of the disease nowadays known as zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Despite the fact that disease in both humans and dogs has continued to be highly prevalent in the Catania province up to the present times, research on Leishmania vectors in this urban focus dates back to that distant period. This study aimed to evaluate the persistence and current composition of the sand fly fauna in urban environments of Catania in recent years, 2006 and 2013.MethodsIn 2006 fifty-one suitable collecting sites were identified within 44 sub-units of a grid drawn to include the urban Catania area. In 2013 the survey was restricted to four of the most productive and representative sites resulting from the 2006 survey. In both periods 3 collections per month were performed using standard sticky traps set for 3 days in wall holes/cavities along public roads, from the end of April through December.Results43/51 sites (84.3%) were found positive for sand flies. The 2006 collections accounted for a total of 4341 specimens including six species. Among competent Leishmania vector species, P. perniciosus was the most prevalent (36.5%) being identified in all sand fly-positive sites, with significant abundance in those of the old city centre. Other species of interest were P. sergenti (2.5%) and P. neglectus (1.5%). The 2013 survey produced 1130 sand flies, of which 39.5% were P. perniciosus, 1.6% P. sergenti and 0.7% P. neglectus. A search for Leishmania DNA in a small sample of 72 P. perniciosus females revealed 11% infection prevalence.ConclusionsOur findings from an old urban focus of leishmaniasis demonstrate that phlebotomine sand flies have adapted fairly well to the drastic environmental changes that have occurred in cities of the Western world in the past century and still represent a potential risk for Leishmania transmission. PMID:25487039

Lisi, Oscar; D Urso, Vera; Vaccalluzzo, Valerio; Bongiorno, Gioia; Khoury, Cristina; Severini, Francesco; Di Muccio, Trentina; Gramiccia, Marina; Gradoni, Luigi; Maroli, Michele

2014-12-01

109

Timing and recurrence of failure within NE Gela Basin, Sicily Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine mass movements represent a common phenomenon in the evolution of continental margins. In order to enhance knowledge on trigger mechanisms and assess the geologic risk of slope failure, many studies focus on extensive and voluminous slide complexes, since these may have catastrophic and largely unpredictable consequences for offshore infrastructures and coastal communities alike. However, rather thick and complex deposits often hinder the definition of internal structures and hence the recognition of individual failure events. Small-scaled slide complexes are uniquely positioned in this context, as full data coverage often allows for a more detailed evaluation of the timing and recurrence rates of failure. We present evidence from a multidisciplinary study combining high-resolution acoustic data with deep-drilled core material (MeBo type) from a prominent example - the NE portion of Gela Basin within Sicily Channel, Central Mediterranean Sea. Morphological data (Kongsberg Simrad EM120 and EM1002 multibeam echosounder) and subsurface imagery (Atlas parametric sediment echosounder) from this submarine landslide complex between 200 and 700 m water depth reveal multiple slope failures and stacked mass transport deposits of varying thicknesses and lateral distributions. Correlations of the acoustic data to 14C-dated core material (GeoB14401, 35.5 mbsf) drilled through the stacked mass transport deposits suggest the occurrence of four major failure events within the basin during the last ~30 ka. Failure times of these events relate to different palaeo-environments including (1) the MIS2/3 boundary, (2) the Last Glacial Maximum [LGM], (3) the deposition of Sapropel S1 equivalent, and (4) the late Holocene. In addition to these major events, the occasional presence of reworked shelf-benthic foraminifera species within the core sedimentary record hints towards the presence of additional, small-scaled events during the period of the LGM chronozone. Frequent failure of limited sediment volumes might have counteracted the development of major events during this time. However, the fact that these features, indicating sediment instability, are not resolvable in the acoustic record highlights the benefits of an integrated/multidisciplinary approach in identifying individual failure events within a slide complex.

Kuhlmann, Jannis; Asioli, Alessandra; Trincardi, Fabio; Huhn, Katrin

2014-05-01

110

Tsunami inundation scenarios of the city of Catania, Eastern Sicily, Italy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eastern Sicily is one of the coastal areas most exposed to earthquake and tsunami in Italy and in the whole Mediterranean. The city of Catania lies on this coast, between the eastern base of Etna volcano and the Ionian Sea. Catania is an important town of the Southern Italy because of its both touristic and commercial activities. In this work some reliable tsunami scenarios for the city of Catania are proposed on the basis of tectonic considerations and of the historical events that hit the city in the past. The most famous are the tsunamis associated with the 11 January 1693 and the 28 December 1908 earthquakes, of which the source determination is still an open issue, because it is not clear if the tsunamis were generated by the earthquake only or by a landslide or by a combination of both. One remote source based on the 365 A.D. West Hellenic Arc event is also considered in order to complete the possible tsunami scenarios for the town of Catania. The work is focused on the area of the harbour where many human activities and structures are present. Nowadays the harbour is protected by a long jetty opened in the south and here the coast presents two very different morphological aspects: moving southern respect to the harbour the coast is sandy and shallow, while moving northern it is rocky and high. Inundation maps computed on a 40-meters resolution grid are shown in order to identify the areas most exposed to tsunami inundation in this specific area and to study the harbour response to tsunami wave trains of different frequencies. All simulations are carried out by means of the numerical finite difference code UBO-TSUFD, which solves both linear and non-linear shallow water equations on multi-grid domain that allow to increase the grid resolution in the area of interest. The code can compute the inundation of specific areas and it is developed and maintained by the research team itself. The work has been developed in the framework of the EU-funded project SCHEMA, where Catania has been chosen as one of the test sites on which carrying out a tsunami vulnerability assessment study.

Tonini, Roberto; Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano

2010-05-01

111

Risk of classic Kaposi sarcoma with exposures to plants and soils in Sicily  

PubMed Central

Background Ecologic and in vitro studies suggest that exposures to plants or soil may influence risk of Kaposi sarcoma (KS). Methods In a population-based study of Sicily, we analyzed data on contact with 20 plants and residential exposure to 17 soils reported by 122 classic KS cases and 840 sex- and age-matched controls. With 88 KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) seropositive controls as the referent group, novel correlates of KS risk were sought, along with factors distinguishing seronegatives, in multinomial logistic regression models that included matching variables and known KS cofactors - smoking, cortisone use, and diabetes history. All plants were summed for cumulative exposure. Factor and cluster analyses were used to obtain scores and groups, respectively. Individual plants and soils in three levels of exposure with Ptrend ? 0.15 were retained in a backward elimination regression model. Results Adjusted for known cofactors, KS was not related to cumulative exposures to 20 plants [per quartile adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73 - 1.25, Ptrend = 0.87], nor was it related to any factor scores or cluster of plants (P = 0.11 to 0.81). In the elimination regression model, KS risk was associated with five plants (Ptrend = 0.02 to 0.10) and with residential exposure to six soils (Ptrend = 0.01 to 0.13), including three soils (eutric regosol, chromic/pellic vertisol) used to cultivate durum wheat. None of the KS-associated plants and only one soil was also associated with KSHV serostatus. Diabetes was associated with KSHV seronegativity (ORadj 4.69, 95% CI 1.97 - 11.17), but the plant and soil associations had little effect on previous findings that KS risk was elevated for diabetics (ORadj 7.47, 95% CI 3.04 - 18.35) and lower for current and former smokers (ORadj 0.26 and 0.47, respectively, Ptrend = 0.05). Conclusions KS risk was associated with exposure to a few plants and soils, but these may merely be due to chance. Study of the effects of durum wheat, which was previously associated with cKS, may be warranted. PMID:21126363

2010-01-01

112

Contribution of tsunami data analysis to constrain the seismic source: the case of the 1693 eastern Sicily earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The January 11, 1693 eastern Sicilyearthquake is comparable only with the December 28,1908 Messina Straits event in the Italian seismichistory as regards magnitude (M L 7), level ofdestruction and number of victims. The shock generateda strong tsunami, which hit the entire eastern coastof Sicily and particularly the town of Augusta. Theproblem of which fault was responsible for theearthquake is still open. Several hypotheses have beenformulated in the literature on the basis of differentkinds of geological, macroseismic and tectonic data,but a general agreement has not been reached yet. Animportant contribution to the discussion may come fromthe analysis of the tsunami data. In two previouspapers (Piatanesi et al., 1996; Piatanesi and Tinti,1998), the hydro-dynamical study of the tsunami basedon finite-element (FE) numerical simulations wascarried out taking into consideration mostlytheoretical faults, i.e. faults selected for theirsignificance in tsunami generation irrespective of thecorresponding geological evidence. This paper has tobe considered the continuation of the mentioned works.We have studied new sources proposed in theliterature, consistent with macroseismic data and/orgeological observations, and simulated thecorresponding tsunamis. We also built a new FE gridintroducing significant improvements in the coastlinerepresentation, and developed and applied a newalgorithm in order to account for the effect of thesea-bottom topography on the tsunami initialcondition. Some of the examined faults are located inthe Scordia-Lentini (SL) graben region and interceptthe coastline, others are placed in correspondencewith the Hyblaean-Malta (HM) escarpment and runparallel or sub-parallel to the coast. The conclusionof our work is that none of these faults respectsfully the available observations on tsunami, and thatthe faults exhibiting the best fit are those placed inthe SL region. It is worth stressing that our resultsare important for the assessment of seismic andtsunami hazard/risk in eastern Sicily, keeping also inmind that the 1693 earthquake has been selected as thereference event for an earthquake-scenario study inCatania and in south-eastern Sicily, called `CataniaProject', funded by CNR/GNDT (Consiglio Nazionaledelle Ricerche/Gruppo Nazionale Difesa dai Terremoti).

Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto; Bortolucci, Elisabetta

113

Offshore deformation in the Calabrian accretionary wedge and implications for the 1693 Catania earthquake and tsunami (Eastern Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southern Italy has been struck repeatedly by very strong historical earthquakes as in 1169, 1693, 1783, 1905, 1908, often associated with destructive tsunami. While certain events (like 1908 Messina or 1783 Calabria) are associated with known crustal normal faults, which produced observed surface ruptures, the source of the strongest earthquake in the Italian catalog, the Catania earthquake of 1693 is still unknown. It may have been generated by the NW dipping subduction zone beneath Calabria and Eastern Sicily. Identifying its origin will have a major impact on the hazard assessment and our understanding of modern day tectonics in this region. The 1693 earthquake, struck E Sicily with intensities of X - XI and killed up to 60,000 people, destroying Catania, Syracuse and Augusta. It also generated a 5-10 m high tsunami which swept these cities. The 1169 earthquake had similar intensities (X to XI) and a similar isoseismal pattern, suggesting a similar source. Because of the tsunami generated in 1693 and because the isoseismals are open to the sea, the majority of the source region appears to be offshore. The nearby subduction fault plane is thus a strong candidate for both events. However, a lack of instrumentally recorded thrust earthquakes suggests that if subduction is active, the fault plane is locked (like Cascadia or Nankai). Reported GPS motions from the region are ambiguous, and thus the current activity of the Calabrian subduction remains a matter of debate. The offshore accretionary wedge is known from seismic and bathymetric investigations to include compressional anticlines and recently mud volcanoes have been discovered on the upper wedge. We present preliminary results from reprocessed 96-channel seismic reflection data from the 1997 French cruise Archimede (R/V Le Nadir) crossing the deformation front at the toe of the Calabrian prism, the Ionian abyssal plain and the deformation front of the Mediterranean Ridge (Hellenic subduction system). A more recent HR seismic cruise CALAMARE, with the Italian vessel R/V Urania (Apr. 2008) investigated the lateral boundaries of the Calabrian prism. Both data sets also investigated the Malta-Hyblean escarpment, also proposed as a candidate source for great earthquakes offshore Sicily. Additional work is in progress, including planned cruises to complete multi-beam bathymetric mapping of the Calabrian prism and border regions. A cruise proposal for deep seismics (MCS and OBS work) will also be submitted. The goal of this and future work will to seek evidence of continued tectonic activity of the system.

Gallais, F.; Gutscher, M.; Graindorge, D.; Polonia, A.

2008-12-01

114

Isotope geochemistry of Pantelleria volcanic fluids, Sicily Channel rift: a mantle volatile end-member for volcanism in southern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical and isotopic ratio (He, C, H and O) analysis of hydrothermal manifestations on Pantelleria island, the southernmost active volcano in Italy, provides us with the first data upon mantle degassing through the Sicily Channel rift zone, south of the African-European collision plate boundary. We find that Pantelleria fluids contain a CO 2-He-rich gas component of mantle magmatic derivation which, at shallow depth, variably interacts with a main thermal (˜100°C) aquifer of mixed marine-meteoric water. The measured 3He/ 4He ratios and ? 13C of both the free gases (4.5-7.3 Ra and -5.8 to -4.2‰, respectively) and dissolved helium and carbon in waters (1.0-6.3 Ra and -7.1 to -0.9‰), together with their covariation with the He/CO 2 ratio, constrain a 3He/ 4He ratio of 7.3±0.1 Ra and a ? 13C of ca. -4‰ for the magmatic end-member. These latter are best preserved in fluids emanating inside the active caldera of Pantelleria, in agreement with a higher heat flow across this structure and other indications of an underlying crustal magma reservoir. Outside the caldera, the magmatic component is more affected by air dilution and, at a few sites, by mixing with either organic carbon and/or radiogenic 4He leached from the U-Th-rich trachytic host rocks of the aquifer. Pantelleria magmatic end-member is richer in 3He and has a lower (closer to MORB) ? 13C than all fluids yet analyzed in volcanic regions of Italy and southern Europe, including Mt. Etna in Sicily (6.9±0.2 Ra, ? 13C=-3±1‰). This observation is consistent with a south to north increasing imprint of subducted crustal material in the products of Italian volcanoes, whose He and C (but also O and Sr) isotopic ratios gradually evolve towards crustal values northward of the African-Eurasian plate collision boundary. Our results for Pantelleria extend this regional isotopic pattern further south and suggest the presence of a slightly most pristine or 'less contaminated', 3He-richer mantle source beneath the Sicily Channel rift zone. The lower than MORB 3He/ 4He ratio but higher than MORB CO 2/ 3He ratio of Pantelleria volatile end-member are compatible with petro-geochemical evidence that this mantle source includes an upwelling HIMU-EM1-type asthenospheric plume component whose origin, according to recent seismic data, may be in the lower mantle.

Parello, F.; Allard, P.; D'Alessandro, W.; Federico, C.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Catani, O.

2000-08-01

115

Pb isotope composition in lichens and aerosols from eastern Sicily: Insights into the regional impact of volcanoes on the environment  

SciTech Connect

A total of 25 lichen thalli of Parmelia conspersa (Ehrh), collected at Vulcano island and at Mt. Etna, during a one-year biogeochemical survey, were analyzed for Pb, br, Al, Sc,[sup 206]Pb/[sup 207]Pb, and [sup 208]Pb/[sup 206]Pb ratios. Lead isotope ratios were also measured on aerosol samples from urban areas and industrial sites of Sicily. The observed [sup 206]Pb/[sup 207]Pb range for urban and industrial aerosols matches the anthropogenic signature. Lichens instead, are closer to the compositional field of [sup 206]Pb rich geogenic sources. This natural input is more evident at Vulcano island than at Mt. Etna, where the anthropogenic activities are considerably more effective. On the basis of lead isotope data, Pb/Br ratios and calculated lead enrichment factors, a natural lead pollution from volcanoes is suggested. Volcanic lead contribution ranges from 10 to 30% at Mt. Etna to 10--80% at Vulcano island.

Monna, F. (Institut FA Forel (Switzerland)); Aiuppa, A.; Varrica, D. (Dipt. C.F.T.A., Palermo (Italy)); Dongarra, G. (Dipt. C.F.T.A., Palermo (Italy) CNR, Palermo (Italy). Istituto Geochimica dei Fluidi)

1999-08-01

116

Degradation of stone materials in the archaeological context of the Greek-Roman Theatre in Taormina (Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work results on the degradation phenomena of stone materials in the Ancient Theatre of Taormina, one of the most important Greek-Roman monuments of Sicily, are reported. Artificial stone materials in different conservation conditions were investigated. Samples of salt efflorescences from brick walls and degraded setting mortars were taken from the open gallery in “ summa cavea”. The chemical, physical and structural characterization was performed by means of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), both in situ and ex situ. Results showed that the deterioration of stone materials is due to the aggressive action of the environment agents. Soluble salts, such as chlorides, sulphates and nitrates, were found in efflorescence samples. Mortars were affected by a decomposition process induced by sulphates’ attack.

Brai, M.; Casaletto, M. P.; Gennaro, G.; Marrale, M.; Schillaci, T.; Tranchina, L.

2010-09-01

117

Geomorphology of the NE Sicily continental shelf controlled by tidal currents, canyon head incision and river-derived sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NE Sicily continental shelf, imaged by multibeam bathymetry data and CHIRP/sparker seismic profiles, is less than 5 km-wide, and is located in a tectonically active margin characterized by strong regional uplift rates. In this paper, we show how variations of geomorphic elements in the study area are tied to spatial and temporal changes in the driving forces that control the seafloor processes. This study demonstrates that the geomorphology of continental shelves can vary over very short spatial scales depending on the uneven distribution of sediment supply from rivers and sediment transfer both across and along the shelf by oceanographic currents. In the northeastern part, three sandwave fields were mapped in the highstand sediment wedge that, due to the small size of rivers, is restricted to the inner shelf. The sandwave fields are found in proximity of the Messina Straits, a shallow water sill with strong tidal currents between the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian Seas. The bedform fields have sandwaves of variable shape, wavelength and orientation, reflecting along-shelf variations of tidal current strength and sediment grain size distribution. In the southwestern shelf, rivers are larger and form deltas that shape a considerable part of the shelf, often having their distal, still channelized delta front at the shelf edge. In some cases, deltas are built close to the heads of canyons and a large volume of the river-borne sediments is directly fed to the deep sea through delta front terminal distributary channels. Where rivers are small, the outer shelf lacks recent river borne sediment and presents a relict morphology consisting of submerged coastal systems formed during previous sea-level lowstands. The tectonics of the study area mainly consist of structures that have a NNE-SSW trend similar to the extensional faults responsible for the Siculo-Calabrian Rift Zone in the nearby emerged areas. Our study extends the area affected by the regional deformation belt into the NE Sicily offshore.

Gamberi, Fabiano; Rovere, Marzia; Mercorella, Alessandra; Leidi, Elisa; Dalla Valle, Giacomo

2014-07-01

118

Risk factors for classical Kaposi sarcoma in a population-based case-control study in Sicily  

PubMed Central

Background Classical Kaposi sarcoma (cKS) is a rare complication of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) infection. We conducted a population-based, frequency-matched case-control study in Sicily to further investigate the reported inverse relationship between smoking and cKS and to identify other factors associated with altered risk. Methods All incident, histologically confirmed, cKS cases in Sicily were eligible. A two-stage cluster sample design was applied to select population controls. KSHV seropositivity was determined using 4 antibody assays (K8.1 and orf73 enzyme immunoassays and 2 immunofluroescence assays). Using SAS-callable SUDAAN we compared the characteristics of cKS cases and KSHV seropositive controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are presented. Results In total, 142 cKS cases and 123 KSHV seropositive controls were recruited. Current cigarette smoking was associated with reduced risk of cKS (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.06-0.67). Edema was associated with cKS, but only when it presented on the lower extremities (OR 3.65, 95% CI 1.62-8.23). Irrespective of presentation site, diabetes and oral corticosteroid medications were associated with increased risk (ORs, 95% CIs: 4.73, 2.02-11.1 and 2.34, 1.23-4.45, respectively). Never smoking, diabetes and oral corticosteroid medication use were all independently associated with cKS risk. Discussion We confirmed previous reports that cigarette smoking was associated with a reduced risk of cKS, and we found that risk was lowest among current smokers. We also found that cKS risk was strongly and independently associated with oral corticosteroid use and diabetes. Corroboration of these observations and investigation of possible underlying mechanisms are warranted. PMID:19064559

Anderson, LA; Lauria, C; Romano, N; Brown, EE; Whitby, D; Graubard, BI; Li, Y; Messina, A; Gafà, L; Vitale, F

2009-01-01

119

Probability hazard map for future vent opening at Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mount Etna is a composite stratovolcano located along the Ionian coast of eastern Sicily. The frequent flank eruptions occurrence (at an interval of years, mostly concentrated along the NE, S and W rift zones) lead to a high volcanic hazard that, linked with intense urbanization, poses a high volcanic risk. A long-term volcanic hazard assessment, mainly based on the past behaviour of the Etna volcano, is the basic tool for the evaluation of this risk. Then, a reliable forecast where the next eruption will occur is needed. A computer-assisted analysis and probabilistic evaluations will provide the relative map, thus allowing identification of the areas prone to the highest hazard. Based on these grounds, the use of a code such BET_EF (Bayesian Event Tree_Eruption Forecasting) showed that a suitable analysis can be explored (Selva et al., 2012). Following an analysis we are performing, a total of 6886 point-vents referring to the last 4.0 ka of Etna flank activity, and spread over an area of 744 km2 (divided into N=2976 squared cell, with side of 500 m), allowed us to estimate a pdf by applying a Gaussian kernel. The probability values represent a complete set of outcomes mutually exclusive and the relative sum is normalized to one over the investigated area; then, the basic assumptions of a Dirichlet distribution (the prior distribution set in the BET_EF code (Marzocchi et al., 2004, 2008)) still hold. One fundamental parameter is the the equivalent number of data, that depicts our confidence on the best guess probability. The BET_EF code also works with a likelihood function. This is modelled by a Multinomial distribution, with parameters representing the number of vents in each cell and the total number of past data (i.e. the 6886 point-vents). Given the grid of N cells, the final posterior distribution will be evaluated by multiplying the a priori Dirichlet probability distribution with the past data in each cell through the likelihood. The probability hazard map shows a tendency to concentrate along the NE and S rifts, as well as Valle del Bove, increasing the difference in probability between these areas and the rest of the volcano edifice. It is worthy notice that a higher significance is still evident along the W rift, even if not comparable with the ones of the above mentioned areas. References Marzocchi W., Sandri L., Gasparini P., Newhall C. and Boschi E.; 2004: Quantifying probabilities of volcanic events: The example of volcanic hazard at Mount Vesuvius, J. Geophys. Res., 109, B11201, doi:10.1029/2004JB00315U. Marzocchi W., Sandri, L. and Selva, J.; 2008: BET_EF: a probabilistic tool for long- and short-term eruption forecasting, Bull. Volcanol., 70, 623 - 632, doi: 10.1007/s00445-007-0157-y. Selva J., Orsi G., Di Vito M.A., Marzocchi W. And Sandri L.; 2012: Probability hazard mapfor future vent opening atthe Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy, Bull. Volcanol., 74, 497 - 510, doi: 10.1007/s00445-011-0528-2.

Brancato, Alfonso; Tusa, Giuseppina; Coltelli, Mauro; Proietti, Cristina

2014-05-01

120

Simulation of debris flow events in Sicily by cellular automata model SCIDDICA_SS3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Debris flow models are widely used for hazard mapping or for evaluating the effectiveness of risk mitigation measures. Several models analyze the dynamics of debris flow runout solving Partial Differential Equations. In use of such models, difficulties arise in estimating kinematic geotechnical soil parameters for real phenomena. In order to overcome such difficulties, alternative semi-empirical approaches can be employed, such as macroscopic Cellular Automata (CA). In particular, for CA simulation purposes, the runout of debris flows emerges from local interactions in a dynamical system, subdivided into elementary parts, whose state evolves within a spatial and temporal discretum. The attributes of each cell (substates) describe physical characteristics. For computational reasons, the natural phenomenon is splitted into a number of elementary processes, whose proper composition makes up the CA transition function. By simultaneously applying this function to all the cells, the evolution of the phenomenon can be simulated in terms of modifications of the substates. In this study, we present an application of the macroscopic CA semi-empirical model SCIDDICA_SS3 to the Peloritani Mountains area in Sicily island, Italy. The model was applied using detailed data from the 1 October 2009 debris flow event, which was triggered by a rainfall event of about 250 mm falling in 9 hours, that caused the death of 37 persons. This region is characterized by river valleys with large hillslope angles (30°-60°), catchment basins of small extensions (0.5-12 km2) and soil composed by metamorphic material, which is easy to be eroded. CA usage implies a calibration phase, that identifies an optimal set of parameters capable of adequately play back the considered case, and a validation phase, that tests the model on a sufficient (and different) number of cases similar in terms of physical and geomorphological properties. The performance of the model can be measured in terms of a fitness function that compares the observed landslide with the simulated one. This function returns values from 0 (completely wrong simulation) to 1 (perfect match); values greater than 0.7 are considered acceptable. The adopted version SCIDDICA_SS3 was calibrated on debris-flows occurred in Torrente Sopra Urno, that have caused most of the damage in Giampilieri town. Other 5 events, occurred in the same day and on the same area, were used for validation with fitness function ranging from 0.72 to 0.78. Simulations show a good capability of the model to describe the runout of debris in such highly-urbanized area, according to several performance indices. The calibrated parameters may be reasonably used to simulate debris flow runout in the nearby catchments for predictive purposes, aimed at risk assessment. Acknowledgements: This research was funded by the Italian Education, University and Research Ministry (MIUR), PON Project No. 01_01503 'Integrated Systems for Hydrogeological Risk Monitoring, Early Warning and Mitigation Along the Main Lifelines', CUP B31H11000370005

Cancelliere, A.; Lupiano, V.; Peres, D. J.; Stancanelli, L.; Avolio, M.; Foti, E.; Di Gregorio, S.

2013-12-01

121

Geological record of the 365 A.D. Crete tsunami in south-eastern Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five years ago we started a coring campaign with the purpose to identify evidence for tsunami inundations along the coastal areas of eastern Sicily, that were affected in historical times by devastating tsunamis, generated both by local earthquakes, such as the 1169, 1693 and 1908 events, and by distant seismic sources, such as those belonging to the Aegean subduction zone (e.g. the A.D. 365 Crete earthquake). Following a multi-theme approach, we used the available historical information to address geomorphological study of the coastal landscape: aerial-photographs analysis, satellite images interpretation and field surveys allowed us to select areas likely invaded by tsunami waves in the past, representing potential trap-site for high energy deposits sedimentation and preservation. Given the variability in the nature of tsunami deposit characteristics, they are not uniquely identifiable, and other kinds of high energy deposits may share some of their features. Despite the abundant literature regarding diagnostic criteria for tsunami deposits, their distinction from storm and hurricane deposits remains a debated issue. We present the geological evidence of a tsunami inundation that left continuous onshore sandy deposit inside the Pantano Morghella along the south-eastern Sicilian coast. Pantano Morghella an almost flat area, about 1.3 km long and 0.8 km wide, surrounded by Upper Cretaceous lavas and volcanoclastic deposits, Late Cretaceous limestone calciruditi, calcarenites and marls. To the east Quaternary deposits, beach sands and 3 m high, partially cemented, dunal system (Holocene and Late Pleistocene) separate the Pantano from the sea forming the intertidal pond with a little channel from which sea water can rush into. The site was partially used as salt-pans in the recent past. In this site, we dug 33 cores down to a maximum depth of 5.80 m, from 200 m up to 1200 m from the coastline. The sedimentological core analysis reveals a fine stratigraphic sequence mainly composed by clay and silty clay, interrupt by a yellow sandy layer (about 8-10 cm thick) at about one meter of depth. Paleontological analyses show that the sandy samples have different macro and microfauna composition with respect to those samples collected above and below characterized by a lagoonal assemblage. The sandy layer, mainly composed by well-rounded yellowish carbonatic clasts, is made of several reworked foraminifera (both planktonic and benthonic), few well preserved littoral benthic foraminifera, marine macro fossil fragments and few lagoonal specimens. The deposit shows similarity with the local beach sand and it also presents a landward thinning. X-Ray analysis performed on some selected cores shows that the sandy layer is characterized by a fining upward granulometry and a sharp basal contact, possibly erosional. Summarizing, we investigated spatial distribution and lithofacies of this peculiar deposit and observed the following properties as typical of high energy deposition event: (1) the deposit covers the surface almost continuously on gentle topography and extend inland for about 1200 meters; (2) its thickness varies across local surface undulation; (3) the foraminiferal assemblage contains several reworked marine planktonic and benthonic specimens with some lagoonal species; (4) the deposit is characterized by erosive basal contact. Moreover, its composition consisting of a single structureless bed of normally graded sand, its thickness decreasing with distance from the sea and its landward limit represent attributes that strongly suggest a tsunami origin. Radiocarbon dating, performed on three samples collected just above, within and below the sandy anomalous layer, gives ages close in time, confirming a sudden deposition due to a high energy event occurred in the interval 270-650 A.D. Comparing this age with the historical tsunami catalogue, we can hypothesize that the sandy layer represents the geological record of the 365 A.D. Crete tsunami.

Gerardi, Flavia; Serafina Barbano, Maria; de Martini, Paolo Marco; Pirrotta, Claudia; Smedile, Alessandra; Pinzi, Stefania; Del Carlo, Paola

2010-05-01

122

Presence of Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis, the Causative Agent of Israeli Spotted Fever, in Sicily, Italy, Ascertained in a Retrospective Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective analysis by molecular-sequence-based techniques was performed to correctly identify the etiological agent of 24 Mediterranean spotted fever cases occurring in Western Sicily, Italy, from 1987 to 2001. Restriction analysis of a 632-bp PCR-amplified portion of the ompA gene allowed presumptive identification of five clinical isolates as belonging to Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis, the etiological agent of Israeli spotted

Giovanni M. Giammanco; Giustina Vitale; Serafino Mansueto; Giuseppina Capra; Maria Pia Caleca; Pietro Ammatuna

2005-01-01

123

Modes of algal capture by the freshwater copepod Diaptomus sicilis and their relation to food-size selection1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-speed motion pictures (500 frames s-l) of tethered Diaptomus sicilis feeding in suspensions of Chlamydomonas spp. of three different sixes at three different concentrations (0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mm3 liter-'), showed two modes of feeding: a passive mode in which algae flowed into the space between the left and right second maxillae and an active mode in which the second

Henry A. Vanderploeg

1985-01-01

124

Tsunami hazard assessment for the area of Siracusa and Augusta (eastern Sicily, Italy) by means of numerical techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eastern coast of Sicily is one of the littorals most prone to tsunami hazard in the Mediterranean Sea. The potential tsunamigenic sources are many, all connected to the complex geological pattern of the area, and they span different scales. On the local scale one can find the Hyblaean-Malta Escarpment (HME), characterized by mass failures that have been hypothesized as possible causes of local tsunami generation (see e.g. the deep-sea slide off Augusta that was speculatively associated to the 1693 earthquake). On the medium range, the faults along the HME, the Ionian Sea, the Messina Straits, as a part of the wider Calabrian Arc system, provided several relevant earthquakes in the past, some of which producing large tsunamis, such as the 1693 and the 1908 events. In the far field, the western Hellenic Arc, characterized by the largest earthquakes in the whole Mediterranean Sea, has the potential of big trans-Mediterranean tsunamis capable of severe effects also on the coasts of Sicily. In the framework of the EU-FP7 project ASTARTE, the area embracing the cities of Siracusa and Augusta, located in the southern part of the Ionian coast of Sicily, has been chosen as a test site for the evaluation of the tsunami hazard and risk by means of various techniques. In this work we adopt the worst-case credible scenario approach, which means that after taking into account the possible sources in different zones we select the largest events on the basis of historical and geo- and seismo-tectonical considerations and we compute the corresponding tsunami. The numerical calculations are carried out by means of in-house developed models: UBO-BLOCK to simulate the dynamics of the tsunamigenic slides, a code implementing the Okada equations to compute the co-seismic displacements of the sea floor, UBO-TSUFD to calculate the tsunami propagation over a domain covered by one or more regularly spaced grids with different resolution (the finer grids being nested within the coarser ones). For each scenario, this procedure provides traditionally the fields of maximum values of relevant parameters such as the highest sea level, the maximum water particles speed, the maximum run-up and inundation distance, etc as well as synthetic tide gauges in specified locations. In addition, the aggregate fields can be built by picking up the extreme values of the worst-case scenarios in each point of the domain. One of such aggregate field is the field of the largest inundation depth at the coast, also providing the maximum flooding area which is a tool of great relevance for local authorities to implement mitigation actions such as evacuation programs and long-term development plans of the coastal zone.

Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Zaniboni, Filippo

2014-05-01

125

Microbially-induced Fe and Mn oxides in condensed pelagic sediments (Middle-Upper Jurassic, Western Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a petrographic comparison of the Rosso Ammonitico facies of Western Sicily and the original Rosso Ammonitico Veronese of Northern Italy based on a total of 27 sections. The Rosso Ammonitico has been the subject of numerous controversies that range from bathyal to shallow-water platform sedimentation. Therefore it seemed interesting to verify if the term Rosso Ammonitico has the same geologic connotation from region to region. The Middle-Upper Jurassic Rosso Ammonitico of Western Sicily is a condensed succession formed during a period of extensional synsedimentary tectonics related to the spreading of the Ionian Ocean. Slope-to-basin or pelagic carbonate deposits characterize the sedimentation which consists of reddish mudstones and wackestones. The abundant fauna is composed of radiolarians, protoglobigerinids, Saccocoma, Bositra associated with ammonites. A few ferruginous hardgrounds, Fe-Mn oxide crusts and Mn-coated condensation horizons are also present. The red matrices contain abundant Fe-Mn encrusted, microbored and bioeroded bioclasts. Sporadic Fe-Mn oncolites composed of amorphous Mn-minerals and goethite are also conspicuous. The matrix, as well as the shells and the fillings of the complex associated veinlets, are frequently altered into calcite microsparite. Submicronic iron bacterial and fungal filaments associated with mineralized extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are observed in the matrix. They record dysaerobic microenvironments at or near the sediment-water interfaces. Early mineralized discontinuities enhanced by subsequent pressure dissolution are reported in the succession. Mn-(Ni) bacterial filaments are exceptionally observed in the cortex of the Fe-Mn oncolites. As a consequence of an early lithification, the Mn filaments are poorly preserved. The pigmentation of the rock is due to the dispersion of submicronic oxyhydroxides (now goethite and amorphous iron) formed by bacterial mediation during early diagenesis in microaerophilitic environments. As in the case of the original 'Rosso Ammonitico Veronese', Fe and Mn bacteria/fungi were able to produce bioconstructions which have no bathymetric significance. The limiting factor must have been the oxygen content which was low in these very quiet and relatively deep environments. Thus the Rosso Ammonitico of northern and southern Italy have a number of points in common, but some obvious dissimilarities are observed that explain some of the various sedimentological interpretations. Among them, the chemical composition is of particular importance, more Fe is present in Veneto (Northern Italy) while Mn is associated with the Sicilian Rosso Ammonitico. The Sicilian localities were more proximal to oceanic magmatic sources which were related to the activity of the oceanic crust.

Préat, A.; Mamet, B.; Di Stefano, P.; Martire, L.; Kolo, K.

2011-06-01

126

Modeling, Analysis, and Preservation Techniques for Historic Reinforced Concrete Structures in Seismic Prone Regions Case Study: Augusta Airship Hangar, Sicily  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the world there are hundreds of historic monuments and structures considered to be invaluable and irreplaceable. They are symbols of cultural identity and a means of educating people about history. Preservation of historic monuments and structures is therefore an important part of safeguarding these cultural heritage sites so that they retain their value for future generations.This report discusses a procedure for the investigation of seismic hazards in existing buildings and possible steps that can be taken to avoid damage caused by these hazards. The Augusta Airship Hangar located in Sicily, will be used as a case study however the topics addressed in this paper can be applied to other structures of historic value around the world.First state-of-the-art scanning procedures were used to create scale digital models that were imported into a structural analysis program. Within this program dynamic analyses were performed on the model based on actual ground motions taken close to the site. This data was used to determine the period and mode shapes of the structure. Then a nonlinear analysis, including a static pushover analysis, was implemented on a two-dimensional model of the structural frame. From this analysis the failure mechanisms of the structure were revealed with relation to an allowable roof displacement. The structural integrity of the structure was evaluated based on pre-defined performance goals. Finally multiple suggestions were made how the Augusta Airship Hangar might be repaired and strengthened so that this structure will not be destroyed should an earthquake occur.The results of our study show that historic structures, despite their age, can still be strong and ductile. Also there are a multitude of effective preservation and retrofit techniques that can be used to strengthen these historic structures, should an earthquake occur. Through this study, the Augusta Airship Hangar has proven to be not only a historic symbol for Sicily but also can be used as an example for the rehabilitation of other historic structures. The techniques and processes discussed in this paper can be applied to other historic reinforced concrete structures and can be expanded upon in future investigations.

Cronin, Kelly; Whyte, Catherine [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 760 Davis Hall (United States); Reiner, Tom [Graduate Engineer, Buro Happold Consulting Engineers, Inc., 9601 Jefferson Blvd., Suite B, Culver City, CA 90232 (United States)

2008-07-08

127

Concentration and reference interval of trace elements in human hair from students living in Palermo, Sicily (Italy).  

PubMed

Trace element contents in specimens of hair collected from 137 children aged 11-13 years old, living in Palermo (Sicily, Italy) were determined by ICP-MS. This work reports analytical data for the following 19 elements: Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Sr, U, V and Zn. The most abundant chemical elements were zinc and copper (Zn > Cu), with concentrations exceeding 10 ?g/g (Zn = 189.2 ?g/g; Cu = 22.9 ?g/g). Other elements with concentrations greater than 1 ?g/g were, in order of abundance, Al>Sr>Ba>Pb. The remaining elements were all below 1 ?g/g. The average elemental concentrations in hair were statistically compared by Kolmogorov-Smirnov's test taking children's gender into account. Al, Ba, Cr, Li, Rb, Sb, Sr, V and Zn were statistically different according to gender, with significance p < 0.001. This study thus confirms the need for hair analysis to differentiate female data from those of males. IUPAC coverage intervals and coverage uncertainties for trace elements in the analysed hair samples are also reported. PMID:21787726

Dongarrà, G; Lombardo, M; Tamburo, E; Varrica, D; Cibella, F; Cuttitta, G

2011-07-01

128

Biodiversity of Indigenous Saccharomyces Populations from Old Wineries of South-Eastern Sicily (Italy): Preservation and Economic Potential  

PubMed Central

In recent years, the preservation of biodiversity has become an important issue. Despite much public discussion, however, current practices in the food industry seldom take account of its potential economic importance: on the contrary, the introduction of industrialized agriculture practices over large areas has often resulted in a dramatic reduction in biodiversity. In this paper, we report on the remarkable degree of biodiversity in the wine yeast populations naturally present in a small area of Sicily (Italy) where traditional (non-industrial) winery practices are still in place. Out of more than 900 Saccharomyces yeast isolates recovered from late spontaneous fermentations, we detected at least 209 strains. Most interestingly, when evaluated at the fermentation and technological level, a number of isolates were found to be superior to industrial yeast strains. Out of a selected group, isolates from two strains were used for experimental fermentations in a winery environment and the quality of the wines produced was assessed at the technological, quality and sensory levels. Given that the characteristics of the wines produced were found to be industrially appealing, the study demonstrated the economic potential of preserving the patrimony of Sicilian yeast biodiversity and highlighted the importance of maintaining traditional wine making practices. PMID:22393353

Di Maio, Sabina; Polizzotto, Giuseppe; Di Gangi, Enrico; Foresta, Giusy; Genna, Giuseppe; Verzera, Antonella; Scacco, Antonio; Amore, Gabriele; Oliva, Daniele

2012-01-01

129

Mixibius parvus sp. nov. and Diphascon (Diphascon) ziliense sp. nov., two new species of Eutardigrada from Sicily.  

PubMed

Two new species, Mixibius parvus sp. nov. and Diphascon (Diphascon) ziliense sp. nov. are described from Sicily. Mixibius parvus sp. nov. has three macroplacoids and a microplacoid and differs from M. tibetanus, the only other known species of the genus with those characteristics, in having a wrinkled cuticle without true small tubercles, a shorter microplacoid, smaller claw pt index values, and in lacking a cuticular bar on the first three pairs of the legs.Diphascon (Diphascon) ziliense sp. nov. lacks eye spots, has a pharyngeal bulb with two macroplacoids and a septulum, and possesses lunules and cuticular bars on the legs. It is similar to D. (D.) ramazzottii and D. (D.) procerum but differs from them in characters of the cuticular ornamentation and, in addition, from D. (D.) ramazzottii in having lunules and slightly longer claws in proportion to the body size and to the buccal tube. The new species differs from D. (D.) procerum in having stouter claws with a wider common portion and with the main branches shorter in proportion to the total length of the respective claws. PMID:24871024

Lisi, Oscar; Sabella, Giorgio; Pilato, Giovanni

2014-01-01

130

Long-term effects of agronomic practices on soil organic carbon and crop productivity in the internal hills of Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the hilly areas of Mediterranean environment the high intensity of autumnal rains determines high level of soil erosion losses in agricultural field reducing the soil fertility in the long run. In Sicily region this phenomenon have been emphasized by the crop management and by the orography of the territory. The experimental farm of UNICT for the collection of surface runoff is located in the c.da Manca di Geracello, Enna (550 m a.s.l, 37° 21'N, 14°16'E). The establishment consists of 12 plots. In the last sixteen years (1996-2011) the study of the impact assessment of various herbaceous cropping systems, both in terms of crop rotation (one crop, alternating different crops), crop habit (annual or perennials), types of soil tillage (traditional, minimum tillage, no tillage) on the dynamics of soil organic matter was carried out. The soil organic matter content, according to the depth of measurement (0-30 and 31-60 cm), the portion on the plot where the sample was taken (high, medium, low), and the season (winter and summer), was found significantly different according to the different cropping systems. The variation of organic matter in time was depending upon the soil tillage (plowing or not and sod seeding), the habitus of crop (annual or perennial). In the case of perennial the organic matter increased from 1.2 to 2.2%. The sod seeding allowed to take the organic matter around 1.8-2.0%

Cosentino, Salvatore; Copani, Venera; Testa, Giorgio; Scordia, Danilo

2013-04-01

131

Petrophysical properties of deep-seated xenoliths from south-eastern Sicily, Italy: contribution to the Hyblean lithospheric model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A suite of deep-seated xenoliths from Miocene tuff-breccia pipes of the Hyblean Plateau has been studied in order to provide useful constrains for modelling the lithosphere underneath south-eastern Sicily (Italy). To this aim, a plagioclase-bearing (mafic granulite) xenolith, considered to represent the inaccessible crust, together with two spinel peridotites and one pyroxenite were selected for a petrographic and petrophysical study. The seismic properties of this suite of deep-seated xenoliths were experimentally determined with a multi-anvil apparatus at confining pressure up to 600MPa (room temperature) and up to 600°C (at 600MPa). Laboratory measurements of Vp and Vs also permitted the P-wave related seismic anisotropy and shear wave splitting to be determined. On same xenoliths, seismic properties were also calculated on the basis of whole rock composition and mineral chemistry. These data, integrated with measured crystallographic preferred orientations of olivine in peridotites, permitted a correlation between fabric patterns of olivine and the degree of deformation within the Hyblean upper mantle to be set out. Finally, the parameters of the compressional velocity-pressure relationship were computed with the MATLAB program VPPLOT. These calculations endow with important constrains for the calibration of seismic data and therefore for reconstructing the Hyblean litosphere, as they permit the seismic velocities to be extrapolated at any P condition within the stability field of the mineral assemblage of a given rock.

Punturo, Rosalda

2010-05-01

132

The role of native flower visitors in pollinating Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., naturalized in Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of insects in pollination and consequently in fruit set and quality was assessed in two commercial orchards of the cactus pear, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., in Agrigento Province, Sicily. In 1997, insects visiting flowers were sampled during May-June (the first bloom) and July (the second bloom, induced by the "scozzolatura" practise). More than 50 insect species belonging to 10 orders were collected in May-June, while only five species of Hymenoptera Apoidea were collected in July. The quality of fruits arising from the second bloom showed that Hymenoptera alone were able to guarantee effective pollination. To verify the role of insects in pollination in 1996 (during only the second bloom), and in 1997 and 2009 (during both blooms), 60 single flowers were marked during each bloom; 30 of them covered with paper sleeves (which prevented natural pollination), while the others were not covered. After withering, fruits produced by marked flowers were analyzed in laboratory: in all years and blooms, the total number of seeds, the number of developed seeds, and the weight and the percentage of pulp were significantly lower for covered flowers than for non-covered flowers. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that native insects effectively carry out the pollination of cactus pear flowers.

Lo Verde, Gabriella; La Mantia, Tommaso

2011-09-01

133

Gully erosion susceptibility assessment by means of GIS-based logistic regression: A case of Sicily (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research aims at characterizing susceptibility conditions to gully erosion by means of GIS and multivariate statistical analysis. The study area is a 9.5 km2 river catchment in central-northern Sicily, where agriculture activities are limited by intense erosion. By means of field surveys and interpretation of aerial images, we prepared a digital map of the spatial distribution of 260 gullies in the study area. In addition, from available thematic maps, a 5 m cell size digital elevation model and field checks, we derived 27 environmental attributes that describe the variability of lithology, land use, topography and road position. These attributes were selected for their potential influence on erosion processes, while the dependent variable was given by presence or absence of gullies within two different types of mapping units: 5 m grid cells and slope units (average size = 2.66 ha). The functional relationships between gully occurrence and the controlling factors were obtained from forward stepwise logistic regression to calculate the probability to host a gully for each mapping unit. In order to train and test the predictive models, three calibration and three validation subsets, of both grid cells and slope units, were randomly selected. Results of validation, based on ROC (receiving operating characteristic) curves, attest for acceptable to excellent accuracies of the models, showing better predictive skill and more stable performance of the susceptibility model based on grid cells.

Conoscenti, Christian; Angileri, Silvia; Cappadonia, Chiara; Rotigliano, Edoardo; Agnesi, Valerio; Märker, Michael

2014-01-01

134

Surveillance of hospitalised patients with influenza-like illness during pandemic influenza A(H1N1) season in Sicily, April 2009-December 2010.  

PubMed

This paper describes the epidemiology of hospitalised cases with influenza-like illness (ILI) and laboratory-confirmed influenza A cases in Sicily (Italy) during the 2009 influenza pandemic. The first ILI case diagnosed as infected with pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 in Sicily was reported in June 2009 and it rapidly became the dominant circulating strain. In the period from 30 April 2009 through 31 December 2010, a total of 2,636 people in Sicily were hospitalised for ILI and 1,193 were laboratory-confirmed for influenza A. Basic demographic and clinical information for all hospitalised patients was collected and population mortality rates (PMRs) and case fatality ratios (CFRs) were calculated. The median age of hospitalised patients infected with pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 was significantly lower than that of hospitalised ILI cases in general (18.0 vs. 32.1 years; p<0.0001). Among adults, women were more susceptible than men. The majority of clinical presentations were mild, but 6.6% of hospitalised patients required admission to an intensive care unit, of whom 26.3% had confirmed influenza A. Twenty-four fatal cases were documented. The age group of 45–54 year-olds showed the highest PMRs once hospitalised, while CFRs were higher in elderly patients of 65 years and older. All fatal cases were confirmed as influenza A(H1N1)2009 and most of them had established risk factors for influenza complications. PMID:21903041

Tramuto, F; Maida, C M; Bonura, F; Perna, A M; Puzelli, S; De Marco, M A; Donatelli, I; Aprea, L; Firenze, A; Arcadipane, A; Palazzo, U; Vitale, F

2011-01-01

135

Active tectonics along the submarine slope of south-eastern Sicily and the source of the 11 January 1693 earthquake and tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South-eastern Sicily has been affected by large historical earthquakes, including the 11 January 1693 earthquake, considered the largest magnitude earthquake in the history of Italy (Mw = 7.4). This earthquake was accompanied by a large tsunami (tsunami magnitude 2.3 in the Murty-Loomis scale adopted in the Italian tsunami catalogue by Tinti et al., 2004), suggesting a source in the near offshore. The fault system of the eastern Sicily slope is characterised by NNW-SSE-trending east-dipping extensional faults active in the Quaternary. The geometry of a fault that appears currently active has been derived from the interpretation of seismic data, and has been used for modelling the tsunamigenic source. Synthetic tide-gauge records from modelling this fault source indicate that the first tsunami wave polarity is negative (sea retreat) in almost all the coastal nodes of eastern Sicily, in agreement with historical observations. The outcomes of the numerical simulations also indicate that the coastal stretch running from Catania to Siracusa suffered the strongest tsunami impact, and that the highest tsunami waves occurred in Augusta, aslo in agreement with the historical accounts. A large-size submarine slide (almost 5 km3) has also been identified along the slope, affecting the footwall of the active fault. Modelling indicates that this slide gives non-negligible tsunami signals along the coast; though not enough to match the historical observations for the 1693 tsunami event. The earthquake alone or a combination of earthquake faulting and slide can possibly account for the large run up waves reported for the 11 January 1693 event.

Argnani, A.; Armigliato, A.; Pagnoni, G.; Zaniboni, F.; Tinti, S.; Bonazzi, C.

2012-05-01

136

Propagation of a lithospheric tear fault (STEP) through the western boundary of the Calabrian accretionary wedge offshore eastern Sicily (Southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rollback of a segmented slab of oceanic lithosphere is typically accompanied by vertical lithospheric tear fault(s) along the lateral slab edge(s) and by strike slip movement in the upper plate, defined as a STEP fault (Subduction Tear Edge Propagator). The Neogene evolution of the Central Mediterranean is dominated by the interaction between the slow Africa-Eurasia convergence and the SE-ward rollback of the Ionian slab, that leads to the back-arc opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Here, we present post-stack time migrated and pre-stack depth migrated Archimede (1997) multichannel seismic lines, that were acquired offshore eastern Sicily, at the foot of the Malta escarpment. First, we identify the recent deformation along the lateral ramp of the Calabrian accretionary wedge. Towards the east, the Calabrian wedge is formed by the accretion of the post-evaporitic sediments, above a decollement at the base of the Messinian evaporites. At the latitude of Syracuse, 50 km east of the Malta escarpment, a major N150°E trending crustal scale and vertical fault slices through the entire accretionary wedge. This fault cuts by several kilometers, through the pre-evaporitic Messinian sediments and into the basement. The vertical offset along this vertical fault decreases from north to south, and the fault is no longer observed on the seismic lines, 50 km SE of the Alfeo seamount. A previously published Moho depth isocontour map, offshore Sicily and the recent GPS data, combined with the presence of strike slip movements NE onshore Sicily, allow us to identify this 200 km long crustal-scale fault as the surface expression of a STEP fault. The presence of syntectonic Pleistocene sediments on top this crustal-scale fault suggests a recent lithospheric vertical movement of the STEP fault, in response to the rollback of the Ionian slab and to the SE-ward advance of the Calabria-Peloritan block.

Gallais, Flora; Graindorge, David; Gutscher, Marc-André; Klaeschen, Dirk

2013-08-01

137

1891 Submarine eruption of Foerstner volcano (Pantelleria, Sicily) : insights into the vent structure of basaltic balloon eruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous shallow water basaltic eruptions have produced abundant floating scoria up to several meters in diameter, yet little is known about the conditions that give rise to this unusual style of volcanism. On October 17, 1891, a submarine eruption began 4 kilometers northwest of the island of Pantelleria, Sicily. The eruptive vent was located at a depth of 250 meters along the NW-SE trending Sicily Channel Rift Zone. Evidence for the eruption was provided by the occurrence of hot, scoriaceous lava "balloons" floating on the sea surface along a narrow line about 850-1000 meters long trending along the rift. These extremely vesicular fragments were spherical to ellipsoidal in shape and ranged from <50 to 250 cm in diameter. Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) and existing bathymetric maps have been used to conduct the first detailed investigation of a vent site associated with this unique style of volcanism. In 2011 the ROV Hercules, deployed from the E/V Nautilus, explored the 1891 Foerstner vent using high definition video cameras and produced a high resolution bathymetric map of the area using a BlueView multibeam imaging sonar. Light backscattering and oxidation-reduction potential sensors (MAPRs) were added to Hercules to detect discharge from active venting. ROV video footage has been used in conjunction with the high resolution bathymetric data to construct a geologic map of the vent area based on a variety of facies descriptors, such as abundance of scoria bombs, occurrence of pillow or scoria flow lobes, extent of sediment cover, and presence of spatter-like deposits. Initial results of the mapping have shown that there are two main vents that erupted within the observed area of floating scoria and most likely erupted at the same time as evidenced by similar bulk chemical compositions of recovered samples. Scoria bomb beds and some scoria flow lobes largely cover the suspected main vent, located at a depth of 250 meters. Distinct pillow flow lobes cover the second, previously unknown vent located north of Foerstner volcano at a depth of around 350 meters. Given the close proximity of these two vents, the differences in deposit types may be due to changing eruption style as a function of water depth. The abundant pillow flow lobes observed at the northern vent are most likely the result of more effusive eruptions occurring in deeper water (350 m) whereas the dominantly fragmental nature of material in the main southern vent indicates more vigorous explosive activity at shallower levels (250 m). Based on the nature of deposits found at the vent areas, the basaltic balloons of the 1891 Foerstner eruption are suspected to be a result of both coarse, localized fire fountaining activity and detachment from gas-charged flow lobes. The larger and shallower southern vent area is likely to have been the main source of the basaltic balloons observed on the surface during the 1891 eruption. A review of other historic eruptions that have produced basaltic balloons suggests that this style of activity is likely to be restricted to a rather narrow range of water depths and thus recognition of the distinct deposits produced by this type of activity in ancient deposits could help place important paleodepth constraints on volcaniclastic sequences.

Kelly, J. T.; Carey, S.; Bell, K. L.; Rosi, M.; Marani, M.; Roman, C.; Pistolesi, M.; Baker, E. T.

2012-12-01

138

Plant remains from the early Iron Age in western Sicily: differences in subsistence strategies of Greek and Elymian sites  

E-print Network

During early Iron Age in western Sicily three different ethnic groups were settling in close vicinity: the indigenous Elymians as well as Greek and Phoenician/Punic colonies. Within the EU-project "Emergence of European Societies" and together with American universities (Stanford University, Northern Illinois University) Elymian sites on Monte Polizzo and in Salemi were excavated. The long term excavation project of the Greek town of Selinunte was undertaken by the Rome Department of German Archaeological Institute (DAI). All three excavations were sampled for archaeobotanical analyses, sediment samples were locally processed by flotation. At the Elymian sites three cereals were the main crops: hulled multi-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare), emmer (Triticum dicoccum), and free-threshing wheat (T. aestivum / T. durum). Another important crop for alimentation was faba bean/field bean (Vicia faba). The oil containing crops linseed (Linum usitatissimum) and poppy (Papaver somniferum) are proofed by finds as well as following fruits and nuts: fig (Ficus carica), grapevine (Vitis vinifera), and almond (Amygdalus communis). To compare the Elymian crops with those of the contemporaneous Greek town of Selinunte: free-threshing wheat was the dominant cereal of the Greek, while hulled barley was common but less important and emmer was unimportant there. The pulses lentil (Lens culinaris) and bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) are listed for Selinunte but faba bean is missing. While Selinunte provided plenty of finds of fruit stone fragments from olive (Olea europaea), this type of finds was missing on Iron Age Monte Polizzo. However, charcoal analyses detected the use of olive tree wood for timberwork there. Chemical analysis of an amphora from Monte Polizzo resulted in animal fat as a content of a vessel. These results might suggest a difference of the food systems: Greek olive oil versus Elymian animal fat as well as the use of different cereals and pulses. The Greek town of Selinunte might have imported free-threshing wheat from the indigenous Elymians who have based their own nutrition mainly on barley and emmer. As charcoal analyses of early Iron Age site of Monte Polizzo have shown, huge beams of evergreen oak (Quercus subgen. Sclerophyllodrys) and deciduous oak (Quercus subgen. Quercus and Q. subgen. Cerris) were used for roofing. Consequently, tall oak trees must have been available to the inhabitants as construction timber. As up to now the charcoal record has not provided any evidence on pioneer taxa (e.g. Pinus), a rather undisturbed climax vegetation at Iron Age Monte Polizzo can be assumed. The local deciduous oak species are restricted to higher elevations and surely must have derived from the mountain itself. The results of an unpublished pollen profile from Mazara del Vallo (W. Tinner, University of Bern) between Selinunte and Monte Polizzo are supporting both assumptions: widespread late Bronze/early Iron Age undisturbed climax vegetation in western Sicily and the import of crops by the Greek town of Selinunte.

Hans-Peter Stika; Andreas G. Heiss; Barbara Zach

2008-01-01

139

Multi-scale properties of strike-slip faults crosscutting the Pleistocene carbonate grainstones of Favignana Island (NW Sicily, Italy).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After detailed field (stratigraphic and structural) and laboratory analyses of intact and deformed rocky outcrops, we studied the multi-scale properties of strike-slip faults nucleated and developed in Pleistocene carbonate grainstones of Favignana Island (Sicily, Italy). This skeletal carbonate rocks ranging in thickness between 5 and 20 meters make up the whole eastern side of the Island, where they unconformably lie on silicoclastic deposits of the Upper Pliocene. The studied structures are very similar to those one affecting carbonate grainstones of San vito Lo Capo Peninsula (Sicily, Italy) and already documented in a recent paper. There strain localization into narrow bands encompass first compaction, shear, pressure solution formation, their subsequent shearing, and finally cataclasis. The transitions from one deformation process to another, which were likely controlled by changes in the material properties, are recorded by different ratios and dissimilar distributions of the fault dimensional attributes. In Favignana Island, the results of our study allow us to: (i) indentify two conjugate sets of faults trending NW and NNE, characterized by right-lateral and left-lateral kinematics, respectively; (ii) document the progression of the deformation from single compactive shear bands, with an offset ranging between mm's to cm's, to zones of compactive shear bands, characterized by a larger amount of offset with discontinuous cataclasis and slip surfaces, and finally to well developed faults, with an inner cataclastic core surrounded by wider damage zones made up of compactive shear bands, joints, and possible dilational bands; (iii) decipher that linkage processes, responsible for fault development, took place by mechanical interaction of adjacent individual structures at any deformation stage (single bands, zone of shear bands or well developed faults) with formation of characteristic ramp and eye structures. Based on their internal architecture and petrophysical properties, the studied strike-slip faults behave as combined barrier-conduit hydraulic structures to fluid flow. The single compactive shear bands, the shear band zones, and the cataclastic cores of the faults have a lower porosity relative to the surrounding carbonate host rocks, and therefore form seals for cross-fault fluid flow. On the contrary, the discrete and undulated slip surfaces present either within or at the edges of the fault cores enhance the along-fault fluid flow. Finally, the detailed analyses of macro- and mesostructural features exposed in Favignana Island show that the overall deformation pattern in the area may be interpreted in terms of strike-slip tectonics driven by a current stress field geometry characterized by a NW oriented maximum compression. The stress field acting in the area appears to be directly controlled by the convergence between the African and European plates. The present-day Africa motion along NNW-SSE- to NW-SE-directed vectors is substantiated by geological, seismological, VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) and global positioning system data.

Cilona, Antonino; Agosta, Fabrizio; Giunta, Giuseppe; Renda, Pietro; Tondi, Emanuele

2010-05-01

140

Problems in Using Underground Water Temperatures in Volcanic Surveillance: the Case of Volcano Island (Eolian Islands, Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring underground water temperatures in a network of wells, together with many other geochemical and geophysical data, is a useful tool in medium-long term surveillance of active volcanic areas. The study case here presented deals with Volcano Island (Eolian Islands, Sicily, Italy). About 20 years of observations are presented; they have been acquired either during spot campaigns, every 1-3 months, either by continuous monitoring (sampling period of 2 hours). Although the interested active volcanic area has an extension of few square kilometers, data analysis pointed out a surprising variability in space and time of the information acquired, and in particular: a) Monthly temperature variations show a frequency related to the hydrological cycle, except some wells located in a piezometric high (Camping Sicilia well) or in distal positions respect to the La Fossa Crater (EAS and Discarica wells). b) Some wells subjected to continuous monitoring, affected (Le Calette) or not (Camping Sicilia) by seasonal variations, show high frequency (from few hours to few days) pulsation of several Celsius degrees. The above mentioned variations are sometimes related to seismic events (Gulf of Patti earthquakes, April 2002). c) Water table elevations from sea level, measured at the same time of temperature, highlight the presence of some wells (EAS, Casamento) where the piezometric surface is normally below the sea, despite they are very near to the coast line. The elements above discussed point out the presence of a complex multi-layered aquifer, with very different interactions between fresh, sea and volcanic waters, that are reflected in space and time variations of measured B.H.T. values. The implementation of an accurate hydrogeological model is then to be considered as preventive and fundamental in order to correctly design a surveillance activity based on underground fluids monitoring in this area.

Madonia, P.; Capasso, G.; Favara, R.

2002-12-01

141

Primary origin of some trachytoid magmas: Inferences from naturally quenched glasses in hydrothermally metasomatized gabbroic xenoliths (Hyblean area, Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermally-modified gabbroic xenoliths from the Hyblean tuff-breccia deposits (Sicily) consist of albitized plagioclase, Fe-Mg-rich clays, aegirine-augite, ± zeolites, titanite, apatite, magnetite, and hydrothermal zircon. Pockets of silicate glass with perlitic cracking occur in some samples forming 15-20% (by volume) of the rock modal assemblage. Electron microprobe analyses show the trachytic composition of the glass, with generally peralkaline sodic affinity [molar Al 2O 3/(Na 2O + K 2O) ~ 0.8 (average value); molar Al 2O 3/(Na 2O + K 2O + CaO) ~ 0.7 (average value); Na 2O/K 2O (wt.%) = 1.7-2.3]. The glass trace element abundances, obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses are consistent with those of world-wide trachytes (e.g. Zr/Ti = 0.15-018; Nb/Y = 0.73-1). Relatively high abundances of Cl (700-1600 ppm) and F (> 500 ppm) were also detected in the glass. Careful macroscopic and microscopic observations exclude the possibility that external silicate melt infiltrated the xenolith. The occurrence of glass pockets between the mafic clay assemblages and the feldspar grains, along with comparisons between chemical compositions of the glass and the surrounding minerals, suggest that the glass is due to the melting of a eutectoid system consisting of Na-rich alkali feldspar, Fe-Mg-rich clays and aegirine-augite. Halogens had probably played an important role in the partial melting process by decreasing the melting temperature of modal minerals, especially feldspar. The occurrence of these trachytic glasses lends support to petrologic models suggesting that partial melting of a hydrothermally altered, brine-rich oceanic crust induced by shallow-seated basic intrusions can produce primary trachytoid melts. This may explain the "Daly-gap" characterizing some oceanic within-plate volcanoes.

Viccaro, Marco; Scribano, Vittorio; Cristofolini, Renato; Ottolini, Luisa; Manuella, Fabio C.

2009-12-01

142

Comparison of Advanced Differential Interferometric SAR methods for the retrieval of surface deformation in south-east Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study provides a comparative analysis of Advanced Differential Interferometric SAR (A-DInSAR) methods and processing approaches. State-of-the-art A-DInSAR techniques, such as Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) or the Small BASeline (SBAS) approach are powerful geodetic tools with a large potential for an operational, cost-effective mapping of surface deformations up to an accuracy of 1 mm/y on a regional scale. Both approaches focus on different characteristics of the scatterers within a resolution cell. While PSI extracts the phase change by analyzing stable, dominant scatterers, the SBAS technique is sensitive to stable, but distributed scatterers. In order to assess the practical implications of the two approaches we processed a 8-year spanning time-series of ENVISAT ASAR data for the heterogeneous, rural environment in south-eastern Sicily, Italy and its hinterland. Different natural and anthropogenic induced deformation phenomena are present within the study area. In addition to the PSI and SBAS approach, a combined method, called Multi-Temporal Interferometry (MTI), was applied using the StaMPS software. The density of retrieved points was confronted to the different land cover classes. In addition, deviations between the different methods are presented. The results reveal the complimentary character of both approaches for the study site and suggest that the MTI approach is favorable for wide area analysis. Validation with GPS measurements from the INGV network was undertaken and the integration in the framework of the SISTEM approach, where different measurements are combined, allowed for the derivation of three-dimensional surface deformation.

Vollrath, Andreas; Zucca, Francesco; Stramondo, Salvatore; Guglielmino, Francesco; Bonforte, Alessandro

2014-05-01

143

Friction and mixing effects on potential vorticity for bottom current crossing a marine strait: an application to the Sicily Channel (central Mediterranean Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss here the evolution of vorticity and potential vorticity (PV) for a bottom current crossing a marine channel in shallow-water approximation, focusing on the effect of friction and mixing. We argue that bottom current vorticity is prone to significant sign changes and oscillations due to topographic effects when, in particular, the current flows over the sill of a channel. These vorticity variations are, however, modulated by frictional effects due to seafloor roughness and morphology. Such behavior is also reflected in the PV spatial evolution, which shows an abrupt peak around the sill region. Our theoretical findings are discussed by means of in situ hydrographic data related to the Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water, i.e., a dense, bottom water vein that flows northwestward, along the Sicily Channel (Mediterranean Sea). Indeed, the narrow sill of this channel implies that friction and entrainment need to be considered. Small tidal effects in the Sicily Channel allow for a steady theoretical approach. Our diagnoses on vorticity and PV allow us to obtain general insights about the effect of mixing and friction on the pathway and internal structure of bottom-trapped currents flowing through channels and straits, and to discuss spatial variability of the frictional coefficient. Our approach significantly differs from other PV-constant approaches previously used in studying the dynamics of bottom currents flowing through rotating channels.

Falcini, F.; Salusti, E.

2014-11-01

144

Peculiar wall channels connected to fault breccia in the Grotta di Entella gypsum cave (Western Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peculiar channels cut in gypsum cave walls have been observed in the Grotta di Entella, a gypsum cave about 900 m long and with a positive vertical range of +30 m, located in the Messinian evaporite outcrops in Western Sicily. The Grotta di Entella is developed mainly along the strikes of two fault systems (N60W and N130E) which influence the cave pattern and the shape of several passages. Between the displaced walls of the N60W system an about 70 cm thick fault gouge occurs. This fault gouge is made up of chaotically arranged clasts with different composition and size, separated by fine-grained light matrix. The clasts consist of centimetrical and decimetrical broken gypsum crystals and sharp-edged marly limestone cobbles. In addition to the fault gouge, great clear and translucent gypsum crystals and thin layers of fibrous gypsum (sericolite variety) can be found along the fault plains. In particular, the direction of the gypsum fibres and the analysis of the gypsum-steps in the fault walls suggest that either the N60W and N130E faults are reverse-oblique faults. The fault gouge played an important role in the evolution of the cave; the origin of several passages seems to be linked, at least in the first phases, to erosion of the fault breccia. Along the fault walls peculiar channels here named "wall half-tubes" have been observed. These channels are sinuous or meandering, are elongated along the fault dip direction and usually arranged in groups. The "wall half-tubes" are very different in size, ranging between 50 and 350 cm in length (average 163.9 cm), from 3 to 25 cm in width (average 10.6 cm ) and between 3 and 35 cm in depth (average 10.7 cm). In most cases the channels are cut both in the footwall and in the hanging wall of the faults, showing a dip angle comprised between 40° and 60°. "Wall half-tubes" are always accompanied by fault gouge. The "wall half-tubes" are very similar to paragenetic half-tubes or to drainage grooves, but their genesis seems to be different. While the origin of the latter two forms is linked to dissolution of water during sediment-filling phases, in the genesis of "wall half-tubes" a key role seems to be played by the fault gouge. The "wall half-tubes" seem to have formed, in fact, during the early stages of evolution of the cave when the fault gouge had not yet been completely removed. Water flowing between the fault gouge and the gypsum walls dissolved the latter cutting the channels.

Calaforra, José Maria; de Waele, Jo; di Trapani, Francesco Paolo; Madonia, Giuliana; Vattano, Marco

2010-05-01

145

A Late Holocene record of tsunamis in the Augusta Bay area (eastern Sicily, Italy): historical vs geological data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of hazard plans based on realistic inundation scenarios was dramatically highlighted in December 2004. These scenarios are generally based on numerical models of tsunami wave propagation that can become more realistic and accurate when calibrated with the distribution of true inundated locations and the frequency of event occurrence. This information is generally acquired by historical reports, usually limited to the past few hundreds years, but we believe that it can be properly and fully obtained also from geological investigations. We present results coming from two different approaches, on one side we collected detailed information on historical tsunamis in eastern Sicily; on the other side, through geological investigation, we found evidence for a 4 ka long record of tsunami deposits in two different sites, Augusta Hospital and Priolo Reserve, along the Augusta Bay coast. The research was carried out through a multi-theme study consisting of historical analysis, geomorphologic and geologic surveys, coring campaigns and several laboratory analyses (paleontological, radiometric, X-Ray, magnetic susceptibility, tephra, etc.). From the historical research, we discovered that the study area experienced at least four tsunamis (in 1908, 1693, 1542 and 1169) during the past millennium (period for which the historical tsunamis record can be considered complete) with a maximum inundation distance of about 170 m, recorded at the Augusta town during the 1693 event. Thus, a historical tsunami recurrence interval of about 250 years for the past millennium can be derived from written reports (note that considering the whole historical dataset it becomes ~400 years long). From the geological research, summarizing and combining all the geological data collected in the field, we found seven distinct tsunami deposits, all characterized by sediments coarser than above and below, by a clear marine origin and often by sharp erosional basal contacts. Our findings are remarkably far from the present coastline (400 to 500 m inland) and on the basis of the available international literature they could be hardly related to storm waves. The number of identified tsunami deposits implies a geologic tsunami recurrence interval of about 600 years for the past 4 ka. Geological and historical data collected for the Augusta Bay suggest interesting difference in terms of tsunami recurrence interval and inundation distance and we would like to discuss the possible reasons of these discrepancies. Finally, we believe that the identification and characterization of historical and paleotsunamis deposits allow to estimate long-term recurrence intervals and true inundation distances, data otherwise difficult to get. This information may have a significant relevance for Civil Protection applications, being easily suitable for tsunami scenario and modeling, especially in the Augusta Bay area that hosts both important industrial petrochemical facilities and a basis of the Italian Navy and NATO.

de Martini, P.; Barbano, M.; Smedile, A.; Gerardi, F.; Pantosti, D.; Del Carlo, P.; Pirrotta, C.

2009-12-01

146

SMART: a spatially explicit bio-economic model for assessing and managing demersal fisheries, with an application to italian trawlers in the strait of sicily.  

PubMed

Management of catches, effort and exploitation pattern are considered the most effective measures to control fishing mortality and ultimately ensure productivity and sustainability of fisheries. Despite the growing concerns about the spatial dimension of fisheries, the distribution of resources and fishing effort in space is seldom considered in assessment and management processes. Here we propose SMART (Spatial MAnagement of demersal Resources for Trawl fisheries), a tool for assessing bio-economic feedback in different management scenarios. SMART combines information from different tasks gathered within the European Data Collection Framework on fisheries and is composed of: 1) spatial models of fishing effort, environmental characteristics and distribution of demersal resources; 2) an Artificial Neural Network which captures the relationships among these aspects in a spatially explicit way and uses them to predict resources abundances; 3) a deterministic module which analyzes the size structure of catches and the associated revenues, according to different spatially-based management scenarios. SMART is applied to demersal fishery in the Strait of Sicily, one of the most productive fisheries of the Mediterranean Sea. Three of the main target species are used as proxies for the whole range exploited by trawlers. After training, SMART is used to evaluate different management scenarios, including spatial closures, using a simulation approach that mimics the recent exploitation patterns. Results evidence good model performance, with a noteworthy coherence and reliability of outputs for the different components. Among others, the main finding is that a partial improvement in resource conditions can be achieved by means of nursery closures, even if the overall fishing effort in the area remains stable. Accordingly, a series of strategically designed areas of trawling closures could significantly improve the resource conditions of demersal fisheries in the Strait of Sicily, also supporting sustainable economic returns for fishermen if not applied simultaneously for different species. PMID:24465971

Russo, Tommaso; Parisi, Antonio; Garofalo, Germana; Gristina, Michele; Cataudella, Stefano; Fiorentino, Fabio

2014-01-01

147

SMART: A Spatially Explicit Bio-Economic Model for Assessing and Managing Demersal Fisheries, with an Application to Italian Trawlers in the Strait of Sicily  

PubMed Central

Management of catches, effort and exploitation pattern are considered the most effective measures to control fishing mortality and ultimately ensure productivity and sustainability of fisheries. Despite the growing concerns about the spatial dimension of fisheries, the distribution of resources and fishing effort in space is seldom considered in assessment and management processes. Here we propose SMART (Spatial MAnagement of demersal Resources for Trawl fisheries), a tool for assessing bio-economic feedback in different management scenarios. SMART combines information from different tasks gathered within the European Data Collection Framework on fisheries and is composed of: 1) spatial models of fishing effort, environmental characteristics and distribution of demersal resources; 2) an Artificial Neural Network which captures the relationships among these aspects in a spatially explicit way and uses them to predict resources abundances; 3) a deterministic module which analyzes the size structure of catches and the associated revenues, according to different spatially-based management scenarios. SMART is applied to demersal fishery in the Strait of Sicily, one of the most productive fisheries of the Mediterranean Sea. Three of the main target species are used as proxies for the whole range exploited by trawlers. After training, SMART is used to evaluate different management scenarios, including spatial closures, using a simulation approach that mimics the recent exploitation patterns. Results evidence good model performance, with a noteworthy coherence and reliability of outputs for the different components. Among others, the main finding is that a partial improvement in resource conditions can be achieved by means of nursery closures, even if the overall fishing effort in the area remains stable. Accordingly, a series of strategically designed areas of trawling closures could significantly improve the resource conditions of demersal fisheries in the Strait of Sicily, also supporting sustainable economic returns for fishermen if not applied simultaneously for different species. PMID:24465971

Russo, Tommaso; Parisi, Antonio; Garofalo, Germana; Gristina, Michele; Cataudella, Stefano; Fiorentino, Fabio

2014-01-01

148

The role of sea surface circulation and hydrographic processes in anchovy spawning and larvae distribution in the Strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the most important resources of the Mediterranean Sea. Despite its abundance and relevance, the anchovy population off the Mediterranean coasts exhibits a patchy distribution. Moreover, its biology and the influence of environment on its variability is poorly known. We here use data from ichthyoplankton-surveys carried out during the peak spawning season in order to analyze abundance and age of anchovy larvae in the Strait of Sicily, with respect to sea surface dynamic and hydrographic parameter patterns. The Strait of Sicily dynamics is characterized by upwelling regions, fronts, vortices, and filaments, with a consequent complexity in the spatial distribution of oceanographic parameters and anchovy larvae. To investigate the role of mesoscale features and oceanographic environment on the latter, anchovy larvae observations were paired to remote sensing data (such as sea surface temperature, chlorophyll, primary production, surface wind speed as well as light attenuation, absorption, and particle backscattering coefficients) and Lagrangian and Eulerian numerical simulations results for ocean currents and larval transport. The subsequent analysis shows and quantifies how the Atlantic Ionian Stream (AIS, a meandering current of Atlantic origin) path and variability, as well as the upwelling-induced south Sicilian coastal current, have consequences for anchovy spawning and larvae distribution. These currents transport anchovy larvae towards the Sicilian coast's south-eastern tip, where larvae are then retained in a frontal structure. However, significant cross-shore transport events due to relatively cold filament-like baroclinic instabilities generated by wind-induced coastal upwelling were also observed. Finally, the larval age distribution qualitatively agrees well with this transport pattern.

Falcini, Federico; Palatella, Luigi; Cuttitta, Angela; Bignami, Francesco; Patti, Bernardo; Santoleri, Rosalia; Fiorentino, Fabio

2014-05-01

149

Preliminary results of a multi-scale structural analisys in an analogue carbonate reservoir (Hyblean Plateau, Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the aim of studying the multi-scale fault architecture and permeability in hydrocarbon-rich porous carbonate rocks, we are currently involved in a project focused on the structural analysis of fractured and faulted platform-to-ramp carbonates cropping out in the Hyblean Plateau (Sicily, Italy). The Hyblean Plateau is part of the Maghrebian foreland and forms the northern portion of the African plate. The plateau is a NE-oriented structural high crosscut by a large-scale N10°-20°E oriented strike-slip fault system, named Scicli-Ragusa, which was affected by right-lateral kinematics during the Upper Miocene-Lower Pliocene. Some authors documented a recent activity of the Scicli-Ragusa fault system, during the Quaternary, characterized by left-lateral kinematics. The portion of the Hyblean Plateau crosscut by this fault system represents an excellent example of an outcropping analogue of a fractured carbonate reservoir. By taking advantage of the several oil shows located along the Scicli-Ragusa fault system, we combine stratigraphic-structural analyses, both at outcrop and microscopic scales, to assess the structural control exerted by faults and fractures on hydrocarbon migration and storage. The field work focused on the geological mapping, at 1:10.000 scale, on detailed stratigraphic characterization of the outcropping layered carbonates (Ragusa Fm.) and on traditional faults and fractures analysis. Sample collection was also performed in order to conduct, in the laboratory, optical microscope and image analyses. The Oligo-Miocenic Ragusa Fm. is comprised of two main members: i) the lower Leonardo Member, which is characterised by well-cemented carbonate packstones intercalated with marl-rich levels; ii) the upper Irminio Member, characterised by an alternation of well-cemented and poorly-cemented grainstones/packstones. According to both orientations and kinematics, we grouped the fault segments of the Scicli-Ragusa fault system into three major sets: (i) NNE-striking faults with predominant right-lateral kinematics, (ii) ENE-striking faults with left-lateral kinematics, and (iii) NE-striking faults characterized by normal slip. Conversely, based on the fault attributes we subdivided the outcropping faults into four main categories: (i) Major faults, comprised of well-developed fault cores (made up of cataclastic rocks and main slip surfaces) flanked by thicker fault damage zones, which are up to 18 km-long and have throws in the order of 100's of meters. (ii) Medium faults containing thin and discontinuous fault cores of brecciated and cataclastic fault rocks and through-going slip surfaces encompassed within the fault damage zones, which are long up to several 100's of meters and have throws up to 10's of meters. (iii) Small faults made up of isolated and discontinuous fault cores of faults breccias and through-going slip surfaces, which are up to a few m-long and have throws in order of several 10's of cm and a few meters. (iv) Incipient faults consist, predominantly, of sheared pre-existing fractures confined within the individual carbonate beds; the maximum throw < 10 cm. The meso-structural analysis performed to define the background deformation allowed us to identify mainly three different typology of structures: i) joints, ii) stylolites, and iii) shear bands. On the basis of their abutting relationships first originated bed-parallel stylolites and then two coeval sets of bed perpendicular joints. Shear bands nucleated by shearing of previously formed bed-parallel and bed-perpendicular structures. Another important data came out from preliminary microscope analysis carried out within mines of tar rich carbonates. Here, shear bands within porous layers behaved as a seal for oil migration whereas joints, localized in well cemented layers, acted as conduct for hydrocarbons. Finally, as planned work, we are going to combine fault architecture data with petrophysical analyses conducted on samples belonging to different structural domains in order to define hydraulic behaviours of the studied faults.

Cilona, Antonino; Agosta, Fabrizio; Criscenti, Alessandro; Dipasquale, Mario; Giunta, Giuseppe; Napoli, Giuseppe; Occhipinti, Rosario; Renda, Pietro; Tondi, Emanuele

2010-05-01

150

Distribution of rare earth elements in marine sediments from the Strait of Sicily (western Mediterranean Sea): evidence of phosphogypsum waste contamination.  

PubMed

Concentrations of rare earth elements (REE), Y, Th and Sc were recently determined in marine sediments collected using a box corer along two onshore-offshore transects located in the Strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea). The REE+Y were enriched in offshore fine-grained sediments where clay minerals are abundant, whereas the REE+Y contents were lower in onshore coarse-grained sediments with high carbonate fractions. Considering this distribution trend, the onshore sediments in front of the southwestern Sicilian coast represent an anomaly with high REE+Y concentrations (mean value 163.4 ?g g(-1)) associated to high Th concentrations (mean value 7.9 ?g g(-1)). Plot of shale-normalized REE+Y data of these coastal sediments showed Middle REE enrichments relative to Light REE and Heavy REE, manifested by a convexity around Sm-Gd-Eu elements. These anomalies in the fractionation patterns of the coastal sediments were attributed to phosphogypsum-contaminated effluents from an industrial plant, located in the southern Sicilian coast. PMID:21130477

Tranchida, G; Oliveri, E; Angelone, M; Bellanca, A; Censi, P; D'Elia, M; Neri, R; Placenti, F; Sprovieri, M; Mazzola, S

2011-01-01

151

Synsedimentary-tectonic, soft-sediment deformation and volcanism in the rifted Tethyan margin from the Upper Triassic-Middle Jurassic deep-water carbonates in Central Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pizzo Lupo section (Sicanian Mts, central Sicily) is an Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic condensed deep-water succession, where the relationships among synsedimentary tectonic, soft-sediment deformations, volcanism and lithological changes reflect the evolution of a rift-basin. The morphostructural setting of the studied basin appears as a gently dipping slope where a fault-delimited area (graben to halfgraben) was developed. The instability of the sea floor, related to the seismic shocks, was the cause of the gravity-driven deformational sedimentary structures (slumping, breccia channelized bodies). The partly stratified basaltic rocks, with disorganized and chaotic stratification, suggest the occurrence of a volcanic complex located in neighbouring areas. A regional comparison with the tectono-sedimentary evolution of the pelagic drowning platform succession (i.e. Trapanese domain Auct.), outcropping in adjacent areas, suggests that these different domains were close to each other during the studied period forming a stepped margin platform-to-basin system. The environmental changes, synsedimentary tectonic activity and gravity-driven phenomena were the result of repeated events occurred during a long time interval, spanning from Late Triassic to Early Jurassic.

Basilone, Luca; Lena, Gabriele; Gasparo-Morticelli, Maurizio

2014-07-01

152

Holocene vertical deformation along the coastal sector of Mt. Etna volcano (eastern Sicily, Italy): Implications on the time-space constrains of the volcano lateral sliding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed survey of morphological and biological markers of paleo-shorelines has been carried out along the coastal sector of Mt. Etna volcano (eastern Sicily, Italy), in order to better define causes and timing of vertical deformation. We have mapped markers of raised Holocene shorelines, which are represented by beach rocks, wave-cut platforms, balanid, vermetid and algal rims. The timing of coastal uplift has been determined by radiocarbon dating of shells collected from the raised paleo-shorelines and, to correctly assess the total amount of tectonic uplift of the coast during the Late Holocene, we have compared the elevation-age data of sampled shells to the local curve of Holocene sea-level rise. Taking into account the nominal elevation of the associated paleo-shorelines, an uplift rate of 2.5-3.0 mm/year has been estimated for the last 6-7 ka. This general process of uplifting is only locally interrupted by subsidence related to flank sliding of the volcanic edifice, measured at docks and other manmade structures, and by acceleration along the hinge of an active anticline and at the footwall of an active fault. Based on this new data we suggest more precise time-space constraints for the dynamics of the lower eastern flank of Mt. Etna volcano.

Branca, Stefano; De Guidi, Giorgio; Lanzafame, Gianni; Monaco, Carmelo

2014-12-01

153

Middle-Late Pleistocene marine terraces and fault activity in the Sant'Agata di Militello coastal area (north-eastern Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal sector of Sant'Agata di Militello (north-eastern Sicily) is characterized by a flight of raised Middle-Upper Pleistocene marine terraces occurring at different heights with respect to present sea level. In particular, the geomorphological survey and the analysis of stereo-pairs of aerial photographs allowed to recognize at least five main orders of well preserved Quaternary surfaces and relative deposits mostly located at the hanging wall and at the footwall of the Pleistocene northwest-dipping Capo d'Orlando normal fault, which controlled the geomorphological evolution of the coastal area. The marine terraces show an overall good morphological continuity and are formed by marine platforms overlain by littoral deposits made up of yellow littoral sand and gravels in a sandy matrix. The continental sedimentary cover of the 3rd order terrace contains mammal-bearing deposits that were previously dated 200 ± 40 ka BP by isoleucine epimerization method, allowing to relate them to MIS 7.1 high-stand. In order to better define the whole terrace chronology, deposit samples were analyzed by Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) methodology, a conventional SAR protocol used with sand-sized quartz. New datings, together with the detailed morphostructural analysis, allow to relate the 2nd and 4th order terraces to MIS 5.5 and 8.5, respectively, and to reconstruct the tectonic evolution of this coastal area, constraining the activity of the Capo d'Orlando fault.

Giunta, Giuseppe; Gueli, Anna M.; Monaco, Carmelo; Orioli, Silvia; Ristuccia, Gloria M.; Stella, Giuseppe; Troja, Sebastiano O.

2012-04-01

154

Water masses exchanged through the Channel of Sicily: Evidence for the presence of new water masses on the Tunisian side of the channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of water masses present in the Channel of Sicily are relevant to understanding not only the overall Mediterranean circulation but also the Tunisian coastal shelf circulation. This study attempts to clarify the dynamics of water masses exchanged through the channel and its variability using data collected during six hydrographic cruises in the western half of the Cap Bon - Mazara del Vallo section during 2003. Hydrographic measurements clearly show the signature of the Atlantic Tunisian Current along the Tunisian coast characterized by important mesoscale variability. Computation of a normalized temperature and salinity standard deviation makes it possible to distinguish areas of high temporal variability located in the transitional layer between the Atlantic Water and the Levantine Intermediate Water. This transitional layer is created by the presence of both Western Intermediate Water and Ionian Water. In addition to highlighting the relevance of the mesoscale activity, a comparison between direct current measurements and adjusted geostrophic currents produced a more confident estimate of the surface and deep transports through the western part of the channel. Our conclusions on seasonal and mesoscale variability are confirmed by a high resolution numerical simulation.

Ben Ismail, Sana; Sammari, Chérif; Gasparini, Gian Pietro; Béranger, Karine; Brahim, Mouldi; Aleya, Lotfi

2012-05-01

155

Trophic transfer of trace elements in an isotopically constructed food chain from a semi-enclosed marine coastal area (Stagnone di Marsala, Sicily, Mediterranean).  

PubMed

Trace element accumulation is particularly important in coastal and transitional environments, which act as contaminant buffers between the continental and marine systems. We compared trace element transfer to the biota in two locations with different open-sea exposures in a semi-enclosed marine coastal area (Stagnone di Marsala, Sicily, Italy) using isotopically reconstructed food chains. Samples of sediment, macroalgae, seagrasses, invertebrates, fish, and bird feathers were sampled in July 2006 and analysed for stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (?(13)C, ?(15)N) and trace elements (arsenic [As], cadmium [Cd], total mercury [THg], and lead [Pb]). Trophic magnification factors were calculated through the relationships between trace elements and ?(15)N in consumers. As and Pb were greater in organic matter sources (sediments and primary producers), whereas Cd and THg were greater in bird feathers. At the food chain level, an insignificant trophic transfer was found for all elements, suggesting biodilution rather than biomagnification. Sediments were more contaminated in the location with lower open-sea exposure. Macroalgae and seagrasses overall mirrored the spatial pattern highlighted in sediments, whereas differences between the two locations became further decreased moving toward higher trophic levels, indicating that trophic transfer of sediment and macrophyte-bound trace elements to the coastal lagoon food chain may be of relatively minor importance. PMID:23846775

Vizzini, Salvatrice; Costa, Valentina; Tramati, Cecilia; Gianguzza, Paola; Mazzola, Antonio

2013-11-01

156

Late Triassic tholeiitic magmatism in Western Sicily: A possible extension of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) in the Central Mediterranean area?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Triassic basaltic rocks crop out in the Lercara area in Western Sicily. Major and trace element composition, as well as Sr-Nd isotopic ratios (87Sr/86Sri = 0.7074 - 0.7076; ?Ndi = from - 0.69 to - 1.09) of the Lercara rocks shows many similarities with Large Ion Lithophile Elements (LILE)- and Light Rare Earth Elements (LREE)-rich tholeiitic basalts of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), that erupted during the Mesozoic fragmentation of the Pangea supercontinent and subsequent opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean. The geochemical features of the Lercara igneous rocks, together with the spatial distribution of the ~ 200 Ma old CAMP rocks are unlikely to be associated with the arrival of a thermal anomaly in the form of a mantle plume and are more compatible with adiabatic melting of passively upwelling sub-lithospheric mantle. The original melts variably interacted with lower crustal rocks before reaching the surface. AFC modeling suggests two distinct differentiation paths including either simple mixing or assimilation-fractional crystallization processes involving lower crustal rocks. These interactions with continental crust indicate that an ocean basement most probably had not yet formed.

Cirrincione, R.; Fiannacca, P.; Lustrino, M.; Romano, V.; Tranchina, A.

2014-02-01

157

A retrospective study on acute health effects due to volcanic ash exposure during the eruption of Mount Etna (Sicily) in 2002  

PubMed Central

Background Mount Etna, located in the eastern part of Sicily (Italy), is the highest and most active volcano in Europe. During the sustained eruption that occurred in October-November 2002 huge amounts of volcanic ash fell on a densely populated area south-east of Mount Etna in Catania province. The volcanic ash fall caused extensive damage to infrastructure utilities and distress in the exposed population. This retrospective study evaluates whether or not there was an association between ash fall and acute health effects in exposed local communities. Methods We collected the number and type of visits to the emergency department (ED) for diseases that could be related to volcanic ash exposure in public hospitals of the Province of Catania between October 20 and November 7, 2002. We compared the magnitude of differences in ED visits between the ash exposure period in 2002 and the same period of the previous year 2001. Results We observed a significant increase of ED visits for acute respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and ocular disturbances during the ash exposure time period. Conclusions There was a positive association between exposure to volcanic ash from the 2002 eruption of Mount Etna and acute health effects in the Catania residents. This study documents the need for public health preparedness and response initiatives to protect nearby populations from exposure to ash fall from future eruptions of Mount Etna. PMID:23924394

2013-01-01

158

The use of multispectral thermal infrared image data to estimate the sulfur dioxide flux from volcanoes: A case study from Mount Etna, Sicily, July 29, 1986  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have found that image data acquired with NASA's airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) can be used to make estimates of the SO2 content of volcanic plumes. TIMS image data are most applicable to the study of partially transparent SO2 plumes, such as those released during quiescent periods or nonexplosive eruptions. The estimation procedure is based on the LOWTRAN 7 radiative transfer code, which we use to model the radiance perceived by TIMS as it views the ground through an SO2 plume. The input to the procedure includes the altitudes of the aircraft and ground, the altitude and thickness of the SO2 plume, the emissivity of the ground, and altitude profiles of the atmospheric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. We use the TIMS data to estimate both ground temperatures beneath a plume and SO2 concentrations within a plume. Applying our procedure to TIMS data acquired over Mount Etna, Sicily, on July 29, 1986, we estimate that the SO2 flux from the volcano was approximately 6700 t d(exp -1). The use of TIMS to study SO2 plumes represents a bridge between highly localized methods, such as correlation spectroscopy or direct sampling, and small-scale mapping techniques involving satellite instruments such as the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer or Microwave Limb Sounder. We require further airborne experiments to refine our estimation procedure. This refinement is a necessary preparation for the schedueled 1998 launch of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer, which will allow large-scale multispectral thermal infrared image data to be collected over virtually any volcano on Earth at least once every 16 days.

Realmuto, Vincent J.; Abrams, Michael J.; Buongiorno, M. Fabrizia; Pieri, David C.

1994-01-01

159

Neurotoxicological effects on marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis caged at petrochemical contaminated areas (eastern Sicily, Italy): (1)H NMR and immunohistochemical assays.  

PubMed

The neurotoxicological potential of environmental pollution, mainly related to petrochemical activities, was investigated in marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, are widely used as sentinel organisms in biomonitoring studies for assessing the impact of anthropogenic contaminants. The gills, mainly involved in nutrient uptake, digestion, gas exchange and neuronal signaling, are the first organ to be affected by pollutants present in the external environment, and therefore were selected as the target organ for this study. Mussels from an aquaculture farm were caged at a highly polluted petrochemical area and a reference site along the Augusta coastline (eastern Sicily, Italy) for one month. A battery of biomarkers indicative of neuronal perturbations was applied on gills in order to investigate on the serotonergic (i.e. serotonin, 5-HT, and its receptor, 5-HT3R), cholinergic (i.e. acetylcholine, acetylcholinesterase, AChE, and choline acetyltransferase, ChAT), and dopaminergic systems (i.e. tyrosine and tyrosine hydroxylase, TH). Overall, impairment in the normal ciliary motility was found in mussels caged at the polluted site. Alterations in serotoninergic and cholinergic systems were revealed, with enhancement of dopaminergic neurotransmission resulting in a cilio-inhibitory effect. However, the over-expression in 5-HT3R and ChAT at cellular level may indicate an adaptive response of mussels to recover a regular physiological activity in gills. To our knowledge, this is the first study that uses (1)H NMR and immunohistochemical assays. Their concurrent use demonstrated to be sensitive and effective for assessing environmental influences on the health status of aquatic organisms, and thus suitable to be applied in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:25572855

Cappello, Tiziana; Maisano, Maria; Giannetto, Alessia; Parrino, Vincenzo; Mauceri, Angela; Fasulo, Salvatore

2015-03-01

160

Mapping rainfall-induced landslides and inundated areas using remote sensing technology and field surveys: the 1 October 2009, Messina, Sicily, event in southern Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Italy, severe meteorologically induced geo-hydrological events are characterized by a complex combination of landslides and floods, and may cause casualties and damage to urban areas and the utility network. On 1 October 2009, a high intensity rainstorm in the Messina area, Sicily, triggered more than 500 shallow landslides in an area of about 60 km2, mostly in the soils mantling the metamorphic and crystalline bedrock of the Peloritan Arc. The high intensity rainfall further resulted in massive erosion and deposition of debris along the ephemeral drainage channels, widespread inundation, and local modification of the coastline. Damage was particularly severe in the several small villages present in the area, including Giampilieri, Scaletta Zanclea, Guidomandri, Pèzzolo, Altolìa, and Itàla. Damage to the transportation network was also severe and widespread. The several rainfall-induced landslides and the inundations have resulted in 31 deaths, 6 missing persons, numerous injured persons, and more than 2500 evacuated and homeless people. In the aftermath of the event, we: (i) completed a preliminary field survey in the area most affected by landslides and inundations, documenting the ground effects of the intense rainfall, (ii) acquired satellite imagery, including very-high-resolution optical images taken by QuickBird and high-resolution radar images taken by COSMO-SkyMed, and (iii) acquired stereoscopic aerial photography, including pre-event aerial photographs taken in 1954, 1995, and 2005, and post event, very-large scale images taken by helicopter immediately after the event. In this work, we present preliminary results of the exploitation of multiple remote-sensing technologies and information for the identification, mapping and classification of the rainfall induced landslides, and of the eroded and the inundated areas. Emphasis is given to the critical analysis of the capacity and limits of the available airborne and satellite remote sensing technologies for the rapid mapping of geo-hydrological events, and the associated damage.

Ardizzone, Francesca; Cardinali, Mauro; Fiorucci, Federica; Iovine, Giulio; Mondini, Alessandro; Reichenbach, Paola; Rossi, Mauro; Teresa, Oreste; Fausto, Guzzetti

2010-05-01

161

Raised Holocene paleo-shorelines along the Capo Schisò coast, Taormina: New evidence of recent co-seismic deformation in northeastern Sicily (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed mapping of geomorphological, biological and archaeological sea-level markers around the Capo Schisò volcanic headland, a few kilometers south of Taormina, north-eastern Sicily, has documented the occurrence of three Holocene paleo-shorelines raised at different altitudes. The uppermost shoreline (PS1) is represented by a fossiliferous beach deposit that is heavily eroded and only few small sections, at elevations ranging between ˜3 and ˜5 m above the present sea-level, are visible. The middle shoreline (PS2) was found at a maximum altitude of ˜3 m and is represented by algal rims, remnants of barnacle bands and vermetid concretions, and by a fossiliferous beach deposit. The lowermost shoreline (PS3) includes remnants of algal rims, vermetid concretions, fossil barnacle bands and a beachrock, and reaches an elevation of 1.60-1.80 m. New radiocarbon dating results, integrated with published ages from nearby paleo-shoreline outcrops, constrains for the Taormina region an average uplift rate of 1.7-1.8 mm/yr in the last 5 ka, and the occurrence of three co-seismic uplift events at 4.4-3.9 ka, 2.1-1.8 ka and ?1.0 ka ago. Abrupt displacements are tentatively attributed to footwall uplift along an offshore normal fault, but further investigations are needed to better constrain the causative source of past earthquakes. Notwithstanding, based on coastal tectonic analysis, this paper provides a new assessment of age and recurrence time of Holocene earthquakes in a historically strong seismogenic area.

Spampinato, Cecilia Rita; Scicchitano, Giovanni; Ferranti, Luigi; Monaco, Carmelo

2012-04-01

162

Benthic foraminiferal response to trace element pollution-the case study of the Gulf of Milazzo, NE Sicily (Central Mediterranean Sea).  

PubMed

The response of benthic foraminiferal assemblages to trace element pollution in the marine sediments of the Gulf of Milazzo (north-eastern Sicily) was investigated. Since the 1960s, this coastal area has been a preferred site for the development of two small marinas and a commercial harbour as well as for heavy industry. Forty samples collected in the uppermost 3-4 cm of an undisturbed layer of sediment in the littoral environment were used for this benthic foraminiferal analysis. The enrichment factors (EFs) of selected trace elements (As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were also calculated. Changes both in benthic foraminiferal assemblages and in some trace elements concentrations have provided evidence that the gulf's littoral zone can be subdivided into three sectors characterised by environmental changes in the marine ecosystem. In the sector unpolluted, close to the Milazzo Cape, foraminiferal assemblages exhibit high values of species richness and foraminiferal density while trace element concentrations and their EFs are very low. Here, the highest densities of Miliolids and epiphytic species are present. On the contrary, in the sector polluted, from the marinas to the crude oil refinery, foraminiferal density and species diversity are low, and assemblages are dominated, albeit with very low densities, by species that tolerate stressed environmental conditions, such as LOFAs, agglutinants and Ammonia spp. Here, the highest trace elements concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cu and related EFs were detected. Eastwards, in the sector moderately polluted, foraminiferal populations are quite poor. They are characterised by low values of species richness and foraminiferal densities, nevertheless trace element concentrations become lower than in the other sectors and their EFs are often below 1. Deformed foraminifera, with percentages up to 7.14 %, were found in all three of the sectors. Differences in benthic foraminiferal assemblages, coupled with results from statistical analysis, indicate that anthropogenic trace element pollution could be considered as one of the most important causes of the modifications of foraminiferal assemblages in the study area. PMID:23828269

Cosentino, Claudia; Pepe, Fabrizio; Scopelliti, Giovanna; Calabrò, Monica; Caruso, Antonio

2013-10-01

163

Predicting the impacts of climate change on plant dynamics and tree-grass-shrub competition using a Cellular Automata model in a Mediterranean catchment in Sicily, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding and predicting vegetation change along ecosystem boundaries is among paramount challenges in ecohydrology. In this study, Cellular-Automaton Tree Grass Shrub Simulator (CATGraSS) is implemented in a small upland catchment in Sicily, IT, where north-facing slopes are characterized by quercus (trees), and south-facing slopes exhibit plant coexistence, composed of Opuntia ficus-indaca (shrub) and grasses, to examine the control of solar radiation on plant development and predict potential trajectories of vegetation change under the stress of global warming. CATGraSS is driven by stochastic rainfall and variable solar radiation on topography, represented by a fine-scale gridded domain where vegetation type at each cell is represented individually. In the model, each cell can hold a single plant type or remain empty. Plant competition is modeled explicitly by keeping track of mortality and establishment of plants, both calculated probabilistically based on soil moisture stress. Spatially explicit treatment of solar radiation, and a lower limit to soil moisture storage imposed by bedrock depth lead to spatial organization in evapotranspiration, soil moisture, runoff, and plant type. CATGraSS is first calibrated at the field site driven by stochastic climate that represent the current climate at the study site. Calibrated model results are examined against Google-Earth images. Implications of future climate change are examined using the advanced weather generator (AWE-GEN). AWE-GEN characterizes the statistical characteristics of selected climate variables and their change over time based on a multi-model ensemble of outputs from General Circulation Models (GCMs). Stochastic downscaling is carried out using simulations of twelve GCMs adopted in the IPCC 4AR, A1B emission scenario for the future scenarios 2046-2065 and 2081-2100. Future vegetation changed is predicted to bring a dramatic reorganization of the plant composition based mainly on the topography, characterized by loss of quercus and expansion of grass. Rapid vegetation change could lead to soil erosion, prone soils and changes in the biogeochemical processes in such steep mountainous terrains in the region.

Noto, L. V.; Caracciolo, D.; Fatichi, S.; Istanbulluoglu, E.

2013-12-01

164

Results for the calibration of the Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm TEDA for the tide-gauge stations of Catania and Tremestieri, Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calibration of the Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm TEDA (Bressan and Tinti, 2011) for a given tide-gauge station has the goal to maximize the algorithm efficiency by considering the site-specific characteristics of the background signal and at the same time the features of the potential tsunamis. Typical calibration analysis data are a sufficiently long series of background sea-level data and a sufficient number of tsunami signals, that can be either tsunami records or synthetic tsunami time histories from numerical simulations. Within the Italian national project Ritmare (Ricerca ITaliana per il MARE), the new tide gauge stations of Tremestieri and Catania, installed in 2008 and 2009 respectively in the frame of the previous project TSUNET, have been calibrated by making use of seven synthetic tsunami signals derived from a local hazard study based on tsunami worst-case scenarios (Tonini et al., 2011), due to the lack of real tsunami records. The synthetic tsunami signals have been added to the background sea-level series in four different sea conditions, for a total of 28 tsunami cases. The test of TEDA allows one to select the most appropriate parameter configuration for the algorithm, which is the one that detects most tsunami events in the shortest time. For both stations, the best configuration detects all events in all sea conditions in less than 10 min from the tsunami arrival time. Further, the detection times are not very affected by the different sea-state conditions. In addition, the study of the background has shown relevant features. An important result, both for Catania and Tremestieri, is the coherence and the statistical stability of the background over years, with clear year cyclicity and seasonal intra-year variability. If this were confirmed also for other sites, which is likely, this would entail that calibrating TEDA with background data shorter than one year would produce biased results. The detailed analysis for the calibration of Catania and Tremestieri allows us to conclude that TEDA seems a useful tool for tsunami detection. Bressan, L. and Tinti, S. (2011), Structure and performance of a real-time algorithm to detect tsunami or tsunami-like alert conditions based on sea-level records analysis, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1499-1521, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-1499-2011. Tonini, R., Armigliato, A., Pagnoni, G., Zaniboni, F., and Tinti, S. (2011), Tsunami hazard for the city of Catania, eastern Sicily, Italy, assessed by means of Worst-case Credible Tsunami Scenario Analysis (WCTSA), Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1217-1232, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-1217-2011.

Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano; Zaniboni, Filippo

2013-04-01

165

The Gela Basin pockmark field in the strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea): chemosymbiotic faunal and carbonate signatures of postglacial to modern cold seepage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geo-biological exploration of a pockmark field located at ca. -800 m in the Gela basin (Strait of Sicily, Central Mediterranean) provided a relatively diverse chemosymbiotic community and methane-imprinted carbonates. To date, this is the first occurrence of such type of specialized deep-water cold-seep communities recorded from this key region, before documented in the Mediterranean as rather disjunct findings in its eastern and westernmost basins. The thiotrophic chemosymbiotic organisms recovered from this area include empty tubes of the vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia sp., loose and articulated shells of lucinids (Lucinoma kazani, Myrtea amorpha), vesicomyids (Isorropodon perplexum), and gastropods (Taranis moerchi). A callianassid decapod (Calliax sp.) was consistently found alive in large numbers in the pockmark mud. Their post-mortem calcified parts mixed with molluscs and subordinately miliolid foraminifers form a distinct type of skeletal assemblage (named DECAMOL). Carbonate concretions display ?13C values as low as -40 ‰ PDB suggesting the occurrence of light hydrocarbons in the seeping fluids. Since none of the truly chemosymbiotic organisms was found alive, although their skeletal parts appear at times very fresh, some specimens have been AMS-14C dated to shed light on the historical evolution of this site. Lamellibrachia and Lucinoma are two of the most significant chemosymbiotic taxa reported from various Mediterranean cold seep sites (Alboran Sea and Eastern basin). Specimens from station MEDCOR78 (pockmark#1, Lat 36°46´10.18´´ N, Long 14°01´31.59´´ E, -815 m) provided ages of 11 736 ± 636 yr cal BP (Lamellibrachia sp.), and 9609.5 ± 153.5 yr cal BP (L. kazani). One shell of M. amorpha in core MEDCOR81 (pockmark#6, Lat 36°45´38.89´´ N, Long 14°00´07.58´´ E, -822 m) provided a sub-modern age of 484 ± 54 yr cal BP. These ages document that fluid seepage at this pockmark site has been episodically sustaining thiotrophic macrobenthic communities since the end of the Younger Dryas stadial up to sub-recent times.

Taviani, M.; Angeletti, L.; Ceregato, A.; Foglini, F.; Froglia, C.; Trincardi, F.

2013-01-01

166

The Gela Basin pockmark field in the strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea): chemosymbiotic faunal and carbonate signatures of postglacial to modern cold seepage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geo-biological exploration of a pockmark field located at ca. 800 m below sea level in the Gela basin (Strait of Sicily, Central Mediterranean) provided a relatively diverse chemosymbiotic community and methane-imprinted carbonates. To date, this is the first occurrence of such a type of specialised deep-water cold-seep communities recorded from this key region, before documented in the Mediterranean as rather disjunct findings in its eastern and westernmost basins. The thiotrophic chemosymbiotic organisms recovered from this area include empty tubes of the vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia sp., loose and articulated shells of lucinids (Lucinoma kazani, Myrtea amorpha), vesicomyids (Isorropodon perplexum), and gastropods (Taranis moerchii). A callianassid decapod (Calliax sp.) was consistently found alive in large numbers in the pockmark mud. Their post-mortem calcified parts mixed with molluscs and subordinately miliolid foraminifers form a distinct type of skeletal assemblage. Carbonate concretions display ?13C values as low as -40‰ PDB suggesting the occurrence of light hydrocarbons in the seeping fluids. Since none of the truly chemosymbiotic organisms was found alive, although their skeletal parts appear at times very fresh, some specimens have been AMS-14C dated to shed light on the historical evolution of this site. Lamellibrachiav and Lucinoma are two of the most significant chemosymbiotic taxa reported from various Mediterranean cold seep sites (Alboran Sea and Eastern basin). Specimens from station MEDCOR78 (pockmark #1, Lat. 36°46´10.18" N, Long. 14°01´31.59" E, 815 m below sea level) provided ages of 11736 ± 636 yr cal BP (Lamellibrachia sp.), and 9609.5 ± 153.5 yr cal BP (L. kazani). One shell of M. amorpha in core MEDCOR81 (pockmark #6, Lat 36°45´38.89" N, Long 14°00´07.58" E, 822 m below sea level) provided a sub-modern age of 484 ± 54 yr cal BP. These ages document that fluid seepage at this pockmark site has been episodically sustaining thiotrophic macrobenthic communities since the end of the Younger Dryas stadial up to sub-recent times.

Taviani, M.; Angeletti, L.; Ceregato, A.; Foglini, F.; Froglia, C.; Trincardi, F.

2013-07-01

167

Oxidative stress and DNA repair and detoxification gene expression in adolescents exposed to heavy metals living in the Milazzo-Valle del Mela area (Sicily, Italy)  

PubMed Central

Background The area of Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily, Italy) is considered at high risk of environmental crisis by regional authorities. Objective To measure oxidative-stress, DNA repair and detoxification genes in school children living near the industrial area and in age-matched controls. Methods The parent study was a biomonitoring investigation evaluating heavy metal urine levels in 226 children aged 12–14 years, living in the high risk area, and in 29 age-matched controls living 45 km far from the industrial site. In the present study 67 exposed adolescents and 29 controls were included. Samples were analyzed for urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8OHdG) levels, and gene expression of OGG1 (DNA repair gene), NQO1, ST13, and MT1A (detoxifying genes). Results Urinary cadmium was higher (p = 0.0004) in exposed [geometric mean, 0.46 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 0.3–0.56] than in control adolescents [geometric mean, 0.26 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 0.2–0.3]. Chromium was also significantly elevated in exposed [geometric mean, 1.52 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 1.19–1.93] compared with controls [geometric mean, 1.25 µg/L; 25th–75th percentile: 1.05–1.48; p = 0.02]. Urinary 8-OHdG concentration was greater in exposed than in controls (71.49 vs 61.87 µg/L, p = 0.02), and it was correlated with cadmium levels (r = 0.46, p < 0.0001), and with the combined exposure index (r = 0.43, p < 0.0001). Moreover, cadmium levels showed a robust correlation with OGG1 and MT1A gene expression levels (r = 0.44, p < 0.0001; r = 0.39, p < 0.0001, respectively). Finally, OGG1 and MT1A were over-expressed in adolescents from Milazzo-Valle del Mela area compared with controls (p = 0.0004; p < 0.0001, respectively). Conclusions Continuous exposure at relatively low concentrations of heavy metals is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage and impaired expression of DNA repair and detoxification genes in adolescents. PMID:24936443

Pizzino, Gabriele; Bitto, Alessandra; Interdonato, Monica; Galfo, Federica; Irrera, Natasha; Mecchio, Anna; Pallio, Giovanni; Ramistella, Vincenzo; Luca, Filippo De; Minutoli, Letteria; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica

2014-01-01

168

Analysis and assessment of trace element contamination in offshore sediments of the Augusta Bay (SE Sicily): A multivariate statistical approach based on canonical correlation analysis and mixture density estimation approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An application of multivariate statistical methods is provided to identify anthropogenic contaminants and lithogenic elements in offshore sediments collected near the heavily industrialized Augusta Bay, Sicily. An exploratory statistical technique, based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and mixture density estimation approach, is used for distinguishing between natural and anthropogenic contributions of trace elements in the investigated sediments. Following the intensive industrialization of Augusta area, marine sediments reveal the severe impact of local anthropogenic activities for many elements (e.g. As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Sb), which are considered very dangerous for the environment. In contrast, a prevalent natural/lithogenic origin can be ascribed to Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, V, and Zn. The multivariate statistical approach used in this study, which aims to estimate and to classify trace element pre-industrial levels and sources, could be easily applied to other different contaminated areas.

Di Leonardo, Rossella; Adelfio, Giada; Bellanca, Adriana; Chiodi, Marcello; Mazzola, Salvatore

2014-01-01

169

Chemical composition of the essential oil of Jacobaea maritima (L.) Pelser & Meijden and Jacobaea maritima subsp. bicolor (Willd.) B. Nord. & Greuter (Asteraceae) collected wild in Croatia and Sicily, respectively.  

PubMed

In this study, the chemical compositions of the essential oils from aerial parts (JmA) and radices (JmR) of Jacobaea maritima (L.) Pelser & Meijden, collected in Croatia, and of Jacobaea maritima subsp. bicolor (Willd.) B. Nord. & Greuter, collected in Sicily, were evaluated by using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components of the essential oil from J. maritima, both in JmA and JmR, were pentacosane (15.7%), heptacosane (13.1%) and nonacosane (8.1%) whereas the essential oil from J. maritima subsp. bicolor was characterised by the presence of hexadecanoic acid (14.6%), caryophyllene oxide (9.3%) and hexahydrofarnesylacetone (6.5%). The comparison of the essential oil with other studied oils of the genus Jacobaea is discussed. PMID:25533422

Maggio, Antonella; Venditti, Alessandro; Senatore, Felice; Bruno, Maurizio; Formisano, Carmen

2015-05-01

170

Basin-scale assessment of water resource availability in climate change scenarios through a grid-based approach: an application to Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change resulting from the enhanced greenhouse effect is expected to have great implications for hydrological cycle and for existing surface and groundwater resources systems. The effects of climate variability and climate change have to be fully considered in current water management and planning, since water availability, quality and streamflow are sensitive to changes in temperature and precipitation regimes. Since hydrological models are an important tool in the study and analysis of the hydrological processes and in water resources management, international literature proposes several models, that attempt to assess accurately the available water resources under stationary and changing climatic conditions at different spatial and temporal scales. In order to assess the potential impacts of climate change on surface and groundwater resources water availability in a Southern area of Italy, a conceptual model was applied to simulate the hydrological processes in the Belice river basin, located in Sicily. A trend analysis, carried out using non-parametric techniques, highlighted a decrease of precipitation and an increase of temperature for the area of study over the last 80 years. The model was applied for current conditions of precipitation and temperature as well as under the hypothesis of climate variations, as represented by scenarios consistent with the climate trend analysis. The analysis of the climatic forcing trend provided the parameters needed in order to generate synthetic climate forcing series through the use of stochastic approaches. The conceptual model, developed and applied in this study, is the TOpography based Probability Distributed Model, indicated as TOPDM, resulting from the combination and integration of TOPMODEL into a probability distributed model. Through a relationship between topographic index and storage capacity, this model reflects adequately the influence of basin topography in the hydrological process of runoff generation. The direct runoff occurs according two different mechanism, the Dunnian mechanism and the hortonian mechanism; vertical drainage to groundwater, represented as a storage with unlimited capacity, is simulated as well. This storage, which does not exchange water with the sub-surface system, generates the slow response of the basin. The inclusion of groundwater resources in the model is particularly important since most of the population in the Mediterranean areas relies on groundwater as its primary water resource. The model simulates hydrological processes at two time scales, daily and hourly; here, since the aim of this study is the assessment of climate change effects on water resources, a daily scale application of the model has been considered appropriate. The model has been used to estimate the basin water balance components and the surface and groundwater availability in a no trend scenario, representing the current climate conditions, and in three different groups of scenarios, in which a decrease of precipitation, an increase of temperature, and a combination of these effect were reproduced. The application of TOPDM to the test basins provided some important conclusions about the implications of climate change in the Southern part of Italy. Results show that runoff and evapotranspiration reflect variations in precipitation and in temperature, in particular the negative trend in precipitation determines a decrease in surface and groundwater resources, and this effect is intensified in the scenarios that include a temperature trend as well. Therefore the climate change, occurring as precipitation amount reduction and temperature rise, could exacerbate the water resources stresses in the area of study, in which water scarcity is already an important issue for water resource management.

Liuzzo, L.; Noto, L. V.; La Loggia, G.

2009-04-01

171

The relationship between Late Quaternary deformation and volcanism of Mt. Etna (eastern Sicily): new evidence from the sedimentary substratum in the Catania region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratigraphical and structural analyses have been carried out on the Late Quaternary foredeep succession forming the Etnean substratum in the Catania region (eastern Sicily), in order to investigate in detail the chronology of deformation events that have accompanied a significant period of the eruptive activity of Mt. Etna, i.e. from 240 ka to the Present. This episode was characterised, at about 200 ka, by a main change of the petrochemical features of the emitted products from sub-alkaline to alkaline. This can be related to an evolving mantle diapir located beneath the volcano. The new stratigraphical and structural field data, presented in this paper, constrain the development, from 240 to 125 ka, of NW-SE-trending dextral faults associated with minor E-W- to NE-SW-oriented accommodation thrusts and NNW-SSE-trending normal faults that originated in a dominant transpressive regime. Strike-slip tectonics were active during the earlier emissions of sub-alkaline lavas (320-200 ka old) and part of the ancient alkaline products (180-100 ka old), from scattered eruptive systems which developed in local transtensive zones, distributed throughout the whole Etnean region. A major change in the mode of deformation, since 125 ka BP, was related to the propagation of a normal fault belt along the Ionian coast of the Catania region and the eastern sectors of the Etnean edifice. This process was associated with the growth of open folds that deformed the entire foredeep sequence exposed along the southern boundary of the Etnean edifice. During this period, eruptive activity concentrated along the main extensional features where steady and very efficient feeding systems originated. This resulted in a rapid increase in the volume of emitted alkaline products that gave rise to the construction of the modern stratovolcano during the last 80 ka. The collected data emphasise some main aspects of the relationship between tectonic deformation at a regional scale and volcanism in the Etna area. Firstly, the mode of deformation at the onset of Etnean volcanism seems to be inadequate to explain the emplacement at depth of a mantle diapir related to the occurrence of a hotspot, almost independent from the local crustal dynamics. On the other hand, the Late Quaternary structural assemblages recognised on the surface can be interpreted as direct effects of the Europe-Africa convergence, rather than as the products of deformation induced by the emplacement of the mantle diapir. In the different stages of Etnean evolution a direct relationship exists between the mode of deformation and the distribution as well as the capacity of the feeding systems. In particular, the amounts of emitted products in the different stages depend on the intensity of crustal stretching associated with deformation, rather than the volume of available molten material at depth. These conclusions represent a new perspective for the interpretion of the early stages and subsequent evolution of the volcanic activity of Mt. Etna. The proposed model also represents an useful tool in deciphering the relationship between the deformation path, seismicity and volcanic activity of Mt. Etna.

Catalano, Stefano; Torrisi, Salvatore; Ferlito, Carmelo

2004-05-01

172

Monitoring large-scale landslides and their induced hazard with COSMO-SkyMed Intermittent SBAS (ISBAS): a case study in north-western Sicily, Italy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landslides detection and mapping are fundamental requirements for every hazard and risk evaluation. Due to their inevitable shortcomings, geomorphological field surveys and airphoto interpretation do not document all the gravitational events. Indeed some unstable slopes are inaccessible to field surveyors, while some landslides are too slow to be detected with the naked eye or interpretation of aerial photographs. In this work, we integrate geomorphological surveys with ground motion data derived by employing COSMO-SkyMed satellite imagery and the Intermittent Small BAseline Subset (ISBAS; Sowter et al., 2013), a new Advanced Differential Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (ADInSAR) technique which has been developed recently at the Nottingham University in the UK. The main advantage of ISBAS with respect to other InSAR and SBAS techniques, is the possibility to detect good radar reflectors even in non-urbanized terrain, where ground targets usually look intermittently coherent, meaning they have high coherence only in some interferograms but not in others. ISBAS has proven capable of increasing results over natural, woodland and agricultural terrains and, as a result, it makes it possible to improve the detection of landslide boundaries and the assessment of the state of activity where other InSAR approaches fail. We used COSMO-SkyMed StripMap data covering the period between November 2008 and October 2011, with 3m ground range resolution, 40° look angle and minimum revisiting time of 8 days. The data consist of 38 ascending images (track 133, frame 380) with ground track angle at scene centre of 169.5° from the north-south direction. These have been obtained thanks to an agreement between the Italian Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea and the University of Naples 'Federico II'. We tested ISBAS in north-western Sicily (southern Italy), over a 1,530 km2 area where 1,473 landslides have been identified based on optical imagery and field surveys by the local Hydro-geomorphological Setting Plan published in 2006. The geological and tectonic setting of the area, related to the Apenninic-Maghrebian Chain orogeny, makes most of the instability phenomena of complex or flow type with an extremely slow to very slow velocity, namely very suitable for an interferometric analysis. We show the results for Piana degli Albanesi, a thrust faults-bounded basin located in the northern Mt. Kumeta massif, filled in with Lower Miocene marls and pelitic deposits. Here landslide risk affects housing and public infrastructure (e.g. the SP34, the SP38 and SP102 highways), and the unstable slopes extend up to a gravity masonry dam, such as to require continuous rebuilding of infrastructures in the portions with the higher displacement rates. The ISBAS results for ascending geometry entail an unprecedented 685,518 points in a 90 km2 extended processing area, and their Line Of Sight velocities range between -6.4 mm/yr (away from the sensor) and +6.6mm/yr (towards the sensor). ISBAS results detect a total of 89 mapped landslides, of which 23 are previously not recorded. The analysis of ISBAS COSMO-SKyMed time-series allows us to compare the deformation trends to rainfall events, and to evaluate the correlation between heavy or prolonged rainfall and accelerations in the ground motion histories of the identified landslides. Sowter A., Bateson L., Strange P., Ambrose K., Syafiudin M.F., 2013. DInSAR estimation of land motion using intermittent coherence with application to the South Derbyshire and Leicestershire coalfields. Remote Sensing Letters, v.4 : 979-987.

Novellino, Alessandro; Cigna, Francesca; Jordan, Colm; Sowter, Andrew; Calcaterra, Domenico

2014-05-01

173

Flash floods and debris flow: how the risk could can be better managed? The case of the events in Sicily on October 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flash floods are phenomena in which the important hydrologic processes are occurring on the same spatial and temporal scales as the intense precipitation. Most of the catchments of the Messina area in the North-East part of Sicily (Italy), are prone to flash flood formation. They are, in fact, small, with a steep slope, and characterised by short concentration times. Moreover, those catchments are predominantly rural in the upper mountainous part, while the areas next to the outlet are highly urbanized with areas that cover not only the floodplain but also the river bed itself as the main roads were previously part of the torrent. This situation involve an high risk of economic losses and human life in case of flash flood in these areas. In the last years the area around Messina has been interested by severe flash floods and debris flow. The events occurred on 25th October 2007 in the Mastroguglielmo torrent and 1st October 2009 on Racinazzi and Gianpilieri torrents are an example of flash floods and debris flow events that caused not only significant economic damages to property, buildings, roads and bridges but also, for this that concern the 1st October 2009 flash flood, loss of human life. The main focus of this work is, basing on the post event analysis of the 2009 flash flood event, to try to understand which could be the better preventive measures and mitigation strategies that can be provided for a better risk management in these areas too many times affected by devastating events. Flood management can be controlled by either structural or non-structural measures. Adoption of a certain measure depends critically on the hydrological and hydraulic characteristics of the river system and the region. Flash flood management includes a number of phases that should be included in any management strategy like prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. Forecasting based on hydrological precursors based on the soil moisture condition at the beginning of an event has been investigated in order to test is this kind of approach can be useful as flash flood forecasting system. This kind of approach, associated with the use of LAM (Limited Area Modelling) approach could, in fact, increase the forecast lead time. When an efficient flash flood forecasting system can be difficult to apply, a good risk management and some structural action can be contemplated to improve the safety of the people and the properties. In these cases, hazard maps associated to several scenarios that cover the geographical areas which have been flooded and those that could be flooded, can be a practical alternative. These areas shall be shown according to several scenarios and, for each scenarios, the degree of danger will also be provided by expressing the water depth, the flow velocity or the combination of these and the identification of areas which could be subject to bank overflowing and debris flow deposition.

Aronica, Giuseppe T.; Brigandi', Giuseppina

2010-05-01

174

Summer in Sicily Program Snapshot  

E-print Network

· Local roommates & language partners · Visiting faculty: Professor Paola Servino · 12 Brandeis credits Italian language learning, and language partners and local roommates ensure that language practice the formal language and the language of the streets. A homework assignment might ask students to buy

Fraden, Seth

175

Mantle melting in within-plate continental settings: Sr-Nd-Pb and U-series isotope constraints in alkali basalts from the Sicily Channel (Pantelleria and Linosa Islands, Southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of the mantle sources of the Na-alkaline magmas erupted within the continental rift of the Sicily Channel and their melting behaviour are here investigated through the determination of Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios and U-series disequilibria on basaltic volcanic rocks from Linosa and Pantelleria. The isotope data, along with trace element ratios are used to assess the possible role of the interaction with the continental crust and/or the Sub-Continental Lithospheric Mantle (SCLM). The data show little variation in Sr and Nd isotopes and a continuous trend toward more radiogenic Pb isotope composition from Linosa to the oldest mafic activity of Pantelleria (i.e. Paleo-Pantelleria), with intermediate values measured in the youngest Pantelleria lavas (Neo-Pantelleria). Pantelleria basalts have ubiquitous 230Th-excess ranging from 7% to 20%. These data suggest the magmas are originated within the asthenospheric mantle, with little or no interaction with either the continental crust or the SCLM. The increasing FOZO-like character of the studied magmas and the variation of some key trace element ratios (e.g. Rb/La) argue for an increasing role of recycled oceanic material in the form of eclogite/pyroxenite dispersed within the mantle sources of these magmas. A completely distinct isotope composition is recorded in Neo-Pantelleria hawaiites from Khartibucale, which show significantly higher 87Sr/86Sr and lower 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb, (238U/232Th) and (230Th/232Th), but comparable (230Th/238U) with respect to all the other rocks studied. These rocks cannot be considered co-genetic with other Pantelleria basalts and are interpreted either as related to interaction with partial melts of the SCLM or to be originated from a mantle source enriched by recycled crustal material (EM-like). 235U-231Pa disequilibria were also measured in one Neo-Pantelleria hawaiite and one Neo-Pantelleria basalt. The coupled (230Th/238U) = 1.20 and (231Pa/235U) = 1.39 of the latter were used to perform quantitative dynamic melting models in order to constrain physical parameters of mantle melting in the Sicily Channel. The combined modelling yielded positive solutions only for high DU/DTh (? 2.5) and low melting rates (? < 1 × 10- 4 kg/m3/a). These data argue against any important role for amphibole in the genesis of these magmas and are consistent with a peridotite source possibly well mixed with recycled components. The modelled values of ? can also be converted into estimates of the upwelling rate of the mantle that are compatible with slow passive upwelling along the Sicily Channel rift.

Avanzinelli, Riccardo; Braschi, Eleonora; Marchionni, Sara; Bindi, Luca

2014-02-01

176

The CIRCEE-HR survey in the Calabrian arc and offshore E Sicily (Ionian Sea and Southern Italy): investigating active faults, recent deformation and the deep marine paleoseismic record (turbidites)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(CIRCEE-HR - Calabrian arc Ionian sea Research and Catastrophic historical EarthquakE s in southern italy - a High Resolution seismic survey) We report on a recent marine geophysical and geological survey conducted onboard the R/V Le Suroit from 2-24 October in the Ionian Sea, offshore Eastern Sicily. The primary aim of the CIRCEE-HR cruise proposal was to conduct a neo-tectonic study of the Calabrian subduction zone offshore Southern Italy, a region struck repeatedly by the most destructive earthquakes in European history. The CIRCEE-HR survey targeted the region struck by the 1693 Catania earthquake (60,000 killed) and the 1908 Messina earthquakes, which produced intensity X-XI shaking and tsunamis. The 1908 (normal faulting mechanism) earthquake triggered a turbidite flow that ruptured submarine cables. The source of some strong historical earthquakes (1169, 1542, 1693) remains unknown. Several crustal scale structures have been proposed as being seismogenic: the Malta escarpment, a lithospheric tear fault (STEP), the subduction fault plane and other related faults. The main objectives of the cruise were therefore to seek evidence of active faults associated with these structures, and to characterize the degree of activity of the Calabria accretionary wedge (sedimentary deformation, dewatering processes) in order to better assess its seismogenic potential. Another major objective is to try to determine the typical recurrence interval for large earthquakes in the region (by coring and dating of turbidites triggered by great earthquakes). The Augias mega-turbidite dated either 3.5 ka (Cita et al., 1996) or 365 AD (Polonia et al., 2013) covers the entire floor of the Ionian abyssal plain with a thickness of 10-15m representing a volume of > 100km3. This layer serves as a stratigraphic marker to identify recent deformation in the abyssal domain. The methods applied were 72-channel high-resolution seismic profiles and sub-bottom profiling (chirp) (with 1200km of profiles planned) as well as some targeted bathymetric swathmapping surveys (in areas <3000m depth, not previously well mapped), and gravity coring of the turbidite deposits (28 coring sites planned). Map of the Ionian Sea - E Sicily margin, with planned seismic profiles shown as red lines and planned sediment coring sites as red triangles

Gutscher, M.; Babonneau, N.; Cattaneo, A.; Gallais, F.; Graindorge, D.; San Pedro, L.

2013-12-01

177

Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in Sicily.  

PubMed

Eight Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs)-DYS19, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393 and DYS385-were typed in a population sample (n=255) of unrelated Sicilian males from nine different towns on the main island and from the island of Pantelleria. PMID:15990263

Robino, C; Inturri, S; Gino, S; Torre, C; Di Gaetano, C; Crobu, F; Romano, V; Matullo, G; Piazza, A

2006-06-01

178

Two new tardigrade species from Sicily.  

PubMed

Two new species of tardigrades are described from Sicilian moss samples: Macrobiotus insuetus sp. nov. and Diphascon (Diphascon) procerum sp. nov.        Macrobiotus insuetus sp. nov. is a species of the harmsworthi-group characterized by both posterior and anterior claws of the hind legs, which are different in shape from those of the first three leg pairs. The IV claws have extended basal tract where the branches are joined and the secondary branch breaks at near right angle to the primary branch and is clearly shorter than the main branch and the secondary branch of claws I-III. The eggs are not areolated and have conical processes with a reticular ornamentation.        Diphascon (D.) procerum sp. nov. has a delicate cuticular ornamentation of very small tubercles, almost dots; two macroplacoids and septulum are present; thin accessory points are present on the main branches of the slender claws; lunules are absent but the base of the external claws of the hind legs are enlarged and slightly indented; a cuticular bar is present near the internal claw of the first three leg pairs and two cuticular bars are present on the hind legs between the base of the claws and near the base of the anterior claw.  PMID:24869688

Pilato, Giovanni; Sabella, Giorgio; Lisi, Oscar

2014-01-01

179

Sicily statement on evidence-based practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A variety of definitions of evidence-based practice (EBP) exist. However, definitions are in themselves insufficient to explain the underlying processes of EBP and to differentiate between an evidence-based process and evidence-based outcome. There is a need for a clear statement of what Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) means, a description of the skills required to practise in an evidence-based manner and

Martin Dawes; William Summerskill; Paul Glasziou; Antonino Cartabellotta; Janet Martin; Kevork Hopayian; Franz Porzsolt; Amanda Burls; James Osborne

2005-01-01

180

Quantifying probabilities of eruptions at Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the major goals of modern volcanology is to set up sound risk-based decision-making in land-use planning and emergency management. Volcanic hazard must be managed with reliable estimates of quantitative long- and short-term eruption forecasting, but the large number of observables involved in a volcanic process suggests that a probabilistic approach could be a suitable tool in forecasting. The aim of this work is to quantify probabilistic estimate of the vent location for a suitable lava flow hazard assessment at Mt. Etna volcano, through the application of the code named BET (Marzocchi et al., 2004, 2008). The BET_EF model is based on the event tree philosophy assessed by Newhall and Hoblitt (2002), further developing the concept of vent location, epistemic uncertainties, and a fuzzy approach for monitoring measurements. A Bayesian event tree is a specialized branching graphical representation of events in which individual branches are alternative steps from a general prior event, and evolving into increasingly specific subsequent states. Then, the event tree attempts to graphically display all relevant possible outcomes of volcanic unrest in progressively higher levels of detail. The procedure is set to estimate an a priori probability distribution based upon theoretical knowledge, to accommodate it by using past data, and to modify it further by using current monitoring data. For the long-term forecasting, an a priori model, dealing with the present tectonic and volcanic structure of the Mt. Etna, is considered. The model is mainly based on past vent locations and fracture location datasets (XX century of eruptive history of the volcano). Considering the variation of the information through time, and their relationship with the structural setting of the volcano, datasets we are also able to define an a posteriori probability map for next vent opening. For short-term forecasting vent opening hazard assessment, the monitoring has a leading role, primarily based on seismological and volcanological data, integrated with strain, geochemical, gravimetric and magnetic parameters. In the code, is necessary to fix an appropriate forecasting time window. On open-conduit volcanoes as Mt. Etna, a forecast time window of a month (as fixed in other applications worldwide) seems unduly long, because variations of the state of the volcano (significant variation of a specific monitoring parameter could occur in time scale shorter than the forecasting time window) are expected with shorter time scale (hour, day or week). This leads to set a week as forecasting time window, coherently with the number of weeks in which an unrest has been experienced. The short-term vent opening hazard assessment will be estimated during an unrest phase; the testing case (2001 July eruption) will include all the monitoring parameters collected at Mt. Etna during the six months preceding the eruption. The monitoring role has been assessed eliciting more than 50 parameters, including seismic activity, ground deformation, geochemistry, gravity, magnetism, and distributed inside the first three nodes of the procedure. Parameter values describe the Mt. Etna volcano activity, being more detailed through the code, particularly in time units. The methodology allows all assumptions and thresholds to be clearly identified and provides a rational means for their revision if new data or information are incoming. References Newhall C.G. and Hoblitt R.P.; 2002: Constructing event trees for volcanic crises, Bull. Volcanol., 64, 3-20, doi: 10.1007/s0044500100173. Marzocchi W., Sandri L., Gasparini P., Newhall C. and Boschi E.; 2004: Quantifying probabilities of volcanic events: The example of volcanic hazard at Mount Vesuvius, J. Geophys. Res., 109, B11201, doi:10.1029/2004JB00315U. Marzocchi W., Sandri, L. and Selva, J.; 2008: BET_EF: a probabilistic tool for long- and short-term eruption forecasting, Bull. Volcanol., 70, 623 - 632, doi: 10.1007/s00445-007-0157-y.

Brancato, Alfonso

2010-05-01

181

Cefal, Sicily 29th September -4th October 2013  

E-print Network

covering a wide field of manufacturing processes and materialsof sheet metal processing are presented. Micari) · Sheet/bulk forming processes (M. Merklein) · F.E. analyses: basics (L. Fratini) · Machines bending (R. Plettke) · Stamping operations (A. Brosius) · Damage modeling (A. Brosius) · Hot stamping

Fiebig, Peter

182

Municipal waste management in Sicily: Practices and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are numerous problems yet to be solved in waste management and although efforts towards waste recovery and recycling have been made, landfills are still the most common method used in the EU and many other industrialised countries. Thermal disposal, particularly incineration, is a tested and viable alternative. In 2004, only 11% of the annual waste production of Italy was

Antonio Messineo; Domenico Panno

2008-01-01

183

Geomorphology of the western Ionian Sea between Sicily and Calabria, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the westernmost Ionian Sea lies a steep, tectonically active marine basin influenced by turbidity currents generated by terrigenous river input from the adjacent mountains and strong tidal currents propagating through the Strait of Messina. Like many young marine rifts, the basin is lined by steep streams draining the uplifting coasts and supplying sediment across narrow shelves. However, unlike many rifts, this basin is semi-enclosed. The present study explores the seabed morphology and sediment structures in this complex environmental setting, based on multibeam sonar, chirp profiler and seismic reflection data collected in 2006. Offshore channels include many that can be directly linked to onshore streams, suggesting that hyperpycnal flows are important for their formation. Near the Strait of Messina in depths shallower than 400 m, the channels are subdued, plausibly explained as an effect of strong tidal currents. The Messina Channel is characterised by abundant mass-wasting features along its outer bends, particularly on the Calabrian side. Coincidence of the channel course with faults suggests that the channel is structurally controlled in places. The chirp profiles generally show only shallow penetration, the evidence for coarse texture being consistent with the steep gradient of the basin that inhibits deposition from turbidity currents. By contrast, some locally discontinuous mounds exhibiting layered sub-bottom reflectors in the chirp profiles are interpreted as modern levee deposits formed from channelised turbidity current overspill. Overall, this semi-enclosed basin shows little evidence of substantial accumulations associated with modern turbidity current activity, any contemporaneous sediment supply evidently bypassing the area to be deposited in the Ionian Trench; as a consequence, this trench should be an archive of local slope failure and flood events.

Goswami, Rajasmita; Mitchell, Neil C.; Argnani, Andrea; Brocklehurst, Simon H.

2014-10-01

184

Stable-isotope mapping in Messinian evaporative carbonates of central Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mapping stable-isotope isolines in both modern and ancient evaporative carbonate formations demonstrates that regional variations of delta18O values exist. In the case of the Messinian Central Sicilian Basin, an ancient evaporite basin, the distribution pattern of the delta18O isolines can be related to the paleogeometry and paleohydrology of the basin. Isolines of equal delta13C values also show large regional variations

Judith Ann McKenzie

1985-01-01

185

HER2 status in advanced gastric carcinoma: A retrospective multicentric analysis from Sicily.  

PubMed

According to the ToGA trial, HER2 has been shown to be predictive for the success of treatment with trastuzumab in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). A number of studies have analyzed HER-2/neu overexpression in gastric carcinoma and identified the rate of HER2 positivity to be markedly varied. To date, the prevalence of HER2 overexpression in Sicilian people with AGC is unknown. Therefore, in the present study, a retrospective immunohistochemical analysis of HER2 was performed in a cohort of 304 AGC samples that were obtained from the archives of 10 Sicilian anatomopathological diagnostic units in order to verify the positive rate of HER2-positive cases. Furthermore, the characteristics of histotype, grade, stage and Ki-67 expression were also analyzed. HER2 overexpression was encountered in 17.43% of all the gastric adenocarcinomas, which was consistent with the results that have been reported elsewhere in the literature. A progressive increase in HER2 overexpression was observed, from the poorly cohesive histotype to the tubular adenocarcinomas and gastric hepatoid adenocarcinomas. HER2 overexpression was significantly associated with a high grade, advanced stage and high Ki-67 labeling index. Further investigations performed jointly by pathologists and oncologists within the geographical area of the present study should confirm that the association of trastuzumab with chemotherapy results in an improvement of survival in patients with AGC. PMID:24260051

Ieni, A; Barresi, V; Giuffrè, G; Caruso, R A; Lanzafame, S; Villari, L; Salomone, E; Roz, E; Cabibi, D; Franco, V; Certo, G; Labate, A; Nagar, C; Magliolo, E; Broggi, B; Fazzari, C; Italia, F; Tuccari, G

2013-12-01

186

HER2 status in advanced gastric carcinoma: A retrospective multicentric analysis from Sicily  

PubMed Central

According to the ToGA trial, HER2 has been shown to be predictive for the success of treatment with trastuzumab in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). A number of studies have analyzed HER-2/neu overexpression in gastric carcinoma and identified the rate of HER2 positivity to be markedly varied. To date, the prevalence of HER2 overexpression in Sicilian people with AGC is unknown. Therefore, in the present study, a retrospective immunohistochemical analysis of HER2 was performed in a cohort of 304 AGC samples that were obtained from the archives of 10 Sicilian anatomopathological diagnostic units in order to verify the positive rate of HER2-positive cases. Furthermore, the characteristics of histotype, grade, stage and Ki-67 expression were also analyzed. HER2 overexpression was encountered in 17.43% of all the gastric adenocarcinomas, which was consistent with the results that have been reported elsewhere in the literature. A progressive increase in HER2 overexpression was observed, from the poorly cohesive histotype to the tubular adenocarcinomas and gastric hepatoid adenocarcinomas. HER2 overexpression was significantly associated with a high grade, advanced stage and high Ki-67 labeling index. Further investigations performed jointly by pathologists and oncologists within the geographical area of the present study should confirm that the association of trastuzumab with chemotherapy results in an improvement of survival in patients with AGC. PMID:24260051

IENI, A.; BARRESI, V.; GIUFFRÈ, G.; CARUSO, R.A.; LANZAFAME, S.; VILLARI, L.; SALOMONE, E.; ROZ, E.; CABIBI, D.; FRANCO, V.; CERTO, G.; LABATE, A.; NAGAR, C.; MAGLIOLO, E.; BROGGI, B.; FAZZARI, C.; ITALIA, F.; TUCCARI, G.

2013-01-01

187

Hydrodynamics and spatial zonation of the Capo Peloro coastal system (Sicily) through 3-D numerical modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since advection and diffusion are the main physical processes that influence the cleaning capacity of coastal transitional waters, the 3-D spatial distribution of the water renewal times was used to delineate a physically-based zonation scheme. The temporal and spatial variations of the hydrodynamics are assessed using a validated three dimensional hydrodynamic finite element model. The developed methodology was applied to the Cape Peloro system, a coastal protected area located in the Messina Strait (Italy) consisting of two connected small brackish basins: the shallow Lake Ganzirri and the deep meromictic Lake Faro. The hydrodynamics of the two coastal lakes shows strong seasonal and spatial variation. The 3-D distribution of the water renewal times suggests a horizontal partition of the Lake Ganzirri into two sub-basins and a vertical zonation of the Lake Faro, with the mixolimnion extending till 10 m depth and the presence of a persistent bottom stagnant layer. The derived physically-based zonation scheme helps in explaining the highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of many biogeochemical variables in the Cape Peloro coastal system.

Ferrarin, Christian; Bergamasco, Alessandro; Umgiesser, Georg; Cucco, Andrea

2013-05-01

188

Archaeological and historiographical implications of recent uplift of the Peloro Peninsula, NE Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In ancient times, the name "Peloro" was used to indicate an anthropic area that gradually developed around the first known human settlement on the Sicilian shore near the Straits of Messina. Since the 5th century BC, historians have documented that numerous naval armadas landed for long periods at Peloro. However, the present-day morphology of the Peloro Cape Peninsula does not have any protected inlet that would offer a location to repair hundreds of ships, as has been documented by historical sources. To address this discrepancy, geomorphologic data were collected and analyzed to verify whether historical documents were consistent with the palaeotopography of the area. This approach is based on the analysis of the morphotectonic evolution of the coastal lowland that resulted from regional uplift over the Quaternary and Holocene. The results indicate that the harbour was located in the basin of the Pantano Piccolo salt marsh, and was large and deep enough to have sheltered up to 320 ships.

Bottari, Carla; Carveni, Pietro

2009-07-01

189

Magnetic stratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the Piacenzian (Upper Pliocene) at Monte San Nicola (Sicily)  

SciTech Connect

During the Neogene, the Mediterranean was a rather unique biogeographic province. For this reason, first and last occurrences of Neogene species recorded in the Mediterranean region may not be synchronous with those recorded in the open oceans. This has important implications as most of the Neogene stage boundaries are defined on the basis of Mediterranean type sections. The most direct way to determine the relative timing of Mediterranean and open ocean datums is through correlation with the polarity time scale. Such correlations are not available for the Mediterranean Pliocene. The Trubi pelagic limestones and Monte narbone marls which characterize the SicilianPliocene are not ideal for magnetic stratigraphy due to weak remnant intensities and an ubiquitous normal polarity overprint. However, at Monte San Nicola, a magnetic stratigraphy has been resolved by stepwise demagnetization in small temperature increments. The upper and lower bounds of the Gauss Epoch, and the Mammoth and Kaena polarity events can be correlated to well defined planktonic foraminiferal and calcareous nannofossil datums. Hence the synchronism of these datums between the Mediterranean and the open ocean can be tested. The most notable discrepancy is in the last occurrence of G. margaritae which occurs at the base of the Gauss in most open marine sections, but is found at the top of the Gilbert at Monte San Nicola.

Channell, J.E.T.; Sprovieri, R.; Di Stefano, E.

1985-01-01

190

Occult hepatitis B infection in the immigrant population of Sicily, Italy.  

PubMed

In Italy, about 7 % of the resident population is represented by immigrants originating from geographic regions at high endemicity for hepatitis B virus infection. This study aims to assess the prevalence of occult HBV infection (OBI) including the identification of HBV-genotypes in a population of immigrants serologically negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Between May 2006 and May 2010, 339 immigrants were tested for markers of HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. HBV-DNA was tested by using nested-PCR assays on three different genetic region. HBV-DNA was detected in plasma samples of 11/339 (3.2 %) patients. Most of them had no serological markers of HBV infection, 3/58 (5.2 %) were anti-HBc-alone, and 4/13 (30.8 %) were anti-HIV positive. HIV positivity was the only factor independently associated with the higher probability of observing OBI (OR = 16.5, p < 0.001). No HCV co-infected patients were found. Genotype D was detected in 9/11 (81.8 %) OBI cases, while the remaining two (18.2 %) were classified as genotype E. Although OBI was found at lower rate than expected among immigrants from highly endemic countries, anti-HBc alone positivity was confirmed as a sentinel marker of occult HBV infection. Nevertheless, a marked heterogeneity of HBV markers was found among HBV-DNA positive subjects. Our finding evidenced the predominance of HBV-genotype D viral strains among OBI cases, also in those from geographical areas where overt HBV infections are mainly sustained by viral genotypes other than D. PMID:22875279

Tramuto, Fabio; Maida, Carmelo M; Colomba, Giuseppina M E; Di Carlo, Paola; Mazzola, Giovanni; Li Vecchi, Valentina; Affronti, Mario; Montalto, Giuseppe; Vitale, Francesco

2013-08-01

191

Epidemiological Significance of the Domestic Black Pig (Sus scrofa) in Maintenance of Bovine Tuberculosis in Sicily  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an emerging disease among wild animals in many parts of the world. Wildlife reservoir hosts may thus represent a potential source of infection for livestock and humans. We investigated the role played by the Sicilian black pig, an autochthonous free- or semi-free-ranging domestic pig breed, as a potential source of bTB infection in an area where bTB prevalence in cattle is high. We initially performed a preliminary field study to assess the occurrence of bTB in such animals. We sampled 119 pigs at abattoir and found 6.7% and 3.4% of them to be affected by gross tuberculous-like lesions (TBL) and Mycobacterium bovis culture positive, respectively. We then proceeded to investigate the dissemination and characteristics of lesions in a second field study performed on 100 animals sampled from infected herds. Here, tissues collected at the abattoir were examined macroscopically, microscopically, and by culture tests. Most pigs with TBL showed generalized lesions in both gross and histological examinations (53% and 65.5%, respectively). Head lymph nodes were the most frequently affected in both localized and generalized TB cases observed macroscopically and microscopically. M. bovis was the most frequently isolated etiologic agent. The molecular characterization of isolates from both field studies by spoligotyping and analysis of 12 mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) loci, followed by their comparison to isolates of cattle origin, suggested a potential transmission of mycobacteria from domestic animals to black pigs and vice versa. Our findings, along with ethological, ecological, and management considerations, suggest that the black pig might act as a bTB reservoir in the ecosystem under study. However, additional studies will be necessary to establish the true epidemiological significance of the Sicilian black pig. PMID:22322347

Di Marco, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Piera; Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Boniotti, Maria Beatrice; Aronica, Vincenzo; Russo, Miriam; Fiasconaro, Michele; Cifani, Noemi; Corneli, Sara; Biasibetti, Elena; Biagetti, Massimo; Pacciarini, Maria Lodovica; Cagiola, Monica; Pasquali, Paolo

2012-01-01

192

Carbon dioxide emission and heat release estimation for Pantelleria Island (Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed surveys of diffuse CO2 flux, soil temperature, thermal gradients, and sampling of high-T fumaroles were carried out in the Favare area and Lake Specchio di Venere on Pantelleria Island. Spatial patterns of diffuse CO2 emissions in the Favare area reflect structural discontinuities (faults, fractures or cracks in the soil) associated with the volcano-tectonic structures of the young Monastero Caldera (NNE-SSW to NE-SW trending). The estimated diffuse CO2 output from two adjacent sites in the Favare area (~ 93,000 m2) is 7.8 t d- 1 (equivalent to 2.62 kt a- 1), whereas that from the west shore of the lake (450 m2) is 0.041 t d- 1 (or 0.015 kt a- 1). The extrapolation of diffuse CO2 fluxes across the entire altered area of Favare suggests that CO2 emissions are ~ 19.3 t d- 1. The diffuse CO2 flux correlates with shallow soil temperatures, indicating a similar source for both the heat and volatiles from the underlying geothermal reservoir. Gas equilibria applied to fumarolic effluents define P-T conditions for this reservoir at 2-6 bar and 120-160 °C, in good agreement with measurements from exploratory wells in these areas (e.g., 135 °C at a depth of 290 m). Using the CO2 flux as a tracer for steam output, and consequently for heat flow, the calculated thermal energy for the shallow reservoir is 10-12 MW; this represents the minimum geothermal potential of the reservoir on Pantelleria island.

Granieri, Domenico; Chiodini, Giovanni; Avino, Rosario; Caliro, Stefano

2014-04-01

193

Knowledge, risk perception and behaviours in swimming pool users of Palermo city, Sicily.  

PubMed

To assess knowledge, risk perception and behaviours of a sample of swimming pool users in Palermo. A total of 498 subjects were interviewed by self-administered anonymous questionnaire including socio-demographic questions, knowledge/risk perception and behaviours. Overall, 289 subjects (58%) had a mean of 1.9 ± 1.2 healthy behaviours. Age older than 30 years (OR=0.46; 95% CI=0.26-0.81), female sex (OR=0.52; 95% CI=0.35-0.76) and a high knowledge score (OR=0.15; 95% CI=0.03-0.69) were significantly associated with having healthy behaviours in both univariate and multivariate analysis. Unhealthy behaviours can be frequently found in swimming pool bathers and, particularly, in some target groups. Public health prevention strategies should be implemented to improve public awareness and information on a safe use of recreational water environments. PMID:24251683

Amodio, Emanuele; Costantino, Claudio; Asciutto, Rosario; Dino, Claudia; Bianco, Antonino; Maringhini, Guido; Mammina, Caterina; Calamusa, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

194

A human case of Hymenolepis diminuta in a child from eastern Sicily.  

PubMed

We report a case of Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a 2-year-old child living in a suburban area of Catania, Italy. This case was initially referred to us as Dipylidium caninum infection, which was not cured after being treated twice with mebendazole. However, by analyzing the clinical presentation and stool samples we arrived to the diagnosis of H. diminuta infection. The case presented with atypical allergic manifestations which had never been reported as clinical features of symptomatic H. diminuta infection; remittent fever with abdominal pain, diffuse cutaneous itching, transient thoracic rash, and arthromyalgias. The patient was treated with a 7-day cycle of oral niclosamide, which proved to be safe and effective. This case report emphasizes that a correct parasitological diagnosis requires adequate district laboratories and trained personnel. In addition, we recommend the importance of reporting all H. diminuta infection cases, in order to improve knowledge on epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment protocols. PMID:20585535

Patamia, Ildebrando; Cappello, Elisa; Castellano-Chiodo, Donato; Greco, Filippo; Nigro, Luciano; Cacopardo, Bruno

2010-06-01

195

A Human Case of Hymenolepis diminuta in a Child from Eastern Sicily  

PubMed Central

We report a case of Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a 2-year-old child living in a suburban area of Catania, Italy. This case was initially referred to us as Dipylidium caninum infection, which was not cured after being treated twice with mebendazole. However, by analyzing the clinical presentation and stool samples we arrived to the diagnosis of H. diminuta infection. The case presented with atypical allergic manifestations which had never been reported as clinical features of symptomatic H. diminuta infection; remittent fever with abdominal pain, diffuse cutaneous itching, transient thoracic rash, and arthromyalgias. The patient was treated with a 7-day cycle of oral niclosamide, which proved to be safe and effective. This case report emphasizes that a correct parasitological diagnosis requires adequate district laboratories and trained personnel. In addition, we recommend the importance of reporting all H. diminuta infection cases, in order to improve knowledge on epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment protocols. PMID:20585535

Patamia, Ildebrando; Cappello, Elisa; Castellano-Chiodo, Donato; Greco, Filippo; Cacopardo, Bruno

2010-01-01

196

Serum hepatitis G virus (HGV) RNA in multitransfused thalassemics from eastern Sicily.  

PubMed

The prevalence of hepatitis G in a multitransfused population was studied. HGV did not appear to be a major contributor to liver pathology in this group and the prevalence was surprisingly low. PMID:9570651

Cacopardo, B; Berger, A; Cosentino, S; Lombardo, S; Morrone, M L; Boscia, V; Vinci, G; Restivo, R; Brancati, G; Doerr, H W; Nunnari, A

1998-03-01

197

Combining inland and offshore paleotsunamis evidence: the Augusta Bay (eastern Sicily, Italy) case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Offshore and inland geological evidence for multiple tsunami inundations was found in the Augusta Bay area: (1) the main local historical tsunamis (1908, 1693, 1169), (2) two far-generated tsunamis (i.e. Crete 365 AD and Santorini, 3600 BP), and (3) seven unknown tsunamis). Average tsunami recurrence intervals from inland and offshore investigations of about 550 and 320 yr, respectively were obtained for the past 4 ka. The history of paleotsunamis from the marine record appears to be as complete as the historical one for the past millennium, yielding an average tsunami recurrence interval of 250 yr for the Augusta Bay. Geological data allow also estimating a minimum tsunami inundation distance of 530 m and a minimum run-up of 5 m. The marine record contains evidence for more paleotsunamis with respect to the inland one because of continuous sedimentation and better preservation of stratigraphy in the offshore with respect to coastal areas, which are commonly affected by intermittent-erosion and sedimentation and anthropic activities. This work shows that the integration of geological and historical data can provide critical information regarding the extent and age of tsunamis of the past (e.g. inundation distance, age, and frequency), which is of immediate relevance for tsunami hazard assessment.

Smedile, A.; De Martini, P. M.; Pantosti, D.

2012-08-01

198

New perspectives on primary magmas and related mantle sources from Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mt. Etna is one of the most active volcano in the world and the understanding of its eruptive dynamics is fundamental to reduce volcanic risk related to the frequent volcanic events. In this respect the complete evolution of Mt. Etna magmatismand the reconstruction of its mantle source was considered performing a detailed sampling from Tholeiitic to Recent Mongibello periods. Backward mass balance fractionation models, starting from real and primitive analyzed magmas, allowed to reconstruct the "primary" and un-fractionated melt compositions.The Tholeiitic suite did not necessitate a backward reconstruction for the presence of real primary un-fractionated compositions. The least differentiated products for each alkaline period were identified and about 17 to 19% of a solid assemblage made up of Ol (87 to 100%) and Cpx (up to 13%) was added to re-equilibrate the basalts with mantle olivine (Fo87). A further subtraction of an average 23.3% of a solid assemblage constituted by Ol (7-18%), Cpx (26-55%) and Plag (21-48%) is needed to get to the most differentiated erupted lavas. To reach the most evolved terms ishypothesized the involvement of 27% Ol, 14% Cpx, 29% Opx, 15% Plg and 15% Cr-sp for a total amount of 53.1% of Gabbroic material.On average an estimation of about 40% of material should be considered beneath the volcanic edifice taking into account the entire volume of the products emitted by the volcano. Thus if according to [1] the whole volcano edifice amounts to about 370 km3, about 150 km3 of magma should be left behind from the magma on its way from the mantle to the surface. Although Etnean alkaline lavas appear enriched in K, Rb, Th and U and depleted in Ti, Y and Yb with respect to the Iblean magmas, their overall composition appear quite similar.Thus partial melting models were developed for each Etnean magmatic period, based on a mantle composition similar to that of the nearbyIblean lithosphere. Results indicate twodifferent sources for Tholeiitic and Alkaline suites analogously to the modeling developed by[2]. Tholeiitic magmas can be reproduced by about 17% of an amphibole-bearing peridotite source, while Alkaline magmas can be reproduced by melting of about 7% an amphibole-phlogopite-bearing peridotite source. Our result are in agreement with those recently advanced by [3] indicating a large similarity between Mt. Etna and Mt. Iblei mantle sources. [1] Neri and Rossi (1992) Quaderni di geofisica - Istituto nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia 20. [2] Beccaluva et al. (1998) J. Petrology 39, 1547-1576. [3] Correale et al. (2014) Lithos, 243-258.

Alesci, Giuseppe; Giacomoni, Pier Paolo; Coltorti, Massimo; Ferlito, Carmelo

2014-05-01

199

Seismic and landslide source of the 1908 Straits of Messina tsunami (Sicily, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred years ago (December 1908) a devastating tsunami associated with an earthquake struck the Straits of Messina area, causing many casualties. On the basis of seismic data and observed runups and arrival times, we suggest that the tsunami was likely generated by coseismic seafloor displacement coupled with a small submarine landslide triggered by the earthquake. Backwards ray-tracing using a

Massimiliano Favalli; Enzo Boschi; Francesco Mazzarini; Maria Teresa Pareschi

2009-01-01

200

Epidemiology and clinical features of cystic hydatidosis in Western Sicily: A ten-year review  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess retrospectively the epidemiological and clinical aspects of cystic echinococcosis (CE) and to evaluate follow-up and response to treatment in patients affected by CE. METHODS: From January 2000 to December 2010, all patients affected by CE at the Infectious Diseases Units of the University of Catania and of Basilotta Hospital in Nicosia-Enna, were enrolled as participants in the study. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data were collected for each patient. Diagnosis of CE was performed using clinical imaging and laboratory parameters. Response to treatment was categorized as follows: “cure” as the disappearance or complete calcification of cyst/s; “improvement” as a reduction in the diameter and/or number of existing cysts; and “impairment” as an increase in the diameter and/or number of existing cyst/s and the onset of relapses (i.e., the onset of new cyst/s and an increase in the diameter of previously existing cyst/s and/or complications. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) titers and eosinophil percentages were evaluated at diagnosis, at six months after the initiation of treatment and again in the case of relapse. Hyper-eosinophilia was defined as an eosinophil percentage of ? 6%. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients were diagnosed with CE in our Unit during the research period, with a male-female ratio of 2:1. At the time of diagnosis, 40% of patients presented a single CE cyst. Sixty percent showed multi-organ involvement. The liver-lung localization ratio was 2:1. Patients below the age of 50 at diagnosis were more likely to have multiple cysts (73.7% vs 35.5%, P < 0.05). Regarding treatment, 30 patients were treated medically and 16 surgically. Fourteen patients were treated both medically and surgically. Relapses were seen to be less frequent in patients treated with albendazole before and after surgery. Complete cure or an improvement was achieved in 23 patients. Impairment was observed in one patient. Two patients showed no improvement. Relapses were more frequent in those patients treated before 2005. At diagnosis, 71% of patients were positive for specific CE IgE, and 56.3% showed an eosinophil percentage of ? 6%. Patients who were diagnosed with hyper-eosinophilia developed complications more frequently than the other patients, but did not suffer relapses. CONCLUSION: On the basis of our results, we propose cystic echinococcosis screening for family members of patients, appropriate pre- and post-surgery treatment and the assessment of anti-echinococcus IgE titer or eosinophil percentage as a therapy response marker in settings with limited resources. PMID:24409062

Cappello, Elisa; Cacopardo, Bruno; Caltabiano, Eleonora; Li Volsi, Sigismindo; Chiara, Rosa; Sapienza, Mauro; Nigro, Luciano

2013-01-01

201

Degassing driving crystallization of plagioclase phenocrysts in lava tube stalactites on Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basaltic lava flows can form tubes in response to the cooling of the outer surface. We collected lava stalactites (frozen lava tears) and sampled lava from the ceilings of three lava tubes on Mount Etna. Comparison of the petrographic characters between ceiling lavas and relative stalactites reveals surprising differences in the groundmass textures and crystal compositions. Major and trace element contents in stalactites show only a slight increase in alkali and SiO2 compared to ceiling lava, whereas significant differences exist in composition and textures between plagioclases within the ceiling lava and those within the stalactites, being in the last case definitively more An-rich. We advance the hypothesis that the high temperature reached in the cave caused the exsolution of the volatiles still trapped in the dripping melt. The volatiles, mainly H2O, formed bubbles and escaped from the melt; such a water-loss might have promoted the silicate polymerization in the stalactites resulting in the growth of An-rich plagioclase phenocrysts. Our results have important implications: in fact plagioclase phenocrysts are usually associated with intratelluric growth and are often considered as the main petrologic evidence for the existence of a magma chamber. The textural and chemical features of plagioclases in stalactites prove that phenocryst growth in syn to post-eruptive conditions is plausible and clearly explains the relatively low viscosity of many phenocryst-rich lava flows on Mount Etna, as well as on many other volcanoes around the world. Therefore, we can conclude that plagioclase phenocrysts cannot exclusively be considered as having originated within a magma chamber.

Lanzafame, Gabriele; Ferlito, Carmelo

2014-10-01

202

Frequent failure of the continental slope: The Gela Basin (Sicily Channel)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating the recurrence of sediment failure on continental margins is important to better understand the evolution of margins and to assess the geologic risk of slope failure and, possibly, tsunami hazard. This paper proposes an integrated morphological and stratigraphic reconstruction of slope failures to evaluate their timing, frequency, and responsible mechanisms. Data from seismic stratigraphy, sediment cores, and seafloor geomorphology

D. Minisini; F. Trincardi

2009-01-01

203

Diversity of human rotaviruses detected in Sicily, Italy, over a 5-year period (2001-2005).  

PubMed

Rotavirus infection was detected in 39.9% of 1030 children hospitalized with gastroenteritis in Palermo, Italy, in the period 2001-2005. Rotavirus strains belonging to G1, G4 and G9 types were continually detected, with G1 being the most common type in 2001, 2002 and 2004. A G4 epidemic occurred in 2003, while G9 was predominant in 2005. G2 strains displayed a low prevalence, except in 2003. G3 rotaviruses accounted for 2.7-17% of the gastroenteritis episodes in 2002-2005. The P-type of a subset of 166 strains confirmed the circulation of the usual G/P combinations, but single G1P[6], G9P[9] and G6P[9] strains were also found. PMID:17160368

De Grazia, S; Ramirez, S; Giammanco, G M; Colomba, C; Martella, V; Lo Biundo, C; Mazzola, R; Arista, S

2007-01-01

204

Epidemiological significance of the domestic black pig (Sus scrofa) in maintenance of bovine tuberculosis in Sicily.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an emerging disease among wild animals in many parts of the world. Wildlife reservoir hosts may thus represent a potential source of infection for livestock and humans. We investigated the role played by the Sicilian black pig, an autochthonous free- or semi-free-ranging domestic pig breed, as a potential source of bTB infection in an area where bTB prevalence in cattle is high. We initially performed a preliminary field study to assess the occurrence of bTB in such animals. We sampled 119 pigs at abattoir and found 6.7% and 3.4% of them to be affected by gross tuberculous-like lesions (TBL) and Mycobacterium bovis culture positive, respectively. We then proceeded to investigate the dissemination and characteristics of lesions in a second field study performed on 100 animals sampled from infected herds. Here, tissues collected at the abattoir were examined macroscopically, microscopically, and by culture tests. Most pigs with TBL showed generalized lesions in both gross and histological examinations (53% and 65.5%, respectively). Head lymph nodes were the most frequently affected in both localized and generalized TB cases observed macroscopically and microscopically. M. bovis was the most frequently isolated etiologic agent. The molecular characterization of isolates from both field studies by spoligotyping and analysis of 12 mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) loci, followed by their comparison to isolates of cattle origin, suggested a potential transmission of mycobacteria from domestic animals to black pigs and vice versa. Our findings, along with ethological, ecological, and management considerations, suggest that the black pig might act as a bTB reservoir in the ecosystem under study. However, additional studies will be necessary to establish the true epidemiological significance of the Sicilian black pig. PMID:22322347

Di Marco, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Piera; Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Boniotti, Maria Beatrice; Aronica, Vincenzo; Russo, Miriam; Fiasconaro, Michele; Cifani, Noemi; Corneli, Sara; Biasibetti, Elena; Biagetti, Massimo; Pacciarini, Maria Lodovica; Cagiola, Monica; Pasquali, Paolo; Marianelli, Cinzia

2012-04-01

205

Use of shock block transmitters in the structural rehabilitation of historical buildings in Calabria and Sicily  

SciTech Connect

Many old and historical masonry buildings, located in the Calabrian and Sicilian areas near the strait of Messina, are affected by typical pattern of cracks, which are not produced by previous earthquakes. These cracks in the masonry walls are characterized by a quasi-vertical trend with constant width. The careful examination of the crack distribution allows to clearly identify the diagnosis: the damage is caused by the sinking due to a horizontal movement of translation of the ground, which is an evident effect of creep phenomena in the soil, so-called 'solifluxion'. This paper, after showing this geological pathology, proposes an innovative strategy of intervention, which consists of the use of 'oleo-dynamic' devices, so-called shock block transmitters, providing different degrees of restraint, according to the loading conditions. In addition, in case of earthquake, an important part of the in-put seismic energy can be dissipated. The strategy of application of this system to the building consists of the subdivision of each masonry wall in two different parts, which are physically separated by the cracks. Each wall portion must be consolidated separately and the different parts of walls behave as statically independent each other, so that they can move independently during the serviceability conditions. The connection among the walls composing the whole structural organism is given by metal tie-rods equipped with 'oleo dynamic' devices, which allows, in a given range, the horizontal sliding in case of slow movement due to the phenomenon of 'solifluxion'. Contrary, in case of dynamic and fast movements, such as the ones produced by an earthquake, each 'oleo dynamic' device provides a fully restraint effect and, as a consequence, the tie-rods behave in the classical way.

Bianco, Alessia [Lab. M.A.Re., PAU Department, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria (Italy); Candela, Michele [PAU Department, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria (Italy); Fonti, Roberta [Graduated in SCBAA, Faculty of Architecture, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria (Italy)

2008-07-08

206

Morphological and biomolecular characteristics of subcentimetric invasive breast carcinomas in Sicily: A multicentre retrospective study in relation to trastuzumab treatment  

PubMed Central

Little information from clinical trials is available regarding the efficacy of trastuzumab treatment in subcentimetric breast carcinomas (BCs). The aim of this study was to verify the existence of correlations between HER2 and hormone receptor status, Ki67 values, grade, histotype and node involvement in a cohort of pT1a,b BCs from an area not widely covered by screening campaigns. A total of 410 pT1a,b BC formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples collected from eight Sicilian Anatomo-Pathological Units (APUs) were classified according to the WHO classification and tumour grading was established. Estrogen and progesterone receptor status, Ki67 labelling index and HER2 status were available. Relationships between immunohistochemical data and clinicopathological characteristics were investigated using the Chi-square test; the cohort was analysed with respect to pT1a and pT1b BC as well as to node status. Ductal infiltrating carcinoma was the prevalent histotype in the pT1a and pT1b stages; G2 was a more common tumour grade, with a range between 64.6% and 70% of pT1a and pT1b, respectively. Taking into consideration the lymph node involvement of pT1a,b BC, only 17.1% cases were node-positive without a relevant difference between pT1a and pT1b. No significant differences between pT1a and pT1b BC cases emerged in relation to Ki67 LI, hormone receptors and HER2 status. T1a,b BC cases were stratified by node involvement and a significant relationship was observed with grade as well as with HER2 status. A significant relationship for pT1a cases emerged only for tumour grade, while pT1b cases showed a significant correlation exclusively with HER2 status. Our data clearly support the operative guidelines of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Therefore, the combined treatment with trastuzumab plus chemotherapy should be administered only to patients with pT1b or larger BCs. In small HER2-positive pT1a or microinvasive BC, this therapy should be considered on a case-by-case basis, considering tumour grade as the first characteristic. PMID:22740870

IENI, A.; GIUFFRÈ, G.; LANZAFAME, S.; NUCIFORO, G.; CURDUMAN, M.; VILLARI, L.; ROZ, E.; CERTO, G.; CABIBI, D.; SALOMONE, E.; LABATE, A.; MESSINA, D.; FRANCO, V.; ADAMO, V.; TUCCARI, G.

2012-01-01

207

Morphological and biomolecular characteristics of subcentimetric invasive breast carcinomas in Sicily: A multicentre retrospective study in relation to trastuzumab treatment.  

PubMed

Little information from clinical trials is available regarding the efficacy of trastuzumab treatment in subcentimetric breast carcinomas (BCs). The aim of this study was to verify the existence of correlations between HER2 and hormone receptor status, Ki67 values, grade, histotype and node involvement in a cohort of pT1a,b BCs from an area not widely covered by screening campaigns. A total of 410 pT1a,b BC formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples collected from eight Sicilian Anatomo-Pathological Units (APUs) were classified according to the WHO classification and tumour grading was established. Estrogen and progesterone receptor status, Ki67 labelling index and HER2 status were available. Relationships between immunohistochemical data and clinicopathological characteristics were investigated using the Chi-square test; the cohort was analysed with respect to pT1a and pT1b BC as well as to node status. Ductal infiltrating carcinoma was the prevalent histotype in the pT1a and pT1b stages; G2 was a more common tumour grade, with a range between 64.6% and 70% of pT1a and pT1b, respectively. Taking into consideration the lymph node involvement of pT1a,b BC, only 17.1% cases were node-positive without a relevant difference between pT1a and pT1b. No significant differences between pT1a and pT1b BC cases emerged in relation to Ki67 LI, hormone receptors and HER2 status. T1a,b BC cases were stratified by node involvement and a significant relationship was observed with grade as well as with HER2 status. A significant relationship for pT1a cases emerged only for tumour grade, while pT1b cases showed a significant correlation exclusively with HER2 status. Our data clearly support the operative guidelines of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Therefore, the combined treatment with trastuzumab plus chemotherapy should be administered only to patients with pT1b or larger BCs. In small HER2-positive pT1a or microinvasive BC, this therapy should be considered on a case-by-case basis, considering tumour grade as the first characteristic. PMID:22740870

Ieni, A; Giuffrè, G; Lanzafame, S; Nuciforo, G; Curduman, M; Villari, L; Roz, E; Certo, G; Cabibi, D; Salomone, E; Labate, A; Messina, D; Franco, V; Adamo, V; Tuccari, G

2012-01-01

208

The Role of Wrench Tectonics In The Neogene-quaternary Evolution of The Western Hyblean Plateau (sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focussed on the kinematics and temporal variations of neotectonic-to-active structures on the margin of the Southern Apennines thrust front. The border between the thrustbelt contractional terranes and continental plateau hosts a number of strike- slip and, secondarily, normal structures of still disputed geometry. Based on newly- acquired data, this research opened new issues with respect to present-day kinematics of these fault systems, suggesting a new interpretation for the tectonic mechanisms underpinning the Hyblean plateau. Given its geodynamic environs, the present-day structural configuration of this plateau reflects a long tectonic history involving both intraplate extension and plate margin deformation. As a consequence, the platform area has been dominated by a complex interplay between extensional, compressional and strike-slip tectonics, expressed by subvertical faults that can be brokendown into two main trends: NE-SW and NNE- SSW. Fieldwork, integrated by interpretation of aerial photos and SPOT images, con- tributed to constrain and enhance a structural model of the region. The main NNE- SSW fault system (Scicli - Ragusa - Giarratana) is well exposed in the western part of the Hyblean plateau, called Ragusa Platform. This is an important structural feature which affects all domains present here and is characterised by vertical slip rates with a lateral component of motion. Structural analysis was primarily concentrated in this zone. Notably, a large set of structural elements, associated with a principal rigth-lateral NNE-SSW and NE-SW fault zone, was documented in the area and local transpressive elements, associated with these faults, are shown on the basis of their morphological evidence. A large bending and elevated area characterises the northern edge of the Ragusa platform and unveils the presence of several N-S striking reverse faults, with dextral lateral component of movement, and anticlinal folds. The detailed meso-structural analysis conducted on the Ragusa platform revealed the presence of non-coaxial compressive deformations, which in turn generated folds, re- verse faults and rare thrusts, involving the Upper Miocene - Lower Pleistocene de- posits. The structural analysis was conducted at the 1:25.000 scale, using the dis- persion of bedding data to define the orientation of the main structures. These data display a certain scattering but nevertheless allow to recognise a common trend; the 1 main fold system is characterised by structures trending~N-S. Subordinately, another set of folds is present; these are less developed and continuous than the previous sys- tem, forming fold with an average trend of about N 140E. The scattering of these structures is summarized in the structural model developed, including diagrams of some meso-folds recognized in the field. The presence of reverse faults is interpreted as flower structures and push-up systems which developed in a transpressive stress regime. In order to devise a tectonic model of the Hyblean plateau, the structural dataset was supplemented with a comparative morphological analysis, as revealed by fieldwork, satellite images, aerial photos and topographic data. Drainage network has been thor- oughly ascertained. In the case that the preferential directions of rivers were statisti- cally significant and different from those expected from non-structural controls (e.g. topographic and geographic trend), they were deemed to be a diagnostic tool to iden- tify the deformation system. This is based on the assumption of a strict structural control on the local hydrographic network and its evolution. The close relationship between the structural and morphological features underline the recent activity of the main fault trends. This study indicates that widespread occurrence of folds and reverse faulting can be ascribed to the transpressive regime, as a consequence of regional active wrenching capable of generating push-up and positive flower structures. Consequently, transform systems and brittle/ductile deformation is herewith envisag

Mattina, D.

209

Focal parameters of seismic sources during the 1981 and 1983 eruption at Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study 50 seismic events, preceding and accompanying the eruptions occurring in 1981 and 1983, have been considered. Seismic moments, fault radii, stress drops and seismic energies have been calculated using Brune’s model (J Geophys Res 75:4997 5009, 1970; J Geophys Res 76:5002, 1971); site, anelastic attenuation along the propagation path, geometrical spreading and interaction with the free surface effects are taken into account. For each event we have also estimated the equivalent Wood Anderson magnitude (MWAeq) (Scherbaum and Stoll in Bull Seism Soc Am 73:1321 1343, 1983); relations among all these source parameters have been determined. Furthermore, the hypothesis of self-similarity (Aki in J Geophys Res 72:1217 1231, 1967) is not verified for events with seismic moments <1012 N-m: in fact the relationship between log-stress drop and log-moment is linear up to a moment of 1012 N-m (events of 1981 eruption), while for higher moments (events of 1983 eruption) the slope of the regression line is not significantly different from zero. We suppose that such a behaviour is related to a heterogeneous medium with barriers on the faults. Finally, the main conclusion is that eruptions of 1981 and 1983 differ from one another both in eruptive and seismic aspects; analysis of seismic energies indicates an increase in Mt. Etna’s activity, confirmed by studies performed on the following lateral eruption of 1991 1993 (Patanè et al. in Bull Volcanol 47:941 952, 1995), occurring on the same structural trend.

Imposa, Sebastiano

2008-09-01

210

Levels of Heavy Metals in Adolescents Living in the Industrialised Area of Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Northern Sicily)  

PubMed Central

In the Milazzo-Valle del Mela area, the presence of industrial plants and the oil refinery make local residents concerned for their health. For this reason, we evaluated the levels of heavy metals in 226 children aged 12–14 years, living in the 7 municipalities of the area. A control age-matched population (n = 29) living 45?km far from the industrial site was also enrolled. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury, nickel, and vanadium were analysed in 24?h urine samples, while lead concentration was evaluated in blood samples. A questionnaire regarding life style and risk perception was also administered. Adolescents from Milazzo-Valle del Mela had cadmium levels significantly higher compared to either controls??(P < 0.0001) or the reference values of the European Germany Environmental Survey (GerES-IV) and the American National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Furthermore, children had higher perception of living in a high-risk environment. The present data, for the first time, clearly indicate that adolescents living in Milazzo-Valle del Mela have increased body concentration of cadmium, which may be harmful to human health. These results deserve particular attention by the local and regional government to initiate prevention programmes in this susceptible population. PMID:25328531

Interdonato, Monica; Mecchio, Anna; Cuspilici, Antonino; Minutoli, Letteria; Squadrito, Francesco

2014-01-01

211

Mobility and fluxes of major, minor and trace metals during basalt weathering and groundwater transport at Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentrations and fluxes of major, minor and trace metals were determined in 53 samples of groundwaters from around Mt Etna, in order to evaluate the conditions and extent of alkali basalt weathering by waters enriched in magma-derived CO 2 and the contribution of aqueous transport to the overall metal discharge of the volcano. We show that gaseous input of magmatic volatile metals into the Etnean aquifer is small or negligible, being limited by cooling of the rising fluids. Basalt leaching by weakly acidic, CO 2-charged water is the overwhelming source of metals and appears to be more extensive in two sectors of the S-SW (Paternò) and E (Zafferana) volcano flanks, where out flowing groundwaters are the richest in metals and bicarbonate of magmatic origin. Thermodynamic modeling of the results allows to evaluate the relative mobility and chemical speciation of various elements during their partitioning between solid and liquid phases through the weathering process. The facts that rock-forming minerals and groundmass dissolve at different rates and secondary minerals are formed are taken into account. At Mt. Etna, poorly mobile elements (Al, Th, Fe) are preferentially retained in the solid residue of weathering, while alkalis, alkaline earth and oxo-anion-forming elements (As, Se, Sb, Mo) are more mobile and released to the aqueous system. Transition metals display an intermediate behavior and are strongly dependent on either the redox conditions (Mn, Cr, V) or solid surface-related processes (V, Zn, Cu). The fluxes of metals discharged by the volcanic aquifer of Etna range from 7.0 × 10 -3 t/a (Th) to 7.3 × 10 4 t/a (Na). They are comparable in magnitude to the summit crater plume emissions for a series of elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, U, V, Li) with lithophile affinity, but are minor for volatile elements. Basalt weathering at Mt Etna also consumes about 2.1 × 10 5 t/a of magma-derived carbon dioxide, equivalent to ca. 7% of contemporaneous crater plume emissions. The considerable transport of some metals in Etna's aquifer reflects a particularly high chemical erosion rate, evaluated at 2.3?10 5 t/a, enhanced by the initial acidity of magmatic CO 2-rich groundwater.

Aiuppa, Alessandro; Allard, Patrick; D'Alessandro, Walter; Michel, Agnes; Parello, Francesco; Treuil, Michel; Valenza, Mariano

2000-06-01

212

Repeating volcano-tectonic earthquakes at Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy): characterization and evidences of crustal changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repeating volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes, taking place at Mt. Etna during 1999-2009, were detected and analyzed to investigate their behavior. We found 735 families amounting to 2479 VT earthquakes, representing ~38% of all the analyzed VT earthquakes. Over 70% of the families comprise 2 or 3 VT earthquakes and only 20 families by more than 10 events. More than half of the families have a lifetime shorter than 0.5 day and only ~10% longer than 1 year. On the basis of these results, most of the detected families were considered 'burst-type', i.e., show swarm-like occurrence, and hence their origin cannot be explained by a temporally constant tectonic loading. Indeed, since the analyzed earthquakes take place in a volcanic area, the rocks are affected not only by tectonic stresses related to the fairly steady regional stress field but also by local stresses, caused by the volcano, such as magma batch intrusions/movements and gravitational loading. We focused on five groups of families characterized by the best repeatability over time, namely high number of events and long lifetime, located in the north-eastern, eastern and southern flanks of the volcano. Unlike the first four groups, which similarly to most of the detected families show swarm-like VT occurrences, group 'v', located in the north-eastern sector, exhibits a more 'tectonic' behavior with the events making up such a group spread over almost the entire analyzed period. It is clear how both occurrence and slip rates do not remain constant but vary over time, and such changes are time-related to the occurrence of the 2002-2003 eruption. We searched for waveform variations in VT earthquakes belonging to the group 'v' and found changes that took place mainly in the 2002-2003 period. These consisted in a decreasing similarity of the late seismogram windows, highlighted by cross correlation analysis, as well as in delays, increasing proportionally to lapse time, detected by coda wave interferometry. Such variations, mainly evident at the stations located in the north-eastern flank of volcano, were likely due to medium changes taking place in this region. In particular, medium velocity decreases were inferred to occur in 2002-2003, followed by successive increases. The velocity decrease was interpreted as being caused by the opening or enlargement of cracks, produced by intruding magma bodies, ground intense deformation and/or VT earthquake activity, accompanying the 2002-2003 Mt. Etna eruption. On the other hand, the subsequent velocity increases were interpreted as resulting from healing processes.

Cannata, Andrea; Alparone, Salvatore; Ursino, Andrea

2014-05-01

213

Mobility and fluxes of major, minor and trace metals during basalt weathering and groundwater transport at Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily)  

SciTech Connect

The concentrations and fluxes of major, minor and trace metals were determined in 53 samples of groundwaters from around Mt. Etna, in order to evaluate the conditions and extent of alkali basalt weathering by waters enriched in magma-derived CO{sub 2} and the contribution of aqueous transport to the overall metal discharge of the volcano. The authors show that gaseous input of magmatic volatile metals into the Etnean aquifer is small or negligible, being limited by cooling of the rising fluids. Basalt leaching by weakly acidic, CO{sub 2}-charged water is the overwhelming source of metals and appears to be more extensive in two sectors of the S-SW (Paterno) and E (Zafferana) volcano flanks, where out flowing groundwaters are the richest in metals and bicarbonate of magmatic origin. Thermodynamic modeling of the results allows evaluation of the relative mobility and chemical speciation of various elements during their partitioning between solid and liquid phases through the weathering process. At Mt. Etna, poorly mobile elements (Al, Th, Fe) are preferentially retained in the solid residue of weathering, while alkalis, alkaline earth and oxo-anion-forming elements (As, Se, Sb, Mo) are more mobile and released to the aqueous system. Transition metals display an intermediate behavior and are strongly dependent on either the redox conditions (Mn, Cr, V) or solid surface-related processes (V, Zn, Cu).

Aiuppa, A.; Allard, P.; D'Alessandro, W.; Michel, A.; Parello, F.; Treuil, M.; Valenza, M.

2000-06-01

214

"Preliminary Analysis On Correlations Between Spatial Distribution Of Chlorophyll-a And Experimental Data Of Biomass On The Sicily Channel  

E-print Network

of fish stocks and in their vulnerability to harvesting [1].harvesting [1]. Information on the changing the basis for alternative ways of a sustenaible harvest of efficient fishery resources. The use of remote research and fishing operations. Variation in ocean conditions play key role in natural fluctuations

Spagnolo, Filippo

215

A revision of the structure and stratigraphy of pre-Green Tuff ignimbrites at Pantelleria (Strait of Sicily)  

E-print Network

1 A revision of the structure and stratigraphy of pre-Green Tuff ignimbrites at Pantelleria (Strait. In this paper we focus on the intermediate cycle of eruptive activity which is bracketed by ignimbrite units. This age interval (181 - 85 ka) was punctuated by six ignimbrite-forming eruptions (silicic and variably

Boyer, Edmond

216

Offshore deformation in the Calabrian accretionary wedge and implications for the 1693 Catania earthquake and tsunami (Eastern Sicily)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern Italy has been struck repeatedly by very strong historical earthquakes as in 1169, 1693, 1783, 1905, 1908, often associated with destructive tsunami. While certain events (like 1908 Messina or 1783 Calabria) are associated with known crustal normal faults, which produced observed surface ruptures, the source of the strongest earthquake in the Italian catalog, the Catania earthquake of 1693 is

F. Gallais; M. Gutscher; D. Graindorge; A. Polonia

2008-01-01

217

Levels of heavy metals in adolescents living in the industrialised area of Milazzo-Valle del Mela (northern Sicily).  

PubMed

In the Milazzo-Valle del Mela area, the presence of industrial plants and the oil refinery make local residents concerned for their health. For this reason, we evaluated the levels of heavy metals in 226 children aged 12-14 years, living in the 7 municipalities of the area. A control age-matched population (n = 29) living 45?km far from the industrial site was also enrolled. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury, nickel, and vanadium were analysed in 24?h urine samples, while lead concentration was evaluated in blood samples. A questionnaire regarding life style and risk perception was also administered. Adolescents from Milazzo-Valle del Mela had cadmium levels significantly higher compared to either controls??(P < 0.0001) or the reference values of the European Germany Environmental Survey (GerES-IV) and the American National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Furthermore, children had higher perception of living in a high-risk environment. The present data, for the first time, clearly indicate that adolescents living in Milazzo-Valle del Mela have increased body concentration of cadmium, which may be harmful to human health. These results deserve particular attention by the local and regional government to initiate prevention programmes in this susceptible population. PMID:25328531

Interdonato, Monica; Bitto, Alessandra; Pizzino, Gabriele; Irrera, Natasha; Pallio, Giovanni; Mecchio, Anna; Cuspilici, Antonino; Minutoli, Letteria; Altavilla, Domenica; Squadrito, Francesco

2014-01-01

218

Propagation of a lithospheric tear fault (STEP) through the western boundary of the Calabrian accretionary wedge offshore eastern Sicily (Southern Italy)  

E-print Network

accretionary wedge. Towards the east, the Calabrian wedge is formed by the accretion of the post-evaporitic sediments, above a decollement at the base of the Messinian evaporites. At the latitude of Syracuse, 50 km the entire accretionary wedge. This fault cuts by several kilometers, through the pre-evaporitic Messinian

Boyer, Edmond

219

Using high-resolution stratigraphy and structural analysis to constrain polyphase tectonics in wedge-top basins: Inferences from the late Tortonian Scillato Basin (central-northern Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper aims to show, both from a stratigraphic and structural points of view, the main features of a wedge-top syntectonic basin which evolved recording polyphase and non-coaxial tectonics. The study area is the Scillato Basin (SB), a roughly N-S-oriented structural depression located in the central-northern sector of the Sicililian Maghrebides. There, an approximately 1300 m-thick upper Serravallian to upper Tortonian succession of clastic units outcrops as a portion of the Neogene syntectonic covers of the Sicilian fold and thrust belt. Within the outcropping succession the upper Tortonian Terravecchia Fm represents the main topic of this paper. A multidisciplinary approach was carried out through an integration of sedimentology, facies, stratal pattern and structural analyses; this was applied to the formation enabling one to recognize in the Scillato Basin a fining to coarsening upward succession, deposited recording an early transgressive and a late regressive depositional stage. In our model these two main depositional stages developed and are directly relatable to a two-step structural evolution of the basin. During the first step, a NW-SE-oriented structural depression existed, enclosed between structural highs and accommodating the lower and middle portion of the upper Tortonian succession. Subsequently, during the second step, the NW-SE depression was non-coaxially deformed by superimposition of high-angle transpressive faults (many of which were SE-dipping), developed in response to the upward propagation of structures enucleated at deeper structural levels. This step was recorded in the basin by development of both depositional and structural interferences recognizable along the upper portion of the Scillato Basin succession. A comparison between field data and deep geophysical data interpreted at the preliminary stage, raises questions about the late Miocene geological evolution of this sector of the Sicilian chain, including: (i) the syn-tectonic deposition of the Terravecchia Fm. in the Scillato Basin clearly recorded the interference of two main and non-coaxial tectonic events; (ii) the younger of these two events has a clear tranpressional character and was active during the very late Tortonian; (iii) as also indicated by many authors in neighboring orogenic wedges, the main control on the location, geometry and depositional evolution of the Scillato wedge-top Basin was carried out by compressional and transpressional structures developed at a deeper structural level. Their deformation propagated upward both into the shallow structural level and sedimentary covers; therefore (iv) the late Miocene structural scenario here depicted is not consistent either with the back-arc-related extension or with the late orogenic gravitational collapse models previously invoked by other authors with regard to this sector of the Sicilian thrust belt.

Gugliotta, C.; Gasparo Morticelli, M.

2012-10-01

220

Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) program: Study of geological structure of Sicily and other Italian areas. [Sardinia and the Gulf of Orosei  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The usefulness of thermal inertia mapping in discriminating geolithological units was investigated using Sardinia and the Gulf of Orosei as test sites. Software designed for LANDSAT data were modified and improved for HCMM tapes. A first attempt was made to compare the geological cross section, the topography, the IR radiance, and the thermal inertia along selected profiles of the test site. Thermal inertia profiles appear smoothed in comparison with the thermal radiance. The lowest apparent thermal inertia (ATI) was found on granitic and basaltic outcrops where their image is of sufficient extent, while ATI is higher on carbonatic and dolomitic or moist deposits. Almost every fault is marked by a jump of ATI, the interval being sometimes of the order of one pixel. This seems to demonstrate the ability of ATI to detect contacts or tectonically disturbed zones with a good resolution. It seems more difficult to measure the differences in ATI between homogeneous materials having different lithology. Ground surveys conducted and a simulation model of diurnal temperatures of rocks having different thermal inertia are discussed.

Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. (principal investigators); Zilioli, E.; Marini, A.; Brivio, P. A.; Tosi, N.

1981-01-01

221

The 1891 submarine eruption offshore Pantelleria Island (Sicily Channel, Italy): Identification of the vent and characterization of products and eruptive style  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

bathymetry and seafloor sampling have been used to characterize the 1891 submarine eruption of the Pantelleria volcanic complex. This submarine eruption has been documented mainly by historical reports, describing basaltic scoria bombs floating on the sea surface (i.e., lava balloons). In this study, the 1891 eruptive vent has been identified as a small cone (volume of ˜700,000 m3) rising ˜90 m from 350 m w.d., and located within a newly discovered submarine volcanic field covering a wide area offshore from the NW coast of Pantelleria; recently, Kelly et al. (2012) confirmed this location by a multibeam and ROV survey. Pyroclasts from the 1891 eruption crop out directly on the seafloor and are fresh scoria clasts (i.e., small bombs, bomb fragments, and lapilli) and glass ash-sized grains; both have been characterized in their morphology, textures, and geochemistry. The distinctive vesicularity and crystallization characteristics displayed by the scoriaceous pyroclasts reflect modes of degassing in both syn and posteruptive regimes; these characteristics, along with the distribution of deposits suggest for the strongest eruptive phase of the 1891 eruption a style analogous to Hawaiian fountaining. Glass grains from a buoyant plume were dispersed northward from the vent, up to distances of 1.5 km, redirected by the Levantine Intermediate Water. The identification of the 1891 submarine eruptive vent offshore Pantelleria, as well as the features of erupted pyroclasts improve our knowledge of submarine explosive eruptions that occur at shallow-intermediate depths and, among these, of the rare eruptions producing lava balloons.

Conte, A. M.; Martorelli, E.; Calarco, M.; Sposato, A.; Perinelli, C.; Coltelli, M.; Chiocci, F. L.

2014-06-01

222

Differences in Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-specific and –nonspecific immune responses in classic Kaposi sarcoma cases and matched controls in Sicily  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Kaposi sarcoma (KS) may develop because of incompetent immune responses, both nonspecifically and specifically against the KS-associated herpes virus (KSHV). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 15 classic (non-AIDS) KS cases, 13 KSHV seropositives (without KS), and 15 KSHV-seronegative controls were tested for interferon-? T-cell (Elispot) responses to KSHV-LANA, KSHV-K8.1, and CMV/EBV peptide pools. The forearm and thigh of each participant also was tested for delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) against common recall antigens. Groups were compared with Fisher exact test and multinomial logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). KSHV Elispot response was detected in 10 (67%) classic KS cases, 11 (85%) KSHV seropositives (without KS), and 2 (13%) seronegative controls. All 4 cases with KSHV-LANA responses had current KS lesions, whereas 5 of 6 cases with KSHV-K8.1 responses had no lesions (P=0.048). No case responded to both LANA and K8.1. Compared to seronegative controls, risk for classic KS was inversely related to DTH in the thigh (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.55–0.94, P=0.01), directly associated with DTH in the forearm (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.02–1.80, P=0.04), and tended to be increased 5-fold per KSHV Elispot response (OR 5.13, 95% CI 0.86–30.77, P=0.07). Compared to KSHV seropositives (without KS), risk for classic KS, was reduced 5-fold (OR 0.20, CI 0.03–0.77, P=0.04) per KSHV response. CMV/EBV Elispot responses were irrelevant. Deficiency of both KSHV-specific and –nonspecific immunity is associated with classic KS. This may clarify why Kaposi sarcoma responds to immune reconstitution. PMID:21740480

Amodio, Emanuele; Goedert, James J.; Barozzi, Patrizia; Riva, Giovanni; Firenze, Alberto; Bonura, Filippa; Viviano, Enza; Romano, Nino; Luppi, Mario

2011-01-01

223

Submarine canyons of north-western Sicily (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea): Variability in morphology, sedimentary processes and evolution on a tectonically active margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Swath-bathymetry, mono-channel and multi-channel seismic reflection records acquired during the last two decades on the northern Sicilian margin have unveiled a dense network of submarine canyons within the depth range of 80-2100 m. The canyons display a relevant variability in their geometry, morphology and sedimentary processes. The margin shows a young, tectonically active shelf to slope setting, linking the Sicilian-Maghrebian Thrust Belt to the Tyrrhenian oceanic realm, developed during the Neogene-Quaternary time span. The aim of this study is to highlight the main governing factors that contributed to the evolution and differentiation of the northern Sicilian canyons, mainly focusing on the Gulf of Palermo and on the Gulf of Castellammare. Tectonic control is more evident in the canyons of the Gulf of Palermo, with submarine landslides retrograding on a steep slope and mainly controlling their evolution. Otherwise, canyons, tributaries and gullies mapped in the Gulf of Castellammare developed on a less steep substrate and display sinuous to meandering paths, with a relevant role of coastal/shelf sedimentary inputs and downslope turbidity processes in their formation. Results suggest that, despite the geographically close proximity of the two study areas, the different structural settings of the Castellammare and Palermo Basins are mainly responsible for canyon variability. Data indicate likely on-going uplift and tilting movements along the Sicilian margin, influencing the development of the studied canyons, which have probably been more active during the Quaternary glacial maxima than they are in the present day.

Lo Iacono, Claudio; Sulli, Attilio; Agate, Mauro

2014-06-01

224

Detection of the new emerging rabbit haemorrhagic disease type 2 virus (RHDV2) in Sicily from rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Italian hare (Lepus corsicanus).  

PubMed

Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), a member of the genus Lagovirus, causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD), a fatal hepatitis of rabbits, not previously reported in hares. Recently, a new RHDV-related virus emerged, called RHDV2. This lagovirus can cause RHD in rabbits and disease and mortality in Lepus capensis (Cape hare). Here we describe a case of RHDV2 infection in another hare species, Lepus corsicanus, during a concurrent RHD outbreak in a group of wild rabbits. The same RHDV2 strain infected rabbits and a hare, also causing a RHD-like syndrome in the latter. Our findings confirmed the capability of RHDV2 to infect hosts other than rabbits and improve the knowledge about the epidemiology and the host range of this new lagovirus. PMID:25458493

Camarda, A; Pugliese, N; Cavadini, P; Circella, E; Capucci, L; Caroli, A; Legretto, M; Mallia, E; Lavazza, A

2014-12-01

225

The role of weight status, gender and self-esteem in following a diet among middle-school children in Sicily (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Weight-related issues such as obesity, dieting and eating disorders in adolescents are major public health problems. Moreover, undertaking a diet tends to be common among school children and the reasons for doing so are not always related to weight status. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the role of body mass index (BMI), gender and self-esteem in

Margherita Ferrante; Maria Fiore; Gina E Sciacca; Luca Leon; Salvatore Sciacca; Marine Castaing; Gianbattista Modonutti

2010-01-01

226

September 13, 2008 Wascom2007.hyper10750 14th Conference on Waves and Stability in Continuous Media, Baia Samuele, Sicily, Italy, 30 June -7 July, 2007  

E-print Network

are submitted to intermolecular forces making liquids heterogeneous and stress tensors are not any more This van der Waals square-gradient functional is unable to model repulsive force contributions and misses

Boyer, Edmond

227

September 13, 2008 Wascom2007 14th Conference on Waves and Stability in Continuous Media, Baia Samuele, Sicily, Italy, 30 June -7 July, 2007  

E-print Network

are submitted to intermolecular forces making liquids heterogeneous and stress tensors are not any more This van der Waals square-gradient functional is unable to model repulsive force contributions and misses

Recanati, Catherine

228

Sedimentary evolution of the Mesozoic continental redbeds using geochemical and mineralogical tools: the case of Upper Triassic to Lowermost Jurassic Monte di Gioiosa mudrocks (Sicily, southern Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continental redbeds from the Internal Domains of the central-western Mediterranean Chains have an important role in the\\u000a palaeogeographic and palaeotectonic reconstructions of the Alpine circum-Mediterranean orogen evolution since these redbeds\\u000a mark the Triassic-Jurassic rift-valley stage of Tethyan rifting. The composition and the sedimentary evolution of the Middle\\u000a Triassic to Lowermost Jurassic continental redbeds of the San Marco d’Alunzio Unit

Francesco Perri; Salvatore Critelli; Giovanni Mongelli; Robert L. Cullers

2010-01-01

229

A measles outbreak in Catania, Sicily: the importance of high vaccination coverage and early notification of cases for health and economic reasons.  

PubMed

Measles is a paediatric exanthematous disease. Even though vaccination has dramatically reduced measles morbidity and mortality, outbreaks still occur due to insufficient vaccination coverage and importation of the virus from endemic regions. Although child vaccination coverage in Italy has been broadened (from 74% in 2000 to 90.1% in 2011), outbreaks are still observed at a regional level. We describe epidemiological and clinical characteristics of cases reported from January 2009 to May 2010 to the Epidemiology Service of the Provincial Health Authority of Catania. We obtained demographic data and vaccination status from the database of the Epidemiology Service and clinical features and laboratory data from medical records. In all, 522 cases were notified: 286 males (54%), median age 12 years (interquartile range (IQR) 4-18); 401 cases (77%) were notified by the hospital, and 121 (23%) by general practitioners. Only one patient had been previously vaccinated. 52 cases were hospitalized, median age 18 years (IQR 17-23). We observed hypertransaminasaemia in 20 patients (38%), thrombocytopenia in 22 patients (42%) and a creatine phosphokinase increase in 16 (30%). Complications (pneumonia, haemorrhagic cystitis, acute hepatitis) occurred in 10 patients (19%), all older than 18. Recent outbreaks show that immunization practices are still insufficient. Most cases were recorded in adolescents and young adults; even if the vaccine has limited virus circulation in childhood, it did not prevent the infection of other age groups. The number of notifications also suggests that the phenomenon is underestimated. In order to monitor the disease we need early notification of cases and increased vaccination coverage. PMID:25269964

Celesia, Benedetto Maurizio; Fontana, Rossella; Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Cuccia, Mario; Bellissimo, Francesco; Rapisarda, Liliana; Rinnone, Sebastiano; Rapisarda, Venerando; Pavone, Piero; Cacopardo, Bruno; Nunnari, Giuseppe

2014-09-01

230

Human responses to eruptions of Etna (Sicily) during the late-Pre-Industrial Era and their implications for present-day disaster planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarises: the characteristics of eruptions that occurred between 1792/3 and 1923; the ways in which human responses evolved during the period and the lessons this history holds for the management of present-day volcanic and volcano-related disasters. People responded to eruptions at three levels: as members of a family and extended family; through the mutual support of a village or larger settlement and as citizens of the State. During the study period and with the exception of limited financial aid and preservation of law and order, the State was a minor player in responding to eruptions. Families and extended families provided shelter, accommodation and often alternative agricultural employment; whilst supportive villages communities displayed a well developed tendency to learn from experience (e.g. innovating techniques to bring land back into cultivation and avoiding the risks of phreatic activity as lava encountered water and saturated ground) and providing labour to enable household chattels and agricultural crops to be salvaged from land threatened with lava incursion. Eruptions were widely believed to be 'Acts of God', with divine punishment frequently being invoked as a primary cause of human suffering. Elaborate rituals of propitiation were performed to appease a supposed angry God, but this world-view did not produce a fatalistic attitude amongst the population preventing people from coping with disasters in a generally effective manner. Despite present day emergencies being handled by the State and its agencies, some features of nineteenth century responses remain in evidence, including salvaging all that may be easily removed from a building and/or agricultural holding, and explanations of disaster which are theistic in character. Lessons from eruptions that occurred between 1792/3 to 1923 are that the former should be encouraged, whilst the latter does not prevent people acting to preserve life and property or obeying the authorities. Earthquakes are one category of hazard that caused major damage during, or associated with, several historic eruptions especially those of 1865, 1883 and 1911. This study highlights the vulnerability of the Etna region to this hazard which remains largely un-ameliorated. Attempts to divert lava flows occurred during the 1832, 1879 and 1923 eruptions.

Chester, David K.; Duncan, Angus M.; Sangster, Heather

2012-05-01

231

Implicit Theories of Intelligence and Personality, Self-Efficacy in Problem Solving, and the Perception of Skills and Competences in High School Students in Sicily, Italy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various theories of intelligence and personality (TIP) help explain the implicit beliefs that an individual develops about the functioning of his intelligence and personality. Such beliefs are defined "implicit" because the individual might not be fully aware of his or her belief system. The results from scientific research on the TIP suggest that…

Pirrone, Concetta; Commodari, Elena

2013-01-01

232

A common feeding system of the NE and S rifts as revealed by the bilateral 2002/2003 eruptive event at Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mount Etna volcano is often characterized by bilateral eruptive events, involving both the south (S) and the north east (NE) rifts. The last event occurred in 2002-2003 from October 27 to January 28. A detailed, stratigraphically time-controlled sampling of lavas and tephra of the southern eruptive fissure was performed in order to (1) track the petrological features of products during the eruption and (2) integrate the results with those previously obtained on the NE rift. Whole-rock composition and textural observations were implemented by major and minor element analyses of plagioclases in lavas and tephra from both sides of the volcano. Fractionation models constrained by mass balance (major and trace elements) and Rayleigh calculations suggest that magmas are linked by the same liquid line of descent by fractionating 9.11 % of a mineral assemblage of Cpx (52.69 %), Plg (21.41), and Ol (7.46 %). These new data allowed us to identify at least two feeding episodes through the southern fissure and infer that high-K2O porphyritic magmas, emitted on both the S and NE rifts, derives by fractionation from the same parent magma. However, lavas and tephra from the southern flank were slightly more primitive. Textural and petrological study of plagioclase moreover indicates that chemical-physical conditions in the deep feeding system were similar for magmas erupting from both rifts as suggested by the presence of dissolved rounded cores in both lavas. Magmas evolved differently on the S and the NE rifts only at shallow levels. Comparison with published seismotectonic data supports the idea that the main magma feeding the eruption on October 27 ascended along the same pathway at depth and was intercepted by the fracture system of the S and NE rifts at shallow depth, between 6 and 3 km b.s.l.

Giacomoni, P. P.; Ferlito, C.; Alesci, G.; Coltorti, M.; Monaco, C.; Viccaro, M.; Cristofolini, R.

2012-12-01

233

Distribution of liver disease in a cohort of immigrants in Sicily: analysis of day-hospital admissions in a migration medicine unit.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of liver disease and its aetiology in a cohort of immigrants. We retrospectively examined the hospital discharge charts of all the immigrant patients presenting at our day hospital from July 2009 to June 2013, and after evaluating the anamnestic, clinical and laboratory data on these charts we identified subjects with liver disease and its various aetiologies. The total sample population consisted of 1218 patients, of whom 112 (9.2%) had a diagnosis of liver disease. More than two-thirds of the latter (67.8%) came from Africa, while 15.2% were from Asia and 17.0% from Eastern Europe. In most patients the disease was related to HBV (44.6%), followed by alcohol (25%) and then HCV or cryptogenic disease (both 15.2%). Forty-six patients had undergone liver biopsy, which showed eight cases of varying degrees of liver steatosis, 29 cases with a variable severity of chronic liver disease, eight cases with a definite picture of liver cirrhosis and one case of alcoholic hepatitis. These data show that a significant proportion of our immigrant population has liver disease and that the most frequent cause is hepatitis B infection. PMID:25269961

Affronti, Marco; Affronti, Andrea; Soresi, Maurizio; Giannitrapani, Lydia; Campagna, Elisa; Tramuto, Fabio; Brunori, Giuseppe; Montalto, Giuseppe

2014-09-01

234

Fe–Mn-encrusted “Kamenitza” and associated features in the Jurassic of Monte Kumeta (Sicily): subaerial and\\/or submarine dissolution?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unusually jagged dissolution surface, capped by a thick Fe–Mn crust is well exposed in small quarry-cuts of the Jurassic of Monte Kumeta. It was formed on a crinoidal limestone substrate of Pliensbachian age, and is covered by Upper Bajocian Ammonitico Rosso-type sediments, all cross-cut by several generations of neptunian dykes. This peculiar surface is more or less coeval with

P Di Stefano; A Mindszenty

2000-01-01

235

Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the essential oils from Pimpinellatragium Vill. subsp. glauca (C. Presl.) C. Brullo & Brullo (Apiaceae) growing wild in Sicily.  

PubMed

The essential oils from flowers, leaves and stems hydrodistilled from Pimpinella tragium Vill, subsp. glauca were characterised by GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The C-12 nor-sesquiterpenes are the principal class of metabolites (56.6-70.6%) among which geijerene (28.9÷49.3%) and pregeijerene (10÷19.1%) predominate. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration values indicate that oil obtained from the stems is the most active for antimicrobial activities and the sample with the biggest antioxidant capacity is the flower oil. PMID:24099454

Maggio, Antonella; Bruno, Maurizio; Spadaro, Vivienne; Scialaba, Anna; Senatore, Felice; Oliviero, Filomena

2013-01-01

236

Millennial-scale phase relationships between ice-core and Mediterranean marine records: insights from high-precision 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Green Tuff of Pantelleria, Sicily Strait  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of annually-resolved polar ice records extending back to 70 ka, marine and continental paleoclimate studies have now matured into a discipline where high-quality age control is essential for putting on an equal pace layer-counted timescale models and Late Quaternary sedimentary records. High-resolution U-Th dating of speleothem records and 40Ar/39Ar dating of globally recorded geomagnetic excursions have recently improved the time calibration of Quaternary archives, reflecting the cross-disciplinary effort made to synchronize the geologic record at the millennial scale. Yet, tie-points with such an absolute age control remain scarce for paleoclimatic time-series extending beyond the radiocarbon timescale, most notably in the marine record. Far-travelled tephra layers recorded both onland and offshore provide an alternative in such instance to synchronize continental and marine archives via high-resolution 40Ar/39Ar dating of the parent volcanic eruption. High-resolution 40Ar/39Ar data are reported herein for one such volcanic marker, the Green Tuff of Pantelleria and its Y-6 tephra equivalent recorded throughout the Central and Eastern Mediterranean. Published radiochronometric and ?18O orbitally-tied ages for this marker horizon scatter widely from about 41 ka up to 56 ka. Our new 40Ar/39Ar age at 45.7 ± 1.0 ka (2?) reveals that previous estimates are biased by more than their reported errors would suggest, including recent orbital tuning of marine records hosting the tephra bed that are reevaluated in the context of this study. This improved estimate enables potential phase lags and leads to be studied between deep-sea and terrestrial archives with unrivaled (near-millennial) 40Ar/39Ar precision in the marine record.

Scaillet, S.; Vita-Scaillet, G.; Rotolo, S. G.

2013-10-01

237

Comment on the article “Propagation of a lithospheric tear fault (STEP) through the western boundary of the Calabrian accretionary wedge offshore eastern Sicily (Southern Italy)” by Gallais et al., 2013 Tectonophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oceanic lithosphere of the Ionian Sea is subducted under the Calabrian Arc, and it has been proposed that the Ionian lithosphere has been torn apart (STEP fault sensu Govers and Wortel, 2005) on its western side, close to the Malta escarpment, a major morphological feature inherited from the Mesozoic palaeogeography. In a recent paper Gallais et al. (Tectonophysics, 2013) have traced a right-lateral strike-slip fault that extends from south of the Alfeo Seamount all the way to the Tyrrhenian Sea. They also argue that the position of the STEP fault is distinct from, and located ca. 50 km east of, the Malta escarpment. Gallais et al. document with some additional details a fault segment that was already reported in the literature and that is located south of the Alfeo Seamount. However, Gallais et al. have little constraints to trace the STEP fault further to the north; in this sector a belt of surface deformation that can be related to the STEP fault has been mapped from a denser grid of seismic profiles, and is located west-ward, close to the Malta escarpment (Argnani and Bonazzi, 2005). This undermines the conclusion of Gallais et al. that the lithospheric tear is distinct from the Malta escarpment. It is therefore likely that surface deformation associated with the lithospheric tear fault is more complex and is not represented by a single strike-slip fault.

Argnani, Andrea

2014-01-01

238

Limnol. Oceanogr., 34(4), 1989, 785-789 0 1989, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.  

E-print Network

in three Lake Michigan hypolimnetic Calanoid co- pepods, Limnocalanus macrurus, Diaptomus si- cilis zooplankton. Diaptomus sicilis ex- hibits a typical freshwater lipid profile and con- tains triacylglycerols

239

Limnol. Oceanogr., 30(4), 1985, 87 l-885 0 1985, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.  

E-print Network

and Oceanography, Inc. Modes of algal capture by the freshwater copepod Diaptomus sicilis and their relation-speed motion pictures (500 frames s-l) of tethered Diaptomus sicilis feeding in suspensions of Chlamydomonas and the water currents around Diaptomus showed that, in contrast to Eucalanus and Paracalanus, Diuptomus

240

Does the source of the 28 December 1908 Messina Straits tsunami coincide with the earthquake source? Hints from tsunami numerical modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Together with eastern Sicily and Calabria, the Messina Straits is the region with the highest tsunamigenic occurrence rate in Italy. Tsunami catalogues indicate that the tsunami hazard in the Messina Straits is related to both local and remote sources, where remote refers to sources placed just outside the Straits (i.e. southern Tyrrhenian and eastern Sicily), and also to sources found

A. Armigliato; S. Tinti; F. Zaniboni; G. Pagnoni; R. Tonini; S. Gallazzi; A. Manucci

2009-01-01

241

Scenarios of tsunami impact in the town of Catania, Italy: a combination of numerical modelling results and vulnerability considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catania is one of the most important towns in Sicily, and more generally in southern Italy, due to its long historical and cultural tradition and to active industrial, commercial and touristic activities. Catania is located along the coast of eastern Sicily, which is well known to be one of the coastal areas most exposed to earthquake and tsunami hazard and

S. Tinti; R. Tonini; G. Pagnoni; S. Gallazzi; A. Manucci; A. Armigliato; F. Zaniboni

2009-01-01

242

Trans-Med expansion nears start-up; Maghreb line nears construction  

SciTech Connect

Efforts to move more Algerian gas to Europe have hit full stride this year. Planning is well under way for the Maghreb-Europe pipeline, a second gas line from North Africa, this time across the Strait of Gibraltar into Spain. Construction on most segments will begin this summer. Meanwhile, construction is nearly complete to double capacity on the original Trans-Mediterranean gas pipeline from Algeria across the Sicily Channel to Italy. From a technical standpoint, the new project can be divided into two parts: the landlines in Tunisia, in Sicily, and on the Italian peninsula; and the subsea stretches of the Sicily Channel and the Messina strait.

True, W.R.

1994-01-17

243

http://ekaw2008.inrialpes.fr FIRST ANNOUNCEMENT & CALL FOR PAPERS  

E-print Network

of the Isole Ciclopi Protected Marine Area, a gem set in the heart of the Ionian coastal area of Sicily. Rich in beautiful landscapes and archaeological and literary testimonies, the Protected Marine Area

Joseph Fourier Grenoble-I, Université

244

Italy: Mt. Etna  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... shook the eastern edge of Sicily and parts of mainland Italy during September and October. The eruption of Etna sent a thick blanket ... date:  Oct 27, 2002 Images:  Italy: Mt. Etna location:  Europe thumbnail:  ...

2013-04-17

245

marine particulate feeders, p. 77-9 1.ZnJ. R. Nix-on [ed.], Microencapsulation. Dekker.  

E-print Network

, by theAmericanSociety of Limnology and O=-mimphy,IIlC. Lipids and life-cycle strategy of a hypolimnetic. sicilis is assured a relatively stable supply of algae, low metabolic rate, and escape from predation

246

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Mid-and late-Holocene vegetation and fire history at Biviere  

E-print Network

exacerbated by a general trend towards a more arid climate. During the Neo- lithic, fire was used to open of southern Sicily. Keywords Charcoal analysis Á Pollen analysis Á Evergreen forest Á Human impact Á

Richner, Heinz

247

D. ashlandi D. oregonensis  

E-print Network

750 1000 D. oregonensis D. sicilis 0 250 500 750 1000 March 1999 Adult Diaptomus species 0 250 500 750 6. Distribution of Diaptomus species identified from March 1998 and 1999. Copepods are the dominant

NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Episodic Events

248

About Face  

MedlinePLUS

... M. Perna US Army 1942 - 1945 Belgium, France, Germany, North Africa, Omaha Beach, Sicily Tap for Video ... for Video Arthur Jefferson US Army 1978 - 1998 Germany, Korea, United States Tap for Video Richard Sell ...

249

AE monitoring of the Syracuse Athena Temple: Scale invariance in the timing of ruptures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present a comparative statistical analysis between the time series of the acoustic emission (AE) events detected from the\\u000a ancient Greek Athena temple in Syracuse (Eastern Sicily, UNESCO World Heritage List since 2005), and the time series of small\\u000a and intermediate earthquakes occurred in this part of Sicily during the AE monitoring period. The waiting-time distributions\\u000a for both time series

G. Niccolini; G. Durin; G. Lacidogna; A. Manuello; A. Carpinteri

250

Geodynamic implications of earthquake data in the southern Tyrrhenian sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from short-period seismic stations operating in Calabria, Sicily and the Aeolian Islands have been used to investigate earthquake properties of the southern Tyrrhenian lithosphere. The results have been analyzed, taking into account other geophysical and geological information available in the literature for the same region, with the main purpose of contributing to the definition of local geodynamic processes.Space distribution

G. Neri; D. Caccamo; O. Cocina; A. Montalto

1996-01-01

251

A decision support system for urban waste management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a decision support system, for urban waste management in a regional area, to be used for evaluating general policies for service organisation of the collection and for identifying areas suitable for locating waste treatment and disposal plants. The Decision Support System (DSS) is applied to a selected provinces in Sicily. The decision support system allows the generation

P. Haastrup; V. Maniezzo; M. Mattarelli; F. Mazzeo Rinaldi; I. Mendes; M. Paruccini

1998-01-01

252

Original article Apis mellifera ruttneri, a new honey bee subspecies  

E-print Network

Original article Apis mellifera ruttneri, a new honey bee subspecies from Malta WS Sheppard MC subspecies, similar to the situation with endemic island honey bees of Sicily (A m sicula). These findings region. Recent importations of non-native honey bee subspecies present a clear threat to conservation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

253

Hydrologic evaluation of a Mediterranean watershed using the SWAT model with multiple PET estimation methods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Penman-Monteith method suggested by the Food Agricultural Organization in the Irrigation and drainage paper 56 (FAO-56 P-M) was used to evaluate surface runoff and sediment yield predictions by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model at the outlet of an experimental watershed in Sicily. ...

254

Plato (428-347 BC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Philosopher, real name said to be Aristocles, with `Plato' a nickname (`broad') derived either from the breadth of his knowledge, shoulders, or forehead, born in Athens, Greece, taught by Socrates, and travelled in Egypt, Sicily and Italy. Back in Athens, he founded, in 387 BC, a school of learning called the Academy, devoted to research and instruction in philosophy and the sciences, particularl...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

255

Criteria for water recycling and reuse in the Mediterranean countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though rapid changes are likely to occur, until recently most Mediterranean countries had neither water reuse regulations nor guidelines. Countries where reuse is developing within an organized institutional setting have elaborated and implemented their own regulations or guidelines. Some countries (France, Tunisia) and regions (Andalusia and Balearic Islands in Spain and Sicily in Italy) have adopted a set of water

F. Brissaud

2008-01-01

256

Genetic diversity of wild, weedy and cultivated forms of Brassica rapa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs) were used to study the genetic diversity within and between accessions of 'wild' and cultivated B. rapa. Two of the wild accessions were likely to be escapes from cultivation because of their geographical origins (Argentina and California). The nature of the other three wild accessions (from Turkey, Algeria and Sicily) was not known. Principal components

J H Crouch; B G Lewis; D J Lydiate; R Mithen

1995-01-01

257

Soil physical quality in a Sicilian agricultural area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the soil physical quality for two contiguous agricultural areas under annual crops (A) and vineyard (V), respectively, located at the Riserva Naturale Integrale Grotta di Santa Ninfa site, in Sicily. The A and V areas had different textural fractions and organic matter content. Soil water holding parameters did not vary substantially between

V. Bagarello; A. Giangrosso; M. Iovino; A. Sgroi

258

Nutrients in the Mediterranean Sea, mass balance and statistical analysis of concentrations with respect to environmental change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data obtained from the Algero–Provençal basin (Western Mediterranean) in 1994 illustrates the homogeneity of phosphate, nitrate and silicate concentrations in deep-water throughout this basin, comparable to temperature and salinity homogeneity. Nutrient mass balances across the straits of Gibraltar and Sicily enable us to estimate new production (NP) and f ratio (new vs. total production) in the inner basins. Rather

J. P Béthoux; P Morin; C Chaumery; O Connan; B Gentili; D Ruiz-Pino

1998-01-01

259

The Silica Cycle in the Ultraoligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean Sea , K. Fanning2  

E-print Network

The Silica Cycle in the Ultraoligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean Sea N. Kress1 , K. Fanning2 and M studies aimed at understanding the Si cycle in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS). Here we use Mediterranean Sea (WMS) water at the Straits of Sicily. It does not change seasonally because there is only

Simon, Emmanuel

260

Filippo Spagnolo University of Palermo  

E-print Network

Sicile vise à chercher une culture avec des racines communes. 5757 #12;In the middle age it was conquestCIEAEM 57 Filippo Spagnolo University of Palermo Faculty of Science Education Departement actually to 1767, year when this religious order was exiled from Sicily. Au Moyen Age Piazza Armerina fut

Spagnolo, Filippo

261

Dynamic deformation of Etna volcano observed by satellite radar interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite radar interferometry of Mt. Etna volcano, Sicily, Italy, reveals a sequence of deformation characterized by deflation during the end of the 1993 eruption, inflation from 1993-1995 with an increase in the inflation rate immediately before its resumed eruptive activity in late 1995. This was followed by very low deformation levels during the following year. The source of the deformation

Riccardo Lanari; Paul Lundgren; Eugenio Sansosti

1998-01-01

262

SPARTANADVENTURES SPARTAN PATHWAYS  

E-print Network

and I'd love for you to join us in 2015. From the ever-popular European destinations to wonderful of Michigan. We are pleased to be offering the tour again twice in 2015. If you love dogs, nature and enjoy Waterways and Canals of Holland & Belgium Italy Lifestyle Explorations Alumni Campus in Sicily Pathway

263

Thermochemical reactions of sedimentary rocks from Mt. Etna volcano: implications for flank instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In volcanic regions, the mechanical, physical and chemical properties of rocks under high temperature and pressure, are crucial for the accurate modelling of routinely monitored data (e.g. ground deformation, seismicity, gas emission) and the calibration of damage-mechanics criteria for the weakening of volcanic edifices. Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy) is the largest volcano in Europe, and one of the most active

Sergio Vinciguerra; Silvio Mollo; Gianluca Iezzi; Piergiorgio Scarlato; Michael J. Heap; Donald Dingwell

2010-01-01

264

SEISMIC HAZARD MAP FOR THE ITALIAN TERRITORY USING MACROSEISMIC DATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A seismic hazard map, in terms of macroseismic intensity, is proposed for the Italian continental territory and Sicily, which has a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. The methodology used here was first proposed by Cornell (1968), which requires information about the location and seismicity rates within each of the defined seismogenic zones, as well as an attenuation model.

Augusto A. Gómez

2006-01-01

265

MY FAVORITE NUMBERS: September 15, 2008  

E-print Network

by iron pyrite, or `fool's gold': #12;But fool's gold cannot have 5-fold symmetry ­ no crystal can! What you just saw was a `pyritohedron': #12;The Greek colonies in Sicily had a lot of pyrite dodecahedron by `perfecting' the pyrite crystals they saw. #12;The Pythagoreans were also fascinated

Baez, John

266

The Ancipa Project-PV plant to power four sliding gates and a trash-rack rake  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PV (photovoltaic) pilot application has been set up to produce sufficient power to operate four sliding gates and a trash-rack rake at the intake of a hydroelectric power plant in Sicily (Ancipa). This photovoltaic unit, which has been set up in the Sicilian mountains, takes the place of a diesel generator and should prove to be a more reliable

A. Previ; A. Iliceto; S. Righi; S. Guastella

1990-01-01

267

Structural significance of the south Tyrrhenian volcanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southern part of the Tyrrhenian Sea represents a transition from ocenic- (the Tyrrhenian Sea) to continental-domain (the Calabrian Arc) and is affected by active calkalkaline to potassic volcanism (the Eolian Islands). Active extensional tectonics, coupled with the general upwelling of northern Sicily and Calabria continental crust, coexists with active subduction of the Ionian Plate beneath the Calabrian Arc. This

G. Gaudiosi; G. Musacchio; G. Ventura; G. de Astis

2003-01-01

268

unknown title  

E-print Network

Abstract. Larvae of Trichinella sp. collected in 1961 from muscle samples of the last infected domestic pig slaughtered in Sicily (Italy), and preserved in absolute ethyl alcohol until 1997, have been identified as Trichinella spiralis by the polymerase chain reaction. This finding explains the

Edoardo Pozio; Giuseppe; La Rosa

269

Amalfi/Positano HistoricReflections_10_Day_LIVE_2012.eps  

E-print Network

Taormina Athens Santorini Barcelona This map represents approximate locations. HISTORIC REFLECTIONS Barcelona · Marseille · Florence/Pisa · Rome · Amalfi/Positano · Sicily · Kusadasi · Santorini · Athens.m. Day 9 At Sea -- -- Day 10 Ephesus (Kusadasi), Turkey 9:00 a.m. 8:00 p.m. Day 11 Santorini, Greece 8

Virginia Tech

270

Ground displacements across the Pernicana Fault (Mt. Etna, Italy): a tectonic structure linked to volcanic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pernicana fault is a tectonic fault located on Mt. Etna (Sicily). Movements along this structure have been monitored by a levelling network of the Osservatorio Vesuviano for the last 22 years. The last measurements date back October 2002, few days after a magnitude 3.7 earthquake (September 22) occurred on this fault. Interestingly, the last eruption of Mt. Etna (October

F. Obrizzo; F. Pingue; C. Troise; G. de Natale

2003-01-01

271

Relationship between pigmentation and reproduction in two species of Diaptomus (copepoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult Diaptomus sicilis and Diaptomus nevadensis in two central Washington lakes show a seasonal range in body pigmentation: from high throughout the year to markedly seasonal with a winter and early spring peak. Both species have winter-spring peaks in reproduction in both lakes. Pigment is accumulated by adult females and concentrated in their eggs and nauplii. During the day, the

NELSON G. HAIRSTON; N. G. Jr

1979-01-01

272

The adaptive significance of color polymorphism in twospecies of Diaptomus (Copepoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Lower Grand Coulee, Washington, Diaptomus nevadensis in Soap Lake contains larger amounts of the carotenoid astaxanthin than in Lake Lenore. During winter, Diaptomus sicilis contains larger amounts of pigment in both lakes, but in summer individuals from Lake Lenore are much reduced in pigment while those from Soap Lake are unchanged. The amount of astaxanthin might be a

NELSON G. HAIRSTON

1979-01-01

273

Finite-element simulations of the 5 February 1783 Calabrian tsunami  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern Calabria is one of the Italian coastal regions mostly affected by tsunami hazard. This work is a part of a wider study of the assessment of the tsunami hazard in the southern Calabria and eastern Sicily. The tsunami which we focus our attention on was the first of a series of events that were associated with the 1783 Calabrian

S. Tinti; A. Piatanesi

1996-01-01

274

The 1908 tsunami effects along the Messina Straits (Southern Italy): a contribution for predicting inundation scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1908 Southern Calabria - Messina earthquake is one of the strongest seismic events of the 20th century in the Mediterranean area. Southern Calabria and North-eastern Sicily were severely damaged (maximum Intensity XI MCS), particularly along the coastal area between South Reggio Calabria and Scilla, and between South Messina and Capo Peloro. Messina and Reggio Calabria were almost completely destroyed;

P. di Manna; A. M. Blumetti; V. Comerci; L. Guerrieri; L. Serva; E. Vittori

2009-01-01

275

A revision of the 1783-1784 Calabrian (southern Italy) tsunamis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern Italy is one of the most tsunamigenic areas in the Mediterranean basin, having experienced during centuries a large number of tsunamis, some of which very destructive. In particular, the most exposed zone here is the Messina Straits separating the coasts of Calabria and Sicily that was the theatre of the strongest Italian events. In 1783-1785 Calabria was shaken by

L. Graziani; A. Maramai; S. Tinti

2006-01-01

276

Simultaneous magma and gas eruptions at three volcanoes in southern Italy: an earthquake trigger?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In September 2002, a series of tectonic earthquakes occurred north of Sicily, Italy, followed by three events of volcanic unrest within 150 km. On October 28, 2002, Mt. Etna erupted; on November 3, 2002, submarine degassing occurred near Panarea Island; and on December 28, 2002, Stromboli Island erupted. All of these events were considered unusual: the Mt. Etna NE-rift eruption

T. R. Walter; R. Wang; V. Acocella; M. Neri; H. Grosser; J. Zschau

2009-01-01

277

Study for a pilot monitoring and alarm system for the Calabrian Sicilian tsunamis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the frame of the EU GITEC-TWO Project (Genesis and Impact of Tsunamis on the European Coasts: Tsunami Warning and Observations) one of the main goals is the development and installation of a pilot Tsunami Warning System (TWS) station in Italy. The Ionian Sea region watering the eastern coast of Sicily (southern Italy) experienced large tsunamis in the past and

A. Maramai; S. Tinti

1996-01-01

278

Probabilistic estimation of earthquake-induced tsunami occurrences in the Adriatic and northern Ionian seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of the EU-funded project TRANSFER (Tsunami Risk ANd Strategies For the European Region we faced the problem of assessing quantitatively the tsunami hazard in the Adriatic and north Ionian Seas. Tsunami catalogues indicate that the Ionian Sea coasts has been hit by several large historical tsunamis, some of which of local nature (especially along eastern Sicily, eastern

Alberto Armigliato; Stefano Tinti

2010-01-01

279

Aldo Morselli, INFN Roma Tor Vergata! 1! The neutrinos-gamma-rays connection in the  

E-print Network

Aldo Morselli, INFN Roma Tor Vergata! 1! The neutrinos-gamma-rays connection in the understanding of high-energy astrophysical sources Aldo Morselli INFN Roma Tor Vergata Erice-Sicily , 16-24 September Morselli, INFN Roma Tor Vergata! 2! Happy 5th Birthday Fermi !! 11 June 2008 #12;Aldo Morselli, INFN Roma

Morselli, Aldo

280

ORIGINAL PAPER Influence of season and pasture feeding on the content  

E-print Network

pasture intake of M in spring compared to the other two breeds. Dairy Sci. & Technol. (2012) 92 and dairy cattle breed on the content of -tocopherol and -carotene in cows' milk by monitoring two grazing seasons (spring and fall) as well as a summer no- pasture season. Four dairy farms located in Sicily were

Boyer, Edmond

281

Pigments composition in monovarietal virgin olive oils from various sicilian olive varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first investigation of the chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments composition in sicilian monovarietal virgin olive oils from the three (Cerasuola, Nocellara, Biancolilla) main olive varieties cultivated in Sicily (Italy). In all, 19 compounds were identified and quantified in 24 olive oil samples. The application of reversed-phase liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection using a C-30 column in

Daniele Giuffrida; Francesco Salvo; Andrea Salvo; Lara La Pera; Giacomo Dugo

2007-01-01

282

Pigments profile in monovarietal virgin olive oils from various Italian olive varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the investigation of the chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments composition in monovarietal virgin olive oils produced from the five main olive varieties (Minuta, Ottobratica, Calabrese, Ogliarola, Baddarica) cultivated in Sicily (southern Italy), from four main olive varieties (DolceAgogia, Moraiolo, Leccino, Frantoio) cultivated in Umbria (central Italy), and from three main olive varieties (Leccino, Oliva Nera di Collecorto, Noccioluta)

Daniele Giuffrida; Francesco Salvo; Andrea Salvo; Lina Cossignani; Giacomo Dugo

2011-01-01

283

LUCA DAL NEGRO CURRICULUM VITAE  

E-print Network

" at the International School of Physics, E.Majorana in Erice, Sicily July 1998 "Silicon-based Microphotonics" held at the International Physics School "E.Fermi" in Varenna, Como, Italy. Workshop and Conference Organization · Chair: 617-358-2627, fax 617-353-6440 E-mail: dalnegro@bu.edu EMPLOYMENT AND EDUCATION Jan.1, 2006­present

284

Centri storici come periferie: il caso del centro storico di Palermo, tra eccellenza e marginalità  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today the condition of the historic centers of Sicily's most important cities presents such contradictions that these centers can now be considered as peripheral and marginalized ones. Already in the nineteenth century these areas were ondecay, dangerously overcrowded by a population composed primarily of lower middle and working class families and characterized by precarious hygienic conditions that encouraged the spread

Teresa Cannarozzo

285

An improved real-time seismic network in the Central Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Mediterranean is a region of active tectonics characterised by the interaction of a number of varied and sometimes poorly understood processes. Superimposed on the convergent scenario of the African plate pushing northwestward, a NE-SW directed extensional regime is active in the Sicily Channel, expressed in the form of a seismically active east-west trending system of strike-slip lineaments and a series of pull-apart grabens. The offshore seismicity of the Sicily channel, generally limited to magnitudes below 4.5, is normally difficult to quantify precisely, due to poor station coverage, yet it is believed that its analysis will considerably improve our understanding of the processes affecting the region. We present recent improvements to real and virtual seismic networking in the Central Mediterranean, based at the Seismic Monitoring and Research Unit (SMRU), University of Malta. Within the project SIMIT (B1-2.19/11) funded by the Italia-Malta Operational Programme 2007-2013, earthquake monitoring on the Maltese Islands is being upgraded through the installation of a further two broadband stations, one of which will be on the smaller island of Gozo. A new network, ML (Malta Seismic Network), has been internationally registered with the FDSN. At the same time, the installation and implementation of SeisComP3 has enabled the setting up of a virtual, real-time Central Mediterranean network, made up of 18 stations in Southern Italy (including Sicily, Lampedusa and Pantelleria) belonging to the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, 3 stations in Tunisia (National Institute of Meteorology of Tunisia) and the 3 stations on the Maltese Islands. This will allow us to rapidly perform more accurate hypocentral locations in the region. The virtual network, which also incorporates a number of more distant stations, has been tuned to issue SMS alerts for potentially felt events in the Sicily Channel detected by the network, and for strong earthquakes elsewhere. Within the SIMIT project, the alert system will include Civil Protection departments in Malta and Sicily. Small magnitude earthquakes, especially those located to the south and south-east of the Maltese Islands, may still go undetected by the network. In this case, use is made of a single-station polarization analysis method (LESSLA) developed at SMRU. The integration of data from the above methods allows us to produce a more comprehensive seismicity map for the Sicily Channel, which will be interpreted in terms of the dynamics of the Sicily Channel Rift System. References: Agius, M. R., & Galea, P. (2011). A single-station automated earthquake location system at Wied Dalam Station, Malta. Seismological Research Letters, 82(4), 545-559.

Agius, Matthew; Galea, Pauline; D'Amico, Sebastiano

2014-05-01

286

Descriptive epidemiology of human thyroid cancer: experience from a regional registry and the "volcanic factor".  

PubMed

Thyroid cancer (TC), the most common endocrine tumor, has steadily increased worldwide due to the increase of the papillary histotype. The reasons for this spread have not been established. In addition to more sensitive thyroid nodule screening, the effect of environmental factors cannot be excluded. Because high incidences of TC were found in volcanic areas (Hawaii and Iceland), a volcanic environment may play a role in the pathogenesis of TC. In January 2002, the Regional Register for TC was instituted in Sicily. With a population of approximately five million inhabitants with similar genetic and lifestyle features, the coexistence in Sicily of rural, urban, industrial, moderate-to-low iodine intake, and volcanic areas provides a conducive setting for assessing the environmental influences on the etiology of TC. In Sicily, between 2002 and 2004, 1,950 new cases of TC were identified, with an age-standardized rate (world) ASR(w)?=?17.8/10(5) in females and 3.7/10(5) in males and a high female/male ratio (4.3:1.0). The incidence of TC was heterogeneous within Sicily. There were 2.3 times more cases in the Catania province (where most of the inhabitants live in the volcanic area of Mt. Etna): ASR(w)?=?31.7/10(5) in females and 6.4/10(5) in males vs. 14.1 in females and 3.0 in males in the rest of Sicily. Multivariate analysis documented that residents in the volcanic area of Mt. Etna had a higher risk of TC, compared to the residents in urban, industrial, and iodine deficient areas of Sicily. An abnormally high concentration of several chemicals was found in the drinking water of the Mt. Etna aquifer, which provides water to most of the residents in the Catania province. Our data suggest that environmental carcinogen(s) of volcanic origin may promote papillary TC. Additional analyses, including cancer biological and molecular features, will allow a better understanding of risk factors and etiopathogenetic mechanisms. PMID:23761783

Malandrino, Pasqualino; Scollo, Claudia; Marturano, Ilenia; Russo, Marco; Tavarelli, Martina; Attard, Marco; Richiusa, Pierina; Violi, Maria Antonia; Dardanoni, Gabriella; Vigneri, Riccardo; Pellegriti, Gabriella

2013-01-01

287

Life histories and abundance of crustacean zooplankton in the outlet of Lake Superior, 1971-72  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In sampling throughout a year, at about 3-wk intervals, of the crustacean zooplankton discharged from Lake Superior through the St. Marys River, 30 species were collected, including three not previously recorded for the lake: the copepod Cyclops strenuus, and the cladocerans Alona costata and Alonella acutirostris. Five copepods, Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi, Diaptomus ashlandi, D. sicilis, Limnocalanus macrurus, and Senecella calanoides were present in the plankton throughout the year while three other copepods, Diaptomus minutus, Epischura lacustris, and Mesocyclops edax, along with all cladocerans, were present only during summer and fall. Five species of copepods, Diaptomus sicilis, D. minutus, Limnocalanus macrurus, Senecella calanoides, and Epischura lacustris produced a single generation annually; three other copepods and all cladocerans produced two or more generations. All species breed 1-3 mo later in Lake Superior than in lakes Michigan and Erie.

Selgeby, James H.

1975-01-01

288

Remote sensing techniques from helicopter for water quality and air pollution control  

SciTech Connect

Aircraft remote sensing provides a number of benefits, allowing to vary the detection parameters, giving better resolution, and being little affected by weather conditions and no replaceable under emergency situations. Also as a part of projects funded by the Commission of the European Communities, through the Regional Government of Sicily, applications of remote sensing techniques were carried out from helicopter over selected study areas in Sicily, for water quality and air pollution control. In particular, remotely-sensed data were acquired, using LASER techniques and thermal infrared imagery, for the monitoring of water quality and the assessment of oil pollution. Furthermore, air quality was investigated, using LASER techniques and correlation spectroscopy. In a perspective of integration, the investigations carried out proved effective and useful, confirming the important role of the helicopter as monitoring platform for environmental remote sensing applications. 6 refs., 11 figs.

Geraci, A.L.; Landolina, F.F. [Univ. of Catania, Sicily (Italy)

1996-11-01

289

Mantle-derived helium in sedimentary basins of Central Mediterranean: Geologic and tectonic constrains on fluids accumulation and migration.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geodynamics of the central Mediterranean is characterized by the interaction between the European plate and the African one. In this setting Sicily is a sector of the Appenine-Maghrebide accretionary prism, which is located between two areas affected by extensional tectonics (Sicily Channel to the south and the Thyrrenian back arc basin to the north). In the present study we present the first dataset of helium isotopic composition measured in fluids released from the central-western Sicily. With the aim to constrain the transfer system of fluids in this area we relate the results of geochemical investigations with the stratigraphy and structural setting, derived from field geology, deep boreholes and new seismic reflection, gravimetry and magnetometry data. Significant mantle-derived helium (0.4Sicily. CH4-dominated gases are released from mud volcanoes and feed everlasting fires mainly located in the central region, where upper Oligocene-Miocene terrigenous cover Mesozoic carbonatic units. The abundance of CH4, usually linked to the presence of hydrocarbons- and/or organic matter-rich layers, is almost exclusively linked to the Messinian evaporitic and pre-evaporitic levels (containing diatomites). On the other hand, CO2 is mainly associated to the thermal groundwaters circulating mainly in Mesozoic limestone and dolomite, which here constitute the bulk of the deformed wedge of the Sicilian chain (up to 15 km thick). In thermal waters, we found a positive correlation between water temperature, ranging between 22.1°C and 59°C, and helium isotopic ratio. Taking into consideration that helium rises from the mantle coupled to CO2 and others components, we discussed CO2 and CH4 coupled to helium. Our samples did no show any correlation between C/3He vs. R/Ra and only samples of the Sciacca thermal basin show C/3He in the typical ranges of the mantle fluids. CH4-dominated fluids shows a CH4/3He vs. R/Ra correlation that underlies a mixing between a 3He rich and CH4-poor term and a CH4-rich and 3He-poor one typical of crustal reservoir of gases. Our previous investigations showed up an heat excess coupled to the presence of mantle-derived helium in western Sicily, which was linked to the occurrence of melts rising from the mantle below the continental crust or intruding through lithospheric faults. This study shows that degassing of mantle derived fluids cover entirely the central-western Sicily and the transfer of mantle helium rich fluids through the crust is mainly regulated by fault-controlled advective flux. In particular: a) in the central-northern Sicily recent data from deep seismic reflection investigations (SiRiPro project), evidenced a dense network of faults that develops between the area of Caltanissetta and the central portion of the Madonie, involving both the deformed sedimentary units of the fold and thrust belt and the underlying crust and upper mantle; b) in the Sciacca area multichannel seismic profiles highlighted the occurrence of deep-seated faults (correlated with the N-S lineaments well known offshore in the Sicily Straits), also characterized by strike-slip component (as evidenced by the seismicity of the Belice valley), which involves the deeper portions of the chain; in addition gravimetry and magnetic data displayed a shallow crustal basement, whose involvement in the deformation suggests a link with the fault systems recognized in the overlying tectonic wedge.

Caracausi, Antonio; Grassa, Fausto; Pennino, Valentina; Rizzo, Andrea; Sulli, Attilio

2013-04-01

290

Myiasis with Dermatobia hominis in a Sicilian traveller returning from Peru.  

PubMed

We report a case of a bot fly infestation of the scalp. A 45-year-old man after returning to Sicily noted a small white "worm" erupting from the upper lesion. Physical examination revealed a superficial furuncular lesion with central pores with sero-sanguineous discharge. The foreign body identified was diagnosed as the larva of the human bot fly, Dermatobia hominis. PMID:17448949

Bongiorno, M R; Pistone, G; Aricò, M

2007-05-01

291

First record in Mediterranean Sea and redescription of the bentho-planktonic calanoid copepod species Pseudocyclops xiphophorus Wells, 1967  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bentho-planktonic calanoid copepod Pseudocyclops xiphophorus Wells, 1967, previously recorded only in coastal waters of Mozambique, has been found in the brackish Lake Faro (eastern Sicily, central Mediterranean). The copepods were collected from fouling attached to submerged mooring posts and ropes in the Lake. Both sexes of P. xiphophorus are redescribed. This interesting zoogeographic distribution suggests that the Mozambican and Mediterranean Pseudocyclops populations exhibit a complete Tethyan pattern.

Zagami, Giacomo; Costanzo, Giuseppe; Crescenti, Nunzio

2005-03-01

292

Erosion of continental margins in the Western Mediterranean due to sea-level stagnancy during the Messinian Salinity Crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution multi-channel seismic data from continental slopes with minor sediment input off southwest Mallorca Island, the Bay of Oran (Algeria) and the Alboran Ridge reveal evidence that the Messinian erosional surface is terraced at an almost constant depth interval between 320 and 380 m below present-day sea level. It is proposed that these several hundred- to 2,000-m-wide terraces were eroded contemporaneously and essentially at the same depth. Present-day differences in these depths result from subsidence or uplift in the individual realms. The terraces are thought to have evolved during one or multiple periods of sea-level stagnancy in the Western Mediterranean Basin. According to several published scenarios, a single or multiple periods of relative sea-level stillstand occurred during the Messinian desiccation event, generally known as the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Some authors suggest that the stagnancy started during the refilling phase of the Mediterranean basins. When the rising sea level reached the height of the Sicily Sill, the water spilled over this swell into the eastern basin. The stagnancy persisted until sea level in the eastern basin caught up with the western Mediterranean water level. Other authors assigned periods of sea-level stagnancy to drawdown phases, when inflowing waters from the Atlantic kept the western sea level constant at the depth of the Sicily Sill. Our findings corroborate all those Messinian sea-level reconstructions, forwarding that a single or multiple sea-level stagnancies at the depth of the Sicily Sill lasted long enough to significantly erode the upper slope. Our data also have implications for the ongoing debate of the palaeo-depth of the Sicily Sill. Since the Mallorcan plateau experienced the least vertical movement, the observed terrace depth of 380 m there is inferred to be close to the Messinian depth of this swell.

Just, Janna; Hübscher, Christian; Betzler, Christian; Lüdmann, Thomas; Reicherter, Klaus

2011-02-01

293

NEMO-SN-1 the first “real-time” seafloor observatory of ESONET  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruitful collaboration between Italian Research Institutions, particularly Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) and Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) together with Marine Engineering Companies, led to the development of NEMO-SN-1, the first European cabled seafloor multiparameter observatory. This observatory, deployed at 2060m w.d. about 12 miles off-shore the Eastern coasts of Sicily (Southern Italy), is in real-time

Paolo Favali; Laura Beranzoli; Giuseppe D’Anna; Francesco Gasparoni; Hans W. Gerber

2006-01-01

294

Future petroleum provinces of the world  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the proceedings of the Wallace E. Pratt Memorial Conference held in Phoenix in December 1984. Some of the titles of the papers are: Oil and Gas Possibilities On- and Offshore Ghana, Geology and Hydrocarbon Potential of the Arafura Sea, Philippine Islands: A Tectonic Railroad Siding, Deep Mediterranean Basins and Their Oil Potential, Petroleum Potential of the Thrust Belt and Foretroughs of Sicily, and Future Potential for Hydrocarbon Exploration on the United Kingdom Contential Shelf.

Halbouty, M.T.

1986-01-01

295

Patterns in the distribution of Arctic freshwater zooplankton related to glaciation history  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed circumpolar samples from 68 lakes within the 10°C-July isotherm from Arctic Canada, Nunavut, Greenland, Svalbard,\\u000a Eastern Siberia, the Beringia region, and Alaska. In total, we found 3 species of Anostraca, 17 of Diplostraca, 1 species\\u000a of cyclopoid and 14 species of calanoid copepods. Our study identifies a wider distribution for some copepods—e.g. Eurytemora\\u000a pacifica, Leptodiaptomus sicilis, Arctodiaptomus novosibiricus,

Larysa Samchyshyna; Lars-Anders Hansson; Kirsten Christoffersen

2008-01-01

296

Genetic and environmental factors in human osteoporosis from Sub-Saharan to Mediterranean areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of known gene polymorphisms associated with osteoporosis in postmenopausal\\u000a normal women from Burkina Faso and Sicily, compared to postmenopausal Sicilian women with osteoporosis, and to establish the\\u000a weight of environmental factors in the mechanism of osteoporosis. Bone mass density (BMD) was measured by phalangeal quantitative\\u000a ultrasound (QUS) in Burkinabe woman

Maria Musumeci; Gianluca Vadalà; Giovanni Tringali; Elio Insirello; Anna Maria Roccazzello; Jacques Simpore; Salvatore Musumeci

2009-01-01

297

Drought resistance of 2-year-old saplings of Mediterranean forest trees in the field: relations between water relations, hydraulics and productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought resistance was examined for 2-year-old saplings of Ceratonia siliqua L., Olea oleaster Hoffmgg. et Link., Quercus suber L. and Q. pubescens Willd. growing in the field in Sicily, with the aim of testing their possible use in the reforestation of degraded areas. To this purpose, leaf conductance to water vapour (gL), transpiration rate (EL), relative water content (RWC) and

M. A. Lo Gullo; S. Salleo; R. Rosso; P. Trifilò

2003-01-01

298

A new Lampromyia Macquart from Europe (Diptera: Vermileonidae).  

PubMed

Lampromyia bellasiciliae sp. n. is described from Sicily, Italy. The new species belongs to the pallida subgroup and is differentiated from related taxa in a dichotomous identification key. DNA barcodes for eight of the currently recognised ten Palaearctic species of Lampromyia are provided, and the calculated genetic distances between the taxa and species groups/subgroups are discussed. New distributional data for additional species of Lampromyia are presented and the occurrence of the Palaearctic taxa is depicted in a distribution map.  PMID:25543945

Kehlmaier, Christian

2014-01-01

299

Mediterranean shelf-edge muddy contourites: examples from the Gela and South Adriatic basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present new evidence of shallow-water muddy contourite drifts at two distinct locations in the central Mediterranean characterized\\u000a by a relatively deep shelf edge (between 170 and 300 m below sea level): the south-eastern Adriatic margin and the north-western\\u000a Sicily Channel. The growth of these shelf-edge contourite drifts is ascribed to the long-term impact of the Mediterranean\\u000a themohaline circulation. The Levantine

Giuseppe Verdicchio; Fabio Trincardi

2008-01-01

300

Interannual variability of atmospheric CO2 in the Mediterranean: measurements at the island of Lampedusa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases has been measured weekly since 1992 at the island of Lampedusa, in the Mediterranean sea. Lampedusa is a small island located approximately 100 km east of Tunisia, and 250 km south of Sicily. The 10-yr CO2 data set has been analysed to quantify trends, and characterize semi-annual, annual and inter-annual

P. Chamard; F. Thiery; A. di Sarra; L. Ciattaglia; L. de Silvestri; P. Grigioni; F. Monteleone; S. Piacentino

2003-01-01

301

Volcano Watch Satellite Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Wisconsin's Space Science and Engineering Center displays these satellite images of the world's ten most active volcanoes. Users can view images of the Colima Volcano in Central Mexico or Mount Etna in Sicily, Italy. The latest images are updated every half-hour. Also, a Java animation feature splices together the last four images to show a simulation over a two-hour period.

302

Hard X-ray latitude effect measured during a transatlantic balloon flight  

SciTech Connect

The hard X-ray latitude effect is reported in the range of McIlwain shell parameter L from 1.4 to 2.6 (earth radius units). The data were obtained with two X-ray scintillator detectors flown on board a transatlantic balloon launched from Trapani, Sicily. The data analysis method for measuring the flux from weak X-ray sources is also described.

Frontera, F. (CNR, Istituto Plasma Spazio, Frascati, Italy); Fuligni, F. (CNR, Istituto di Tecnologie e Studio delle Radiazioni Extraterrestri, Bologna, Italy)

1981-01-01

303

Etruscan Amphorae and Trade in the Western Mediterranean, 800-400 B.C.E.  

E-print Network

of the Strait of Messina. 26 Raids against the newly- arrived Greeks in Sicily could be undertaken from Lipari with its natural harbor. M. Ientile interprets the foundation of the Cnidian colony as an anti-Etruscan effort aimed... Incised graffiti are often interpreted as ownership marks because they are more durable than paint and may have been applied at a different phase of production. 68 Such inscriptions are found widely on pottery, including those from the excavation...

Daniel, Joshua A.

2010-01-16

304

Letter Written by Courtland R. Burnham, Jr. to the Bryant College Service Club Dated August 2, 1943  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Transcription begins]\\u000aSomewhere in SicilyAugust 2, 1943\\u000aHello Bryant Service Club,\\u000aSure was glad to receive your informative V Mail about good old Bryant College. I often think about it and the good times connected with my two years there. I was especially interested in learning the whereabouts of Ben Scuda + Johnnie Hall having been in both their classes.

Burnham Jr. Courtland R

1943-01-01

305

Genetic variation at chloroplast microsatellites (cpSSRs) in Abies nebrodensis (Lojac.) Mattei and three neighboring Abies species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abies nebrodensis (Lojac.) Mattei (Sicilian fir) is an endangered species represented by only one population of 29 adult individuals occurring\\u000a in a limited area of the Madonie Range in northern Sicily (Italy). Taxonomic boundaries between this taxon and the neighboring\\u000a Abies species are not clear. In this study, we used six chloroplast simple-sequence repeats (cpSSRs) to investigate the population\\u000a genetic

L. Parducci; A. E. Szmidt; A. Madaghiele; M. Anzidei; G. G. Vendramin

2001-01-01

306

Reviews of Books  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pj. Heather. Goths and Romans, 332-489. New York: The Clarendon Press,Oxford University Press, 1991. Pp. xi, 378. $114.95 (CDN). Reviewed by Steven MuhlbergerCharles Tilly. Coercion, Capital, and European States, AD 990-1990. Oxfordand Cambridge, Mass.: Basil Blackwell, 1990. Pp. xi, 269. $39.95 (us). Reviewed by Jan BlommeDonald Matthew. The Norman Kingdom of Sicily. New York: CambridgeUniversity Press, 1992. Pp. xvi, 418.

Steven Muhlberger; Leuven Jan Blomme; James M. Powell; Michael Chaton; Donald C. Jackman; Gregory Evans Dowd; Charles R. Middleton; Joseph A. Fry; B. R. Tomlinson; Jocelyn Linnekin; Neville Thompson; Ann Pottinger Saab; Barry Eichengreen; Daniel J. Schroeter; Raymond F. Betts; G. Harries-Jenkins; John W. Bailey; Allen J. Greenberger; D. George Boyce; Roderic H. Davison; Dane Kennedy; Stephen Brooke; David B. Danbom; Gerard J. De Groot; Betty Miller Unterberger; Robert J. Young; Carole Fink; Hines H. Hall; Gerhard L. Weinberg; Priscilla Dale Jones; Alan S. Milward; M. L. Dockrill; David Stafford; Bo Petersson; Jacob Bercovitch; Melvyn P. Leffleh; Marvin R. Zahniser; Willard C. Frank Jr; Timothy M. Shaw; Callum Macdonald; Andrew Chandler; B. W. Muirhead; William J. Duiker; Michael Graham Fry; Colin Newbury; Robert Page; John M. Mackenzie; E. Timothy Smith; Donald Barry; T. B. Millar; Hendrik Spruyi; T. E. Vadney; Jack S. Levy; Sally Marks; John Simpson

1993-01-01

307

Extension of the astronomically calibrated (polarity) time scale to the Miocene\\/Pliocene boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early Pleistocene to late Pliocene astronormcally calibrated time scale of Shackleton et al. [1] and Hllgen [2] is\\u000aextended to the Mlocene\\/Pllocene boundary This is done by correlating the detailed record of CaCO 3 cycles in the Trubl and\\u000athe lower part of the overlying Narbone Formation (Rossello composite sechon, Sicily) to the astronomical record, using (1)\\u000amferred phase

F. J. Hilgen

1991-01-01

308

An intriguing case of Prurigo pigmentosa in a Sicilian young patient.  

PubMed

Prurito pigmentosa is an inflammatory disease mainly reported by Japanese dermatologists. We report a case of Prurigo pigmentosa observed in a Sicilian young patient affected by intellectual disability. In the past, we had already observed and reported some cases of Prurigo pigmentosa in patients living in Sicily. The differential diagnosis, the treatment of the disease, the role of chronic intake of psychodrugs and the possible relation to G6PD deficiency of this patient are pointed out. PMID:20823798

Schepis, C; Siragusa, M; Cavallari, V

2010-08-01

309

A Seismically-Triggered Underwater Landslide Caused the 1908 Messina Tsunami  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 28 December 1908, at 5.21 a.m., local time, a catastrophic earthquake (MCS maximum intensity = XI, estimated magnitude = 7.1) struck the region of the Messina Straits, Ionian Sea, Southern Italy. Within minutes after the passage of the seismic waves, a tsunami with maximum observed run-up of about 10 m hit the coasts of Calabria and Sicily. The earthquake

A. Billi; R. Funiciello; L. Minelli; C. Faccenna; G. Neri; B. Orecchio; D. Presti

2008-01-01

310

Assessing the Tsunami Hazard for the Southern Italy Coasts: Results From Scenario and Statistical Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Italy is one of the Mediterranean countries most affected by tsunamis. Catalogues of Italian tsunamis show that the Italian coasts were attacked by several large events in the past that had catastrophic effects and caused thousands of victims. In this paper we limit our attention to tsunamis of tectonic origin, which are the most frequent. We focus especially on the southern regions of Calabria and Sicily, that are among the most tsunami-prone Italian areas. We use two different approaches to assess the tsunami hazard in the area. The first is a scenario approach. We select the largest-magnitude event in the area, that according to the most recent Italian seismic catalogues is the January 11, 1693, eastern Sicily earthquake (Mw=7.4). This earthquake was followed by a catastrophic tsunami, whose effects were observed along the entire eastern Sicily coasts and even on the Malta archipelago to the south. We adopt a number of different fault models located (or inferred) in the western Ionian basin, with magnitude comparable to that of the 1693 event, and analyze the results putting special attention on the distribution of the tsunami energy along the eastern Sicily coasts, on the number of tsunami waves attacking the coastlines and on their polarities and propagation times. The second approach is a hybrid deterministic-statistical method that, as a final result, provides the number of tsunamis expected to produce wave heights exceeding a given threshold in a given time interval along the southern Italy coasts. The information on the number of events can be easily translated into exceedance probability estimates if we adopt a suitable probability distribution function (e.g., Poissonian). We compare the results with the information deducible from the most recent Italian tsunami catalogue and discuss how the different assumptions/methods/data involved in the analysis influence the final results.

Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.; Tonini, R.

2006-12-01

311

High frequency strong ground motion modelling in the Catania area associated with the Ibleo-Maltese fault system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid statistical-deterministic approach has been applied to estimate strong ground motion parameters (PGA, spectral ordinates) in South-Eastern Sicily for a M = 7 earthquake. A number of 100 different rupture processes have been simulated along a composite fault system representing two segments of the Ibleo-Maltese fault scarp. Map at regional scale of mean PGA in the 0.5–20 Hz frequency

Aldo Zollo; Antonio Emolo; Luigi Improta

1999-01-01

312

The Calabria - Messina earthquake of December 28, 1908: remember to reduce the risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

At 5:20 a.m., on 28th December 1908, one of the most catastrophic earthquakes in history occurred in the Messina Straits. Southern Calabria and north-eastern Sicily were severely hit: in few seconds Messina, Reggio Calabria and numerous villages on both sides of the Straits were devastated. Shortly after the earthquake a tsunami followed. Waves up to 12 meters high hit the

C. Nostro; A. Tertulliani; M. Pignone; N. A. Pino; P. de Gori; C. Castellano; L. Arcoraci; R. Camassi

2009-01-01

313

Source of the 1693 Catania earthquake and tsunami (southern Italy): New evidence from tsunami modeling of a locked subduction fault plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1693 Catania earthquake, which caused 60000 deaths in eastern Sicily and generated a 5–10 m high tsunami, is investigated. GPS data indicate ESE-WNW convergence in the Calabrian arc at 4–5 mm\\/yr. New high-resolution seismic data image active compression at the toe of the accretionary wedge. The lack of instrumentally recorded thrust earthquakes suggests the presence of a locked subduction

M.-A. Gutscher; J. Roger; M.-A. Baptista; J. M. Miranda; S. Tinti

2006-01-01

314

Source of the 1693 Catania earthquake and tsunami (southern Italy): New evidence from tsunami modeling of a locked subduction fault plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1693 Catania earthquake, which caused 60000 deaths in eastern Sicily and generated a 5-10 m high tsunami, is investigated. GPS data indicate ESE-WNW convergence in the Calabrian arc at 4-5 mm\\/yr. New high-resolution seismic data image active compression at the toe of the accretionary wedge. The lack of instrumentally recorded thrust earthquakes suggests the presence of a locked subduction

M.-A. Gutscher; J. Roger; M.-A. Baptista; J. M. Miranda; S. Tinti

2006-01-01

315

Archimedes (287–212 BC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archimedes (ca. 287–212 BC) was born in Syracuse, in the Greek colony of Sicily. He studied mathematics at the Museum in Alexandria.\\u000a Archimedes systematized the design of simple machines and the study of their functions. He was probably the inventor of the\\u000a compound pulley and developed a rigorous theory of levers and the kinematics of the screw. He is the

Thomas G. Chondros

316

Sub-surface dissolution of evaporites in the Eastern Mediterranean sea  

E-print Network

-Sicilian), and eolian (North Africa and Southern Europe): 5ihuxm. The influence of the Nile River is very strong in the Levantine Basin (Easternmost portion of the Eastern Mediterranean). The counter dock-wise gyre of the surface currents does not disperse... Calabria) and srnectite (from Sicily) (Tomadin, 1981). ~~096. The importance of the eolian sediment input in the whole Mediterranean Sea has been noted early by Venkatarathnam and Ryan (1971) who identified a kaolinite-rich clay mineral assemblage...

Camerlenghi, Angelo Alessandro

1988-01-01

317

The Tripoli, Libya, Earthquake of September 4, 1974: Implications for the active tectonics of the central Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Source parameters have been determined for the earthquake (Ms 5.6) that occurred offshore of Tripoli, Libya, on September 4, 1974. One nodal plane of its focal mechanism has dip 37°, strike 297°, and rake -141°, indicating oblique normal faulting. This nodal plane is subparallel to many west-northwest striking normal faults in the epicentral area and is most likely the fault plane, indicating a component of right-lateral strike-slip with slip vector azimuth N84°E. Inversion of long-period teleseismic body waves indicates 12-km centroid depth and 0.4 × 1018 N m seismic moment. A much larger earthquake (Ms 7.0) on April 19, 1935, that occurred in the same zone of active oblique normal faults ˜400 km farther southeast near Sirte probably involved similar slip sense. This zone, for which the name "Tunisia-Libya seismic zone" appears appropriate, has overall northwest-southeast extent ˜1000 km from northern Libya to between Tunisia and Sicily. It takes up a change in motion direction relative to stable Europe from west of north inside the African plate to between N30°E and N50°E in the Ionian Sea between Sicily, southernmost peninsular Italy, southwest Greece, and Libya. This suggested motion direction of Sicily relative to stable Europe agrees with independent estimates from fault slip rates and senses elsewhere in Italy.

Westaway, Rob

1990-04-01

318

Incipient Crustal Stretching across AN Active Collision Belt: the Case of the Siculo-Calabrian Rift Zone (central Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Central Mediterranean, the differential roll-back of the subducting Nubia Plate caused the Neogene-Quaternary extrusion of the Calabrian arc onto the oceanic Ionian slab, and the opening of the oceanic Tyrrhenian Basin, in the overriding Eurasia Plate. The differential motion at the edges of the arc was largely accommodated along transform faults that propagated across the orogenic belt. Since the Late Quaternary, the southern edge of the arc has been replaced by the roughly N-S oriented Siculo-Calabrian Rift Zone (SCRZ) that formed as the NNW-directed normal faults of NE Sicily, crossing the orogenic belt, have linked the NNE-oriented Tyrrhenian margin of southern Calabria with the NNW-trending Africa-Ionian boundary of southeastern Sicily. Our study focused on the Sicily shoulder of the SCRZ, where the transition zone between the extensional belt and the still active Nubia-Eurasia convergent margin is characterized by two distinct mobile crustal wedges, both lying on an upwarped Mantle, where a re-orientations of the ?1 is combined with volcanism (e.g. Etna, Aeolian islands) and a huge tectonic uplift. In southeastern Sicily, the Hyblean-Etnean region evolved, since about 0.85 Ma, as an indipendent crustal wedge, moving towards the NNW and pointing to the active Mt. Etna volcano. A local ENE crustal stretching accompanied the traslation of the block and pre-dated the ESE-oriented extension governing the propagation of the southernmost branch of the SCR, which started at about 330 ka B.P.. Similarly, the Peloritani-Aeolian region, flanked by the 125 ka-old NE-Sicily branch of the rift zone, represents a mostly submerged crustal wedge that migrates towards the NE, diverging from the rest of the Sicily collision zone and pointing to the Stromboli volcano. The Peloritani-Aeolian block is characterized by the occurrence of a wide central NE-oriented collapsed basin contoured by an actively uplifting region, whose tectonic boundaries are evidenced by a sharp increase in the elevation of the marine terraces of the last 600 ka. In the two analysed crustal blocks, the crustal doming with the related basin collapses and the concurrent tectonic motion without any back-stop can be respectively related to the thermal anomalies and to the drag forces exerted by a hot Mantle flow, triggered by the opening of a vertical slab windows at the southern edge of the Calabrian arc. This process has favored the migration of hot Mantle material towards the sectors of larger rollback of the subduction hinge, producing the spectacular tectonic uplift and active magmatism of the region. The increase of the volume of the Mantle wedged in the subduction zone of the Calabrian arc has been also effective to accommodate the differential roll-back between the adjacent segments of Nubia Plate, thus replacing the motion along the pre-existing transform faults dissecting the orogenic belt. In this frame, the deformation of the Hyblean-Etnean and the Peloritani-Aeolian blocks heralded the development of the two Sicily branches of the SCRZ. The delayed crustal stretching responsible for the propagation of the rift zone across the orogenic belt can be framed in the dynamic of a still active convergent margin if interpreted as the result of the sliding of the crust along the Ionian flank of the Mantle flow.

Catalano, S.; Tortorici, G.; Romagnoli, G.; Pavano, F.

2012-12-01

319

Airborne EM for geothermal and hydrogeological mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the "VIGOR" project, aimed at assessing the geothermal potential of four regions in southern Italy, Airborne EM data have been acquired, modeled and interpreted. The system deployed was SkyTEM, a time-domain helicopter electromagnetic system designed for hydrogeophysical, environmental and mineral investigations. The AEM data provide, after data acquisition, analysis, processing, and modeling, a distribution volume of electrical resistivity, spanning an investigation depth from ground surface of few hundred meters, depending on resistivity condition. Resistivity is an important physical parameter for geothermal investigation, since it proved to be very effective in mapping anomalies due to hydrothermal fluid circulation, which usually has high salt content and produces clayey alteration minerals. Since the project required, among other issues, to define geothermal resources at shallow level, it was decided to perform a test with an airborne electromagnetic geophysical survey, to verify the advantages offered by the system in covering large areas in a short time. The geophysical survey was carried out in Sicily, Italy, in late 2011, over two test sites named "Termini" and "Western Sicily". The two areas were chosen on different basis. "Termini" area is covered by extensive geological surveys, and was going to be investigated also by means of electrical tomography in its northern part. Since geological condition of Sicily, even at shallow depth, is very complex, this area provided a good place for defining the resistivity values of the main geological units outcropping in the region. "Termini" survey has been also an occasion to define relations between resistivity distribution, lithological units and thermal conductivity. The "Western Sicily" area cover the main thermal manifestations of western Sicily, and the research target was to establish whether they are characterized by common hydrogeological or tectonic features that could be mapped by resistivity. SkyTEM data have been acquired in a series of flight lines and were then processed and inverted. In the "Termini" area the flight line spacing had 150 m separation. In the "Western Sicily" area two different line spacing were used: the 1 km spacing was used for the regional mapping, whereas for infill areas, around the main hydrothermal springs, the flight lines had 100 m spacing. The total number of flight line was 4580 km, and the explored surface was in excess of 2000 km2. After acquisition, data were processed to eliminate coupling with infrastructures, and noise. Inversions was then carried out using the quasi 3-D Spatially Constrained Inversion. The obtained resistivity volume has then been the base for a detailed lithological and geothermal interpretation. Lithological and geological maps were used to constrain surface condition and to understand the resistivity ranges of the different lithological units. On the base of resistivity values, lithological units were combined to establish the main litho-resistive units, then modeled at depth, down to achievable investigation depth. This detailed interpretative modeling was also the occasion of recognizing resistivity anomalies within carbonate units, which may possibly represent hydrogeological or hydrothermal bodies. The litho-resitive 3D model is now under investigation to verify how it can represent a viable way to image thermal conductivity variations at depth.

Menghini, A.; Manzella, A.; Viezzoli, A.; Montanari, D.; Maggi, S.

2012-12-01

320

From Africa to Europe and back: refugia and range shifts cause high genetic differentiation in the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea  

PubMed Central

Background The glacial-interglacial oscillations caused severe range modifications of biota. Thermophilic species became extinct in the North and survived in southern retreats, e.g. the Mediterranean Basin. These repeated extinction and (re)colonisation events led to long-term isolation and intermixing of populations and thus resulted in strong genetic imprints in many European species therefore being composed of several genetic lineages. To better understand these cycles of repeated expansion and retraction, we selected the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea. Fourty-one populations scattered over Europe and the Maghreb and one population of the sibling taxon M. lachesis were analysed using allozyme electrophoresis. Results We obtained seven distinct lineages applying neighbour joining and STRUCTURE analyses: (i) Morocco, (ii) Tunisia, (iii) Sicily, (iv) Italy and southern France, (v) eastern Balkans extending to Central Europe, (vi) western Balkans with western Carpathian Basin as well as (vii) south-western Alps. The hierarchy of these splits is well matching the chronology of glacial and interglacial cycles since the Günz ice age starting with an initial split between the galathea group in North Africa and the lachesis group in Iberia. These genetic structures were compared with past distribution patterns during the last glacial stage calculated with distribution models. Conclusions Both methods suggest climatically suitable areas in the Maghreb and the southern European peninsulas with distinct refugia during the last glacial period and underpin strong range expansions to the North during the Postglacial. However, the allozyme patterns reveal biogeographical structures not detected by distribution modelling as two distinct refugia in the Maghreb, two or more distinct refugia at the Balkans and a close link between the eastern Maghreb and Sicily. Furthermore, the genetically highly diverse western Maghreb might have acted as source or speciation centre of this taxon, while the eastern, genetically impoverished Maghreb population might result from a relatively recent recolonisation from Europe via Sicily. PMID:21777453

2011-01-01

321

The Italian present-day stress map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a significant update of the Italian present-day stress data compilation not only to improve the knowledge on the tectonic setting of the region or to constrain future geodynamic models, but also to understand the mechanics of processes linked to faulting and earthquakes. In this paper, we have analysed, revised and collected new contemporary stress data from borehole breakouts and we have assembled earthquake and fault data. In total, 206 new quality-ranked entries complete the definition of the horizontal stress orientation and tectonic regime in some areas, and bring new information mainly in Sicily and along the Apenninic belt. Now the global Italian data set consists of 715 data points, including 499 of A-C quality, representing an increase of 37 per cent compared to the previous compilation. The alignment of horizontal stresses measured in some regions, closely matches the ˜N-S first-order stress field orientation of ongoing relative crustal motions between Eurasia and Africa plates. The Apenninic belt shows a diffuse extensional stress regime indicating a ˜NE-SW direction of extension, that we interpret as related to a second-order stress field. The horizontal stress rotations observed in peculiar areas reflect a complex interaction between first-order stress field and local effects revealing the importance of the tectonic structure orientations. In particular, in Sicily the new data delineate a more complete tectonic picture evidencing adjacent areas characterized by distinct stress regime: northern offshore of Sicily and in the Hyblean plateau the alignment of horizontal stresses is consistent with the crustal motions, whereas different directions have been observed along the belt and foredeep.

Montone, Paola; Mariucci, Maria Teresa; Pierdominici, Simona

2012-05-01

322

Trace elements in scalp hair of children chronically exposed to volcanic activity (Mt. Etna, Italy).  

PubMed

The aim of this survey was to use scalp hair as a biomonitor to evaluate the environmental exposure to metals and metalloids of schoolchildren living around the Mt. Etna area, and to verify whether the degree of human exposure to trace elements is subject to changes in local environmental factors. Twenty trace elements were determined in 376 samples of scalp hair from schoolboys (11-13 years old) of both genders, living in ten towns located around the volcanic area of Mt. Etna (Sicily). The results were compared with those (215 samples) from children living in areas of Sicily characterized by a different geological setting (reference site). As, U and V showed much higher concentrations at the volcanic site whereas Sr was particularly more abundant at the reference site. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) indicated an Etna factor, made up of V, U and Mn, and a second factor, concerning the reference site, characterized by Ni and Sr, and to a lesser extent by Mo and Cd. Significant differences in element concentrations were also observed among three different sectors of Mt. Etna area. Young people living in the Mt. Etna area are naturally exposed to enhanced intakes of some metals (V, U, Mn) and non-metals (e.g., As) than individuals of the same age residing in other areas of Sicily, characterized by different lithologies and not influenced by volcanic activity. The petrographic nature of local rocks and the dispersion of the volcanic plume explain the differences, with ingestion of water and local food as the most probable exposure pathways. PMID:24126132

Varrica, D; Tamburo, E; Dongarrà, G; Sposito, F

2014-02-01

323

The Calabria - Messina earthquake of December 28, 1908: remember to reduce the risk.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At 5:20 a.m., on 28th December 1908, one of the most catastrophic earthquakes in history occurred in the Messina Straits. Southern Calabria and north-eastern Sicily were severely hit: in few seconds Messina, Reggio Calabria and numerous villages on both sides of the Straits were devastated. Shortly after the earthquake a tsunami followed. Waves up to 12 meters high hit the Straits and the entire eastern Sicily coast. This is the strongest earthquake (magnitude 7.1) occurred in Italy in the twentieth century. The picture of the total damage was catastrophic: the estimated number of deaths is of around 80,000. In Messina the victims were about 60,000, corresponding to 40% of the population at the time, while in Reggio Calabria 12,000 were killed out of 45,000. To mark the centenary of this disaster, we arranged a program of different initiatives: 1) a photographic calendar with many information about the town destroyed and the tsunami effects (www.ingv.it); 2) a special workshop for general public to reconstruct what happened 100 years ago, to understand what we know today about earthquake and seismic risk, and how we can reduce the damage caused by earthquake; 3) many EDURISK training courses for more than 500 teachers of nursery, primary and lower secondary schools in Calabria and Sicily. These courses are based on a multidisciplinary approach and the educational experiences had been fitted to the specific local environment of each school, from the geographical, historical and cultural point of view (www.edurisk.it). 4) participation in ERMES 2008's activities to improve public awareness on seismic risks. The 1908 earthquake Group and the Edurisk team: E. Baroux, R. Azzaro, G. Ricciardi, M. Crescimbene, F. La Longa,V. Pessina.

Nostro, C.; Tertulliani, A.; Pignone, M.; Pino, N. A.; de Gori, P.; Castellano, C.; Arcoraci, L.; Camassi, R.

2009-04-01

324

The Myth of Icarus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ever since humans first saw birds soar through the sky, they have wanted to fly. The ancient Greeks and Romans pictured many of their gods with winged feet, and imagined mythological winged animals. According to the legend of Daedalus and Icarus, the father and son escaped prison by attaching wings made of wax and feathers to their bodies. Unfortunately, Icarus flew too near the sun, and the heat caused the wax and feathers to melt. The feathers fell off, and Icarus plummeted to the sea. Daedalus landed safely in Sicily.

2004-01-01

325

Consistency and Phenomenology of Four-Dimensional Strings  

E-print Network

Talk given at the 26th Workshop: ``From Superstrings to Supergravity" Erice - Sicily, 5-12 December 1992: In this talk we discuss string consistency requirements on four dimensional string models, namely the cancellation of target space duality anomalies. The analysis is explicitly performed for (hypothetical) orbifold models assuming the massless spectrum of the supersymmetric standard model. In addition, some phenomenological properties of four-dimensional strings, like the unification of the standard model gauge coupling constants and soft supersymmetry breaking parameters, are investigated.

Dieter Luest

1993-03-01

326

Spatio-temporal behaviour of the deep chlorophyll maximum in Mediterranean Sea: Development of a stochastic model for picophytoplankton dynamics  

E-print Network

In this paper, by using a stochastic reaction-diffusion-taxis model, we analyze the picophytoplankton dynamics in the basin of the Mediterranean Sea, characterized by poorly mixed waters. The model includes intraspecific competition of picophytoplankton for light and nutrients. The multiplicative noise sources present in the model account for random fluctuations of environmental variables. Phytoplankton distributions obtained from the model show a good agreement with experimental data sampled in two different sites of the Sicily Channel. The results could be extended to analyze data collected in different sites of the Mediterranean Sea and to devise predictive models for phytoplankton dynamics in oligotrophic waters.

Denaro, G; La Cognata, A; Spagnolo, B; Bonanno, A; Basilone, G; Mazzola, S; Zgozi, S; Aronica, S; Brunet, C

2012-01-01

327

Miocene reef facies of pelagian block, central Mediterranean  

SciTech Connect

Miocene reefs outcrop in the Maltese Islands, southeastern Sicily, and the pelagian island of Lampedusa. Several rapid eustatic sea level fluctuations affected these late Tortonian-early Messinian build-ups; normal salinities appear to have been maintained during these events. In addition to sea floor topography, reef development appears to have been controlled by turbulence. Encruster-dominated patch reefs are typical of platform and shallow ramp situations where turbulence is high. Branching and massive coral assemblages are typical of fore-reef curtains and steep slope substrates.

Pedley, H.M.

1988-02-01

328

Dihydrostilbene derivatives from Glycyrrhiza glabra leaves.  

PubMed

Four new dihydrostilbenes, alpha,alpha'-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-4'-acetoxy-5'-isopentenylstilbene (1), alpha,alpha'-dihydro-3,3',4'-trihydroxy-5-O-isopentenyl-6-isopentenylstilbene (2), alpha,alpha'-dihydro-3,5,3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxystilbene (3), and alpha,alpha'-dihydro-3,3'-dihydroxy-5beta-d-O-glucopyranosyloxy-4'-methoxystilbene (4), together with seven known flavonoids, glabranin isomer, naringenin, lupiwighteone, pinocembrin 7-O-glucoside, astragalin, isoquercitrin, vicenin II, and the inositol, pinitol, were isolated from the leaves of Glycyrrhiza glabra grown in Sicily. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. PMID:16038558

Biondi, Daniela M; Rocco, Concetta; Ruberto, Giuseppe

2005-07-01

329

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

330

Micro-spectroscopic techniques applied to characterization of varnished archeological findings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports an analysis on terracotta varnished finding recovered in east Sicily area (Messina). We have performed FTIR micro-spectroscopy and electronic microscopy (SEM)measurements in order to recognize the elemental constituents of the varnished surfaces. Furthermore, for all the samples, a study on the bulk has been performed by Fourier Transform Infrared Absorption. The analyzed samples consist of a number of pottery fragments belonging to archaic and classical ages, varnished in black and red colors. The obtained data furnished useful information about composition of decorated surfaces and bulk matrixes, about baking temperature, manufacture techniques and alteration mechanisms of findings due to the long burial.

Barone, G.; Ioppolo, S.; Majolino, D.; Migliardo, P.; Ponterio, R.

2000-04-01

331

Volcanic Ash Monitoring and FOrecaSting between Sicilia and Malta arEa and sharinG of the resUlts foR aviatiOn safety: the VAMOS SEGURO project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mt. Etna, in Italy, is one of the most active volcanoes in the world and during its frequent explosive episodes, eruption columns rise to several kilometers and fine ash is dispersed hundreds kilometers away from the vent reaching the neighboring countries. The Maltese Islands, for example, are situated at the center of the Mediterranean, only 100 km south of Sicily and, due to the close proximity, have been already affected by the past Etna volcanic activity. A reliable monitoring and forecasting system of Etna volcanic ash has to include all areas that could be reached by volcanic ash. For this reason, a new research project named VAMOS SEGURO, has been recently funded by Programma di Cooperazione Transfrontaliera Italia-Malta 2007-2013, with the aim to reduce the impact that Etna's explosive activity has in the area between Sicily and Malta. This project is developed within a cooperation between the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica, Osservatorio Etneo, the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), Comune of Montedoro, in Caltanissetta, the University of Malta, and Consorzio Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM). In this project, several instruments (e.g. aerosol optical depth analyzer, microbalance, laser cascade instrument, meteorological stations, aethelometer) have been installed at Giordan lighthouse at Xewkija, in Gozo, managed by the University of Malta. Furthermore, an innovative Lidar system with scanning capability, has been designed and realized by CNISM and is able to indentify the area affected by volcanic ash in Sicily and quantify the ash concentration in atmosphere. The Lidar may be transported and installed in the INAF astronomical observatories of Noto and Serra La Nave, only 7 km away from the Etna summits, and in Montedoro. Finally, an automatic forecasting system produces dispersal maps for the region between Sicily and Malta and for a typical Etna scenario. Results of simulations are daily visible at www.ct.ingv.it/vamosseguro. The system is collecting measurements of ash and SO2 plumes and will provide warnings to the competent civil and aviation authorities in Catania and Malta during Etna eruptions.

Scollo, Simona; Azzopardi, Francelle; Boselli, Antonella; Coltelli, Mauro; Ellul, Raymond; Leto, Giuseppe; Pisani, Gianluca; Prestifilippo, Michele; Saliba, Martin; Schiavone, Joseph; Spata, Gaetano; Spinelli, Nicola; Wang, Xuan; Zanmar Sanchez, Ricardo

2013-04-01

332

Astronomical kaleidoscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The entry contains two Moon eclipses (a picture of a total eclipse and a photo of a penumbral one), photographs of monuments of few greatest astronomers: Nikolay Kopernik, Tiho Brahe and Johannes Kepler, a photo from the JENAM-1995 (Catania, Sicily) as well as photographs of few astronomers related with Moldova and Romania: V. Grigorevskii, N. Donitch, V.Nadolschi, D. Mangeron, two nice clocks in Prague, as well as a map of the Sanctuary in Orheiul -Vechi (Bessarabia) with an supposed ancient calendar.

Gaina, Alex

2005-10-01

333

Preliminary interpretation of high resolution 3D seismic data from offshore Mt. Etna, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to gain knowledge about subsurface structures and its correlation to seafloor expressions, a hydro-acoustic dataset was collected during RV Meteor Cruise M86/2 (December 2011/January 2012) in Messina Straits and offshore Mt. Etna. Especially offshore Mt. Etna, the data reveals an obvious connection between subsurface structures and previously known morphological features at the sea floor. Therefore a high resolution 3D seismic dataset was acquired between Riposto Ridge and Catania Canyon close to the shore of eastern Sicily. The study area is characterized by a major structural high, which hosts several ridge-like features at the seafloor. These features are connected to a SW-NE trending fault system. The ridges are bended in their NE-SW direction and host major escarpments at the seafloor. Furthermore they are located directly next to a massive amphitheater structure offshore Mt. Etna with slope gradients of up to 35°, which is interpreted as remnants of a massive submarine mass wasting event off Sicily. The new 3D seismic dataset allows an in depth analysis of the ongoing deformation of the east flank of Mt. Etna.

Gross, F.; Krastel, S.; Chiocci, F. L.; Ridente, D.; Cukur, D.; Bialas, J.; Papenberg, C. A.; Crutchley, G.; Koch, S.

2013-12-01

334

Modelling tsunamis in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Application to the Minoan Santorini tsunami sequence as a potential scenario for the biblical Exodus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical model which simulates the propagation of tsunamis in the Eastern Mediterranean has been developed. Several tsunami sources have been considered: earthquakes associated to geological faults, submarine landslides, entry of pyroclastic flows into the sea and the collapse of a volcano caldera. The model has been applied to different past events for which historic data or previous simulations exist, to test its performance. Then it has been applied to simulate tsunamis triggered by the explosion of Santorini volcano (17th century BC) in the Aegean Sea. While the model accounts for run-ups in the Aegean coasts, it fails to explain the isochronous tsunamigenic deposits reported in eastern Sicily and the levantine coasts. A scenario of a sequence of intense tectonics strain release triggering a series of tsunamis could better fit the whole dataset. Thus, a submarine landslide at the Gulf of Sirte may explain the Augias megaturbidite and the sedimentary deposits reported in Augusta Bay (Sicily). Similarly, a sequential tsunami in the eastern Nile Delta may explain the tsunamigenic deposits found in Israel and Gaza. Considering the former coastline at 3500 years BP, it could also provide a plausible scenario for the biblical sea crossing related in the Exodus.

Periáñez, R.; Abril, J. M.

2014-11-01

335

Status of the KM3NeT project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

KM3NeT is a deep-sea research infrastructure being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea. It will be installed at three sites: KM3NeT-Fr, offshore Toulon, France, KM3NeT-It, offshore Portopalo di Capo Passero, Sicily (Italy) and KM3NeT-Gr, offshore Pylos, Peloponnese, Greece. It will host the next generation Cherenkov neutrino telescope and nodes for a deep sea multidisciplinary observatory, providing oceanographers, marine biologists, and geophysicists with real time measurements. The neutrino telescope will search for Galactic and extra-Galactic sources of neutrinos, complementing IceCube in its field of view. The detector will have a modular structure and consists of six building blocks, each including about one hundred Detection Units (DUs). Each DU will be equipped with 18 multi-PMT digital optical modules. The first phase of construction has started and shore and deep-sea infrastructures hosting the future KM3NeT detector are being prepared in France near Toulon and in Italy, near Capo Passero in Sicily. The technological solutions for KM3NeT and the expected performance of the detector are presented and discussed.

Margiotta, A.

2014-04-01

336

Epidemiological assessment of Respiratory Syncytial Virus infection in hospitalized infants, during the season 2005–2006 in Palermo, Italy  

PubMed Central

Objectives Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the leading cause of hospitalization for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in young children worldwide. We evaluate the epidemiological and clinical patterns of RSV infection in infants hospitalized for LRTI in in Palermo, South Italy, Sicily. Methods We collected the demographic details of infants hospitalized to G. Di Cristina Children's Hospital in Palermo for LRTI between November 2005 and May 2006. We also included all cases occurred in newborns hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) Of Palermo. Results During the studied period, 335/705 hospitalized infants for LRTI were enrolled in the study. The trend of hospitalization started in late winter and lasting until May 2006 with an epidemic peak in spring. 178/335 infants tested for viral infection showed RSV disease. Three cases occurred in preterm newborns hospitalized from birth in NICU. The likelihood to be RSV+, rather than RSV negative (RSV-) was higher for infants < 6 months and lower for infants with history of breast feeding (P < 0.05). RSV infection was associated with a higher likelihood to be admitted to intensive care unit and to a longer hospitalization and oxygen therapy. Conclusion The study shows that, in Sicily, RSV is an important cause of LRTI in infants. The seasonal distribution shows that both LRTI and RSV infections peak in late spring, in contrast to Northern Italy. Our data could help to define the regional appropriate start of prophylactic interventions. PMID:19490666

Di Carlo, Paola; Romano, Amelia; Salsa, Ludovico; Gueli, Alessandra; Poma, Antonella; Fucà, Fortunata; Dones, Piera; Collura, Mirella; Pampinella, Diego; Motisi, Delia; Corsello, Giovanni

2009-01-01

337

Antioxidant Properties of Berberis aetnensis C. Presl (Berberidaceae) Roots Extract and Protective Effects on Astroglial Cell Cultures  

PubMed Central

Berberis aetnensis C. Presl (Berberidaceae) is a bushy-spiny shrub common on Mount Etna (Sicily). We demonstrated that the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl contains prevalently berberine and berbamine, possesses antimicrobial properties, and was able to counteract the upregulation evoked by glutamate of tissue transglutaminase in primary rat astroglial cell cultures. Until now, there are no reports regarding antioxidant properties of B. aetnensis C. Presl collected in Sicily. Air-dried, powdered roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl were extracted, identified, and quantified by HPLC. We assessed in cellular free system its effect on superoxide anion, radicals scavenging activity of antioxidants against free radicals like the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. In primary rat astroglial cell cultures, exposed to glutamate, we evaluated the effect of the extract on glutathione levels and on intracellular production of reactive oxygen species generated by glutamate. The alkaloid extract of B. aetnensis C. Presl inhibited superoxide anion, restored to control values, the decrease of GSH levels, and the production of reactive oxygen species. Potent antioxidant activities of the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl may be one of the mechanisms by which the extract is effective against health disorders associated to oxidative stress. PMID:25177720

Campisi, Agata; Bonfanti, Roberta; Raciti, Giuseppina; Amodeo, Andrea; Mastrojeni, Silvana; Ragusa, Salvatore; Iauk, Liliana

2014-01-01

338

Genetic considerations on the introduction of farmed fish in marine protected areas: The case of study of white seabream restocking in the Gulf of Castellammare (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human exploitation has drastically reduced the abundance and distribution of several marine fish and invertebrate populations through overfishing and habitat destruction. Restocking can potentially mitigate these impacts and help to reconstitute depleted stocks but genetic repercussions must be considered. In the present study, the degree of genetic similarity between white seabream (Diplodus sargus Linnaeus 1758) individuals reared for restocking purposes and the receiving population in the Gulf of Castellammare fishery reserve (Sicily, Italy) was assessed using microsatellites. We also inferred the spatial pattern of the genetic structure of D. sargus and connectivity along Sicilian coasts. The farmed population showed significant heterozygosity deficiency in 6 loci and an important reduction in the number of alleles, which could indicate an incipient inbreeding. Both the farmed population and the target one for restocking (Castellammare fishery reserve), showed high and significant values of genetic differentiation due to different allele frequencies, number of privative alleles and total number of alleles. These findings indicate a low degree of genetic similarity between both populations, therefore this restocking initiative is not advisable. The genetic connectivity pattern, highly consistent with oceanographic currents, identified two distinct metapopulations of white seabream around Sicily. Thus it is recommended to utilize broods from the same metapopulation for restocking purposes to provide a better genetic match to the wild populations.

González-Wangüemert, Mercedes; Fernández, Tomás Vega; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Giacalone, Maximiliano; D'Anna, Giovanni; Badalamenti, Fabio

2012-02-01

339

[Clinical, virological and epidemiological aspects of acute B hepatitis in the Catania area (Italy)].  

PubMed

Starting from January 1997 we prospectively evaluated all cases of acute hepatitis B admitted to two of the main Infectious Diseases Units in Catania (eastern Sicily). The survey was extended throughout a 10-year period up to December 2007. Between 1997 and 1999 we observed 21 cases of acute hepatitis B; between 2000 and 2002 18 cases; between 2003 and 2005 22 cases and, finally, 37 cases were reported in the period 2006-2007. We found an increase in acute hepatitis B cases among people aged 26 to 44 years (from 38% in 1997-99 to 70% in 2006-07). A progressive decrease in intravenous drug abuse as a risk factor for acute hepatitis B was also observed (from 61% to 14%) together with a parallel increase in cases due to sexual transmission (from 19% to 56%) and outpatient cosmetic surgical procedures. Mean time to serum HBsAg negativization was longer in the last period (2006-07), with 6 cases out of 37 showing HBsAg persistence beyond 12 months from the clinical onset. Furthermore, in 2006-07 there were 12 cases (42%) of acute hepatitis due to HBV genotypes A and F. In our area, a progressive drop of hepatitis B cases due to intravenous drug abuse occurred, whereas heterosexual and iatrogenic cases increased. Cases due to HBV non-D genotypes may well be related to migration from endemic areas towards Sicily. PMID:20956872

Scalia, Guido; Russo, Raffaela; Palermo, Ilenia; Gussio, Maria; Bellissimo, Francesco; Fatuzzo, Filippo; Montineri, Arturo; Patamia, Ildebrando; Costanzo, Maria; Zappala, Daniela; Russo, Rosario; Cacopardo, Bruno

2010-09-01

340

Benford's law predicted digit distribution of aggregated income taxes: the surprising conformity of Italian cities and regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The yearly aggregated tax income data of all, more than 8000, Italian municipalities are analyzed for a period of five years, from 2007 to 2011, to search for conformity or not with Benford's law, a counter-intuitive phenomenon observed in large tabulated data where the occurrence of numbers having smaller initial digits is more favored than those with larger digits. This is done in anticipation that large deviations from Benford's law will be found in view of tax evasion supposedly being widespread across Italy. Contrary to expectations, we show that the overall tax income data for all these years is in excellent agreement with Benford's law. Furthermore, we also analyze the data of Calabria, Campania and Sicily, the three Italian regions known for strong presence of mafia, to see if there are any marked deviations from Benford's law. Again, we find that all yearly data sets for Calabria and Sicily agree with Benford's law whereas only the 2007 and 2008 yearly data show departures from the law for Campania. These results are again surprising in view of underground and illegal nature of economic activities of mafia which significantly contribute to tax evasion. Some hypothesis for the found conformity is presented.

Mir, Tariq Ahmad; Ausloos, Marcel; Cerqueti, Roy

2014-11-01

341

Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy  

SciTech Connect

Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO2 stores. Italy and Sicily are regions of intense natural CO2 degassing from surface seeps. These seeps exhibit a variety of expressions, characteristics (e.g., temperature/ flux), and location environments. Here we quantify historical fatalities from CO2 poisoning using a database of 286 natural CO2 seeps in Italy and Sicily. We find that risk of human death is strongly influenced by seep surface expression, local conditions (e.g., topography and wind speed), CO2 flux, and human behavior. Risk of accidental human death from these CO2 seeps is calculated to be 10-8 year-1 to the exposed population. This value is significantly lower than that of many socially accepted risks. Seepage from future storage sites is modeled to be less than Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health risks from unplanned seepage at onshore storage sites can be adequately minimized.

Roberts, J.J.; Wood, R.A.; Haszeldine, R.S. [Scottish Carbon Capture and Storage, School of GeoSciences, Grant Institute, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JW, Scotland (United Kingdom)

2011-10-04

342

Benford's law predicted digit distribution of aggregated income taxes: the surprising conformity of Italian cities and regions  

E-print Network

The yearly aggregated tax income data of all, more than 8000, Italian municipalities are analyzed for a period of five years, from 2007 to 2011, to search for conformity or not with Benford's law, a counter-intuitive phenomenon observed in large tabulated data where the occurrence of numbers having smaller initial digits is more favored than those with larger digits. This is done in anticipation that large deviations from Benford's law will be found in view of tax evasion supposedly being widespread across Italy. Contrary to expectations, we show that the overall tax income data for all these years is in excellent agreement with Benford's law. Furthermore, we also analyze the data of Calabria, Campania and Sicily, the three Italian regions known for strong presence of mafia, to see if there are any marked deviations from Benford's law. Again, we find that all yearly data sets for Calabria and Sicily agree with Benford's law whereas only the 2007 and 2008 yearly data show departures from the law for Campania. ...

Mir, Tariq Ahmad; Cerqueti, Roy

2014-01-01

343

Deep structure and historical earthquakes in the Calabrian subduction zone (Southern Italy): preliminary results from multi-channel seismic reflection profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Calabrian subduction zone is located in the complex Central Mediterranean area. This subduction is characterized by the presence of deep earthquakes under the Tyrrhenian Sea down to 500 km depth. The Tethyan remnant Ionian slab descends towards the NW at a dip of about 70° and is associated with an active volcanic arc (the Aeolian Islands). Recently reported GPS and seismicity studies suggest that the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere beneath the Calabrian Arc may be locally still active, though at very slow rates (<5 mm/yr). Moreover the offshore Calabrian accretionary wedge is known to include compressional anticlines and ongoing hydrological activity (mud volcanoes), evidence of an active deformation in the wedge. In the Calabria - Eastern Sicily area, significant historical seismicity is documented, with the strongest event occurring in 1693. The 1693 earthquake (MCS intensities = XI) destroyed the coast of Eastern Sicily (60000 people killed) and generated a 5-10 m high tsunami. Because of the tsunami generated and because the isoseismals are open to the sea, the source region appears to be offshore. The subduction fault plane would then be a good candidate for the 1693 event. Historical reports indicates that the 1169 earthquake had similar intensities and a comparable isoseismal pattern, suggesting the events may have the same source. However, a lack of instrumentally recorded thrust earthquakes, characteristic of active subduction zone, suggests that if subduction is active, the fault plane may be locked since the instrumental period. To seek evidence of continuous tectonic activity of the Calabrian system, we present preliminary results from reprocessed 96-channels seismic reflection profiles (French Archimede cruise, 1997) offshore Sicily. This analysis permits to recognize a well-defined stratigraphy in the Ionian Abyssal Plain, this stratigraphy becomes difficult to follow under the deformed Calabrian Prism. But the joint interpretation with the reprocessed PM01 profile (French PRISMED cruise, 1994) helps constrain this interpretation and to image some characteristic structures of an accretionary wedge (fore/back-thrusts, basal decollement...). This study also include interpretation of a more recent Italian seismic cruise (Calamare, 2008) and CROP profiles. This work will help to prepare a future cruise proposal (CIRCEE, to be submitted in January 2010) to study the Calabrian subduction with OBS, MCS seismic, heat-flow measurements and sediment coring. The goals are : 1/ to image the deep structure of this subduction zone, 2/ to characterize its thermal state to deduce a geometry of the seismogenic part of the plate interface and add new constraints on seismic risk linked with the Calabrian subduction.

Gallais, F.; Gutscher, M.; Torelli, L.; Polonia, A.; Riminucci, F.

2009-12-01

344

Evidence for ships emissions in the Central Mediterranean Sea from aerosol chemical analyses at the island of Lampedusa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of aerosol chemical composition made on the island of Lampedusa, south of the Sicily channel, during years 2004-2008, are used to identify the influence of ship emissions on aerosol particles in the Central Mediterranean. Evidence of ship emissions influence is found in 17% of the daily samples. Aerosol samples influenced by ships are characterized by elevated Ni and V soluble fraction (about 80% for aerosol from ships, versus about 40 % for crustal particles), high V and Ni to Si ratios, and values of Vsol>6 ng m-3. Back trajectories analysis on the selected events show that air masses prevalently come from the Sicily channel, where an intense ship traffic occurs. Vsol, Nisol, and non-sea salt SO42- (nssSO42-) show a marked seasonal behaviour, with an evident summer maximum. Such a pattern can be explained by several processes: (i) increased photochemical activity in summer, leading to a faster production of secondary aerosols, mainly nssSO42-, from the oxidation of SO2 in the ship plume; (ii) stronger marine boundary layer (MBL) stability in summer, leading to higher concentration of emitted compounds in the lowest atmospheric layers; (iii) more frequent meteorological conditions leading to consecutive days with trajectories from the Sicily channel in summer. A very intense event in spring 2008 was studied in detail, also using size segregated chemical measurements. These data show that elements arising from heavy oil combustion (V, Ni, Al, Fe) are distributed in the sub-micrometric fraction of the aerosol, and the metals are present as free metals, carbonates, oxides hydrates or labile complex with organic ligands, so that they are dissolved in mild condition (HNO3, pH1.5). Data suggest a characteristic nssSO42-/V ratio in the range 200-400 for ship emission aerosols in summer at Lampedusa. By using the value of 200 a lower limit for the ship contribution to total sulphates is estimated. Ship emissions account, as a summer average, at least for 1.2 ?g m-3, representing about 30% of the total nssSO42-, 3.9% of PM10, 8% of PM2.5, and 11% of PM1. Within the used dataset, sulphate from ship emissions reached the peak value of 6.1 ?g m-3 on 26 June 2008, when it contributed by 47% to nssSO42-, and by 15% to PM10.

Becagli, S.; Sferlazzo, D. M.; Pace, G.; di Sarra, A.; Bommarito, C.; Calzolai, G.; Ghedini, C.; Lucarelli, F.; Meloni, D.; Monteleone, F.; Severi, M.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R.

2011-11-01

345

Molecular Structure of Celestine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pure celestine is colorless however it is rarely found is this form, and due to impurities, is most often sky blue in color. It was first discovered in Sicily Italy around 1781, and given its name in 1791 from the Latin word coelestis meaning heavenly, in reference to its color. Celestine, or celestite, has the same structure as Barite, BaSO4, and is often mistaken for one another. A simple flame test will reveal the identity: if the sample contains strontium, i.e. celestite, the flame will turn red, and if the sample contains barium, i.e. barite, the flame will turn green. Due to its strontium source, Celestine is used in fireworks and road flares, and also in the making of household varnishes and ceramics.

2002-08-14

346

The tectonic puzzle of the Messina area (Southern Italy): Insights from new seismic reflection data  

PubMed Central

The Messina Strait, that separates peninsular Italy from Sicily, is one of the most seismically active areas of the Mediterranean. The structure and seismotectonic setting of the region are poorly understood, although the area is highly populated and important infrastructures are planned there. New seismic reflection data have identified a number of faults, as well as a crustal scale NE-trending anticline few km north of the strait. These features are interpreted as due to active right-lateral transpression along the north-eastern Sicilian offshore, coexisting with extensional and right-lateral transtensional tectonics in the southern Messina Strait. This complex tectonic network appears to be controlled by independent and overlapping tectonic settings, due to the presence of a diffuse transfer zone between the SE-ward retreating Calabria subduction zone relative to slab advance in the western Sicilian side. PMID:23240075

Doglioni, Carlo; Ligi, Marco; Scrocca, Davide; Bigi, Sabina; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Carminati, Eugenio; Cuffaro, Marco; D'Oriano, Filippo; Forleo, Vittoria; Muccini, Filippo; Riguzzi, Federica

2012-01-01

347

Lost tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulations support the occurrence of a catastrophic tsunami impacting all of the eastern Mediterranean in early Holocene. The tsunami was triggered by a debris avalanche from Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy) which entered the Ionian Sea in the order of minutes. Simulations show that the resulting tsunami waves were able to destabilize soft marine sediments across the Ionian Sea floor. This generated the well-known, sporadically located, ``homogenite'' deposits of the Ionian Sea, and the widespread megaturbidite deposits of the Ionian and Sirte Abyssal Plains. It is possible that, ~8 ka B.P., the Neolithic village of Atlit-Yam (Israel) was abandoned because of impact by the same Etna tsunami. Two other Pleistocenic megaturbidite deposits of the Ionian Sea can be explained by previous sector collapses from the Etna area.

Pareschi, Maria Teresa; Boschi, Enzo; Favalli, Massimiliano

2006-11-01

348

Molecular epidemiology of bluetongue virus serotype 1 circulating in Italy and its connection with northern Africa.  

PubMed

Western BTV-1 emerged in the Mediterranean basin in 2006 and it has since been isolated in southern and northern European countries. Six BTV-1 strains isolated from infected sheep in Italy between 2006 and 2013 and a BTV-1 strain isolated from an infected sheep in Tunisia in 2011 were fully sequenced. The seven strains were shown to be nearly identical in each gene segment. The Seg-2 sequences of the BTV-1 strains group according to the year of isolation reflecting the time of BTV incursions in Italy. Combined results suggest that BTV-1 strains isolated in Sardinia, Sicily and mainland Italy in 2012 and 2013 have a direct northern African origin. The Italian strains originated from a strain closely related to a BTV-1 strain isolated in Tunisia in 2011. Better surveillance programs with northern and sub-Saharan African countries should be implemented making the control of spread of BTV easier and effective. PMID:25239524

Lorusso, Alessio; Sghaier, Soufien; Ancora, Massimo; Marcacci, Maurilia; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Portanti, Ottavio; Mangone, Iolanda; Teodori, Liana; Leone, Alessandra; Camma', Cesare; Petrini, Antonio; Hammami, Salah; Savini, Giovanni

2014-12-01

349

FT-IR spectroscopic analysis to study the firing processes of prehistoric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we present a FT-IR absorbance investigation on prehistoric ceramics with the aim of characterizing the phase transformations that occur during the cooking processes. The measurements were performed on several potteries belonging to the Middle Bronze Age excavated in the Catania hinterland (Sicily, Southern Italy). Based on the macroscopic observation, the samples may be distinguished on coarse and fine ceramics, and the petrographic study showed a strongly heterogeneous structure and composition. The results were compared with the data obtained by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and with the microscopic qualitative observations of the birefringence of the groundmass. The whole set of the data showed a firing temperature in the 800-900 °C range. The simultaneous presence in several samples of calcite and clay minerals and of new-formed Ca-silicates should be indicative of a quite primitive technological firing process with strong temperature variation inside the kiln.

Barone, G.; Crupi, V.; Longo, F.; Majolino, D.; Mazzoleni, P.; Tanasi, D.; Venuti, V.

2011-05-01

350

Winter diet of lake herring (Coregonus artedi) in western Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and zooplankton samples were simultaneously collected through the ice in the Apostle Islands region of western Lake Superior to provide information on the winter feeding ecology of lake herring. Zooplankton constituted the entire diet of the 38 lake herring collected for this study. We found no evidence of piscivory, although it has been reported by anglers. Diet selectivities were calculated using a Wilcoxon signed-ranks test and showed a preference of lake herring for larger zooplankton, especially Diaptomus sicilis, whereas the smaller copepod, Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi, and immature copepod stages were selected against. These data document that overwintering copepods are food for a broad size range of lake herring in winter.

Link, Jason; Selgeby, James H.; Hoff, Michael H.; Haskell, Craig

1995-01-01

351

The tectonic puzzle of the Messina area (Southern Italy): Insights from new seismic reflection data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Messina Strait, that separates peninsular Italy from Sicily, is one of the most seismically active areas of the Mediterranean. The structure and seismotectonic setting of the region are poorly understood, although the area is highly populated and important infrastructures are planned there. New seismic reflection data have identified a number of faults, as well as a crustal scale NE-trending anticline few km north of the strait. These features are interpreted as due to active right-lateral transpression along the north-eastern Sicilian offshore, coexisting with extensional and right-lateral transtensional tectonics in the southern Messina Strait. This complex tectonic network appears to be controlled by independent and overlapping tectonic settings, due to the presence of a diffuse transfer zone between the SE-ward retreating Calabria subduction zone relative to slab advance in the western Sicilian side.

Doglioni, Carlo; Ligi, Marco; Scrocca, Davide; Bigi, Sabina; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Carminati, Eugenio; Cuffaro, Marco; D'Oriano, Filippo; Forleo, Vittoria; Muccini, Filippo; Riguzzi, Federica

2012-12-01

352

Lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) diets in western Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We describe the diets of lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in western Lake Superior during the summers of 1996 and 1997. Both species consumed predominantly (> 71% by number) zooplankton, showing a preference for larger taxa. Diet overlap between the two species was low (Schoener's index = 0.42). Mysis was most important in rainbow smelt diets, whereas Diaptomus sicilis was most important in lake herring diets. Rainbow smelt selected larger taxa, and larger individuals within a taxon when compared to lake herring, although rainbow smelt tended to be smaller fish. Fish diets have changed relative to previous studies and may be reflecting changes in the zooplankton community. Continued changes in the fish and zooplankton community will alter predatorprey and energetic pathways, ultimately affecting growth and production of the ecosystem.

Johnson, Timothy B.; Brown, William P.; Corry, Timothy D.; Hoff, Michael H.; Scharold, Jill V.; Trebitz, Anett S.

2004-01-01

353

Lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) diets in western Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We describe the diets of lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in western Lake Superior during the summers of 1996 and 1997. Both species consumed predominantly (> 71% by number) zooplankton, showing a preference for larger taxa. Diet overlap between the two species was low (Schoener's index = 0.42). Mysis was most important in rainbow smelt diets, whereas Diaptomus sicilis was most important in lake herring diets. Rainbow smelt selected larger taxa, and larger individuals within a taxon when compared to lake herring, although rainbow smelt tended to be smaller fish. Fish diets have changed relative to previous studies and may be reflecting changes in the zooplankton community. Continued changes in the fish and zooplankton community will alter predator-prey and energetic pathways, ultimately affecting growth and production of the ecosystem.

Johnson, T.B.; Brown, W.P.; Corry, T.D.; Hoff, M.H.; Scharold, J.V.; Trebitz, A.S.

2004-01-01

354

Recent advances in offshore pipeline technology  

SciTech Connect

Since the pioneering construction of the TRANSMED pipeline system across the Sicily Channel in the early 80`s, offshore pipeline technology has been progressing towards more and more difficult environments. Now the projects envisaged for the 90`s are venturing far beyond the challenges of the recent past. The scope of this paper is to present the recent research efforts aimed at tackling the main design aspects of the new challenges. Particular attention will be given to the experiences and achievements on the last few years in transmission pipelines across the European Continental Shelf, e.g. in the Central and Southern North Sea and across the Mediterranean Sea. Technologies, tools and purpose developed criteria will be discussed. The performance of current operating pipeline systems will be reviewed and incentives to rationalize design criteria and guidelines will be illustrated.

Bruschi, R.; Vitali, L. [Snamprogetti S.p.A., Fano (Italy)

1994-12-31

355

Status of NEMO Project  

SciTech Connect

The R and D activities of the NEMO Collaboration for the construction of a km{sup 3} scale underwater neutrino telescope are described. Results from about 10 years of site seeking and monitoring activities have demonstrated that a wide abyssal plain, about 80 km off-shore Capo Passero (Sicily), is the optimal site for the installation of the telescope. With the pilot project NEMO Phase-1, the NEMO Collaboration realized and installed at 2000 m depth at the underwater Test Site of the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud a fully equipped deep-sea facility to test prototypes and develop new technologies for a km{sup 3} neutrino telescope. The realization of an underwater infrastructure at 3500 m on the Capo Passero site is in progress (NEMO Phase-2). It will enable the validation of the technological solutions proposed at depths needed for the final km{sup 3} detector and a long term monitoring of the selected site.

Viola, S.

2010-03-01

356

Submarine pipeline inspection: The 12 years experience of TRANSMED and future developments  

SciTech Connect

TRANSMED is a submarine pipeline gas transportation system crossing the Sicily Channel, in the Mediterranean Sea, at a maximum water depth of 610 m. It went into operation in 1981. Initially composed of three lines, it has been increased to five lines and to a total length of 780 Km in the last year. In the present paper criteria, methodology and equipment used for the periodic inspection surveys of TRANSMED and for the management of gathered data are presented. The twelve years inspection activity and the relevant results of data analysis, mainly the historical evolution of scour induced free spans and the incidence of other hazards, are illustrated. Moreover, the critical aspects concerning data acquisition, processing and management are analyzed and the planned developments are presented.

Iovenitti, L.; Venturi, M. [Snamprogetti S.p.A., Fano (Italy). Offshore Division; Albano, G.; Touisi, E.H. [Mariconsult S.p.A., Milan (Italy)

1994-12-31

357

Distribution and assessment of marine debris in the deep Tyrrhenian Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea, Italy).  

PubMed

Marine debris is a recognized global ecological concern. Little is known about the extent of the problem in the Mediterranean Sea regarding litter distribution and its influence on deep rocky habitats. A quantitative assessment of debris present in the deep seafloor (30-300m depth) was carried out in 26 areas off the coast of three Italian regions in the Tyrrhenian Sea, using a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). The dominant type of debris (89%) was represented by fishing gears, mainly lines, while plastic objects were recorded only occasionally. Abundant quantities of gears were found on rocky banks in Sicily and Campania (0.09-0.12 debris m(-2)), proving intense fishing activity. Fifty-four percent of the recorded debris directly impacted benthic organisms, primarily gorgonians, followed by black corals and sponges. This work provides a first insight on the impact of marine debris in Mediterranean deep ecosystems and a valuable baseline for future comparisons. PMID:25604749

Angiolillo, Michela; Lorenzo, Bianca di; Farcomeni, Alessio; Bo, Marzia; Bavestrello, Giorgio; Santangelo, Giovanni; Cau, Angelo; Mastascusa, Vincenza; Cau, Alessandro; Sacco, Flavio; Canese, Simonepietro

2015-03-15

358

Characterisation of lipid fraction of marine macroalgae by means of chromatography techniques coupled to mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

In this work the characterisation of the lipid fraction of several species of marine macro algae gathered along the eastern coast of Sicily is reported. Two species of green marine algae (Chloropyceae), two species of red marine algae (Rhodophyceae) and four species of brown marine algae (Pheophyceae) were evaluated in terms of fatty acids, triacylglycerols, pigments and phospholipids profile. Advanced analytical techniques were employed to fully characterise the lipid profile of these Mediterranean seaweeds, such as GC-MS coupled to a novel mass spectra database supported by the simultaneous use of linear retention index (LRI) for the identification of fatty acid profile; LC-MS was employed for the identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs), carotenoids and phospholipids; the determination of accurate mass was carried out on carotenoids and phospholipids. Quantitative data are reported on fatty acids and triacylglycerols as relative percentage of total fraction. PMID:24128566

Ragonese, Carla; Tedone, Laura; Beccaria, Marco; Torre, Germana; Cichello, Filomena; Cacciola, Francesco; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

2014-02-15

359

Combining 3D technologies for cultural heritage interpretation and entertainment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a summary of the 3D modeling work that was accomplished in preparing multimedia products for cultural heritage interpretation and entertainment. The three cases presented are the Byzantine Crypt of Santa Cristina, Apulia, temple C of Selinunte, Sicily, and a bronze sculpture from the 6th century BC found in Ugento, Apulia. The core of the approach is based upon high-resolution photo-realistic texture mapping onto 3D models generated from range images. It is shown that three-dimensional modeling from range imaging is an effective way to present the spatial information for environments and artifacts. Spatial sampling and range measurement uncertainty considerations are addressed by giving the results of a number of tests on different range cameras. The integration of both photogrammetric and CAD modeling complements this approach. Results on a CDROM, a DVD, virtual 3D theatre, holograms, video animations and web pages have been prepared for these projects.

Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Picard, Michel; El-Hakim, Sabry F.; Godin, Guy; Valzano, Virginia; Bandiera, Adriana

2004-12-01

360

Combining 3D technologies for cultural heritage interpretation and entertainment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a summary of the 3D modeling work that was accomplished in preparing multimedia products for cultural heritage interpretation and entertainment. The three cases presented are the Byzantine Crypt of Santa Cristina, Apulia, temple C of Selinunte, Sicily, and a bronze sculpture from the 6th century BC found in Ugento, Apulia. The core of the approach is based upon high-resolution photo-realistic texture mapping onto 3D models generated from range images. It is shown that three-dimensional modeling from range imaging is an effective way to present the spatial information for environments and artifacts. Spatial sampling and range measurement uncertainty considerations are addressed by giving the results of a number of tests on different range cameras. The integration of both photogrammetric and CAD modeling complements this approach. Results on a CDROM, a DVD, virtual 3D theatre, holograms, video animations and web pages have been prepared for these projects.

Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Picard, Michel; El-Hakim, Sabry F.; Godin, Guy; Valzano, Virginia; Bandiera, Adriana

2005-01-01

361

POEM: Physical Oceanography of the Eastern Miditerranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean as a whole communicates with the Atlantic Ocean through the narrow and shallow Gibraltar Strait. In recent years, scientific interest has been focused on the western Mediterranean and the Strait of Gibraltar through the execution of the Western Mediterranean Circulation Experiment [La Violette, 1987] and the 1985-1986 Gibraltar Experiment [Kinder and Bryden, 1987]. These experiments and other, related investigations, however, do not involve the eastern part from the Strait of Sicily to the easternmost Levantine Basin. The most recent phenomenological materials available about this part of the Mediterranean are the studies by Lacombe and Tchernia [1960, 1972]. More recently, El-Gindy and El-Din [1986] produced an analysis of historical oceanographic data available at the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris, collected in surveys of the Eastern Mediterranean during 1960—1972. Finally, a general survey of past efforts and investigations has just been written [Malanotte-Rizzoli and Hecht, 1987].

Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola; Robinson, Allan R.

362

Regional scale analysis for the design of storage tanks for domestic rainwater harvesting systems.  

PubMed

A regional scale analysis for the design of storage tanks for domestic rain water harvesting systems is presented. The analysis is based on the daily water balance simulation of the storage tank by the yield-after-spillage algorithm as tank release rule. Water balances are applied to 17 rainfall gauging stations in Sicily (Italy). Compared with literature existing methods, a novel dimensionless parameter is proposed to better describe the intra-annual character of the rainfall patterns. As a result, easy-to-use regional regressive models to evaluate the water saving performance and the overflow discharges from the tank are provided along with a stepwise procedure for practical application. The regional models demonstrate good fits between model predictions and simulated values of both water savings and overflows from the tank. PMID:22678193

Campisano, A; Modica, C

2012-01-01

363

Warming, salting and origin of the Tyrrhenian Deep Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data collected from 1996 to 2001 down to 3,500 m in the Tyrrhenian sub-basin with ship-handled and moored instruments show 5-year T and S trends (0.016 °C/yr, 0.008/yr) that are the largest ever evidenced in Mediterranean deep waters. This is not consistent with the usual hypothesis that Tyrrhenian Deep Water (TDW) is a mixture of eastern water flowing from the Sicily Channel and western water flowing from the Sardinia Channel partly since both are reported to encounter lower trends. We argue that TDW might result from a dense water formation process occurring within the Tyrrhenian itself, in a region never reported up to now, east of the Bonifacio Strait. Whatever the validity of our hypothesis, climatic changes are occurring in the whole sea and are efficiently specified with long time series.

Fuda, J.-L.; Etiope, G.; Millot, C.; Favali, P.; Calcara, M.; Smriglio, G.; Boschi, E.

2002-10-01

364

Characterization and comparison of Metarhizium strains isolated from Rhynchophorus ferrugineus.  

PubMed

Rhynchophorus ferrugineus is considered the worst pest of palm species, and few natural enemies are reported for this parasite in its area of origin. Here, we report the first recovery of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium pingshaense associated with R. ferrugineus from Vietnam. The morphological, biochemical, and toxicological features of this strain were studied and compared with those of another Metarhizium strain associated with this weevil in Sicily (Italy), an area of recent introduction. The potential use of these fungi as biocontrol agents was tested against adult insects in laboratory trials and a similar mortality rate was found. Both strains were able to produce toxins and cuticle-degrading proteases, but they showed dissimilar enzymatic and toxicological profiles, suggesting a different virulence activity. PMID:24831464

Cito, Annarita; Mazza, Giuseppe; Strangi, Agostino; Benvenuti, Claudia; Barzanti, Gian P; Dreassi, Elena; Turchetti, Tullio; Francardi, Valeria; Roversi, Pio F

2014-06-01

365

Revision of the Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) species group in the western Palaearctic (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Ennominae).  

PubMed

The Palaearctic Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) species group is revised (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Ennominae). Four taxa are considered valid at species level: H. fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758), H. pinicolaria (Bellier, 1861), H. compararia (Staudinger, 1894) and one new species, H. mediterranea, from Italy: Sicily, Calabria and Molise. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: Ellopia cedricola Wehrli, 1919, from Turkey is downgraded to subspecies of Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) (revised status), Hylaea fasciaria cleui Leraut, 1993, from France is downgraded from subspecies to synonymy with H. fasciaria fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) (new synonymy) and Ellopia compararia Staudinger, 1894, from Algeria is raised from subspecies of Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) to species status (revised status). Hemithea squalidaria O. G. Costa, 1848 from southern Italy was placed in the genus Hylaea, but it is reverted to its original combination as its taxonomic status is uncertain. Adults, male and female genitalia and distribution maps are illustrated for all species. DNA barcodes are presented for most taxa studied. PMID:24871188

Sihvonen, Pasi; Skou, Peder; Flamigni, Claudio; Fiumi, Gabriele; Hausmann, Axel

2014-01-01

366

Mediterranean nutrient balance and episodes of anoxia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the causes of anoxia in regions such as the Eastern Mediterranean, which have exchange over sills with adjacent basins. Box models show that the concentration of the limiting nutrient is the major determinant of deep oxygen levels. The most effective way of increasing nutrient concentrations to the point where anoxia occurs is to change the flow pattern across the sills ventilating the basins. With a sill exchange pattern such as that in the present Strait of Sicily, it is difficult to obtain anoxia in the Eastern Mediterranean without also driving the Western Mediterranean to low oxygen and high nutrient levels. Episodes of anoxia in the Eastern Mediterranean are associated with a freshening of surface waters. A reversal in flow directions, presumably resulting from the observed freshening, will inevitably lead to anoxia associated with increased sediment burial rates of the limiting nutrient and will leave the Western Mediterranean largely unaffected, in keeping with the observational evidence.

Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Herbert, Timothy; Toggweiler, J. R.

1988-12-01

367

Characterization of pottery fragments by nondestructive neutron diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present work is the characterization of pottery fragments coming from the town of Caltagirone (Sicily, Italy). The samples belong to very different historical periods, from 18th century B.C. to 16th century A.D., and have finely decorated surfaces. Time-of-flight neutron-diffraction measurements were performed in order to obtain a quantitative identification of the mineralogical composition of the samples. A good determination of the relative weight fractions of the phases was obtained using the Rietveld analysis method. The application of neutron-diffraction technique allowed us to carry out a detailed analysis in a nondestructive way, so intact large fragments were investigated without damaging the precious decoration on the surface.

Barilaro, Donatella; Crupi, Vincenza; Majolino, Domenico; Venuti, Valentina; Barone, Germana; Kockelmann, Winfried

2005-11-01

368

Characterization of pottery fragments by nondestructive neutron diffraction  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the present work is the characterization of pottery fragments coming from the town of Caltagirone (Sicily, Italy). The samples belong to very different historical periods, from 18th century B.C. to 16th century A.D., and have finely decorated surfaces. Time-of-flight neutron-diffraction measurements were performed in order to obtain a quantitative identification of the mineralogical composition of the samples. A good determination of the relative weight fractions of the phases was obtained using the Rietveld analysis method. The application of neutron-diffraction technique allowed us to carry out a detailed analysis in a nondestructive way, so intact large fragments were investigated without damaging the precious decoration on the surface.

Barilaro, Donatella; Crupi, Vincenza; Majolino, Domenico; Venuti, Valentina; Barone, Germana; Kockelmann, Winfried [Physics Department, Messina University, Contrada Papardo, Salita Sperone 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Earth Science Department, Messina University, Contrada Papardo, Salita Sperone 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

2005-11-15

369

Prevalence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among subjects working on bovine dairy farms.  

PubMed

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of healthcare-associated infections worldwide and has recently been identified as an emerging pathogen in livestock and companion animals. Livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) may be responsible for increased rates of colonization and/or infection among people working on farms. We evaluated the prevalence and molecular characteristics of MRSA among dairy farmers in the province of Ragusa, South-Eastern Sicily, their animals and bulk tank milk samples. A surprisingly high number of samples tested positive for MRSA: 36% of human nasal swabs, 61% of bovine nasal swabs and 44% of bulk tank milk samples. MRSA carrier prevalence in humans significantly correlated with the percentage of positive cows on the farm, the number of livestock units and the presence of consensual positive bulk tank milk samples. Prospective studies are needed to investigate MRSA transmission between animals and humans and implement preventive strategies. PMID:23774976

Antoci, Eugenio; Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Stefani, Stefania; Cacopardo, Bruno

2013-06-01

370

Settlement of the alien mollusc Brachidontes pharaonis in a Mediterranean industrial plant: bioassays for antifouling treatment optimization and management.  

PubMed

In this work, we investigated the efficacy of three new biocides (77351, 73532, 73503--NALCO®) as specific antifouling products against adult organisms of the bivalve Brachidontes pharaonis (Fischer P., 1870), a Lessepsian species introduced in the Mediterranean Sea by sea transport (ballast water), and which has recently shown invasive behaviour in an industrial plant in Southern Italy (Sicily). These biocides were tested to verify their efficacy, as well as their environmental compatibility at discharge point, using the crustacean belonging to the genus Artemia (Leach, 1819) as model organism, according to Government Decree (D. Lgs) No. 152/06. Biocides were also tested using alternative crustaceans, Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854), and Tigriopus fulvus (Fischer, 1860), in order to check whether their introduction as model species in the national regulation could affect discharge limit concentrations (DLC) due to their different sensitivity, with likely economic and technical repercussions in the industrial water treatment sector. PMID:22005010

Garaventa, F; Corrà, C; Piazza, V; Giacco, E; Greco, G; Pane, L; Faimali, M

2012-05-01

371

A review of the genus Solariola Flach, 1908 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae, Peritelini).  

PubMed

The species of the Italian endemic weevil genus, Solariola Flach, 1908 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae), are revised, the genus is re-diagnosed, re-described and transferred from the tribe Otiorhynchini to Peritelini. Three new species are described: Solariola angelae n. sp. and Solariola pesarinii n. sp. from Sicily, and Solariola fraterna n. sp. from Calabria. Solariola hirtula (A. Solari & F. Solari, 1923) is considered a good species and not a subspecies of Solariola gestroi (A. Solari & F. Solari, 1904), bringing the total number of species considered valid to 9. All the previously described species are re-described in detail. Distribution, ecology, maps and figures are provided for all the species of the genus, as well as a species-level identification key and a checklist of all known species. PMID:25781257

Baviera, Cosimo

2015-01-01

372

Atmospheric carbon dioxide record from flask measurements at Lampedusa Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Air samples from Lampedusa Island, located south of Sicily in the Mediterranean sea, were collected weekly from May 1992 through December 2000 and analyzed for carbon dioxide content. "On the basis of annual averages calculated from monthly averages, CO2 levels at Lampedusa Island have risen from 360.80 in 1993 to 371.27 in 2000. The data show an average trend of +1.5 ppmv/y." The data from the study, newly available this month from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), include a plot of mean carbon dioxide concentration (ppmv) against time and a text table of the annual mean values. Methods, notes, and references are also provided.

Chamard, Paolo.

2001-01-01

373

Three new mutations of thyroid hormone receptor-{beta} associated with resistance to thyroid hormone  

SciTech Connect

Three novel point mutations at nucleotides 1249, 1282, and 1614 (exons 9 and 10) of the human thyroid hormone receptor-{beta} gene were observed in six individuals affected by the syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormone. All three mutations occurred in a heterozygous pattern and caused the following changes in the mature form of the receptor protein: Asp{sup 322} to Asn, Glu{sup 333} to Gln, and Lys{sup 443} to Asn, respectively. The first and third point mutations arose in two unrelated families from eastern Sicily, whereas the second concerned an individual from southern Calabria, apparently presenting a sporadic form of the resistance syndrome. The clinical and biochemical features of resistance to thyroid hormone, both before and after the administration of thyroid hormones, highlight the striking intrafamilial heterogeneity in the phenotypical presentation of the syndrome. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Bartolone, L.; Regalbuto, C.; Benvenga, S.; Filetti, S.; Trimarchi, F.; Pontecorvi, A. [Catholic Univ., Rome (Italy)] [Catholic Univ., Rome (Italy)

1994-07-01

374

Source of the 1693 Catania earthquake and tsunami (southern Italy): New evidence from tsunami modeling of a locked subduction fault plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1693 Catania earthquake, which caused 60000 deaths in eastern Sicily and generated a 5-10 m high tsunami, is investigated. GPS data indicate ESE-WNW convergence in the Calabrian arc at 4-5 mm/yr. New high-resolution seismic data image active compression at the toe of the accretionary wedge. The lack of instrumentally recorded thrust earthquakes suggests the presence of a locked subduction fault plane. Thermal modeling is applied to calculate the limits of the seismogenic zone. Tsunami modeling is performed to test the hypothesis that the 1693 earthquake occurred on the subduction fault plane (160 × 120 km in size) with 2 m of mean co-seismic slip. This source successfully reproduces historical observations with regard to polarity and predicts 1-3 m high amplitudes. It is likely that only the SW segment of the subduction fault plane ruptured in 1693 and 1169, implying a recurrence interval of roughly 500 years for similar events.

Gutscher, M.-A.; Roger, J.; Baptista, M.-A.; Miranda, J. M.; Tinti, S.

2006-04-01

375

Biogas from Marine Macroalgae: a New Environmental Technology — Life Cycle Inventory for a Further LCA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this paper is to analyze the innovative process of production of biogas (via fermentation processes) using marine macroalgae as feedstock in a pilot project plant in Augusta (Sicily, Italy). Algae, during their growth, have the capacity to assimilate nutrients and thus subsequent harvesting of the algal biomass recovers the nutrients from biowaste sources giving the possibility to transform negative environmental externalities in positive mainly in terms of eutrophication and climate change impact categories. The paper presents a novel environmental technology for the production of biogas and 2nd generation biofuel (liquid biomethane) after an upgrading process through the use of a cryogenic technology. The paper would also like to make the first attempt at understanding the possibility to implement this innovative technology in the Latvian context. The first calculations and assumptions for the Life Cycle Inventory for a further Life Cycle Assessment are presented.

Romagnoli, Francesco; Blumberga, Dagnija; Gigli, Emanuele

2010-01-01

376

Preliminary Results from the GPS-Reflections Mediterranean Balloon Experiment (GPSR MEBEX)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment to collect bistatically scattered GPS signals from a balloon at 37 km altitude has been conducted. This experiment represented the highest altitude to date that such signals were successfully recorded. The flight took place in August 1999 over the Mediterranean sea, between a launch in Sicily and recovery near Nerpio, a town in the Sierra de Segura, Albacete province of Huelva, Spain. Results from this experiment are presented, showing the waveform shape as compared to theoretical calculations. These results will be used to validate analytical models which form the basis of wind vector retrieval algorithms. These algorithms are already being validated from aircraft altitudes, but may be applied to data from future spaceborne GPS receivers. Surface wind data from radiosondes were used for comparison. This experiment was a cooperative project between NASA, the IEEC in Barcelona, and the University of Colorado at Boulder.

Garrison, James L.; Ruffini, Giulio; Rius, Antonio; Cardellach, Estelle; Masters, Dallas; Armathys, Michael; Zavorotny, Valery

2000-01-01

377

Preliminary Results from the GPS-Reflections Mediterranean Balloon Experiment (GPSR-MEBEX)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment to collect bistatically scattered GPS signals from a balloon at 37 km altitude has been conducted. This experiment represented the highest altitude to date that such signals were successfully recorded. The flight took place in August 1999 over the Mediterranean sea, between a launch in Sicily and recovery near Nerpio, a town in the Sierra de Segura, Albacete province of Huelva, Spain. Results from this experiment are presented, showing the waveform shape as compared to theoretical calculations. These results will be used to validate analytical models which form the basis of wind vector retrieval algorithms. These algorithms are already being validated from aircraft altitudes, but may be applied to data from future spacebourne GPS receivers. Surface wind data from radiosondes were used for comparison. This experiment was a cooperative project between NASA, the IEEC in Barcelona, and the University of Colorado at Boulder.

Garrison, James L.; Ruffini, Giulio; Rius, Antonio; Cardellach, Estelle; Masters, Dallas; Armatys, Michael; Zavorotny, Valery; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

378

Abyssal undular vortices in the Eastern Mediterranean basin.  

PubMed

Abyssal temperature and velocity observations performed within the framework of the Neutrino Mediterranean Observatory, a project devoted to constructing a km(3)-scale underwater telescope for the detection of high-energy cosmic neutrinos, demonstrate cross-fertilization between subnuclear physics and experimental oceanography. Here we use data collected south of Sicily in the Ionian abyssal plain of the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) basin to show for the first time that abyssal vortices exist in the EM, at depths exceeding 2,500 m. The eddies consist of chains of near-inertially pulsating mesoscale cyclones/anticyclones. They are embedded in an abyssal current flowing towards North-Northwest. The paucity of existing data does not allow for an unambiguous determination of the vortex origin. A local generation mechanism seems probable, but a remote genesis cannot be excluded a priori. The presence of such eddies adds further complexity to the discussion of structure and evolution of water masses in the EM. PMID:22588296

Rubino, A; Falcini, F; Zanchettin, D; Bouche, V; Salusti, E; Bensi, M; Riccobene, G; De Bonis, G; Masullo, R; Simeone, F; Piattelli, P; Sapienza, P; Russo, S; Platania, G; Sedita, M; Reina, P; Avolio, R; Randazzo, N; Hainbucher, D; Capone, A

2012-01-01

379

Non-destructive identification of green and yellow pigments: the case of some Sicilian Renaissance glazed pottery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selected decorated Renaissance ceramic fragments, found during the excavation of a Sicilian archaeological site (Caltagirone, Sicily, South Italy), have been studied by combining scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), and X-ray absorbance spectroscopy (XAS). The study was aimed at providing microchemical and microstructural characterization of the colored glazed coatings in order to elucidate the nature of the pigments in the decorative layers, and in the glaze itself. From the obtained results, the general perspective has been the identification of information to be used for a reliable recognition of the production techniques. In particular, XAS measurements, performed using synchrotron radiation (SR) as the source at the Cu K-edge, in the case of green decorations, provided structural information of the oxidation states and the local chemical environment of copper (neighboring atoms and bond distances).

Crupi, V.; Majolino, D.; Venuti, V.; Barone, G.; Mazzoleni, P.; Pezzino, A.; La Russa, M. F.; Ruffolo, S. A.; Bardelli, F.

2010-09-01

380

Lithospheric P- and S-wave velocity models of the Sicilian area using WAM tomography: procedure and assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present 3-D models of the P- and S-wave velocity distributions in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath Sicily, Calabria (Southern Italy), and surrounding submerged areas, obtained by tomographic inversion of traveltimes of regional body waves phases. Our method combines double-difference tomographic inversion with a post-processing procedure [Weighted Average Model method (WAM)]. This procedure was applied to a set of models consistent with the experimental data. We tested the ability of the WAM procedure to mitigate the uncertainty associated with the arbitrary nature of the many input parameters required for each inversion. The local reliability and resolution of the obtained models have been assessed through: synthetic tests, experimental tests carried out with independent data sets and unconventional tests based on the analysis of the internal consistency of the P- and S-velocity models. The tomographic images provide a detailed sketch of P- and S-wave velocity anomalies. These clearly show the shape of the Sicilian-Maghrebian belt beneath Sicily and Calabrian Arc at different depths. Low VP and Vs bodies are imaged beneath Stromboli and Marsili volcanoes in the southern Tyrrhenian, whereas high and low seismic velocities alternate beneath the Etna giving inferences on the possible depth of the mantle melting feeding the volcano. In the upper crust, the main sedimentary basins and tectonic features are also well imaged. Finally, tomographic cross sections show the trend of the Moho in the study area, where its depth ranges between 35 and 40 km beneath the Sicilian belt and between 15 and 22 km in the southern Tyrrhenian basin and Ionian Sea.

Calò, Marco; Parisi, Laura; Luzio, Dario

2013-10-01

381

Mitochondrial lineage sorting in action – historical biogeography of the Hyles euphorbiae complex (Sphingidae, Lepidoptera) in Italy  

PubMed Central

Background Mitochondrial genes are among the most commonly used markers in studies of species’ phylogeography and to draw conclusions about taxonomy. The Hyles euphorbiae complex (HEC) comprises six distinct mitochondrial lineages in the Mediterranean region, of which one exhibits a cryptic disjunct distribution. The predominant mitochondrial lineage in most of Europe, euphorbiae, is also present on Malta; however, it is nowadays strangely absent from Southern Italy and Sicily, where it is replaced by 'italica'. A separate biological entity in Italy is further corroborated by larval colour patterns with a congruent, confined suture zone along the Northern Apennines. By means of historic DNA extracted from museum specimens, we aimed to investigate the evolution of the mitochondrial demographic structure of the HEC in Italy and Malta throughout the Twentieth Century. Results At the beginning of the Twentieth Century, the European mainland lineages were also present at a moderate frequency in Southern Italy and Sicily. The proportion of 'italica' then steadily increased in this area from below 60 percent to near fixation in about 120 years. Thus, geographical sorting of mitochondrial lineages in the HEC was not as complete then as the current demography suggests. The pattern of an integral 'italica' core region and a disjunct euphorbiae distribution evolved very recently. To explain these strong demographic changes, we propose genetic drift due to anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation in combination with an impact from recent climate warming that favoured the spreading of the potentially better adapted 'italica' populations. Conclusions The pattern of geographically separated mitochondrial lineages is commonly interpreted as representing long term separated entities. However, our results indicate that such a pattern can emerge surprisingly quickly, even in a widespread and rather common taxon. We thus caution against drawing hasty taxonomic conclusions from biogeographical patterns of mitochondrial markers derived from modern sampling alone. PMID:23594258

2013-01-01

382

The Complex I Subunit NDUFA10 Selectively Rescues Drosophila pink1 Mutants through a Mechanism Independent of Mitophagy  

PubMed Central

Mutations in PINK1, a mitochondrially targeted serine/threonine kinase, cause autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). Substantial evidence indicates that PINK1 acts with another PD gene, parkin, to regulate mitochondrial morphology and mitophagy. However, loss of PINK1 also causes complex I (CI) deficiency, and has recently been suggested to regulate CI through phosphorylation of NDUFA10/ND42 subunit. To further explore the mechanisms by which PINK1 and Parkin influence mitochondrial integrity, we conducted a screen in Drosophila cells for genes that either phenocopy or suppress mitochondrial hyperfusion caused by pink1 RNAi. Among the genes recovered from this screen was ND42. In Drosophila pink1 mutants, transgenic overexpression of ND42 or its co-chaperone sicily was sufficient to restore CI activity and partially rescue several phenotypes including flight and climbing deficits and mitochondrial disruption in flight muscles. Here, the restoration of CI activity and partial rescue of locomotion does not appear to have a specific requirement for phosphorylation of ND42 at Ser-250. In contrast to pink1 mutants, overexpression of ND42 or sicily failed to rescue any Drosophila parkin mutant phenotypes. We also find that knockdown of the human homologue, NDUFA10, only minimally affecting CCCP-induced mitophagy, and overexpression of NDUFA10 fails to restore Parkin mitochondrial-translocation upon PINK1 loss. These results indicate that the in vivo rescue is due to restoring CI activity rather than promoting mitophagy. Our findings support the emerging view that PINK1 plays a role in regulating CI activity separate from its role with Parkin in mitophagy. PMID:25412178

Pogson, Joe H.; Wilson, Emma; Mortiboys, Heather; Whitworth, Alexander J.

2014-01-01

383

Post flash flood field investigations and analysis: the event of 22 November 2011 in the Longano catchment, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 22 November 2011, an exceptional rainstorm hit the North-East part of Sicily (Italy) producing local heavy rainfall, mud-debris flow and flash flooding. The storm was concentrated on the Tyrrhenian Sea coast, near the city of Barcellona within the Longano catchment (26 km2). It started at 5.00 am and lasted for approximately 11 hours, with a return period greater than 100 years yet for 2 hours duration and greater than 300 years yet for 3 hours'. The aim of this work is to investigate the flood response in order to document the rainfall and flood properties and to analyze the characteristics of the event water balance. Fine resolution distributed rainfall estimates were obtained by combining observations from the Monte Lauro Doppler C-band weather radar, satellite data and the raingauge network. Satellite data were used to correct for the severe beam blocking due to the effect of orography on the radar beam propagation. A detailed study of the hydrological response of the catchment was performed by means of a rainfall-runoff modeling and flood frequency analysis. To ensure model simulation accuracy, the model results were compared with peak discharges obtained from post flood field estimates based on high water marks and cross section surveying. Peak flood timing from the model were contrasted with data gathered from witnesses interviews and video recordings. The estimated flood peak discharge of the Longano river in the city of Barcellona is around 230 m3/s, indicating a very intense response which is in the range of the extreme events for similar size catchments in Sicily. Flood inundation and propagation in the city were modeled using a 2D hydraulic model based on De Saint Venant equations previously calibrated using the observations concerning water depths and flow velocities. A geomorphological survey was also conducted to document erosion and sedimentation processes associated to the extreme flood.

Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Cavalli, Marco; Gaume, Eric; Marchi, Lorenzo; Naso, Susanna; Borga, Marco

2014-05-01

384

Continental Supply and Climate Variations In Mediterranean Pliocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the Pliocene period to present day, the Mediterranean marine sedimentation is characterised by cycles resulting from climate variations, which are controlled by Earth orbital parameters. Theses cycles are evidenced in the sediment content vari- ation, particularly through composition and proportions of the material supplied by continents. Concerning mineral supply we were able to show alternations of humid pe- riods, during which fluvial supply is dominant, and arid periods, during which eolian supply from the southern borderlands of the Mediterranean is significant. Concerning organic supply, palynological study confirms theses climatic controls, emphasising the importance of fresh water runoff during humid periods. This synthetic image re- sults from the study of several Pliocene Mediterranean stratigraphical series located in Sicily (Lido Rosselo, Punta di Maiata, Punta Piccola), Calabria (Monte Singa, Vrica) or cored during Leg 160 ODP (Hole 964). References: FOUCAULT A. et MELIERES F. (1995).- Nature et origine des cy- cles sédimentaires métriques du Pliocène de l'Ouest méditerranéen d'après l'étude du contenu terrigène de la Formation Narbone (Punta Piccola, Sicile, Italie). C. R Ac. Sci. Paris, t. 321, II a, p. 869-876. MELIERES F., FOUCAULT A. and BLANC-VALLERON, M.M. (1998). Mineralogical record of cyclic climate changes in Mediterranean Mid-Pliocene deposits from Hole 964A (Ionian Basin) and from Punta Piccola (Sicily). In Robertson, A.H.F., Emeis, K.-C., Richter, C., and Camer- lenghi, A. (Eds.), 1998. Proc. ODP., Sci. Results, 160; College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), p. 219-226. FOUCAULT, A. and MELIERES, F. (2000). Palaeocli- mate cyclicity in central Mediterranean Pliocene sediments: the mineralogical signal. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 148: 311-323.

Foucault, Alain; Melieres, Frederic; Combourieu-Nebaout, Nathalie

385

Strain Accumulation in the Messina Straits (Southern Italy) From Terrestrial Geodetic Measurements and GPS observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use geodetic (terrestrial and GPS) measurements at different spatial and temporal scales, to study the present-day style and rate of active crustal deformation in the Messina Straits southern Italy). The first set of observations consists of triangulation and trilateration measurements from a small-aperture (~ 10 km wide) terrestrial network located in the northern part of the Straits, surveyed between 1971 and 2004. The second set of measurements consists of continuous GPS observations from the larger aperture RING network (inter-station distance in the study area ~ 10-30 km).The results show that the main deformation pattern from GPS and triangulation measurements is given by a 110-160 nstrain/yr right-lateral N-S simple shear. Although affected by an unclear systematic bias the trilateration measurements are statistically consistent with this pattern. This deformation appears to correspond to the transition between collision in Sicily and subduction in Calabria and is determined by the differential retrograde motion of the Ionian lithosperic slab relative to Sicily, where the arrival of buoyant continental lithosphere has caused the end of subduction activity. The rate of observed deformation implies a tectonic loading of the order of 1.1-1.6 mm/yr over the 10 km wide Messina Straits network and 6-9 mm/yr over the larger (50-60 km) subarray of the RING network. The understanding of how this deformation is presently accomodated by faulting is presently unclear but very important for the evaluation of the seismic hazard. We find here that the current strain accumulation in the Messina Straits confirms the hypothesis which considers the Messina Straits as an important boundary between distinct crustal domains. On the other hand the style of interseismic deformation appears scarcely consistent with the faulting geometry generally associated with the 1908 M_w=7.1 Messina earthquake.

Cheloni, D.; D'Agostino, N.; Hunstad, I.; Selvaggi, G.; Maseroli, R.

2008-12-01

386

Contrasting patterns of climatic changes during the Holocene across the Italian Peninsula reconstructed from pollen data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake-level records from Italy suggest that patterns of precipitation in the central Mediterranean during the Holocene were divided between the north and south, but a scarcity of reliable palaeoclimatic records in the north and central-southern Mediterranean means new evidence is needed to validate this hypothesis. We provide robust quantitative estimates of Holocene climate in the Mediterranean region using four high-resolution pollen records from northern (Lakes Ledro and Accesa) and southern (Lakes Trifoglietti and Pergusa) Italy. Multiple methods are used to provide an improved assessment of the palaeoclimatic reconstruction uncertainty. The multi-method approach uses the pollen-based weighted averaging, weighted-average partial least-squares regression, modern analogue technique, and the non-metric multidimensional scaling/generalized additive model methods. We use independent lake-level data to validate the precipitation reconstructions. Our results support a climatic partition between northern and southern Italy during the Holocene, confirming the hypothesis of opposing mid-Holocene summer precipitation regimes in the Mediterranean. The northern sites (Ledro, Accesa) are characterized by minima for summer precipitation and lake levels during the early to mid-Holocene, while the southern sites (Trifoglietti, Pergusa) are marked by maxima for precipitation and lake levels at the same time. Both pollen-inferred precipitation and lake levels indicate the opposite pattern during the late Holocene, a maximum in northern Italy and a minimum in southern Italy/Sicily. Summer temperatures show the same partitioning, with warm conditions in northern Italy and cool conditions in Sicily during the early/mid-Holocene, and a reversal during the late Holocene. Comparison with marine cores from the Aegean Sea suggests that climate trends and gradients observed in Italy show strong similarities with those recognized from the Aegean Sea, and more generally speaking in the eastern Mediterranean.

Peyron, O.; Magny, M.; Goring, S.; Joannin, S.; de Beaulieu, J.-L.; Brugiapaglia, E.; Sadori, L.; Garfi, G.; Kouli, K.; Ioakim, C.; Combourieu-Nebout, N.

2013-06-01

387

The record of temperature, wind velocity and air humidity in the ? D and ? 18O of water inclusions in synthetic and Messinian halites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deuterium and oxygen isotope fractionations between liquid and vapor water were experimentally-determined during evaporation of a NaCl solution (35 g L -1) as a function of water temperature and wind velocity. In the case of a null wind velocity, slopes of ? D-? 18O trajectories of residual waters hyperbolically decrease with increasing water temperatures in the range 23-47 °C. For wind velocities ranging from 0.8 to 2.2 m s -1, slopes of the ? D-? 18O trajectories linearly increase with increasing wind velocity at a given water temperature. These experimental results can be modeled by using Rayleigh distillation equations taking into account wind-related kinetics effects. Deuterium and oxygen isotope compositions of water inclusions trapped by the precipitated halite crystals were determined by micro-equilibration techniques. These isotopic compositions accurately reflect those of the surrounding residual waters during halite growth. Isotopic compositions of water inclusions in twenty natural halites from the Messinian Realmonte mine in Sicily suggest precipitation temperatures of 34-4+10°C that match the homogenization temperatures obtained by microthermometry (median = 34 ± 5 °C). The similarity between the measured and experimental slopes of the ? D-? 18O evaporation trajectories suggests that the effect of wind was negligible during the genesis of these halite deposits. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions of water inclusions from Realmonte halite also define a linear trend whose extrapolation until intersection with the Mediterranean Meteoric Water Line allows the characterization of the water source with ? D and ? 18O values of -70 ± 10‰ and -11.5 ± 1.5‰, respectively. These results reveal that the huge amounts of salts deposited in Sicily result from the evaporation of seawater mixed with a dominant fraction (?50%) of meteoric waters most likely deriving from alpine fluvial discharge.

Rigaudier, Thomas; Lécuyer, Christophe; Gardien, Véronique; Suc, Jean-Pierre; Martineau, François

2011-08-01

388

A revision of the 1783-1784 Calabrian (southern Italy) tsunamis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southern Italy is one of the most tsunamigenic areas in the Mediterranean basin, having experienced during centuries a large number of tsunamis, some of which very destructive. In particular, the most exposed zone here is the Messina Straits separating the coasts of Calabria and Sicily that was the theatre of the strongest Italian events. In 1783-1785 Calabria was shaken by the most violent and persistent seismic crisis occurred in the last 2000 years. Five very strong earthquakes, followed by tsunamis, occurred in a short interval of time (February-March 1783), causing destruction and a lot of victims in a vast region embracing the whole southern Calabria and the Messina area, Sicily. In this study we re-examined these events by taking into account all available historical sources. In particular, we focussed on the 5 and 6 February 1783 tsunamis, that were the most destructive. As regards the 5 February event, we found that it was underestimated and erroneously considered a minor event. On the contrary, the analysis of the sources revealed that in some localities the tsunami effects were quite strong. The 6 February tsunami, the strongest one of the sequence, was due to a huge earthquake-induced rockfall and killed more than 1500 people in the Calabrian village of Scilla. For this event the inundated area and the runup values distribution were estimated. Further, the analysis of the historical sources allowed us to find three new tsunamis that passed previously unnoticed and that occurred during this seismic period. The first one occurred a few hours before the large earthquake of 5 February 1783. The second was generated by a rockfall on 24 March 1783. Finally, the third occurred on 9 January 1784, probably due to a submarine earthquake.

Graziani, L.; Maramai, A.; Tinti, S.

2006-12-01

389

Silica cycling in the ultra-oligotrophic eastern Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although silica is a key plant nutrient, there have been few studies aimed at understanding the Si cycle in the eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS). Here we use a combination of new measurements and literature values to explain the silicic acid distribution across the basin and to calculate a silica budget to identify the key controlling processes. The surface water concentration of ∼1 ?M, which is unchanging seasonally across the basin, was due to the inflow of western Mediterranean Sea (WMS) water at the Straits of Sicily. It does not change seasonally because there is only a sparse population of diatoms due to the low nutrient (N and P) supply to the photic zone in the EMS. The concentration of silicic acid in the deep water of the western Ionian Sea (6.3 ?M) close to the S Adriatic are an of formation was due to the preformed silicic acid (3 ?M) plus biogenic silica (BSi) from the dissolution of diatoms from the winter phytoplankton bloom (3.2 ?M). The increase of 4.4 ?M across the deep water of the EMS was due to silicic acid formed from in situ diagenetic weathering of aluminosilicate minerals fluxing out of the sediment. The major inputs to the EMS are silicic acid and BSi inflowing from the western Mediterranean (121 × 109 mol Si yr-1 silicic acid and 16 × 109 mol Si yr-1 BSi), silicic acid fluxing from the sediment (54 × 109 mol Si yr-1) and riverine (27 × 109 mol Si yr-1) and subterranean groundwater (9.7 × 109 mol Si yr-1) inputs, with only a minor direct input from dissolution of dust in the water column (1 × 109 mol Si yr-1). This budget shows the importance of rapidly dissolving BSi and in situ weathering of aluminosilicate minerals as sources of silica to balance the net export of silicic acid at the Straits of Sicily. Future measurements to improve the accuracy of this preliminary budget have been identified.

Krom, M. D.; Kress, N.; Fanning, K.

2014-08-01

390

Present-day stress magnitude at depth from leak-off tests in Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new results from the analysis of leak-off tests, performed in deep oil wells in Italy, to characterize the present-day stress magnitude and regime in the crust. In the last years we have collected a large number of data (more than 500) from different stress indicators, mainly borehole breakouts, earthquake focal mechanisms and fault data, which provided information on the present-day stress orientations. In some areas the tectonic regime has been inferred either from fault plane solutions of M?4 earthquakes or from stress inversions of smaller earthquakes. Where seismicity lacks, the regime is not well constrained and little or no information on the magnitude of the crustal stresses is available. In order to improve our knowledge in stress regime and its magnitude in Italy, in this work we use the leak-off test technique. Each test is performed at the bottom of an open hole by sealing off a section and then slowly pressurizing with a fluid until hydraulic tensile fractures develop. The minimum horizontal stress is inferred by leak-off pressure record, the vertical stress is computed by rock density data and the maximum horizontal stress is estimated applying a specific formula from the literature. Thanks to ENI S.p.A. (Italian oil company), that kindly provided new well data, we have been able to perform a critical review of our preliminary calculations and to enhance our previous results concerning stress magnitudes. Totally, we have analyzed 192 leak-off tests at depth between 200 and 5400m (average 1800m). In particular, wells are located along the Italian peninsula and in Sicily: most of them are in the Po Plain and along the Apenninic foredeep; few are in southern Apenninic belt and a few tens are in Sicily. After an accurate selection of the most robust results, we better characterize the Italian stress regime at depth.

Mariucci, M. T.; Montone, P.; Pierdominici, S.

2012-04-01

391

New data on the structural setting of the Elimi Chain (South-western Tyrrhenian sea) from reprocessing of multichannel seismic profiles (MS grid)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Elimi Chain is an arc-shaped morphostructural ridge that extends from the Sardinia Channel (South-western Tyrrhenian sea) to the north Sicily continental margin. Previous seismic interpretation, calibrated by dredge samples (Beccaluva et al., 1986; Compagnoni et al., 1989), reveals that in the Drepano Mt. (western sector of the Elimi Chain) the Kabilian-Calabrian units (KCU) overthrust the Sicilian-Maghrebian units (SMU), forming the Drepano Thrust Front (DTF; Sulli, 2000 and references therein). The KCU is mainly composed by crystalline rocks while the SMU is formed by Meso-Cenozoic deformed sedimentary rocks (Catalano et al., 1996). No clear evidence exists on the eastern prolongation of the DTF. To solve this problem, some multichannel seismic reflection profiles (MS 104A, MS 104B) have been reprocessed and interpreted. These lines run in the WNW-ESE direction, from the Elimi Chain to the central sector of the investigated margin, and are tied by the MS 103 line, which runs in the NNE-SSW direction and cross the Solunto High. In the Drepano Mt. seismic facies analysis reveals a tectonic wedge of the KCU units about 5.5 s/TWT thick. It is composed from the top by a) 0.5 s/TWT of Plio-Pleistocene slightly deformed horizons that unconformably overlie b) a 1.3 s/TWT of imbricated sedimentary rocks with flat and ramp geometries, detached from c) a 3.5 s/TWT body of crystalline units. The entire wedge has overthrust a sequence of SMU, here composed by 1 s/TWT layered sedimentary units. The sequence of SMU overlies the crystalline basement, which is located at 7.5 s/TWT and, appears to be deformed. The crystalline wedge thins out towards ESE. It disappears along the Drepano Thrust Front where the SMU reach their maximum thickness. In this area, the SMU consist, from the top, of a) thin layered tectonic body formed by Numidian Flysch type successions about 1.0 s/TWT thick, overlying b) Meso-Cenozoic carbonate embricated units about 3.0 s/TWT thick, above c) a less deformed carbonate multilayer, dipping towards WNW, from 5.0 to 6.5 s/TWT, beneath the crystalline stack. It rests directly on top of its crystalline basement. In the Solunto High a tectonic body about 2.5 s/TWT thick, formed by crystalline units, is overlain by layered to hummocky Tertiary deposits 0.5 s/TWT. This tectonic edifice overthrusts the SMU. Along the WNW-ESE direction, showing lateral ramps. The SMU consist of Meso-Cenozoic imbricates about 2.0 s/TWT thick, lying on top of less deformed carbonate successions about 1.5 s/TWT thick. Correlation of seismic characters defines the crystalline body as pertaining to the KCU. In the Solunto High, seismic analysis and tectonics relationships reveal the occurrence of the KCU that overthrust the SMU. In this area, the Drepano Thrust front extends towards the east and connects the Elimi Chain to the Calabrian-Peloritani sector. References Beccaluva, L., Morlotti, E., Torelli, L., 1986. Notes on the geology of the Elimi chain area (soutwestern margin of the Tyrrhenian Sea). Mem. Soc. Geol. It. 27, 213-232. Catalano, R., Di Stefano, P., Sulli, A., Vitale, F.P., 1996. Paleogeography and structure of the central Mediterranean: Sicily and its offshore area. Tectonophysics 260, 291-323. Compagnoni, R., Morlotti, E., Torelli, L., 1989. Cristalline and sedimentary rocks from the scarps of the Sicily-Sardinia trough and Cornaglia Terrace ( Soutwestern Tyrrhenian Sea): paleogeographic and geodynamic implication. Chem. Geol. 77, 271-315. Sulli, A., 2000. Structural framework and crustal characteristics of the Sardinia Channel Alpine transect in the central Mediterranean. Tectonophysics 324, 321-336.

Pepe, F.; Sulli, A.; Catalano, R.; Valenti, V.

2003-04-01

392

Vertical Crustal Movements in Italy from Tide Gauge and Satellite Altimetry data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our goal is to determine vertical crustal movement rates from tide gauge and satellite altimetry measurements. Tide gauges measure sea level, but as they are fixed to the coast, they sense both sea surface height variations and vertical crustal movements. Satellite altimetric measurements determine sea surface height variations directly and can be used to separate the crustal signal from the sea surface height variations in tide gauge measurements. We apply the methodology to the Southern Italy, an area of broad scientific interest, due to its high seismic risk and its location as standpoint for a great bridge that should connect Sicily to the Italian mainland, but it can be exported to any parts of the world where tide gauge observations are available. Along the Italian coastline 26 tide gauge stations with 10-years of continuous data are available. We have explored the sea level data statistically, including a study of the space-time variation of rates, of the optimal way of calculating rates and of the correlation-coefficients between stations. The tidal sea level change rates have a relatively large variability, greatly ascribable to the short time interval of analysis (10 years), and are comprised between -5 and +9 mm/yr with an approximate uncertainty of 0.5 mm/yr. The satellite altimetric data pose a challenge to the joint analysis, due to very different time resolution (10 days versus hourly sampling of tide gauges), sparse spatial sampling of the Mediterranean due to track distances, and the difficulty in acquiring altimetric data in the vicinity of the coast. We have analyzed the satellites Topex/Poseidon and Jason1. The study of Envisat data is under way and it could provide more detailed data, since its track distance is sensibly shorter, even if time sampling interval is 35 days. We explore also the satellite altimetric data statistically, investigating the correlation matrices of the data and the time-space variation of the sea surface change rates. We move along the tracks, trying to approach the coast as near as possible. We construct time series with 10 day sampling interval at discrete locations with the criterion of covering the Mediterranean homogeneously. We calculate histograms as we go near the coast and we find that at a distance of about 45 km from the coast the number of points drastically is reduced leading to a time series with many interruptions. We also find that the sea surface change rates derived from the altimeter have an even greater variability compared to the tide gauges for the same years, showing that changes far from the coast are greater than near the coast. We discuss the problem of how to use the altimeter data in those cases in which the tracks are far from the tide gauges, as is the case for the satellite Topex/Poseidon and the tectonically interesting tide gauge stations of Sicily and Calabria. An adequate space-time interpolation of the satellite data produces maps of spatial variations of sea surface change that are used in the study of the differential sea level rates of tide gauges. We show that geologically consistent crustal uplift rates are found for the highly seismic area of eastern Sicily and Calabria.

Braitenberg, Carla; Lavinia, Tunini; Barbara, Grillo; Nagy, Ildiko'

2010-05-01

393

Scenarios of tsunami impact in the town of Catania, Italy: a combination of numerical modelling results and vulnerability considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catania is one of the most important towns in Sicily, and more generally in southern Italy, due to its long historical and cultural tradition and to active industrial, commercial and touristic activities. Catania is located along the coast of eastern Sicily, which is well known to be one of the coastal areas most exposed to earthquake and tsunami hazard and risk in Italy and in the whole Mediterranean. The most famous event hitting the town was the earthquake of 11 January, 1693 (M=7.4) which almost completely ruined the city and that was followed by a violent tsunami, impacting the entire eastern Sicily coast and producing very relevant effects in Catania. The high level of tsunami hazard is accompanied also by a high level of vulnerability to tsunamis. This is the reason why Catania is one of the five test sites that were chosen in the framework of the EU-funded SCHEMA project for the tsunami vulnerability assessment along the Mediterranean coasts. Building reliable scenarios of tsunami impact requires on one side to develop numerical simulations of worst-case events on the basis of the known tsunami history and of the tectonics and geological evolution of the area, on the other side to characterise the vulnerability of the town, possibly distinguishing which areas area most exposed to a tsunami threat. As to the first point, it appears reasonable to adopt the 11 January 1693 event as the reference for the development of the numerical scenarios. The important fact is that a debate on the source of the 1693 tsunami is still ongoing as it is not clear whether the tsunami was generated by the earthquake only or by a submarine landslide or by a combination of these causes. So different hypotheses must be taken into account as regards the generation of the tsunami, and numerical scenarios of tsunami propagation and impact must be run for each hypothesis. All simulations are carried out by means of the numerical finite-difference code UBO-TSUFD, developed an maintained at the Department of Physics of the University of Bologna, Italy. Regarding the vulnerability assessment, at a first glance Catania presents three coastal areas with different characteristics. South of Catania, an extended flat area is delimited seaward by a very long sandy beach striking N-S (the so-called Playa di Catania); the area counts a large number of summer houses and resorts; moreover, the airport of Catania Fontanarossa is built at just about 1.5-2 km from the sea. North of Catania the coastline is instead very rocky, steep and high, with very few settlements facing along this coast. These two very different zones are divided by the port of Catania, which is very close to the city centre but is separated from it by the ancient walls of the city. Combining the results coming from the numerical simulations with the preliminary considerations on the tsunami vulnerability, we determine for each considered tsunamigenic source which part of the town presents the highest exposure to possible future tsunami impacts.

Tinti, S.; Tonini, R.; Pagnoni, G.; Gallazzi, S.; Manucci, A.; Armigliato, A.; Zaniboni, F.

2009-04-01

394

The surface effects of the 1908 Southern Calabria - Messina earthquake (Southern italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The December 28, 1908, Southern Calabria - Messina earthquake (Intensity MCS XI, Mw 7.24; Stucchi et al, 2007) was the strongest seismic event of the 20th century in Italy and the most ruinous in terms of casualties (at least 80,000). According to Michelini et al. (2005) its epicentre was located at sea in the southern part of the Messina Straits. The damages were particularly catastrophic along the Calabrian coast, between south of Reggio Calabria and south-west of Scilla, and along the eastern coast of Sicily from its easternmost tip to south of Messina (Baratta, 1910; Boschi et al., 1995; Barbano et al., 2005). Messina and Reggio Calabria were almost totally destroyed. Few minutes after the earthquake, both sides of the Straits were inundated by several tsunami waves, worsening the ruinous effects due directly to the earthquake. We have collected and catalogued all the described coseismic effects on the environment by means of a careful screening of contemporary documents, i.e. technical and photographic reports, newspapers and other archive material. Inside 447 different testimonies of environmental effects, we have identified 290 independent occurrences. Among these effects, particularly relevant were the changes in elevation (mainly ground lowering) along both sides of the Straits, partly due to the settlement of loose sediments and artificial filling (e.g., Messina and Reggio Calabria port areas), and partly ascribed to landslides and tectonic deformation. Liquefaction phenomena, described as water, mud or sand ejection, occurred in the areas of Messina, lake Pantano (Ganzirri) and Reggio Calabria. Portions of the coast were lost, especially on the Calabrian side, most of them because of landslides and the combined action of the tsunami erosion and the earthquake shaking (at Lazzàro the shoreline retreated landward 175 m; Novarese, 1909). Ground cracks were reported in 69 localities, most of them in Messina, Reggio Calabria and Villa San Giovanni. 80 slope movements occurred in many Sicilian and Calabrian localities (especially between Reggio Calabria and Bagnara) mainly along coastal areas, but also inland. An undersea telephone cable between Gallico (in Calabria) and Gazzi (in Sicily) was cut, likely by a submarine slide. 11 mass depositions on the sea floor were recognised. Several hydrological anomalies occurred in both regions: appearance or disappearance of springs, change of spring discharge, water temperature variations. Also descriptions of gas emissions have been collected as well as a number of testimonies of rumbles and lights. It is readily evident that documented coseismic environmental effects are, as a whole, less than commonly expected for earthquakes of similar magnitude in that region (i.e., 1783 Calabrian and 1693 eastern Sicily earthquakes). The larger part of the collected effects is localised in the urban areas, which attracted the attention of the reporter, and along the coastal areas which were more easily accessible. In particular, no coseismic effects described by contemporary witnesses have been definitely interpreted as an evidence of surface faulting. Therefore, the ground elevation changes, measured by means of geometric levelling soon after the earthquake (Loperfido 1909), remain, so far, the only evidence of tectonic deformation. In 25 localities, where more diagnostic environmental effects occurred, we have applied the ESI 2007 scale (Guerrieri & Vittori 2007) in order to evaluate the intensity: in the Straits area the ESI values are one or two degrees lower than the MCS values (the maximum ESI value is X, while the maximum MCS value is XI). We have to consider that the ESI scale is calibrated on the MM and MSK scales, which provide intensity estimates lower than the MCS scale for the highest degrees. Moreover, the strong earthquakes that struck this area in 1894, 1905 and 1907 had certainly weakened the buildings, many of them constructed using fluvial stones and poor quality mortar, which had been badly restored afterwards. In addition, the seismic resistant construction st

Comerci, V.; Blumetti, A. M.; Brustia, E.; di Manna, P.; Fiorenza, D.; Guerrieri, L.; Lucarini, M.; Serva, L.; Vittori, E.

2009-04-01

395

Scenario analysis of Agro-Environment measure adoption for soil erosion protection in Sicilian vineyard (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the challenges in designing land use policies that address sustainability issues are inherent to the concept of Agro-Environmental Measures (AEM). Researchers, farmers and mainly policy makers need to evaluate the impact of new and existing policies for soil protection. In Europe, farmers commit themselves, for a minimum period of at least five years, to adopt environmentally-friendly farming techniques that undergone legal obligations. On the other hand, farmers receive payments that provide compensation for additional costs and income foregone resulting from applying those environmentally friendly farming practices in line with the stipulations of agri-environment contracts. In this context we prospect scenarios on soil erosion variations in a detailed case study after the application of Agro-Environmental Measures (AEM). The study area is located in the South part of Sicily. In a district area of 11,588 ha, 35.5 % is devoted to vineyard cultivation, 32.2 % is arable land and only 11.1 % cultivated to olive grow. 2416 ha are urbanized areas and other less important crops. A paired-site approach was chosen to study the difference in soil organic carbon stocks after AEM adoption, following criteria based on Conteh (1999) also applied in several research studies. For the purpose of comparison, the members of a paired site were selected to be similar with respect to the type of soil, slope, elevation, and drainage, but not to AEM. The comparisons were made between adjacent patches of land with different AEM, and a known history of land use and management. 100 paired sites (two adjacent plots) were chosen and three soil samples (0-30 cm depth) were collected in each plot (600 soil samples). The rainfall erosivity (R) factor (Mj mm ha-1 hour-1 year-1) was estimated with the formula specifically proposed for Sicily by Ferro and coauthors in 1999. The soil erodibility factor (K, in tons hour MJ-1 mm-1) was mapped on the base of soil texture and soil organic carbon content of the topsoil (averaged on the first 50 cm of soil depth) with the table published by Stone and Hilborn (2012). The slope-length and slope gradient (LS) factors were derived from the Digital Terrain Model of Sicily (20 x 20 m) using the formulas proposed by Wischmeier and Smith (1978), and revised by McCool et al. (1987 and 1989). The C factor were applied according previous studies in the same area and ranged among 0.22 and 0.12 and less than 0.10 using permanent species able to reduce erosion rate up to 90% (Gristina et al., 2006; Novara et al. 2011). The scenario analysis of the soil erosion reduction after the adoption of AEM could be used by policy makers as a base for the evaluation of the Payment for Ecosystem Service (PES) to be paid to farmers through the future Agro-Ecosystem measures incentives. Gristina, L., Bagarello, V., Ferro, V., Poma, I., 2006. Cover and management factor for Sicilian vineyard systems. In: 14th International Soil conservation Organization Conference—Water Management and Soil Conservation in Semi-arid Environments, 14-19 May 2006, Marrakech, Marocco (ISCO2006), pp. 1-4. A Novara, L Gristina, SS Saladino, A Santoro, A Cerda 2011 Soil erosion assessment on tillage and alternative soil managements in a Sicilian vineyard. Soil and Tillage Research 117, 140-147

Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Fantappiè, Maria; Costantini, Edoardo

2014-05-01

396

Numerical Modeling of Thermal-Geochemical Processes in the Hydrothermal System of Pantelleria Island, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island of Pantelleria, located in the Sicily Channel, Central Mediterranean, (about 100 km from Sicily and 70 km from Tunisia), represents the emergent part of a quiescent Quaternary volcano. It has been affected by an intense recent volcano-tectonic activity. The rocks outcropping on the island are mainly lavas and pyroclastic deposits, mostly represented by pantellerites and trachytes. Surface geothermal manifestations are diffused in Pantelleria, with fumaroles, mofettes and hot springs with temperatures up to 98 °C. Since the 60s’, a number of pre-feasibility studies was carried out on the island, which underwent an extensive geothermal exploration during the early 90s’. The results of the exploration revealed a very promising zone in the southern part of the island, where the main geothermal manifestations are concentrated. Temperatures above 250°C were measured in exploratory drillings down to 1100 m b.g.l. (well PPT1). The intrusion of pure seawater likely occurs throughout the island, and deep geothermal reservoir recharge appears to be predominantly of marine origin, though contributions from meteoric water are also possible. A conceptual model of the system has been set up on the basis of a wide set of geological, geophysical and geochemical data obtained during the surveys. The TOUGHREACT simulator was used for the water-rock reaction simulations. A plug-flow model has been used to perform non-isothermal calculations. Boundary thermal conditions have been calibrated according to heat flow measurements and well temperature data. Water-rock interactions have been evaluated in successive steps. First, the saturation states of minerals of sampled geothermal fluids were computed at reservoir temperatures to determine the mineral phases which would likely be dissolving or precipitating. The composition of “synthetic”, nearly-equilibrated waters likely occurring at depth within the reservoir has been then numerically r