Note: This page contains sample records for the topic sicily from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Sicily: Art and Invention  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Co-organized by the J. Paul Getty Museum, the Cleveland Museum of Art, and the Assessorato dei Beni Culturali e dell'Identità Siciliana, Sicily: Art and Invention celebrates 2013 as the Year of Italian Culture in the United States. To complement the exhibit (on view at the Getty Museum until August) the website is organized into five thematic sections: The Greeks in Sicily, Religion and Ritual, The Discoveries of Archimedes, Literature and Theater, and The Roman Conquest. The section on Archimedes includes a diagram of his water-raising screw, a Leaf from the Archimedes Palimpsest, and a short video discussing those of Archimedes' inventions still in use today. Teachers and parents may wish to note: the literature and theater section contains some possibly adult-only content, such as the Statue of Priapos, 250âÂÂ212 B.C. [DS

2013-01-01

2

Canine visceral leishmaniasis in Sicily.  

PubMed

The Sicilian province of Catania is an active foci for human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Mediterranean area. Approximately 10 to 15 cases of VL are diagnosed via hospital admissions each year in this community. Recently, an increase in VL case reporting by Sicilian physicians was noted, with 38 and 37 VL cases in 1996 and 1997, respectively. Before 1995, there were no reported VL cases among U.S. military personnel or their family members living in Sicily. However, since 1996, there have been four cases referred to Walter Reed Army Medical Center for diagnosis and treatment, all involving the children of personnel assigned to Naval Air Station Sigonella. Exposure histories for all infected individuals excluded exposure to Leishmania parasites outside of Sicily. All patients lived in areas where vectoring sandflies are present. All had dogs as family pets. To evaluate the level of infection among dogs owned by Navy personnel and their families, U.S. Navy Environmental and Preventive Medicine Unit 7, in a collaborative study with the U.S. Army Veterinary Clinic, Naval Air Station Sigonella, and the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, performed clinical evaluation and serological testing of 50 dogs residing with U.S. personnel assigned to Naval Air Station Sigonella. The data indicate a high exposure rate to Leishmania (60% of the animals tested had elevated immunoglobulin M antibody levels) in the study population, suggesting that they were infected with Leishmania infantum. Distribution of seropositive dogs by sex was equal. Most of the dogs studied appeared to be in good health. However, inapparent infection of dogs, seen by Italian veterinarians, has been observed throughout all areas of Catania. Sandflies responsible for vectoring L. infantum were trapped in the same locations as the dogs sampled in this study. The level of subclinical infection was 75% among seropositive dogs. The overall level of canine infection observed was higher than expected. This study demonstrates an increased risk to military working dogs and companion dogs of U.S. personnel for infection with L. infantum during a 2- to 3-year tour in Sicily. PMID:10658425

Orndorff, G R; Cooper, B A; Smith, W; Ryan, J R

2000-01-01

3

Rainfall statistics changes in Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in rainfall characteristics are one of the most relevant signs of current climate alterations. Many studies have demonstrated an increase in rainfall intensity and a reduction of frequency in several areas of the world, including Mediterranean areas. Rainfall characteristics may be crucial for vegetation patterns formation and evolution in Mediterranean ecosystems, with important implications, for example, in vegetation water stress or coexistence and competition dynamics. At the same time, characteristics of extreme rainfall events are fundamental for the estimation of flood peaks and quantiles which can be used in many hydrological applications, such as design of the most common hydraulic structures, or planning and management of flood prone areas. In the past, Sicily has been screened for several signals of possible climate change. Annual, seasonal and monthly rainfall data in the entire Sicilian region have been analyzed, showing a global reduction of total annual rainfall. Moreover, annual maximum rainfall series for different durations have been rarely analyzed in order to detect the presence of trends. Results indicated that for short durations, historical series generally exhibit increasing trends while for longer durations the trends are mainly negative. Starting from these premises, the aim of this study is to investigate and quantify changes in rainfall statistics in Sicily, during the second half of the last century. Time series of about 60 stations over the region have been processed and screened by using the non parametric Mann-Kendall test. Particularly, extreme events have been analyzed using annual maximum rainfall series at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h duration while daily rainfall properties have been analyzed in term of frequency and intensity, also characterizing seasonal rainfall features. Results of extreme events analysis confirmed an increasing trend for rainfall of short durations, especially for one hour rainfall duration. Instead, precipitation of long durations have exhibited a decreased trend. With regard to the spatial distribution, increase in short duration precipitation has been observed especially in stations located along the coastline; however, no clear and well-defined spatial pattern have been outlined by the results. Outcomes of analysis for daily rainfall properties have showed that heavy-torrential precipitation tends to be more frequent at regional scale, while light rainfall events exhibited a negative trend at some sites. Values of total annual precipitations confirmed a significant negative trend, mainly due to the reduction during the winter season.

Arnone, E.; Pumo, D.; Viola, F.; Noto, L. V.; La Loggia, G.

2013-02-01

4

A crustal seismic profile across Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crustal reflection seismic profile, more than 100 km long, was recorded across central Sicily, from the Tyrrhenian shore to the Sicily Channel, to understand the deep structures and the collision mechanisms between Europe and Africa and the subsequent geodynamic evolution. The profile was acquired using explosive sources and 240 active channels recorded by a Sercel 408-XL, 24 bits A/D converter, with a 12 km spread and a 24-fold coverage.The data were processed following a non-conventional procedure in order to preserve the relative amplitudes of the reflections and to better investigate the Sicily deep structures down to the Moho. The main highlighted structures are the dramatic flexure of the Iblean crust, the huge, deeper than expected, trough of Caltanissetta consisting of deep seated thrusts and nappes, and the imbricate thrust system of rigid bodies characterizing the northern Maghrebian chain. We designed an ad hoc acquisition and processing in order to highlight these main geological features in the seismic stacked section. Moreover, the deepest parts of the Caltanissetta trough are imaged for the first time, and its bottom is now fixed at more than 7 s TWT. The giant crustal wedge flexuring the Iblean foreland and the Moho geometries are examinated.

Accaino, Flavio; Catalano, Raimondo; di Marzo, Luigi; Giustiniani, Michela; Tinivella, Umberta; Nicolich, Rinaldo; Sulli, Attilio; Valenti, Vera; Manetti, Piero

2011-07-01

5

[The epidemiological trend of brucellosis in the provinces of Sicily].  

PubMed

The epidemiological trend of brucellosis in Italy has been uneven over the last few years since there was a decrease in incidence in some regions and an increase in others, including Sicily. The peak was reached in 1997 when 59% of the cases were reported in Sicily alone. Appropriate intervention strategies are therefore needed both as regards the general population and exposed workers in order to reduce the spread of this disease. PMID:10703194

Picciotto, D; Verso, M G; Lacca, G; Mangiapane, N; Caracappa, S; Vitale, F; Vesco, G

6

Emergence and Phylodynamics of Citrus tristeza virus in Sicily, Italy  

PubMed Central

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) outbreaks were detected in Sicily island, Italy for the first time in 2002. To gain insight into the evolutionary forces driving the emergence and phylogeography of these CTV populations, we determined and analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the p20 gene from 108 CTV isolates collected from 2002 to 2009. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed that mild and severe CTV isolates belonging to five different clades (lineages) were introduced in Sicily in 2002. Phylogeographic analysis showed that four lineages co-circulated in the main citrus growing area located in Eastern Sicily. However, only one lineage (composed of mild isolates) spread to distant areas of Sicily and was detected after 2007. No correlation was found between genetic variation and citrus host, indicating that citrus cultivars did not exert differential selective pressures on the virus. The genetic variation of CTV was not structured according to geographical location or sampling time, likely due to the multiple introduction events and a complex migration pattern with intense co- and re-circulation of different lineages in the same area. The phylogenetic structure, statistical tests of neutrality and comparison of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates suggest that weak negative selection and genetic drift following a rapid expansion may be the main causes of the CTV variability observed today in Sicily. Nonetheless, three adjacent amino acids at the p20 N-terminal region were found to be under positive selection, likely resulting from adaptation events.

Davino, Salvatore; Willemsen, Anouk; Panno, Stefano; Davino, Mario; Catara, Antonino; Elena, Santiago F.; Rubio, Luis

2013-01-01

7

Archaeologies of Aspiration: Historical Archaeology in Rural Central Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using material from a survey and excavation project in central Sicily, this paper discusses the complexities of understanding the material effects and archival data related primarily to nineteenth- and twentieth-century rural landscapes. Although it is possible to frame the relevant processes in terms of resistance and capitalist relations, the authors suggest that to understand this material within its historical context,

Mark Pluciennik; Antoon Mientjes; Enrico Giannitrapani

2004-01-01

8

Soil genesis in a marine terrace sequence of Sicily, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge about the rates of pedogenic processes is essential to understand landscape development and history. It can be attained by the quantitative investigation of soil chronosequences. In this work, the development of Chromic Luvisols in the Mediterranean is addressed. The soils investigated are located on fi ve uplifted Pleistocene marine terraces in south-western Sicily, and have developed on calcareous marine

Stephen Wagner; Edoardo A. C. Costantini; Daniela Sauer; Karl Stahr; Piazza M. D'Azeglio

2007-01-01

9

Invading Sicily: A Tale of Branches and Sequels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In July 1943, the Americans and British executed Operation Husky, the invasion of Sicily. It was the first major opposed amphibious landing since Gallipoli in World War I, a seven-division amphibious assault echelon that made it the largest such assault i...

K. J. Dougherty

2002-01-01

10

Operation Husky The Campaign in Sicily: A Case Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Allied decision to invade Sicily following the successful operation in North Africa was crucial to the conduct of World War II. The commitment of such a large force to continued operations in the Mediterranean theater meant that the cross-channel inva...

J. M. Swanson

1992-01-01

11

Wild food plants of popular use in Sicily  

PubMed Central

In the present work the authors report the result of their food ethnobotanical researches, which have been carried out in Sicily during the last thirty years. Data concerning 188 wild species used in the traditional Sicilian cuisine are reported. The authors underline those species that are partially or completely unknown for their culinary use and they illustrate other species that local inhabitants suggested in the prevention or treatment of symptomatologies caused by a refined diet, poor in vegetables. These data want to contribute to avoid the loss of traditional knowledge on uses and recipes concerning wild food botanicals, and to encourage further studies for those species that have not yet been sufficiently researched in their food chemical and nutritional profile. These studies may also suggest new applications for a few botanicals in medico-nutritional fields. The work includes also a short review of the seaweeds and mushrooms traditionally gathered and consumed in Sicily.

Lentini, Francesca; Venza, Francesca

2007-01-01

12

Characterisation of submarine groundwater discharge offshore south-eastern Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complex approach in characterisation of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) off south-eastern Sicily comprising applications of radioactive and non-radioactive tracers, direct seepage measurements, geophysical surveys and a numerical modelling is presented. SGD fluxes in the Donnalucata boat basin were estimated by direct seepage measurements to be from 4 to 12Ls?1, which are comparable with the total SGD flux in the

P. P. Povinec; P. K. Aggarwal; A. Aureli; W. C. Burnett; E. A. Kontar; K. M. Kulkarni; R. Rajar; M. Taniguchi; J.-F. Comanducci; G. Cusimano; H. Dulaiova; L. Gatto; M. Groening; S. Hauser; I. Levy-Palomo; B. Oregioni; Y. R. Ozorovich; A. M. G. Privitera; M. A. Schiavo

2006-01-01

13

Asphaltene-bearing mantle xenoliths from Hyblean diatremes, Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microscopic blebs of sulfur-bearing organic matter (OM) commonly occur between the secondary calcite grains and fibrous phyllosilicates in extensively serpentinized and carbonated mantle-derived ultramafic xenoliths from Hyblean nephelinite diatremes, Sicily, Italy. Rarely, coarse bituminous patches give the rock a blackish color. Micro Fourier transform infrared spectra (?-FTIR) point to asphaltene-like structures in the OM, due to partially condensed aromatic rings

Salvatore Scirè; Enrico Ciliberto; Carmelo Crisafulli; Vittorio Scribano; Fabio Bellatreccia; Giancarlo Della Ventura

2011-01-01

14

Solution and recrystallisation processes and associated landforms in gypsum outcrops of Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four small areas of Messinian (Upper Miocene) age gypsum, outcropping in western Sicily, are described. Messinian age evaporites are found in Sicily over a 1000-km2 area. Here, gypsum outcrops extensively as a consequence of soil erosion induced by human impact. Geomorphological maps show how the rocky surfaces are characterized by a wide range of forms. There are large, medium, small,

Francesco Ferrarese; Tommaso Macaluso; Giuliana Madonia; Adelina Palmeri; Ugo Sauro

2003-01-01

15

Paleoseismic Investigation of Historical Liquefactions Along the Ionian Coast of Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern Sicily is an area where some of the most catastrophic earthquakes in Italian history occurred. As reported by historical sources, these earthquakes induced liquefaction phenomena. In two areas along the Ionian coast of Sicily we found liquefaction evidence in Holocene deposits. In the Minissale site (east of Mount Etna), the observed liquefaction features can be related to the 1169

P. Guarnieri; C. Pirrotta; M. S. Barbano; P. M. De Martini; D. Pantosti; F. Gerardi; A. Smedile

2008-01-01

16

Parents' attitudes and behaviours towards recommended vaccinations in Sicily, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Since a long time, Italy has maintained a dual system to administer childhood immunisations, that is a certain number of mandatory\\u000a vaccinations and a number of recommended vaccinations. The study aimed to explore the issues surrounding parental acceptance\\u000a or non-acceptance of the recommended vaccinations for children.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Parents of children aged 3-5 years of day-care centres in Sicily were asked to

Maria Anna Coniglio; Marco Platania; Donatella Privitera; Giuseppe Giammanco; Sarina Pignato

2011-01-01

17

Municipal waste management in Sicily: Practices and challenges  

SciTech Connect

There are numerous problems yet to be solved in waste management and although efforts towards waste recovery and recycling have been made, landfills are still the most common method used in the EU and many other industrialised countries. Thermal disposal, particularly incineration, is a tested and viable alternative. In 2004, only 11% of the annual waste production of Italy was incinerated. Sicily, with over five million inhabitants, is the second largest region in Italy where waste management is now a critical problem. The use of landfills can no longer be considered a satisfactory environmental solution; therefore, new methods have to be chosen and waste-to-energy plants could provide an answer. This paper gives details of municipal solid waste management in Sicily following a new Waste Management Plan. Four waste-to-energy plants will generate electricity through a steam cycle; the feedstock will become the residue after material recovery, which is calculated as 20-40% weight of the collected municipal solid waste.

Messineo, Antonio [Department of Energy and Environmental Researches (DREAM), University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Palermo 90128 (Italy)], E-mail: messineo@dream.unipa.it; Panno, Domenico [Department of Energy and Environmental Researches (DREAM), University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Palermo 90128 (Italy)

2008-07-01

18

Municipal waste management in Sicily: practices and challenges.  

PubMed

There are numerous problems yet to be solved in waste management and although efforts towards waste recovery and recycling have been made, landfills are still the most common method used in the EU and many other industrialised countries. Thermal disposal, particularly incineration, is a tested and viable alternative. In 2004, only 11% of the annual waste production of Italy was incinerated. Sicily, with over five million inhabitants, is the second largest region in Italy where waste management is now a critical problem. The use of landfills can no longer be considered a satisfactory environmental solution; therefore, new methods have to be chosen and waste-to-energy plants could provide an answer. This paper gives details of municipal solid waste management in Sicily following a new Waste Management Plan. Four waste-to-energy plants will generate electricity through a steam cycle; the feedstock will become the residue after material recovery, which is calculated as 20-40% weight of the collected municipal solid waste. PMID:17604152

Messineo, Antonio; Panno, Domenico

2007-07-02

19

[Iodine deficiency and iodine prophylaxis experience in Sicily].  

PubMed

Twenty years ago we described an area of goiter endemia in North-Eastern Sicily. In this area endemic goiter was associated to a variable degree of iodine deficiency and, in some places, also to an increased thiocyanate urine excretion. Our studies have demonstrated a strict relationship between iodine deficiency and congenital hypothyroidism (both permanent and transient), an increased prevalence of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules and an increased prevalence of thyroid cancer (follicular and anaplastic histotypes). A number of cases of endemic cretinism have also been described. An active iodine prophylaxis program has been carried in the town of Troina in the years 1979-87, by iodinating the municipal water supply. This intervention caused the disappearance of goiter in schoolchildren in only five years. In the last 20 years the prevalence of goiter has decreased in all endemic areas probably because of the "silent prophylaxis", due to improved socio-economic conditions and industrial food consumption. Today the persistence of endemic goiter confirms the inadequacy of the silent iodine prophylaxis and the need to immediately introduce an active iodine prophylaxis in Sicily. PMID:10052190

Regalbuto, C; Salamone, S; La Rosa, G L; Calaciura, F; Buscema, M; Vigneri, R

1998-01-01

20

Observations of a geoclutter feature in the straits of Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several persistent sonar clutter features were observed in 2002 during an experiment in the Straits of Sicily (Malta Plateau) in a region that is nominally flat and thickly sedimented. High frequency sidescan and seismic reflection data from the region indicated that mud volcanoes were present and were possibly expelling clouds of methane bubbles. In 2004 the region was revisited with oceanographic equipment including a multibeam sonar, an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), CTD's, temperature loggers, a methane sensor, and a video camera. The visual observations at one site show carbonate mounds comprised of large heterogeneous blocks that suggest the presence of mud volcanism. A multibeam sonar survey of the area shows that the carbonate mounds are of order 5-10 m in height and 10-100 m in lateral dimension, and that they form in clusters. The multibeam backscatter data show high amplitudes in the region surrounding the carbonate mounds, possibly indicating the surficial extent of the carbonate material. High levels of methane were observed in the water column above the mounds, although conclusive evidence of the presence of methane bubble clouds was not found. However, high frequency backscatter recorded on the ADCP above multiple carbonate mounds showed plume-like features that may be bubble clouds, suspended fine-grained sediment, and/or schools of fish.

Weber, Thomas C.; Holland, Charles W.; Etiope, Giuseppe

2005-04-01

21

Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis for Eastern Sicily (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We applied the method for Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA), first introduced by Rikitake and Aida (1988), to the coasts of eastern Sicily (Italy), and focusing on important cities such as Messina, Catania, and Augusta. The method has been very recently improved by González et al. (2009) to explicitly include inundation. Our approach considers both far- and near-field sources. Based on the approach described by Lorito et al. (2008), we identified a few Source Zones (SZ), each of which is characterized by a Typical Fault (TF) floating within it and capable of generating the Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE). Some of the MCE recall historical events such as the 1908 Messina, the 1693 Catania and the 365 AD Crete earthquakes. We calculated the combined probability for all considered SZs by assigning a recurrence interval to each of them and a Poisson distribution of the inter-event times. We performed the PTHA for different damage metrics, such as runup, current speed, momentum and Froude number, with probability of exceedance of given thresholds being evaluated for different time intervals.

Lorito, S.; Piatanesi, A.; Romano, F.; Basili, R.; Kastelic, V.; Tiberti, M. M.; Valensise, G.

2009-12-01

22

Parents' attitudes and behaviours towards recommended vaccinations in Sicily, Italy  

PubMed Central

Background Since a long time, Italy has maintained a dual system to administer childhood immunisations, that is a certain number of mandatory vaccinations and a number of recommended vaccinations. The study aimed to explore the issues surrounding parental acceptance or non-acceptance of the recommended vaccinations for children. Methods Parents of children aged 3-5 years of day-care centres in Sicily were asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire. Determinants of the attitude towards recommended vaccinations and social influence on the decision-making process were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 1,500 selected parents, 81.0% participated in the study. Prior to the survey, the majority of children (97.6%) received recommended vaccines. Most parents (74.4%) received information about vaccinations from Family Paediatricians, showed a good knowledge about the side effects of the vaccines (73.1%), did not worry about their potential dangerousness (53.0%) and would have accepted their children to be vaccinated even if it was not required for day care (84.1%). The majority (79.9%) were not disposed to follow the advises of the anti-vaccination movements. Parents' background characteristics, sources of information and social influence were not significantly associated with parental acceptance of recommended vaccines for childhood. Conclusions This study suggests that health information by Family Paediatricians is significantly associated with parental acceptance of recommended vaccinations.

2011-01-01

23

Correlates of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus seroprevalence in Sicily  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental factors, such as plants and soil, may influence Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) replication or immune responses. However, the relationship of such exposures to KSHV seroprevalence has not been established. Methods In 1154 randomly sampled adults (aged 32–92) throughout Sicily, KSHV antibodies were detected with four assays and a conservative algorithm. Seroprevalence was re-weighted to the population. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations of seroprevalence with interview data, including contact with 20 specific plants. Results KSHV seroprevalence was 8.5%, including 5.3% among men and 11.5% among women (P=0.22). In multivariate models, seroprevalence was consistently higher with residence in a smaller community during childhood (Ptrend?0.03) and working with plants/soil during adulthood (odds ratio?2.73). In such models, seroprevalence was higher with exposure to one plant (Hieracium, odds ratio?2.8), but it was lower with three others (Acanthus mollis, Taraxacum officinalis, and Trigonella foenum-graecum) and with cumulative exposure to all 20 plants (Ptrend=0.03). Other demographic, household, and water contact variables were unrelated to seroprevalence. Conclusions KSHV seroprevalence appears to be increased by contact with soil and to vary with certain plants. Corroboration and investigation of possible effects of soil and plant constituents on KSHV regulation and immune responses are needed.

Pelser, Colleen; Vitale, Francesco; Whitby, Denise; Graubard, Barry I.; Messina, Angelo; Gafa, Lorenzo; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Anderson, Lesley A.; Romano, Nino; Lauria, Carmela; Goedert, James J.

2009-01-01

24

Vega field and potential of Ragusa basin, Offshore Sicily  

SciTech Connect

Vega, the largest single oil field in the Mediterranean Sea, is located between the southeastern coast of Sicily and the Island of Malta. The field lies entirely in Italian waters. Its discovery in October 1980 was based on interpretation of a very poor-quality seismic survey which, nevertheless, roughly outlined a relatively small structure. A limestone and dolomite fractured reservoir of the Inici, or Siracusa Formation, of Late Jurasic age, may contain in excess of 1 billion bbl of heavy crude (15.5 API) within a productive area of approximately 10,000 acres (4000 ha.). Reservoir properties are excellent, with permeabilities in darcys. The field extends northwest-southeast for 8.5 mi (14 km) and averages 1.7 mi (3 km) in width, according to the 3D seismic survey (2000 km) shot soon after the discovery well was drilled. The gross oil column reaches approximately 820 ft (250 m). The southeasternmost part of the Vega structure is not yet completely defined, and an additional 3D seismic survey is in progress. Should the new seismic results confirm expectations, the Vega structure could extend over 10 mi (17 km). The overlying Inici reservoir consists of dolomite and underlain by limestone in the southwestern part of the basin, and entirely of limestone in the northwestern portion of the basin. The Inici Formation represents the platform facies of the open-sea Villagonia and Giardini sediments. The Cammarata-Pozzillo (discovered in 1959), Perla (1979), Vega (1980), and Prezioso (1983) heavy crude oil fields are related to this formation. The potential for discovery of other fields similar to Vega in the Ragusa basin is excellent.

Schramm, M. Jr.; Livraga, G.

1984-09-01

25

Radium isotopes as tracers of submarine groundwater discharge in Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results derived from radium isotopes of a submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) intercomparison on the southern coast of Sicily are reported. Radium isotope samples were collected from seepage meters, active springs, shallow wells and a hole on the beach, and Mediterranean surface waters. Samples collected within a boat basin were highly enriched in all four radium isotopes with respect to offshore samples. This implies that there are strong nearshore sources of radium. Samples collected from seepage meters in the boat basin were about a factor of 2 3 higher in radium activity than overlying waters and had higher 224Ra/223Ra activity ratios (AR). A beach spring (presumed to originate in the artesian freshwater aquifer) was enriched in 226Ra relative to 228Ra. The “pier wells” and beach hole (presumed to represent the salty surficial aquifer) were enriched in 228Ra compared 226Ra. The different 228Ra/226Ra AR clearly defines these aquifers. Samples collected in the boat basin and offshore as well as samples collected in seepage bags within the boat basin fall between the isotopic composition of these sources. These observations imply that there are at least two sources of SGD supplying radium isotopes to the coastal waters. Seepage from the shallow aquifer contributes more SGD than the offshore springs. Overall, the surficial aquifer contributes 81% of SGD and the artesian aquifer contributes 19%. The estimated SGD flux for this coastline is 106 m3 km-1 d-1. This is at least a factor of 5 greater than the flux based on a 222Rn model within the boat basin. Buoyancy associated with the artesian aquifer may facilitate exchange between the ocean and the surficial aquifer.

Moore, Willard S.

2006-05-01

26

DENSITY AND BREEDING OF Muscardinus avellanarius L., 1758 IN WOODLANDS OF SICILY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common dormouse is the more rare terrestrial mammal living in Sicily. An inventory of its presence in woodlands of the Madonie Regional Park has been carried out by the use of artificial nest-boxes. From September 95 to September 98, six sample areas were monitored monthly, resulting in 3468 checks and 525 records of animals. Relative frequency, by the DAT

Maurizio SARA; Giulia CASAMENTO; Antonio SPINNATO

27

Evolution of the Messinian Mediterranean environments: the Tripoli Formation at Capodarso (Sicily, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

New field data have been collected from the Capodarso section (Caltanissetta basin, Sicily); 48 samples from the Tripoli Formation were analysed for foraminifera, dinocysts, palynofacies, CaCO3, pollen grains and clay minerals. The uppermost clays of the Terravecchia Formation are clearly the result of deeper deposition than those corresponding to the lowermost analysed samples within the overlying Tripoli Formation. So, the

Jean-Pierre Suc; Donata Violanti; Laurent Londeix; Claude Poumot; Christian Robert; Georges Clauzon; François Gautier; Jean-Louis Turon; Jacqueline Ferrier; Hafida Chikhi; Geneviève Cambon

1995-01-01

28

Effects of reclaimed wastewater irrigation on soil and tomato fruits: A case study in Sicily (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aims to investigate the effects of reclaimed urban wastewater for irrigation on tomato fruit quality and hydrological soil behaviour. Tomato plants were drip and sub-drip irrigated under field conditions during the 2004 growing season in Eastern Sicily (Italy). Different drip and sub-drip laterals and filtering technologies were tested during the trial; the most suitable irrigation technology was identified

Rosa Aiello; Giuseppe Luigi Cirelli; Simona Consoli

2007-01-01

29

The chemical signature of the water masses flowing through the Sicily Strait (1999 - 2001)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Straits in the Mediterranean Sea are key areas for the characterisation of the water exchange between sub-basins. The physical properties of the water masses flowing through the Sicily Strait have been monitored since 1993 and the data analysis elucidated the seasonal and interannual variability of the fluxes and the changes in the water mass characteristics induced by the Eastern Mediterranean

M. Tangherlini; D. Bacciola; M. Borghini; G. Cerrati; R. Delfanti; V. Difesca; G. Gasparini; S. Salvi; C. Papucci; M. Ribera D'Alcalà

2003-01-01

30

Geological record of the 365 A.D. Crete tsunami in south-eastern Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five years ago we started a coring campaign with the purpose to identify evidence for tsunami inundations along the coastal areas of eastern Sicily, that were affected in historical times by devastating tsunamis, generated both by local earthquakes, such as the 1169, 1693 and 1908 events, and by distant seismic sources, such as those belonging to the Aegean subduction zone

Flavia Gerardi; Maria Serafina Barbano; Paolo Marco de Martini; Claudia Pirrotta; Alessandra Smedile; Stefania Pinzi; Paola Del Carlo

2010-01-01

31

Characterization of photosynthetic sulfur bacteria causing red water in Lake Faro (Messina, Sicily)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The meromictic sdinc Lake Fnro ( Mcssina, Sicily) contains n layer of brownish-red wntcr at the interface bctwccn hypo- and epilimnion, the clcpth of which varies bctwccn 8 and 13 m. The photosynthetic sulfur bacteria that cause this phcnomcnon were isolated and clcscribccl. The prcclominant organism of the red water is the brown pliotolitliotropic bacterium Chlorobium. phcreobncteroicles Pfcnnig (Chlorobnctcriaccac). In

HANS G. TRUPPER; SEBASTIANO GENOVESE

1968-01-01

32

Mesopelagic Fish Larvae Species in the Strait of Sicily and their Relationships to Main Oceanographic Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates the spatial distribution and species composition of mesopelagic fish larvae and their relationship with the main oceanographic events in the area studied. Samples were collected during a hydrographic and ichthyoplanktonic survey carried out in the Strait of Sicily in July 2000. Sorting revealed that 1258 out of the 4098 fish larvae identified belonged to mesopelagic species; Cyclothone

A. Cuttitta; A. Arigo; G. Basilone; A. Bonanno; G. Buscaino; L. Rollandi; J. Garcia Lafuente; A. Garcia; S. Mazzola; B. Patti

2004-01-01

33

Taphonomy and depositional setting of Pleistocene mammal-bearing deposits from Acquedolci (North-Eastern Sicily)  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Acquedolci, North Eastern Sicily, Pleistocene mammal-bearing deposits have yelded thousands of remains of Hippopotamus pentlandi Meyer associated with very scarce remains of Elephas sp., Cervus siciliae Pohlig, Ursus cf. arctos L., Canis lupus L., Testudo cf. hermanni Gmelin, Aves. The deposits extend on the inner margin of a Late Pleistocene marine terrace, at the base of high vertical limestone

Laura Bonfiglio

1995-01-01

34

Non-Destructive Testing Techniques Applied for Diagnostic Investigation: Syracuse Cathedral in Sicily, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term research experience of the authors has highlighted the importance of gaining knowledge of the building through experimental investigation. Recently the authors intensively studied the Syracuse Cathedral (Sicily, Italy) to evaluate the structural state of the preservation of the pillars. The Cathedral of Syracuse was built in different phases on an ancient Greek temple from the fifth century bc

Luigia Binda; Maurizio Lualdi; Antonella Saisi

2007-01-01

35

Occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes infecting cereals in Sicily, Italy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During 2008 and 2009, a survey on specific composition, frequency and geographical distribution of cyst nematodes living on cereals was conducted in Sicily (Italy). Heterodera latipons Franklin and H. hordecalis Andersson appeared to be the most common species in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) a...

36

Heavy metals in urban soils: a case study from the city of Palermo (Sicily), Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of V, Mn, Cd, Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Hg and Sb were measured on 70 topsoil samples collected from green areas and parks in the city of Palermo (Sicily) in order to: (1) assess the distribution of these heavy metals in the urban environment; (2) discriminate natural and anthropic contributions; and (3) identify possible sources of pollution.

Daniela Salvagio Manta; Massimo Angelone; Adriana Bellanca; Rodolfo Neri; Mario Sprovieri

2002-01-01

37

Morphological and molecular characterization of Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) from Sicily  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. parasitizing roots of lentil in Sicily, Italy, is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by a high lip region with three annuli, stylet mean length of 16 micrometers with anteriorly flattened knobs, cylindrical body with a relatively anterior vulva, l...

38

Landslide inventory map for the Briga and the Giampilieri catchments, NE Sicily, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 1 October 2009, a high intensity storm hit the Ionian coast of Sicily, SW of Messina, Italy. The Santo Stefano di Briga rain gauge, located 2 km W of the Ionian coast, recorded 225 mm of rain in seven hours. The intense rainfall event triggered abundant slope failures, and resulted in widespread erosion and deposition of debris along ephemeral

F. Ardizzone; G. Basile; M. Cardinali; N. Casagli; S. Del Conte; C. Del Ventisette; F. Fiorucci; F. Garfagnoli; G. Gigli; F. Guzzetti; G. Iovine; A. C. Mondini; S. Moretti; M. Panebianco; F. Raspini; P. Reichenbach; M. Rossi; L. Tanteri; O. Terranova

2012-01-01

39

Sector and oscillatory zoning in calcic augites from M. Etna, Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single whole crystals of calcic augite from M. Etna, Sicily, which display both sector and oscillatory zoning, have been serially sectioned and the form of the sectors mapped out. The principal intersectorial chemical variation is shown to be that of Ti and Al by as much as 39% (cation %) change in each, and the least variation, that of Ca

M. J. Downes

1974-01-01

40

Diversity of terrestrial isopods in a protected area characterized by salty coastal ponds (Vendicari, Sicily)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity of Oniscidean isopods was studied in Vendicari, a protected area in southeastern Sicily characterized by salty ponds separated from the sea by narrow bands of land. Samples were collected in pitfall traps placed in transects from the coastline to the ponds and from the ponds inland. Twenty-three species were identified, only seven of which were present at all

Giuseppina Messina; Giuseppe Montesanto; Elisa Pezzino; Domenico Caruso; Bianca M. Lombardo

2011-01-01

41

Evaluation of groundwater contamination in a coastal area of south-eastern Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation was under taken to evaluate the groundwater resources contamination due to intensive agricultural practices (particularly greenhouses). The study-area is located in the coastal area of the Ragusa province (South-East Sicily), where numerous existing greenhouses may cause the contamination of groundwater systems (unconfined and confined aquifers) beneath the cropped land. The pollution risk is mainly related with the seepage

Feliciana Licciardello; Maria Lucia Antoci; Luana Brugaletta; Giuseppe Luigi Cirelli

2011-01-01

42

Tsunami inundation scenarios of the city of Catania, Eastern Sicily, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern Sicily is one of the coastal areas most exposed to earthquake and tsunami in Italy and in the whole Mediterranean. The city of Catania lies on this coast, between the eastern base of Etna volcano and the Ionian Sea. Catania is an important town of the Southern Italy because of its both touristic and commercial activities. In this work

Roberto Tonini; Alberto Armigliato; Gianluca Pagnoni; Stefano Tinti

2010-01-01

43

What Operational Level of War Lesson can be Learned from the Allied Invasion of Sicily.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses the background heading to the decision to plan and execute operation Husky, the allied invasion of Sicily during World War II. Although chosen as the next step following North Africa by the Allies, the decision agreed to at the Casabl...

J. E. Prescott

1994-01-01

44

Molecular characterization of Anaplasma platys strains from dogs in Sicily, Italy  

PubMed Central

Background The genetic diversity of Anaplasma platys (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) strains is currently poorly defined. The present study was designed to characterize A. patys strains in dogs from Palermo, Sicily, Italy, using a combination of PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA, heat shock operon groESL and citrate synthase (gltA) genes. Results Blood was collected from 344 dogs (111 pet dogs, 122 pound dogs and 111 hunting dogs) during 2003–2005 in the Province of Palermo, Sicily, Italy. The prevalence of A. platys in dogs in Sicily, as demonstrated by PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA, groESL and gltA genes, was 4%. None of the samples were positive for A. marginale, A. centrale, A. ovis and A. phagocytophilum DNA. Three different gltA genotypes of A. platys were identified in dogs from Sicily. Two of the gltA sequences of Sicilian A. platys strains were different from sequences reported previously. However, one of the gltA, 16S rDNA and groESL sequences were identical to the sequence of A. platys strains from other regions of the world characterized previously. Conclusion At least three different strains of A. platys were identified in dogs from Sicily by PCR and sequence analyses of the 16S rDNA, groESL and gltA genes. The results reported herein suggested that genetic diversity of A. platys strains may be similar to A. ovis, but lower than the diversity reported for A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum. This lower genetic diversity may have resulted from restricted movement of infected hosts compared to A. marginale-infected cattle and/or the limited host range of A. ovis and A. platys as compared with A. phagocytophilum. These results expand our knowledge about A. platys and encourage further research for analysis of the genetic variation of A. platys strains worldwide.

de la Fuente, Jose; Torina, Alessandra; Naranjo, Victoria; Nicosia, Silviane; Alongi, Angelina; La Mantia, Francesco; Kocan, Katherine M

2006-01-01

45

Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis for Eastern Sicily (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results of a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) for the coast of eastern Sicily. We only consider earthquake-generated tsunamis. We focus on important cities such as Messina, Catania, and Augusta. We consider different potentially tsunamigenic Source Zones (SZ) in the Mediterranean basin, basing on geological and seismological evidences. Considering many synthetic earthquakes for each SZ, we numerically simulate the entire tsunami propagation, from sea-floor displacement to inundation. We evaluate different tsunami damage metrics, as for example maximum runup, current speed, momentum and Froude number. We use a finite difference scheme in the shallow-water approximation for the tsunami propagation at open sea, and a finite volumes scheme for the inundation phase. For the shoaling and inundation stages, we have built a bathy-topo model by merging GEBCO database, multibeam soundings, and topographic data at 10 m of resolution. Accounting for their relative probability of occurrence, deterministic scenarios are merged together to assess PTHA at the selected target sites, expressed as a probability of exceedance of a given threshold (e.g. 1 m wave height) in a given time (e.g. 100 yr). First order epistemic and aleatory uncertainties are accessed through a logic tree, accounting for changes in the variables judged to have a major impact on PTHA, and for eventual incompleteness of the SZs. The SZs are located at short, intermediate and large distances with respect to the target coastlines. We thus highlight, for different source-target distances, the relative importance of the different source parameters, and/or the role of the uncertainties in the input parameters estimation. Our results suggest that in terms of inundation extent the Hellenic Arc SZ has the highest impact on the selected target coastlines. In terms of exceedance probability instead, there is a larger variability depending not only on location and recurrence but also on the relative geometry of targets with respect to sources. For example the Messina harbour is most likely inundated by the local SZ in the Messina Strait.

Lorito, Stefano; Piatanesi, Alessio; Romano, Fabrizio; Basili, Roberto; Kastelic, Vanja; Tiberti, Mara Monica; Valensise, Gianluca; Selva, Jacopo

2010-05-01

46

Paleotsunamis Evidence In The Augusta Bay (Eastern Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Augusta Bay, in Eastern Sicily (Italy), was repeatedly hit by tsunami waves related to large historical earthquakes (e.g. 1908, 1693, 1169). The area is characterized by coastal lowlands or lagoons, and by a relatively wide continental shelf with a thick late-Holocene record that has been investigated through the acquisition of a tight grid of CHIRP-sonar profiles. Well targeted sediment samples have been collected both offshore and inland. The integrated interpretation of the geophysical and geological data has been carried out in order to recognize, date and correlate key-layers in the sediment column that may be directly or indirectly related to tsunami events. A total of 26 cores were collected inland at a maximum distance of 530 m from the present coastline. The clay and silt dominated stratigraphy is intercalated by at least 5 high-energy or anomalous depositional layers, repeatedly found in several cores. These layers are made of coarse to fine sand with sharp basal contacts and present a bioclastic component made of microfauna (foraminifera) and shell fragments both suggestive of a marine provenance. Chronological constraints on the age of these deposits is based on AMS radiocarbon datings and on the attribution of a tephra layer to the 122 BC Etna eruption (thanks to petro- chemical and morphoscopic analyses). Integrating these data, the inland sequence spans the last 4100 yrs and the two uppermost high-energy events could be related to the AD 1169 and 1693 historical tsunamis. The offshore record was studied from a 6.7 m-long piston-core collected at 70 m water depth. The homogeneous sequence of dark gray mud is interrupted at -3 m by the same Etna tephra deposit found inland. Through the analysis of tephrostratigraphy, radiocarbon datings, high resolution paleomagnetic analysis and radioactive tracers, the entire core sequence has been dated back to the last 4500 yrs. Moreover, the quantitative micropaleontological analysis on the benthic foraminifera assemblage highlighted 11 anomalous peaks, marked by high percentage of displaced epiphytic specimens. These microfaunal anomalies were generally accompanied by significant amount of vegetal remains in the washed fraction, by localized concentration of mollusks and by darker stripes (organic?) in the X-Ray films. These 11 peaks may represent either the primary effect of tsunami waves (in particular the back-wash) or the secondary effect of significant seagrass remobilization due to earthquake shaking. In both cases, these events made available an extra amount of material that, also thanks to the local bottom currents, moved from the uppermost infralittoral zone to deeper regions. Even though we do not know if these anomalies in the offshore core are representative of tsunamis only or alternatively of local earthquakes, our results suggest that the marine environment is more preservative (11 events in the offshore vs 5 events inland) with respect to the littoral one and potentially more sensible to high-energy events like tsunamis and earthquakes.

Smedile, A.; de Martini, P.; Barbano, M. S.; Pantosti, D.; Gerardi, F.; Del Carlo, P.; Bellucci, L. G.; Gasperini, L.; Sagnotti, L.; Polonia, A.; Pirrotta, C.

2008-12-01

47

Two Rare Northern Entoloma Species Observed in Sicily under Exceptionally Cold Weather Conditions  

PubMed Central

The biology and ecology of many Entoloma species is still poorly known as well as their geographical distribution. In Italy, there are no studies on the influence of weather on fungal abundance and richness and our knowledge on the ecology and distribution of Entoloma species needs to be improved. The discovery of two Entoloma species in Sicily (southern Italy), reported in the literature as belonging to the habitat of north European countries, was the basis leading to the assumption that anomalous climatic conditions could stimulate the growth of northern entolomas in the southernmost Mediterranean regions. The results of this study show that the presence of northern Entoloma species in Sicily is not influenced by the Mediterranean type of vegetation, by edaphic or altitudinal factors but by anomalous climatic trends of precipitations and temperatures which stimulate the fructification of basidiomata in correspondence with a thermal shock during autumn.

Venturella, Giuseppe; Saitta, Alessandro; Mandracchia, Gerlando; Gargano, Maria Letizia

2012-01-01

48

Haemoglobin Lepore Boston-Washington in Sicily: clinical, haematological, and biosynthetic studies.  

PubMed Central

In the south-east of Sicily 23 children from 14 unrelated families have been diagnosed as suffering from haemoglobin Lepore. Such a high incidence shows that Sicily is an important focus of haemoglobin Lepore. The results of haematological and biosynthetic studies in 18 carriers of Hb Lepore and in five double heterozygotes for Hb Lepore and beta-thalassaemia are presented. In the carriers the haematological and biosynthetic data are compared with carriers of beta-thalassaemia, while the five double heterozygotes are compared with beta o- and beta +-thalassaemia major subjects. In the carriers of Hb Lepore no synthesis of delta beta-chains was observed in peripheral blood cells; in fact we found a peak in the bone marrow. Double heterozygotes with circulating nucleated red cells showed delta beta-chain synthesis in peripheral blood.

Schiliro, G; Musumeci, S; Pizzarelli, G; Fischer, A; Romero, M A; Russo, G

1980-01-01

49

Pluriannual morphological variability of phytoplankton in a highly productive Mediterranean reservoir (Lake Arancio, Southwestern Sicily)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progressive decrease in water quality experienced by the Mediterranean, nutrient rich reservoir, Lake Arancio (Southwestern\\u000a Sicily, Italy), has been accompanied by modifications in both phytoplankton shape and size. Since nutrient concentrations\\u000a are always far from being limiting, in the present paper attention was focussed on the effects exerted by physical constraints\\u000a (e.g., mixing, light availability) on the morphological variation

Luigi Naselli-Flores; Rossella Barone

2007-01-01

50

Helium isotopes in peridotite mineral phases from Hyblean Plateau xenoliths (south-eastern Sicily, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen He isotope and abundance analyses have been performed on olivine, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene grains from selected spinel-facies peridotite xenoliths collected from the Hyblean Plateau, southeastern Sicily. These peridotites consist of protogranular-textured, spinel-facies lherzolites and lherzolitic harzburgites. Microthermometric data on olivine and pyroxenes reveal that the fluid inclusions (FIs) are nearly pure CO2, with densities ranging from 0.76 to 1.15

Giovanna Sapienza; David R. Hilton; Vittorio Scribano

2005-01-01

51

Geo-electromagnetic survey of the fresh\\/salt water interface in the coastal southeastern Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of geo-electromagnetic surveys and 3D mapping of the spatial distribution of fresh\\/salt water interface conducted during the IAEA submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) experiment in March 2002 near the boat basin in Donnalucata in the southeastern Sicily are reported. The high-resolution geo-electromagnetic profile showed the presence of several fresh\\/salt water horizons with various formation resistivities of geologic media. The geo-electromagnetic

Evgeny A. Kontar; Yuri R. Ozorovich

2006-01-01

52

Geo-electromagnetic survey of the fresh\\/salt water interface in the coastal southeastern Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of geo-electromagnetic surveys and 3D mapping of the spatial distribution of fresh\\/salt water interface conducted during the IAEA submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) experiment in March 2002 near the boat basin in Donnalucata in the southeastern Sicily are reported. The high-resolution geo-electromagnetic profile showed the presence of several fresh\\/salt water horizons with various formation resistivities of geologic media. The geo-electromagnetic

Evgeny A. Kontara; Yuri R. Ozorovichb

53

A geophysical and geochemical approach for seawater intrusion assessment in the Acquedolci coastal aquifer (Northern Sicily)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical electrical sounding (VES’) surveys and chemical analyses of groundwater have been executed in the coastal plain of\\u000a Acquedolci (Northern Sicily), with the aim to circumscribe seawater intrusion phenomena. This urbanized area is representative\\u000a of a more general problem interesting most of Mediterranean littoral areas, where intensive overdraft favors a heavy seawater\\u000a intrusion through the coastline. Aquifer resistivity seems decisively

A. Cimino; C. Cosentino; A. Oieni; L. Tranchina

2008-01-01

54

Paleomagnetic dating of the most recent silicic eruptive activity at Pantelleria (Strait of Sicily)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the paleomagnetism of ten sites in the products of the most recent silicic eruptive cycle of Pantelleria, Strait\\u000a of Sicily. Previously radiometrically dated at 5–10 ka, our comparison with proxies for geomagnetic field directions allows\\u000a us to narrow considerably the time window during which these eruptions occurred. The strongly peralkaline composition causes\\u000a the magmas to have low viscosities,

Fabio Speranza; Patrizia Landi; Francesca D’Ajello Caracciolo; Alessandro Pignatelli

2010-01-01

55

Anthropological and economic perspectives on small family size on the Island of Pantelleria, Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-level model is used to analyse socio-economic determinants of fertility at the community level. The survey and ethnographic data analysed were collected on the Island of Pantelleria, Sicily, during 1968–69 and 1974. Anthropological insights are used to account for cultural patterns as responses to specific historical and environmental circumstances which influence the central tendency of the distribution of family

A. H. Galt; L. J. Smith

1979-01-01

56

Aliphatic hydrocarbons in metasomatized gabbroic xenoliths from Hyblean diatremes (Sicily): Genesis in a serpentinite hydrothermal system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many tholeiite gabbro xenoliths from the Hyblean tuff-breccia deposits (Sicily, southern Italy) present mineralogical and geochemical evidence for hydrothermal alteration at different temperatures and water\\/rock ratios. In some cases, the primary mineral assemblage has been entirely replaced by Na-rich alkali feldspar, chlorite\\/smectite interlayers, zeolites, aegirine–augite, titanite, zircon etc. Hence the chemical composition of such metasomatic rocks displays larger amounts of

Enrico Ciliberto; Carmelo Crisafulli; Fabio Carmelo Manuella; Filippo Samperi; Salvatore Scirè; Vittorio Scribano; Marco Viccaro; Ezio Viscuso

2009-01-01

57

The point prevalence of otitis media with effusion among primary school children in Western Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to identify the prevalence of otitis media with effusion (OME) in primary school children and\\u000a to value the possible predisposing factors focusing on relationship between allergy and OME in Western Sicily. 2,097 children\\u000a attending primary school were screened from September 2006 to June 2007 in Sciacca. Children underwent pneumatic otoscopy,\\u000a skin tests, tympanogram and

Francesco Martines; Daniela Bentivegna; Fabiola Di Piazza; Gioacchino Martinciglio; Vincenzo Sciacca; Enrico Martines

2010-01-01

58

Geologic development and hydrocarbon habitats of the Tunisia-Sicily shelf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrocarbon habitats on the Tunisia-Sicily shelf result from the complex interplay of three factors: (1) proximity to a source of terrigenous sediments, (2) eustatic sea level changes resulting in major transgressive\\/regressive events, and (3) a varied and ever-changing structural mosaic involving successive transtensional, transpressive, and compressional tectonic phases. The stratigraphy, structure, and petroleum resources of the shelf are linked, directly

Schamel

1988-01-01

59

The last 7 millennia of vegetation and climate changes at Lago di Pergusa (central Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to investigate climate changes and human activities under the lens of palynology. Based on a new high-resolution pollen sequence (PG2) from Lago di Pergusa (667 m a.s.l., central Sicily, Italy) covering the last 6700 yr, we propose a reconstruction of climate and landscape changes over the recent past in central Sicily. Compared to former studies from Lago di Pergusa (Sadori and Narcisi, 2001), this work provides a reconstruction of the evolution of vegetation and climate over the last millennia in central Sicily, indeed completing previous results with new pollen data, which is particularly detailed on the last 3000 yr. Joint actions of increasing dryness, climate oscillations, and human impact shaped the landscape of this privileged site. Lago di Pergusa, besides being the main inland lake of Sicily, is very sensitive to climate change and its territory was inhabited and exploited continuously since the Palaeolithic. The lake sediments turned out to be a good observatory for natural phenomena that occurred in the last thousands of years. Results of the pollen-based study are integrated with changes in magnetic susceptibility and a tephra layer characterization. The tephra layer was shown to be related to the Sicanians' event, radiocarbon dated at 3055 ± 75 yr BP (Sadori and Narcisi, 2001). We performed palaeoclimate reconstructions by MAT (Modern Analogues Technique) and WAPLS (Weighted Average Partial Least Square). Palaeoclimate reconstructions based on the core show important climate fluctuations throughout the Holocene. Climate reconstruction points out four phases of cooling and enhanced wetness in the last three millennia (2600-2000, 1650-1100, 850-550, 400-200 cal BP, corresponding to the periods between 650-50 BC, and 300-850, 1100-1400, 1550-1750 AD, respectively). This appears to be the evidence of local responses to global climate oscillations during the recent past.

Sadori, L.; Ortu, E.; Peyron, O.; Zanchetta, G.; Vannière, B.; Desmet, M.; Magny, M.

2013-08-01

60

MORB-type neon in an enriched mantle beneath Etna, Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noble gas elemental and isotopic compositions were determined for five CO2–CH4 samples collected around Etna, Sicily, to investigate the geochemical features of the mantle beneath the volcano. The samples contain mantle-derived noble gases. The measured helium isotopic ratios (3He\\/4He) vary between 5.9 and 6.4 times atmospheric ratio (Ra=1.4×10?6), which are comparable to the ratios of olivines (6.1–8.2Ra) in the lavas

Shun'ichi Nakai; Hiroshi Wakita; Mario P Nuccio; Franco Italiano

1997-01-01

61

MORB-type neon in an enriched mantle beneath Etna, Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noble gas elemental and isotopic compositions were determined for five CO 2 -CH 4 samples collected around Etna, Sicily, to investigate the geochemical features of the mantle beneath the volcano. The samples contain mantle-derived noble gases. The measured helium isotopic ratios ( 3 He\\/ 4 He) vary between 5.9 and 6.4 times atmospheric ratio ( R a =1.4×10 -6 ),

Shun'ichi Nakai; Hiroshi Wakita; Mario P. Nuccio; Franco Italiano

1997-01-01

62

Survey on fluoride, bromide and chloride contents in public drinking water supplies in Sicily (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six hundred and sixty-seven water samples were collected from public drinking water supplies in Sicily and analysed for electric\\u000a conductivity and for their Cl?, Br? and F? contents. The samples were, as far as possible, collected evenly over the entire territory with an average sampling density\\u000a of about one sample for every 7,600 inhabitants. The contents of Cl? and Br?,

Walter D’Alessandro; Sergio Bellomo; Francesco Parello; Lorenzo Brusca; Manfredi Longo

2008-01-01

63

Transport organization and economic development of an European peripherical region: the case of Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport and communication networks are some of the most important factors which influence the socio-economic development, and particularly the tourist sector, of Sicily, a peripherical region by comparison with the European central areas. The most recent changes in the transport sector are: a) the creation of integrated trans-national networks, based on specific systems such as the inter-modality transport one and

Vittorio Ruggiero; Luigi Scrofani

2003-01-01

64

Analysis of vertical movements in eastern Sicily and southern Calabria (Italy) through geodetic leveling data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of repeated high precision leveling observations during the last 40 years along lines of the Italian fundamental network allowed us to estimate very recent vertical movements in eastern Sicily and southern Calabria (Italy). The network is measured by the Italian Istituto Geografico Militare (IGM) and we have analyzed three leveling lines. Because of the lack of an absolute reference datum, we have conducted the analyses in terms of relative elevation changes compared to reference benchmarks. Although the processing of the different time series obtained from the high precision leveling has allowed us to estimate only relative rates, their extreme accuracy, together with the large extension of networks, makes this type of measurement fundamental for the estimate of recent vertical deformation. In addition, correlating instrumental and geological data makes it possible to identify active tectonic structures whose elastic strain accumulation could be responsible for vertical deformation. In particular, vertical motion can be related to the activity of a W-E trending fault separating the Catania Plain from the Hyblean Plateau in southeastern Sicily, a N-S trending normal fault occurring north of the Messina town and the NE-SW trending Scilla normal fault in south-western Calabria. The last two are located on the sides of the Messina Straits, an area of broad interest for the planning of the single-span bridge between Sicily and mainland Italy.

Spampinato, Cecilia Rita; Braitenberg, Carla; Monaco, Carmelo; Scicchitano, Giovanni

2013-05-01

65

[The mummification in Sicily during the late Modern Age (XVIII-XIX century)].  

PubMed

Sicily is one of the Italian regions richest in mummified corpses. In addition to the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, a true unicum for their exceptional number of individuals, several other mummies collections, dated back to the late Modern Age, are present in many churches, convents and funerary chapels. The Sicilian mummies are the result of a particular treatment, obtained by drying the body in favourable microclimatic conditions without evisceration, a method which permitted equally to achieve a good state of preservation. The mummification was an extremely diffuse phenomenon in Sicily during the 18th and 19th centuries, not only among the privileged classes, but also among the middle-class. Besides the "Cappuccini Catacombs" of Palermo, at present the sites of Sicilian mummies known in scientific literature are restricted to Comiso (Ragusa) and Savoca (Messina); up to now in fact this historical-biological heritage has not been properly surveyed. In this article we present the first results of a survey carried out in the Messina's province during July 2005. The research enabled us to investigate this cultural phenomenon, to document the architectural structures appointed to the mummification process and to enrich the knowledge about the presence of mummified bodies in eastern Sicily during the Modern Age. PMID:18175629

Fornaciari, Antonio; Giuffra, Valentina

2006-01-01

66

Geologic development and hydrocarbon habitats of the Tunisia-Sicily shelf  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocarbon habitats on the Tunisia-Sicily shelf result from the complex interplay of three factors: (1) proximity to a source of terrigenous sediments, (2) eustatic sea level changes resulting in major transgressive/regressive events, and (3) a varied and ever-changing structural mosaic involving successive transtensional, transpressive, and compressional tectonic phases. The stratigraphy, structure, and petroleum resources of the shelf are linked, directly or indirectly, to the crustal template created during the middle Mesozoic rifting of the Tethyan margin of north Africa. Transtensional stretching and crustal fragmentation forming the Tunisia-Sicily passive margin occurred in the Late Triassic-Jurassic at the juncture of the South Saharan and Gibraltar shear zones, creating a complex array of ridges and furrows and localized pull-apart basins. During the Cretaceous and early Tertiary, the subsident block-faulted shelf was buried beneath a varied stratigraphy ranging from a thin pelagic limestone succession devoid of terrigenous components in Sicily to a considerably thicker neritic Tunisian succession composed of mixed terrigenous and carbonate strata. Beginning in the middle Cretaceous, the region experienced localized tectonic instability expressed as transtensional faulting, crustal inversion, salt diapirism, and submarine volcanism. The principal post-Paleozoic hydrocarbon habitats are (1) Triassic-Jurassic restricted pull-apart basins, (2) Cretaceous-early Tertiary structurally controlled shallow shelf edges, and (3) the late Cenozoic foredeep containing synorogenic clastic facies.

Schamel, S. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia (USA))

1988-08-01

67

Survey on fluoride, bromide and chloride contents in public drinking water supplies in Sicily (Italy).  

PubMed

Six hundred and sixty-seven water samples were collected from public drinking water supplies in Sicily and analysed for electric conductivity and for their Cl(-), Br(-) and F(-) contents. The samples were, as far as possible, collected evenly over the entire territory with an average sampling density of about one sample for every 7,600 inhabitants. The contents of Cl(-) and Br(-), ranging between 5.53 and 1,302 mg/l and between <0.025 and 4.76 mg/l respectively, correlated well with the electric conductivity, a parameter used as a proxy for water salinity. The highest values were found both along the NW and SE coasts, which we attributed to seawater contamination, and in the central part of Sicily, which we attributed to evaporitic rock dissolution. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.023 to 3.28 mg/l, while the highest values (only three exceeding the maximum admissible concentration of 1.5 mg/l) generally correlated either with the presence in the area of crystalline (volcanic or metamorphic) or evaporitic rocks or with contamination from hydrothermal activity. Apart from these limited cases of exceeding F(-) levels, the waters of public drinking water supplies in Sicily can be considered safe for human consumption for the analysed parameters. Some limited concern could arise from the intake of bromide-rich waters (about 3% exceeding 1 mg/l) because of the potential formation of dangerous disinfection by-products. PMID:18064536

D'Alessandro, Walter; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco; Brusca, Lorenzo; Longo, Manfredi

2007-12-07

68

Gas-Charged Sediments Within the Hyblean Plateu Seismo-Stratigraphic Sequence and Associated Likely Shallow Mud-Volacanoes Seafloor Features Offshore Southern Sicily (Sicily Channel - Mediterranean Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shallow province of small-scale likely mud-volcanoes (MVs) seafloor features was recently discovered few miles offshore south-eastern Sicily (Holland et al., 2003) over the Hyblean-Malta plateau (Sicily-channel - Mediterranean sea), on an area whose surface might be over 100 square km and in a bathymetric range comprised between -100 and -200m. Such discovery promoted the National multidisciplinary programm MESC (Mud volcanoes Ecosystem study - Sicily Channel) aimed to provide a detailed acoustic mapping of the area (Savini et al., 2006) and focused water and sediment samples to study the ecosystem response to such geological phenomena. The main data set thus collected, during three different cruises carried out by the Italian R/V UNIVERSITATIS by mean of acoustic survey techniques, including new multibeam bathymetric data, side- scan sonar mosaics, a dense network of chirp-sonar profiles and focused multi-tip sparker profiles, is here presented. The detailed seafloor topography and the side scan sonar mosaic well show the occurrence of a field of more than 100 small scale conical and sub-conical seabed features, few meters high. Their morphologies, their strong acoustic scattering and the presence over them of distinct gas plumes, are foremost distinctive proprieties that liken them to MVs. Such filed consists of single and composite MVs arranged on the seafloor in two main different styles: 1) several conical features 50 - 200m in diameter, preferentially aligned along the isobaths 2) numerous close-set small cones no more than 10m in diameter, settled within well defined, flat, elongated areas (the largest one reaches 2000m in its long axis and 500m in its short axis) rising up to 10m from the seafloor. The acoustic character of the sediments in the chirp and sparker records indicates that such features are gas charged, because of the presence of numerous acoustic anomalies (i.e.: acoustic turbidity zones, wipe outs, gas pockets, enhanced reflectors...). In particular, the identified gas-related seafloor features are associated to sub- surface structures formed within a gas accumulative horizon covered by a variable thickness of sediments. This gas accumulative horizon has been found in association to a marked unconformity resembles the last trasgressive surface at the boundary between the Holocene and the Pleistocene sediments. Such gas-charged horizon has been used to map the depth of the free gas within the seafloor sediments. The depth of this "gas- front" is variable and domes up to the seafloor where MVs morphologies are found at the surface, often showing gas plumes (up to 20m high) at their top.

Savini, A.; Tessarolo, C.; Corselli, C.

2007-12-01

69

The C8ORF38 homologue Sicily is a cytosolic chaperone for a mitochondrial complex I subunit  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial complex I (CI) is an essential component in energy production through oxidative phosphorylation. Most CI subunits are encoded by nuclear genes, translated in the cytoplasm, and imported into mitochondria. Upon entry, they are embedded into the mitochondrial inner membrane. How these membrane-associated proteins cope with the hydrophilic cytoplasmic environment before import is unknown. In a forward genetic screen to identify genes that cause neurodegeneration, we identified sicily, the Drosophila melanogaster homologue of human C8ORF38, the loss of which causes Leigh syndrome. We show that in the cytoplasm, Sicily preprotein interacts with cytosolic Hsp90 to chaperone the CI subunit, ND42, before mitochondrial import. Loss of Sicily leads to loss of CI proteins and preproteins in both mitochondria and cytoplasm, respectively, and causes a CI deficiency and neurodegeneration. Our data indicate that cytosolic chaperones are required for the subcellular transport of ND42.

Zhang, Ke; Li, Zhihong; Jaiswal, Manish; Bayat, Vafa; Xiong, Bo; Sandoval, Hector; Charng, Wu-Lin; David, Gabriela; Haueter, Claire; Yamamoto, Shinya; Graham, Brett H.

2013-01-01

70

A crustal-upper mantle model for southeastern Sicily (Italy) from the integration of petrologic and geophysical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interdisciplinary approach is proposed to investigate the structure and composition of the Permo-Triassic basement of the Hyblean Plateau and Sicily Channel. Comparisons of published data on peridotites and spinels from different geodynamic settings, and new data on Hyblean spinels, reveal the affinity of the Hyblean basement with an ultra-slow spreading oceanic lithosphere, rather than with the Africa continental plate. Similar results derive from volcanic rocks of the studied area, whose Nb/Yb vs. Th/Yb ratio hints at their affinity with the MORB-OIB array, even excluding any possible contamination with continental crust lithologies, unlike North Africa lavas. The comparison of He isotopic ratios from Hyblean Plateau and Sicily Channel highlights their similarity with values measured in fluids emitted from the Rainbow and Logatchev hydrothermal fields in Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Based on petrologic and geochemical evidence for the oceanic nature of the Permo-Triassic basement in southeastern Sicily, and the occurrence of serpentinized harzburgite xenoliths in Hyblean diatremes, the P-wave velocity model proposed for the investigated area is used to estimate lithospheric pressure, density, degree of serpentinization and magnetic susceptibility also considering both abyssal and ophiolitic serpentinites. The resulting values suggest the presence of peridotites affected by different degrees of serpentinization (35-100 vol.%) ranging to a depth of 8-19 km. As a whole, combined seismic, gravimetric and magnetic data indicate the presence of a marked anomaly at a depth of about 19 km. As a consequence, we consider the Moho discontinuity as a serpentinization front, by fixing the relative top at a depth of 19 km. Our results suggest that the oceanic lithospheric model for southeastern Sicily could be broadened to the Sicily Channel, which is possibly correlated to the adjacent Ionian oceanic basin, inferred as belonging to the Oman-Iraq-Levantine-Sicily seaway.

Manuella, Fabio Carmelo; Brancato, Alfonso; Carbone, Serafina; Gresta, Stefano

2013-05-01

71

Nitrate, sulphate and chloride contents in public drinking water supplies in Sicily, Italy.  

PubMed

Water samples collected from public drinking water supplies in Sicily were analysed for electric conductivity and for their chloride, sulphate and nitrate contents. The samples were collected as uniformly as possible from throughout the Sicilian territory, with an average sampling density of about one sample for every 7,600 inhabitants. Chloride contents that ranged from 5.53 to 1,302 mg/l were correlated strongly with electric conductivity, a parameter used as a proxy for water salinity. The highest values are attributable to seawater contamination along the coasts of the island. High chloride and sulphate values attributable to evaporitic rock dissolution were found in the central part of Sicily. The nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 296 mg/l, with 31 samples (4.7% of the total) exceeding the maximum admissible concentration of 50 mg/l. Anomalous samples always came from areas of intensive agricultural usage, indicating a clear anthropogenic origin. The same parameters were also measured in bottled water sold in Sicily, and they all were within the ranges for public drinking water supplies. The calculated mean nitrate intake from consuming public water supplies (16.1 mg/l) did not differ significantly from that of bottled water (15.2 mg/l). Although the quality of public water supplies needs to be improved by eliminating those that do not comply with the current drinking water limits, at present it does not justify the high consumption of bottled water (at least for nitrate contents). PMID:21717203

D'Alessandro, Walter; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco; Bonfanti, Pietro; Brusca, Lorenzo; Longo, Manfredi; Maugeri, Roberto

2011-06-30

72

Celiac disease in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a prevalence study in western Sicily (Italy).  

PubMed

The association between celiac disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus is well known. Up to now, celiac disease prevalence in children and adults with type 1 diabetes in Sicily has not been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of celiac disease in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who come from a defined geographical area in western Sicily and to investigate the clinical features of these subjects. The records of 492 consecutive patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus referred in a period of 5 years were analyzed. During the period of the survey, out of 492 patients with type 1 diabetes, 22 (4.5 %) had a previous diagnosis of celiac disease. There were 14 females and 8 males; these patients showed a mean age of 13 years at diabetes onset. Diagnosis of celiac disease was often simultaneous or subsequent to that of diabetes. Autoimmune thyroiditis was coexisting in 8 patients (36 %). Our data confirm, in a Sicilian population, the not unusual association between celiac disease and type 1 diabetes, although prevalence rate is lower than in others Italian studies. Autoimmune thyroiditis is present with high prevalence in these patients. Celiac disease diagnosis often followed onset of type 1 diabetes, particularly in female subjects with a young age at diabetes onset; therefore, in these subjects, an active search for the presence of celiac disease is warranted for many years after appearance of diabetes. PMID:22707396

Greco, Domenico; Pisciotta, Maria; Gambina, Francesco; Maggio, Filippo

2012-06-16

73

Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) bioindicator of lead and copper pollution in Sicily (Italy).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate Pb and Cu accumulation in muscle and skin samples of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Sicily, for monitoring of environmental metals pollution. Metals determination, carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), showed the presence of Pb and Cu in all samples analyzed. Pb concentrations were similar in muscle (0.04±0.009 mg/kg) and skin (0.03±0.004 mg/kg) samples, while Cu levels resulted higher in muscle (1.842±0.178 mg/kg) than in skin (1.22±0.151 mg/kg). In addition, a comparative analysis of Pb and Cu concentrations was carried out among samples from different areas of Sicily and between female and male, young and old, immature and mature foxes. Metals content found in all muscle and skin samples demonstrates that V. vulpes could be a valid "sentinel" species of rural and suburban areas to study the environmental metals pollution and the habitat quality. PMID:23313116

Naccari, C; Giangrosso, G; Macaluso, A; Billone, E; Cicero, A; D'Ascenzi, C; Ferrantelli, V

2013-01-11

74

Differential Greek and northern African migrations to Sicily are supported by genetic evidence from the Y chromosome  

PubMed Central

The presence or absence of genetic heterogeneity in Sicily has long been debated. Through the analysis of the variation of Y-chromosome lineages, using the combination of haplogroups and short tandem repeats from several areas of Sicily, we show that traces of genetic flows occurred in the island, due to ancient Greek colonization and to northern African contributions, are still visible on the basis of the distribution of some lineages. The genetic contribution of Greek chromosomes to the Sicilian gene pool is estimated to be about 37% whereas the contribution of North African populations is estimated to be around 6%. In particular, the presence of a modal haplotype coming from the southern Balkan Peninsula and of its one-step derivates associated to E3b1a2-V13, supports a common genetic heritage between Sicilians and Greeks. The estimate of Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor is about 2380 years before present, which broadly agrees with the archaeological traces of the Greek classic era. The Eastern and Western part of Sicily appear to be significantly different by the ?2-analysis, although the extent of such differentiation is not very high according to an analysis of molecular variance. The presence of a high number of different haplogroups in the island makes its gene diversity to reach about 0.9. The general heterogeneous composition of haplogroups in our Sicilian data is similar to the patterns observed in other major islands of the Mediterranean, reflecting the complex histories of settlements in Sicily.

Di Gaetano, Cornelia; Cerutti, Nicoletta; Crobu, Francesca; Robino, Carlo; Inturri, Serena; Gino, Sarah; Guarrera, Simonetta; Underhill, Peter A; King, Roy J; Romano, Valentino; Cali, Francesco; Gasparini, Mauro; Matullo, Giuseppe; Salerno, Alfredo; Torre, Carlo; Piazza, Alberto

2009-01-01

75

The role of native flower visitors in pollinating Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., naturalized in Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of insects in pollination and consequently in fruit set and quality was assessed in two commercial orchards of the cactus pear, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., in Agrigento Province, Sicily. In 1997, insects visiting flowers were sampled during May–June (the first bloom) and July (the second bloom, induced by the “scozzolatura” practise). More than 50 insect species belonging to

Gabriella Lo Verde; Tommaso La Mantia

2011-01-01

76

The role of native flower visitors in pollinating Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., naturalized in Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of insects in pollination and consequently in fruit set and quality was assessed in two commercial orchards of the cactus pear, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., in Agrigento Province, Sicily. In 1997, insects visiting flowers were sampled during May-June (the first bloom) and July (the second bloom, induced by the \\

Gabriella Lo Verde; Tommaso La Mantia

2011-01-01

77

The Endangered Arbresh Language and the Importance of Standardised Writing for its Survival: The Case of Piana degli Albanesi, Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study covers two main topics: a presentation of the condition of the endangered Arbresh language and analysis of those features of attrition that demonstrate the importance of writing and codification of a language; and an examination of the implementation of recent linguistic policies in Piana degli Albanesi, Sicily, in interaction with the complex environment of a bilingual and diglossic

Eda Derhemi

78

Analysis of deformation structures in Pliocene and Quaternary deposits of the Hyblean Plateaux (south-eastern Sicily)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A singular association of deformation structures that have disturbed terrains up to Quaternary age, has been detected along the rocky coast of Vendicari (south-eastern Sicily). These structures are soft sediment deformations consisting of autoclastic breccias, diapyr-like injections and thixotropic wedges, as well as fractures, generally opened and filled by sediments. Both soft and brittle deformations can be due either to

Claudia Pirrotta; Maria Serafina Barbano

2011-01-01

79

Strain Accumulation Across the Messina Straits and Kinematics of Sicily and Calabria From GPS Data and Dislocation Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use GPS velocities and dislocation modeling to investigate the rate and shape of interseismic strain loading in the area affected by the 1908 Mw 7.1 Messina earthquake (southern Italy) in the framework of the complex central Mediterranean micro-plates kinematics. Our data confirm the change in the velocity trends between Sicily and Calabria, moving from NNW-ward to NE-ward, and details a fan-like pattern across the Straits where maximum extensional strain-rates are ~90 nanostrain/yr, oriented normal to the coasts of Sicily, according to the presence of SW-NE trending normal faults driving contemporary crustal deformation. Half space dislocation modeling of GPS velocities is used to infer the interseismic slip-rates and geometric fault parameters, obtaining optimal values of 3.4 and 1.8 mm/yr for the dip-slip and strike-slip components, respectively, along a 30° dipping normal fault, locked at 7.8 Km depth. By developing a regional elastic block model that account for both crustal blocks rotations and strain loading at block-bounding faults, we show that the measured velocity gradient across the Straits may be significantly affected by the elastic strain contribute of other nearby active faults. In particular, seeking for signals of the possibly locked Calabrian subduction interface onto the observed velocity gradients in NE-Sicily and SW-Calabria, we find that this longer wavelength signal can be presently super-imposed on the observed velocity gradients in NE-Sicily and Calabria, whereas, minor effects are expected for other nearby faults. Our analysis, if from one side measures the current state of strain building in a highly seismically hazardous area, also put new lights on the potential seismic hazard of the wider Sicily and Calabria region.

Serpelloni, E.; Burgmann, R.; Anzidei, M.; Baldi, P.; Mastrolembo, B.

2009-12-01

80

Seasonal Variation of Water Mass Content in the Western Mediterranean and Its Relationship with the Inflows Through the Straits of Gibraltar and Sicily.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis of western Mediterranean current meter and historical hydrographic data suggests a direct relation in the seasonal inflows of Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) through the Strait of Sicily and Atlantic Water (AW) through the Strait of Gibralt...

G. M. Manzella P. E. Violette

1990-01-01

81

Past and present role of the Indian-fig prickly-pear ( Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, Cactaceae) in the agriculture of sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of prickly-pear cacti occurring in Sicily, the most widespread and economically important isOpuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller. In Sicily it has, since its introduction, played an important role in the exploitation of marginal areas. The\\u000a Sicilian experience is described with reference to the historical outlines and the present intensive production of late fruit.\\u000a Information on historical and actual uses of the

Giuseppe Barbera; Francesco Carimi; Paolo Inglese

1992-01-01

82

Morphological and molecular characterization of Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) from Sicily  

PubMed Central

Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. parasitizing roots of lentil in Sicily, Italy, is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by a relatively high lip region with three annuli, mean stylet length of 16 ?m, with anteriorly flattened knobs, cylindrical body with a relatively anterior vulva, large and ovoid spermatheca full of sperm, plump tail with truncate, irregularly annulated terminus, and by the presence of males. Molecular ITS-RFLP and sequencing analyses of the new species showed clear differences from other most morphologically similar species, such as P. thornei and P. mediterraneus. Preliminary host range tests revealed that chickpea, pea, faba bean and durum wheat are good hosts of P. lentis n. sp., whereas common bean, alfalfa and barley are less robust hosts and tomato, bell pepper, eggplant, melon and sunflower are poor hosts for the nematode.

De Luca, F.; Handoo, Z. A.; Di Vito, M.

2008-01-01

83

Prevalence of sensitization to Anisakis simplex among professionally exposed populations in Sicily.  

PubMed

Anisakis simplex (AS) is a cause of allergic sensitization and potential occupational risk is suggested in fishermen and workers assigned to fish processing and sale. A cross-sectional study was conducted in order to assess possible health effects of occupational exposure to AS in workers recruited from western Sicily fisheries sector. Social, demographic, and occupation-related data were collected. Serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgE levels to AS (threshold >0.35 kU/L) were determined by an fluoroimmunoassay technique. Ninety-four subjects with potential occupational exposure (fishmongers, fishermen, fish industry employees) were recruited. Specific AS IgEs were detected in 20.2% of the study population. AS IgE seroprevalence was elevated 6.7-fold (p = .03) among fishermen/sailors compared with fish industry workers. The study suggested the importance to adopt specific prevention strategies against exposure to AS in the occupational setting. PMID:22524649

Mazzucco, Walter; Lacca, Guido; Cusimano, Rosanna; Provenzani, Ambra; Costa, Antonella; Di Noto, Anna Maria; Massenti, Maria Fatima; Leto-Barone, Maria Stefania; Lorenzo, Gabriele Di; Vitale, Francesco

2012-01-01

84

High-resolution observations of the path of the overflow from the Sicily Strait  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution velocity and hydrographic measurements, including data acquired by the autonomous underwater vehicle AUTOSUB-2, are used to provide a detailed description of the path of the deep and intermediate overflow waters in the north-west region of the Sicily Strait. There are two branches of the overflow: one passing through the western sill and the other passing through the eastern sill. The western branch of the overflow is seen to circulate around the central bank separating the two sills and head back towards the eastern Mediterranean before turning northwards again. It then follows a path similar to that of the eastern branch but at a deeper level. Although weak, the western branch is still identifiable 60 km downstream of the sills and lies below the eastern branch of the overflow. The net transport is estimated to be 1 Sv which is consistent with other studies. Evidence of tidal and sub-tidal variability in the overflow is also presented.

Stansfield, K.; Gasparini, G. P.; Smeed, D. A.

2003-09-01

85

Mediterranean diet and longevity in Sicily: survey in a Sicani Mountains population.  

PubMed

Over the past several years, increasing evidence suggests that the Mediterranean diet has a beneficial influence on several age-related diseases, showing protective effect on health and longevity. Mediterranean diet refers to dietary patterns found in olive-growing regions of the Mediterranean countries. Previous data reported that in Sicily, Italy, the largest Mediterranean island, there are some mountainous regions where there is a high frequency of male centenarians with respect to the Italian average. The aim of the present study was to characterize centenarians living in one of this region, the Sicani Mountains, located in western Sicily. Present data shows that in this zone there are more centenarians with respect to the Italian average. In fact, in the three villages of the Sicani Mountains, there were 15 people ranging from 100 to 107 years old, of the total population of about 10,000 inhabitants. This centenarian number was more than six-fold higher the national average (15.0 vs. 2.4/10,000); the female/male ratio was 1.5 in the study area, whereas the national ratio is 4.54. Centenarians living in these villages had anthropometric measurements within normal limits and moderate sensory disability without any sign of age-related diseases, including cognitive deterioration and dementia. In addition, their clinical chemistry profile was similar to young controls and far better than that of old controls. Unequivocally, their nutritional assessment showed a high adherence to the Mediterranean nutritional profile, with low glycemic index food consumed. Overall, close adherence to Mediterranean diet seems to play a key role in age-related disease prevention and in attaining longevity. PMID:22533429

Vasto, Sonya; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Rizzo, Claudia; Monastero, Roberto; Marchese, Antonio; Caruso, Calogero

2012-04-01

86

Autosomal microsatellite and mtDNA genetic analysis in Sicily (Italy).  

PubMed

DNA samples from 465 blood donors living in 7 towns of Sicily, the largest island of Italy, have been collected according to well defined criteria, and their genetic heterogeneity tested on the basis of 9 autosomal microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms for a total of 85 microsatellite allele and 10 mtDNA haplogroup frequencies. A preliminary account of the results shows that: a) the samples are genetically heterogeneous; b) the first principal coordinates of the samples are correlated more with their longitude than with their latitude, and this result is even more remarkable when one outlier sample (Butera) is not considered; c) distances among samples calculated from allele and haplogroup frequencies and from the isonymy matrix are weakly correlated (r = 0.43, P = 0.06) but such correlation disappears (r = 0.16) if the mtDNA haplogroups alone are taken into account; d) mtDNA haplogroups and microsatellite distances suggest settlements of people occurred at different times: divergence times inferred from microsatellite data seem to describe a genetic composition of the town of Sciacca mainly derived from settlements after the Roman conquest of Sicily (First Punic war, 246 BC), while all other divergence times take root from the second to the first millennium BC, and therefore seem to backdate to the pre-Hellenistic period. A more reliable association of these diachronic genetic strata to different historical populations (e.g. Sicani, Elymi, Siculi), if possible, must be postponed to the analysis of more samples and hopefully more informative uniparental DNA markers such as the recently available DHPLC-SNP polymorphisms of the Y chromosome. PMID:12556234

Romano, V; Calì, F; Ragalmuto, A; D'Anna, R P; Flugy, A; De Leo, G; Giambalvo, O; Lisa, A; Fiorani, O; Di Gaetano, C; Salerno, A; Tamouza, R; Charron, D; Zei, G; Matullo, G; Piazza, A

2003-01-01

87

Artemisia arborescens L.: essential oil composition and effects of plant growth stage in some genotypes from Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils from aerial parts of several Artemisia arborescens L. populations, collected in five different localities of Sicily, were analyzed by gas chromatograph–flame ionization detector (GC–FID) and GC–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) in order to study the chemical composition and its variability due to phenological stage. Forty-three compounds, accounting for more than 92% of the oil, were identified. Monoterpene fraction with the

Marcello Militello; Alessandra Carrubba; María Amparo Blázquez

2012-01-01

88

Chemical and Isotopic Composition of Waters and Dissolved Gases in Some Thermal Springs of Sicily and Adjacent Volcanic Islands, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrochemical (major and some minor constituents), stable isotope ( and , ?13CTDIC total dissolved inorganic carbon) and dissolved gas composition have been determined on 33 thermal discharges located throughout\\u000a Sicily (Italy) and its adjacent islands. On the basis of major ion contents, four main water types have been distinguished:\\u000a (1) a Na-Cl type; (2) a Ca-Mg > Na-SO4-Cl type; (3)

Fausto Grassa; Giorgio Capasso; Rocco Favara; Salvatore Inguaggiato

2006-01-01

89

Phthalate, adipate and sebacate residues by HRGC-MS in olive oils from Sicily and Molise (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phthalate, adipate and sebacate esters contamination in olive oils produced in Sicily in the crop years 2006–2009 and in Molise in the crop years 2007–2008 was studied by HRGC-MS. The statistical elaboration of plasticizer data was performed to compare the contamination of the Sicilian samples with those of the samples produced in Molise in the same crop years and to

G. mo Dugo; V. Fotia; V. Lo Turco; R. Maisano; A. G. Potortì; A. Salvo; G. Di Bella

2011-01-01

90

Ground penetrating radar survey finalized to the recovery of the “S. Agata alla Badia” church in Catania (eastern Sicily, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous archaeological sites dating to the greek-roman period have been found in the underground of the city of Catania (eastern\\u000a Sicily, Italy). Their presence is a testimony of the several settlements that have followed in this area over time. In this\\u000a work we have conducted electromagnetic surveys, consisting of ten georadar profiles, inside the church of “S. Agata alla Badia”,

S. Imposa; F. Barone; S. Gresta; A. Leone

2009-01-01

91

Study on Unrecognized Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) by Ankle\\/Brachial Index and Arterial Comorbidity in Catania, Sicily, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is under diagnosed and early diagnosis decreases consequences. We screened unrecognized PAD focusing on arterial co-morbidities. In the 3412 subjects, screened from 10 general practices in the city of Catania (Sicily, Italy), ankle brachial index (ABI) measurements were performed. An ABI ?0.9 was considered as valid in diagnosing PAD. ABI value ?0.9 was found in 2.3%,

Salvatore Santo Signorelli; Massimiliano Anzaldi; Valerio Fiore; Stefano Catanzaro; Massimo Simili; Benedetto Torrisi; Sergio Neri

2010-01-01

92

Pb isotope composition in lichens and aerosols from eastern Sicily: Insights into the regional impact of volcanoes on the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 25 lichen thalli of Parmelia conspersa (Ehrh), collected at Vulcano island and at Mt. Etna, during a one-year biogeochemical survey, were analyzed for Pb, br, Al, Sc,[sup 206]Pb\\/[sup 207]Pb, and [sup 208]Pb\\/[sup 206]Pb ratios. Lead isotope ratios were also measured on aerosol samples from urban areas and industrial sites of Sicily. The observed [sup 206]Pb\\/[sup 207]Pb range

Fabrice Monna; Alessandro Aiuppa; Daniela Varrica; Gaetano Dongarra

1999-01-01

93

Paleoseismological multi-theme study of seismically induced geological effects at Vendicari (south-eastern Sicily).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong earthquakes can produce direct and permanent geological effects on the earth surface. Beyond surface faulting, other effects, such as landslides, liquefactions and ground deformations (seismites), take place in the epicentral area as a consequence of the seismic wave propagation in the sediments. Since the last three decades only, these features have been considered indicators of seismicity and their analysis (paleoseismological off-fault study) has been used as an useful tool for obtaining crucial information on the causative earthquake parameters. Such analyses are especially useful in areas where earthquakes occurred before the seismic instrument development or without clear evidence of surface faulting. Since paleoseismology is a youth discipline, the integration of innovative and multidisciplinary techniques and the updating of the case studies on seismites is of fundamental importance. During historical time south-eastern Sicily has been hit by strong earthquakes (M up to 7), such as the 1169, 1542 and 1693 events. Given the lack of surface faulting evidence, the real source location of these earthquakes is a still open question and represents the main gap of the Sicilian seismogenic framework, therefore paleosismological off-fault study can contribute to identify seismogenic sources. Along the NNE-SSW trending rocky coast of Vendicari, we detected a singular association of deformational structures affecting terrains up to Quaternary age. These structures are both soft sediment deformations (autoclastic breccias, diapyr-like injections, dikes and thyxotropic wedges), probably linked to liquefaction mechanisms, and fragile deformations, consisting of opened fractures generally filled by sediment (Neptunian dykes). With the aim to define the deformation mechanisms that affected the deposits at Vendicari, we studied in detail the local stratigraphic sequence and the deformational structures, performing a mesostructural study of the fractures and the analysis of the microscopic characteristic of the filling materials, as well. The systematic and paleostress analyses of the fractures highlighted a high variability in the architectural style and a high dispersion of the plane direction. This is probably linked to more than one deformative mechanism concurring in their development and masking the stress field. A coseismic brittle deformation, linked to the shaking and to the seismic wave propagation, and a lateral spreading and settlement mechanism with fissuring parallel to the coastline (driven by gravity under a moderate topographic gradients), are proposed as probable causes of the fracture development together with the tectonic stress field. However, the analysis of the fractures, filtered and cleaned up from the contribute of the disturb mechanisms, shows a stress field characterized by a probable NW-SE-trending ?1,which iscompatible with the active regional stress. The occurrence of violent coseismic deformation should be also testified by the development of the liquefaction-driven soft sediment deformations, observed in the area, that reveals the application of an horizontal shear stress and of a sudden high hydraulic pressure. The overall analysis of seismites at Vendicari highlights the occurrence of at least three triggering events, occurred after the Pleistocene age. They could be tentatively associate with the historical 1169, 1542 and 1693 earthquakes (I0 ?X) or with similar or strongest paleoevents, considering the minimum epicentral distances and the minimum intensity at a site (Is ? IX) for which an earthquake is capable to induce these association of seismites. The paleoseismological study at Vendicari allowed us to upgrade the paleoseimological off-fault techniques and to increase the study cases in Sicily. Moreover, this study provides, if integrated with similar studies at regional scale, new and useful information on ancient earthquakes in a high-seismicity area like eastern Sicily, for a better characterization of the seismogenic sources.

Pirrotta, Claudia; Serafina Barbano, Maria

2010-05-01

94

Evidence for activity of the Calabrian arc system and implications for historical seismicity in Eastern Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wadati-Benioff zone under Calabria and the Tyrrhenian Sea is located in the centre of the Mediterranean Sea, a region characterized by complex tectonics. The presence of deep earthquakes under the Tyrrhenian Sea to a depth of 500 km, depicting an Ionian slab dipping about 70° towards the NW (Selvaggi and Chiarabba, 95), related with an active volcanic arc (the Aeolian Islands). The Calabrian peninsula is among the most seismically active regions in the Mediterranean area. Several historical seismic events, such as 1169 and 1693 earthquakes, reached MCS intensities of XI and are associated with destructive tsunami (Piatanesi and Tinti, 1998). The source of these two strongest earthquakes has still not been identified with certainty. The 1693 earthquake struck Eastern Sicily (60000 people killed) and generated a 5-10 m high tsunami (Piatanesi and Tinti, 1998). The 1169 earthquake had similar intensities and a comparable isoseismal pattern, suggesting an equivalent source. Because of the tsunami generated in 1693 and because the isoseismals are open to the sea, the source region appears to be offshore. The subduction fault plane would then be a good candidate for the 1693 event. However, a lack of instrumentally recorded thrust earthquakes, characteristic of active subduction zone, suggests that if subduction is active, the fault plane may be locked since the instrumental period. Reported recent GPS motions suggest that the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere beneath the Tyrrhenian basin plays an minor role in controlling the active deformation of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary, but may be locally still active in particular in the Calabrian arc (D'Agostino et al., 08). Moreover the offshore accretionary wedge is known to include compressional anticlines and ongoing hydrological activity (mud volcanoes). We present preliminary results from reprocessed 96-channels seismic reflection profiles acquired during the French "Archimede" cruise (1997) crossing the Calabrian prism, the Ionian Abyssal Plain and the Mediterranean Ridge. A more recent Italian seismic cruise "Calamare" investigated the lateral boundaries of the Calabrian prism. The joint interpretation of these datasets will allow us to seek evidence of continuous tectonic activity of the system, in particular of the Malta-Hyblean escarpment which is also proposed as a candidate source for great earthquakes offshore Sicily (Bianca et al., 99). Additional work is in progress, including a CIRCEE cruise proposal (an OBS + MCS seismic survey, with sediment coring and heat-flow measurements). The objectives are : 1/ to image the deep structure of this subduction zone, 2/ to characterize its thermal state, 3) to determine a geometry of the seismogenic part of the plate interface and 4) to address the recurrence interval for large earthquakes.

Gallais, F.; Gutscher, M.-A.; Graindorge, D.; Polonia, A.

2009-04-01

95

Characterisation and differentiation of pigments employed on the façade of ``Noto's Valley'' monuments (Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the “Noto’s Valley” monuments façades, located in different towns of Sicily such as Ragusa Ibla, Modica and Noto, present different colours and in many cases the towns themselves are characterized by evident chromatic variations. The knowledge of colour and in particular the characterization of pigments is of utmost importance in the baroque Sicilian buildings, because the peculiarity of the colour is one of the features that makes the “Noto Valley” monuments a World Cultural Heritage site. The present works aim is to characterise and differentiate the pigments used on the façade of monuments and inside the plasters. In particular, we perform a micro-textural and analytical analysis through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a mineralogical investigation through the conjunction of optical microscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). All the experimental results have allowed us to clearly classify the pigments into earths rich in clay minerals and earth containing gypsum. Furthermore, we also show that the earths rich in clay minerals from Ragusa and Modica areas have local provenance.

La Russa, M. F.; Barone, G.; Mazzoleni, P.; Pezzino, A.; Crupi, V.; Majolino, D.

2008-07-01

96

Centenarians and diet: what they eat in the Western part of Sicily.  

PubMed

This paper pays attention to the modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet and nutrition that might influence life extension and successful ageing. Previous data reported that in Sicily, the biggest Mediterranean island, there are some places where there is a high frequency of male centenarians with respect to the Italian average. The present data show that in Sicani Mountain zone there are more centenarians with respect to the Italian average. In fact, in five villages of Sicani Mountains, there were 19 people with an age range of 100-107?years old from a total population of 18,328 inhabitants. So, the centenarian number was 4.32-fold higher than the national average (10.37 vs. 2.4/10,000); the female/male ratio was 1.1:1 in the study area, while the national ratio is 4.54:1. Unequivocally, their nutritional assessment showed a high adherence to the Mediterranean nutritional profile with low glycemic index food consumed. To reach successful ageing it is advisable to follow a diet with low quantity of saturated fat and high amount of fruits and vegetables rich in phytochemicals. PMID:22524271

Vasto, Sonya; Rizzo, Claudia; Caruso, Calogero

2012-04-23

97

Relationships between a new slope morphometric index and calanchi erosion in northern Sicily, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Italian badlands, or "calanchi", are common landforms in Mediterranean areas including central and southern Italy. Calanchi landforms may be compared to small hydrographic basins. These landforms are characterised by dense, hierarchical and rapidly evolving drainage systems carved into steep clayey slopes and by a sharply alternating pattern of furrows and narrow, generally sharp crests. This work presents a study of morphometric characteristics and a statistical analysis for two sites in northern Sicily (Italy), on outcrops of silty-clay deposits affected by active erosion processes, which give this area a typical calanchi landscape. In particular, factors closely linked to the characteristics of the hydrographic network and slope morphometry were considered and analysed. The initial geometry of the slopes was reconstructed and statistically compared with that of the current calanchi slopes including the drainage network. A new morphometric index (Morphometric Slope Index, MSI) was defined to represent the initial slope geometry as a whole. This index was found to be effective in defining the structure of hydrographic networks, summarising the characteristics and type of slope evolution, and quantifying the rate of soil erosion. The rate was determined based on both linear (gully erosion) and areal (landslides, sheet and rill erosion) morphogenetic processes, and our analysis based on MSI indicates the dominance of areal erosion. MSI could also be used for basins larger than calanchi to represent the characteristics of geomorphic processes.

Buccolini, Marcello; Coco, Laura; Cappadonia, Chiara; Rotigliano, Edoardo

2012-05-01

98

Geo-electromagnetic survey of the fresh/salt water interface in the coastal southeastern Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of geo-electromagnetic surveys and 3D mapping of the spatial distribution of fresh/salt water interface conducted during the IAEA submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) experiment in March 2002 near the boat basin in Donnalucata in the southeastern Sicily are reported. The high-resolution geo-electromagnetic profile showed the presence of several fresh/salt water horizons with various formation resistivities of geologic media. The geo-electromagnetic data confirmed the observations made by seepage metres that in the central part of the Donnalucata boat basin high seepage rates of recirculated seawater were observed. The 3D spatial distribution of formation resistivities with depth showed a saltwater intrusion at the pier, which acts as a barrier for the transport of fresh water to the sea. The geo-electromagnetic measurements showed spatial and temporal variability of the fresh/salt water interface, as measured formation resistivities were in inverse relationship with the daily tide, showing a nonlinear transformation of the boundary of the fresh/salt water interface in the process of its spreading offshore with time.

Kontar, Evgeny A.; Ozorovich, Yuri R.

2006-05-01

99

Geophysical monitoring of a complex geologic framework: the multi-disciplinary sensor networks in Sicily (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2004 the Osservatorio Etneo INGV has begun a new approach to the geophysical monitoring of volcanic and seismic areas of Sicily (Italy) where the core is a new type of remote infrastructure able to efficiently accommodate different kinds of sensor. In particular our multi-parametric network is mainly focused on the monitoring of different geophysical parameters (seismic ground velocity and acceleration, infrasound and ground deformation GPS).The whole seismic network consists of 66 broad band digital stations, 19 analog stations, 13 accelerometric stations and 12 infrasonic stations, for a total of 110 stations while the Continuous GPS network consist of 80 stations. Every station is equipped with solar panels in order to satisfy the power requirements of the instruments and with satellite-based communication systems. In this work we show both the technical solutions of this integrated network and its main advantages, if compared with older kinds of remote stations. Moreover we show some examples of the more interesting scientific results achieved thank to this technologically advanced network.

Cantarero, M.; Di Prima, S.; Mattia, M.; Patanè, D.; Rossi, M.

2012-04-01

100

Absolute paleointensities between 60 and 160 kyear BP from Mount Etna (Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleointensity measurements were conducted on 17 distinct lava flows from Mount Etna (Sicily) in order to obtain records of absolute paleointensities for the period covering the last 60-160 kyear. A complementary aspect of this study was to improve and extend the calibration of relative paleointensities obtained for the same interval from sedimentary sequences based on absolute values of virtual axial dipole moments. Seventy-three samples have been subjected to double heating Thellier-Coe experiments under vacuum and care was taken to perform additional studies dealing with the magnetic mineralogy and to scrutinize the effects of heating upon magnetic minerals. Potassium-argon (K-Ar) datings provided precise ages in most cases. Absolute paleointensities were obtained with success for ten lavas flows. The succession of the virtual axial geomagnetic dipoles (VADM) oscillate between extrema centered around a mean value of 6.3 +/- 2.6 × 1022 A m2. This result is in good agreement with the sedimentary record published for the same period and confirms that there has been an appreciable decrease in geomagnetic field intensity between 80 and 150 kyear.

Tric, Emmanuel; Valet, Jean-Pierre; Gillot, Pierre-Yves; Lemeur, Isabelle

1994-08-01

101

Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the analysis of archaeological dyes from Licata (Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The materials used in the decoration of ancient roman building have been the object of investigation by means of non-destructive and micro-destructive techniques. A number of spectroscopic analysis, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), micro-Raman, and micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, on three fragments of architectural decorative painted elements 6rom an excavation near Licata (Sicily), have been performed with the aim to identify the pigments composition and their interaction with the matrixE The fragments have been dated by the archaeologists to late III B.C and the end of I B.C (such an attribution agrees well with historical information about the site) and showed four different coloration: red, yellow, light blue, and black. LIBS, emerged only in the last years as a very promising tool for the analysis and the characterization of elemental composition of a large variety of objects in the field of cultural heritage. The technique is based on the spectroscopic detection and identification of the light emission from excited atomic species in the plasma produced by a high energy laser pulse focused onto the surface of the sample. Although LIBS can give information about the pigments' atomic composition, structural ones have been gained with micro-Raman spectroscopy. Thus, the combined LIBS and micro-Raman measurements allowed the pigments' identification for all of the four colorations.

Ponterio, R.; Trusso, S.; Vasi, C.; La Torre, G. F.; Toscano Raffa, A.

102

Evidence of seismic deformation of the paved floor of the decumanus at Tindari (NE, Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the ancient town of Tindari (NE, Sicily) was settled on a plateau the most surficial layer of which was made of unconsolidated material. Ongoing excavations at the archaeological site at Tindari uncovered a large portion of the decumanus which suffered deformations preliminarily assigned to coseismic effects. An analysis of the local dynamic response through the simulation of strong seismic shaking to the bedrock and modelling of spectral ratios of the bedrock-soft soil was carried out to verify the susceptibility of superficial terrains of the promontory to coseismic deformations. To perform this simulation the finite element method (FEM) was used. Four accelerometric recordings of three earthquakes of medium-high magnitude, recorded on rocky sites, were chosen to simulate the seismic shaking, using a constitutive law for the materials composing the promontory layers both of linear-elastic type and of elastoplastic type. The analysis of the linear-elastic field allowed the definition of the frequencies for which the spectral ratios of the accelerations recorded the highest amplifications; in particular the frequency range 31.5-37.2 Hz can be combined with deformation of the paved floor of the decumanus. The analysis in the elastoplastic field highlighted the zones of promontory more susceptible to suffer plasticization process. The results show that the topmost layer of the decumanus is the most susceptible to suffer plasticization. Therefore, the performed analysis lends greater support to the hypothesis that the deformations were produced by seismic shaking.

Bottari, C.; Bottari, A.; Carveni, P.; Saccà, C.; Spigo, U.; Teramo, A.

2008-07-01

103

Geology of the Strait of Sicily: An example of geological mapping  

SciTech Connect

The Strait of Sicily is a comparatively shallow-water threshold which divides the Mediterranean into western and eastern deep-water hollows. The author composed a geologic map of the bottom of the Sicilian Strait and adjacent aquatories with a scale of 1:500,000. This map is based on the geologic-geophysical data of Soviet and foreign investigations (including more than 15,000 km of seismic reflection profiles, dredging, sampling, and drilling data) and their seismostratigraphic interpretation. Most of this region is underlain by the continental crust with a thick sedimentary cover. The most widespread sediments are Pliocene-Quaternary. On the map they are shown only in basins where thickness exceeds 200 m (Hammamet, Gabes, Tunisian, etc). Additionally, there are mapped outcrops of Messinian evaporites at the steep slopes of the Malta escarpment, Pantelleria and Malta grabens, Adventure and Skerki banks, etc. Also shown are outcrops of Paleogene, Cretaceous, Jurassic, and Upper Triassic rocks. This new geologic map should generate great interest because of the high petroleum potential of this region.

Yutsis, V.V. (Moscow State Univ. (USSR))

1988-08-01

104

Geochemistry and potential use of groundwater in the Rocca Busambra area (Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Rocca Busambra area (mid-west Sicily, Italy), from November 1999 to July 2002, 23 water points including wells and springs were sampled and studied for their chemical and isotopic compositions. Two rain gauges were also installed at different altitudes, and rainwater was collected monthly to determine the isotopic composition. The obtained results revealed the Rocca Busambra carbonate complex as being the main recharge area on account of its high permeability value. From a chemical view point, two main groups of water can be distinguished: calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate-type and calcium-magnesium-chloride-sulphate-type waters. The first group reflects the dissolution of the carbonate rocks; the second group probably originates from circulation within flyschoid sediments. Three water wells differ from the other samples due to their relatively high Na and K content, which probably is to be referred to a marked interaction with the “Calcareniti di Corleone” formation, which is rich in glauconite [(K, Na)(Fe3+, Al, Mg)2(Si, Al)4O10(OH)2]. In accordance with WHO guidelines for drinking water (2004), almost all the samples collected can be considered drinkable, with the exception of four of them, whose NO3 -, F- and Na+ contents exceed the limits. On the contrary, the sampled groundwater studied is basically suitable for irrigation.

Fontana, M.; Grassa, F.; Cusimano, G.; Favara, R.; Hauser, S.; Scaletta, C.

2009-04-01

105

Scenes from the past: radiologic evidence of anthropogenic mummification in the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to use paleoradiologic analyses to investigate a sample of the mummies in the Capuchin Catacombs in Palermo, Sicily, in order to assess skeletal abnormalities and the state of preservation, especially the condition of the internal organs, and to determine radiologic evidence of anthropogenic mummification. Ten 19th and early 20th century mummies with good external preservation were investigated by using a portable direct radiography unit inside the Capuchin Catacombs. The radiographs clearly demonstrated signs of anthropogenic mummification in nine of the 10 mummies investigated. The embalming methods that had been used included (a) evisceration and arterial injection; (b) the placement of foreign materials into the orbits and the nasal and oral cavities; and (c) filling of the thoracic, abdominal, and rectal cavities with foreign materials. Organ preservation varied greatly among the mummies, although brain tissue was found in all of the mummies. Analyses of the skeletal material of the mummies showed evidence of healed vertebral fractures, age-related degenerative changes, and, in one of the child mummies, a remarkable skeletal pathologic condition. The radiographs clearly illustrated different methods of anthropogenic mummification in the catacomb mummies of Palermo, allowed assessment of the preservation of the mummies, and demonstrated skeletal abnormalities. PMID:20631372

Panzer, Stephanie; Zink, Albert R; Piombino-Mascali, Dario

106

Diversity of rhizobia nodulating wild shrubs of Sicily and some neighbouring islands.  

PubMed

Legume shrubs have great potential for rehabilitation of semi-arid degraded soils in Mediterranean ecosystems as they establish mutualistic symbiosis with N-fixing rhizobia. Eighty-eight symbiotic rhizobia were isolated from seven wild legume shrubs native of Sicily (Southern Italy) and grouped in operational taxonomic units (OTU) by analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) polymorphism. Partial sequencing of 16S rRNA gene of representative isolates of each OTU revealed that most Genisteae symbionts are related to Bradyrhizobium canariense, B. japonicum and B. elkanii. Teline monspessulana was the only Genistea nodulated by Mesorhizobium strains, and Anagyris foetida (Thermopsideae) was promiscuosly nodulated by Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Agrobacterium and Bradyrhizobium strains. Analysis of the nodulation gene nodA assigned most Mediterranean Genisteae bradyrhizobia to clade II but also to clades IV, I and III, which included, so far, sequences of (sub)tropical and Australian isolates. The high diversity and low host specificity observed in most wild legumes isolates suggest that preferential associations may establish in the field depending on differences in the benefits conferred to the host and on competition ability. Once identified, these beneficial symbiosis can be exploited for rehabilitation of arid, low productive and human-impacted soils of the Mediterranean countries. PMID:18566799

Cardinale, Massimiliano; Lanza, Angela; Bonnì, Maria Laura; Marsala, Salvatore; Puglia, Anna Maria; Quatrini, Paola

2008-06-20

107

Multiple pathologies and drug consumption in a group of centenarians from Eastern Sicily.  

PubMed

Multiple pathologies are characteristic for the elderly. We evaluated the prevalence of multiple pathologies in 28 randomly selected centenarians living in Eastern Sicily and compared the data with those obtained in another random group of 28 control subjects over 80 years of age. It has been revealed that 25% of the centenarians suffered from 0-3 pathologies, while the remaining 75% displayed more than 3 pathologies. The control subjects had 0-3 pathologies in 50% of over 80 years, while 50% were affected by more than 3 pathologies. In centenarians the most prevalent pathologies involved the sensorial apparatus (sight and hearing), followed by the digestive, urogenital and cardiovascular systems. In the control group the rank of occurrence was as follows: cardiovascular system, osteoarticular and respiratory apparatuses, and sensorium. We compared drug consumption in the two age groups. In the centenarians, 71.43% took 0-3 drugs, while 28.57% took more than 3 drugs. In the control group, 53.57% took 0-3 drugs, whereas 46.43% took more than 3 drugs. PMID:18653063

Mazzoleni, G; Alessandria, I; Receputo, G; Patané, R; Di Stefano, S; Fornaro, D; Savia, S; Cilmi, V; Rapisarda, R; Rosana, C

1996-01-01

108

Spirocerca lupi isolated from gastric lesions in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Sicily (Italy).  

PubMed

Spirocerca lupi (Rudolphi 1809) is a cosmopolitan nematode of dogs and wild carnivores. In the past it has been reported in Italy, mainly in southern regions and in Sicily, where the parasite was observed in foxes in 2005. The parasite typically produces nodular masses in the oesophagus and thoracic aorta. During the 2003-2004 hunting season, the authors investigated a total of 55 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) hunted or killed by car accidents in the provinces of Palermo and Agrigento. All the foxes were subjected to necropsy and 6 (9.16%) had S. lupi nodules located exclusively in the gastric wall. The nature of the nodules was determined by opening them and detecting the nematodes inside, which were identified as S. lupi. Some of the nodules were characterized anatomopathologically and histopathologically. The formation of the parasitic nodule in the stomach only suggests a deviation from the route commonly followed by the nematode to reach the oesophagus, the elective anatomical site for completion of its lifecycle. This survey gives a contribution to the epidemiology of this parasite which is severely outdated in Italy and highlights some distinctive features of the life cycle and parasite migration. PMID:21033560

Ferrantelli, V; Riili, S; Vicari, D; Percipalle, M; Chetta, M; Monteverde, V; Gaglio, G; Giardina, G; Usai, F; Poglayen, G

2010-01-01

109

Assessment of hazards and risks for landscape protection planning in Sicily.  

PubMed

Landscape protection planning is a complex task that requires an integrated assessment and involves heterogeneous issues. These issues include not only the management of a considerable amount of data to describe landscape features but also the choice of appropriate tools to evaluate the hazards and risks. The landscape assessment phase can provide fundamental information for the definition of a Landscape Protection Plan, in which the selection of norms for protection or rehabilitation is strictly related to hazards, values and risks that are found. This paper describes a landscape assessment methodology conducted by using GIS, concerning landscape hazards, values and risk. Four hazard categories are introduced and assessed concerning urban sprawl and erosion: landscape transformations by new planned developments, intensification of urban sprawl patterns, loss of agriculture land and erosion. Landscape value is evaluated by using different thematic layers overlaid with GIS geoprocessing. The risk of loss of landscape value is evaluated, with reference to the potential occurrence of the previously assessed hazards. The case study is the Province of Enna (Sicily), where landscape protection is a relevant issue because of the importance of cultural and natural heritage. Results show that high value landscape features have a low risk of loss of landscape value. For this reason, landscape protection policies assume a relevant role in landscapes with low-medium values and they should be addressed to control the urban sprawl processes that are beginning in the area. PMID:22766043

La Rosa, Daniele; Martinico, Francesco

2012-07-04

110

Baseline trace metals in seagrass, algae, and mollusks in a southern Tyrrhenian ecosystem (Linosa Island, Sicily).  

PubMed

Trace elements were analyzed in organisms collected at five sampling stations along coastal areas of Linosa Island, Sicily (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in Posidonia oceanica L. Delile tissues, the two brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy and Cystoseira sp., and the two gastropod mollusks Monodonta turbinata Born and Patella caerulea L. Seawater samples were also collected at each site to assess soluble metal concentrations and to gain relevant information on their bioaccumulation ability. Data were processed by multivariate techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis on PCA factors. The scoreplots obtained showed that the pollutant distribution is more significantly correlated with species than with sites. For seaweeds, P. oceanica was associated with higher Cd, Cu, and Zn levels; Padina species had higher Cr concentrations, and Cystoseira had higher Pb levels. For mollusks, Monodonta species had high concentrations of Cu and Cr and Patella species were associated with Cd. Some general metal bioaccumulation patterns are described but no one sampling site was more contaminated than the others. The hypothesis of Linosa island serving as a reference ecosystem for baseline trace metal levels in southern Tyrrhenian areas is indeed supported by the statistical comparison among other southern Tyrrhenian ecosystems performed with Kruskall Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. For P. oceanica leaves, P. pavonica, M. turbinata, and P. caerulea, this study confirms their usefulness as possible cosmopolitan biomonitors of trace metals in marine Mediterranean areas. PMID:19458990

Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Bocca, Beatrice; Iacobucci, Marta; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Mecozzi, Mauro; Pino, Anna; Alimonti, Alessandro

2009-05-21

111

Climate forcing of volcano lateral collapse: evidence from Mount Etna, Sicily.  

PubMed

In this study, we present evidence for early Holocene climatic conditions providing circumstances favourable to major lateral collapse at Mount Etna, Sicily. The volcano's most notable topographic feature is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 8 km cliff-bounded amphitheatre excavated from the eastern flank of the volcano. Its origin due to prehistoric lateral collapse is corroborated by stürtzstrom deposits adjacent to the amphitheatre's downslope outlet, but the age, nature and cause of amphitheatre excavation remain matters for debate. Cosmogenic (3)He exposure ages determined for eroded surfaces within an abandoned watershed flanking the Valle del Bove support channel abandonment ca 7.5 ka BP, as a consequence of its excavation in a catastrophic collapse event. Watershed development was largely dictated by pluvial conditions during the early Holocene, which are also implicated in slope failure. A viable trigger is magma emplacement into rift zones in the eastern flank of a water-saturated edifice, leading to the development of excess pore pressures, consequent reduction in sliding resistance, detachment and collapse. Such a mechanism is presented as one potential driver of future lateral collapse in volcanic landscapes forecast to experience increased precipitation or melting of ice cover as a consequence of anthropogenic warming. PMID:20403842

Deeming, K R; McGuire, B; Harrop, P

2010-05-28

112

Post-Messinian evolutionary relationships across the Sicilian channel: Mitochondrial and nuclear markers link a new green toad from Sicily to African relatives  

PubMed Central

Background Little attention has been paid to the consequences of the last landbridge between Africa and Sicily on Mediterranean biogeography. Previous paleontological and scarce molecular data suggest possible faunal exchange later than the well-documented landbridge in the Messinian (5.3 My); however, a possible African origin of recent terrestrial Sicilian fauna has not been thoroughly tested with molecular methods. To gain insight into the phylogeography of the region, we examine two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers (one is a newly adapted intron marker) in green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) across that sea barrier, the Strait of Sicily. Results Extensive sampling throughout the western Mediterranean and North Africa revealed a deep sister relationship between Sicilian (Bufo siculus n.sp.) and African green toads (B. boulengeri) on the mitochondrial and nuclear level. Divergence times estimated under a Bayesian-coalescence framework (mtDNA control region and 16S rRNA) range from the Middle Pliocene (3.6 My) to Pleistocene (0.16 My) with an average (1.83 to 2.0 My) around the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, suggesting possible land connections younger than the Messinian (5.3 My). We describe green toads from Sicily and some surrounding islands as a new endemic species (Bufo siculus). Bufo balearicus occurs on some western Mediterranean islands (Corsica, Sardinia, Mallorca, and Menorca) and the Apennine Peninsula, and is well differentiated on the mitochondrial and nuclear level from B. siculus as well as from B. viridis (Laurenti), whose haplotype group reaches northeastern Italy, north of the Po River. Detection of Calabrian B. balearicus haplotypes in northeastern Sicily suggests recent invasion. Our data agree with paleogeographic and fossil data, which suggest long Plio-Pleistocene isolation of Sicily and episodic Pleistocene faunal exchange across the Strait of Messina. It remains unknown whether both species (B. balearicus, B. siculus) occur in sympatry in northern Sicily. Conclusion Our findings on green toads give the first combined mitochondrial and nuclear sequence evidence for a phylogeographic connection across the Strait of Sicily in terrestrial vertebrates. These relationships may have implications for comparative phylogeographic research on other terrestrial animals co-occurring in North Africa and Sicily.

2008-01-01

113

Comments on the paper "A crustal-upper mantle model for southeastern Sicily (Italy) from the integration of petrologic and geophysical data" by Manuella et al. (2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper "A crustal-upper mantle model for southeastern Sicily (Italy) from the integration of petrologic and geophysical data" by Manuella et al. (2013) speculatively proposes that the basement beneath southeastern Sicily is made up of a fossil oceanic crust of Permo-Triassic age. The Authors support their hypothesis discussing the geochemical features of Cenozoic basic lavas and entrained xenoliths. Unfortunately, the paper does not include fundamental references on the subject, and these omissions limit the discussion of alternative hypotheses. In this reply we highlight that the new model proposed by the Authors is poorly constrained and that their argumentations are weak and sometimes wrongly founded.

Beccaluva, Luigi; Bianchini, Gianluca; Coltorti, Massimo

2013-10-01

114

Origin and diet of the prehistoric hunter-gatherers on the mediterranean island of Favignana (Ègadi Islands, Sicily).  

PubMed

Hunter-gatherers living in Europe during the transition from the late Pleistocene to the Holocene intensified food acquisition by broadening the range of resources exploited to include marine taxa. However, little is known on the nature of this dietary change in the Mediterranean Basin. A key area to investigate this issue is the archipelago of the Ègadi Islands, most of which were connected to Sicily until the early Holocene. The site of Grotta d'Oriente, on the present-day island of Favignana, was occupied by hunter-gatherers when Postglacial environmental changes were taking place (14,000-7,500 cal BP). Here we present the results of AMS radiocarbon dating, palaeogenetic and isotopic analyses undertaken on skeletal remains of the humans buried at Grotta d'Oriente. Analyses of the mitochondrial hypervariable first region of individual Oriente B, which belongs to the HV-1 haplogroup, suggest for the first time on genetic grounds that humans living in Sicily during the early Holocene could have originated from groups that migrated from the Italian Peninsula around the Last Glacial Maximum. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses show that the Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic hunter-gatherers of Favignana consumed almost exclusively protein from terrestrial game and that there was only a slight increase in marine food consumption from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene. This dietary change was similar in scale to that at sites on mainland Sicily and in the rest of the Mediterranean, suggesting that the hunter-gatherers of Grotta d'Oriente did not modify their subsistence strategies specifically to adapt to the progressive isolation of Favignana. The limited development of technologies for intensively exploiting marine resources was probably a consequence both of Mediterranean oligotrophy and of the small effective population size of these increasingly isolated human groups, which made innovation less likely and prevented transmission of fitness-enhancing adaptations. PMID:23209602

Mannino, Marcello A; Catalano, Giulio; Talamo, Sahra; Mannino, Giovanni; Di Salvo, Rosaria; Schimmenti, Vittoria; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Messina, Andrea; Petruso, Daria; Caramelli, David; Richards, Michael P; Sineo, Luca

2012-11-28

115

Origin and Diet of the Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers on the Mediterranean Island of Favignana (?gadi Islands, Sicily)  

PubMed Central

Hunter-gatherers living in Europe during the transition from the late Pleistocene to the Holocene intensified food acquisition by broadening the range of resources exploited to include marine taxa. However, little is known on the nature of this dietary change in the Mediterranean Basin. A key area to investigate this issue is the archipelago of the Ègadi Islands, most of which were connected to Sicily until the early Holocene. The site of Grotta d’Oriente, on the present-day island of Favignana, was occupied by hunter-gatherers when Postglacial environmental changes were taking place (14,000-7,500 cal BP). Here we present the results of AMS radiocarbon dating, palaeogenetic and isotopic analyses undertaken on skeletal remains of the humans buried at Grotta d’Oriente. Analyses of the mitochondrial hypervariable first region of individual Oriente B, which belongs to the HV-1 haplogroup, suggest for the first time on genetic grounds that humans living in Sicily during the early Holocene could have originated from groups that migrated from the Italian Peninsula around the Last Glacial Maximum. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses show that the Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic hunter-gatherers of Favignana consumed almost exclusively protein from terrestrial game and that there was only a slight increase in marine food consumption from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene. This dietary change was similar in scale to that at sites on mainland Sicily and in the rest of the Mediterranean, suggesting that the hunter-gatherers of Grotta d’Oriente did not modify their subsistence strategies specifically to adapt to the progressive isolation of Favignana. The limited development of technologies for intensively exploiting marine resources was probably a consequence both of Mediterranean oligotrophy and of the small effective population size of these increasingly isolated human groups, which made innovation less likely and prevented transmission of fitness-enhancing adaptations.

Mannino, Marcello A.; Catalano, Giulio; Talamo, Sahra; Mannino, Giovanni; Di Salvo, Rosaria; Schimmenti, Vittoria; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Messina, Andrea; Petruso, Daria; Caramelli, David; Richards, Michael P.; Sineo, Luca

2012-01-01

116

High-resolution and Deep Crustal Imaging Across The North Sicily Continental Margin (southern Tyrrhenian Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three multichannel seismic reflection profiles across the North Sicily continental mar- gin have been reprocessed and interpreted. Data consist of an unpublished high pene- tration seismic profile (deep crust Italian CROP Project) and a high-resolution seismic line. These lines run in the NNE-SSW direction, from the Sicilian continental shelf to the Tyrrhenian abyssal plain (Marsili area), and are tied by a third, high penetration seismic line MS104 crossing the Sisifo High. The North Sicily continental margin represents the inner sector of the Sicilian-Maghrebian chain that is collapsed as con- sequence of extensional tectonics. The chain is formed by a tectonic wedge (12-15 km thick. It includes basinal Meso-Cenozoic carbonate units overthrusting carbonate platform rock units (Catalano et al., 2000). Presently, main culmination (e.g. Monte Solunto) and a number of tectonic depressions (e.g. Cefalù basin), filled by >1000 m thick Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary wedge, are observed along the investigated tran- sect. Seismic attributes and reflector pattern depicts a complex crustal structure. Be- tween the coast and the M. Solunto high, a transparent to diffractive band (assigned to the upper crust) is recognised above low frequency reflective layers (occurring be- tween 9 and 11 s/TWT) that dips towards the North. Their bottom can be correlated to the seismological (African?) Moho discontinuity which is (26 km deep in the Sicilian shelf (Scarascia et al., 1994). Beneath the Monte Solunto ridge, strongly deformed re- flectors occurring between 8 to 9.5 s/TWT (European lower crust?) overly the African (?) lower crust. The resulting geometry suggests underplating of the African crust respect to the European crust (?). The already deformed crustal edifice is dissected by a number of N-dipping normal faults that open extensional basins and are associ- ated with crustal thinning. The Plio-Pleistocene fill of the Cefalù basin can be subdi- vided into three subunits by well-developed unconformities. The stratal pattern of the lower subunit (Early Pliocene?) points out thrust-top basin. The intermediate subunit (Middle-Late Pliocene?) shows a wide sedimentary lateral accretion with syntectonic growth geometries. Upper Pliocene layers are overlain by well-stratified sediments of supposedly Pleistocene to Recent age, which drape and smooth underlying features (Pepe et al., 2000). Crustal thinning is (2 in the Cefalù basin and reach (3.54 north of Sisifo volcano, where crustal separation occurs and oceanic crust emplaced (Marsili 1 basin). In this area the Moho is located at (8 s/TWT, corresponding to 10-km depth. References Catalano R., Franchino A., Merlini S. e Sulli A., 2000. Mem. Soc. Geol. It., 55, 5-16. Pepe F., Bertotti G., Cella F. Marsella E., 2000. Tectonics, 19, 241-257. Scarascia S., Lozej A. Cassinis R., 1994. Boll. Geof. Teor. Appl., 36 (141-144), 5-19. 2

Agate, M.; Bertotti, G.; Catalano, R.; Pepe, F.; Sulli, A.

117

GIS-based seismic shaking slope vulnerability map of Sicily (Central Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes often represent very dangerouses natural events in terms of human life and economic losses and their damage effects are amplified by the synchronous occurrence of seismically-induced ground-shaking failures in wide regions around the seismogenic source. In fact, the shaking associated with big earthquakes triggers extensive landsliding, sometimes at distances of more than 100 km from the epicenter. The active tectonics and the geomorphic/morphodinamic pattern of the regions affected by earthquakes contribute to the slopes instability tendency. In fact, earthquake-induced groun-motion loading determines inertial forces activation within slopes that, combined with the intrinsic pre-existing static forces, reduces the slope stability towards its failure. Basically, under zero-shear stress reversals conditions, a catastrophic failure will take place if the earthquake-induced shear displacement exceeds the critical level of undrained shear strength to a value equal to the gravitational shear stress. However, seismic stability analyses carried out for various infinite slopes by using the existing Newmark-like methods reveal that estimated permanent displacements smaller than the critical value should also be regarded as dangerous for the post-earthquake slope safety, in terms of human activities use. Earthquake-induced (often high-speed) landslides are among the most destructive phenomena related to slopes failure during earthquakes. In fact, damage from earthquake-induced landslides (and other ground-failures), sometimes exceeds the buildings/infrastructures damage directly related to ground-shaking for fault breaking. For this matter, several hearthquakes-related slope failures methods have been developed, for the evaluation of the combined hazard types represented by seismically ground-motion landslides. The methodologies of analysis of the engineering seismic risk related to the slopes instability processes is often achieved through the evaluation of the permanent displacement potentially induced by an seismic scenario. Such methodologies found on the consideration that the conditions of seismic stability and the post-seismic functionality of engineering structures are tightly related to the entity of the permanent deformations that an earthquake can induce. Regarding the existing simplified procedures among slope stability models, Newmark's model is often used to derive indications about slope instabilities due to earthquakes. In this way, we have evaluated the seismically-induced landslides hazard in Sicily (Central Mediterranean) using the Newmark-like model. In order to determine the map distribution of the seismic ground-acceleration from an earthquake scenario, the attenuation-law of Sabetta & Pugliese has been used, analyzing some seismic recordings occurred in Italy. Also, by evaluating permanent displacements, the correlation of Ambraseys & Menu has been assumed. The seismic shaking slope vulnerability map of Sicily has been carried out using GIS application, also considering max seismic ground-acceleration peak distribution (in terms of exceedance probability for fixed time), slope acclivity, cohesion/angle of internal friction of outcropping rocks, allowing the zoning of the unstable slopes under seismic forces.

Nigro, Fabrizio; Arisco, Giuseppe; Perricone, Marcella; Renda, Pietro; Favara, Rocco

2010-05-01

118

GIS-analysis of gully erosion susceptibility: a key study in north-central Sicily, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erosion by water is responsible for severe geo-environmental problems in semi-humid to arid Mediterranean areas. Large sectors of Sicily are affected by intense soil erosion phenomena leading to severe damages in agriculture lands that, in some cases, experience high soil loss rates. An important contribution to sediment yield from these areas is given by gully erosion phenomena; the latter, in the last decades, attracted attention of many researches that developed and applied methods to quantify soil loss volumes and to evaluate proneness of territory to this process. The present research aims to assess gully erosion susceptibility in the basin of the San Giorgio torrent, a mountain stream flowing in north-central Sicily and draining an area of about 9.5 km2; the watershed, which is mainly covered by arable lands, has highly erodible slopes characterized by the outcropping of clays and marls. In order to predict gully erosion susceptibility, a multivariate geostatistical approach is adopted here. In particular, the method is based on the definition of spatial relationships between the geographical variability of a set of controlling factors and the occurrence of gullies on slopes; the linear density of gullies computed on homogeneous domains is selected as the probabilistic function expressing how proneness to gully erosion spatially changes in the studied area. Available thematic maps, which were integrated by field and remote surveys, and a high quality DEM, were used to derive eight layers of terrain variables, selected according to geomorphological criteria and expressing both soil erodibility (bedrock lithology, land use) and erosivity of flowing waters (slope angle, Stream Power Index, SL-factor, Topographic Wetness Index, plan and profile curvature). All the parameters were computed for homogeneous spatial domains, created by intersecting a grid of 50m square polygons and a layer of slope units automatically derived from DEM; therefore, the eight layers were combined to produce the Unique Condition Units (UCUs) layer used as the basis for evaluating gully density values and erosion susceptibility. Two time-archives of gully landforms, both permanent and ephemeral, were created by means of remote-analysis of 1:10.000 orthophotos dated at 2000 and 2007, respectively; moreover, those gullies recognized in both time series were field-checked in 2009, in order to attest the reliability of the mapping criteria. The two gully archives were turned into separate GIS-layers; therefore, according to a time-partition validation strategy, the 2000 gully layer was used to train the model and to produce a susceptibility map that was intersected with landforms of 2007, in order to evaluate the predictive power of the method. The validation results attested for a good predictive performance of the susceptibility model since about 50% of the 2007 gullies falls within 20% of the area predicted as most susceptible; moreover, the shapes of the validation curves reflect those characteristics that a good spatial correlation between a model and its unknown target pattern would produce. In conclusion, the goodness of the acquired results encourages further application of the method, that is simple and easy exportable to other similar areas for the evaluation of gully erosion susceptibility.

Agnesi, Valerio; Angileri, Silvia; Cappadonia, Chiara; Conoscenti, Christian; Costanzo, Dario; Maerker, Michael; Rotigliano, Edoardo

2010-05-01

119

Observed Changes In Extreme Precipitation In The North Eastern Side Of Sicily (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Italy, the occurrence of flash floods due to heavy storms, and related consequences on socio-economic activities, become more and more serious and worrying every year. Although, such natural disasters mainly depend on an intensive and usually unplanned soil exploitation, however there is a widespread belief that the effects of climate change plays a major role in worsening the current situation. In particular, many studies have shown that in the last century the average number of rainy days is decreased, whereas precipitation intensity is increased at the same time, as more and more heavy rainfall occur in shorter periods. In Sicily region, the province of Messina is the one with the largest number of sites under flash flood threatening, many of which are located along the Ionian side. As an example, on October 1, 2009, an heavy storm has produced landslides and floodings which have caused 37 victims and more than 2000 evacuated people, as well as severe damages to buildings, infrastructures and economic activities. In this study, preliminary results of a research aimed at investigating the occurrence of changes in precipitation field over North Eastern side of Sicily (Italy), in recent decades are illustrated, with special reference to extreme values. In particular, daily precipitation series with at least 45 years of records starting from 1951 are selected among those observed at the meteorological stations located along the Ionian side of Messina province. First, an analysis to assess the presence of trends in annual and seasonal precipitation amount, number of rainy days and average intensity is carried out based on the Sequential Mann-Kendall test for non linear trend detection. With respect to annual values, both the number of rainy days and rainfall amount series show a decreasing trend for all the investigated series. With regard to the average intensity, only the series corresponding to Ganzirri station show a significant decreasing trend. Such results are also confirmed by the trend analysis carried out on the six-monthly records from October to March, which is the period providing the most part of the contribution to the total annual precipitation (more than 75 % on average). Then, in order to understand whether changes in precipitation are due to a change in the number of days with heavy precipitation or with light precipitation, an analysis of daily rainfall amounts belonging to specific classes defined by thresholds, corresponding to fixed percentiles of daily precipitation, has been carried out. Threshold values have been derived after fitting probability distributions to each station's wet day data for each month of the year. Results show that the detected decrease in the number of rainy days cannot be ascribed to one class only, whereas decrease in rainfall amount is mainly due to the lower classes for all the stations, which implies a general reduction in the amount of light and moderate rain. No trends are identified for the average intensity. Further researches are ongoing to analyze the effect of detected trends on the assessment of the return period of critical events recently occurred along the investigated area.

Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Bonaccorso, Brunella

2013-04-01

120

Sequence stratigraphy of a Mesozoic carbonate platform-to-basin system in western Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sequence stratigraphic studies of the Triassic through Paleogene carbonate successions of platform, slope and basin in western Sicily (Palermo and Termini Imerese Mountains) have identified a sedimentary cyclicity mostly caused by relative oscillations of sea level. The stratigraphic successions of the Imerese and Panormide palaeogeographic domains of the southern Tethyan continental margin were studied with physical-stratigraphy and facies analysis to reconstruct the sedimentary evolution of this platform-to-basin system. The Imerese Basin is characterized by a carbonate and siliceous-calcareous succession, 1200-1400m thick, Late Triassic to Eocene in age. The strata display a typical example of a carbonate platform margin, characterized by resedimented facies with progradational stacking patterns. The Panormide Carbonate Platform is characterized by a carbonate succession, 1000-1200 m thick, Late Triassic to Late Eocene, mostly consisting of shallow-water facies with periodic subaerial exposure. The cyclic arrangement has been obtained by the study of the stratigraphic signatures (unconformities, facies sequences, erosional surfaces and stratal geometries) found in the slope successions. The recognized pattern has been compared with coeval facies of the shelf. This correlation provided evidence of sedimentary evolution, influenced by progradation and backstepping of the shelf deposits. The stratigraphic architecture of the platform-to-basin system is characterized by four major transgressive/regressive cycles during the late Triassic to late Eocene. These cycles, framed in a chronostratigraphic chart, allows the correlation of the investigated shelf-to-basin system with the geological evolution of the African continental margin during the Mesozoic, showing tectono-eustatic cycles. The first cycle, encompassing the late Triassic to early Jurassic, appears to be related to the late syn-rift stage of the continental margin evolution. The following three cycles, spanning from the Jurassic to Eocene, can be related to the post-rift evolution and to thermal subsidence changes.

Basilone, Luca

2009-09-01

121

Paleomagnetic dating of the most recent silicic eruptive activity at Pantelleria (Strait of Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the paleomagnetism of ten sites in the products of the most recent silicic eruptive cycle of Pantelleria, Strait of Sicily. Previously radiometrically dated at 5-10 ka, our comparison with proxies for geomagnetic field directions allows us to narrow considerably the time window during which these eruptions occurred. The strongly peralkaline composition causes the magmas to have low viscosities, locally resulting in strong agglutination of proximal fall deposits. This allows successful extraction of paleomagnetic directions from the explosive phases of eruptions. One of our sites was located in the Serra della Fastuca fall deposit, produced by the first explosive event of the eruptive cycle. The other nine sites were located in the most recent explosive (pumice fall and agglutinate from Cuddia del Gallo and Cuddia Randazzo) and effusive (Khaggiar lava) products. The (very similar) paleomagnetic directions gathered from eight internally consistent sites were compared to reference geomagnetic field directions of the last 5-10 ka. Directions from Cuddia del Gallo agglutinate and Khaggiar flows translate into 5.9- to 6.2-ka ages, whereas the Fastuca pumices yield a slightly older age of 6.2-6.8 ka. Hence, the most recent silicic eruptive cycle lasted at most a millennium and as little as a few centuries around 6.0 ka. Paleomagnetically inferred ages are in good agreement with published (and calibrated by us) 14C dates from paleosols/charcoals sampled below the studied volcanic units, whereas K/Ar data are more scattered and yield ˜30% older ages. Our data show that the time elapsed since the most recent silicic eruptions at Pantelleria is comparable to the quiescence period separating the two latest volcanic cycles.

Speranza, Fabio; Landi, Patrizia; D'Ajello Caracciolo, Francesca; Pignatelli, Alessandro

2010-09-01

122

The point prevalence of otitis media with effusion among primary school children in Western Sicily.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to identify the prevalence of otitis media with effusion (OME) in primary school children and to value the possible predisposing factors focusing on relationship between allergy and OME in Western Sicily. 2,097 children attending primary school were screened from September 2006 to June 2007 in Sciacca. Children underwent pneumatic otoscopy, skin tests, tympanogram and acoustic reflex tests. Audiogram was performed if the child had a type B or a type C tympanogram. The criteria for diagnosis of OME were: documented persistent middle ear effusion by otoscopic examination for a minimum of 3 months, presence of B or C tympanogram, absence of ipsilateral acoustic reflex and a conductive hearing loss greater than 25 dB at any one of the frequencies from 250 Hz to 4 kHz. OME was identified in 143 children, in 61 of whom OME was unilateral and in 82 of whom it was bilateral. The overall prevalence of OME was 6.8%, with a maximum prevalence of 12.9% between 5 and 6 years of age. By increasing age, the prevalence of OME decreased. Also, we found a higher prevalence rate of OME in children with positive skin tests (62.9%) than those with negative skin tests (37.1%). The present study evidences the high social impact of OME, whose prevalence is directly correlated to age and atopy. Moreover, our finding supports the literature data that climatic and environmental factors may also have a role in the occurrence of OME. PMID:19859723

Martines, Francesco; Bentivegna, Daniela; Di Piazza, Fabiola; Martinciglio, Gioacchino; Sciacca, Vincenzo; Martines, Enrico

2009-10-27

123

Sicily 2002 Balloon Flight Campaign: A Test of the HASI Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mock up of the probe descending in the Titan atmosphere for the Huygens Cassini Mission has been successfully launched with stratospheric balloon from Italian Space Agency Base "Luigi Broglio" in Sicily and recovered on May 30 th 2002. The probe has been lifted at 32 km altitude and then released to perform a 45 minutes descent decelerated by parachute, to simulate Huygens mission at Titan. Preliminary aerodynamics study of the probe has focused on the achievement of a descent velocity profile and a spin rate profile, satisfying the Huygens mission to Titan requirements. The descent velocity and spin rate have been calculated by solving a system of ODE describing the translational and rotational motion of the probe trough the earth atmosphere during parachute aided descent Results of these calculations have driven the choice of an appropriate angle of attack of the blades in the bottom of the probe and ballast weight during flight. The probe is hosting spares of HASI instruments, housekeeping sensors and other dedicated sensors, Beagle II UV Sensors and Huygens Tilt Sensor, for a total of 77 acquired sensor channels, sampled during ascent, drift and descent phase. Main goals are to verify sensor performance and perform a realistic functional test in dynamical and environmental conditions similar to those during the descent in Titan atmosphere and furthermore to investigate impact at ground to check the impact detection sequence of HASI accelerometer and HASI in the surface phase. An integrated data acquisition and instrument control system has been developed, based on PC architecture and soft -real-time application. Sensors channels have been sampled at the nominal HASI data rates, with a max rate of 1 kHz. Software has been developed for data acquisition, onboard storage and telemetry transmission satisfying all requests for real-time monitoring, diagnostic and redundancy.

Bettanini, C.

124

Herniation pits in human mummies: a CT investigation in the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily.  

PubMed

Herniation pits (HPs) of the femoral neck were first described in a radiological publication in 1982 as round to oval radiolucencies in the proximal superior quadrant of the femoral neck on anteroposterior radiographs of adults. In following early clinical publications, HPs were generally recognized as an incidental finding. In contrast, in current clinical literature they are mentioned in the context of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) of the hip joint, which is known to cause osteoarthritis (OA). The significance of HPs in chronic skeletal disorders such as OA is still unclear, but they are discussed as a possible radiological indicator for FAI in a large part of clinical studies.In this paleoradiological study we examined a sample of mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily, by a mobile computed tomography (CT) scanner. Evaluation of the CT examinations revealed HPs in six out of 16 (37.5%) adult male mummies.The first aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of HPs shown in our mummy collection to the findings described in clinical literature. Thereby CT evaluation revealed that their osseous imaging characteristics are in accordance, consisting of round to oval subcortical lesions at the anterior femoral neck, clearly demarcated by a sclerotic margin.The second aim was to introduce HPs to the paleoradiological and paleopathological methodology as an entity that underwent a renaissance from an incidental finding to a possible radiological indicator of FAI in the clinical situation. As FAI plays an important role in the development of OA of the hip, which is a very common finding in human skeletal remains, HPs should always be considered in paleoradiological evaluation of hip joint diseases. PMID:22567164

Panzer, Stephanie; Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Zink, Albert R

2012-05-02

125

Functional evaluation of a group of centenarians in Eastern Sicily by means of the activity of daily living scale.  

PubMed

A random sample of 28 centenarians was studied (32.56% of all centenarians in Eastern Sicily) within the framework of the Italian Multicenter Study on Centenarians. The activity of daily living (ADL) scale was applied to evaluate their capacity to perform everyday tasks autonomously. The study sample consisted of 8 males (28.57%) and 20 females (71.43%), overall mean age was 102.57 +/- 2.1 years. The patients fell into 3 groups according to their ADL scores independent group (with score A) 5 persons, 17.86% (2 males and 3 females); partially independent group (with scores B and C) 5 persons, 17.86% (1 male and 4 females); dependent group (with scores D-E-F-G and other) 18 persons, 64.29% (5 males and 13 females). We compared the results with a control study sample of 28 elderly patients (8 males, 20 females) over 85 years of age resident in a small village in Eastern Sicily (Graniti) and observed that the centenarians presented greater independence, especially the women. PMID:18653064

Mazzoleni, G; Cilmi, V; Fornaro, D; Truglio, P; Di Stefano, S; Savia, S; Receputo, G; Di Fazio, I; Rosana, C; Rapisarda, R

1996-01-01

126

The use of TIMS data to estimate the SO2 concentrations of volcanic plumes: A case study at Mount Etna, Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data were acquired over Mount Etna, Sicily, on 29 July 1986. The volcanic activity at that time was characterized by the steady effusion of gas from the Bocca Nuova (BN), Chasm, and Southeast craters. The Northeast crater, quiet at the time of the TIMS overflight, was the site of Strombolian eruptive activity between 31 July

Vincent J. Realmuto

1992-01-01

127

Internal vs. external forcing in shallow marine diatreme formation: A case study from the Iblean Mountains (SE-Sicily, Central Mediterranean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of diatreme evolution in a shallow marine setting is based on a multi-disciplinary analysis of diatremes in the Iblean Mountains (Sicily). The approach includes stratigraphic, volcanological, structural, petrologic and compositional data. We invoke a complex interplay of internal (rapid ascent and pyroclastic fragmentation of a volatile (CO2)-rich nephelinitic magma at depth) and external factors. These comprise hydroclastic explosions

Ines Suiting; Hans-Ulrich Schmincke

2009-01-01

128

Characteristics of the extreme rainfall event and consequent flash floods in North-East part of Sicily, Italy in October 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 1st October 2009, a devastating flooding was caused by a very intense rainfall concentrated over the Messina area in the North-East part of Sicily, Italy. The storm caused severe flash floods in many villages around the city of Messina, such as Gianpilieri, Scaletta Zanclea, Altolia Superiore and Molino with forty casualties and significant damage to property, buildings, roads and

Giuseppe Tito Aronica; Giuseppina Brigandi

2010-01-01

129

Tsunami hazard for the city of Catania, eastern Sicily, Italy, assessed by means of Worst-case Credible Tsunami Scenario Analysis (WCTSA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern Sicily is one of the coastal areas most exposed to earthquakes and tsunamis in Italy. The city of Catania that developed between the eastern base of Etna volcano and the Ionian Sea is, together with the neighbour coastal belt, under the strong menace of tsunamis. This paper addresses the estimation of the tsunami hazard for the city of Catania

R. Tonini; A. Armigliato; G. Pagnoni; F. Zaniboni; S. Tinti

2011-01-01

130

A new Kinematic Approach to Calculate Seismic Hazard Scenarios (Intensity and Peak Ground Displacement); an Example in SE Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The part of the seismic hazard map of Italy (http:zonesismiche.mi.ingv.it/mappa_ps_apr04/italia.html) that regards SE Sicily has recently been modified on the basis also of the new location of the source of one of the strongest earthquakes that ever struck the Mediterranean basin (in 1693 in SE Sicily; 54,000 casualties; see Sirovich and Pettenati, 2001 in BSSA). That source was located inland according to the KF geophysical inversion of the regional damage patterns of the earthquake of Jan. 11, 1693 and of its destructive foreshock of Jan. 9 (see Gentile et al., 2004 in BSSA, and Sirovich and Pettenati, 2004 in JGR, for the genetic KF inversion technique). The damage patterns of Jan. 9 and 11, 1693 had been evaluated by three different groups of historians and seismologists on three different intensity scales. (Detailed information was available from the reports of the Officers of the "Regno delle Due Sicilie" of the time as well as from many other documents). Previously, both earthquakes were traditionally ascribed to the well known Malta Escarpment, the most prominent physiographical and structural feature of the area, which is found offshore, south-east of Sicily. However, given the inland damage of 1693, an offshore epicenter would imply a mean radius of 45 km for the virtual area of degree XI (70 km for degree X) and, thus, a magnitude of 8.3±0.2 with a fault length of approximately 280 km. This fault source would cross the NE part of Sicily from the southern Jonian Sea to the Island of Lipari in the Tyrrhenian Sea; but tectonically this seems unrealistic. All the inversion tests, however, pointed to a complex source inland which could have hosted both earthquakes. Here, we used our kinematic KF model in the direct mode in a parametric, deterministic-Montecarlo way to produce a seismic hazard scenario, in terms of maximum ground displacement. This scenario will be compared with PSHA results for long recurrence times in the frame of a project of the Civil Protection of Italy and the National Institute for Geophysics and Vulcanology (INGV). New tentative seismic rules based on displacements are the goals of that project (S5, coordinated by E. Faccioli and A. Rovelli). In the present paper, three linear sources were assumed, to accommodate all the area's guessed inland sources, those of 1693 included. The Montecarlo technique was applied to the eleven source parametres of the KF formula, with the purpose of accounting for the large seismotectonic uncertainties we had. In so doing, 33,280 sources were obtained, allowing us to calculate the mean plus-one-standard-deviation scenarios (in seismic intensity and in horizontal displacement). Our mean scenario reaches 40-50 cm (80-90 cm summing one standard deviation), which, as expected, is more than the maximum provisional PSHA values for the 475-year return period (S5 Project, Faccioli 2007); consider that the return period of an earthquake like that in 1693 is unknown, but it could be of the order of thousands of years. The comparison with the damage in 1693 showed that our provisional result is still not cautious enough, however. It is hypothesized that this is due to the asymmetric distribution of the calculated values in each site also because of the presence of the XII intensity upper bound. In Acapulco, we plan to show the parametric scenario obtained using the median values too.

Sirovich, L.; Pettenati, F.

2007-05-01

131

GIS-based landslide hazard assessment at regional scale in Sicily (Central Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence, type and abundance of landslides in an area depend on the characteristics of the triggers and on the predisposing conditions. Natural conditions that control these factors include the local and regional morphological and lithological setting, the presence and abundance of geological discontinuities including bedding planes, faults, joints, and cleavage systems, the type and depth of the soil, the extent and type of the vegetation cover, and the mechanical and hydrological properties of the rocks and soils. In order to evaluate the landslides susceptibility requires understanding of spatial distribution of all these factors that control slope instability. They depend on intrinsic and extrinsic variables. Intrinsic variables determining hazards include bedrock geology, topography, soil depth, soil type, slope gradient, slope aspect, slope curvature, elevation, engineering properties of the slope material, land use pattern and drainage patterns. Extrinsic variables include heavy rainfall, earthquakes and volcanic activities. Although the probability of landslide occurrence depends on both intrinsic and extrinsic variables, the latter possess a temporal distribution which is more difficult to handle in modelling practice. Therefore, for landslide hazard assessment, "landslide susceptibility mapping" is often conducted in which the extrinsic variables are not considered in determining the probability of landslide occurrence. The landslide susceptibility zoning methods mainly applied are: qualitative, statistical methodologies, and geotechnical/safety factor models. Qualitative approaches are based on the judgment of those conducting the susceptibility or hazard assessment; the statistical approach uses a predictive function or index derived from a combination of weighted factors; and the deterministic, models are based on the physical laws of conservation of mass, energy, and momentum. Regarding the statistical methodologies, the combination of factors that have led to landslides in the past are determined and quantitative predictions are made for areas currently free of landslides. In these methods the use of complex statistics requires the collection of large amounts of data to produce reliable results. Instead, deterministic landslide hazard maps normally provide the most detailed results, expressing the hazard in absolute values in the form of safety factors, or the probability of failure given a set of boundary conditions for groundwater levels and seismic acceleration. A methodology for landslide susceptibility mapping of the Sicily using a GIS technology is presented, based on a weighted approach. The degree of susceptibility was weighted considering the extrinsic variable of rainfall and the prevalence of the condition of geology, elevation, slope and land cover. Finally, an overlay analysis is carried out by evaluating the layers obtained according to their weight, and the landslide susceptibility map is produced. The study area was classified into five classes of relative landslide susceptibility, namely, very low, low, moderate, high and very high.

Nigro, Fabrizio; Pisciotta, Antonino; Perricone, Marcella; Renda, Pietro; Favara, Rocco

2010-05-01

132

Tsunami inundation scenarios of the city of Catania, Eastern Sicily, Italy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eastern Sicily is one of the coastal areas most exposed to earthquake and tsunami in Italy and in the whole Mediterranean. The city of Catania lies on this coast, between the eastern base of Etna volcano and the Ionian Sea. Catania is an important town of the Southern Italy because of its both touristic and commercial activities. In this work some reliable tsunami scenarios for the city of Catania are proposed on the basis of tectonic considerations and of the historical events that hit the city in the past. The most famous are the tsunamis associated with the 11 January 1693 and the 28 December 1908 earthquakes, of which the source determination is still an open issue, because it is not clear if the tsunamis were generated by the earthquake only or by a landslide or by a combination of both. One remote source based on the 365 A.D. West Hellenic Arc event is also considered in order to complete the possible tsunami scenarios for the town of Catania. The work is focused on the area of the harbour where many human activities and structures are present. Nowadays the harbour is protected by a long jetty opened in the south and here the coast presents two very different morphological aspects: moving southern respect to the harbour the coast is sandy and shallow, while moving northern it is rocky and high. Inundation maps computed on a 40-meters resolution grid are shown in order to identify the areas most exposed to tsunami inundation in this specific area and to study the harbour response to tsunami wave trains of different frequencies. All simulations are carried out by means of the numerical finite difference code UBO-TSUFD, which solves both linear and non-linear shallow water equations on multi-grid domain that allow to increase the grid resolution in the area of interest. The code can compute the inundation of specific areas and it is developed and maintained by the research team itself. The work has been developed in the framework of the EU-funded project SCHEMA, where Catania has been chosen as one of the test sites on which carrying out a tsunami vulnerability assessment study.

Tonini, Roberto; Armigliato, Alberto; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano

2010-05-01

133

Spatially distributed OClO-profiles in the volcanic plume of Mt. Etna, Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the chemical composition of volcanic plumes is important both for the understanding of volcanic processes and the influence of volcanic activity on the atmosphere. Reactive halogen-species such as BrO, ClO, OClO are abundant in volcanic plumes and can have several effects on the atmosphere (e.g. local ozone depletion by catalytic halogen-reactions). Multi Axis Differential Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) is an established method to determine reactive components in volcanic plumes by analysing scattered sunlight which has traversed the plume. We present MAX-DOAS measurements that were performed at Mt. Etna, Sicily in September 2012 with a newly developed MAX-DOAS-instrument. Both, vertical and horizontal plume-scans as well as point measurements were done in distances of several hundred meter up to 30 km from the emission source. For the first time it was possible to measure spatial distributions of the halogen compound chlorine dioxide (OClO) in a volcanic plume. OClO column-densities (SCDs) up to 2 ? 1014 molecules/cm2 were measured in an area of about 2 km around the emission source. OClO/SO2-ratios between 1 ? 10-5 and 4 ? 10-4 were determined. Along with the evaluation of OClO the species bromine monoxide (BrO) as well as sulphur-dioxide (SO2) were evaluated for each data set. BrO-SCDs up to 1.1 ? 1015 molecules/cm2 and BrO/SO2-ratios between 2 ? 10-5 and 5 ? 10-4 were determined. Assuming a plume width of less than 1 km the measured values correspond to OClO and BrO concentrations of several hundred ppt in the plume. From the measured OClO- and BrO-SCDs and by assuming steady-state between the production of OClO from BrO and ClO and its photolytic destruction, ClO concentrations between 70 ppt and 1.0 ppb were derived. We will discuss these results and their importance to improve our knowledge about chlorine-chemistry in volcanic plumes.

Gliss, Jonas; Bobrowski, Nicole; Huwe, Marco; Mayer, Constantin; Finkenzeller, Henning; Vogel, Leif; Platt, Ulrich

2013-04-01

134

Risk of classic Kaposi sarcoma with exposures to plants and soils in Sicily  

PubMed Central

Background Ecologic and in vitro studies suggest that exposures to plants or soil may influence risk of Kaposi sarcoma (KS). Methods In a population-based study of Sicily, we analyzed data on contact with 20 plants and residential exposure to 17 soils reported by 122 classic KS cases and 840 sex- and age-matched controls. With 88 KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) seropositive controls as the referent group, novel correlates of KS risk were sought, along with factors distinguishing seronegatives, in multinomial logistic regression models that included matching variables and known KS cofactors - smoking, cortisone use, and diabetes history. All plants were summed for cumulative exposure. Factor and cluster analyses were used to obtain scores and groups, respectively. Individual plants and soils in three levels of exposure with Ptrend ? 0.15 were retained in a backward elimination regression model. Results Adjusted for known cofactors, KS was not related to cumulative exposures to 20 plants [per quartile adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73 - 1.25, Ptrend = 0.87], nor was it related to any factor scores or cluster of plants (P = 0.11 to 0.81). In the elimination regression model, KS risk was associated with five plants (Ptrend = 0.02 to 0.10) and with residential exposure to six soils (Ptrend = 0.01 to 0.13), including three soils (eutric regosol, chromic/pellic vertisol) used to cultivate durum wheat. None of the KS-associated plants and only one soil was also associated with KSHV serostatus. Diabetes was associated with KSHV seronegativity (ORadj 4.69, 95% CI 1.97 - 11.17), but the plant and soil associations had little effect on previous findings that KS risk was elevated for diabetics (ORadj 7.47, 95% CI 3.04 - 18.35) and lower for current and former smokers (ORadj 0.26 and 0.47, respectively, Ptrend = 0.05). Conclusions KS risk was associated with exposure to a few plants and soils, but these may merely be due to chance. Study of the effects of durum wheat, which was previously associated with cKS, may be warranted.

2010-01-01

135

Detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus in gynaecologic outpatients of Messina, eastern Sicily, Italy.  

PubMed

In order to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in sexually active female population in Messina, we tested cervical scrapes of women referred to university clinics for routine gynaecologic care. Between March and December 2008, a total of 680 cervical samples of 598 patients (573 Italian from province of Messina and 25 resident aliens) were examined consecutively from laboratory of molecular biology at the Department of Human Pathology. For each sample, cervical cells were collected by centrifugation and DNA was extracted (QIAamp DNA mini kit, Qiagen), followed by a PCR-based HPV DNA assay and reverse dot blot genotyping (HPV-HS Bio plus HPV-strip, AB Analytica or HPV-type, AB Analytica). The overall rate of HPV DNA detection in Italian patients (mean age 34 years; range 15-69) was 70.5% (404/573), with 163 cases of multiple infections (40.3%). In 335 patients (82.9%) a high-risk HPV infection was detected. In this group the coexistence of a low-risk HPV infection was documented in 97 cases while 65 patients exhibited only a low-risk HPV infection. HPV-16 was the most prevalent (33.4%), followed by HPV-6 (28.0%), HPV-31 (24.3%), HPV-58 (11.4%), HPV-66 (11.1%), HPV-53 (6.4%), HPV-18 (6.2%), HPV-56 (5.4%), HPV-33 (5.2%) while the other genotypes identified (HPV-11, -40, -42, -43, -44, -54, -61, -70, -81, -26, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -59, -68, -73, -82) were below 5%. HPV prevalence (any type) was 78.7% at age < or =24 years, 73.4% at 25-34 years and 67.1% at 35-44 years and 58.1% at age > or =45 years. A significant association (chi2=12.718; P=0.006) between HPV DNA detection and the younger age was encountered. Since available data on the prevalence and distribution of HPV infection in Italy are somewhat discordant, this study represents a helpful contribution to the knowledge on the circulation of precise genotypes in east Sicily in order to improve new HPV vaccines. PMID:20127015

Giuffrè, Giuseppe; Simone, Angela; Todaro, Paolo; Le Donne, Maria; Caruso, Carmela; Pizzo, Alfonsa; Granese, Domenico

2010-03-01

136

Offshore deformation in the Calabrian accretionary wedge and implications for the 1693 Catania earthquake and tsunami (Eastern Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southern Italy has been struck repeatedly by very strong historical earthquakes as in 1169, 1693, 1783, 1905, 1908, often associated with destructive tsunami. While certain events (like 1908 Messina or 1783 Calabria) are associated with known crustal normal faults, which produced observed surface ruptures, the source of the strongest earthquake in the Italian catalog, the Catania earthquake of 1693 is still unknown. It may have been generated by the NW dipping subduction zone beneath Calabria and Eastern Sicily. Identifying its origin will have a major impact on the hazard assessment and our understanding of modern day tectonics in this region. The 1693 earthquake, struck E Sicily with intensities of X - XI and killed up to 60,000 people, destroying Catania, Syracuse and Augusta. It also generated a 5-10 m high tsunami which swept these cities. The 1169 earthquake had similar intensities (X to XI) and a similar isoseismal pattern, suggesting a similar source. Because of the tsunami generated in 1693 and because the isoseismals are open to the sea, the majority of the source region appears to be offshore. The nearby subduction fault plane is thus a strong candidate for both events. However, a lack of instrumentally recorded thrust earthquakes suggests that if subduction is active, the fault plane is locked (like Cascadia or Nankai). Reported GPS motions from the region are ambiguous, and thus the current activity of the Calabrian subduction remains a matter of debate. The offshore accretionary wedge is known from seismic and bathymetric investigations to include compressional anticlines and recently mud volcanoes have been discovered on the upper wedge. We present preliminary results from reprocessed 96-channel seismic reflection data from the 1997 French cruise Archimede (R/V Le Nadir) crossing the deformation front at the toe of the Calabrian prism, the Ionian abyssal plain and the deformation front of the Mediterranean Ridge (Hellenic subduction system). A more recent HR seismic cruise CALAMARE, with the Italian vessel R/V Urania (Apr. 2008) investigated the lateral boundaries of the Calabrian prism. Both data sets also investigated the Malta-Hyblean escarpment, also proposed as a candidate source for great earthquakes offshore Sicily. Additional work is in progress, including planned cruises to complete multi-beam bathymetric mapping of the Calabrian prism and border regions. A cruise proposal for deep seismics (MCS and OBS work) will also be submitted. The goal of this and future work will to seek evidence of continued tectonic activity of the system.

Gallais, F.; Gutscher, M.; Graindorge, D.; Polonia, A.

2008-12-01

137

Elevation of the last interglacial highstand in Sicily (Italy): A benchmark of coastal tectonics F. Antoniolia,, S. Kershawb, P. Rendac, D. Rustb, G. Belluominid, M. Cerasolid, U. Radtkee, S. Silenzif  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well-preserved MIS 5.5 terraces in Sicily are identified primarily by the index fossil Strombus bubonius, and dated by amino acid racemization (AAR), electron spin resonance (ESR), Uranium\\/Thorium (U\\/Th) and thermo luminescence (TL) methods. This review of published data and new results for the island of Sicily and neighbouring small islands of Egadi, Ustica and Lampedusa identifies areas of rapid uplift

S. Maria

138

New insights on 3D crustal structure in southeastern Sicily (Italy) and tectonic implications from an adaptive mesh seismic tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adaptive mesh double-difference tomography algorithm (tomoADD) was applied to absolute and differential P, S and S P data to determine three dimensional VP, VS and VP/VS variations and event locations in southeastern Sicily (Italy). The obtained velocity images highlight vertical and lateral heterogeneities that can be associated with different geological units and main tectonic features. In particular, the sharp velocity contrasts are consistent with previously recognized active faults, allowing us to better determine their shapes and geometries at depth. Moreover, a striking correspondence between areas ruptured by earthquakes and velocity anomalies is observed. In fact, seismicity is mostly confined in the high velocity volumes and/or along the high low velocity boundaries at mid-crustal depths, whereas it tends to avoid regions with lower than average VP and VS values and higher VP/VS ratios.

Scarfì, Luciano; Giampiccolo, Elisabetta; Musumeci, Carla; Patanè, Domenico; Zhang, Haijiang

2007-04-01

139

Prevalence of Toscana and Sicilian Phlebovirus Antibodies in Classic Kaposi Sarcoma Case Patients and Control Subjects in Sicily  

PubMed Central

To assess whether arthropod bites promote Kaposi sarcoma (KS), we determined the seroprevalence of Sicilian (SFSV) and Toscana (TOSV) phlebovirus antibodies in 30 patients with classic KS and 100 controls in Sicily. Nine (6.9%) subjects, all controls, were positive for SFSV, whereas 41 (31.5%) were positive for TOSV. Seroprevalence with immunoglobulin (Ig) M or IgG against either virus was significantly higher in controls (43% vs 13.3% in case patients; P < .01). Adjusted for age, IgG seroprevalence was significantly lower in KS patients compared to controls (adjusted odds ratio, 0.22; 95% confidence interval, .07–.72). Low phlebovirus seroprevalence in patients with KS may reflect incapacity to produce robust, persistent antibody responses, and suggests that arthropod bites do not promote KS.

Amodio, Emanuele; Valentini, Melissa; Gori-Savellini, Gianni; Valenti, Rosalia Maria; Romano, Nino; Cusi, Maria Grazia

2011-01-01

140

Degradation of stone materials in the archaeological context of the Greek-Roman Theatre in Taormina (Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work results on the degradation phenomena of stone materials in the Ancient Theatre of Taormina, one of the most important Greek-Roman monuments of Sicily, are reported. Artificial stone materials in different conservation conditions were investigated. Samples of salt efflorescences from brick walls and degraded setting mortars were taken from the open gallery in “ summa cavea”. The chemical, physical and structural characterization was performed by means of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), both in situ and ex situ. Results showed that the deterioration of stone materials is due to the aggressive action of the environment agents. Soluble salts, such as chlorides, sulphates and nitrates, were found in efflorescence samples. Mortars were affected by a decomposition process induced by sulphates’ attack.

Brai, M.; Casaletto, M. P.; Gennaro, G.; Marrale, M.; Schillaci, T.; Tranchina, L.

2010-09-01

141

Malta Escarpment fault zone offshore eastern Sicily: Pliocene-Quaternary tectonic evolution based on new multichannel seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Malta Escarpment represents the dominant morphological feature offshore eastern Sicily, linking the deep Ionian basin to the east with the Hyblean carbonate platform to the west. Interpretation of purposely acquired multichannel seismic data allows division of the Malta Escarpment into two portions characterized by different tectonic structures. Along the segment south of Siracusa the Malta Escarpment is not affected by recent faulting and appears as a steep surface that flattens out toward the Ionian basin. A recent deformation, characterized by a broad area of uplift, occurs 20-30 km east from the slope, along a NNW-SSE trend. The segment of the Malta Escarpment extending north of Siracusa, on the other hand, is characterized by the presence of NNW-SSE, east dipping recent extensional faults and related sedimentary basins. The observed structural features support the occurrence of a lithospheric tear between the Ionian oceanic basin and the Hyblean plateau.

Argnani, A.; Bonazzi, C.

2005-08-01

142

Pb isotope composition in lichens and aerosols from eastern Sicily: Insights into the regional impact of volcanoes on the environment  

SciTech Connect

A total of 25 lichen thalli of Parmelia conspersa (Ehrh), collected at Vulcano island and at Mt. Etna, during a one-year biogeochemical survey, were analyzed for Pb, br, Al, Sc,[sup 206]Pb/[sup 207]Pb, and [sup 208]Pb/[sup 206]Pb ratios. Lead isotope ratios were also measured on aerosol samples from urban areas and industrial sites of Sicily. The observed [sup 206]Pb/[sup 207]Pb range for urban and industrial aerosols matches the anthropogenic signature. Lichens instead, are closer to the compositional field of [sup 206]Pb rich geogenic sources. This natural input is more evident at Vulcano island than at Mt. Etna, where the anthropogenic activities are considerably more effective. On the basis of lead isotope data, Pb/Br ratios and calculated lead enrichment factors, a natural lead pollution from volcanoes is suggested. Volcanic lead contribution ranges from 10 to 30% at Mt. Etna to 10--80% at Vulcano island.

Monna, F. (Institut FA Forel (Switzerland)); Aiuppa, A.; Varrica, D. (Dipt. C.F.T.A., Palermo (Italy)); Dongarra, G. (Dipt. C.F.T.A., Palermo (Italy) CNR, Palermo (Italy). Istituto Geochimica dei Fluidi)

1999-08-01

143

Inferences on the main volcano-tectonic structures at Mt. Etna (Sicily) from a probabilistic seismological approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analysed earthquakes at Mt. Etna for the period 1983-1991 using a method that weights uncertainties in hypocentral location. Three-dimensional distributions of hypocentral probability and energy density were studied, and two first-order volcano-tectonic structures identified. The first, on the northern and western sides, is roughly NE-SW oriented, and strongly marks the northernmost limit of earthquake occurrences in the volcano region; the second, NNW-SSE trending, affects the south-eastern flank of the volcano, and is evidence for an almost aseismic uprise of magma along it. Both structures fit well with the geodynamic framework of eastern Sicily. On the contrary, there is no evidence for a main magma chamber, as postulated in the literature.

Gresta, Stefano; Peruzza, Laura; Slejko, Dario; et al.

144

Risk factors for classical Kaposi sarcoma in a population-based case-control study in Sicily  

PubMed Central

Background Classical Kaposi sarcoma (cKS) is a rare complication of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) infection. We conducted a population-based, frequency-matched case-control study in Sicily to further investigate the reported inverse relationship between smoking and cKS and to identify other factors associated with altered risk. Methods All incident, histologically confirmed, cKS cases in Sicily were eligible. A two-stage cluster sample design was applied to select population controls. KSHV seropositivity was determined using 4 antibody assays (K8.1 and orf73 enzyme immunoassays and 2 immunofluroescence assays). Using SAS-callable SUDAAN we compared the characteristics of cKS cases and KSHV seropositive controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are presented. Results In total, 142 cKS cases and 123 KSHV seropositive controls were recruited. Current cigarette smoking was associated with reduced risk of cKS (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.06-0.67). Edema was associated with cKS, but only when it presented on the lower extremities (OR 3.65, 95% CI 1.62-8.23). Irrespective of presentation site, diabetes and oral corticosteroid medications were associated with increased risk (ORs, 95% CIs: 4.73, 2.02-11.1 and 2.34, 1.23-4.45, respectively). Never smoking, diabetes and oral corticosteroid medication use were all independently associated with cKS risk. Discussion We confirmed previous reports that cigarette smoking was associated with a reduced risk of cKS, and we found that risk was lowest among current smokers. We also found that cKS risk was strongly and independently associated with oral corticosteroid use and diabetes. Corroboration of these observations and investigation of possible underlying mechanisms are warranted.

Anderson, LA; Lauria, C; Romano, N; Brown, EE; Whitby, D; Graubard, BI; Li, Y; Messina, A; Gafa, L; Vitale, F

2009-01-01

145

Geological record of the 365 A.D. Crete tsunami in south-eastern Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five years ago we started a coring campaign with the purpose to identify evidence for tsunami inundations along the coastal areas of eastern Sicily, that were affected in historical times by devastating tsunamis, generated both by local earthquakes, such as the 1169, 1693 and 1908 events, and by distant seismic sources, such as those belonging to the Aegean subduction zone (e.g. the A.D. 365 Crete earthquake). Following a multi-theme approach, we used the available historical information to address geomorphological study of the coastal landscape: aerial-photographs analysis, satellite images interpretation and field surveys allowed us to select areas likely invaded by tsunami waves in the past, representing potential trap-site for high energy deposits sedimentation and preservation. Given the variability in the nature of tsunami deposit characteristics, they are not uniquely identifiable, and other kinds of high energy deposits may share some of their features. Despite the abundant literature regarding diagnostic criteria for tsunami deposits, their distinction from storm and hurricane deposits remains a debated issue. We present the geological evidence of a tsunami inundation that left continuous onshore sandy deposit inside the Pantano Morghella along the south-eastern Sicilian coast. Pantano Morghella an almost flat area, about 1.3 km long and 0.8 km wide, surrounded by Upper Cretaceous lavas and volcanoclastic deposits, Late Cretaceous limestone calciruditi, calcarenites and marls. To the east Quaternary deposits, beach sands and 3 m high, partially cemented, dunal system (Holocene and Late Pleistocene) separate the Pantano from the sea forming the intertidal pond with a little channel from which sea water can rush into. The site was partially used as salt-pans in the recent past. In this site, we dug 33 cores down to a maximum depth of 5.80 m, from 200 m up to 1200 m from the coastline. The sedimentological core analysis reveals a fine stratigraphic sequence mainly composed by clay and silty clay, interrupt by a yellow sandy layer (about 8-10 cm thick) at about one meter of depth. Paleontological analyses show that the sandy samples have different macro and microfauna composition with respect to those samples collected above and below characterized by a lagoonal assemblage. The sandy layer, mainly composed by well-rounded yellowish carbonatic clasts, is made of several reworked foraminifera (both planktonic and benthonic), few well preserved littoral benthic foraminifera, marine macro fossil fragments and few lagoonal specimens. The deposit shows similarity with the local beach sand and it also presents a landward thinning. X-Ray analysis performed on some selected cores shows that the sandy layer is characterized by a fining upward granulometry and a sharp basal contact, possibly erosional. Summarizing, we investigated spatial distribution and lithofacies of this peculiar deposit and observed the following properties as typical of high energy deposition event: (1) the deposit covers the surface almost continuously on gentle topography and extend inland for about 1200 meters; (2) its thickness varies across local surface undulation; (3) the foraminiferal assemblage contains several reworked marine planktonic and benthonic specimens with some lagoonal species; (4) the deposit is characterized by erosive basal contact. Moreover, its composition consisting of a single structureless bed of normally graded sand, its thickness decreasing with distance from the sea and its landward limit represent attributes that strongly suggest a tsunami origin. Radiocarbon dating, performed on three samples collected just above, within and below the sandy anomalous layer, gives ages close in time, confirming a sudden deposition due to a high energy event occurred in the interval 270-650 A.D. Comparing this age with the historical tsunami catalogue, we can hypothesize that the sandy layer represents the geological record of the 365 A.D. Crete tsunami.

Gerardi, Flavia; Serafina Barbano, Maria; de Martini, Paolo Marco; Pirrotta, Claudia; Smedile, Alessandra; Pinzi, Stefania; Del Carlo, Paola

2010-05-01

146

The Tyrrhenian stage geodinamic evolution of Apenninic-Maghrebian orogen (Southern Apennines and Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Central Mediterranean region the foreland domains are represented by two continental blocks, the Apulian Block to the north and the Pelagian Block to the south, respectively belonging to the Adria and to the Africa plates. They are separated since Permo-Triassic times by the oceanic crust of the Ionian Sea. The Apenninic-Maghrebian orogen is located between two oceanic crusts: the old Ionian crust, at present time subducting beneath the Calabrian Arc, and the new crust of the opening Tyrrhenian Sea. The orogenic belt is represented by a multilayer allochthonous edifice, composed of the Calabride Chain (CC) tectonically overlying the Apenninic-Maghrebian Chain (AMC), which in turn overthrust onto the Upper Miocene and Pliocene top-levels of a deep seated thrust system, originating by the deformation of the innermost carbonates of the Pelagian/Apulian blocks (External Thrust System: ETS). The AMC tectonic units derive from the orogenic transport during Oligo-Miocene times of sedimentary sequences deposited in palaeogeographical domains located between the Europe and the Afro-Adriatic plates. These units are composed of Meso-Cenozoic shallow-water carbonate successions detached from a continental type crust sector, the Panormide/Apenninic Block, recognizable by means of seismic lines shot in the Tyrrhenian offshore of Southern Apennines and Northern Sicily. The Meso-Cenozoic basinal units, that compose the AMC, can be distinguished into two main groups of sequences, originally located on oceanic crusts separated by the Panormide/Apenninic Block: the external ones (Ionides) related to an original basin belonging to branches of the Ionian Palaeobasin involved in the orogenesis, and the internal ones ascribed to the Alpine Tethys (Sicilide Units). The terrigenous deposits of the basinal sequences belonging to the Ionides are represented by Tertiary foreland/foredeep deposits, whose relationships with the substratum are occasionally preserved, although large detachments occurred with further forward transport, which generated repeated slices with an apparent increase to the original thickness. . The Alpine Tethydes are composed of sedimentary sequences, which were deposited in the Alpine Tethys, and originally were located between the European and the Panormide/Apenninic Block. They are represented by allochthonous far travelled tectonic units, resting on both the Panormide/Apenninic Platforms and the Ionides. The Calabride Chain originated by the delamination of the European margin. This roof thrust system includes nappes of Hercynian basement with remains of the original Meso-Cenozoic covers deformed during the Paleogene and sutured by the Late Oligocene-Early Burdigalian Capo d'Orlando Flysch. The geological, geophysical data and the volcanological characters permit to restore the palaeogeography and the geodynamic evolution, and allow to recognize three orogenic stages: the Eo-Alpine, originated during Cretaceous-Eocene times, evident in the western Calabria, in the Tyrrhenian basin and the Alpine Corsica; the Balearic stage (Late Oligocene-Early Miocene), in which the Corsica-Sardinia block rotated and collided with the Adria-Africa margins with thrusting of the Alpine Tethydes over Panormide/Apenninic platforms; and the Tyrrhenian stage (Middle Miocene to Present), when the onset of the Tyrrhenian back-arc basin occurred and after the closure of the interposed Palaeoionian branches the Ionides were tectonically transported onto the foreland blocks. The CROP crustal sections allow to distinguish thickness and distribution of the crusts in this area of the Mediterranean Sea, and their clear influence on geodynamic evolution of the Tyrrhenian stage. They confirm that both the foreland blocks extend below the orogenic belt, reaching the Tyrrhenian margins, with a gradual thinning and a transition to a Palaeo-Ionian slab, probably not active at present time, from which the Ionides detached and overrode the ETS. The seismogeological data indicate the presence of the Panormide/Apenninic blocks, that took part in the closu

Lentini, F.; Carbone, S.; Barreca, G.

2009-04-01

147

The contribution of tectonics to relative sea-level change during the Holocene in coastal south-eastern Sicily: New data from boreholes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to detect ongoing vertical crustal movement and assess both tectonic instability and marine invasion risk in the south-eastern Sicily coastal area, Holocene sea-level indicators have been compared to the sea-level curve for the same period. A stratigraphical and sedimentological study, accompanied by 14C AMS dating, has been carried out using seven boreholes in the most depressed coastal sectors,

C. R. Spampinato; B. Costa; A. Di Stefano; C. Monaco; G. Scicchitano

2011-01-01

148

Iblean diatremes 2: shallow marine volcanism in the Central Mediterranean at the onset of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (Iblean Mountains, SE-Sicily)—a multidisciplinary approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multidisciplinary analysis of intraplate volcanic complexes interbedded with shallow and deeper marine sediments of a Late\\u000a Miocene carbonate platform (Iblean Plateau, Sicily) has allowed a detailed paleo-environmental reconstruction. Our approach\\u000a includes sedimentology, physical volcanology, stratigraphy, geochemistry\\/mineralogy, paleontology and 40Ar\\/39Ar dating. Four volcanic complexes are distinguished from each other. Two comprise an eastern shallow water platform (diatreme\\u000a field and Carlentini

Ines Suiting; Hans-Ulrich Schmincke

2010-01-01

149

Monitoring of submarine groundwater discharge along the Donnalucata coast in the south-eastern Sicily using underwater gamma-ray spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel technique for monitoring of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in coastal zones based on an in situ underwater gamma-ray spectrometry of radon-decay products is described. Several sites were visited during the IAEA’2002 expedition offshore Donnalucata in the south-eastern Sicily. Continuous monitoring of 222Rn in the beach spring at Donnalucata has shown variable 222Rn activity concentrations in groundwater (from 12

Pavel P. Povinec; Jean-Francois Comanducci; Isabelle Levy-Palomo; Benjamino Oregioni

2006-01-01

150

Shallow seep-related seafloor features along the Malta plateau (Sicily channel – Mediterranean Sea): Morphologies and geo-environmental control of their distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 140 and 170 m water depth, more than 100 small-scale domes and peculiar ridges were mapped a few miles offshore of south-eastern Sicily along the Malta plateau (eastern Mediterranean Sea), Swath bathymetric data along with a dense grid of side scan sonar and seismic profiles were acquired in an area extending over 100 km2. Gravity cores, water samples and video observations

A. Savini; E. Malinverno; G. Etiope; C. Tessarolo; C. Corselli

2009-01-01

151

Estimation of SO 2 abundance in the eruption plume of Mt. Etna using two MIVIS thermal infrared channels: a case study from the Sicily1997 Campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an algorithm is developed based on the split-window technique, to estimate the SO2 abundance in the plume of Mt. Etna volcano using the multispectral infrared and visible imaging spectrometer (MIVIS). The MIVIS data were remotely sensed in the thermal infrared (TIR) during the Sicily-1997 Campaign. In this study, the MODTRAN 3.5 code has been used to simulate

S. Pugnaghi; S. Teggi; S. Corradini; M. F. Buongiorno; L. Merucci; M. P. Bogliolo

2002-01-01

152

Technological study of “ghiara” mortars from the historical city centre of Catania (Eastern Sicily, Italy) and petro-chemical characterisation of raw materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents new petro-chemical data on some typical mortars found in many buildings in the historic city centre of\\u000a Catania (Eastern Sicily). Extensively used in the architecture of the city from the second half of the nineteenth century\\u000a until the mid-twentieth century, these mortars are characterised by a particular aggregate locally known as “agghiara” or “ghiara”. This is the

Cristina M. BelfioreMauro; Mauro F. La Russa; Paolo Mazzoleni; Antonino Pezzino; Marco Viccaro

2010-01-01

153

Icehouse, cool-water carbonate ramps: the case of the Upper Pliocene Capodarso Fm (Sicily): role of trace fossils in the reconstruction of growth stages of prograding wedges  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated approach, based on the use of trace fossils combined with analysis of physical and biogenic structures, identification\\u000a of key surfaces, and reconstruction of stratigraphic architecture, proved to be of critical value in defining the depositional\\u000a environments, elucidating the dynamics of progradation, and characterizing the various systems tracts of Upper Pliocene progradational\\u000a wedges (Capodarso area, Sicily) generated by cool-water

Francesco Massari; Assunta D’Alessandro

2010-01-01

154

Slide Activity along the eastern slope of the Gela Basin (offshore Sicily): First results from expedition MSM-15/3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine slides occur at all sediment bearing margins worldwide (Camerlenghi et al., 2009; Masson et al., 2006). Although numerous studies have dealt with mapping and monitoring of submarine landslide as well as investigations of trigger mechanisms and sediment failure processes, many open questions persist why a given slope fails whereas adjacent remains stable. Besides large slide events, smaller scaled mid-size slides became recently of particular importance because especially these local slides enable investigation of physical and kinematical processes during failure and to test a wide range of different trigger mechanisms. Hence, during the research expedition MSM15/3 we drilled two distinct landslides in the Gela Basin offshore south of Sicily (Italy) utilizing the MARUM sea floor drill rig (MeBo). These so-called ‘Twin Slides’ have previously been identified in water depth between 200 - 800m on the basis of side-scan sonar, Chirp seismics, swath bathymetry and shallow core data. Besides, these landslides are described as multiple failures likely controlled by specific stratigraphic surfaces acting as glide planes (Minisini et al., 2007; Minisini and Trincardi, 2009). Nevertheless, failure planes are located in depth inaccessible by conventional coring and we therefore lack groundtruthing of the geophysical data. Therefore, MeBo was deployed to drill e.g. critical subsurface intervals. A systematic MeBo drilling transect from the undisturbed slope apron to the depositional area of these landslide masses recovers up to 55 meter long cores, including the failure planes and stacked mass transport deposits in the proximal and distal areas, respectively. Sedimentological, geochemical, geophysical and geotechnical analysis of these core materials will enable (1) an age dating and estimation of the recurrence rate of mid-sized slide events and (2) a sediment physical characterization to gain a deeper insight into kinematics and physical processes during failure as well as to test a number of hypothesis regarding the trigger mechanisms, such as the weakness of clayey deposits, the liquefaction potential of the interbedded non-cohesive sand and/or ash layers, and the building up of high pore pressures due to high accumulation rates. References Camerlenghi, A., Urgeles, R., Fantoni, L., 2009. A database on submarine landslides of the Mediterranean Sea. In: Submarine Mass Movements and Their Consequences IV, edited by Mosher, DC. Et al., 4th International Symposium on Submarine mass movements and their consequences, Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research. Masson, D.G., Harbitz, C.B., Wynn, R.B., Pedersen, G., Løvholt, F., 2006. Submarine landslides: processes, triggers and hazard prediction. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 364, 2009-2039. Minisini, D., Trincardi, F., Asioli, A., Canu, M., Foglini, F., (2007). Morphologic variability of exposed mass-transport deposits on the eastern slope of the Gela Basin (Sicily channel). Basin Research, 19, 217-240 Minisini, D., Trincardi, F., (2009). Frequent failure of the continental slope: The Gela Basin (Sicily Channel), Journal of Geophysical Research, Earth Surfac, 114, F03014, 17 PP

Huhn, K.; Strasser, M.; Freudenthal, T.; Foglini, F.; Trincardi, F.; Minisini, D.; Msm15/3 Working Group

2010-12-01

155

Modeling, Analysis, and Preservation Techniques for Historic Reinforced Concrete Structures in Seismic Prone Regions Case Study: Augusta Airship Hangar, Sicily  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the world there are hundreds of historic monuments and structures considered to be invaluable and irreplaceable. They are symbols of cultural identity and a means of educating people about history. Preservation of historic monuments and structures is therefore an important part of safeguarding these cultural heritage sites so that they retain their value for future generations.This report discusses a procedure for the investigation of seismic hazards in existing buildings and possible steps that can be taken to avoid damage caused by these hazards. The Augusta Airship Hangar located in Sicily, will be used as a case study however the topics addressed in this paper can be applied to other structures of historic value around the world.First state-of-the-art scanning procedures were used to create scale digital models that were imported into a structural analysis program. Within this program dynamic analyses were performed on the model based on actual ground motions taken close to the site. This data was used to determine the period and mode shapes of the structure. Then a nonlinear analysis, including a static pushover analysis, was implemented on a two-dimensional model of the structural frame. From this analysis the failure mechanisms of the structure were revealed with relation to an allowable roof displacement. The structural integrity of the structure was evaluated based on pre-defined performance goals. Finally multiple suggestions were made how the Augusta Airship Hangar might be repaired and strengthened so that this structure will not be destroyed should an earthquake occur.The results of our study show that historic structures, despite their age, can still be strong and ductile. Also there are a multitude of effective preservation and retrofit techniques that can be used to strengthen these historic structures, should an earthquake occur. Through this study, the Augusta Airship Hangar has proven to be not only a historic symbol for Sicily but also can be used as an example for the rehabilitation of other historic structures. The techniques and processes discussed in this paper can be applied to other historic reinforced concrete structures and can be expanded upon in future investigations.

Cronin, Kelly; Whyte, Catherine [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 760 Davis Hall (United States); Reiner, Tom [Graduate Engineer, Buro Happold Consulting Engineers, Inc., 9601 Jefferson Blvd., Suite B, Culver City, CA 90232 (United States)

2008-07-08

156

Active strain-rates across the Messina Straits and kinematics of Sicily and Calabria from GPS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Messina Straits is the locus of one of the strongest seismic event that ever hit Italy during historical times, the 1908 Mw 7.1 earthquake, and the same region also suffered major damage from other strong earthquakes in the last few centuries. However, despite the large amount of data and studies carried out, our knowledge of the present-day deformation of this area is still debated. While a general consensus has been reached about the kinematics of the 1908 causative fault, less is known about the rate and shape of interseismic loading across the Straits, and debate continues also about the general kinematics and geodynamic framework of this region which are strongly influenced by subduction and retreat of Ionian lithosphere. Thanks to the increasing number of GPS Networks in the study region it is now possible to study both the regional kinematics and strain loading across active faults. In this work we analyze all the observations collected over the Messina non-permanent GPS Network for the 1994-2008 time span, and data from about 600 CGPS stations in the Euro-Mediterranean region, using the GAMIT software. The output of our analysis is a new and denser velocity field, which is used to study the plate kinematics and the rate of interseismic strain building across the Straits. GPS velocities show a sudden change in their orientation across the Straits moving to NNW-ward, in Estern Sicily, to NNE-ward in Western Calabria, depicting this area as a primary boundary between two different tectonic domains. The maximum strain-rates observed across the Straits are about 120 nanostrain/yr, with extension oriented about normal to the coasts of Sicily according to the presence of a normal fault. The measured velocity gradient can be used to model the creeping dislocation at depth, however, over the Messina Straits the interseismic elastic strains accumulating across other nearby active faults can significantly affect the observed velocity gradient.For this reason we investigate, using a regional elastic block-modeling approach, these effects. We use the block model to test for different microplates configurations and to account for nearby active faults while inverting for optimal fault geometry and intersismic slip-rates across the Straits.

Mastrolembo Ventura, B.; Serpelloni, E.; Burgmann, R.; Anzidei, M.; Baldi, P.; Cavaliere, A.

2009-04-01

157

The significance of slab-crusted lava flows for understanding controls on flow emplacement at Mount Etna, Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slab-crusted flows on Mount Etna, Sicily are defined here as those whose crust has ridden on the flow core without significant disruption or deformation and have a high length to width ratio. They typically erupt from ephemeral boccas as late-stage products on dominantly aa flow fields, such as that of the 1983 eruption on Mount Etna. Slab-crusted flows tend to inflate mainly as they approach and after they reach the maximum length of slab-crust formation, the flow interior acting as a preferential pathway for injecting lava under a stable crust. Coalescence of vesicles under successive crusts causes separation between core and crust giving a new cooling surface within the flow, on which ropy surfaces (and occasionally aa textures) of limited areal extent may develop. Slab-crusted flows tend to form at ephemeral boccas together with other surface textural types including toes, ropy pahoehoe sheets and aa flows. This suggests that, on Etna, slab-crusted flows form from lava of the same rheological properties as both aa and pahoehoe textured flows. They do not represent a transition between aa and pahoehoe as argued for toothpaste flows in Hawaii. We conclude that slab-crusted flows on Etna owe their morphology to a relatively high critical ratio of effusion rate to advance rate, related to vent cross-sectional area and the slope over which the flow forms.

Guest, John E.; Stofan, Ellen R.

2005-04-01

158

Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus in a swine farm house in Sicily, Italy.  

PubMed

This report describes a pandemic A/H1N1 (H1N1 pdm) virus outbreak occurred in December, 2009 in a swine farm used as research facility (Istituto Mediterraneo Trapianti e Terapie ad Alta Specializzazione) for preclinical studies, located in Sicily, Italy. All the 13 pigs of the farm, showed cough, fever, inappetence and weakness. At the same time, an unvaccinated worker of the stabling showed influenza-like symptoms. RNAv extracted from two swabs collected from infected pigs resulted positive by Real Time RT-PCR for Influenza A virus. Furthermore, after growth on embryonated eggs, viral isolates were identified by Real Time RT-PCR specific for H1N1 pdm virus and characterized antigenically. Sequencing of the whole genome was also performed. All sera taken from animals and from the worker were tested by a competitive influenza A ELISA and by the haemoagglutination inhibition test. Serological findings confirmed the circulation of influenza virus H1N1 pdm in pigs and the presence of specific antibodies against H1N1 pdm in human serum. The results of this study seem to support a H1N1 pdm transmission from man to animals showing the importance of serological and virological investigation to control the pig farms and the importance of close cooperation between the different authorities like veterinarian and human public. PMID:23033673

Guercio, A; Purpari, G; Conaldi, P G; Pagano, V; Moreno, A; Giambruno, P; Di Trani, L; Vaccari, G; Falcone, E; Istituto, A Boni; Cordioli, P

2012-03-01

159

Crustal zircons and mantle sulfides: Archean to Triassic events in the lithosphere beneath south-eastern Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three types of zircon coexist in an unusual lower crustal xenolith from the Valle Guffari diatreme (Hyblean Plateau, Sicily): igneous Type 1 (near-euhedral, weakly zoned; Ce/Ce* > 1); partially recrystallised Type 2 (ovoid, structureless; weak Ce anomaly); hydrothermal Type 3 (sugary, spongy-textured, probably related to F-rich aqueous fluids). U Pb dating by LAM-ICPMS, supported by in situ Hf-isotope analysis, suggests that both Type 1 and Type 2 zircons were originally Archean (ca 2.7 Ga), though many of these grains have experienced severe Pb loss. The U Pb ages of the hydrothermal zircons cluster around 246 Ma, interpreted as the timing of the hydrothermal event. Their ?Hf (+ 8.5 to - 1.2) indicates the mixing of old crustal components and material from a juvenile source. In situ Os-isotope analyses of sulfides hosted in peridotite xenoliths from Valle Guffari show Paleoproterozoic Archean TRDminimum ages, corresponding to the age of the oldest zircon grains in the crustal xenolith. Other peaks of TRD ages suggest that multiple metasomatic events have affected the lithospheric mantle. These observations suggest that the lower crust and the upper part of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Hyblean Plateau represent the northernmost portion of the African Plate. These two units have coexisted since at least late Archean time, and have remained linked through several episodes of crustal modification, including the Permo-Triassic hydrothermal event, which was probably related to the onset of rifting in the Ionian Basin.

Sapienza, Giovanna T.; Griffin, William L.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Morten, Lauro

2007-07-01

160

Is land-use change a cause of loss of pedodiversity? The case of the Mazzarrone study area, Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic soils created ex novo by land-use change in large scale farming are, from a pedogenetic point of view, catastrophic events that bring the soils to time zero and change the natural pattern of the soilscape, remarkably, in some cases. The quantitative aspects of pedodiversity of a soilscape in South-East Sicily, where some types of soils, in recent decades, have suffered a consistent reduction due to the transformations by large scale farming, are considered. The evolution of pedodiversity over a 53-year period (1955 to 2008) is examined using a dedicated statistical method and a space-time model based on Markov analysis and cellular automata in order to predict the evolution of the soilscape pattern in the next 42 years (i.e. until 2050). Soil subgroups, using the USDA Soil Taxonomy and a classification proposal, were considered and the following indices were used: richness; Shannon's diversity index; Simpson diversity index; modified Simpson's diversity index; Shannon's evenness index; Simpson's evenness index and modified Simpson's evenness index. These indices measured over time, show, quantitatively, a decrease in pedodiversity that highlights the effect of the human intervention in modifying the natural order of the soilscape.

Lo Papa, Giuseppe; Palermo, Vanessa; Dazzi, Carmelo

2011-12-01

161

OSL chronology of Quaternary terraced deposits outcropping between Mt. Etna volcano and the Catania Plain (Sicily, southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we tested the applicability of the Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) technique through Single-Aliquot Regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol, on single grain quartz extracted from alluvial-coastal sediments. Five samples were collected from deposits belonging to a flight of seven orders of coastal-alluvial terraces outcropping in the area between Mt. Etna volcano and the Catania Plain (Sicily, southern Italy), at the front of the Sicilian fold and thrust system. After various performance tests, we obtained OSL ages ranging between 240 ± 12 and 80 ± 4 ka, consistent with the normal evolutionary model of a terraced sequence, moving from the highest to the lowest elevation. Obtained data allowed us to determine a mean uplift rate of 1.2 mm/year during the last 240 ka, mostly related to regional uplift processes coupled with sea-level changes. Moreover, terraces belonging to the two highest orders are folded, forming a large anticline. According to our results, the frontal thrust of the Sicilian chain was active between 236 and 197 ka ago, even though seismological and geodetic data suggest current activity to the back.

Ristuccia, Gloria M.; Di Stefano, Agata; Gueli, Anna M.; Monaco, Carmelo; Stella, Giuseppe; Troja, Sebastiano O.

162

The Baroque monuments of Modica (Eastern Sicily): assessment of causes of chromatic alteration of stone building materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baroque monuments of several cities in eastern Sicily, built of local calcarenitic stone, are often subjected to conservation treatments, since they undergo many forms of alteration and degradation which can cause significant damage. However, a recent study of these building materials (Barone et al. in Environ. Geol. 54:1501, 2008) has demonstrated that some protective products, once applied, cause irreversible chromatic alterations. The façades of the monuments of the historic city centre of Modica are typically creamy yellow in colour, sometimes varying slightly due to the use of various pigments, such as clayey and gypseous earths (La Russa et al. in Appl. Phys. A 92:185, 2008). However, in some cases, these nuances are lost due to the application of protective products. This work provides a petrographic and colorimetric characterisation of the calcarenitic stone used to create the façades of the churches of S. Pietro, S. Maria del Soccorso and S. Maria dell’Annunziata in Modica, also by comparisons with locally quarried samples. In addition, it aims to identify protective substances which may have been used during previous restoration work. Analytical techniques included polarising optical microscopy, spectrophotometric colorimetric tests, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Belfiore, Cristina M.; La Russa, Mauro F.; Pezzino, Antonino; Campani, Elisa; Casoli, Antonella

2010-09-01

163

The role of native flower visitors in pollinating Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., naturalized in Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of insects in pollination and consequently in fruit set and quality was assessed in two commercial orchards of the cactus pear, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., in Agrigento Province, Sicily. In 1997, insects visiting flowers were sampled during May-June (the first bloom) and July (the second bloom, induced by the "scozzolatura" practise). More than 50 insect species belonging to 10 orders were collected in May-June, while only five species of Hymenoptera Apoidea were collected in July. The quality of fruits arising from the second bloom showed that Hymenoptera alone were able to guarantee effective pollination. To verify the role of insects in pollination in 1996 (during only the second bloom), and in 1997 and 2009 (during both blooms), 60 single flowers were marked during each bloom; 30 of them covered with paper sleeves (which prevented natural pollination), while the others were not covered. After withering, fruits produced by marked flowers were analyzed in laboratory: in all years and blooms, the total number of seeds, the number of developed seeds, and the weight and the percentage of pulp were significantly lower for covered flowers than for non-covered flowers. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that native insects effectively carry out the pollination of cactus pear flowers.

Lo Verde, Gabriella; La Mantia, Tommaso

2011-09-01

164

Biodiversity of indigenous Saccharomyces populations from old wineries of south-eastern Sicily (Italy): preservation and economic potential.  

PubMed

In recent years, the preservation of biodiversity has become an important issue. Despite much public discussion, however, current practices in the food industry seldom take account of its potential economic importance: on the contrary, the introduction of industrialized agriculture practices over large areas has often resulted in a dramatic reduction in biodiversity.In this paper, we report on the remarkable degree of biodiversity in the wine yeast populations naturally present in a small area of Sicily (Italy) where traditional (non-industrial) winery practices are still in place. Out of more than 900 Saccharomyces yeast isolates recovered from late spontaneous fermentations, we detected at least 209 strains. Most interestingly, when evaluated at the fermentation and technological level, a number of isolates were found to be superior to industrial yeast strains. Out of a selected group, isolates from two strains were used for experimental fermentations in a winery environment and the quality of the wines produced was assessed at the technological, quality and sensory levels. Given that the characteristics of the wines produced were found to be industrially appealing, the study demonstrated the economic potential of preserving the patrimony of Sicilian yeast biodiversity and highlighted the importance of maintaining traditional wine making practices. PMID:22393353

Di Maio, Sabina; Polizzotto, Giuseppe; Di Gangi, Enrico; Foresta, Giusy; Genna, Giuseppe; Verzera, Antonella; Scacco, Antonio; Amore, Gabriele; Oliva, Daniele

2012-02-29

165

Active tectonics along the submarine slope of south-eastern Sicily and the source of the 11 January 1693 earthquake and tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South-eastern Sicily has been affected by large historical earthquakes, including the 11 January 1693 earthquake, considered the largest magnitude earthquake in the history of Italy (Mw = 7.4). This earthquake was accompanied by a large tsunami (tsunami magnitude 2.3 in the Murty-Loomis scale adopted in the Italian tsunami catalogue by Tinti et al., 2004), suggesting a source in the near offshore. The fault system of the eastern Sicily slope is characterised by NNW-SSE-trending east-dipping extensional faults active in the Quaternary. The geometry of a fault that appears currently active has been derived from the interpretation of seismic data, and has been used for modelling the tsunamigenic source. Synthetic tide-gauge records from modelling this fault source indicate that the first tsunami wave polarity is negative (sea retreat) in almost all the coastal nodes of eastern Sicily, in agreement with historical observations. The outcomes of the numerical simulations also indicate that the coastal stretch running from Catania to Siracusa suffered the strongest tsunami impact, and that the highest tsunami waves occurred in Augusta, aslo in agreement with the historical accounts. A large-size submarine slide (almost 5 km3) has also been identified along the slope, affecting the footwall of the active fault. Modelling indicates that this slide gives non-negligible tsunami signals along the coast; though not enough to match the historical observations for the 1693 tsunami event. The earthquake alone or a combination of earthquake faulting and slide can possibly account for the large run up waves reported for the 11 January 1693 event.

Argnani, A.; Armigliato, A.; Pagnoni, G.; Zaniboni, F.; Tinti, S.; Bonazzi, C.

2012-05-01

166

Surveillance of hospitalised patients with influenza-like illness during pandemic influenza A(H1N1) season in Sicily, April 2009-December 2010.  

PubMed

This paper describes the epidemiology of hospitalised cases with influenza-like illness (ILI) and laboratory-confirmed influenza A cases in Sicily (Italy) during the 2009 influenza pandemic. The first ILI case diagnosed as infected with pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 in Sicily was reported in June 2009 and it rapidly became the dominant circulating strain. In the period from 30 April 2009 through 31 December 2010, a total of 2,636 people in Sicily were hospitalised for ILI and 1,193 were laboratory-confirmed for influenza A. Basic demographic and clinical information for all hospitalised patients was collected and population mortality rates (PMRs) and case fatality ratios (CFRs) were calculated. The median age of hospitalised patients infected with pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 was significantly lower than that of hospitalised ILI cases in general (18.0 vs. 32.1 years; p<0.0001). Among adults, women were more susceptible than men. The majority of clinical presentations were mild, but 6.6% of hospitalised patients required admission to an intensive care unit, of whom 26.3% had confirmed influenza A. Twenty-four fatal cases were documented. The age group of 45–54 year-olds showed the highest PMRs once hospitalised, while CFRs were higher in elderly patients of 65 years and older. All fatal cases were confirmed as influenza A(H1N1)2009 and most of them had established risk factors for influenza complications. PMID:21903041

Tramuto, F; Maida, C M; Bonura, F; Perna, A M; Puzelli, S; De Marco, M A; Donatelli, I; Aprea, L; Firenze, A; Arcadipane, A; Palazzo, U; Vitale, F

2011-09-01

167

Petrology and Sr–Nd–Hf isotope geochemistry of gabbro xenoliths from the Hyblean Plateau: a MARID reservoir beneath SE Sicily?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ trace-element and isotopic (87Sr\\/86Sr) data and whole-rock Sr–Nd–Hf data on 12 gabbro xenoliths from the Hyblean Plateau (south-eastern Sicily) illustrate the\\u000a complex petrogenetic evolution of this lithospheric segment. The gabbros formed by precipitation of plagioclase + clinopyroxene\\u000a from a HIMU-type alkaline melt, then were cryptically metasomatized by a low-Rb, high-87Sr\\/86Sr fluid, and finally infiltrated by an exotic, late Fe–Ti-rich melt

Giovanna T. Sapienza; William L. Griffin; Suzanne Y. O’Reilly; Lauro Morten

2009-01-01

168

How dry was the Messinian Salinity Crisis? - a molecular study of the Eraclea Minoa (Sicily) section, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC; 5.96 - 5.33 Ma) is considered one of the most enigmatic episodes of paleo-oceanographic change. Kilometres thick evaporites were deposited in the Mediterranean basin, during periods when the connections between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean basin were restricted. The development through time of this crisis is still under debate. Although it is generally accepted that the MSC was a dry period with higher evaporation than precipitation and runoff, how dry climate was and how saline the water, has not yet been quantified accurately. Samples from the Upper Evaporites (MSC stage 3; 5.53 - 5.33 Ma) were collected from the Eraclea Minoa section (Sicily) consisting of cyclic alternations of gypsum and marls. Compound specific hydrogen isotopes, being closely related to the hydrological cycle and build into organic molecules, offer the opportunity to reconstruct past changes in the hydrological cycle and salinity during the MSC. The ?D of terrestrial n-alkanes (C25 - C31) mainly records the ?D of precipitation, modified by meteoric conditions and evapotranspiration in leaves. The ?D of long-chain alkenones, produced by haptophyte algae, depends on the ?D of the water, salinity and to some degree growth rate. Both long chain n-alkanes with a high odd over even predominance (higher plants) and long chain alkenones were found, recording heavy (deuterium enriched) hydrogen isotopic values. The very heavy surface water values are in line with exceptional high rates of evaporation. Furthermore, presence of alkenones in the Upper Evaporites suggests that the connections between Atlantic and Mediterranean, despite being reduced, were open also during stage 3 of the MSC.

Mezger, E. M.; Vasiliev, I.; Lugli, S.; Roveri, M.; Manzi, V.; Reichart, G. J.

2012-04-01

169

Modeling the baroclinic circulation in the area of the Sicily channel: The role of stratification and energy diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aspects of the circulation of the Sicily channel region are studied with a high-resolution, primitive equation, sigma coordinate model. This work is an attempt to study the process governing the purely baroclinic dynamics and its sensitivity to seasonal stratification, thus no atmospheric forcing is used. Two numerical experiments are analyzed using, as initial conditions, diagnostic velocity fields derived from the winter and summer climatological hydrologies. The quasi-steady state is characterized by circulation patterns, in the depth range of the Modified Atlantic Water (MAW) and the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW), strongly controlled by mesoscale eddies and topography. Seasonal difference is found in the surface current which exhibits the major variability on the African side, downstream of Adventure Bank and the Ionian Slope where the absolute maximum occurs. The intermediate circulation instead does not show relevant seasonal differences. LIW enters through the two passages south of Malta Plateau and preferentially flows along the Sicilian shelf edge exiting over the northern sill. Its pathway is strongly controlled by subsurface cyclonic and anticyclonic cells. The results are in good agreement with observations. An energy diagnostics is applied to model results and sheds important light on dynamical characteristics of the mesoscale eddy field and indicates seasonal differences in the energetic exchange with the mean flow. The analysis of the mean (MKE) and eddy (EKE) kinetic energy, the transfer terms between energy compartments and the eddy momentum flux divergence indicates how eddies are strongly energetic in summer and exchange energy more efficiently with the mean flow. In the quasi-steady state MAW volume transport and MKE and EKE fluctuations are strongly correlated. This result suggests that mesoscale motions can control up to 40% of volume transport variability.

Napolitano, Ernesto; Sannino, Gianmaria; Artale, Vincenzo; Marullo, Salvatore

2003-07-01

170

Geogenic and atmospheric sources for volatile organic compounds in fumarolic emissions from Mt. Etna and Vulcano Island (Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, fluid source(s) and processes controlling the chemical composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in gas discharges from Mt. Etna and Vulcano Island (Sicily, Italy) were investigated. The main composition of the Etnean and Volcano gas emissions is produced by mixing, to various degrees, of magmatic and hydrothermal components. VOCs are dominated by alkanes, alkenes and aromatics, with minor, though significant, concentrations of O-, S- and Cl(F)-substituted compounds. The main mechanism for the production of alkanes is likely related to pyrolysis of organic-matter-bearing sediments that interact with the ascending magmatic fluids. Alkanes are then converted to alkene and aromatic compounds via catalytic reactions (dehydrogenation and dehydroaromatization, respectively). Nevertheless, an abiogenic origin for the light hydrocarbons cannot be ruled out. Oxidative processes of hydrocarbons at relatively high temperatures and oxidizing conditions, typical of these volcanic-hydrothermal fluids, may explain the production of alcohols, esters, aldehydes, as well as O- and S-bearing heterocycles. By comparing the concentrations of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) in the fumarolic discharges with respect to those of background air, it is possible to highlight that they have a geogenic origin likely due to halogenation of both methane and alkenes. Finally, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) abundances appear to be consistent with background air, although the strong air contamination that affects the Mt. Etna fumaroles may mask a possible geogenic contribution for these compounds. On the other hand, no CFCs were detected in the Vulcano gases, which are characterized by low air contribution. Nevertheless, a geogenic source for these compounds cannot be excluded on the basis of the present data.

Tassi, F.; Capecchiacci, F.; Cabassi, J.; Calabrese, S.; Vaselli, O.; Rouwet, D.; Pecoraino, G.; Chiodini, G.

2012-09-01

171

Calibration of a Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm (TEDA) for the sites of Catania and Tremestieri in Sicily, Italy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TEDA is a real-time algorithm for the detection of potentially dangerous long period waves like tsunamis (Bressan and Tinti, 2011) and it is formed by two simultaneous algorithms built to work at a station level, i.e. on sea level data from a single station: the tsunami detection is designed to identify impulsive long period waves as tsunamis and it triggers a detection when the detided sea level slope exceeds a dynamic threshold that varies according with the previous background sea level slope, while the secure detection triggers an alert when a filtered sea-level signal passes an amplitude threshold. To make TEDA operational in a tide gauge station, both the thresholds of the detection conditions and the temporal parameters in the definitions of TEDA functions should be carefully determined to improve the algorithm efficiency, especially for coastal tide gauge stations that are usually characterized by a local background spectrum and a site dependent tsunami response. This is accomplished by a performance evaluation study, called calibration, which consists in the analysis of the performance of TEDA tested a posteriori with different settings on available data, both on background condition and in case of tsunami event. The study of the background signal and in particular of the potential dangerous events that can affect the site is very important, especially in case of no tsunami records available, where synthetic tsunami signals produced by numerical simulations of known and possible tsunamigenic sources should be used. The calibration of TEDA in a specific site allows not only to optimize, but also to evaluate its efficiency in different possible situations. In this work we present the results of TEDA calibration for two Italian sites, Catania and Tremestieri, both on the eastern coast of Sicily, where coastal tide gauges are installed, with synthetic tsunami signals from tsunami scenarios, including seismic and landslide sources (Tonini et al, 2011).

Bressan, L.; Tinti, S.; Zaniboni, F.; Pagnoni, G.

2012-04-01

172

Historical and geological evidence for seismic origin of newly recognized landslides in southeastern Sicily, and its significance in terms of hazard.  

PubMed

Old, large, and dormant landslides were unexpectedly found in southeastern Sicily, a territory of known seismicity but commonly considered as landslide-free or almost so. Purposely undertaken investigations revealed that: (1) these landslides are scarcely compatible with the local geoclimatic environment; (2) they usually show low-angle basal shear surfaces, despite the fact that the properties of the forming material are generally good; (3) they fulfill the known relationships between earthquake magnitude and epicenter-landslide distance; (4) sources coeval with high-energy historical earthquakes occurred in 1169, 1542 and 1693 testify to the occurrence of earthquake-triggered landsliding; and (5) documentary material (presented here for the first time) correlates with certainty a specific landslide to the 1693 earthquake. This geological and historical evidence, accompanied by the absence of contrasting elements, leads us to conclude that these landslides are earthquake-triggered. Because of their typological and geometrical characteristics, nearly all landslides can be reactivated, which has serious implications in terms of hazard, particularly with respect to lines of communication. Obviously, every action aimed at preventing or mitigating risks must start from the awareness of the causative processes, a condition substantially unsatisfied at the moment in SE Sicily. The paper concludes by emphasizing the opportunity not to trust excessively beliefs that, although shared, have never been really checked. PMID:11740628

Pantano, Francesca Gringeri; Nicoletti, Pier Giorgio; Parise, Mario

2002-01-01

173

A Late Holocene record of tsunamis in the Augusta Bay area (eastern Sicily, Italy): historical vs geological data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of hazard plans based on realistic inundation scenarios was dramatically highlighted in December 2004. These scenarios are generally based on numerical models of tsunami wave propagation that can become more realistic and accurate when calibrated with the distribution of true inundated locations and the frequency of event occurrence. This information is generally acquired by historical reports, usually limited to the past few hundreds years, but we believe that it can be properly and fully obtained also from geological investigations. We present results coming from two different approaches, on one side we collected detailed information on historical tsunamis in eastern Sicily; on the other side, through geological investigation, we found evidence for a 4 ka long record of tsunami deposits in two different sites, Augusta Hospital and Priolo Reserve, along the Augusta Bay coast. The research was carried out through a multi-theme study consisting of historical analysis, geomorphologic and geologic surveys, coring campaigns and several laboratory analyses (paleontological, radiometric, X-Ray, magnetic susceptibility, tephra, etc.). From the historical research, we discovered that the study area experienced at least four tsunamis (in 1908, 1693, 1542 and 1169) during the past millennium (period for which the historical tsunamis record can be considered complete) with a maximum inundation distance of about 170 m, recorded at the Augusta town during the 1693 event. Thus, a historical tsunami recurrence interval of about 250 years for the past millennium can be derived from written reports (note that considering the whole historical dataset it becomes ~400 years long). From the geological research, summarizing and combining all the geological data collected in the field, we found seven distinct tsunami deposits, all characterized by sediments coarser than above and below, by a clear marine origin and often by sharp erosional basal contacts. Our findings are remarkably far from the present coastline (400 to 500 m inland) and on the basis of the available international literature they could be hardly related to storm waves. The number of identified tsunami deposits implies a geologic tsunami recurrence interval of about 600 years for the past 4 ka. Geological and historical data collected for the Augusta Bay suggest interesting difference in terms of tsunami recurrence interval and inundation distance and we would like to discuss the possible reasons of these discrepancies. Finally, we believe that the identification and characterization of historical and paleotsunamis deposits allow to estimate long-term recurrence intervals and true inundation distances, data otherwise difficult to get. This information may have a significant relevance for Civil Protection applications, being easily suitable for tsunami scenario and modeling, especially in the Augusta Bay area that hosts both important industrial petrochemical facilities and a basis of the Italian Navy and NATO.

de Martini, P.; Barbano, M.; Smedile, A.; Gerardi, F.; Pantosti, D.; Del Carlo, P.; Pirrotta, C.

2009-12-01

174

New contributions to the debate on the cause of the January 11th, 1693 tsunami in eastern Sicily (Italy): earthquake or offshore landslide source (or may be both)?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eastern Sicily is among the most exposed regions in Italy and in the whole Mediterranean to tsunami hazard and risk. The historical tsunamis recorded here were generally associated to moderate-to-large magnitude earthquakes. The largest tsunami documented in the area occurred on January 11th, 1693. It followed the highest-magnitude earthquake (7.4) of the Italian seismic history. The tsunami, whose first significant motion was a retreat along the entire eastern Sicily coastline, produced the most devastating effects at Augusta (15 meters run-up) and Catania, being relevant at Siracusa and Messina too. A lively debate exists on whether the earthquake was the only source of the tsunami, or other causes (such as submarine landslides, possibly triggered by the earthquake) contributed to the tsunami generation. In the framework of the EC funded project TRANSFER, we investigate both hypotheses, starting from suitable onshore and offshore faults as well as from offshore landslide bodies, and hence simulating numerically the ensuing tsunami and comparing the results with the available historical information. We base on the results obtained during recent offshore surveys, in particular the multichannel seismic survey MESC2001, carried out in year 2001 on board the R/V Urania of the Italian National Council of Researches (CNR), which mapped both active normal faults and a number of possible landslide bodies along the Hyblaean-Malta escarpment, the most prominent tectonic structure found just few kilometres offshore eastern Sicily. From the modelling point of view, the initial condition for the earthquake- generated tsunamis coincides with the vertical coseismic deformation of the seafloor. Instead, the landslide motion is simulated through the Lagrangian block model UBO-BLOCK2, developed at the University of Bologna. Finally, the finite-element code UBO-TSUFE, implemented by the same research team, is used to simulate the tsunami generation and propagation. The main conclusions are: 1) if the earthquake is postulated to be the only responsible for the tsunami, then the historical information can be reproduced only by assuming an offshore tectonic source; 2) taking into account the largest of the mapped landslides, we are able to reproduce quite satisfactorily both the first polarity and the size distribution of the tsunami; 3) we cannot rule out the idea that there was a concurrent contribution of the earthquake and of the landslide in generating the tsunami.

Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.; Zaniboni, F.; Pagnoni, G.; Argnani, A.

2007-12-01

175

Assessment and mapping of debris-flow risk in a small catchment in eastern Sicily through integrated numerical simulations and GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the application of a methodology for the evaluation of debris-flow risk in alluvial fans by incorporating numerical simulations with Geographical Information Systems to identify potential debris-flow hazard areas. The methodology was applied to a small catchment located in the north-eastern part of Sicily, Italy where an extreme debris flow event occurred in October 2007. The adopted approach integrates a slope stability model that identifies the areas of potential shallow landslides under different meteorological conditions using a two-dimensional finite-element model based on the De Saint Venant equation for the debris-flow propagation. The mechanical properties of the debris were defined using both laboratory and in situ test results. The risk classification of the area under study was derived using total hydrodynamic force per unit width (impact pressure) as an indicator for event intensity. Based on the simulation results, a potential risk zone was identified and mapped.

Aronica, Giuseppe T.; Biondi, Giovanni; Brigandì, Giuseppina; Cascone, Ernesto; Lanza, Stefania; Randazzo, Giovanni

176

deducing the sequence of deformations during chain building from the analysis of minor structures: the case of the Sicily Belt (Central Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinematics of mountain belts is often very difficult to decipher. Main problems consist in the linkage between different stages of deformation which define the chain building, their significance in the context of lithospheric evolution dominates by plate collision and the interaction with previous structures recorded in the rocks. Also, the overprinting of structures developing later with respect to the chain building may further make complicate the way to unravel the tectonic evolution of the wedge. Folding and faulting are the dominant modes for strain partitioning during chain building. The micro-to-macroscopic related structures represent shortening accommodation in the shallow crustal levels during plate collision. The structures defined by both modes are often geometrically and kinematically linked. Folding and faulting may also be representative of distinct episodes of tectonism. Meso-scale structural observations provide a powerful tool to unravel the evolution of map- and regional-scale structures. Several studies are known worldwide, regarding the deformative history during a single contractional episode. Also in the Mediterranean region, several outcrop- and map-scale examples are consistent with a progressive deformation model, where folding and thrusting are interpreted as kinematically linked. The connection between thrusting-and-folding evolution and the wedge failure towards the extensional collapse in collisional settings is poorly argued. Different opinions are known about this concept: i) one view is that extension post-date thrusting and wedge growth and is due to thermal processes in the inner zones of the chain built; and ii) the other view is that extension develops during the chain building processes and is related to the wedge taper evolution. In Sicily, located in the Central Mediterranean, lack a kinematic model relative to the chain building, including folding-and-thrusting and extension. Our aim is to provide constraints to help unravel the structural evolution of the Sicily chain using overprinting mesoscopic fabrics and their relationships to larger structures. The geometric differences existing between some types of structures within the belt and their overprinting relationships allow delineating the timing of deformations during chain building and post-collision tectonic history. The overall structural setting of the mountain chain reflects therefore the deformation and the progressive thrusting migration forelandwards, with extensional faulting overprinting and inverting formed thrusts. Most of the data available for this work come from detailed analysis in a few key areas, ranging along the Northern Sicily, where minor structures are overprinted to form a single sequence. Our study of outcrops throughout the region has recognised that the progression of deformation is represented by four regionally-significant structural stages (layer-parallel shortening, folding-and-thrusting, extension and renewed thrusting). The first stage of deformation includes several sub-stages (layer-parallel shortening, bed-parallel simple shear and fold nucleation). Deformation continued in a second stage, where thrusting was coupled by fold amplification and tightening. Kinematic evolution is provided by a third stage, where dominantly negative inversion of previous weakened zones and mechanical discontinuities occurred, coupled by normal faults activation. Out-of-sequence thrusting follows the chain thinning phase, as the late orogenic deformation phase of the contractional tectonics which affected Sicily. Each stage is defined as a discrete phase of deformation, characterised by the development of a characteristic set of structures, such as cleavage, folds, faults and veins. Each deformative step may be sequentially framed in a kinematic history, where a continuous shortening process, halted by an extension episode due to chain overthickening, in a tectonic setting dominated by collisional tectonics.

Nigro, Fabrizio; Renda, Pietro; Favara, Rocco

2010-05-01

177

Production technology and provenance study of archaeological ceramics from relevant sites in the Alcantara River Valley (North-eastern Sicily, Italy)  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, volcanic-rich ceramic remains from the archaeological sites of Francavilla, Naxos and Taormina (Province of Messina, North-eastern Sicily) were studied by using inclusions as main provenance marker. Technological features, such as temper choice, vitrification degree and firing temperatures, were investigated by polarizing microscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Information on the production centres was obtained through the identification of the source area of raw materials used as temper. Indeed, petrochemical analysis of the volcanic inclusions within the examined ceramics displayed strong affinities with structures/textures and compositions of the locally outcropping mugearitic products, probably ascribed to the eruptive activity of an eccentric vent of Mt. Etna (Mt. Mojo). A local production for the studied pottery samples has been therefore advanced, assuming that the used volcanic temper was easily available from the alluvial deposits along the Alcantara River stream, which is connected to the lava flow of Mt. Mojo.

Belfiore, Cristina Maria, E-mail: cbelfio@unict.it [Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Corso Italia 57, I-95129, Catania (Italy); Di Bella, Marcella; Triscari, Maurizio [Universita di Messina, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, C.da Papardo, Salita Sperone 31, I-98166, Sant'Agata, Messina (Italy); Viccaro, Marco [Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Corso Italia 57, I-95129, Catania (Italy)

2010-04-15

178

Analysis of large boulders along the coast of south-eastern Sicily to discriminate between storm and tsunami deposits.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study to discriminate the kind of anomalous waves, storms or tsunamis, that were responsible for the large boulder accumulation in the Vendicari Reserve along the south-eastern Sicilian coast. These depositional and erosional indicators of the large wave impact have been already observed in some rocky coasts of the Mediterranean basin and associated to strong waves of tsunamigenic or meteorological origin. Distinguishing boulders deposited by tsunamis from that deposited by storms and determining the age of their deposition can help to evaluate the magnitude and frequency of tsunamis and the hazard along the coast also regarding extraordinarily violent storms. The Sicilian Ionian coast has been affected in historical time by large destructive earthquake-related tsunamis (e.g. the 1169, 1693 and 1908) and it is exposed to an intense wave motion coming from a NNE- SSE span direction . In the rocky coastal area of Vendicari Reserve, three different GPS surveys (from September 2006 until April 2009) have been performed with the aim to observe the distance of each boulders with respect to the shoreline and if storms removed boulders or deposited new ones. A morphological analysis aiming to identify boulder shapes, measuring their volumes, elongation axis azimuth, pre-transport setting and the probable transport mechanism on the platform, was also carried out. The calcarenitic boulders (specific weight about 2,3 g/cm3), reaching about 20 tons and a distance up to 60m from the shoreline, are generally carved out from the supratidal or mid-sublittoral zone, showing widespread biogenic encrustations sometimes so fresh that suggest a recent deposition. The GPS surveys allowed us to observed that, after a strong storm during January 2009, several boulders were removed while new have been deposited on the platform by the storm waves. Hydrodynamic equations jointly to statistical analysis of sea storms have been used to determine the extreme event, geological or meteorological, responsible for this singular accumulation. We computed the minimum wave height, of storm and tsunami, required to start the movement of each boulder from its initial position. Moreover, we calculated the maximum penetration of the waves for the two major storm waves estimated at Vendicari and for the 1693 and 1908 tsunami waves. Finally we compared the computed values with the boulder distribution. The results show that the strongest storms were probably responsible for the current distribution of many boulders but about the 30% of them need of stronger waves, likely tsunami waves, than the maximum assumed storms to be moved and transported in their final place. Radiocarbon dating, performed on three probably tsunami boulders, having weight of about 15 t and sited at a distance >40 m from the shoreline, suggests that two of them were probably deposited by the 1693 tsunami, and one by a tsunami occurred after 650-930 AD that could be an unknown event or one of the historical tsunamis occurred in the Ionian coast of Sicily. Absolute age dating, such as optical stimulated luminescence, should be necessary to gather a correct imprint of the paleotsunami event.

Pirrotta, Claudia; Serafina Barbano, Maria; Gerardi, Flavia

2010-05-01

179

ecological geological maps: GIS-based evaluation of the Geo-Ecological Quality Index (GEQUI) in Sicily (Central Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The condition of landscapes and the ecological communities within them is strongly related to levels of human activity. As a consequence, determining status and trends in the pattern of human-dominated landscapes can be useful for understanding the overall conditions of geo-ecological resources. Ecological geological maps are recent tools providing useful informations about a-biotic and biotic features worldwide. These maps represents a new generation of geological maps and depict the lithospheric components conditions on surface, where ecological dynamics (functions and properties) and human activities develop. Thus, these maps are too a fundamental political tool to plan the human activities management in relationship to the territorial/environmental patterns of a date region. Different types of ecological geological maps can be develop regarding the: conditions (situations), zoning, prognosis and recommendations. The ecological geological conditions maps reflects the complex of parameters or individual characteristics of lithosphere, which characterized the opportunity of the influence of lithosphere components on the biota (man, fauna, flora, and ecosystem). The ecological geological zoning maps are foundamental basis for prognosis estimation and nature defenses measures. Estimation from the position of comfort and safety of human life and function of ecosystem is given on these maps. The ecological geological prognosis maps reflect the spatial-temporary prognoses of ecological geological conditions changing during the natural dynamic of natural surrounding and the main-during the economic mastering of territory and natural technical systems. Finally, the ecological geological recommendation maps are based on the ecological geological and social-economical informations, aiming the regulation of territory by the regulation of economic activities and the defense of bio- and socio-sphere extents. Each of these maps may also be computed or in analytic or in synthetic way. The first, characterized or estimated, prognosticated one or several indexes of geological ecological conditions. In the second type of maps, the whole complex is reflected, which defined the modern or prognosticable ecological geological situation. Regarding the ecological geological zoning maps, the contemporary state of ecological geological conditions may be evaluated by a range of parameters into classes of conditions and, on the basis of these informations, the estimation from the position of comfort and safety of human life and function of ecosystem is given. Otherwise, the concept of geoecological land evaluation has become established in the study of landscape/environmental plannings in recent years. It requires different thematic data-sets, deriving from the natural-, social- and amenity-environmental resources analysis, that may be translate in environmental (vulnerability/quality) indexes. There have been some attempts to develop integrated indices related to various aspects of the environment within the framework of sustainable development (e.g.: United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, World Economic Forum, Advisory Board on Indicators of Sustainable Development of the International Institute for Sustainable Development, Living Planet Index established by the World Wide Fund for Nature, etc.). So, the ecological geological maps represent the basic tool for the geoecological land evaluation policies and may be computed in terms of index-maps. On these basis, a GIS application for assessing the ecological geological zoning is presented for Sicily (Central Mediterranean). The Geo-Ecological Quality Index (GEQUI) map was computed by considering a lot of variables. Ten variables (lithology, climate, landslide distribution, erosion rate, soil type, land cover, habitat, groundwater pollution, roads density and buildings density) generated from available data, were used in the model, in which weighting values to each informative layer were assigned. An overlay analysis was carried out, allowing to classify the region into five classes

Nigro, Fabrizio; Arisco, Giuseppe; Perricone, Marcella; Renda, Pietro; Favara, Rocco

2010-05-01

180

Middle Miocene out-of-sequence thrusting and successive exhumation in the Peloritani Mountains, Sicily: Late stage evolution of an orogen unraveled by apatite fission track and (U-Th)\\/He thermochronometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apatite fission track (AFT) and (U-Th)\\/He (AHe) thermochronometry are applied to constraint the thermal history of the basement rock forming the Peloritani Mountains in northeast Sicily, Italy. AFT ages range between 29.0 ± 5.5 Ma and 5.5 ± 0.9 Ma while AHe ages vary from 19.4 Ma to 3.3 Ma. Most AFT ages are younger than the overlying terrigenous sequence

Valerio Olivetti; Maria Laura Balestrieri; Claudio Faccenna; Finlay M. Stuart; Gianluca Vignaroli

2010-01-01

181

Holocene hydrological changes in south-western Mediterranean as recorded by lake-level fluctuations at Lago Preola, a coastal lake in southern Sicily, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a high-resolution lake-level record for the Holocene at Lago Preola (Sicily, southern Italy) based on a specific sedimentological approach, with a chronology derived from AMS radiocarbon dates. It gives evidence of three major successive palaeohydrological periods, with (1) a pronounced dryness during the early Holocene until ca 10300 cal BP, (2) a highstand from ca 10300 to 4500 cal BP, and (3) a marked lowstand from 4500 cal BP to present. Large amplitude lake-level fluctuations characterise two transition phases at ca 10300-9000 and 6400-4500 cal BP. Period 2 was interrupted between 8300 and 7000 cal BP by a dry phase that was punctuated to ca 7300 cal BP by the deposition of a tephra from neighbouring Pantelleria Island. Comparisons of the Preola record with other palaeohydrological records along north-south and west-east transects in the Mediterranean show contrasting patterns of hydrological changes: north (south) of around 40°N latitude, the records highlight a mid-Holocene period characterised by lake-level minima (maxima). Humid mid-Holocene conditions over the Mediterranean south of 40°N were probably linked to a strong weakening of the Hadley cell circulation and of monsoon winds. We suggest that the maximum of humidity in the Mediterranean during the mid-Holocene was characterised by humid winters to the north of 40°N and humid summers to the south. On a multi-centennial scale, the high-resolution palaeohydrological reconstructions in the central Mediterranean area reveal a strong climate reversal around 4500-4000 cal BP, with contrasting changes in the hydrological cycle. In addition to seasonal and inter-hemispherical changes related to orbital forcing, this major oscillation might be related to non-linear responses of the climatic system to the gradual decrease in summer insolation at northern latitudes. Another major climate oscillation around 7500-7000 cal BP may have resulted from the combined effects of (1) a strong rate of change in insolation, and (2) variations in solar activity. Finally, comparisons of the Preola lake-level record with Sicilian pollen records suggest a strong influence of moisture availability on vegetation development in Sicily. Very dry early Holocene conditions probably prevented the expansion of coastal evergreen forests, while decreasing moisture availability since the onset of the late Holocene may have exacerbated effects of intensive land-use.

Magny, Michel; Vannière, Boris; Calo, Camilla; Millet, Laurent; Leroux, Aurélie; Peyron, Odile; Zanchetta, Gianni; La Mantia, Tommaso; Tinner, Willy

2011-09-01

182

The growth of ``black crusts'' on calcareous building stones in Palermo (Sicily): a first appraisal of anthropogenic and natural sulphur sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical, mineralogical and isotopic composition (34S/32S) analyses were carried out on “black crusts” developed on the old buildings of Palermo (Sicily) with the aim to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sulphur sources. Furthermore individual samples of total suspended particulate (TSP) were collected and analysed in order to estimate the influence of air pollution on the decay process of calcareous stones in a typical southern Mediterranean coastal environment. SEM/EDS analysis, X-ray diffractometry, IR spectroscopy and liquid chromatography led to the compositional characterization of “black crusts” and airborne particulate matter in the city. Sulphur isotopic compositions of gypsum-bearing crusts showed a prevailing contribution of anthropogenic sources (vehicle exhaust and other combustion processes). Natural sulphur and/or sulphate sources (biogenic and/or sea-spray) were shown to play a secondary role. These data can be considered a starting point for the determination of the rate of growth of “black crusts” in a coastal Mediterranean urban environment like Palermo. In the future, they might be useful to local authorities for planning more efficient maintenance action in order to slow as much as possible the rate of decay of the monumental heritage of the city.

Montana, Giuseppe; Randazzo, Luciana; Oddo, Ilaria A.; Valenza, Mariano

2008-11-01

183

Iblean diatremes 3: volcanic processes on a Miocene carbonate platform (Iblean Mountains, SE-Sicily): a comparison of deep vs. shallow marine eruptive processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evolution and magma fragmentation processes of two contrasting, well-exposed diatreme complexes interbedded with Late Miocene calcareous marine sediments in distinct sedimentary environments of a carbonate platform (Iblean Plateau, Sicily) are compared with each other. The nephelinitic Cozzo Molino diatreme (CMD) to the east developed in shallow water (0-80 m water depth); the alkali basaltic Valle Guffari seamount (VGS) to the west grew on a deeper water carbonate ramp (150-200 m water depth). We focus on the dominant boundary conditions inferred to have governed depth of magma fragmentation and subaqueous emplacement mechanisms: water depth, physical nature of host rocks, magma composition, and inferred differences in initial volatile concentrations. There are gross similarities in the composition of the two moderately evolved magmas. The low-viscosity magmas in both diatremes were laden with xenoliths originating from mantle to lower crustal sites. Although similar, the eastern shallow water CMD was likely more volatile-rich, with magma fragmented prior to reaching the surface and the surrounding tephra cone was partly emergent. The eruptions of the entirely submarine VGS diatreme complex in the deeper water environment were dominated by interaction of soft sediment and alkali basaltic magma or a pre-fragmented volatile-particle mixture. Eruption columns were, thus, strongly damped and the submarine complex never pierced the water surface.

Suiting, Ines; Schmincke, H.-U.

2012-01-01

184

Middle-Late Pleistocene marine terraces and fault activity in the Sant'Agata di Militello coastal area (north-eastern Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal sector of Sant'Agata di Militello (north-eastern Sicily) is characterized by a flight of raised Middle-Upper Pleistocene marine terraces occurring at different heights with respect to present sea level. In particular, the geomorphological survey and the analysis of stereo-pairs of aerial photographs allowed to recognize at least five main orders of well preserved Quaternary surfaces and relative deposits mostly located at the hanging wall and at the footwall of the Pleistocene northwest-dipping Capo d'Orlando normal fault, which controlled the geomorphological evolution of the coastal area. The marine terraces show an overall good morphological continuity and are formed by marine platforms overlain by littoral deposits made up of yellow littoral sand and gravels in a sandy matrix. The continental sedimentary cover of the 3rd order terrace contains mammal-bearing deposits that were previously dated 200 ± 40 ka BP by isoleucine epimerization method, allowing to relate them to MIS 7.1 high-stand. In order to better define the whole terrace chronology, deposit samples were analyzed by Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) methodology, a conventional SAR protocol used with sand-sized quartz. New datings, together with the detailed morphostructural analysis, allow to relate the 2nd and 4th order terraces to MIS 5.5 and 8.5, respectively, and to reconstruct the tectonic evolution of this coastal area, constraining the activity of the Capo d'Orlando fault.

Giunta, Giuseppe; Gueli, Anna M.; Monaco, Carmelo; Orioli, Silvia; Ristuccia, Gloria M.; Stella, Giuseppe; Troja, Sebastiano O.

2012-04-01

185

A retrospective study on acute health effects due to volcanic ash exposure during the eruption of Mount Etna (Sicily) in 2002  

PubMed Central

Background Mount Etna, located in the eastern part of Sicily (Italy), is the highest and most active volcano in Europe. During the sustained eruption that occurred in October-November 2002 huge amounts of volcanic ash fell on a densely populated area south-east of Mount Etna in Catania province. The volcanic ash fall caused extensive damage to infrastructure utilities and distress in the exposed population. This retrospective study evaluates whether or not there was an association between ash fall and acute health effects in exposed local communities. Methods We collected the number and type of visits to the emergency department (ED) for diseases that could be related to volcanic ash exposure in public hospitals of the Province of Catania between October 20 and November 7, 2002. We compared the magnitude of differences in ED visits between the ash exposure period in 2002 and the same period of the previous year 2001. Results We observed a significant increase of ED visits for acute respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and ocular disturbances during the ash exposure time period. Conclusions There was a positive association between exposure to volcanic ash from the 2002 eruption of Mount Etna and acute health effects in the Catania residents. This study documents the need for public health preparedness and response initiatives to protect nearby populations from exposure to ash fall from future eruptions of Mount Etna.

2013-01-01

186

Characteristics of the extreme rainfall event and consequent flash floods in North-East part of Sicily, Italy in October 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 1st October 2009, a devastating flooding was caused by a very intense rainfall concentrated over the Messina area in the North-East part of Sicily, Italy. The storm caused severe flash floods in many villages around the city of Messina, such as Gianpilieri, Scaletta Zanclea, Altolia Superiore and Molino with forty casualties and significant damage to property, buildings, roads and bridges estimated close to 200 million Euro. The main goal of the study here presented is put together available meteorological and hydrological data in order to get better insight into temporal and spatial variability of the rain storm, the soil moisture condition and the consequent flash floods in the catchment of the Gianpilieri river. The area of the catchment is approximately 10 km2, predominantly rural with woods and sparse shrubs in the upper mountainous part, while the areas next to the outlet are highly urbanized. The topography is very rugged and the slope is steep, as is that of a number of its tributaries, some of which are incised into narrow pathways as they approach the main channel. As a consequence, short concentration times are to be expected with fast hydrological response. The area under study has been subjected to unstable weather with high values of precipitation during all the September period. In fact, more than 40 percent of the annual total precipitation occurred during this period and consequently the catchment was totally saturated at the beginning of the event, as the post event analysis has shown. The event was investigated using observed data from a raingauge network and hydraulic evidences. Statistical analysis using GEV distribution was performed and rainfall return period (storm severity) was estimated. Further, measured rainfall data and rainfall-runoff modeling were used to analyze the hydrological behaviour and to reconstruct flood and debris hydrographs. The study confirmed that post-flood investigation should focus on discharges and hydrological response of the catchment rather than simply analyzing statistical characteristics of rainfall.

Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Brigand?, Giuseppina

2010-05-01

187

Comparative study of ultramafic xenoliths and associated lavas from South-Eastern Sicily: nature of the lithospheric mantle and insights on magma genesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotope analyses of lavas from the Hyblean Plateau (SE Sicily) provided first order constraints for the characterization of the relative magma sources, contributing to a better understanding of the tectono-magmatic evolution of the northernmost part of the African plate. To integrate this research, we are currently studying ultramafic xenoliths of mantle provenance exhumed by the Hyblean alkaline volcanics. These mainly consist of anhydrous spinel-facies peridotites and subordinate pyroxenites/websterites. The paragenesis of the latter is extremely variable in terms of modal proportions and mineral composition, with clinopyroxene composition ranging from Cr-diopside to Al-augite, and variable amount of spinel ± garnet. New Sr-Nd isotopic analyses carried out on hand-picked (and leached) clinopyroxenes indicate that peridotites have 87Sr/86Sr ranging from 0.70288 to 0.70309, and 143Nd/144Nd from 0.51287 to 0.51292. This Sr-Nd isotopic fingerprint approaches that of the HIMU mantle end-member, regionally referred as EAR (European Astenospheric Reservoir) to emphasize a connection with a sub-lithospheric metasomatic component ubiquitous throughout Europe, the Mediterranean area and North Africa. The Sr-Nd analyses of pyroxenites also reveal an EAR affinity, but are slightly distinct from those of peridotites. They display 87Sr/86Sr ranging between 0.70305-0.70326 and 143Nd/144Nd between 0.51292-0.51299, overlapping the composition typical of the Hyblean alkaline lavas. This possibly implies that pyroxene-rich domain significantly contributed to the genesis of the Hyblean magmas. Therefore, the presented Sr-Nd isotopic ratios suggest that the role of the pyroxene-rich mantle portions was more important than commonly considered in the petrogenetic models of Hyblean magmas. This scenario would be coherent with recent evidences highlighting the importance of pyroxenites (together with peridotites) as contributing sources to basalt generation.

Bianchini, G.; Yoshikawa, M.; Sapienza, G. T.

2010-03-01

188

The use of multispectral thermal infrared image data to estimate the sulfur dioxide flux from volcanoes: A case study from Mount Etna, Sicily, July 29, 1986  

SciTech Connect

The authors have found that image data acquired with NASA's airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) can be used to make estimates of the SO[sub 2] content of volcanic plumes. TIMS image data are most applicable to the study of partially transparent SO[sub 2] plumes, such as those released during quiescent periods or nonexplosive eruptions. The estimation procedure is based on the LOWTRAN 7 radiative transfer code, which the authors use to model the radiance perceived by TIMS as it views the ground through an SO[sub 2] plume. The input to the procedure includes the altitudes of the aircraft and ground, the altitude and thickness of the SO[sub 2] plume, the emissivity of the ground, and altitude profiles of the atmospheric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. They use the TIMS data to estimate both ground temperatures beneath a plume and SO[sub 2] concentrations within a plume. Applying this procedure to TIMS data acquired over Mount Etna, Sicily, on July 29, 1986, the authors estimate that the SO[sub 2] flux from the volcano was approximately 6700 t d[sup [minus]1]. The use of TIMS to study SO[sub 2] plumes represents a bridge between highly localized methods, such as correlation spectroscopy or direct sampling, and small-scale mapping techniques involving satellite instruments such as the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer or Microwave Limb Sounder. The authors require further airborne experiments to refine their estimation procedure. This refinement is a necessary preparation for the scheduled 1998 launch of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer, which will allow large-scale multispectral thermal infrared image data to be collected over virtually any volcano on Earth at least once every 16 days.

Realmuto, V.J.; Abrams, M.J.; Buongiorno, M.F.; Pieri, D.C. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States))

1994-01-10

189

Increased serum thyroglobulin concentrations and impaired thyrotropin response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone in euthyroid subjects with endemic goiter in Sicily: their relation to goiter size and nodularity.  

PubMed

Serum thyroglobulin (Tg), T4, T3, FT4, FT3, TSH concentrations and TSH response to iv TRH (delta TSH) were measured in 56 consecutive patients with (multi) nodular goiter from a severely iodine-deficient endemic goiter area in Northeastern Sicily and in 11 non goitrous euthyroid individuals living in the same area. Serum Tg concentrations were sharply increased in goitrous subjects (453 +/- 476 ng/ml) and related to thyroid size and the presence of nodules (chi 2 = 43.5, p less than 0.0005). Serum TSH levels measured in goitrous patients (2.1 +/- 0.9 microU/ml) were significantly lower than those measured in nongoitrous iodine deficient subjects (3.1 +/- 0.9 microU/ml, p less than 0.001) and decreased with increasing goiter size and nodularity (chi 2 = 27.3, p less than 0.05). A similar pattern was shown by the analysis of the delta TSH (chi 2 = 43.1, p less than 0.0005). These results suggest that at least a part of the largest and multinodular goiters become autonomously functioning with duration and growing in size. In 13 goitrous patients with absent or impaired response to TRH, a significant direct relation was apparent between log-Tg and goiter size and nodularity (r = 0.64) with an inverse relationship between serum FT3 and delta TSH (r = 0.73). A computed program analysis based on the combination of different independent variables (x) including age, thyroid size and nodularity, serum TSH, log-Tg and FT3, indicated the existence of a significant negative relationship between these variables and the TSH response to TRH (r = 0.75, p = 0).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3098822

Vermiglio, F; Benvenga, S; Melluso, R; Catalfamo, S; Princi, P; Battiato, S; Consolo, F; Trimarchi, F

1986-10-01

190

The influence of erosional processes on the visibility of Permanent Scatterers Features from SAR remote sensing on Mount Etna (E Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of 1549 DInSAR interferograms, covering the period from 2003 to 2010, has highlighted significant motion along the entire set of the active faults identified by advanced DInSAR analyses (i.e. Permanent Scatterers Features, PSF), affecting the Mount Etna volcano, in eastern Sicily. In the analysed period, the absence of significant seismicity producing co-seismic ground deformation suggests that the overall deformation that has been recognized on the interferograms is to be associated with interseismic, almost continuous creep which is, well documented along most of the active faults. According to field evidence, the structures should accumulate displacements resulting in their permanent visibility on the interferograms, progressively increases through time. This expected behaviour has been recognised only for part of the entire set of structures. Other tectonic features, in fact, show episodic appearances, alternating with periods of absence of ground displacement on the interferograms, simulating a stick-slip mechanism of deformation, conflicting with field evidence. This apparently incongruous behaviour can be interpreted as the result of topographic changes due to the combination of the tectonic displacements with related amounts of the differential erosion and deposition across the fault line. The comparison between the history of the appearances and the monthly rainfall in the region seems to demonstrate that these structures appear when one of the two interacting processes governing the topographic changes around the fault, i.e. tectonic vs. erosional, prevails over the other. Otherwise, the same structures are not evident on the interferograms when the two components are in balance.

Catalano, S.; Bonforte, A.; Guglielmino, F.; Romagnoli, G.; Tarsia, C.; Tortorici, G.

2013-09-01

191

The Gela Basin pockmark field in the strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea): chemosymbiotic faunal and carbonate signatures of postglacial to modern cold seepage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geo-biological exploration of a pockmark field located at ca. 800 m below sea level in the Gela basin (Strait of Sicily, Central Mediterranean) provided a relatively diverse chemosymbiotic community and methane-imprinted carbonates. To date, this is the first occurrence of such a type of specialised deep-water cold-seep communities recorded from this key region, before documented in the Mediterranean as rather disjunct findings in its eastern and westernmost basins. The thiotrophic chemosymbiotic organisms recovered from this area include empty tubes of the vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia sp., loose and articulated shells of lucinids (Lucinoma kazani, Myrtea amorpha), vesicomyids (Isorropodon perplexum), and gastropods (Taranis moerchii). A callianassid decapod (Calliax sp.) was consistently found alive in large numbers in the pockmark mud. Their post-mortem calcified parts mixed with molluscs and subordinately miliolid foraminifers form a distinct type of skeletal assemblage. Carbonate concretions display ?13C values as low as -40‰ PDB suggesting the occurrence of light hydrocarbons in the seeping fluids. Since none of the truly chemosymbiotic organisms was found alive, although their skeletal parts appear at times very fresh, some specimens have been AMS-14C dated to shed light on the historical evolution of this site. Lamellibrachiav and Lucinoma are two of the most significant chemosymbiotic taxa reported from various Mediterranean cold seep sites (Alboran Sea and Eastern basin). Specimens from station MEDCOR78 (pockmark #1, Lat. 36°46´10.18" N, Long. 14°01´31.59" E, 815 m below sea level) provided ages of 11736 ± 636 yr cal BP (Lamellibrachia sp.), and 9609.5 ± 153.5 yr cal BP (L. kazani). One shell of M. amorpha in core MEDCOR81 (pockmark #6, Lat 36°45´38.89" N, Long 14°00´07.58" E, 822 m below sea level) provided a sub-modern age of 484 ± 54 yr cal BP. These ages document that fluid seepage at this pockmark site has been episodically sustaining thiotrophic macrobenthic communities since the end of the Younger Dryas stadial up to sub-recent times.

Taviani, M.; Angeletti, L.; Ceregato, A.; Foglini, F.; Froglia, C.; Trincardi, F.

2013-07-01

192

The Gela Basin pockmark field in the strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea): chemosymbiotic faunal and carbonate signatures of postglacial to modern cold seepage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geo-biological exploration of a pockmark field located at ca. -800 m in the Gela basin (Strait of Sicily, Central Mediterranean) provided a relatively diverse chemosymbiotic community and methane-imprinted carbonates. To date, this is the first occurrence of such type of specialized deep-water cold-seep communities recorded from this key region, before documented in the Mediterranean as rather disjunct findings in its eastern and westernmost basins. The thiotrophic chemosymbiotic organisms recovered from this area include empty tubes of the vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia sp., loose and articulated shells of lucinids (Lucinoma kazani, Myrtea amorpha), vesicomyids (Isorropodon perplexum), and gastropods (Taranis moerchi). A callianassid decapod (Calliax sp.) was consistently found alive in large numbers in the pockmark mud. Their post-mortem calcified parts mixed with molluscs and subordinately miliolid foraminifers form a distinct type of skeletal assemblage (named DECAMOL). Carbonate concretions display ?13C values as low as -40 ‰ PDB suggesting the occurrence of light hydrocarbons in the seeping fluids. Since none of the truly chemosymbiotic organisms was found alive, although their skeletal parts appear at times very fresh, some specimens have been AMS-14C dated to shed light on the historical evolution of this site. Lamellibrachia and Lucinoma are two of the most significant chemosymbiotic taxa reported from various Mediterranean cold seep sites (Alboran Sea and Eastern basin). Specimens from station MEDCOR78 (pockmark#1, Lat 36°46´10.18´´ N, Long 14°01´31.59´´ E, -815 m) provided ages of 11 736 ± 636 yr cal BP (Lamellibrachia sp.), and 9609.5 ± 153.5 yr cal BP (L. kazani). One shell of M. amorpha in core MEDCOR81 (pockmark#6, Lat 36°45´38.89´´ N, Long 14°00´07.58´´ E, -822 m) provided a sub-modern age of 484 ± 54 yr cal BP. These ages document that fluid seepage at this pockmark site has been episodically sustaining thiotrophic macrobenthic communities since the end of the Younger Dryas stadial up to sub-recent times.

Taviani, M.; Angeletti, L.; Ceregato, A.; Foglini, F.; Froglia, C.; Trincardi, F.

2013-01-01

193

Semi-automatic mapping of rainfall-induced landslides exploiting VHR optical images: the Messina, Sicily, 1 October 2009 landslide event (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A landslide inventory map shows the location and extent of landslides that have left discernable signs in an area. An event-inventory shows landslides caused by a single trigger, such as an earthquake, a rainfall event, or a rapid snowmelt event. Event-inventories are important to document the extent of a landslide disaster, for erosion studies, and to validate landslide susceptibility models. Most commonly, landslide event-inventories are obtained through the interpretation of stereoscopic aerial photographs taken shortly after an event, aided by field surveys. Investigators have attempted to use very-high-resolution (VHR) satellite images to map event landslides. Most of the attempts exploit basic change detection techniques to identify the landslides. For the purpose, pre- and post-event optical images of similar characteristics are required. Mapping obtained using these methods can be imprecise, it can over overestimate or underestimate the true landslide extent, and - in general - it lacks geographic accuracy. In this work, we present a new method to identify recent rainfall induced landslides using pre- and post-event VHR satellite images. The method was tested along the Ionian coast of Sicily, southern Italy, where on 1 October 2009 a high-intensity rainfall (200 mm of cumulated rain in 6 hours) triggered more than 500 shallow soil slides and debris flows in an area of about 40 km2. For the area, a landslide event-inventory was prepared at 1:10,000 scale through a combination of: (i) field surveys, (ii) visual interpretation of pre- and post-event aerial photographs, (iii) analysis of VHR satellite images, and (iv) analysis of a post-event, high-resolution DEM. Semi-automatic recognition and mapping of the rainfall-induced landslides was performed in steps, using a pre-event image taken by the QuickBird satellite on 2 September 2006, and a post-event image taken by the same satellite on 8 October 2009, 7 days after the event. First, a set of derivative maps showing changes in the optical properties of the two images was prepared. The derivative maps showed changes in: (i) the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), (ii) the spectral angle, (iii) the first (strongest) principal component, and (iv) the first (strongest) independent component. Next, the derivative maps and the landslide information shown in the existing inventory map were used to construct and calibrate a set of three multivariate terrain classification models. Each model categorized the terrain as being (i) a landslide, or (ii) free of landslides, with a given probability. Next, the single models were combined to obtain an “optimal” terrain zonation, which classified successfully > 80% of the landslide areas shown in the existing inventory map. We expect the method to achieve similar high classification skills in other areas, provided that pre- and post-event VHR satellite images of adequate characteristics are available, and that the event-landslides have left discernable features on the terrain that are captured by the post-event satellite image.

Reichenbach, P.; Mondini, A.; Ardizzone, F.; Cardinali, M.; Fiorucci, F.; Guzzetti, F.; Rossi, M.

2010-12-01

194

Inner vs. outer wedge-top depozone "sequences" in the Late Miocene (late Tortonian-early Messinian) Sicilian Foreland Basin System; new data from the Terravecchia Formation of NW Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wedge-top depozone belongs to the innermost portion of a Foreland Basin System (FBS) (DeCelles and Giles, 1996) and includes all sediments, typically coarse-grained proximal facies, that bury the active frontal part of a fold and thrust belt. The Terravecchia Formation (Flores, 1959; Schmidt Di Friedberg, 1962, 1964-1965; Catalano, 1979) is a composite lithostratigraphic unit widespread in Sicily (southern Italy) which has been recently considered (Gugliotta, 2010) as a part of the stratigraphic record of the Late Miocene (late Tortonian to early Messinian) Sicilian wedge-top depozone and represent the main object of this paper. Two end-member wedge-top "sequences" the (i) the inner wedge-top sequence (IWS) and (ii) the outer wedge-top sequence (OWS), respectively, were recognized in the Terravecchia Formation outcropping in different sectors of NW Sicily and here described and compared on the base of both their depositional and deformative pattern. The differences existing between the IWS and OWS clearly reflect the tectono-depositional evolution of sedimentary basins located at different position across the wedge-top depozone. The more coarse grained and IWS was deposited filling narrow and often oversupplied basins located in the inner sectors of the wedge-top depozone. In these basins the sedimentary evolution has been strongly controlled by a syn-sedimentary transpressional tectonics which produced, since the late Tortonian, the development of "local scale" intraformational angular unconformities. Contemporaneously, the more fine-grained OWS was deposited filling relatively wide and mainly shallow-water marine basins, probably open to major marine areas, located in a less external position of the wedge-top depozone. In these external areas during the late Tortonian-early Messinian the transpressional tectonics was active but still confined to the deeper structural layers producing long wavelength deformation and "basin-scale" unconformities. Integrating all data an alternative tectono-depositional model of the Sicilian Late Miocene Foreland Basin System has been outlined. The model here presented substantially differs from those previously known from other authors and shows a complex wedge-top depozone articulated in a "inner" and "outer" sector whose evolution has been driven by the progressive activation of deep-seated structures.

Gugliotta, C.

2012-04-01

195

Salinity in the Sicily Channel corroborates the role of the Adriatic-Ionian Bimodal Oscillating System (BiOS) in shaping the decadal variability of the Mediterranean overturning circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have demonstrated that the salinity in the Levantine basin depends on the intensity of the Atlantic water (AW) inflow. Moreover, its spreading eastward (to the Levantine basin) or northward (to the Ionian Sea) is determined by the Ionian circulation pattern, i.e. by the Adriatic-Ionian Bimodal Oscillating System (BiOS) mechanism. The aim of this paper is to relate salinity variations in the Levantine basin to the salt content variability in the core of the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) passing through the Sicily Channel (SC) and its possible impact on the Western Mediterranean Transition - WMT (i.e. the sudden salinity and temperature increase in the deep layer of the Algero-Provençal subbasin occurring since 2004). From the historical data set MEDAR/MEDATLAS in the Levantine and northern Ionian, we present evidence of decadal occurrences of extreme salinities associated with the varying influx of AW over the last 60 yr. Furthermore, we show that the salinity variations in the two subbasins are out of phase. High-salinity episodes in the Levantine are a pre-conditioning for the potential occurrence of the events like the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT). Cross-correlation between the salinity time series in the Levantine basin and in the SC suggests that the travel time of the LIW is between 10 and 13 yr. Comparing the timing of the salinity increase associated with the WMT and the salinity in the LIW core in the SC, we estimate that the total time interval needed for the signal propagating from the Levantine to reach the deep mixed layers of the Algero-Provençal subbasin is about 25 yr. We also showed that the extra salt input from the eastern Mediterranean contribute up to about 60% to the salt content increase in the bottom layer of the western Mediterranean.

Ga?i?, M.; Schroeder, K.; Civitarese, G.; Cosoli, S.; Vetrano, A.; Eusebi Borzelli, G. L.

2013-01-01

196

Congenital talipes equinovarus: an epidemiological study in Sicily  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot) can present in 2 forms: “syndromic”, in which other malformations exist, and the more common “idiopathic” form, where there are no other associated malformations. We analyzed the epidemiology of congenital talipes equinovarus in the Sicilian population, looking for potential etiological factors. Patients and methods Among the 801,324 live births recorded between January 1991 and December 2004, 827 cases were registered (560 males; M/F sex ratio: 2.1). Control infants were randomly selected from a historical cohort of live births without any major congenital malformations. Results A positive family history of clubfoot, gender, and maternal smoking were found to be risk factors for clubfoot. Patients with clubfoot were born most frequently during the period January–March. No association was found between clubfoot and reproductive history, peri-conceptional maternal drug exposure, maternal education, or ethnicity. Interpretation Our findings emphasize the importance of birth defects surveillance programs and their usefulness in investigating potential risk factors.

2012-01-01

197

Spatial vent opening probability map of Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We produce a spatial probability map of vent opening (susceptibility map) at Etna, using a statistical analysis of structural features of flank eruptions of the last 2 ky. We exploit a detailed knowledge of the volcano structures, including the modalities of shallow magma transfer deriving from dike and dike-fed fissure eruptions analysis on historical eruptions. Assuming the location of future vents will have the same causal factors as the past eruptions, we converted the geological and structural data in distinct and weighted probability density functions, which were included in a non-homogeneous Poisson process to obtain the susceptibility map. The highest probability of new eruptive vents opening falls within a N-S aligned area passing through the Summit Craters down to about 2,000 m a.s.l. on the southern flank. Other zones of high probability follow the North-East, East-North-East, West, and South Rifts, the latter reaching low altitudes (˜400 m). Less susceptible areas are found around the faults cutting the upper portions of Etna, including the western portion of the Pernicana fault and the northern extent of the Ragalna fault. This structural-based susceptibility map is a crucial step in forecasting lava flow hazards at Etna, providing a support tool for decision makers.

Cappello, A.; Neri, M.; Acocella, V.; Gallo, G.; Vicari, A.; Del Negro, C.

2012-11-01

198

Classification and formation of lava levees on Mount Etna, Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the 1975 subterminal lava flows and sections through the larger flank lavas on Mount Etna show that there are four principal types of levees formed in Etnean lavas: initial, accretionary, rubble, and overflow. Initial levees are formed because of the yield strength of these non-Newtonian lavas and are thought to determine channel width. The other types of levees

R. S. J. Sparks; H. Pinkerton; G. Hulme

1976-01-01

199

Sedimentary, stable isotope and micropaleontological records of paleoceanographic change in the Messinian Tripoli Formation (Sicily, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tripoli Formation (6.96–5.98 Ma) of the Central Sicilian Basin provides a good record of the paleoceanographical changes that affected the Mediterranean during the transition from slightly restricted conditions to the onset of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. The Falconara\\/Gibliscemi section has been selected for an integrated approach at a high resolution scale using sedimentology, stable isotopes of the carbonates and

M.-M Blanc-Valleron; C Pierre; J. P Caulet; A Caruso; J.-M Rouchy; G Cespuglio; R Sprovieri; S Pestrea; E Di Stefano

2002-01-01

200

Mg, Mn, Fe, and V concentrations in the ground waters of Mount Etna (Sicily)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mount Etna, the largest volcano in Europe and one of the most active in the world, is the site of an important circulation of ground waters that as, a consequence of the peculiar geological, hydrogeological and petrological features of Etna volcanics, are enriched in certain chemical species (i.e. HCO?3, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and many trace elements). This is mainly due

Salvatore Giammanco; Mariano Valenza; Sarina Pignato; Giuseppe Giammanco

1996-01-01

201

LNG cold energy use in agro-food industry: A case study in Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known how the complete gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG) can return about 230 kWh\\/t of energy. Nevertheless out of fifty-one gasification plants in the world, only thirty-one of them are equipped with systems for the partial recovery of the available energy. At the moment most of these plants mainly produce electric energy; however the employment of the cold

Antonio Messineo; Giuseppe Panno

2011-01-01

202

Rock magnetism of the Early Pliocene Trubi Formation at Eraclea Minoa (Sicily)  

SciTech Connect

The most important magnetic mineral in the fine-grained marls of the Early Pliocene Trubi formation near Eraclea Minoa is magnetite. Some geothite is also present. The magnetite is of high purity and of primary origin. Hysteresis and low-temperature measurements show that most magnetite grains are single-domain. The presence of superparamagnetic grains is suspected. Multi-domain grains are rare. It is shown that AF demagnetization does not yield correct NRM directions.

Van Velzen, A.J.; Zijderveld, J.D.A. (Univ. of Utrecht (Netherlands))

1990-05-01

203

Paleoseismological multi-theme study of seismically induced geological effects at Vendicari (south-eastern Sicily)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong earthquakes can produce direct and permanent geological effects on the earth surface. Beyond surface faulting, other effects, such as landslides, liquefactions and ground deformations (seismites), take place in the epicentral area as a consequence of the seismic wave propagation in the sediments. Since the last three decades only, these features have been considered indicators of seismicity and their analysis

Claudia Pirrotta; Maria Serafina Barbano

2010-01-01

204

Evaluation of mercury levels in Pangasius and Cod fillets traded in Sicily (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predator fishes at the top of the aquatic food chain can accumulate large concentrations of metals and their consumption, consequently, makes a significant contribution, in particular, to mercury intake. The aim of this study was to determine mercury levels in fillets of two predatory species: pangasius (Pangasius hypophthalmus) from the Vietnam region of Megong and Chao Pharayai and cod (Gadus

V. Ferrantelli; G. Giangrosso; A. Cicero; C. Naccari; A. Macaluso; F. Galvano; N. D’Orazio; G. E. Arcadipane; F. Naccari

2012-01-01

205

THE PAH COMPOSITION IN LIMPETS (PATELLA VULGATA L.) FROM THE COASTS OF SICILY (ITALY)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the presence, distribution, nature and sources of 19 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), in Patellae (patella vulgate L.) and seaweed (vulva) sampled in different stations of Sicilian coastal environments and analyzed for their polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content.Analysis was performed by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) with selected ion monitoring (SIM), after saponification of the sample and clean up

Antonio Gianguzza; Santino Orecchio

2006-01-01

206

Sicily statement on classification and development of evidence-based practice learning assessment tools  

PubMed Central

Background Teaching the steps of evidence-based practice (EBP) has become standard curriculum for health professions at both student and professional levels. Determining the best methods for evaluating EBP learning is hampered by a dearth of valid and practical assessment tools and by the absence of guidelines for classifying the purpose of those that exist. Conceived and developed by delegates of the Fifth International Conference of Evidence-Based Health Care Teachers and Developers, the aim of this statement is to provide guidance for purposeful classification and development of tools to assess EBP learning. Discussion This paper identifies key principles for designing EBP learning assessment tools, recommends a common taxonomy for new and existing tools, and presents the Classification Rubric for EBP Assessment Tools in Education (CREATE) framework for classifying such tools. Recommendations are provided for developers of EBP learning assessments and priorities are suggested for the types of assessments that are needed. Examples place existing EBP assessments into the CREATE framework to demonstrate how a common taxonomy might facilitate purposeful development and use of EBP learning assessment tools. Summary The widespread adoption of EBP into professional education requires valid and reliable measures of learning. Limited tools exist with established psychometrics. This international consensus statement strives to provide direction for developers of new EBP learning assessment tools and a framework for classifying the purposes of such tools.

2011-01-01

207

Secondary burial and mummification practices in the Kingdom of the two Sicilies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ancient concepts of death as duration and the practices of secondary burial, first analysed by Robert Hertz, still survive in many areas of southern Italy. According to these beliefs death was perceived not as a sudden event, but as a long-lasting process, during which the deceased person had to go through a transitory phase, passing from one state of

Antonio Fornaciari; Valentina Giuffra; Francesco Pezzini

2010-01-01

208

MtDNA control region and RFLP data for Sicily and France  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forensic application of mtDNA typing requires large databases which are regionally well defined. To further this aim,\\u000a we have typed mtDNA in a sample of 111 French and 106 Sicilians. The French were typed for both hypervariable segments (HVR1\\u000a and HVR2) of the mtDNA control region, whereas the Sicilians were only typed for HVR1, but in addition for the

F. Cali; M. G. Le Roux; R. D’Anna; A. Flugy; G. De Leo; V. Chiavetta; G. F. Ayala; V. Romano

2001-01-01

209

Cryptic structural trends revealed by Cenozoic sedimentation on the Malta-Sicily shelf  

SciTech Connect

Fault control of sedimentation patterns affects upper Miocene carbonate deposition. Fault trends, northeasterly or northwesterly, appear to exert major controls on sedimentation and represent the principal fractures seen on geologic maps of the islands. Evidence, however, shows a regionally persistent north-south facies alignment apparent throughout the Cenozoic. A reactivated Mesozoic basement fracture pattern is thought to control this alignment. Probable mesozoic sedimentation controls and facies distributions on the Malta shelf thus influence trap generation and hydrocarbon migration.

Pedley, H.M. (Univ. of Hull (England))

1988-08-01

210

Frequent failure of the continental slope: The Gela Basin (Sicily Channel)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating the recurrence of sediment failure on continental margins is important to better understand the evolution of margins and to assess the geologic risk of slope failure and, possibly, tsunami hazard. This paper proposes an integrated morphological and stratigraphic reconstruction of slope failures to evaluate their timing, frequency, and responsible mechanisms. Data from seismic stratigraphy, sediment cores, and seafloor geomorphology

D. Minisini; F. Trincardi

2009-01-01

211

Small angle neutron scattering as fingerprinting of ancient potteries from Sicily (Southern Italy)  

SciTech Connect

Small angle neutron scattering measurements have been carried out in order to investigate, in microdestructive way, the mesoscopic structure of a variety of potteries of relevance to cultural heritage coming from different Sicilian (Southern Italy) archeological sites belonging to the 'Strait of Messina' area and dated back to 7th-3rd century B.C. Data have been compared with the mesoscopic parameters extracted for two series of clayey sediments typical of the Strait of Messina area and fired under controlled conditions. The observed agreement between the features of reference and archeological samples allowed us to estimate the maximum firing temperature of the latter. Information on the pore sizes was obtained by the use of the concept of fractal surface, and compared with porosimetry results.

Barone, G.; Mazzoleni, P. [Department of Geological Science, University of Catania, Corso Italia 55, 95129 Catania (Italy); Crupi, V.; Majolino, D.; Venuti, V. [Department of Physics, University of Messina, CNISM, UdR Messina, Contrada Papardo, Salita Sperone 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Teixeira, J. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (CNRS/CEA), CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

2009-09-01

212

A human case of Hymenolepis diminuta in a child from eastern Sicily.  

PubMed

We report a case of Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a 2-year-old child living in a suburban area of Catania, Italy. This case was initially referred to us as Dipylidium caninum infection, which was not cured after being treated twice with mebendazole. However, by analyzing the clinical presentation and stool samples we arrived to the diagnosis of H. diminuta infection. The case presented with atypical allergic manifestations which had never been reported as clinical features of symptomatic H. diminuta infection; remittent fever with abdominal pain, diffuse cutaneous itching, transient thoracic rash, and arthromyalgias. The patient was treated with a 7-day cycle of oral niclosamide, which proved to be safe and effective. This case report emphasizes that a correct parasitological diagnosis requires adequate district laboratories and trained personnel. In addition, we recommend the importance of reporting all H. diminuta infection cases, in order to improve knowledge on epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment protocols. PMID:20585535

Patamia, Ildebrando; Cappello, Elisa; Castellano-Chiodo, Donato; Greco, Filippo; Nigro, Luciano; Cacopardo, Bruno

2010-06-17

213

A GIS tool for Integrated Hazard Evaluation on the faults of Mt. Etna (Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pilot GIS-based system has been implemented for the assessment and analysis of hazard related to active fault systems affecting the eastern and southern flanks of Mt. Etna. The system structure was developed in ArcGis® environment and consists of different thematic datasets that include spatially-referred arc-features and associated Database. Arc-type features, geo-referred into WGS84 Ellipsoid UTM zone 33 Projection, are represented by the four fault systems that develop in the analyzed region and other vector layers (i.e. the main lifelines) specifically added for the hazard evaluation. In any case, the backbone of the GIS-based system is constituted by the large amount of information which was stored and properly geocoded in a digital database. This consists of thirty alpha-numeric fields which include all fault parameters available from literature such us length, location, slip rate etc. Although the system has been constructed according to the most common procedures used by GIS developer, the architecture and content of the Database represent a powerful tool in modeling hazard at Mt. Etna. On the other hand, layering different geographic information and managing Database (topological querying) achieved information can easily and quickly be represented in a great diversity of hazard and vulnerability maps which can be produced following the implementation of specific predicting models.

Barreca, G.; Bonforte, A.; Neri, M.

2012-04-01

214

Magnetic stratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the Piacenzian (Upper Pliocene) at Monte San Nicola (Sicily)  

SciTech Connect

During the Neogene, the Mediterranean was a rather unique biogeographic province. For this reason, first and last occurrences of Neogene species recorded in the Mediterranean region may not be synchronous with those recorded in the open oceans. This has important implications as most of the Neogene stage boundaries are defined on the basis of Mediterranean type sections. The most direct way to determine the relative timing of Mediterranean and open ocean datums is through correlation with the polarity time scale. Such correlations are not available for the Mediterranean Pliocene. The Trubi pelagic limestones and Monte narbone marls which characterize the SicilianPliocene are not ideal for magnetic stratigraphy due to weak remnant intensities and an ubiquitous normal polarity overprint. However, at Monte San Nicola, a magnetic stratigraphy has been resolved by stepwise demagnetization in small temperature increments. The upper and lower bounds of the Gauss Epoch, and the Mammoth and Kaena polarity events can be correlated to well defined planktonic foraminiferal and calcareous nannofossil datums. Hence the synchronism of these datums between the Mediterranean and the open ocean can be tested. The most notable discrepancy is in the last occurrence of G. margaritae which occurs at the base of the Gauss in most open marine sections, but is found at the top of the Gilbert at Monte San Nicola.

Channell, J.E.T.; Sprovieri, R.; Di Stefano, E.

1985-01-01

215

Georadar and passive seismic survey in the Roman Amphitheatre of Catania (Sicily)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geophysical survey was performed at the Roman Amphitheatre of Catania with the aim to study the lithological features of the foundation subsoil of the Amphitheatre and to identify possible underground voids, buried crypts and other heterogeneities. The survey consisted of a number of georadar prospections and of three mechanical drillings. In addition it was experimented a non-invasive technique (passive

S. Castellaro; S. Imposa; F. Barone; F. Chiavetta; S. Gresta; F. Mulargia

2008-01-01

216

Population structure and genetic variation in autochthonous globe artichoke germplasm from Sicily Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globe artichoke is native to the Mediterranean basin, where it is presumed to have evolved from the wild cardoon. Italy is a leading producer and numerous varietal types, which are usually vegetatively propagated, are grown. At present, Italian germplasm is at risk of genetic erosion due to the recent introduction of varieties selected abroad, as well as the concentration on

Ezio Portis; Giovanni Mauromicale; Lorenzo Barchi; Rosario Mauro; Sergio Lanteri

2005-01-01

217

Fluorine speciation in topsoils of three active volcanoes of Sicily (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorine is one of the many environmental harmful elements released by volcanic activity. The content of total oxalate-extractable\\u000a and water-extractable fluorine was determined in 96 topsoils of three active volcanic systems of southern Italy (Mt Etna,\\u000a Stromboli and Vulcano). Total fluorine (F) content (F\\u000a TOT) ranges from 112 to 7,430 mg kg?1, F extracted with oxalate (F\\u000a OX) ranges from 16 to

Walter D’Alessandro; Sergio Bellomo; Francesco Parello

2008-01-01

218

History of the crush syndrome: from the earthquakes of Messina, Sicily 1909 to Spitak, Armenia 1988.  

PubMed

Man-made or massive natural disasters may be followed by 'epidemics' of the muscle crush syndrome. The first descriptions of the crush syndrome were in the German-language literature following the earthquake of Messina in 1909 and World War II. On the threshold of World War II, the English-language literature was still unaware of the crush syndrome. During the London Blitz in 1940, Bywaters clearly delineated the pathogenesis of the crush syndrome and established guidelines for the management of casualties. The experience from the war in southern Lebanon in 1982 showed that early volume repletion can prevent acute renal failure in casualties with the crush syndrome. Following the major earthquake at Spitak in 1988, massive international relief effort helped to rescue and salvage many casualties. International preparedness contingency plans will increase the survival of future casualties suffering from crush injury. PMID:9189260

Better, O S

1997-01-01

219

Use of shock block transmitters in the structural rehabilitation of historical buildings in Calabria and Sicily  

SciTech Connect

Many old and historical masonry buildings, located in the Calabrian and Sicilian areas near the strait of Messina, are affected by typical pattern of cracks, which are not produced by previous earthquakes. These cracks in the masonry walls are characterized by a quasi-vertical trend with constant width. The careful examination of the crack distribution allows to clearly identify the diagnosis: the damage is caused by the sinking due to a horizontal movement of translation of the ground, which is an evident effect of creep phenomena in the soil, so-called 'solifluxion'. This paper, after showing this geological pathology, proposes an innovative strategy of intervention, which consists of the use of 'oleo-dynamic' devices, so-called shock block transmitters, providing different degrees of restraint, according to the loading conditions. In addition, in case of earthquake, an important part of the in-put seismic energy can be dissipated. The strategy of application of this system to the building consists of the subdivision of each masonry wall in two different parts, which are physically separated by the cracks. Each wall portion must be consolidated separately and the different parts of walls behave as statically independent each other, so that they can move independently during the serviceability conditions. The connection among the walls composing the whole structural organism is given by metal tie-rods equipped with 'oleo dynamic' devices, which allows, in a given range, the horizontal sliding in case of slow movement due to the phenomenon of 'solifluxion'. Contrary, in case of dynamic and fast movements, such as the ones produced by an earthquake, each 'oleo dynamic' device provides a fully restraint effect and, as a consequence, the tie-rods behave in the classical way.

Bianco, Alessia [Lab. M.A.Re., PAU Department, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria (Italy); Candela, Michele [PAU Department, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria (Italy); Fonti, Roberta [Graduated in SCBAA, Faculty of Architecture, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria (Italy)

2008-07-08

220

Use of shock block transmitters in the structural rehabilitation of historical buildings in Calabria and Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many old and historical masonry buildings, located in the Calabrian and Sicilian areas near the strait of Messina, are affected by typical pattern of cracks, which are not produced by previous earthquakes. These cracks in the masonry walls are characterized by a quasi-vertical trend with constant width. The careful examination of the crack distribution allows to clearly identify the diagnosis: the damage is caused by the sinking due to a horizontal movement of translation of the ground, which is an evident effect of creep phenomena in the soil, so-called ``solifluxion''. This paper, after showing this geological pathology, proposes an innovative strategy of intervention, which consists of the use of ``oleo-dynamic'' devices, so-called shock block transmitters, providing different degrees of restraint, according to the loading conditions. In addition, in case of earthquake, an important part of the in-put seismic energy can be dissipated. The strategy of application of this system to the building consists of the subdivision of each masonry wall in two different parts, which are physically separated by the cracks. Each wall portion must be consolidated separately and the different parts of walls behave as statically independent each other, so that they can move independently during the serviceability conditions. The connection among the walls composing the whole structural organism is given by metal tie-rods equipped with ``oleo dynamic'' devices, which allows, in a given range, the horizontal sliding in case of slow movement due to the phenomenon of ``solifluxion''. Contrary, in case of dynamic and fast movements, such as the ones produced by an earthquake, each ``oleo dynamic'' device provides a fully restraint effect and, as a consequence, the tie-rods behave in the classical way.

Bianco, Alessia; Candela, Michele; Fonti, Roberta

2008-07-01

221

BEYOND THEOBSERVATIONOF “THE TRAVELLED READER”: THE UNKNOWN SICILY OF LOUISE HAMILTON CAICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following account of the manners and customs of Sicilians has been written down on the spot from first hand acquaintance with the people, gained by a long residence amongst them, in the province of Caltanissetta, a region as yet unaffected by travellers or by contact with the outer world. Many of the scenes and sayings described would be a

Giorgia Alù

2002-01-01

222

The moral perils of Mediterraneanism: second-generation immigrants practicing personhood between Sicily and Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Second-generation immigrants are often imagined by social scientists, their receiving communities, their parents, and sometimes also by themselves, as those who should close the cycle of immigration that their parents have opened. Inasmuch as Italy is a contender in the international competition for the most ‘Mediterranean’ of countries, those youths are expected either to become Italian, fail to do so,

Naor Ben-Yehoyada

2011-01-01

223

GIS-based landslide hazard assessment at regional scale in Sicily (Central Mediterranean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence, type and abundance of landslides in an area depend on the characteristics of the triggers and on the predisposing conditions. Natural conditions that control these factors include the local and regional morphological and lithological setting, the presence and abundance of geological discontinuities including bedding planes, faults, joints, and cleavage systems, the type and depth of the soil, the

Fabrizio Nigro; Antonino Pisciotta; Marcella Perricone; Pietro Renda; Rocco Favara

2010-01-01

224

Archaeometrical analyses of glass cakes and vitreous mosaic tesserae from Messina (Sicily, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of a study performed on several glass samples recovered after the destruction caused in Messina by the earthquake of 1908, and stored in the ‘Fiore’ deposit of the Regional Museum of Messina (Italy). The samples, still lacking a reliable classification, are glass cakes, some spare mosaic tesserae, and fragments of a well-dated mosaic (Mosaico dell’Angelo, XIII–XIV

R. Arletti; S. Quartieri; G. Vezzalini; G. Sabatino; M. Triscari; M. A. Mastelloni

2008-01-01

225

Geometry and kinematics of the fault systems controlling the unstable flank of Etna volcano (Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An updated tectonic framework of Etna's unstable flank has been defined as a result of multidisciplinary analyses carried out by integrating geological and geophysical data. The different typologies of datasets have been analyzed and correlated in order to constrain the geometry and kinematics of the fault systems controlling the unstable flank of Etna volcano and to better understand their complex relationship with the offshore morphostructures of the continental margin. In particular, we have considered as the main structural elements the following four fault systems: Pernicana, Ragalna, Tremestieri-Trecastagni and Timpe. Slip-rates and kinematics have been estimated in both long- and short-terms, respectively, from geological and seismotectonic/geodetic data. Data integration has allowed defining five kinematic domains in the sliding flank of Etna: (1) the NE block, bordered by the Pernicana fault and characterised by the highest deformation velocities; ground velocity progressively diminishes toward South, with a clockwise rotation of the vectors defining (2) the block embracing the central part of the Timpe system; (3) the Giarre wedge; (4) the Medium-East block, bounded by the S. Tecla and Trecastagni faults; and (5) the SE block bordered, by the hidden Belpasso-Ognina tectonic lineament. The dynamics of these blocks takes place through discontinuous movements: sudden short-term accelerations related to the magma intrusion are superimposed to a fairly constant mid-term ESE sliding. The proposed comprehensive model of the unstable flank provides the basic input parameters for applying analytical models to flank dynamics of Etna volcano.

Azzaro, R.; Bonforte, A.; Branca, S.; Guglielmino, F.

2013-02-01

226

Arsenic and fluorine in the Etnean volcanics from Biancavilla, Sicily, Italy: environmental implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineralogical and geochemical studies were undertaken in the volcanic area of Biancavilla (Catania, Italy) with the aim of\\u000a explaining the nature of the high As and F contents of the area’s rocks. As and F contents in soils and groundwater were also\\u000a investigated. The metasomatised benmoreite lavas show fluorine and arsenic concentrations up to about 3,000 and 1,000 mg\\/kg,\\u000a respectively. Mineralogical

S. Mazziotti-Tagliani; M. Angelone; G. Armiento; R. Pacifico; C. Cremisini; A. Gianfagna

227

Evaluation of mercury levels in pangasius and cod fillets traded in Sicily (Italy).  

PubMed

Predator fishes at the top of the aquatic food chain can accumulate large concentrations of metals and their consumption, consequently, makes a significant contribution, in particular, to mercury intake. The aim of this study was to determine mercury levels in fillets of two predatory species: pangasius (Pangasius hypophthalmus) from the Vietnam region of Megong and Chao Pharayai and cod (Gadus morhua) from the Baltic and North Sea, both being commercially important in the Italian market. A comparative analysis of these two imported fish species was carried out as a risk assessment for consumer safety. The results showed the presence of higher mercury levels in pangasius (0.41 ± 0.08 mg kg(-1)) than in cod (0.11 ± 0.004 mg kg(-1)) fillets. These data underline the importance of monitoring on imported fish before marketing, to evaluate better the risk of mercury exposure through fish and seafood consumption, and of selecting safer fishes for consumption by those groups more sensitive to the toxic effects of this metal. PMID:22575000

Ferrantelli, V; Giangrosso, G; Cicero, A; Naccari, C; Macaluso, A; Galvano, F; D'Orazio, N; Arcadipane, G E; Naccari, F

2012-05-11

228

Occult hepatitis B infection in the immigrant population of Sicily, Italy.  

PubMed

In Italy, about 7 % of the resident population is represented by immigrants originating from geographic regions at high endemicity for hepatitis B virus infection. This study aims to assess the prevalence of occult HBV infection (OBI) including the identification of HBV-genotypes in a population of immigrants serologically negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Between May 2006 and May 2010, 339 immigrants were tested for markers of HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. HBV-DNA was tested by using nested-PCR assays on three different genetic region. HBV-DNA was detected in plasma samples of 11/339 (3.2 %) patients. Most of them had no serological markers of HBV infection, 3/58 (5.2 %) were anti-HBc-alone, and 4/13 (30.8 %) were anti-HIV positive. HIV positivity was the only factor independently associated with the higher probability of observing OBI (OR = 16.5, p < 0.001). No HCV co-infected patients were found. Genotype D was detected in 9/11 (81.8 %) OBI cases, while the remaining two (18.2 %) were classified as genotype E. Although OBI was found at lower rate than expected among immigrants from highly endemic countries, anti-HBc alone positivity was confirmed as a sentinel marker of occult HBV infection. Nevertheless, a marked heterogeneity of HBV markers was found among HBV-DNA positive subjects. Our finding evidenced the predominance of HBV-genotype D viral strains among OBI cases, also in those from geographical areas where overt HBV infections are mainly sustained by viral genotypes other than D. PMID:22875279

Tramuto, Fabio; Maida, Carmelo M; Colomba, Giuseppina M E; Di Carlo, Paola; Mazzola, Giovanni; Li Vecchi, Valentina; Affronti, Mario; Montalto, Giuseppe; Vitale, Francesco

2013-08-01

229

In-Situ Cosmogenic 36Cl Production Rate Calibration from Basaltic Flows of Mount Etna (Sicily, 38° N)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the CRONUS-EU goals is to provide high quality calibration sites from independently dated surfaces. Several previous studies have been conducted on 36Cl production rate calibration (e.g. Stone et al. 1996, Phillips et al. 2001), which, however, used different protocols and yielded 36Cl production rates with up to 40% discrepancies. The objectives of this study are 1- to understand the source of these discrepancies and 2- to calibrate 36Cl production rates from its target elements Ca and K. As a first step we focused on testing the chemical protocol by performing a sequential 36Cl extraction experiment on whole rock grains and Ca-rich plagioclase from the same sample. The sample was collected at Mt. Etna on a pahoehoe flow, which has a K-Ar fossil exposure time of (10±3) kyr. Cosmogenic 3He was also precisely measured within cogenetic olivine phenocrysts of this sample (Blard et al. 2005) and yields an exposure time of (10.4±1.5) kyr. Both, total Cl and 36Cl concentrations from the first dissolution steps are high, 5800 ppm (whole rock) and 450 ppm (plagioclase) Cl, and 107 - 106 atoms 36Cl/g of rock dissolved. After about 20% dissolution of the plagioclase sample, Cl is almost completely removed (1-3ppm) and 36Cl concentrations reach a plateau value of 2*105 atoms/g of rock. Using the Stone et al. (1996) and Evans et al. (1997) 36Cl production rates for the target elements Ca and K, respectively, this plateau concentration yields an exposure age which is in excellent agreement with K-Ar dating and cosmogenic 3He ages. On the contrary, in the whole rock sample total Cl concentrations remain high (>330ppm) resulting in a considerable 36Cl production from capture of low-energy neutrons by 35Cl, an additional and still not well-constrained 36Cl production mechanism. The resulting exposure ages from the whole rock are 35-45% higher than the independent 3He ages. For 36Cl production rate calibration from Ca, we will use separated Ca-rich plagioclase from various Mt. Etna lava flows of different elevation and independently determined ages between 400 yr and 41 kyr. To better constrain the 36Cl production rate from K, separated sanidine (K-rich feldspar) from a 15 kyr old lava flow of volcano Payun-Matru (Argentina, 36° S) will be used. Stone J.O., et al. (1996), Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 60 679-692; Phillips F.M., et al. (2001), Chem. Geol. 175 689-701; Blard P.H., et al. (2005), EPSL 236 613-631; Evans J.M. et al. (1997), Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B 123 334-340

Schimmelpfennig, I.; Benedetti, L.; Pik, R.; Burnard, P.; Blard, P. H.; Bourles, D.

2007-12-01

230

Anomalous soil CO 2 degassing in relation to faults and eruptive fissures on Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between soil gas emissions and both tectonic and volcano-tectonic structures on Mt. Etna have been studied.\\u000a The investigation consisted of soil CO2 flux measurements along traverses orthogonal to the main faults and eruptive fissures of the volcano. Anomalous levels of\\u000a soil degassing were found mainly in coincidence with faults, whereas only 49% of the eruptive fissures were found

Salvatore Giammanco; Sergio Gurrieri; Mariano Valenza

1998-01-01

231

Hygienic-sanitary quality of ready-to-eat salad vegetables on sale in the city of Palermo (Sicily).  

PubMed

In recent years there has been an increase in the consumption of bagged prepared salad vegetables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of such vegetables in the city of Palermo (Italy). Forty samples of different salad vegetables were examined for the presence of mesophilic germs, E. coli, Salmonella, Listeria, E. coli O157, S. aureus, Giardia, Cryptosporidium. Variables considered included the presence of carrots, the atmospheric temperature of the day of purchase and of the two previous days, the expiry date, and the production site. The presence of carrots and of an atmospheric temperature above 20 degrees C (average of the three days considered) were found to be significantly associated with a high mesophilic germ count. This study highlights the need to implement good hygiene practices in order to prevent contamination and/or bacterial growth in ready-to-eat salad vegetables. Maintaining the cold chain and using vegetables of good microbiological quality were found to be especially relevant. PMID:18216881

Di Benedetto, Maria Antonella; Cannova, Lucia; Di Piazza, Florinda; Amodio, Emanuele; Bono, Filippo; Cerame, Giuseppe; Romano, Nino

232

Food safety in hospital: knowledge, attitudes and practices of nursing staff of two hospitals in Sicily, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Food hygiene in hospital poses peculiar problems, particularly given the presence of patients who could be more vulnerable than healthy subjects to microbiological and nutritional risks. Moreover, in nosocomial outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, the mortality risk has been proved to be significantly higher than the community outbreaks and highest for foodborne outbreaks. On the other hand, the common

Cecilia Buccheri; Alessandra Casuccio; Santo Giammanco; Marco Giammanco; Maurizio La Guardia; Caterina Mammina

2007-01-01

233

A revision of the structure and stratigraphy of pre-Green Tuff ignimbrites at Pantelleria (Strait of Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Pantelleria, peralkaline silicic magmas were erupted across a range of eruptive typologies and magnitudes: pyroclastic flows, Plinian to strombolian pumice fallout and lava flows. In this paper we focus on the intermediate cycle of eruptive activity which is bracketed by ignimbrite units slightly older than the two caldera collapses which marked the volcanological activity of the island. This age interval (180-85 ka) was punctuated by six ignimbrite-forming eruptions (silicic and variably peralkaline) for a cumulative erupted magma volume of approximately 6 km3 dense rock equivalent. Based on new 40Ar/39Ar (Na,K)-feldspar ages and petrographic data, we propose an updated volcanostratigraphic scheme for these welded and rheomorphic ignimbrites that can be summarised as follows: (i) the age of the old ('La Vecchia') caldera collapse is now tightly constrained between 140 and 146 ka and the caldera-forming eruption can be traced to a lithic-rich welded tuff breccia that outcrops in two opposite sectors of the island (south-west and north-east); (ii) four ignimbrite units previously considered unrelated are now merged in two distinct eruptive paroxysmal events at 107 and 85 ka. In particular, the 85 ka eruptive event is comparable in magnitude to the younger (caldera forming) Green Tuff Plinian eruption; (iii) the recurrence patterns of the 107 and 85 ka eruptions, compared to the Green Tuff, allow us to qualitatively assess that the climax in production of low-temperature silicic and peralkaline melt was focused in the age interval 85-45 ka.

Rotolo, Silvio G.; Scaillet, Stephane; La Felice, Sonia; Vita-Scaillet, Grazia

2013-01-01

234

Salinity variations in the water resources fed by the Etnean volcanic aquifers (Sicily, Italy): natural vs. anthropogenic causes.  

PubMed

In this paper, in an attempt to reveal possible changes connected to natural or anthropogenic causes, the main results of hydrogeochemical monitoring carried out at Mount Etna are evaluated. We report on the salinity contents of the groundwaters that flow in fractured volcanics, which make up the flanks of the volcano. These waters, analyzed for major ion chemistry, were sampled regularly from 1994 to 2004. Basing on nonparametric Sen's slope estimator, time series of groundwater composition reveal that the salinity of most of the Etnean aquifers increased by 0.5% to 3.5% each year during this period. This change in the water chemistry is clearly referable to the overexploitation of the aquifers. This increasing trend needs to be inverted urgently; otherwise, it will cause a shortage of water in the near future, because the maximum admissible concentration of salinity for drinking water will be exceeded. PMID:20198508

D'Alessandro, Walter; Bellomo, Sergio; Bonfanti, Pietro; Brusca, Lorenzo; Longo, Manfredi

2010-03-03

235

Assessment of the ecological status of transitional waters in Sicily (Italy): First characterisation and classification according to a multiparametric approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1-year cycle of observations was performed in four Sicilian transitional water systems (Oliveri-Tindari, Cape Peloro, Vendicari and Marsala) to characterise their ecological status. A panel of variables among which trophic and microbial (enzyme activities, abundance of hetetrophic bacteria and of bacterial pollution indicators) parameters, were selected. Particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PON) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) contents defined the

Gabriella Caruso; M. Leonardi; L. S. Monticelli; F. Decembrini; F. Azzaro; E. Crisafi; G. Zappalà; A. Bergamasco; S. Vizzini

2010-01-01

236

Assessment of the ecological status of transitional waters in Sicily (Italy): first characterisation and classification according to a multiparametric approach.  

PubMed

A 1-year cycle of observations was performed in four Sicilian transitional water systems (Oliveri-Tindari, Cape Peloro, Vendicari and Marsala) to characterise their ecological status. A panel of variables among which trophic and microbial (enzyme activities, abundance of hetetrophic bacteria and of bacterial pollution indicators) parameters, were selected. Particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PON) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) contents defined the trophic state, while microbial hydrolysis rates and abundance gave insights on microbial community efficiency in organic matter transformation and on allochthonous inputs. To classify the trophic state of examined waters, the synthetic trophic state index (TRIX) was calculated. Microbial hydrolysis rates correlated positively with POC and Chl-a, which increased along the eutrophication gradient. The significant relationships among TRIX, trophic and microbial parameters suggested the use of leucine aminopeptidase, alkaline phosphatase and POC as suitable parameters to implement the Water Framework Directive when assessing the ecological status of transitional water systems. PMID:20655071

Caruso, Gabriella; Leonardi, M; Monticelli, L S; Decembrini, F; Azzaro, F; Crisafi, E; Zappalà, G; Bergamasco, A; Vizzini, S

2010-07-23

237

Analysis of large boulders along the coast of south-eastern Sicily to discriminate between storm and tsunami deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a study to discriminate the kind of anomalous waves, storms or tsunamis, that were responsible for the large boulder accumulation in the Vendicari Reserve along the south-eastern Sicilian coast. These depositional and erosional indicators of the large wave impact have been already observed in some rocky coasts of the Mediterranean basin and associated to strong waves of tsunamigenic

Claudia Pirrotta; Maria Serafina Barbano; Flavia Gerardi

2010-01-01

238

Mobility and fluxes of major, minor and trace metals during basalt weathering and groundwater transport at Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily)  

SciTech Connect

The concentrations and fluxes of major, minor and trace metals were determined in 53 samples of groundwaters from around Mt. Etna, in order to evaluate the conditions and extent of alkali basalt weathering by waters enriched in magma-derived CO{sub 2} and the contribution of aqueous transport to the overall metal discharge of the volcano. The authors show that gaseous input of magmatic volatile metals into the Etnean aquifer is small or negligible, being limited by cooling of the rising fluids. Basalt leaching by weakly acidic, CO{sub 2}-charged water is the overwhelming source of metals and appears to be more extensive in two sectors of the S-SW (Paterno) and E (Zafferana) volcano flanks, where out flowing groundwaters are the richest in metals and bicarbonate of magmatic origin. Thermodynamic modeling of the results allows evaluation of the relative mobility and chemical speciation of various elements during their partitioning between solid and liquid phases through the weathering process. At Mt. Etna, poorly mobile elements (Al, Th, Fe) are preferentially retained in the solid residue of weathering, while alkalis, alkaline earth and oxo-anion-forming elements (As, Se, Sb, Mo) are more mobile and released to the aqueous system. Transition metals display an intermediate behavior and are strongly dependent on either the redox conditions (Mn, Cr, V) or solid surface-related processes (V, Zn, Cu).

Aiuppa, A.; Allard, P.; D'Alessandro, W.; Michel, A.; Parello, F.; Treuil, M.; Valenza, M.

2000-06-01

239

Modeling, Analysis, and Preservation Techniques for Historic Reinforced Concrete Structures in Seismic Prone Regions Case Study: Augusta Airship Hangar, Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the world there are hundreds of historic monuments and structures considered to be invaluable and irreplaceable. They are symbols of cultural identity and a means of educating people about history. Preservation of historic monuments and structures is therefore an important part of safeguarding these cultural heritage sites so that they retain their value for future generations. This report discusses

Kelly Cronin; Tom Reiner; Catherine Whyte

2008-01-01

240

Food safety in hospital: knowledge, attitudes and practices of nursing staff of two hospitals in Sicily, Italy  

PubMed Central

Background Food hygiene in hospital poses peculiar problems, particularly given the presence of patients who could be more vulnerable than healthy subjects to microbiological and nutritional risks. Moreover, in nosocomial outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, the mortality risk has been proved to be significantly higher than the community outbreaks and highest for foodborne outbreaks. On the other hand, the common involvement in the role of food handlers of nurses or domestic staff, not specifically trained about food hygiene and HACCP, may represent a further cause of concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning food safety of the nursing staff of two hospitals in Palermo, Italy. Association with some demographic and work-related determinants was also investigated. Methods The survey was conducted, by using a semi-structured questionnaire, in March-November 2005 in an acute general hospital and a paediatric hospital, where nursing staff is routinely involved in food service functions. Results Overall, 401 nurses (279, 37.1%, of the General Hospital and 122, 53.5%, of the Paediatric Hospital, respectively) answered. Among the respondents there was a generalized lack of knowledge about etiologic agents and food vehicles associated to foodborne diseases and proper temperatures of storage of hot and cold ready to eat foods. A general positive attitude towards temperature control and using clothing and gloves, when handling food, was shared by the respondents nurses, but questions about cross-contamination, refreezing and handling unwrapped food with cuts or abrasions on hands were frequently answered incorrectly. The practice section performed better, though sharing of utensils for raw and uncooked foods and thawing of frozen foods at room temperatures proved to be widely frequent among the respondents. Age, gender, educational level and length of service were inconsistently associated with the answer pattern. More than 80% of the respondent nurses did not attend any educational course on food hygiene. Those who attended at least one training course fared significantly better about some knowledge issues, but no difference was detected in both the attitude and practice sections. Conclusion Results strongly emphasize the need for a safer management of catering in the hospitals, where non professional food handlers, like nursing or domestic staff, are involved in food service functions.

Buccheri, Cecilia; Casuccio, Alessandra; Giammanco, Santo; Giammanco, Marco; La Guardia, Maurizio; Mammina, Caterina

2007-01-01

241

Alkali metasomatism as a process for trondhjemite genesis: evidence from Aspromonte Unit, north-eastern Peloritani, Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Rocks of trondhjemitic composition are widespread in the North-Eastern Peloritani Belt within the Aspromonte Unit, a Hercynian medium- to high-grade metamorphic complex intruded by late-Hercynian peraluminous granites and later affected by MP\\/LT Alpine metamorphism. Among these trondhjemitic bodies, the Pizzo Bottino trondhjemites form one of the largest, outcropping over about 6?km2 and up to 400?m thick. These rocks display

P. Fiannacca; P. Brotzu; R. Cirrincione; P. Mazzoleni; A. Pezzino

2005-01-01

242

A pilot GIS database of active faults of Mt. Etna (Sicily): A tool for integrated hazard evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pilot GIS-based system has been implemented for the assessment and analysis of hazard related to active faults affecting the eastern and southern flanks of Mt. Etna. The system structure was developed in ArcGis® environment and consists of different thematic datasets that include spatially-referenced arc-features and associated database. Arc-type features, georeferenced into WGS84 Ellipsoid UTM zone 33 Projection, represent the five main fault systems that develop in the analysed region. The backbone of the GIS-based system is constituted by the large amount of information which was collected from the literature and then stored and properly geocoded in a digital database. This consists of thirty five alpha-numeric fields which include all fault parameters available from literature such us location, kinematics, landform, slip rate, etc.Although the system has been implemented according to the most common procedures used by GIS developer, the architecture and content of the database represent a pilot backbone for digital storing of fault parameters, providing a powerful tool in modelling hazard related to the active tectonics of Mt. Etna. The database collects, organises and shares all scientific currently available information about the active faults of the volcano. Furthermore, thanks to the strong effort spent on defining the fields of the database, the structure proposed in this paper is open to the collection of further data coming from future improvements in the knowledge of the fault systems. By layering additional user-specific geographic information and managing the proposed database (topological querying) a great diversity of hazard and vulnerability maps can be produced by the user. This is a proposal of a backbone for a comprehensive geographical database of fault systems, universally applicable to other sites.

Barreca, Giovanni; Bonforte, Alessandro; Neri, Marco

2013-02-01

243

International School of Innovative Technology for Cleaning the Environment, Ettore Majorana Centre for Scientific Culture: Erice, Sicily, Italy  

SciTech Connect

The International School of Innovative Technology for Cleaning the Environment was founded at the Ettore Majorana Centre for Scientific Culture (EMCSC), the seat of the World Laboratory Mediterranean Branch, in 1989. The School primarily organizes and hosts training courses and advanced study courses addressing state-of-the-art technologies to clean the environment, minimize waste generation, prevent pollution, and identify strategies to choose environmentally resilient sites and processes for new industrial installations. The School also participates in facilitating multi-national research projects for developing countries under the auspices of the World Laboratory and other sponsoring agencies.

Ragaini, R.C.

1994-06-01

244

Lava tubes, terraces and megatumuli on the 1614–24 pahoehoe lava flow field, Mount Etna, sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1614–1624 lava flow of Mt. Etna was formed during a long-duration flank eruption involving predominantly pahoehoe flows which produced unusual surface features including mega-tumuli (here defined) and terraces. Detailed mapping of the flow units, surface features, and associated tubes reveals a complex sequence of emplacement for the field. The stair-stepped terraces appear to have been formed as a consequence

J. E. Guest; C. Wood; R. Greeley

1984-01-01

245

Geoarcheometric and geophysical methodologies applied to the study of cultural heritage: “ St. Agata la Vetere” in Catania (Sicily, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was undertaken at St. Agata la Vetere church in Catania, dating back to 333 D.C, in order to obtain essential information for the planned restoration works. In fact, the 1693 earthquake totally destroyed both the church and the adjoining monastery, which when rebuilt changed their original appearance enormously. As a preliminary step, a mineralogic petrographic characterization of the

G. Barone; C. Branca; S. Gresta; S. Imposa; A. Leone; D. Majolino

2004-01-01

246

Crustal deformation along the Northern Hyblean Plateau margin (Sicily, Italy) from GPS measurements and comparison with stress data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we analyze data from permanent and non-permanent GPS stations collected between 1998 and 2006 on a dense geodetic network covering a large area of the Hyblean Plateau (southern Italy). This is a seismogenetic area, where strong earthquakes destroyed many cities and killed thousands of people in the past. The analysis of geodetic velocities referring to an Eurasian and an African reference frames, reveals the occurrence of active shortening in the northern sector of the plateau along the boundary defined by the Gela-Catania Foredeep, coupled with an active lengthening in the central sector of the plateau itself. Starting from the estimated velocity at each station, the horizontal strain-rate field of the Hyblean Plateau was calculated. The strain rate pattern clearly defines an area of a prevailing N-S compression along the northern rim of the Hyblean Plateau. Furthermore the central sector of the plateau is affected by a NNW-SSE and NE-SW extensional strain rate pattern. A comparison with seismological and structural data, available for the studied area, allows improving the knowledge of the tectonic processes in the Hyblean Plateau and their implications for seismic hazard.

Mattia, M.; Bruno, V.; Cannavò, F.; Palano, M.

2009-04-01

247

Overlapping strain fields beneath the eastern flank of Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy) from seismic and geodetic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out a study of seismicity and ground deformation occurred on Mount Etna volcano after the end of 2002-2003 eruption and before the onset of 2004-2005 eruption, recorded by the permanent local seismic network run by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania and by geodetic surveys carried out in July 2003 and July 2004 on the GPS network. We provide a description of seismicity rate and main seismic swarms which occurred during the investigated period. Mostly of the earthquakes are clustered in two main clusters located on the north-eastern (E-W aligned and above the sea level) and south-eastern (NW-SE aligned and from 3 to 8 Km below the sea level) sectors of the volcano. To better understand the kinematic processes of the volcano, 3D relocation were used to compute fault plane solutions and a selected dataset was inverted to determine stress and strain tensors. The focal solutions on the north-eastern sector show clear left-lateral kinematics along an E-W fault plane, in good agreement with the Pernicana fault kinematics. Focal solutions on the south-eastern sector show a main left-lateral kinematics along a NW-SE fault plane evidencing a roughly E-W oriented compression coupled with a N-S extension. Surface ground deformation affecting Mt Etna and measured by GPS surveys highlights a marked inflation during the same period, mainly visible on the western and upper sectors of the volcano; on the contrary, its eastern side shows an exceptionally strong seawards and downwards motion with displacements ranging from 5 up to 10 cm along the coastline. The 2D geodetic strain tensor distribution was calculated on a 1.5 km spaced grid, in order to detail the strain axes orientation above the entire GPS network. The results of the 2D geodetic strain calculation evidenced the very strong extension (mainly along an- ENE-WSW axis) of the summit area that was already considered as the cause of the 2004-2005 eruption; this main ENE-WSW extension continues throughout the eastern flank, but here coupled with a WNW-ESE contraction, meaning a right-lateral shear along a NW-SE oriented fault plane. The opposite deformation of the eastern sector of the volcano, as measured by seismicity and ground deformation has to be interpreted by considering the different depths of the two signals. Seismic activity along the NW-SE alignment is, in fact, located between 3 and 8 km b.s.l. and it is then affected by the very strong additional E-W compression induced by the inflating source located by inverting GPS data just westwards and at the same depth. Ground deformation measured by GPS at the surface, on the contrary, is mainly affected by the shallower dynamics of the eastern flank, fastly moving towards East that produces an opposite (extension) E-W strain. It is also meaningful, confirming the decoupling between the surface and deep strain, that all the seismicity of the south-eastern sector lies beneath the sliding plane already modeled by geodetic data for the same time interval and for the 2004-2006 period and also beneath the deeper one previously modeled during the 1993-1998 period when the eastern flank velocity was much slower.

Alparone, S.; Barberi, G.; Bonforte, A.; Maiolino, V.; Ursino, A.

2009-12-01

248

MAJOR AND TRACE ELEMENTS GEOCHEMISTRY IN THE GROUND WATERS OF A VOLCANIC AREA: MOUNT ETNA (SICILY, ITALY)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-five ground-water samples have been collected from wells, springs and drainage galleries on Mt Etna volcano for the determination of major, minor and trace elements in solution. Attention has been focused in particular on dissolved minor and trace elements, for most of which no data were available in the studied area. In general, dissolution of solids into Etna's ground waters

SALVATORE GIAMMANCO; MASSIMO OTTAVIANI; MARIANO VALENZA; ENRICO VESCHETTI; EDOARDO PRINCIPIO; GIUSEPPE GIAMMANCO; SARINA PIGNATO

1998-01-01

249

Building stone employed in the historical monuments of Eastern Sicily (Italy). An example: the ancient city centre of Catania  

Microsoft Academic Search

An archaeometric study of the stone materials employed in the Late Baroque historical monuments of the ancient city centre of Catania was carried out. Lithological maps of a selection of monuments, transferred to a digital format, revealed that the stone materials are both magmatic and sedimentary rocks, the colours of which are matched in a peculiar type of bichromy. Particular

Rosalda Punturo; Laura G. Russo; Antonino Lo Giudice; Paolo Mazzoleni; Antonino Pezzino

2006-01-01

250

Prevalence of Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection in a Cohort of HIV-Positive Patients Resident in Sicily, Italy  

PubMed Central

Occult hepatitis B virus (OBI) in HIV-infected groups is still debated, as well as the associated risk-factors and clinical significance. In this paper, we examined a total of 405 HBsAg-negative/HIV-infected patients enrolled from January 2007 to December 2009. Overall, the prevalence of OBI was 5.9% (95% confidence interval (CI95%): 3.8–8.7%); it was more frequently associated with “anti-HBc alone” serological marker (11.3%; adjusted odds ratio = 3.7, CI95%: 1.4–9.8), although it was also detected in the absence of any HBV serological marker (4.9%; CI95%: 2.3–9.1%). A low prevalence of anti-HCV-positive patients with OBI was found (3.1%; CI95%: 0.6–8.7%). HIV RNA plasma levels or other immunological/clinical characteristics were not significantly associated with OBI. All but one occult HBV infections were sustained by genotype D viral strains. OBI is relatively frequent in HIV-infected patients, although it does not seem to exert a relevant clinical impact. Viral genotypes in occult HBV infections reflect those circulating in the Mediterranean area.

Maida, Carmelo Massimo; Colomba, Giuseppina M. E.; Di Carlo, Paola

2013-01-01

251

Metal distribution in road dust samples collected in an urban area close to a petrochemical plant at Gela, Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight samples of road dust were collected from three different localities (industrial, urban, peripheral) of the town of Gela (Italy) to characterize their chemical composition and to assess (a) the influence of the petrochemical plant and the urban traffic on the trace element content in different grain-size fractions of street dust and (b) the solid-phase speciation of the analysed metal

Emanuela Manno; Daniela Varrica; Gaetano Dongarrà

2006-01-01

252

Differences in Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-specific and -nonspecific immune responses in classic Kaposi sarcoma cases and matched controls in Sicily  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Kaposi sarcoma (KS) may develop because of incompetent immune responses, both nonspecifically and specifically against the KS-associated herpes virus (KSHV). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 15 classic (non-AIDS) KS cases, 13 KSHV seropositives (without KS), and 15 KSHV-seronegative controls were tested for interferon-? T-cell (Elispot) responses to KSHV-LANA, KSHV-K8.1, and CMV/EBV peptide pools. The forearm and thigh of each participant also was tested for delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) against common recall antigens. Groups were compared with Fisher exact test and multinomial logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). KSHV Elispot response was detected in 10 (67%) classic KS cases, 11 (85%) KSHV seropositives (without KS), and 2 (13%) seronegative controls. All 4 cases with KSHV-LANA responses had current KS lesions, whereas 5 of 6 cases with KSHV-K8.1 responses had no lesions (P=0.048). No case responded to both LANA and K8.1. Compared to seronegative controls, risk for classic KS was inversely related to DTH in the thigh (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.55–0.94, P=0.01), directly associated with DTH in the forearm (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.02–1.80, P=0.04), and tended to be increased 5-fold per KSHV Elispot response (OR 5.13, 95% CI 0.86–30.77, P=0.07). Compared to KSHV seropositives (without KS), risk for classic KS, was reduced 5-fold (OR 0.20, CI 0.03–0.77, P=0.04) per KSHV response. CMV/EBV Elispot responses were irrelevant. Deficiency of both KSHV-specific and –nonspecific immunity is associated with classic KS. This may clarify why Kaposi sarcoma responds to immune reconstitution.

Amodio, Emanuele; Goedert, James J.; Barozzi, Patrizia; Riva, Giovanni; Firenze, Alberto; Bonura, Filippa; Viviano, Enza; Romano, Nino; Luppi, Mario

2011-01-01

253

The effect of steam-heating processes on the chemical and isotopic composition of the shallow thermal aquifer in Vulcano Island (Aeolian Arc, Sicily).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a comprehensive study of major-ion chemistry, dissolved gases, and stable isotopes measured in water wells at Vulcano Island since 1988. Particularly, we focus on chemical and hydrological modifications of groundwaters observed in the last two decades, interpreted according to a quantitative model describing steam condensation and boiling phenomena in shallow water bodies (Federico et al., 2010). According to this model, we infer that (i) strong isotope enrichment observed in some shallow thermal waters can result from an increasing mass rate of condensing deep vapor, even in water being meteoric in origin; (ii) the high pCO2 measured in the coldest and peripheral waters are explained by the progressive CO2 enrichment in the vapor phase during multistep boiling; and (iii) the high Cl- and SO4-- contents in the hottest waters can be attributed to the direct condensation (single-step) of volcanic vapor. The model also takes into account both the mass fluxes and the compositions of the involved endmembers (steam and shallow groundwater), which provides important inferences on the modifications observed during the periods of increasing mass and heat input from depth occurred at Vulcano Island. The volcanic crisis that occurred in 1988-1993 profoundly affected the composition of some thermal wells that were more-directly affected by ascending vapour. In particular, higher Cl-, SO4--, and HCO3- contents, temperature, and pCO2 values were measured. These variations are all explained by a different composition of the vapor entering the aquifer paralleled by a higher mass rate relative to the shallow meteoric endmember. Minor effects on the shallow thermal aquifer are observed during the following periods of increasing heat and mass flux from depth, mostly recorded in the crater area. This implies that the shallow thermal aquifer is affected by magmatic fluids ascending along central conduits only when there is a significant increase in the heat and mass fluxes from depth, which are able to vaporize the deep hydrothermal aquifer and modify the chemical and isotopic compositions of a larger portion of the volcanic edifice. Otherwise, the shallow thermal aquifer is chiefly affected by the vapor separating from the 400°C- hydrothermal system and, therefore, by its P-T conditions. On these grounds, once apportioned the effect of rainwater, we tentatively evaluate the effect of variations of physico-chemical conditions of the hydrothermal aquifer on both the water level and the composition of sampled thermal waters.

Capasso, G.; Federico, C.; Madonia, P.; Paonita, A.

2012-04-01

254

Comparative analysis of different techniques for spatial interpolation of rainfall data to create a serially complete monthly time series of precipitation for Sicily, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of good and reliable rainfall data is fundamental for most hydrological analyses and for the design and management of water resources systems. However, in practice, precipitation records often suffer from missing data values mainly due to malfunctioning of raingauge for specific time periods. This is an important issue in practical hydrology because it affects the continuity of rainfall

A. Di Piazza; F. Lo Conti; L. V. Noto; F. Viola; G. La Loggia

2011-01-01

255

Heavy metals content by ICP-OES in Sarda sarda, Sardinella aurita and Lepidopus caudatus from the Strait of Messina (Sicily, Italy).  

PubMed

In this study copper, nickel, lead, cadmium, arsenic, chromium and vanadium content was measured in the muscles and gills of 24 fishes (Sarda sarda, Sardinella aurita and Lepidopus caudatus) caught in the Strait of Messina, by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy with microwave digestion techniques. In general, it was found that arsenic was higher than other analytes in all fish species, particularly its content was much higher in S. aurita than in the other two exemplary species. Lead and cadmium were always detected with values below the legal limits (CE no. 1881/2006 and subsequent modification CE no. 629/2008). PMID:22472136

Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Di Bella, Giuseppa; Furci, Patrizia; Cicero, Nicola; Pollicino, Gianmichele; Dugo, Giacomo

2012-04-04

256

The role of weight status, gender and self-esteem in following a diet among middle-school children in Sicily (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Weight-related issues such as obesity, dieting and eating disorders in adolescents are major public health problems. Moreover, undertaking a diet tends to be common among school children and the reasons for doing so are not always related to weight status. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the role of body mass index (BMI), gender and self-esteem in

Margherita Ferrante; Maria Fiore; Gina E Sciacca; Luca Leon; Salvatore Sciacca; Marine Castaing; Gianbattista Modonutti

2010-01-01

257

Distribution of trace metals, aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment cores from the Sicily Channel and the Gulf of Tunis (south?western Mediterranean Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the framework of the IAEA's Technical Co?operation project RAF7\\/004, international research cruises were carried out in 2004 to assess the distribution of radionuclides and micropollutants in the south?western Mediterranean Sea. Sediments samples had variable concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ranging from 0.2 to 1.8 µg g and 26.9 to 364.4 ng g, respectively, in the

Nadia Mzoughi; Lassaad Chouba

2011-01-01

258

Heavy metals in liver and muscle of bluefin tunA (Thunnus thynnus) caught in the Straits of Messina (Sicily, Italy).  

PubMed

The present investigation was carried out on the bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) collected during the month of April 2003 from the Straits of Messina. The aim of this study is to determine heavy metal levels (Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn) in liver and muscle tissues of 14 Thunnus thynnus of different age and sex and to investigate the relationships between fish sex and size (length and weight) and metal concentrations in the tissues. The concentrations of the various metals were determined by a Varian atomic absorption spectroscopy instrument. The results show significant variations (p < 0.01) for Hg and Zn concentrations in muscle than in liver samples. Concentrations of Cd and Pb are below the instrumental detection limits in almost all muscle samples. Levels of Hg (3.03 +/- 0.55 microg/g) are above the MRLs only in muscle (1 microg/g) establishing toxicological risks for the consumer. Regression analysis shows a negative correlation between mercury level and weight and length in samples from both female and male. No significant difference between mean heavy metals concentrations and male or female tuna is seen. For greater food safety, it would be advisable to reduce the mercury intake by selecting safer fish, species and size and by the avoidance of tuna fish consumption by pregnant women, young children and old people, who are more sensitive to mercury exposure. PMID:16418915

Licata, Patrizia; Trombetta, Domenico; Cristani, Mariateresa; Naccari, Clara; Martino, Daniela; Calò, Margherita; Naccari, Francesco

2005-08-01

259

Antibodies to human herpes virus type 8 (HHV8) in general population and in individuals at risk for sexually transmitted diseases in Western Sicily  

Microsoft Academic Search

antigens. Results Crude seroprevalence to HHV8 antigens was 11.5% in the general population, and it increased significantly with age from 6% under age 16 to 22% after age 50. Significantly higher HHV8 seroprevalence rates were detected among HIV positive and negative homosexual men (62% and 22%, respectively), men who had sex with prostitutes (40% and 29%, respectively); female prostitutes (42%

Anna Maria Perna; Filippa Bonura; Francesco Vitale; Enza Viviano; Maria Antonella Di Benedetto; Francesca Ajello; Maria Rosaria Villafrate; Tullio Prestileo; Salvatrice Mancuso; James J Goedertd; Nino Romanoa

260

Human responses to eruptions of Etna (Sicily) during the late-Pre-Industrial Era and their implications for present-day disaster planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarises: the characteristics of eruptions that occurred between 1792/3 and 1923; the ways in which human responses evolved during the period and the lessons this history holds for the management of present-day volcanic and volcano-related disasters. People responded to eruptions at three levels: as members of a family and extended family; through the mutual support of a village or larger settlement and as citizens of the State. During the study period and with the exception of limited financial aid and preservation of law and order, the State was a minor player in responding to eruptions. Families and extended families provided shelter, accommodation and often alternative agricultural employment; whilst supportive villages communities displayed a well developed tendency to learn from experience (e.g. innovating techniques to bring land back into cultivation and avoiding the risks of phreatic activity as lava encountered water and saturated ground) and providing labour to enable household chattels and agricultural crops to be salvaged from land threatened with lava incursion. Eruptions were widely believed to be 'Acts of God', with divine punishment frequently being invoked as a primary cause of human suffering. Elaborate rituals of propitiation were performed to appease a supposed angry God, but this world-view did not produce a fatalistic attitude amongst the population preventing people from coping with disasters in a generally effective manner. Despite present day emergencies being handled by the State and its agencies, some features of nineteenth century responses remain in evidence, including salvaging all that may be easily removed from a building and/or agricultural holding, and explanations of disaster which are theistic in character. Lessons from eruptions that occurred between 1792/3 to 1923 are that the former should be encouraged, whilst the latter does not prevent people acting to preserve life and property or obeying the authorities. Earthquakes are one category of hazard that caused major damage during, or associated with, several historic eruptions especially those of 1865, 1883 and 1911. This study highlights the vulnerability of the Etna region to this hazard which remains largely un-ameliorated. Attempts to divert lava flows occurred during the 1832, 1879 and 1923 eruptions.

Chester, David K.; Duncan, Angus M.; Sangster, Heather

2012-05-01

261

Sediment characterization of the highly impacted Augusta harbour (Sicily, Italy): modern benthic foraminifera in relation to grain-size and sediment geochemistry.  

PubMed

The Augusta harbour is affected by high anthropogenic impact due to intense harbour activity and a large chemical and petrochemical pole. Thirty-seven sediment samples were collected during an environmental characterization project and analyzed for grain size, chemical parameters (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn and V) and foraminifera, the last one generally being used as ecological indicators of environmental quality. Anthropogenic enrichment was recognized for As, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn and, among these, Hg showed very high concentrations (up to 191 mg kg(-1) d.w.) often associated in the southern sector of the study area to very high PCB levels (up to 0.83 mg kg(-1)). In this area, an assemblage dominated by Rosalina bradyi and Quinqueloculina lata was recognized. This assemblage shows a clear decrease of foraminiferal density and diversity and, at the same time, increased dominance with respect to the assemblage characterizing the central and northern less polluted sectors, in which Miliolinella subrotunda prevails. Quinqueloculina lata was demonstrated to be a stress-tolerant species because it was not influenced by sediment texture, but positively correlated with the concentration of Hg, PCBs and PAHs. The environmental stress shown by the high-dominance of the Ammonia tepida assemblage was attributed mainly to the influence of stream mouths, which determine environmental instability. Foraminiferal assemblages showed a clear response to environmental degradation in the most polluted area but, at the same time, they demonstrated a high adaptation to pollution. PMID:23507790

Romano, Elena; Bergamin, Luisa; Magno, Maria Celia; Ausili, Antonella

2013-05-01

262

Quality assessment of durum wheat storage centres in Sicily: Evaluation of vitreous, starchy and shrunken kernels using an image analysis system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proportion of vitreous kernels in a sample is an internationally recognized specification for determining the value of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). Vitreous kernels are mostly related to quality, which affects the pasta performance during cooking. Vitreousness and the amount of shrunken kernels are visually assessed during the grading process. This assessment is subjective and tedious.A machine vision system

G. Venora; O. Grillo; R. Saccone

2009-01-01

263

Sedimentary evolution of the Mesozoic continental redbeds using geochemical and mineralogical tools: the case of Upper Triassic to Lowermost Jurassic Monte di Gioiosa mudrocks (Sicily, southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continental redbeds from the Internal Domains of the central-western Mediterranean Chains have an important role in the palaeogeographic and palaeotectonic reconstructions of the Alpine circum-Mediterranean orogen evolution since these redbeds mark the Triassic-Jurassic rift-valley stage of Tethyan rifting. The composition and the sedimentary evolution of the Middle Triassic to Lowermost Jurassic continental redbeds of the San Marco d'Alunzio Unit (Peloritani Mountains, Southern Italy), based on mineralogical and chemical analyses, suggests that the studied mudrock sediments share common features with continental redbeds that constitute the Internal Domains of the Alpine Mediterranean Chains. Phyllosilicates are the main components in the mudrocks. The 10 Å-minerals (illite and micas), the I-S mixed layers, and kaolinite are the most abundant phyllosilicates. The amount of illitic layers in I-S mixed layers coupled with the illite crystallinity values (IC) are typical of high degree of diagenesis, corresponding to a lithostatic/tectonic loading of about 4-5 km. The mineralogical assemblage coupled with the A-CN-K plot suggest post-depositional K-enrichments. Palaeoweathering proxies (PIA and CIW) record intense weathering at the source area. Further, the studied sediments are affected by reworking and recycling processes and, as consequence, it is likely these proxies monitor cumulative effect of weathering. The climate in the early Jurassic favoured recycling and weathering occurred under hot, episodically humid climate with a prolonged dry season. The source-area is the low-grade Paleozoic metasedimentary basement. Mafic supply is minor but not negligible as suggested by provenance proxies.

Perri, Francesco; Critelli, Salvatore; Mongelli, Giovanni; Cullers, Robert L.

2011-10-01

264

Yeast ecology of vineyards within Marsala wine area (western Sicily) in two consecutive vintages and selection of autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.  

PubMed

In this work, the yeast ecology associated with the spontaneous fermentation of Grillo cultivar grapes from 10 vineyards was analyzed from grape harvest till complete consumption of must sugars. The microbiological investigation started with the plate count onto two culture media to distinguish total yeasts (TY) and presumptive Saccharomyces (PS). Yeasts were randomly isolated and identified by a combined genotypic approach consisting of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 5.8S rRNA gene and 26S rRNA and sequencing of D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene, which resulted in the recognition of 14 species belonging to 10 genera. The distribution of the yeasts within the vineyards showed some differences in species composition and concentration levels among 2008 and 2009 vintages. Due to the enological relevance, all Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates were differentiated applying two genotypic tools (interdelta analysis and microsatellite multiplex PCR of polymorphic microsatellite loci) that recognized 51 strains. Based on the low production of H(2)S, acetic acid and foam, ethanol resistance, growth in presence of high concentrations of potassium metabisulphite (KMBS) and CuSO(4) and at low temperatures, 14 strains were selected and used as starter to ferment grape must at 13 °C and 17 °C in presence of 100 mg/L of KMBS. Three strains (CS160, CS165 and CS182) showed optimal technological aptitudes. PMID:22877686

Settanni, Luca; Sannino, Ciro; Francesca, Nicola; Guarcello, Rosa; Moschetti, Giancarlo

2012-08-09

265

A two-component mantle extending from Hyblean Plateau to Mt Etna (Eastern Sicily) as inferred by an integrated approach with noble gases, trace elements and isotope geochemistry.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out a geochemical investigation of the mantle beneath Hyblean and Etnean area through ultramafic xenoliths (peridotites and pyroxenites) retained in Miocenic age Hyblean volcanics and primitive Etnean lavas and tephra, respectively. Major and trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes (whole rock and /or minerals) were analysed together with noble gases entrapped in fluid inclusions hosted in olivines and pyroxenes phenocrysts. The geochemical results from Hyblean xenoliths study highlighted the presence of two distinct compositional groups: the peridotites, featured by a more enriched geochemical fingerprint (3He/4He ~7 Ra, 143Nd/144Nd ~0.5129 and Zr/Nb ~ 4) and the pyroxenites, characterized by a more primitive character (3He/4He up to 7.6 Ra, 143Nd/144Nd ~0.5130 and Zr/Nb ~30). Our interpretation is that metasomatic processes interested the Hyblean lithosphere and the pyroxenites (former primitive mantle melts) represent the metasomatizing agent. During their ascent these primitive melts permeated the peridotitic mantle at different levels, producing a variable degree of refertilization. The metasomatic processes affected distributions of both trace elements and noble gases, even though these geochemical tracers displayed very different sensitivity to the effects of metasomatic mixing between two end-members. The investigated primitive Etnean magmas showed a variable REE enrichment respect to MORB (Lan/Ybn =11-26) and isotopic values of Sr, Nd and He in the following ranges: 143Nd/144Nd = 0.512869-0.512896; 86Sr/87Sr = 0.70330-0.70370; 3He/4He = 7-7.6 Ra. A variable melting degree of a common mantle source together with a variable level of crystallization and crustal contamination is hypothesised to explain the variations exhibited by the above Etnean dataset. Numerical simulation performed on MELT code allowed to estimate the trace elements content of the Etnean mantle source. These results, joined to the most primitive isotopic values of He- Sr- Nd among the investigated products helped to geochemically characterize the mantle beneath the Etnean area, suggesting a strict relation with that Hyblean. Indeed, the modeled Etnean source locates on the mixing zone between the Hyblean peridotite and pyroxenite, so testifying a simultaneous contribution of two components in the genesis of the investigated lavas and supporting the hypothesis of an heterogeneous and metasomatized lithosphere common to both areas.

Correale, A.; Martelli, M.; Paonita, A.; Rizzo, A.; Rotolo, S.

2012-04-01

266

Restraining stepover deformation superimposed on a previous fold-and-thrust-belt: A case study from the Mt. Kumeta-Rocca Busambra ridges (western Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western segment of the Sicilian Apennines (southern Italy) is affected by poly phase deformation characterized by non-coaxial structural associations. In particular, this study is focused on two narrow ˜E-W oriented structural and topographic culminations of the fold and thrust belt (Mt. Kumeta and Rocca Busambra ridges), resulting from the exhumation of a deep-seated tectonic unit. A detailed field mapping and meso-structural analysis reveals that since Pliocene time the region was tectonically controlled by the propagation of two major NW-SE oriented right-lateral shear zones and associated structures that often propagated along inherited discontinuities. In particular, the left-stepping geometry and the sense of motion of these regional strike-slip fault systems produced in the overlapping area a wide rhomboidal-shaped contractional region characterized by the occurrence of double-verging ˜E-W striking compressive structures. These bound the Mt. Kumeta and Rocca Busambra carbonate ridges, forming a pair of pop-up structures which link the coeval transcurrent boundary faults. Field data show that contractional structures are affected by significant bending along strike that increases close to the major shear zones. Structural rotations around the vertical axis allowed the carbonate ridges to develop a typical sigmoidal shape.The topographic expression and the internal structural architecture, compared with experimental models describing deformations associated with segmented strike-slip faults, suggest that the analyzed segment of Sicilian fold and thrust belt can be interpreted as a restraining stepover in which crustal shortening, exhumation and vertical axis rotation occurred.Moreover, field data, compared to the subsurface setting imaged by the analysis of available geophysical data (e.g. gravimetric maps and available/interpreted seismic profiles), reveal that, since Pliocene times, the restraining stepover deformation was transversally superimposed on a pre-existing NE-SW oriented thrust and fold system related to the Miocene Africa-Europe collision.

Barreca, Giovanni; Maesano, Francesco Emanuele

2012-04-01

267

Using high-resolution stratigraphy and structural analysis to constrain polyphase tectonics in wedge-top basins: Inferences from the late Tortonian Scillato Basin (central-northern Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper aims to show, both from a stratigraphic and structural points of view, the main features of a wedge-top syntectonic basin which evolved recording polyphase and non-coaxial tectonics. The study area is the Scillato Basin (SB), a roughly N-S-oriented structural depression located in the central-northern sector of the Sicililian Maghrebides. There, an approximately 1300 m-thick upper Serravallian to upper Tortonian succession of clastic units outcrops as a portion of the Neogene syntectonic covers of the Sicilian fold and thrust belt. Within the outcropping succession the upper Tortonian Terravecchia Fm represents the main topic of this paper. A multidisciplinary approach was carried out through an integration of sedimentology, facies, stratal pattern and structural analyses; this was applied to the formation enabling one to recognize in the Scillato Basin a fining to coarsening upward succession, deposited recording an early transgressive and a late regressive depositional stage. In our model these two main depositional stages developed and are directly relatable to a two-step structural evolution of the basin. During the first step, a NW-SE-oriented structural depression existed, enclosed between structural highs and accommodating the lower and middle portion of the upper Tortonian succession. Subsequently, during the second step, the NW-SE depression was non-coaxially deformed by superimposition of high-angle transpressive faults (many of which were SE-dipping), developed in response to the upward propagation of structures enucleated at deeper structural levels. This step was recorded in the basin by development of both depositional and structural interferences recognizable along the upper portion of the Scillato Basin succession. A comparison between field data and deep geophysical data interpreted at the preliminary stage, raises questions about the late Miocene geological evolution of this sector of the Sicilian chain, including: (i) the syn-tectonic deposition of the Terravecchia Fm. in the Scillato Basin clearly recorded the interference of two main and non-coaxial tectonic events; (ii) the younger of these two events has a clear tranpressional character and was active during the very late Tortonian; (iii) as also indicated by many authors in neighboring orogenic wedges, the main control on the location, geometry and depositional evolution of the Scillato wedge-top Basin was carried out by compressional and transpressional structures developed at a deeper structural level. Their deformation propagated upward both into the shallow structural level and sedimentary covers; therefore (iv) the late Miocene structural scenario here depicted is not consistent either with the back-arc-related extension or with the late orogenic gravitational collapse models previously invoked by other authors with regard to this sector of the Sicilian thrust belt.

Gugliotta, C.; Gasparo Morticelli, M.

2012-10-01

268

Management and treatment of decubital ulcers of an elderly population in the assisted sanitary residence of Futura–Viagrande (Catania, Sicily, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decubital lesions indicate the gravity of the pathologies of the elderly patients, representing a serious cause of disability and of mortality. The present study was aimed at evaluating the decubital lesions during 1 year of treatment in an assisted sanitary residence (abbreviated as RSA from the Italian name), through observations of the assistential and therapeutical outcomes, aimed at improving the

Antonino Santangelo; Manuela Testaì; Mosè Cirino Ossino; Patrizia Barbagallo; Cristiano Crisafulli; Giuliana Muscarà; Marcello Tomarchio; Domenico Maugeri

2009-01-01

269

Evidence of multiple strain fields beneath the eastern flank of Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy) deduced from seismic and geodetic data during 2003-2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out a study of the seismicity and ground deformation occurring on Mt. Etna volcano after the end of the 2002-2003 eruption and before the onset of the 2004-2005 eruption. Data were recorded by the permanent local seismic network run by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania and by geodetic surveys carried out in July 2003 and July 2004 on the GPS network. Most earthquakes were grouped in two main clusters located in the northeastern and southeastern sectors of the volcano. The areal distribution of seismic energy associated with the recorded earthquakes allowed us to highlight the main seismogenic areas of Mt. Etna. In order to better understand the kinematic processes of the volcano, 3D seismic locations were used to compute fault plane solutions, and a selected dataset was inverted to determine stress and strain tensors. The focal mechanisms in the northeastern sector show clear left-lateral kinematics along an E-W fault plane, consistent with events occurring along the Pernicana Fault system. The fault plane solutions in the southeastern sector show mainly right-lateral kinematics along a NNE and ENE fault plane and left lateral-kinematics along NW fault planes that together suggest roughly E-W oriented compression. Surface ground deformation affecting Mt. Etna measured by GPS surveys highlighted a marked inflation during the same period and exceptionally strong seawards motion of its eastern flank. The 2D geodetic strain tensor distribution was calculated and the results show mainly ENE-WSW extension coupled with WNW-ESE contraction, indicating right-lateral shear along a NW-SE oriented fault plane. The different deformation of the eastern sector of the volcano, as measured by seismicity and ground deformation, must be interpreted by considering the different depths of the two signals. Seismic activity in the southeastern sector of volcano is located between 3 and 8 km b.s.l. and can be associated with a very strong additional E-W compression induced by a pressurizing source just westwards and at the same depth, located by inverting GPS data. Ground deformation, in contrast, is mainly affected by the shallower dynamics of the fast moving eastern flank which produces a shallower opposing E-W extension. The entire dataset shows that two different processes affect the eastern flank at the same time but at different depths; the boundary is clearly located at a depth of 3 km b.s.l. and could represent the décollement surface for the mobile flank.

Alparone, Salvatore; Barberi, Graziella; Bonforte, Alessandro; Maiolino, Vincenza; Ursino, Andrea

2011-09-01

270

New evidence of mantle heterogeneity beneath the Hyblean Plateau (southeast Sicily, Italy) as inferred from noble gases and geochemistry of ultramafic xenoliths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed major and trace elements, Sr and Nd isotopes in ultramafic xenoliths in Miocenic age Hyblean diatremes, along with noble gases of CO2-rich fluid inclusions hosted in the same products. The xenoliths consist of peridotites and pyroxenites, which are considered to be derived from the upper mantle. Although the mineral assemblage of peridotites and their whole-rock abundance of major elements (e.g., Al2O3 = 0.8-1.5 wt.%, TiO2 = 0.03-0.08 wt.%) suggest a residual character of the mantle, a moderate enrichment in some incompatible elements (e.g., LaN/YbN = 9-14) highlights the presence of cryptic metasomatic events. In this context a deep silicate liquid is considered the metasomatizing agent, which is consistent with the occurrence of pyroxenites as veins in peridotites. Both the Zr/Nb and 143Nd/144Nd ratios of the investigated samples reveal two distinct compositional groups: (1) peridotites with Zr/Nb ? 4 and 143Nd/144Nd ? 0.5129, and (2) pyroxenites with Zr/Nb ? 20 and 143Nd/144Nd ? 0.5130. The results of noble-gas analyses also highlight the difference between the peridotite and pyroxenite domains. Indeed, the 3He/4He and 4He/40Ar* ratios measured in the fluid inclusions of peridotites (respectively 7.0-7.4 ± 0.1 Ra and 0.5-8.2, where Ra is the atmospheric 3He/4He ratio of 1.38 × 10- 6) were on average lower than those for the pyroxenites (respectively 7.2-7.6 Ra and 0.62-15). This mantle heterogeneity is interpreted as resulting from a mixing between two end-members: (1) a peridotitic layer with 3He/4He ? 7 Ra and 4He/40Ar* ? 0.4, which is lower than the typical mantle ratio (~ 1-4) probably due to melt extraction events, and (2) metasomatizing mafic silicate melts that gave rise to pyroxenites characterized by 3He/4He ? 7.6 Ra, with a variable 4He/40Ar* due to degassing processes connected with the ascent of magma at different levels in the peridotite wall rock. The complete geochemical data set also suggests two distinct mantle sources for the xenolithic groups highlighted above: (1) a HIMU (high-?)-type source for the peridotites and (2) a DM (depleted mantle)-type source for the pyroxenites.

Correale, A.; Martelli, M.; Paonita, A.; Rizzo, A.; Brusca, L.; Scribano, V.

2012-02-01

271

Biogeochemical evaluation of historical sediment contamination in the Gulf of Palermo (NW Sicily): Analysis of pseudo-trace elements and stable isotope signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sedimentary biogeochemical data from the Gulf of Palermo, which borders one of the major urban and industrial areas of the central Mediterranean, provide a decennial-centennial-scale record of the effects of human activity on this coastal environment. In this study we report trace elements (TE), Corg/Ntot ratios, ?13Corg, and ?15Ntot from dated (210Pb) sediments collected in two coastal stations variably influenced by urban/fluvial loadings and illegal dumping and we compare them with published data for offshore sediments, in order to investigate at a large spatial scale the influence of on-land activities on sedimentary marine system. TE were generally low except for Hg and Pb, which exhibited moderate enrichments. Low TE enrichment factors with respect to Corg indicate that trace elements were mainly trapped by sedimentary organic matter. Corg/Ntot, ?13Corg, and ?15Ntot depth profiles showed that sediments received organic matter derived from marine sources mixed with organic matter from the erosion of terrestrial material as well as unregulated sewage discharges. Superimposed on these patterns, repeated shifts in ?13Corg towards values higher than those typical of offshore Palermo sediments were concomitant with higher Corg/Ntot. These shifts observed in the core portions covering the last 40 years reflect enhanced eutrophication as result of elevated nutrient input into marine waters. The results of this study have traced the origin and extent of the organic enrichment and emphasized the importance of utilizing a complete range of chemical and isotopic analyses from sedimentary records to reconstruct the environmental history of coastal ecosystems impacted by urbanization processes.

di Leonardo, Rossella; Cundy, Andrew B.; Bellanca, Adriana; Mazzola, Antonio; Vizzini, Salvatrice

2012-06-01

272

Sedimentary evolution of the Mesozoic continental redbeds using geochemical and mineralogical tools: the case of Upper Triassic to Lowermost Jurassic Monte di Gioiosa mudrocks (Sicily, southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continental redbeds from the Internal Domains of the central-western Mediterranean Chains have an important role in the palaeogeographic and palaeotectonic reconstructions of the Alpine circum-Mediterranean orogen evolution since these redbeds mark the Triassic-Jurassic rift-valley stage of Tethyan rifting. The composition and the sedimentary evolution of the Middle Triassic to Lowermost Jurassic continental redbeds of the San Marco d’Alunzio Unit (Peloritani Mountains, Southern Italy), based on mineralogical and chemical analyses, suggests that the studied mudrock sediments share common features with continental redbeds that constitute the Internal Domains of the Alpine Mediterranean Chains. Phyllosilicates are the main components in the mudrocks. The 10 Å-minerals (illite and micas), the I-S mixed layers, and kaolinite are the most abundant phyllosilicates. The amount of illitic layers in I-S mixed layers coupled with the illite crystallinity values (IC) are typical of high degree of diagenesis, corresponding to a lithostatic/tectonic loading of about 4-5 km. The mineralogical assemblage coupled with the A-CN-K plot suggest post-depositional K-enrichments. Palaeoweathering proxies (PIA and CIW) record intense weathering at the source area. Further, the studied sediments are affected by reworking and recycling processes and, as consequence, it is likely these proxies monitor cumulative effect of weathering. The climate in the early Jurassic favoured recycling and weathering occurred under hot, episodically humid climate with a prolonged dry season. The source-area is the low-grade Paleozoic metasedimentary basement. Mafic supply is minor but not negligible as suggested by provenance proxies.

Perri, Francesco; Critelli, Salvatore; Mongelli, Giovanni; Cullers, Robert L.

2010-10-01

273

Evaluation of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Mullus barbatus from Sicily Channel and risk-based consumption limits.  

PubMed

Our study is a preliminary step to evaluate water contamination of the Mediterranean Sea surrounding Lampedusa island and health risks for fish consumers. We analyzed muscle tissue of Mullus barbatus specimens to detect metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results show the following average concentrations of heavy metals: Pb 0.035, Cd 0.001, Hg 0.027, Cr 0.524, As 27.01, Cu 0.433, Co 0.013, Ni 0.042, Se 0.487, V 0.072, U 0.055 and Zn 3.360 ppm. PAHs ranged from 0.250 to 13.16 ppb. A possible risk to human health was determined based on consumption limits data and the content of total PAHs in fillets of this species. PMID:22450961

Conti, Gea Oliveri; Copat, Chiara; Ledda, Caterina; Fiore, Maria; Fallico, Roberto; Sciacca, Salvatore; Ferrante, Margherita

2012-03-27

274

Archaeometric analyses on ceramics from Sicilian Greek colonies: a contribution to the knowledge of Messina, Gela and Agrigento production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several samples of the two important archaeological areas of eastern Sicily, Messina in north-eastern Sicily, and Gela and Agrigento in central-southern Sicily, were analysed by optical analysis under a polarized light microscope, XRD, FT-IR, XRF, ICP-MS and ICP- OES. Petrographic and chemical data processing allowed to characterise pottery fabrics of Greek colonies in Sicily and to identify the principal elements

GERMANA BARONE; CATIA BRANCA; VINCENZA CRUPI; SALVATORE IOPPOLO; DOMENICO MAJOLINO; GIUSY PUGLISI; GRAZIA SPAGNOLO; GABRIELLA TIGANO; Piazza Pugliatti; Soprintendenza Beni

2003-01-01

275

Effects of fish farming waste to sedimentary and particulate organic matter in a southern Mediterranean area (Gulf of Castellammare, Sicily): a multiple stable isotope study ( ? 13C and ? 15N)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis was used to investigate the dispersion area of waste material coming from fish farming activities in the western Mediterranean. Tests were conducted to see if uneaten feed and faecal material isotopic signals, originating from fish farms, could be detected in particulate organic matter (POM) and sedimentary organic matter (SOM). The detectable dispersion distance (from

G Sarà; D Scilipoti; A Mazzola; A Modica

2004-01-01

276

Assessing the link between mantle source and sub-volcanic plumbing in the petrology of basalts from the 2001 and 2002/2003 eruptions of Mount Etna, Sicily: Evidence from geochemical and helium isotope data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2001 and 2002-2003 flank eruptions of Mt. Etna consisted of near continuous explosive activity and sporadic lava flows. Previous studies have suggested that distinct magmas were simultaneously tapped by fissures in different parts of the volcano, indicating a complex plumbing system. From textural and chemical data it has been suggested that "eccentric" eruptions on the south flank were fed by a deep-seated reservoir that is not related to the central conduit. In contrast, materials erupted above 2600 m and from the northeast flank represent partially degassed, more fractionated magma, typical of that residing within the central vents. A concern is that Etna has entered a new phase of activity, with magma supply from a deep reservoir that is capable of generating recurrent flank eruptions posing significant hazard to populated areas and air travel. We have investigated materials that erupted from different vents during both the 2001 and 2002/3 eruptive episodes by means of petrology, whole-rock chemistry and helium isotopic methods. Here we show from trace element chemistry and the 3He/4He isotope record of melt inclusions in olivine that the mantle source for both magma batches is identical. Furthermore, this magmatic source has not changed over the past 0.5 Ma. As such, our data support the premise that the petrological variability exhibited by products that erupted from different parts of the volcano reflects storage, fractionation and degassing at different levels within the crust.

Coulson, Ian M.; Stuart, Finlay M.; Maclean, Natalie J.

2011-04-01

277

Millennial-scale phase relationships between ice-core and Mediterranean marine records: insights from high-precision 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Green Tuff of Pantelleria, Sicily Strait  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of annually-resolved polar ice records extending back to 70 ka, marine and continental paleoclimate studies have now matured into a discipline where high-quality age control is essential for putting on an equal pace layer-counted timescale models and Late Quaternary sedimentary records. High-resolution U–Th dating of speleothem records and 40Ar/39Ar dating of globally recorded geomagnetic excursions have recently improved the time calibration of Quaternary archives, reflecting the cross-disciplinary effort made to synchronize the geologic record at the millennial scale. Yet, tie-points with such an absolute age control remain scarce for paleoclimatic time-series extending beyond the radiocarbon timescale, most notably in the marine record. Far-travelled tephra layers recorded both onland and offshore provide an alternative in such instance to synchronize continental and marine archives via high-resolution 40Ar/39Ar dating of the parent volcanic eruption. High-resolution 40Ar/39Ar data are reported herein for one such volcanic marker, the Green Tuff of Pantelleria and its Y-6 tephra equivalent recorded throughout the Central and Eastern Mediterranean. Published radiochronometric and ?18O orbitally-tied ages for this marker horizon scatter widely from about 41 ka up to 56 ka. Our new 40Ar/39Ar age at 45.7 ± 1.0 ka (2?) reveals that previous estimates are biased by more than their reported errors would suggest, including recent orbital tuning of marine records hosting the tephra bed that are reevaluated in the context of this study. This improved estimate enables potential phase lags and leads to be studied between deep-sea and terrestrial archives with unrivaled (near-millennial) 40Ar/39Ar precision in the marine record.

Scaillet, S.; Vita-Scaillet, G.; Rotolo, S. G.

2013-10-01

278

Hannibal's Children: Immigration and Antiracist Youth Subcultures in Contemporary Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The night of September 14, 2002 was moonless. A stormy sea lashed the rocky coastline at Capo Rossello, a small town near Agrigento on Sicily’s southern coast. Shortly after midnight, the wind carried the sound of screams out of the darkness to the restaurants along the beachfront. The screams grew in intensity and then, suddenly, stopped. Some time later, bodies

Ashley Dawson; Patrizia Palumbo

2005-01-01

279

Trajectoires contrastées de développement local : Sicile et Nord-Est italien  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper starts with a comparative analysis of two Italian trajectories of local development : the North-East and Sicily. The processes of local development which took place in the North-East and Sicily can be read as an answer to a situation in which the two territories are marginalized and badly integrated to the national economy. The aim is to focus

Clotilde Champeyrache

2010-01-01

280

Integrated tools of environmental management and local development: Djerba (Tunis) application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A project for transference of know-how has been set up by the local authority of Lipari in Sicily and that of Houmt Souk, on the island of Djerba (Tunisia). This project, funded by the Regional Authority of Sicily, comes under the framework for decentralised Cooperation envisaged by Italian and EU law in relation to developing and transitional countries and economies.

Giuseppe Ioppolo

281

Does the source of the 28 December 1908 Messina Straits tsunami coincide with the earthquake source? Hints from tsunami numerical modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Together with eastern Sicily and Calabria, the Messina Straits is the region with the highest tsunamigenic occurrence rate in Italy. Tsunami catalogues indicate that the tsunami hazard in the Messina Straits is related to both local and remote sources, where remote refers to sources placed just outside the Straits (i.e. southern Tyrrhenian and eastern Sicily), and also to sources found

A. Armigliato; S. Tinti; F. Zaniboni; G. Pagnoni; R. Tonini; S. Gallazzi; A. Manucci

2009-01-01

282

Scenarios of tsunami impact in the town of Catania, Italy: a combination of numerical modelling results and vulnerability considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catania is one of the most important towns in Sicily, and more generally in southern Italy, due to its long historical and cultural tradition and to active industrial, commercial and touristic activities. Catania is located along the coast of eastern Sicily, which is well known to be one of the coastal areas most exposed to earthquake and tsunami hazard and

S. Tinti; R. Tonini; G. Pagnoni; S. Gallazzi; A. Manucci; A. Armigliato; F. Zaniboni

2009-01-01

283

Western Mediterranean Circulation Experiment (WMCE): A Preliminary Review of Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Western Mediterranean Circulation Experiment (WMCE) was to deduce spatial and temporal variability in the circulation of the western Mediterranean Sea throughout the vertical water column from the Strait of Sicily to the Strait of Gibra...

P. La Violette

1989-01-01

284

Maurolico [Marul, Marol], Francesco (1494-1575)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Born in Messina, Italy, became a Benedictine and acted in several civil posts in Sicily. He observed the nova of 1572, now known as `TYCHO's supernova', and wrote new editions of classical Greek mathematics, most published after his death....

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

285

Operation HUSKY: A Critical Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Allied invasion of Sicily was the largest amphibious operation conducted in World War II with over seven assault divisions landing across Italian beaches. The planning and conduct of HUSKY was fraught with indecision, fragmented planning, poor coordin...

S. R. Cote

2001-01-01

286

First report of Melittobia australica Girault in Europe and new record of M. acasta (Walker) for Italy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Melittobia acasta and Melittobia australica are newly recorded from Sicily, Italy, and the second species is reported in Europe for the first time. A short historical background about Melittobia parasitoid wasps, their hosts, and distribution, with emphasis in those two species is presented together with illustrations to facilitate their identification. Brief discussion about the presence and possible distribution of the species in Sicily is also included.

Cusumano, Antonino; Gonzalez, Jorge M.; Colazza, Stefano; Vinson, S. Bradleigh

2012-01-01

287

Active Microplate Deformation and Crustal Delamination in the Southern Circum-Tyrrhenian region, Italy: GPS Velocities from the Peri-Tyrrhenian Geodetic Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A GPS velocity field for 30 sites of the Peri-Tyrrhenian Geodetic Array distributed around the southern Tyrrhenian basin indicates differential motion between Sardinia, Sicily, and southern Italy. The GPS sites are located in bedrock and were occupied in 1995, 1997, and 2000 for 18 to 24 hours during each campaign. The GPS data were processed with BERNESE (4.2) in the ITRF97 realization using the continuous GPS sites at Matera (MATE) in southern Italy, Noto (NOTO) in Sicily, and Cagliari (CAGL) in Sardinia for fiducial reference. In a reference frame fixed on Sardinia, which has a velocity consistent with Eurasia, both Sicily and southern Italy show N to NW motion of 5-10 mm/yr. Differential NW-SE convergence of 5-8 mm/yr between Sardinia and Sicily is consistent with thrust earthquake focal-mechanisms along the southern Tyrrhenian margin. In a southern Italy fixed reference frame, shortening in the Apulian foreland is accompanied by NE-SW extension at 6-8 mm/yr along the Tyrrhenian margin, consistent with contractional and extensional earthquake focal-mechanisms. In a fixed Sicily reference frame, southern Italy moves S to SE at 4-6 mm/yr. NE-SW extension along the eastern margin of the Tyrrhenian Sea is accompanied by net N-S shortening across the basin. Sicily and southern Italy have velocities inconsistent both with Eurasia and Africa suggesting active displacement of the Adriatic microplate. Differential motion between Sicily and southern Italy indicate non-rigid behavior and internal deformation within Adria. The SE-directed late Miocene to recent migration of active oceanic seafloor formation in the southern Tyrrhenian basin may reflect propagation of crustal flexure and crustal delamination driven by N-S shortening.

Oldow, J. S.; Lewis, D. S.; Campbell, J. K.; Ferranti, L.; D'Argenio, B.; Marsella, E.; Pappone, G.; Aiken, C. L.; Catalano, R.; Carmignani, L.

2001-12-01

288

The Astronomical Orientation of Ancient Greek Temples  

PubMed Central

Despite its appearing to be a simple question to answer, there has been no consensus as to whether or not the alignments of ancient Greek temples reflect astronomical intentions. Here I present the results of a survey of archaic and classical Greek temples in Sicily and compare them with temples in Greece. Using a binomial test I show strong evidence that there is a preference for solar orientations. I then speculate that differences in alignment patterns between Sicily and Greece reflect differing pressures in the expression of ethnic identity.

Salt, Alun M.

2009-01-01

289

The astronomical orientation of ancient Greek temples.  

PubMed

Despite its appearing to be a simple question to answer, there has been no consensus as to whether or not the alignments of ancient Greek temples reflect astronomical intentions. Here I present the results of a survey of archaic and classical Greek temples in Sicily and compare them with temples in Greece. Using a binomial test I show strong evidence that there is a preference for solar orientations. I then speculate that differences in alignment patterns between Sicily and Greece reflect differing pressures in the expression of ethnic identity. PMID:19936239

Salt, Alun M

2009-11-19

290

Constraints on the Petrogenesis of Historical Mount Etna Basalts from MELTS Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mount Etna, Sicily has been erupting since approximately 500 ka and it remains one of the most active volcanoes on Earth. Prehistoric eruptive products are tholeiitic, transitional, and alkalic, and the historical eruptive products continue on an alkaline trend. Historical products, defined as those that correspond with an anthropological record, are trachy-basalts and trachy-andesites with a phenocryst assemblage of olivine

M. N. Moses; W. A. Bohrson

2008-01-01

291

NCI Funded Research Portfolio - ZIA CP010214-10077 Detail  

Cancer.gov

Case-control studies of classical KS in Sicily, Rome and Naples. The Branch completed a case-control study (KCC) that revealed significant associations of classical KS with history of asthma, use of topical corticosteroid medications, infrequent bathing, and especially non-smoking.

292

Estimation of the magmatic gas and heat flux through the Etnean volcanic aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Etna volcano, Italy, hosts one of the major groundwater systems of the island of Sicily. Waters circulate within highly permeable fractured, mainly hawaiitic, volcanic rocks. Aquifers are limited downwards by the underlying impermeable sedimentary terrains. Thickness of the volcanic rocks generally does not exceed some 300 m, preventing the waters to reach great depths. This is faced by short travel

Walter D'Alessandro

2010-01-01

293

Thermochemical reactions of sedimentary rocks from Mt. Etna volcano: implications for flank instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In volcanic regions, the mechanical, physical and chemical properties of rocks under high temperature and pressure, are crucial for the accurate modelling of routinely monitored data (e.g. ground deformation, seismicity, gas emission) and the calibration of damage-mechanics criteria for the weakening of volcanic edifices. Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy) is the largest volcano in Europe, and one of the most active

Sergio Vinciguerra; Silvio Mollo; Gianluca Iezzi; Piergiorgio Scarlato; Michael J. Heap; Donald Dingwell

2010-01-01

294

Perspectives on the contribution of Arabs and Muslims to geography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fact that Arab and Muslim geographers had contributed in a substantial way to geographical thought is well-recognized by many scholars of international standing including orientalists. It has now also been proved beyond any doubt that Muslim geographic thought was transmitted through Spain (Andalusia), Italy and Sicily during the Middle Ages to Europe. The Muslims had more advanced culture than

El-Sayed El-Bushra; M. M. Muhammadain

1992-01-01

295

Microevolution in the sicilian shrew crocidura sicula (Mammalia, Soricidae) tested by RAPD?PCR fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation in samples of the endemic Crocidura sicula living in Sicily and in two surrounding small islands, Marettimo and Ustica, was analysed by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA fingerprinting (RAPD) and compared to morphometrics and external phenotypes. Molecular variation in the random sample of 99 DNA fragments of the Ustica shrews, showing.a melanic fur and a size?shape variation in skull

Maurizio Sarà; Cinzia Aiuto; Goffredo Cognetti

1997-01-01

296

Biological effect of Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) waste matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we studied in rat the diuretic activity of Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) waste matter. The cladodes, flowers and non commerciable fruits were collected in S. Cono (CT, Sicily) cultivation. Acute and chronic diuretic activity of 15% infusion of cladodes, flowers and fruits were assayed. Natriuresis, kaliuresis and the activity on fructose-induced hyperuricemia was also studied.

E. M Galati; M. M Tripodo; A Trovato; N Miceli; M. T Monforte

2002-01-01

297

Screening the essential oil composition of wild Sicilian fennel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-six samples of wild fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) have been collected in different localities of Sicily and analysed for their content in seed essential oils. The GC-FID-MS analyses allowed identifying 78 compounds, representing more than 98% of the oils. Phenylpropanoids are the most highly represented components – 55 samples show estragole as the main compound ranging between 34 and 89%,

Edoardo M. Napoli; Giusy Curcuruto; Giuseppe Ruberto

2010-01-01

298

Deep and intermediate water in the western Mediterranean under the influence of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The well known changes in the deep thermohaline circulation of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, the so-called Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT), which modified the outflow characteristics through the Sicily Strait, led to significant changes in the western Mediterranean Sea since the early 90's. In spring 2005 an oceanographic survey, carried out in the central part of the western basin, showed the

K. Schröder; G. P. Gasparini; M. Tangherlini; M. Astraldi

2006-01-01

299

Influence of dyke geometry on the dynamics of magma flow and associated ground displacement and seismic signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting underground magma movement in dykes is of primary importance for the evaluation of the short term hazard at active volcanoes, especially those characterized by frequent eccentric eruptions like Mount Etna (Sicily), Kilauea and Mauna Loa (Hawaii), Nyamulagira and Nyiragongo (D.R.C.), Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion), and many others in the world. Fluid motion is often accompanied by distinctive low

C. P. Montagna; A. Longo; M. Vassalli; P. Papale; G. Saccorotti; G. O'Brien; C. Bean

2009-01-01

300

PREFACE: International Conference on Optics of Excitons in Confined Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OECS11 (International Conference on Optics of Excitons in Confined Systems) was the eleventh of a very successful series of conferences that started in 1987 in Rome (Italy). Afterwards the conference was held at Naxos (Sicily, Italy, 1991), Montpellier (France, 1993), Cortona (Italy, 1995), Göttingen (Germany, 1997), Ascona (Switzerland, 1999), Montpellier (France, 2001), Lecce (Italy, 2003), Southampton (UK, 2005) and

Luis Viña; Carlos Tejedor; José M. Calleja

2010-01-01

301

Review of Inge Nielsen, Cultic Theatres and Ritual Drama in American Journal of Archaeology, on-line reviews, Vol. 111.1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nielsen has done us a great service by collecting the considerable evidence for cultic performance spaces in Egypt, Mesopotamia, Syria, Phoenicia, Asia Minor, Crete, Greece, Sicily, and Italy. A table (340–41) gives an index of the 58 bestpreserved theaters, but dozens of others are discussed as well. Although some of the theaters could also have been used for “secular” literary

Rothwell Kenneth S Jr

2007-01-01

302

Egg banks in hypersaline lakes of the South-East Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyst banks of 6 coastal hypersaline lakes of South-East Europe have been investigated. The study concerned the bottom sediments of Khersonesskoe and Koyashskoe lakes in the Crimea (Ukraine), Nartë saltworks (Albania), Vecchia Salina at Torre Colimena (Apulia, Italy), Pantano Grande and Pantano Roveto at Vendicari (Sicily, Italy). A total of 19 cyst types were recognised. The cyst banks of

Salvatore Moscatello; Genuario Belmonte

2009-01-01

303

Hare populations in Europe: intra and interspecific analysis of mtDNA variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report results of a project aimed at analysing genetic diversification in Lepus corsicanus (italian hare), carried out at the INFS as part of an ongoing project on the biology of L. corsicanus. Samples of Italian hare were collected in different localities in central-southern Italy and Sicily. Moreover samples of L. europaeus (brown hare), as well as other species of

Massimo Pierpaoli; Francesco Riga; Valter Trocchi; Ettore Randi

2003-01-01

304

Thermal radiance observations of an active lava flow during the June 1984 eruption of Mount Etna  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal budget of an active lava flow observed on 20 June 1984 from the Southeast crater of Mount Etna, Sicily, Italy, was analyzed from data taken by the Landsat Thematic Mapper. The Thematic Mapper images constitute one of the few satellite data sets of sufficient spatial and spectral resolution to allow calibrated measurements on the distribution and intensity of

David C. Pieri; Lori S. Glaze; Michael J. Abrams

1990-01-01

305

Analisi economico-gestionale del comparto vinicolo siciliano attraverso indici di bilancio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sicily is the fourth biggest wine producing region in Italy; a total vineyard area of 125,000 hectares produces an annual average of around 6 million hectolitres. However, in recent years, the international economic crisis has also hit the island’s economy, slowing down the economic performance of the whole regional wine industry. The aim of this paper is to analyse the

Gaetano Chinnici; Biagio Pecorino; Salvatore Bracco; Mario DAmico

2011-01-01

306

Assessing RAT (Robust AVHRR Techniques) performances for volcanic ash cloud detection and monitoring in near real-time: The 2002 eruption of Mt. Etna (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performances of the recently proposed RAT (Robust AVHRR Techniques) approach in detecting and monitoring eruptive ash clouds by satellite have been assessed. The Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy) eruption of 2002, producing intense ash emissions has been used as a study case. Potentialities and limitations of two different RAT configuration schemes (i.e. two and three channel based) have been investigated, both

C. Filizzola; T. Lacava; F. Marchese; N. Pergola; I. Scaffidi; V. Tramutoli

2007-01-01

307

Heredity and Environment in the Development of Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intelligence tests were administered to a stratified sample of 4058 school children from Palermo, Sicily. I.Q. scores were found to be positively correlated with socioeconomic status and negatively related to family size. As birth order increased, mental development decreased. Implications for future research were discussed. (EH)

Migliorino, Giuseppe

1974-01-01

308

Lava-flow hazard on the SE flank of Mt. Etna (Southern Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for mapping lava-flow hazard on the SE flank of Mt. Etna (Sicily, Southern Italy) by applying the Cellular Automata model SCIARA-fv is described, together with employed techniques of calibration and validation through a parallel Genetic Algorithm. The study area is partly urbanised; it has repeatedly been affected by lava flows from flank eruptions in historical time, and shows

G. M. Crisci; G. Iovine; S. Di Gregorio; V. Lupiano

2008-01-01

309

Shifting styles of basaltic explosive activity during the 2002–03 eruption of Mt. Etna, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2002–03 flank eruption of Etna was characterized by two months of explosive activity that produced copious ash fallout, constituting a major source of hazard and damage over all eastern Sicily. Most of the tephra were erupted from vents at 2750 and 2800 m elevation on the S flank of the volcano, where different eruptive styles alternated. The dominant style of

Daniele Andronico; Antonio Cristaldi; Paola Del Carlo; Jacopo Taddeucci

2009-01-01

310

Dynamic deformation of Etna volcano observed by satellite radar interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite radar interferometry of Mt. Etna volcano, Sicily, Italy, reveals a sequence of deformation characterized by deflation during the end of the 1993 eruption, inflation from 1993-1995 with an increase in the inflation rate immediately before its resumed eruptive activity in late 1995. This was followed by very low deformation levels during the following year. The source of the deformation

Riccardo Lanari; Paul Lundgren; Eugenio Sansosti

1998-01-01

311

Water quality and ecological status of the Alcantara River estuary (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alcantara River estuary was studied to obtain the first data on both water quality and ecological status of the only River Park in Sicily (Italy). Water samples were seasonally collected from three selected stations in the estuarine area and from one station at the mouth of the estuary in the marine coastal zone. Picoplankton and picophytoplankton counts were among

Concetta Gugliandolo; Valeria Lentini; Maria T. Fera; Erminia La Camera; Teresa L. Maugeri

312

A decision support system for urban waste management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a decision support system, for urban waste management in a regional area, to be used for evaluating general policies for service organisation of the collection and for identifying areas suitable for locating waste treatment and disposal plants. The Decision Support System (DSS) is applied to a selected provinces in Sicily. The decision support system allows the generation

P. Haastrup; V. Maniezzo; M. Mattarelli; F. Mazzeo Rinaldi; I. Mendes; M. Paruccini

1998-01-01

313

C CE ER RV VU US S E ELLA AP PH HU US S S SIIC CIILLIIA AE E FFRROOM M PPLLE EIISSTTOOCCE ENNEE LLA ACCUUSSTTRRIINNEE DDEEPPOOSSIITTSS OOFF AACCQQUUEEDDOOLLCCII ((NNOORRTTHH--E EAASSTTEERRNN SSIICCIILLYY,, IITTA ALLY Y)) A AN ND D IITTS S TTAAPPHHOONNOOMMIICC SSIIGGNNIIFFIICCAANNCCEE  

Microsoft Academic Search

With 6 figures and 12 tables AAbbssttrraacctt Syste matic excavations carried out on the Pleistocene lacustrine deposits of Acquedolci (North-Eastern Sicily, Italy) yelded a very rich fossil vertebrate assemblage, containing thousands of remains of Hippopotamus pentlandi, the endemic hippo of the Siculo-Maltese archipelago, associated with remains of Cervus elaphus siciliae and scarce remains of Ursus cf. arctos, Canis lupus, Testudo

Gabriella Mangano

314

Sexual and asexual reproduction in two species of Tethya (Porifera: Demospongiae) from a Mediterranean coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sexual and asexual phases of reproductive cycles of two sponges, Tethya citrina and T. aurantium, living sympatrically in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Stagnone di Marsala, NW Sicily) were studied from samples collected over an 18-mo period. Both species are oviparous and gonochoric. They have a summer, partially overlapping, period of oocyte production, although T. citrina appear to mature earlier.

G. Corriero; M. Sarfi; P. Vaccaro

1996-01-01

315

On-site investigation on the remains of the Cathedral of Noto  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cathedral of Noto was damaged after the earthquake that hit Sicily in 1990. Soon after the event, cracks appeared on the domes of the lateral naves, and also on the pillars. In 1992 some provisional work had been carried out in view of confining the pillars of the central nave that were damaged. Some pictures made after the earthquake

L Binda; C Tiraboschi; G Baronio

2003-01-01

316

History, space, and power: theoretical and methodological problems in the research on areas at (industrial) risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article discusses methods and theoretical problems in the research on areas at industrial risk, using examples and problems deriving from studies conducted in Sicily, as well as the review of a number of contemporary studies. The author argues that much of the contemporary research on areas at risk focuses on the ‘elites’ (environmental movements, boards of citizens, and

Pietro Saitta

2011-01-01

317

Geodynamic evolution of the Apenninic-Maghrebian orogen based on geological and geophysical data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The orogenic belt of the central Mediterranean, which extends from northern Africa to the southern Apennines across Sicily and the Calabrian Arc (Apenninic-Maghrebian Orogen), is a orocline located between a new oceanic area, the Tyrrhenian Basin and a foreland structural domain. The latter is represented by an oceanic area, the Ionian Basin, bounded by two continental blocks, the Apulia to

F. Lentini; P. Guarnieri; S. Carbone; A. di Stefano

2003-01-01

318

Introduction to Papers from the Conference Dionysius' Ear: Trauma, Tragedy, and Psychoanalytic Listening  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I describe the origin and spirit of the meeting of about 200 European, Israeli, and American psychoanalysts for a week in Siracusa, Sicily, to consider our work as embedded in our Greco-Roman cultural roots while we reveled, Dionysius-like, in that culture in many forms: drama, archeology, food, wine, and music. Organized by five institutes and hosted by

Donna M. Orange

2006-01-01

319

Patricia A. Rosenmeyer - From Syracuse to Rome: The Travails of Silanion's Sappho - Transactions of the American Philological Association 137:2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cicero's Verrine Orations offer a glimpse into the complex political posturings surrounding the reception of Greek art by Roman audiences. Cicero downplays his own (legitimate) collecting habits, and accuses Gaius Verres, the corrupt governor of Sicily from 73–71 bce, of abusing his political office by looting the island's art treasures. One example that particularly disturbs Cicero is the theft of

Patricia Rosenmeyer

2007-01-01

320

I BENI CULTURALI EBRAICI IN SICILIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

On June 8th, 2005 a memorandum of understanding was signed between the regional government of Sicily and the Union of Italian Jewish Communities (UCEI). A major article of the memorandum provides for cooperation between the two official bodies in the field of cataloguing and protecting Jewish heritage as well as drafting an itinerary for visiting Jewish sites throughout the island.

Nicolò Bucaria

2004-01-01

321

Case study: Inorganic pollutants associated with particulate matter from an area near a petrochemical plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The area of Gela (Sicily, Italy) contains one of the largest petroleum refineries in Europe and also has several oil fields both on land and offshore. This paper discusses how the oil refinery and traffic-related air pollution affect the chemical composition of airborne particulate matter over the town of Gela, using pine needles and urban road dust as the means

M. L. Bosco; D. Varrica; G. Dongarra

2005-01-01

322

Distribution of bioluminescent organisms in the Mediterranean Sea and predicted effects on a deep-sea neutrino telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The density of bioluminescent organisms was measured using an ISIT camera profiler in the eastern and western Mediterranean, from the subsurface layer to the seafloor; in the Ligurian, Tyrrhenian, Ionian, Adriatic Seas and the Strait of Sicily, including neutrino telescope sites at ANTARES and NESTOR. A west-east gradient in the density of bioluminescent animals in deep water (1500-2500 m) was

Jessica Craig; Alan J. Jamieson; Amandine Heger; Imants G. Priede

2009-01-01

323

The hurricane-like Mediterranean cyclone of January 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a hurricane-like vortex over the Mediterranean Sea was studied using (mainly) the UK Met. Office Unified Model. The Mediterranean cyclone formed in the morning of 15 January 1995 over the sea between Greece and Sicily. Strong convection was observed prior to its genesis. During the longest part of the cyclone's lifetime, strong surface fluxes and, as a

Ioannis Pytharoulis; George Craig; Susan Ballard

2000-01-01

324

Sound Channel Axis in the Western Mediterranean.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of the subsurface current on the sound velocity field in the western Mediterranean was investigated in the summer of 1970. This water movement carries warm waters from the Strait of Sicily to the Strait of Gibraltar at depths below the sound ch...

E. J. Katz

1971-01-01

325

Estimation of wind velocity over a complex terrain using the Generalized Mapping Regressor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind energy evaluation is an important goal in the conversion of energy systems to more environmentally friendly solutions. In this paper, we present a novel approach to wind speed spatial estimation on the isle of Sicily (Italy): an incremental self-organizing neural network (Generalized Mapping Regressor – GMR) is coupled with exploratory data analysis techniques in order to obtain a map

M. Beccali; G. Cirrincione; A. Marvuglia; C. Serporta

2010-01-01

326

Antioxidant activity and phenolic profile of pistachio ( Pistacia vera L., variety Bronte) seeds and skins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.; Anacardiaceae) is native of aride zones of Central and West Asia and distributed throughout the Mediterranean basin. In Italy, a pistachio cultivar of high quality is typical of Bronte (Sicily), an area around the Etna volcano, where the lava land and climate allow the production of a nut with intense green colour and aromatic taste, very

Antonio Tomaino; Maria Martorana; Teresita Arcoraci; Domenico Monteleone; Corrado Giovinazzo; Antonella Saija

2010-01-01

327

The use of tree-rings and foliage as an archive of volcanogenic cation deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree cores (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio) and leaves (Castanea sativa) from the flanks of Mount Etna, Sicily were analysed by ICP-MS to investigate whether volcanogenic cations within plant material provide an archive of a volcano's temporal and spatial depositional influence. There is significant compositional variability both within and between trees, but no systematic dendrochemical correlation with periods of effusive, explosive

Sebastian F. L. Watt; David M. Pyle; Tamsin A. Mather; Jason A. Day; Alessandro Aiuppa

2007-01-01

328

Late Miocene magnetostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and cyclostratigraphy in the Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new chronology for the late Miocene of the Mediterranean is presented by combining magnetostratigraphic, biostratigraphic (planktonic foraminifera and dinoflagellates) and cyclo-stratigraphic data. Long and continuous upper Miocene sections on Gavdos (Metochia section) and Sicily (Gibliscemi section) display cyclic alternations of homogeneous marls and sapropels and can be correlated on the basis of their distinct cyclic patterns. The Metochia section

W. Krijgsman; F. J. Hilgen; C. G. Langereis; A. Santarelli; W. J. Zachariasse

1995-01-01

329

Naval Recruitment and Basque Resistance in Early Modern Times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recruiting sailors posed a problem for all seafaring nations during the age of sail, and the pro- blem was particularly acute in Spain. In addition to periodic warfare in Europe, the government of Spain had to maintain contact with possessions in North Africa and the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily, as well as with colonies overseas — from 1492 in

Carla Rahn Phillips

330

Cruise tourism externalities and residents' support: A generalized ordered logit analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates residents' preferences towards cruise tourism investment in their home port. The research uses data collected during the peak cruise season in 2011 at Messina, a port of call in Sicily, Italy. A generalized ordered logit analysis is run to analyse what factors influence the residents' preferences towards investment in cruise tourism. Positive and negative externalities produced by

Juan Gabriel Brida; Giacomo Del Chiappa; Marta Meleddu; Manuela Pulina

2012-01-01

331

Influence of genotype, harvest time and plant part on polyphenolic composition of globe artichoke [ Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus (L.) Fiori  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globe artichoke is an ancient herbaceous plant native to the Mediterranean Basin. The edible part of the plant (head) is particularly rich in polyphenols, whose therapeutic properties are well documented. A field experiment was conducted in Sicily (south Italy) to examine the influence of genotype and harvest time on the polyphenol content and profile of different head parts. The concentrations

Sara Lombardo; Gaetano Pandino; Giovanni Mauromicale; Matthias Knödler; Reinhold Carle; Andreas Schieber

2010-01-01

332

[Proceedings of the symposium 'Molluscan Palaeontology' : 11th International Malacological Congress, Siena (Italy) 30th August - 5th September 1992 \\/ A.W. Janssen and R. Janssen (editors)]: Early rissoid gastropods from the Jurassic of Italy: the meaning of first appearances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of Jurassic outcrops from Veneto, Central Italy and Sicily improved our knowledge on the gastropods of these areas, characterised by the presence, aside of archaic forms, of some modern ones. Noteworthy is the record from those outcrops of several species, which can be referred to the family Rissoidae (Rissooidea). Formerly, earliest rissoid records were only known from European outcrops

M. A. Conti; S. Monari; M. Oliviero

1992-01-01

333

The Astronomical Orientation of Ancient Greek Temples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its appearing to be a simple question to answer, there has been no consensus as to whether or not the alignments of ancient Greek temples reflect astronomical intentions. Here I present the results of a survey of archaic and classical Greek temples in Sicily and compare them with temples in Greece. Using a binomial test I show strong evidence

Alun M. Salt

2009-01-01

334

An analysis of astronomical alignments of Greek Sicilian Temples  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the eighth century BC something peculiar seems to happen on Sicily. The archaeological record starts to show the arrival of Greek material culture. By the fifth century BC the island is effectively 'Hellenised' and ancient historians record the political and military action of poleis, Greek city-states. Each polis has traditionally been seen as the offshoot of a city elsewhere.

Alun Salt

2010-01-01

335

Nutrients in the Mediterranean Sea, mass balance and statistical analysis of concentrations with respect to environmental change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data obtained from the Algero–Provençal basin (Western Mediterranean) in 1994 illustrates the homogeneity of phosphate, nitrate and silicate concentrations in deep-water throughout this basin, comparable to temperature and salinity homogeneity. Nutrient mass balances across the straits of Gibraltar and Sicily enable us to estimate new production (NP) and f ratio (new vs. total production) in the inner basins. Rather

J. P Béthoux; P Morin; C Chaumery; O Connan; B Gentili; D Ruiz-Pino

1998-01-01

336

Tests on the effectiveness of kaolin and copper hydroxide in the control of Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repellent and antiovipositional products in the control of Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) finds a great interest in organic farming, because of the lack of effective products able to kill the olive fly preimmaginal stages. In 2003 in Castelvetrano (Trapani province, Sicily), tests on the effectiveness of Surround WP, a product containing 95% of kaolin, were carried out on three table olive

Virgilio Caleca; Roberto Rizzo

337

Cytogenetic evaluation of extractable agents from airborne particulate matter generated in the city of Catania (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to document cytogenetic damage associated with air pollution and, possibly, with health effects in the city of Catania, Sicily (Italy), we analyzed the induction of chromosomal aberrations by extractable agents from airborne particulate matter in a Chinese hamster epithelial liver (CHEL) cells. These cells retain their metabolic competence to activate different classes of promutagens\\/procarcinogens into biologically active metabolites.

Salvatore Motta; Concetta Federico; Salvatore Saccone; Vito Librando; Pasquale Mosesso

2004-01-01

338

Methods of fluid dynamics in nuclear physics catania, Italy, April 9-11, 1984 an interdisciplinary workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately thirty physicists and mathematicians gathered for this informal workshop in Catania, Sicily, a city nestled between Mount Etna to the west and the Riviera of the Cyclops to the east (where Ulysses, according to tradition, had his encounter with the one-eyed giant). The workshop was organized jointly by the physics and mathematics departments of the Univeristy of Catania, the

Paul F. Zweifel

1984-01-01

339

Rules of Address in Secondary Schools in Catania: Linguistic Variation and Its Social/Cultural Value.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on research investigating nonreciprocity of address to female teachers in secondary schools in Catania, Sicily, where male teachers were always addressed with their academic, professional titles (which have great, overt prestige in southern Italy) and women were frequently addressed as "signora" or "signorina" in the vocative form.…

Consoli, Eleonora

1987-01-01

340

Diffuse and visible emission of CO2 from Etna volcano, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mount Etna in Sicily (973 km2), the most active European volcano, is known as one of the largest contributors of magmatic CO2 released to the atmosphere. Its contribution represents about 15% of the global CO2 emission from subaerial volcanoes. The CO2 emission from Mt. Etna has been measured usually from the volcanic plumes during and between the occurrence of eruptions,

G. Melian Rodriguez; P. A. Hernandez Perez; F. Sortino; S. Giammanco; J. Barrancos; M. Lopez; J. Maldonado; R. Hernandez; N. Perez

2009-01-01

341

Lava Invasion Susceptibility Hazard Mapping Through Cellular Automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work deals with a new methodology for the definition of volcanic susceptibly hazard maps through Cellular Automata and Genetic Algorithms. Specifically, the paper describes the proposed approach and presents the first results to the South­Eastern flank of Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy). In particular, resulting hazard maps are characterized by a high degree of detail and allow for a punctual

Donato D’Ambrosio; Rocco Rongo; William Spataro; Maria Vittoria Avolio; Valeria Lupiano

2006-01-01

342

Stochastic gradient boosting classification trees for forest fuel types mapping through airborne laser scanning and IRS LISS-III imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fuel types prediction in two test areas in Sicily (Italy).Predictors from airborne laser scanning (ALS) and IRS LISS-III optical multispectral data.Three classification and regression trees (CART) were tested.The results demonstrated the superiority of the stochastic gradient boosting method.

Chirici, G.; Scotti, R.; Montaghi, A.; Barbati, A.; Cartisano, R.; Lopez, G.; Marchetti, M.; McRoberts, R. E.; Olsson, H.; Corona, P.

2013-12-01

343

The fast life of a dwarfed giant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first half of the 1960s, a rich paleontological site was discovered at Spinagallo caves (Eastern Sicily, Southern Italy). A very abundant fossil population (at least 104 specimens) of the dwarf elephant Elephas falconeri, the smallest elephant that ever lived, was recovered. We computed the survivorship curve for this fossil population in order to investigate both the great juvenile

Pasquale Raia; Carmela Barbera; Maurizio Conte

2003-01-01

344

Antiulcer activity of Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae): ultrastructural study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Sicily folk medicine, Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. cladodes are used for the treatment of gastric ulcer. We studied the effect of administration of lyophilized cladodes on experimental ethanol-induced ulcer in rat. In this paper, we report the ultrastructural observations of gastric mucosa. The ultrastructural changes were observed by trasmission electronic microscopy (TEM) confirming the protective effect exercised by

E. M Galati; M. T Monforte; M. M Tripodo; A d'Aquino; M. R Mondello

2001-01-01

345

Applying and validating the PTVA-3 Model at the Aeolian Islands, Italy: assessment of the vulnerability of buildings to tsunami  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volcanic archipelago of the Aeolian Islands (Sicily, Italy) is included in the UNESCO World Heritage list and it is visited by more than 200.000 tourists per year. However, because of its geological characteristics, the risk related to the volcanic and seismic activity is particularly high. Since 1916 the archipelago has been hit by 8 local tsunamis (Maramai et al.,

Filippo Dall'Osso; Alessandra Maramai; Laura Graziani; Beatriz Brizuela; Alessandra Cavalletti; Marco Gonella; Stefano Tinti

2010-01-01

346

MICROZONATION STUDY FOR AN INDUSTRIAL SITE IN SOUTHERN ITALY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microzonation study for an industrial area located in Sicily (southern Italy) has been carried out through an integrated approach using GIS and modelling tools for subsurface geology, together with procedures for soil response estimation. The seismic input was provided by an updated seismic hazard analysis aimed at better defining and characterizing the seismogenic sources active in the region. The

E. Fiorini; M. Onida; B. Borzi; F. Pacor; L. Luzi; C. Meletti; V. D'Amico; S. Marzorati

347

The 1st October 2009 Messina debris flows: first analysis for a susceptibility model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the evening of the 1st of October 2009, a sector of the Messina district (Sicily, Italy) was struck by a number of debris flows, triggered by extraordinary intense rainfall that, from 2 pm to 10 pm, discharged an amount of more than 160 mm and that followed the ones of September 23-24 (more than 200 mm in 10 hours).

Valerio Agnesi; Chiara Cappadonia; Christian Conoscenti; Dario Costanzo; Paolo Pino; Claudio Puglisi; Edoardo Rotigliano

2010-01-01

348

Assessment of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in young adolescents following implementation of smoke-free policy in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated acute and chronic exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in a cohort of young adolescents using urinary cotinine and hair nicotine testing after recent implementation of Italian smoke free legislation.Study subjects were 372 Italian young adolescents, between 10 and 16 years of age from the principal city of Sicily, Palermo. Urine and hair samples were collected between November

M. Pellegrini; M. C. Rotolo; S. La Grutta; F. Cibella; O. Garcia-Algar; A. Bacosi; G. Cuttitta; R. Pacifici; S. Pichini

2010-01-01

349

Operation JOSS, Offensive, Deliberate Assault, Amphibious, 10-16 July 1943.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 3rd Infantry Division reinforced with the 3rd Ranger Battalion and CCA, 2nd Armored Division, conducted an amphibious assault to capture the port city of Licata, Sicily, and an adjoining airfield on 10 July 1943. This action was part of a larger campa...

R. M. Colbert J. W. Bowab Z. E. Cook D. L. Dailey J. A. DeMoney

1984-01-01

350

Intraspecific variation and evolutionary trends in Capparis spinosa L. (Capparaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?In order to investigate the variability of the polymorphic Capparis spinosa L., a comparative study was carried out in Sicily on subsp. spinosa and subsp. rupestris. Autecology, phenology, quantitative morphology, plant architecture and leaf development of several populations were examined.\\u000a These data reveal a parapatric distribution of the two subspecies and support their present taxonomic treatment. Subsp. spinosa is widespread

S. Fici

2001-01-01

351

Stuck to the shore? Investigating prehistoric hunter-gatherer subsistence, mobility and territoriality in a Mediterranean coastal landscape through isotope analyses on marine mollusc shell carbonates and human bone collagen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsistence and mobility strategies of hunter-gatherers in the Mediterranean Basin during the transition from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene have been the object of few studies, even though its karst coastal regions have high densities of prehistoric sites. One such area is the territory of the Conca d’Oro in NW Sicily, which has numerous sites with faunal remains

M. A. Mannino; K. D. Thomas; M. J. Leng; R. Di Salvo; M. P. Richards

2011-01-01

352

Size-related trophodynamic changes in three target fish species recovering from intensive trawling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consequences for food-web structure of protecting marine communities from trawling have been little explored. We investigated the Gulf of Castellammare, northwest Sicily, where a trawl ban initiated in 1989 has led to great increases in the biomass of some target species. Using stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, our objectives were to see if mean trophic level and omnivory

F. Badalamenti; G. D'Anna; J. Pinnegar; N. Polunin

2002-01-01

353

Diffuse volcanic emissions of carbon dioxide from Vulcano Island, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

RECENT investigations on Mount Etna (Sicily)1-3 have revealed that volcanoes may release abundant carbon dioxide not only from their active craters, but also from their flanks, as diffuse soil emanations. Here we present analyses of soil gases and air in water wells on Vulcano Island which provide further evidence of such lateral degassing. Nearly pure carbon dioxide, enriched in helium

J. C. Baubron; P. Allard; J. P. Toutain

1990-01-01

354

Criteria for water recycling and reuse in the Mediterranean countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though rapid changes are likely to occur, until recently most Mediterranean countries had neither water reuse regulations nor guidelines. Countries where reuse is developing within an organized institutional setting have elaborated and implemented their own regulations or guidelines. Some countries (France, Tunisia) and regions (Andalusia and Balearic Islands in Spain and Sicily in Italy) have adopted a set of water

F. Brissaud

2008-01-01

355

Politically Motivated Opposition to War1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever since Thucydides suggested that the Athenian expedition to conquer Sicily in 415 BC was driven in part by Alcibiades' attempt to use a foreign victory to promote his own political fortunes (Thucydides 1996:Book VI), observers have noted at- tempts by political elites to bolster their domestic positions through adventurous foreign policies and wars. Shakespeare suggested to statesmen that ''Be

Jack S. Levy; William F. Mabe

2004-01-01

356

Art and Accounting History: The Teatro San Carlo of Naples, 1737–1786  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situated in the centre of Naples, the Teatro San Carlo (TSC) was founded in 1737 by the Bourbon Crown during the Reign of the Two Sicilies (one of the several states into which Italy was divided in the eighteenth century), The theatre immediately became an object of admiration and was soon held to be without equal for the perfection of

Valerio Antonelli; Raffaele Dalessio; Giuseppe Iuliano

2007-01-01

357

Screening the essential oil composition of wild Sicilian oregano  

Microsoft Academic Search

The qualitative and quantitative composition of the essential oils obtained from wild Sicilian oregano plants has been investigated. Samples were collected from three areas of Sicily namely Val Mazara (M), Val di Noto (N) and Val Demona (D). These areas are based on historical territorial subdivision. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID-MS. Seventy eight compounds

Edoardo M. Napoli; Giusy Curcuruto; Giuseppe Ruberto

2009-01-01

358

Calcareous nannofossil assemblages from the Central Mediterranean Sea over the last four centuries: the impact of the little ice age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present decadal-scale calcareous nannofossil data from four short cores (Station 272, 37° 17' N, 12° 48' E, 226 m depth; St 342, 36° 42' N, 13° 55' E, 858.2 m depth; St 407, 36° 23' N, 14° 27' E, 345.4 m depth; C90-1M, 40° 36' N, 14° 42' E, 103.4 m depth) recovered in the central Mediterranean Sea (northern Sicily Channel and Tyrrhenian Sea), which, on the basis of 210Pb activity span the last 200-350 years. Assemblages are dominated by placoliths, mostly Emiliania huxleyi, while, at least in the Sicily Channel sediments, Florisphaera profunda was an important part of the coccolithophore community. The paleoenvironmental reconstruction, based on ecological preference of species and groups, suggests that the Tyrrhenian core C90-1M maintained higher productivity levels over recent centuries, with respect to the Sicily Channel sites, possibly because of more pronounced winter phytoplankton blooms, in agreement with modern primary productivity variations over the last ten years. The lowermost part of the record of one of the cores from the Sicily Channel, Station 407, which extends down to 1650 AD, is characterized by drastic changes in productivity. Specifically, below 1850 AD, the decrease in abundance of F. profunda and the increase of placoliths, suggest increased productivity. The chronology of this change is related to the main phase of the Little Ice Age, which might have impacted the hydrography of the southern coast of Sicily and promoted vertical mixing in the water column. The comparison with climatic forcings points out the importance of stronger and prolonged northerlies, together with decreased solar irradiance. The identification of the LIA in the northern Sicily Channel cover the Bond cycle BO that was missing in a previous study of Holocene climatic anomalies in the Sicily Channel. Finally, we suggest that major abundance changes in reworked nannofossil specimens, recorded in the Tyrrhenian core C90-1M, might be linked to variations in terrigenous supply from land. Paradoxically, higher amounts of reworking correspond to dry periods. We argue that soil and rock vulnerability is enhanced during times of prolonged drought and vegetation cover loss.

Incarbona, A.; Ziveri, P.; di Stefano, E.; Lirer, F.; Mortyn, G.; Patti, B.; Pelosi, N.; Sprovieri, M.; Tranchida, G.; Vallefuoco, M.; Albertazzi, S.; Bellucci, L. G.; Bonanno, A.; Bonomo, S.; Censi, P.; Ferraro, L.; Giuliani, S.; Mazzola, S.; Sprovieri, R.

2010-05-01

359

The Pelagian Block (central Mediterranean): Exploration and new opportunities  

SciTech Connect

The Pelagian Block, extending from eastern Tunisia to offshore western Libya and northward to Malta and Sicily, is a complex foreland area structurally active since the Carboniferous, that separates western North Africa from southern Italy. The north (Sicily) and central parts of the Pelagian Block contain Triassic-Lower Jurassic peritidal carbonates with rare evaporites; Middle Jurassic-Eocene pelagic carbonates, and paralic to marine clastics of Oligocene to Pleistocene age, with Messinian evaporites. The Middle Jurassic/Eocene platform to pelagic carbonates of Sicily are gradually replaced southward by basin margin, marine to paralic carbonates and clastics. In eastern Tunisia, these rocks overlie Triassic-Lower Jurasic evaporites. Principal petroleum resources occur offshore SE Sicily, offshore Tunisia and in adjacent Libyan waters. The largest oil fields are Bouri (800 MMB recoverable reserves) and Ashtart (recoverable reserves of 250 MMB). The largest gas field is Miskar (recoverable reserves of 800 BCF). Smaller accumulations are distributed throughout the region. New oil discoveries, ranging in size from 8 MMB to 50 MMB, have recently been made onshore and in the shallow offshore. Proven and potential source beds for hydrocarbons occur in various paleotectonic settings: anoxic lagoons formed in the early continental rifting stages (Triassic/Liassic organic rich units of SE Sicily); subcontinental/paralic coals and shales (Lower Cretaceous of Tunisia); and deeper water anoxic basins (late Mesozoic and Tertiary organic sequences). Additional exploration opportunities are expected in undrilled or sparsely drilled acreage, with traditional plays similar to those tested in the past; or in new plays directed to the exploration of new reservoir objectives.

Zappaterra, E. [Chevron Co., London (United Kingdom)

1995-08-01

360

Geologic setting for hydrocarbons in Tunisia  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocarbon habitats on the Tunisia-Sicily shelf result from the complex interplay of three factors: (1) proximity to a source of terrigenous sediments, (2) eustatic sea level changes resulting in major transgression/regression events, and (3) a varied and ever-changing structural mosaic involving successive transtensional, transpressive, and compressional tectonic phases. The stratigraphy, structure, and petroleum resources of the shelf are linked to the crustal template created during the middle Mesozoic rifting of the Tethyan margin of North Africa. Transtensional stretching and crustal fragmentation forming the Tunisia-Sicily passive margin occurred in the Late Triassic-Jurassic at the juncture of the South Saharan and Gibraltar shear zones, creating a complex array of ridges and furrows and localized pull-apart basins. During the Cretaceous and early Tertiary, the subsident block-faulted shelf was buried beneath a varied stratigraphy ranging from a thin pelagic limestone succession devoid of terrigenous components in Sicily to a considerably thicker neritic Tunisian succession composed of mixed terrigenous and carbonate strata. Differences in stratigraphic character across the shelf relate to the relative position of Sicily and Tunisia between the unstable and subsident Tethyan margin and the stable and emergent Saharn platform. Beginning in the middle Cretaceous, the region experienced localized tectonic instability expressed as transtensional faulting, crustal inversion, salt diapirism, and submarine volcanism. These events profoundly altered bathymetry and facies distribution on the shelf. As the North African continental margin subducted northward beneath the Kabyle-Calabrian accretionary complex in the late Cenozoic, the thin competent carbonate successions of Sicily responded by detaching in a series of southward migrating thrust sheets. The thrusts die out along strike in Tunisia.

Schamel, S. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia (USA))

1990-05-01

361

Descriptive Epidemiology of Human Thyroid Cancer: Experience From a Regional Registry and The "Volcanic Factor"  

PubMed Central

Thyroid cancer (TC), the most common endocrine tumor, has steadily increased worldwide due to the increase of the papillary histotype. The reasons for this spread have not been established. In addition to more sensitive thyroid nodule screening, the effect of environmental factors cannot be excluded. Because high incidences of TC were found in volcanic areas (Hawaii and Iceland), a volcanic environment may play a role in the pathogenesis of TC. In January 2002, the Regional Register for TC was instituted in Sicily. With a population of approximately five million inhabitants with similar genetic and lifestyle features, the coexistence in Sicily of rural, urban, industrial, moderate-to-low iodine intake, and volcanic areas provides a conducive setting for assessing the environmental influences on the etiology of TC. In Sicily, between 2002 and 2004, 1,950 new cases of TC were identified, with an age-standardized rate (world) ASR(w)?=?17.8/105 in females and 3.7/105 in males and a high female/male ratio (4.3:1.0). The incidence of TC was heterogeneous within Sicily. There were 2.3 times more cases in the Catania province (where most of the inhabitants live in the volcanic area of Mt. Etna): ASR(w)?=?31.7/105 in females and 6.4/105 in males vs. 14.1 in females and 3.0 in males in the rest of Sicily. Multivariate analysis documented that residents in the volcanic area of Mt. Etna had a higher risk of TC, compared to the residents in urban, industrial, and iodine deficient areas of Sicily. An abnormally high concentration of several chemicals was found in the drinking water of the Mt. Etna aquifer, which provides water to most of the residents in the Catania province. Our data suggest that environmental carcinogen(s) of volcanic origin may promote papillary TC. Additional analyses, including cancer biological and molecular features, will allow a better understanding of risk factors and etiopathogenetic mechanisms.

Malandrino, Pasqualino; Scollo, Claudia; Marturano, Ilenia; Russo, Marco; Tavarelli, Martina; Attard, Marco; Richiusa, Pierina; Violi, Maria Antonia; Dardanoni, Gabriella; Vigneri, Riccardo; Pellegriti, Gabriella

2013-01-01

362

Distribution of Cd and As in organs and tissues of four marine mammal species stranded along the Italian coasts.  

PubMed

Concentrations of Cd and As were determined in organs and tissues (muscle, heart, kidney, lung and liver) of four cetacean species (Stenella coeruleoalba, Truncatus truncatus, Grampus griseus and Ziphius cavirostris) stranded along the Italian coasts during the period 2000-2009. Significant differences were found between Cd concentrations in the different analysed tissues. Particularly, the kidney shows the highest concentrations of Cd in all analysed specimens, followed by the liver. No systematic or statistically significant difference in As concentrations was found in the analysed tissues. Considerable differences of Cd and As values in samples from different geographical areas (Sicily Channel, Adriatic Sea and Tyrrhenian Sea) were found, with the highest values measured in samples from the Sicily Channel. This basically suggests that anthropogenic and natural sources significantly affect Cd and As content in cetaceans. PMID:22797766

Bellante, Antonio; Sprovieri, Mario; Buscaino, Giuseppa; Buffa, Gaspare; Di Stefano, Vincenzo; Manta, Daniela Salvagio; Barra, Marco; Filiciotto, Francesco; Bonanno, Angelo; Mazzola, Salvatore

2012-07-16

363

Agrometeorology and models for the parasite cycle forecast.  

PubMed

Insects are strongly influenced by meteorological variables in their natural environment. In agriculture, mathematical models have been developed to understand and forecast the cycle of pests based on climate data. By this manner, with the goal of reduce and rationalize plant chemical treatments, agrometeorological models have been realized to estimate the length and starting times of parasites phenological phases. In Sicily a new network of 95 GSM meteorological stations and a specific mathematical model for Aonidiella aurantii are used by Sicilian Agrometeorological Information System (SIAS) for the integrated pest management program of citrus orchards in the Island. As the plants parasites, vector borne diseases are influenced by climate in their appearance and abundance. In lights of the benefits that could derive from a model for the control of Leishmania vectors, SIAS experiences in modelling were used to develop a deductive model for Phlebotomus perniciosus which represents the major vector of human and canine leishmaniasis in Sicily. PMID:16881403

Pasotti, L; Maroli, M; Giannetto, S; Brianti, E

2006-06-01

364

Mantle-derived helium in sedimentary basins of Central Mediterranean: Geologic and tectonic constrains on fluids accumulation and migration.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geodynamics of the central Mediterranean is characterized by the interaction between the European plate and the African one. In this setting Sicily is a sector of the Appenine-Maghrebide accretionary prism, which is located between two areas affected by extensional tectonics (Sicily Channel to the south and the Thyrrenian back arc basin to the north). In the present study we present the first dataset of helium isotopic composition measured in fluids released from the central-western Sicily. With the aim to constrain the transfer system of fluids in this area we relate the results of geochemical investigations with the stratigraphy and structural setting, derived from field geology, deep boreholes and new seismic reflection, gravimetry and magnetometry data. Significant mantle-derived helium (0.4Sicily. CH4-dominated gases are released from mud volcanoes and feed everlasting fires mainly located in the central region, where upper Oligocene-Miocene terrigenous cover Mesozoic carbonatic units. The abundance of CH4, usually linked to the presence of hydrocarbons- and/or organic matter-rich layers, is almost exclusively linked to the Messinian evaporitic and pre-evaporitic levels (containing diatomites). On the other hand, CO2 is mainly associated to the thermal groundwaters circulating mainly in Mesozoic limestone and dolomite, which here constitute the bulk of the deformed wedge of the Sicilian chain (up to 15 km thick). In thermal waters, we found a positive correlation between water temperature, ranging between 22.1°C and 59°C, and helium isotopic ratio. Taking into consideration that helium rises from the mantle coupled to CO2 and others components, we discussed CO2 and CH4 coupled to helium. Our samples did no show any correlation between C/3He vs. R/Ra and only samples of the Sciacca thermal basin show C/3He in the typical ranges of the mantle fluids. CH4-dominated fluids shows a CH4/3He vs. R/Ra correlation that underlies a mixing between a 3He rich and CH4-poor term and a CH4-rich and 3He-poor one typical of crustal reservoir of gases. Our previous investigations showed up an heat excess coupled to the presence of mantle-derived helium in western Sicily, which was linked to the occurrence of melts rising from the mantle below the continental crust or intruding through lithospheric faults. This study shows that degassing of mantle derived fluids cover entirely the central-western Sicily and the transfer of mantle helium rich fluids through the crust is mainly regulated by fault-controlled advective flux. In particular: a) in the central-northern Sicily recent data from deep seismic reflection investigations (SiRiPro project), evidenced a dense network of faults that develops between the area of Caltanissetta and the central portion of the Madonie, involving both the deformed sedimentary units of the fold and thrust belt and the underlying crust and upper mantle; b) in the Sciacca area multichannel seismic profiles highlighted the occurrence of deep-seated faults (correlated with the N-S lineaments well known offshore in the Sicily Straits), also characterized by strike-slip component (as evidenced by the seismicity of the Belice valley), which involves the deeper portions of the chain; in addition gravimetry and magnetic data displayed a shallow crustal basement, whose involvement in the deformation suggests a link with the fault systems recognized in the overlying tectonic wedge.

Caracausi, Antonio; Grassa, Fausto; Pennino, Valentina; Rizzo, Andrea; Sulli, Attilio

2013-04-01

365

Slab-rollback induced upper mantle upwelling near lateral slab edges: A new mechanism for generating intra-plate magmatism in the central Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most volcanism on Earth is associated with plate boundaries and can thus be explained in a plate tectonic framework. Intra-plate volcanism, however, cannot directly be explained with plate tectonic theory. Intraplate volcanism is frequently explained with the plume model, in which a relatively fixed buoyant plume rises from the lower mantle to the surface and, as the overlying plate moves with respect to the plume source, produces a linear hotspot track along which the age of volcanoes progressively changes. This model has been applied to linear volcanic chains such as the Hawaii-Emperor Ridge in the Pacific and the Walvis Ridge in the Atlantic Ocean. Other intra-plate volcanism that does not occur in linear chains and does not show a preferred age progression in a specific geographical direction is more difficult to explain with the plume model, and might require an alternative explanation. There are several examples of intraplate volcanism on Earth located close to lateral slab edges, suggesting that they might be genetically related to these slab edges. One example of such volcanism is located in Sicily in the Mediterranean, which took place at ~7.0-1.1 Ma on the Iblean plateau and at 0.5 Ma to Present to form Mount Etna. The volcanics are located in close proximity but are laterally offset with respect to the Eolian magmatic arc and the Calabrian subduction zone, where Ionian oceanic lithosphere is subducting west-northwestward below Calabria. The volcanics in Sicily can therefore not be interpreted as arc volcanism. Previous work, primarily based on the geochemistry and petrology of the volcanics, suggests that the volcanism resulted from a plume. The volcanics in Sicily and surrounding seas, however, do not align along a linear chain and show no lateral age progression. Here it is proposed that Mount Etna and the Iblean volcanics are related to decompression melting of upper mantle material that is flowing around the southern Ionian slab edge to accommodate east-directed rollback of the Ionian slab that started at ~8 Ma. Three-dimensional fluid dynamic models of progressive subduction demonstrate that rollback-induced mantle return flow occurs in a quasi-toroidal fashion with a component of downwelling directly below and above the slab, and a component of upwelling next to the subduction zone with maximum upwelling observed next to the sub-slab region and reduced upwelling next to the mantle wedge region. Significant upwelling is observed at 90-430 km depth and extends 55-660 km away from the projected distance of inferred arc magmatism at the slab edge. The models can thereby explain the large spatial separation of up to 400 km between volcanism in Sicily and the magmatic arc during the last ~7 Myr, the contemporaneous activity of arc magmatism in the Tyrrhenian Sea and volcanism in Sicily, and the intra-plate character of the volcanics in Sicily. Finally, it explains a broad slow S-wave anomaly at ~300 km depth below Sicily, and more local low Qp and high Vp/Vs anomalies at 50-150 km depth below northeastern Sicily.

Schellart, W. P.

2010-12-01

366

Old Coins with Astronomical Symbols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present, or simply describe, some interesting coins, where various astronomical symbols like the sun, a star, the zodiac etc. are shown. The coins come mainly from different cities of the ancient Greece, as well as from their colonies, (in Italy, Sicily, Asia Minor, or Pontus). Moreover, information concerning the place they were found, and the Museum they are kept are given together with the estimated time they were issued.

Rovithis-Livaniou, E.; Rovithis, F.

2010-09-01

367

Health risk analysis of volcanic SO 2 hazard on Vulcano Island (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the last eruption of the Fossa crater in 1888–1890, intense volcanic degassing has been remaining on Vulcano Island\\u000a of Sicily (Italy). Toxic sulfur dioxide (SO2) of the solfataric action in this area represents, when inhaled, a permanent natural hazard harming humans. Approximately\\u000a 500 permanent residents live and 15,000 tourists visit during the summer time the Porto village in the

Christian D. Klose

2007-01-01

368

A stratospheric balloon observing facility: Milo Base.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a favourable geographic position (38°01'N, 12°35'E) Milo Base guarantees long duration flights over the Mediterranean Sea (at least 20 hours) at the high altitude limit of 40 km altitude, from Sicily to Spain. With a low X-ray background it represents a special point for astrophysical observations. Programs for the next years, collaboration feasibilities, work facilities and results obtained are presented and discussed.

Falvella, M. C.

369

The Data Acquisition and Transport Design for NEMO Phase 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NEMO collaboration proposes to build an underwater neutrino telescope located South-East off the Sicily coast. This paper describes the concepts underlying the communication link design going over the whole data acquisition and transport from the front-end electronics to the module sending data on-shore through a fiber optic link which relies on Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing. An on-shore board, plugged

F. Ameli; S. Aiello; A. Aloisio; I. Amore; M. Anghinolfi; A. Anzalone; C. Avanzini; G. Barbarino; E. Barbarito; M. Battaglieri; M. Bazzotti; R. Bellotti; A. Bersani; N. Beverini; S. Biagi; M. Bonori; B. Bouhadef; G. Cacopardo; A. Capone; L. Caponetto; G. Carminati; B. Cassano; E. Castorina; A. Ceres; T. Chiarusi; M. Circella; R. Cocimano; R. Coniglione; M. Cordelli; M. Costa; A. D'Amico; G. De Bonis; C. De Marzo; G. De Rosa; G. De Ruvo; R. De Vita; C. Distefano; E. Falchini; V. Flaminio; K. Fratini; A. Gabrielli; S. Galeotti; E. Gandolfi; G. Giacomelli; F. Giorgi; A. Grimaldi; R. Habel; E. Leonora; D. Lo Presti; A. Lonardo; G. Longo; F. Lucarelli; L. Maccione; A. Margiotta; A. Marinelli; A. Martini; R. Masullo; R. Megna; E. Migneco; S. Minutoli; M. Mongelli; T. Montaruli; M. Morganti; P. Musico; M. Musumeci; C. A. Nicolau; A. Orlando; M. Osipenko; G. Osteria; R. Papaleo; V. Pappalardo; C. Petta; P. Piattelli; D. Piombo; F. Raffaelli; G. Raia; N. Randazzo; S. Reito; G. Riccobene; M. Ripani; A. Rovelli; M. Ruppi; G. V. Russo; S. Russo; P. Sapienza; M. Sedita; E. Shirokov; F. Simeone; V. Sipala; M. Spurio; M. Taiuti; G. Terreni; L. Trasatti; S. Urso; V. Valente; M. Vecchi; P. Vicini; R. Wischnewski

2008-01-01

370

Introduction and historical development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In highschool I was taught that the great Greek scientist Archimedes (287 - 212 BC) was instrumental in the defence of his\\u000a city Syracuse on Sicily against the Roman fleet and army of Marcellus during the Punian War. Among the defensive devices,\\u000a developed by him, he used parabolic mirrors to concentrate the reflected light from not true, it is fair

Jacob W. M. Baars

371

Maecenas: Images of Ancient Greece and Rome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by Classics Professor Leo Curran of the University at Buffalo, this collection of images could be a useful resource for courses in the Classics, Ancient History, or Archaeology. The collection currently contains many high-quality photos from France and Italy, with separate sections for Sicily and Rome. The images are offered free for any non-commercial purpose, and the site is periodically updated with new photos.

1998-01-01

372

Volcano Watch Satellite Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Wisconsin's Space Science and Engineering Center displays these satellite images of the world's ten most active volcanoes. Users can view images of the Colima Volcano in Central Mexico or Mount Etna in Sicily, Italy. The latest images are updated every half-hour. Also, a Java animation feature splices together the last four images to show a simulation over a two-hour period.

373

Physiological and Technical Aspects of Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Double Rellowering and Out-of-Season Winter Fruit Cropping  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercial cactus pear plantation in Sicily, Italy was manipulated to induce late cropping. The spring flush of flowers and cladodes were removed as was the second induced bloom of flowers and cladodes. The third induced bloom was harvested for a late out-of-season crop of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.). The double removal induced a third flush of flowers and

G. Liguori; C. Di Miceli; G. Gugliuzza; P. Inglese

2007-01-01

374

S–Cl–F degassing pattern of water-rich alkali basalt: Modelling and relationship with eruption styles on Mount Etna volcano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our knowledge of the degassing pattern of sulphur, chlorine and fluorine during ascent and eruption of basaltic magmas is still fragmental and mainly limited to water-poor basalts. Here we model and discuss the pressure-related degassing behaviour of S, Cl and F during ascent, differentiation and extrusion of H2O–CO2-rich alkali basalt on Mount Etna (Sicily) as a function of eruptive styles.

Nicolas Spilliaert; Nicole Métrich; Patrick Allard

2006-01-01

375

Real time classification of sperm whale clicks and shipping impulses from fixed ocean observatories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automated acoustic detection of cetaceans in real time is an important\\u000atool to study their behaviour and distribution and for activating mitigation\\u000ameasures in the context of harmful anthropogenic activities at sea. Acoustic data\\u000afrom the NEMO ONDE deep sea observatory (Sicily) indicated that sperm whale\\u000aclicks were present in 15 % of the recordings and impulsive ship noise

Serge Zaugg; Mike van der Schaar; Ludwig Houegnigan; Michel André

2009-01-01

376

The Miocene Costa Giardini diatreme, Iblean Mountains, southern Italy: model for maar-diatreme formation on a submerged carbonate platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a model for the growth of a maar-diatreme complex in a shallow marine environment. The Miocene-age\\u000a Costa Giardini diatreme near Sortino, in the region of the Iblei Mountains of southern Sicily, has an outer tuff ring formed\\u000a by the accumulation of debris flows and surge deposits during hydromagmatic eruptions. Vesicular lava clasts, accretionary\\u000a lapilli and

Sonia Calvari; Lawrence H. Tanner

2011-01-01

377

Distribution of bioluminescent organisms in the Mediterranean Sea and predicted effects on a deep-sea neutrino telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The density of bioluminescent organisms was measured using an ISIT camera profiler in the eastern and western Mediterranean, from the subsurface layer to the seafloor; in the Ligurian, Tyrrhenian, Ionian, Adriatic Seas and the Strait of Sicily, including neutrino telescope sites at ANTARES and NESTOR. A west–east gradient in the density of bioluminescent animals in deep water (1500–2500m) was observed,

Jessica Craig; Alan J. Jamieson; Amandine Heger; Imants G. Priede

2009-01-01

378

Late permian reefs of southern Tunisia: Facies patterns and comparison with the capital reef, southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The only outcrops of marine Upper Permian strata in North Africa form an inlier in the Djebel Tebaga area of southern Tunisia.\\u000a Those outcrops occupy 18 km2 (6.9 M2), and comprise the western tip of the Late Permian tethyan seaway. The nearest outcrops of marine Permian strata are in the\\u000a Sosio Valley of Sicily (Gemellaro, 1887). Those occur as limestone

Donald Francis Toomey

1991-01-01

379

Assessing the Tsunami Hazard for the Southern Italy Coasts: Results From Scenario and Statistical Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Italy is one of the Mediterranean countries most affected by tsunamis. Catalogues of Italian tsunamis show that the Italian coasts were attacked by several large events in the past that had catastrophic effects and caused thousands of victims. In this paper we limit our attention to tsunamis of tectonic origin, which are the most frequent. We focus especially on the southern regions of Calabria and Sicily, that are among the most tsunami-prone Italian areas. We use two different approaches to assess the tsunami hazard in the area. The first is a scenario approach. We select the largest-magnitude event in the area, that according to the most recent Italian seismic catalogues is the January 11, 1693, eastern Sicily earthquake (Mw=7.4). This earthquake was followed by a catastrophic tsunami, whose effects were observed along the entire eastern Sicily coasts and even on the Malta archipelago to the south. We adopt a number of different fault models located (or inferred) in the western Ionian basin, with magnitude comparable to that of the 1693 event, and analyze the results putting special attention on the distribution of the tsunami energy along the eastern Sicily coasts, on the number of tsunami waves attacking the coastlines and on their polarities and propagation times. The second approach is a hybrid deterministic-statistical method that, as a final result, provides the number of tsunamis expected to produce wave heights exceeding a given threshold in a given time interval along the southern Italy coasts. The information on the number of events can be easily translated into exceedance probability estimates if we adopt a suitable probability distribution function (e.g., Poissonian). We compare the results with the information deducible from the most recent Italian tsunami catalogue and discuss how the different assumptions/methods/data involved in the analysis influence the final results.

Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.; Tonini, R.

2006-12-01

380

Pleistocene to Recent deep-coral growth on peri-Ionian escarpments, Mediterranean basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant growth of deep-sea cold-water coral build-ups is well documented in the Mediterranean basin since the late Pliocene at least. Early-Middle Pleistocene coral assemblages made up by the scleractinian triad Lophelia-Madrepora-Desmophyllum (LMD), crop out locally in areas subjected to considerable neotectonic uplift, i.e. Calabria, Sicily and Rhodes. Furthermore, submerged LMD build-ups, mostly dated to the latest Pleistocene, are common and

M. Taviani; C. Corselli; A. Freiwald; E. Malinverno; F. Mastrototaro; A. Remia; A. Savini; A. Tursi

2003-01-01

381

Pregnant women as a sentinel population to target and implement hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine coverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine coverage was assessed using serologic patterns of infection (HBsAg, anti HBc) and vaccine-induced immunity (isolated anti HBs) among 3318 pregnant women attending the Obstetrical Unit of the University Hospital in Palermo who were screened over 3 years (2001–2003). Three thousand and eight of them (90.6%) were born in Sicily, whereas 310 (9.4%) were immigrants from

Filippa Bonura; Marco Sorgi; Anna Maria Perna; Giuseppe Puccio; Fabio Tramuto; Cinzia Cajozzo; Nino Romano; Francesco Vitale

2005-01-01

382

How to face organ shortage in liver transplantation in an area with low rate of deceased donation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite advances in patient selection, surgical technique, immunosuppression, and peri-operative management, the need for\\u000a liver replacement exceeds organ availability. Moreover, in Italy, where the overall rate of cadaver donation is 21 donors\\u000a per million per year, there are areas of the country, such as Sicily, where the rate of cadaver donation is 9.3 donors per\\u000a million per year. In fact,

Salvatore Gruttadauria; Duilio Pagano; Gabriel J. Echeverri; Davide Cintorino; Marco Spada; Bruno G. Gridelli

2010-01-01

383

Lactobacillus casei, dominant species in naturally fermented Sicilian green olives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of lactic acid bacteria in naturally fermented green olives, collected from different areas of Sicily. Both classical biochemical tests and PCR\\/Restriction Fragments Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of 16S rDNA were used to characterize the isolates. The identity of the isolates was obtained by the partial sequencing analysis of the 16S rDNA. The BioMerieux

Cinzia L. Randazzo; Cristina Restuccia; A. Daniele Romano; Cinzia Caggia

2004-01-01

384

The role of atopy in otitis media with effusion among primary school children: audiological investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of atopy in otitis media with effusion (OME) in children attending primary\\u000a school in western Sicily focusing on the audiological characteristics among atopic and non-atopic subjects suffering from\\u000a OME. A total of 310 children (5–6 years old) were screened by skin tests and divided into atopics (G1) and non-atopics (G2).\\u000a The

F. Martines; G. Martinciglio; E. Martines; D. Bentivegna

2010-01-01

385

Geologic setting for hydrocarbons in Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrocarbon habitats on the Tunisia-Sicily shelf result from the complex interplay of three factors: (1) proximity to a source of terrigenous sediments, (2) eustatic sea level changes resulting in major transgression\\/regression events, and (3) a varied and ever-changing structural mosaic involving successive transtensional, transpressive, and compressional tectonic phases. The stratigraphy, structure, and petroleum resources of the shelf are linked to

Schamel

1990-01-01

386

Geodetic techniques applied to the study of the Etna volcano area (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volcanic behaviour of Mt. Etna is due to the complex interaction between both the local and the regional stress field involving\\u000a the eastern Sicily. Eruptions could trigger (be triggered?) during crust extension and\\/or compression, which are strictly\\u000a linked with the dynamics of the lower mantle. In this study, very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) space geodesy technique\\u000a has been used in

Santo La Delfa; Monia Negusini; Sabrina Di Martino; Giuseppe Patanè

387

Characterizing Drought Risk in a Sicilian River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chapter summarizes the results of the application of proposed methodologies for drought characterization and risk assessment\\u000a in water supply systems to the Italian case study, namely the Simeto River basin in Sicily. In particular, after a general\\u000a description of the case study, the results of the drought identification, carried out by means of several drought indices\\u000a and methods such

Giuseppe Rossi; Brunella Bonaccorso; Vincenzo Nicolosi; Antonino Cancelliere

388

Characterisation of archaeological pottery: The case of “Ionian Cups”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was the microscopic and mesoscopic characterisation of archaeological pottery findings addressed to the identification of the manufacturing techniques.The samples under study were “Ionian Cups” sherds, coming from Poira, an archaeological site in eastern Sicily (South-Italy). These cups represent a ceramic typology widely diffused in the Mediterranean Area in archaic age (VI–V century BC). The identification

G. Barone; V. Crupi; F. Longo; D. Majolino; P. Mazzoleni; V. Venuti

2011-01-01

389

Letter Written by Courtland R. Burnham, Jr. to the Bryant College Service Club Dated August 2, 1943  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Transcription begins]\\u000aSomewhere in SicilyAugust 2, 1943\\u000aHello Bryant Service Club,\\u000aSure was glad to receive your informative V Mail about good old Bryant College. I often think about it and the good times connected with my two years there. I was especially interested in learning the whereabouts of Ben Scuda + Johnnie Hall having been in both their classes.

Burnham Jr. Courtland R

1943-01-01

390

Source of the 1693 Catania earthquake and tsunami (southern Italy): New evidence from tsunami modeling of a locked subduction fault plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1693 Catania earthquake, which caused 60000 deaths in eastern Sicily and generated a 5–10 m high tsunami, is investigated. GPS data indicate ESE-WNW convergence in the Calabrian arc at 4–5 mm\\/yr. New high-resolution seismic data image active compression at the toe of the accretionary wedge. The lack of instrumentally recorded thrust earthquakes suggests the presence of a locked subduction

M.-A. Gutscher; J. Roger; M.-A. Baptista; J. M. Miranda; S. Tinti

2006-01-01

391

Seasonal variations in serum protein fractions of dairy cows during different physiological phases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seasonal variations of the level of serum total proteins and their electrophoretic fractions in dairy cows, living in\\u000a the Mediterranean area, were investigated. During different physiological phases, ten dairy cows were housed in a sheltered\\u000a pen in Sicily (Italy). Throughout the experimental period, ambient temperature and relative humidity were continuously recorded\\u000a with a data logger and temperature humidity index

Giuseppe Piccione; Vanessa Messina; Daniela Alberghina; Claudia Giannetto; Stefania Casella; Anna Assenza

392

Seasonal patterns of total and energy reserve lipids of dominant zooplanktonic crustaceans from a hyper-eutrophic lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Seasonal patterns of lipid reserves and lipid classes of dominant zooplankton in a hyper-eutrophic lake were examined in relation to algal food resources. Triacylglycerol was the principle lipid energy reserve in all five species examined. During the height of the yearlyAphanizomenon flos-aquae bloom, lipid levels of the principle herbivores (Daphnia pulex andLeptodiaptomus sicilis) and an omnivore (Diacyclops bicuspidatus thomasi),

Michael T. Arts; Marlene S. Evans; Richard D. Robarts

1992-01-01

393

Feeding habits of the Madeira rockfish Scorpaena maderensis from central Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess diet composition and niche breadth of this species, we analysed the stomach content of 182 specimens collected\\u000a monthly along the eastern coast of Sicily (Central Mediterranean Sea). Overall, 50 prey taxa belonging to five major groups\\u000a (algae, gastropods, crustaceans, polychaetes, fishes) were identified in 102 full stomachs. Benthic or epibenthic crustaceans,\\u000a such as decapods, amphipods and

G. La Mesa; M. La Mesa; P. Tomassetti

2007-01-01

394

Influence of pore system characteristics on limestone vulnerability: a laboratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyblean limestone of Oligo-Miocene age was widely used as a construction material in the architectural heritage of Eastern\\u000a Sicily (Italy). Among them, the so-called Pietra Bianca di Melilli (Melilli limestone) and Calcare di Siracusa (Syracuse limestone)\\u000a were prized for their attractive appearance, ease of quarrying, and workability. Syracuse limestone shows general weathering,\\u000a whereas Melilli limestone is better preserved, and only

G. Cultrone; L. G. Russo; C. Calabrò; M. Urosevic; A. Pezzino

2008-01-01

395

Door-to-Door Prevalence Survey of Neurological Diseases in a Sicilian Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

In three municipalities of Sicily, a prevalence survey of major neurological diseases was conducted door-to-door using screening and examination to find cases. This was the first large-scale neuroepidemiologic survey of that type undertaken in Italy: 24,496 persons were screened yielding 1,538 positives, of whom 1,408 were examined directly by neurologists and 110 were evaluated on the basis of existing medical

Francesco Meneghini; Walter A. Rocca; Francesco Grigoletto; Letterio Morgante; Arturo Reggio; Giovanni Savettieri; Raoul Di Perri; Dallas W. Anderson

1991-01-01

396

NEMO\\\\onde: a submarine station for real-time monitoring of acoustic background installed at 2000 m depth in the Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) Collaboration installed, 25 km\\u000aE offshore the port of Catania (Sicily) at 2000 m depth, an underwater\\u000alaboratory to perform long-term tests of prototypes and new technologies for an\\u000aunderwater high energy neutrino km$^3$-scale detector in the Mediterranean Sea.\\u000aIn this framework the collaboration deployed and successfully operated for\\u000aabout two years, starting form January

S. Aiello; F. Ameli; I. Amore; M. Anghinolfi; A. Anzalone; G. Barbarino; M. Battaglieri; R. Bellotti

2008-01-01

397

Structural controls on CO2 degassing at Mt. Etna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent OP-FTIR studies of volcanic plume composition, together with mini-DOAS measurements of SO2 flux, have allowed CO2 gas fluxes from individual craters of Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy) to be determined with unprecedented detail. These studies reveal systematic differences in the amount of CO2 released from each crater, with the northeast crater (NEC) plume being impoverished in CO2, whilst the central

M. Burton; A. La Spina; G. G. Salerno

2009-01-01

398

A balloon-borne instrumentation for cosmic gamma-ray burst detection and measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide-field X-ray detector for observations of cosmic gamma-ray bursts has been prepared and launched on a balloon platform from the base of Trapani-Milo (Sicily) in July of 1983. The detector is an imaging type, 40 cm diameter gamma camera, paired with a 1.8 m diameter pseudorandom, 50% open mask, to make up the telescope. The detector works in the

G. Ventura; H. M. Horstman; A. Brighenti; C. Cavani; M. Camprini; P. Cazzola; G. Giovannini; C. Labanti; J. M. Poulsen

1984-01-01

399

Optical background measurement in a potential site for the NEMO KM undersea neutrino telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the measurement of the deep sea optical background in some sites south of Capo Passero, Sicily. A continuous flux of about 440 photons cm -2 s -1 in the wavelength interval 440-550 nm is estimated due to the decays of the 40K contained in the sea water. Bioluminescence light bursts are also observed and an example of time evolution is reported. All the measurements were accomplished using a deep sea module also described in this article.

Ameli, F.; Bonori, M.; Massa, F.

2002-09-01

400

Sicilian cultures of violence: The interconnections between organized crime and local society  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon of organized crime in Sicily has survived throughout all political changes and economic transformations that\\u000a have taken place in Italy in the post war period. In search of an explanation, some scholars have blamed the absence of the\\u000a State; some others have stressed the historically predatory relation between the State and the Southern regions; recently\\u000a it has been

Amedeo Cottino

1999-01-01

401

First record in Mediterranean Sea and redescription of the bentho-planktonic calanoid copepod species Pseudocyclops xiphophorus Wells, 1967  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bentho-planktonic calanoid copepod Pseudocyclops xiphophorus Wells, 1967, previously recorded only in coastal waters of Mozambique, has been found in the brackish Lake Faro (eastern Sicily, central Mediterranean). The copepods were collected from fouling attached to submerged mooring posts and ropes in the Lake. Both sexes of P. xiphophorus are redescribed. This interesting zoogeographic distribution suggests that the Mozambican and Mediterranean Pseudocyclops populations exhibit a complete Tethyan pattern.

Zagami, Giacomo; Costanzo, Giuseppe; Crescenti, Nunzio

2005-03-01

402

Reviews of Books  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pj. Heather. Goths and Romans, 332-489. New York: The Clarendon Press,Oxford University Press, 1991. Pp. xi, 378. $114.95 (CDN). Reviewed by Steven MuhlbergerCharles Tilly. Coercion, Capital, and European States, AD 990-1990. Oxfordand Cambridge, Mass.: Basil Blackwell, 1990. Pp. xi, 269. $39.95 (us). Reviewed by Jan BlommeDonald Matthew. The Norman Kingdom of Sicily. New York: CambridgeUniversity Press, 1992. Pp. xvi, 418.

Steven Muhlberger; Leuven Jan Blomme; James M. Powell; Michael Chaton; Donald C. Jackman; Gregory Evans Dowd; Charles R. Middleton; Joseph A. Fry; B. R. Tomlinson; Jocelyn Linnekin; Neville Thompson; Ann Pottinger Saab; Barry Eichengreen; Daniel J. Schroeter; Raymond F. Betts; G. Harries-Jenkins; John W. Bailey; Allen J. Greenberger; D. George Boyce; Roderic H. Davison; Dane Kennedy; Stephen Brooke; David B. Danbom; Gerard J. De Groot; Betty Miller Unterberger; Robert J. Young; Carole Fink; Hines H. Hall; Gerhard L. Weinberg; Priscilla Dale Jones; Alan S. Milward; M. L. Dockrill; David Stafford; Bo Petersson; Jacob Bercovitch; Melvyn P. Leffleh; Marvin R. Zahniser; Willard C. Frank Jr; Timothy M. Shaw; Callum Macdonald; Andrew Chandler; B. W. Muirhead; William J. Duiker; Michael Graham Fry; Colin Newbury; Robert Page; John M. Mackenzie; E. Timothy Smith; Donald Barry; T. B. Millar; Hendrik Spruyi; T. E. Vadney; Jack S. Levy; Sally Marks; John Simpson

1993-01-01

403

High orders of perturbation theory. Are renormalons significant?  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Lipatov [Sov. Phys. JETP 45, 216 (1977)], the high orders of perturbation theory are determined by saddle-point configurations, i.e., instantons, which\\u000a correspond to functional integrals. According to another opinion, the contributions of individual large diagrams, i.e., renormalons,\\u000a which, according to t’Hooft [The Whys of Subnuclear Physics: Proceedings of the 1977 International School of Subnuclear Physics (Erice, Trapani, Sicily,

I. M. Suslov; P. L. Kapitza

1999-01-01

404

BRAF(V600E) mutation and the biology of papillary thyroid cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BRAF(V600E) mutation is the most frequent genetic alteration in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) that are 80-90% of all thyroid cancers. We evaluated the relationship between BRAF(V600E) and tumor, host, and environmental factors in PTCs from all geographical areas of Sicily. By PCR, BRAF(V600E) was investigated in a series of 323 PTCs diagnosed in 2002-2005. The correlation between clinicopathological tumor, host,

F Frasca; C Nucera; G Pellegriti; P Gangemi; M Attard; M Stella; M Loda; V Vella; C Giordano; F Trimarchi; E Mazzon; A Belfiore; R Vigneri

2008-01-01

405

Field monitoring of CO2 and H2O emissions at Vulcano island by high-resolution laser spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of CO2 and H2O have been monitored during a four-days campaign in Vulcano (Eolian Archipelago, Sicily), by means of a portable spectrometer based on a semiconductor diode laser operating at a wavelength of 2 ?Ym. The spectrometer was able to work both in open-path configuration and as an accumulation chamber. In-situ measurements were made at different heights from

G. Gagliardi; G. de Natale; A. S. Rocco; M. de Rosa; P. de Natale

2005-01-01

406

Prevalence and causes of blindness and low vision in the Casteldaccia Eye Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a population-based survey performed on the middleaged and elderly population of Casteldaccia, Sicily, we found that the prevalence of blindness was 0.47% and the prevalence of low vision 1.22%. Unilateral blindness affected 2.81% of the population and unilateral low vision 4.12%. Visual impairment was much more frequently seen in subjects aged 70 years or more than in younger persons.

Francesco Ponte; Giuseppe Giuffre; Raimondo Giammanco

1994-01-01

407

Kidney dysfunction, from the Arabic to the Byzantine world in 11th and 12th century southern Italy.  

PubMed

Greek classical medicine was not transmitted directly from classical antiquity to the Western Middle Ages by a continuous tradition, but passed through the Arabic world, where it had been preserved thanks to translations from Syriac and/or Greek into Arabic. From the Arabic world, Greek medicine arrived to the West, through the Greek- or the Latin-speaking communities in Sicily and the mainland, respectively. Remarkably enough, the scientific content of the text was scrupulously respected. PMID:20013727

Touwaide, Alain

408

The Impact of the Little Ice Age on Coccolithophores in the Central Mediterranea Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Little Ice Age (LIA) is the last episode of a series of Holocene climatic anomalies. There is still little knowledge on the response of the marine environment to the pronounced cooling of the LIA and to the transition towards the 20th century global warming. Here we present decadal-scale coccolithophore data from four short cores recovered from the central Mediterranean Sea (northern Sicily Channel and Tyrrhenian Sea), which on the basis of 210Pb activity span the last 200-350 years. The lowermost part of the record of one of the cores from the Sicily Channel, Station 407, which extends down to 1650 AD, is characterized by drastic changes in productivity. Specifically, below 1850 AD, the decrease in abundance of F. profunda and the increase of placoliths, suggest increased productivity. The chronology of this change is related to the main phase of the Little Ice Age, which might have impacted the hydrography of the southern coast of Sicily and promoted vertical mixing in the water column. The comparison with climatic forcings points out the importance of stronger and prolonged northerly winds, together with decreased solar irradiance.

Incarbona, A.; Ziveri, P.; di Stefano, E.; Lirer, F.; Mortyn, G.; Patti, B.; Pelosi, N.; Sprovieri, M.; Tranchida, G.; Vallefuoco, M.; Albertazzi, S.; Bellucci, L. G.; Bonanno, A.; Bonomo, S.; Censi, P.; Ferraro, L.; Giuliani, S.; Mazzola, S.; Sprovieri, R.

2010-12-01

409

A stochastic point rainfall model of design storms based on 2-copula and dimensionless hyetograph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study a stochastic model to derive synthetic design storms at a point is presented. Generated rainfall events are totally stochastic but with characteristics in terms of shape, duration and average intensity have to satisfy the parameters derived by statistical analyses of the available historic records. The main advantage of this kind of approach is its applicability when few years of sub-hourly rainfall records, not necessary continuous, are available. The events are derived on the basis of a fixed inter-event time, and selected if their average intensity is bigger than a critical fixed one. In order to characterize the shape, dimensionless events are considered. The probability function to describe the hyetograph shape chosen in this study is the Beta cumulative distribution. Storm duration and average intensity of the observed events are modelled separately by fitting several probability distribution and selecting the best one using several statistical criteria. Finally, their correlation is modelled using the Frank Copula. In order to test the methodology, two sites placed in Sicily, Italy, were sub-hourly rainfall data were available, have been analyzed. The considered raingauges stations are: Monreale, placed in North-West part of Sicily, and Palazzolo Acreide, placed in South-East part of Sicily, where 10 minutes recorded rainfall data were available. The good performance of the model has been tested by comparing the statistics of the simulated events with those of the measured data, and the obtained results confirm the effectiveness of the methodology.

Brigandì, Giuseppina; Tito Aronica, Giuseppe

2013-04-01

410

The Tripoli, Libya, Earthquake of September 4, 1974: Implications for the active tectonics of the central Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Source parameters have been determined for the earthquake (Ms 5.6) that occurred offshore of Tripoli, Libya, on September 4, 1974. One nodal plane of its focal mechanism has dip 37°, strike 297°, and rake -141°, indicating oblique normal faulting. This nodal plane is subparallel to many west-northwest striking normal faults in the epicentral area and is most likely the fault plane, indicating a component of right-lateral strike-slip with slip vector azimuth N84°E. Inversion of long-period teleseismic body waves indicates 12-km centroid depth and 0.4 × 1018 N m seismic moment. A much larger earthquake (Ms 7.0) on April 19, 1935, that occurred in the same zone of active oblique normal faults ˜400 km farther southeast near Sirte probably involved similar slip sense. This zone, for which the name "Tunisia-Libya seismic zone" appears appropriate, has overall northwest-southeast extent ˜1000 km from northern Libya to between Tunisia and Sicily. It takes up a change in motion direction relative to stable Europe from west of north inside the African plate to between N30°E and N50°E in the Ionian Sea between Sicily, southernmost peninsular Italy, southwest Greece, and Libya. This suggested motion direction of Sicily relative to stable Europe agrees with independent estimates from fault slip rates and senses elsewhere in Italy.

Westaway, Rob

1990-04-01

411

Loess stratigraphy of the Lower Mississippi Valley  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Loesses of the Lower Mississippi Valley (LMV) are world-famous. Sir Charles Lyell (1847), Hilgard (1860), Stafford (1869), Call (1891) and Mabry (1898), thought the LMV loess was a single water deposit although "double submergence" was noted by Call (1891) and Salisbury (1891). Shimek (1902) and Emerson (1918) recognized LMV loess as a wind deposit which came from the valley. Although wind-deposited loess gained wide acceptance, Russell (1944a) published his controversial theory of "loessification" which entailed weathering of backswamp deposits, downslope movement and recharge by carbonates to form loess. Wascher et al. (1947) identified three LMV loesses, mapped distributions and strongly supported eolian deposition. Leighton and Willman (1950), identified four loesses and supported eolian deposition as did Krinitzsky and Turnbull (1967) and Snowden and Priddy (1968), but Krinitzsky and Turnbull questioned the deepest loess. Daniels and Young (1968) and Touchet and Daniels (1970) studied the distribution of loesses in south-central Louisiana. West et al. (1980) and Rutledge et al. (1985) studied the source areas and wind directions which deposited the loesses on and adjoining Crowley's Ridge. B.J. Miller and co-workers (Miller et al., 1985, 1986, Miller and Alford, 1985) proposed that the Loveland Silt was Early Wisconsin rather than Illinoian age and advanced the name Sicily Island loess. They proposed the underlying loess was Illinoian and advanced the name Crowley's Ridge. We termed the loesses, from the surface downward, Peoria Loess, Roxana Silt, Loveland/Sicily Island loess, Crowley's Ridge Loess and Marianna loess. Researchers agree that the surfical Peoria Loess is Late Wisconsin and the Roxana Silt is Late to Middle Wisconsin, but little agreement exists on the age of the older loesses. Pye and Johnson (1988) proposed Early Wisconsin for the Loveland/Sicily Island. McKay and Follmer (1985) suggested this loess correlated with a loess under Illinoian till. Clark et al. (1989) agreed on Crowley's Ridge, but suggested the Loveland/Sicily Island loess on Sicily Island was older. Mirecki and Miller (1994) and Millard and Maat (1994) suggested an Illinoian age for the Loveland/Sicily Island loess. Miller and co-workers suggested, as did Pye and Johnson (1988), an Illinoian age for the Crowley's Ridge loess. McKay and Follmer (1985) suggested it correlated with a loess under "Kansan" till. Stratigraphy indicates the Marianna is the older of the five loesses. Researchers identified loess on both the east and west side of the LMV as well as on higher terraces within the valley. Many researchers assumed unaltered loesses were commonly yellowish brown, and silts or silt loams (West et al., 1980; Miller et al., 1986). The nonclay fraction of unweathered LMV loesses was dominated by quartz followed by carbonates, mainly dolomites, followed by feldspars, and micas. Clays were dominated by montmorillonite followed by micaceous minerals, kaolinite and vermiculite (Miller et al., 1986). Soils in the Crowley's Ridge loess are most developed, followed by the soils in the Loveland/Sicily Island which are more developed than the modern soils in the Peoria Loess. Soils in the Roxana and Marianna loesses are least developed and the Farmdale Soil of the Roxana is the weaker of the two (Miller et al., 1986). There is certainly overlapping range in the degree of soil development in the various loesses.

Rutledge, E. M.; Guccione, M. J.; Markewich, H. W.; Wysocki, D. A.; Ward, L. B.

1996-01-01

412

The Calabria - Messina earthquake of December 28, 1908: remember to reduce the risk.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At 5:20 a.m., on 28th December 1908, one of the most catastrophic earthquakes in history occurred in the Messina Straits. Southern Calabria and north-eastern Sicily were severely hit: in few seconds Messina, Reggio Calabria and numerous villages on both sides of the Straits were devastated. Shortly after the earthquake a tsunami followed. Waves up to 12 meters high hit the Straits and the entire eastern Sicily coast. This is the strongest earthquake (magnitude 7.1) occurred in Italy in the twentieth century. The picture of the total damage was catastrophic: the estimated number of deaths is of around 80,000. In Messina the victims were about 60,000, corresponding to 40% of the population at the time, while in Reggio Calabria 12,000 were killed out of 45,000. To mark the centenary of this disaster, we arranged a program of different initiatives: 1) a photographic calendar with many information about the town destroyed and the tsunami effects (www.ingv.it); 2) a special workshop for general public to reconstruct what happened 100 years ago, to understand what we know today about earthquake and seismic risk, and how we can reduce the damage caused by earthquake; 3) many EDURISK training courses for more than 500 teachers of nursery, primary and lower secondary schools in Calabria and Sicily. These courses are based on a multidisciplinary approach and the educational experiences had been fitted to the specific local environment of each school, from the geographical, historical and cultural point of view (www.edurisk.it). 4) participation in ERMES 2008's activities to improve public awareness on seismic risks. The 1908 earthquake Group and the Edurisk team: E. Baroux, R. Azzaro, G. Ricciardi, M. Crescimbene, F. La Longa,V. Pessina.

Nostro, C.; Tertulliani, A.; Pignone, M.; Pino, N. A.; de Gori, P.; Castellano, C.; Arcoraci, L.; Camassi, R.

2009-04-01

413

From Africa to Europe and back: refugia and range shifts cause high genetic differentiation in the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea  

PubMed Central

Background The glacial-interglacial oscillations caused severe range modifications of biota. Thermophilic species became extinct in the North and survived in southern retreats, e.g. the Mediterranean Basin. These repeated extinction and (re)colonisation events led to long-term isolation and intermixing of populations and thus resulted in strong genetic imprints in many European species therefore being composed of several genetic lineages. To better understand these cycles of repeated expansion and retraction, we selected the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea. Fourty-one populations scattered over Europe and the Maghreb and one population of the sibling taxon M. lachesis were analysed using allozyme electrophoresis. Results We obtained seven distinct lineages applying neighbour joining and STRUCTURE analyses: (i) Morocco, (ii) Tunisia, (iii) Sicily, (iv) Italy and southern France, (v) eastern Balkans extending to Central Europe, (vi) western Balkans with western Carpathian Basin as well as (vii) south-western Alps. The hierarchy of these splits is well matching the chronology of glacial and interglacial cycles since the Günz ice age starting with an initial split between the galathea group in North Africa and the lachesis group in Iberia. These genetic structures were compared with past distribution patterns during the last glacial stage calculated with distribution models. Conclusions Both methods suggest climatically suitable areas in the Maghreb and the southern European peninsulas with distinct refugia during the last glacial period and underpin strong range expansions to the North during the Postglacial. However, the allozyme patterns reveal biogeographical structures not detected by distribution modelling as two distinct refugia in the Maghreb, two or more distinct refugia at the Balkans and a close link between the eastern Maghreb and Sicily. Furthermore, the genetically highly diverse western Maghreb might have acted as source or speciation centre of this taxon, while the eastern, genetically impoverished Maghreb population might result from a relatively recent recolonisation from Europe via Sicily.

2011-01-01

414

On the relationship among the Adriatic-Ionian Bimodal Oscillating System (BiOS), the Eastern Mediterranean salinity variations and the Western Mediterranean thermohaline cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have demonstrated that the salinity in the Levantine depends on the intensity of the Atlantic Water inflow. Moreover, its spreading eastward or northward in the Ionian is determined by the Ionian circulation pattern, i.e. by the Adriatic-Ionian Bimodal Oscillating System mechanism. The aim of this paper is to relate salinity variations in the core of the Levantine Intermediate Water flowing through the Sicily Channel to the salt content in the Levantine and its possible impact on the Western Mediterranean Transition (i.e. the sudden salinity increase in the bottom layer of the Algero-Provençal sub-basin occurring since 2004). From the historical dataset MEDAR/MEDATLAS in the Levantine and Northern Ionian, we present evidence of decadal occurrences of extreme salinities associated with the varying flow pattern of Atlantic Water over the last 60 yr. Furthermore, we show that the salinity variations in the two sub-basins are out of phase. High-salinity events in the Levantine are a pre-conditioning for the potential occurrence of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT). However, there is no firm evidence of occurrences of EMT-like phenomenon prior to the one in the early 1990s. Cross-correlation between the salinity time series in the Levantine and in the Sicily Channel suggests that the travel time of the salinity signal is between 16 and 18 yr. From the timing of the Western Mediterranean Transition and the salinity maximum in the Levantine Intermediate Water core in the Sicily Channel we also conclude that the time interval needed for the signal propagating from the Levantine to reach the bottom of the Algero-Provençal sub-basin is about 27 yr.

Ga?i?, M.; Schroeder, K.; Civitarese, G.; Vetrano, A.; Eusebi Borzelli, G. L.

2012-07-01

415

Crustal motion and active deformation along the Eurasia-Africa collisional area in Southern Italy from GPS observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used continuously recording GPS and survey-mode GPS observations to determine a new velocity field of Southern Italy for the period 1996-2009. We have combined local, regional and global networks into a common reference frame (ITRF2005) and then rotated the estimated velocities with respect to both an Eurasian fixed and African fixed frame. Then, we have provided strain-rate values for the Eastern Sicily, where the GPS network is denser. The results highlight a different kinematic for the Calabrian Arc and Sicily. The Calabrian Arc behaves as an independent block. It has an independent motion with respect to both Eurasia and Africa. In Sicily the analysis of the geodetic velocities and strain-rate parameters shows the presence of different domains with different motions and deformation styles, besides local effects produced by the principal fault systems or volcanic activity. The deformation pattern can be considered as the result of the interaction between the main NNW-SSE regional compression and the local movements of the main faults cutting the area. The convergence along the Plio-Pleistocene nappe thrust front north of the Hyblean Plateau is active, with compressive strain-rate values of about 0.14 ?strain/yr. Part of the regional compression is localized in the Eastern sector of the Aeolian Islands, bounded at west by the Lipari-Vulcano complex, where the compressive strain-rate reaches the maximum values of about 0.65 ?strain/yr (with the principal axes mostly NW-SE oriented). A transition to extensional domains is observed in the Nebrodi-Peloritani and the Messina Straits area, showing the maximum strain-rate values along the Aeolian-Tindari-Letojanni and the Messina Straits fault systems. We have also calculated the movement rates along these fault systems.

Bruno, V.; Mattia, M.; Palano, M.; Rossi, M.; Cannavo', F.

2009-12-01

416

Miocene reef facies of pelagian block, central Mediterranean  

SciTech Connect

Miocene reefs outcrop in the Maltese Islands, southeastern Sicily, and the pelagian island of Lampedusa. Several rapid eustatic sea level fluctuations affected these late Tortonian-early Messinian build-ups; normal salinities appear to have been maintained during these events. In addition to sea floor topography, reef development appears to have been controlled by turbulence. Encruster-dominated patch reefs are typical of platform and shallow ramp situations where turbulence is high. Branching and massive coral assemblages are typical of fore-reef curtains and steep slope substrates.

Pedley, H.M.

1988-02-01

417

Hard X ray observations of galactic sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of galactic sources observed by the hard X-ray telescope Mifrasco during the course of two balloon flights from the Milo base in Trapani (Sicily) in July 1986 and 1987 are presented. Emission spectra was measured over the energy range 15 to 300 keV from the Crab nebula and the transient source A0535+26, and timing analyses were performed. Upper limits to the emission from the X-ray puslsar Her X-1 and the peculiar emission line object SS 433 were obtained.

Bazzano, A.; Carstairs, I. R.; Coe, M. J.; Court, A.; Davies, S. R.; Dean, A. J.; Dipper, N.; Lewis, R.; Maggioli, P.; Norton, A. J.

1989-11-01

418

AIRWATCH from SPACE: preliminary results from lab. measurements and from balloon background observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the AIRWATCH from SPACE mission, measurements of efficiency of UV yield, in air and in Nitrogen, have been performed using X-ray photons of 22 keV at the LAX X-Ray Beam Facility in Palermo. Results are reported and discussed. The nightglow has been observed with the instrument dubbed BABY (BAckground BYpass) from an altitude of 26 Km during a balloon flight from the Trapani-Milo Base in Sicily. Data profile are presented, showing the difference between over-land and over-sea detector exposition in the range of 300-400 nanometers.

Giarrusso, S.; Catalano, O.; La Rosa, G.; Linsley, J.; Maccarone, M. C.; Sacco, B.; Scarsi, L.; AIRWATCH Collaboration

1998-12-01

419

Astronomical kaleidoscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The entry contains two Moon eclipses (a picture of a total eclipse and a photo of a penumbral one), photographs of monuments of few greatest astronomers: Nikolay Kopernik, Tiho Brahe and Johannes Kepler, a photo from the JENAM-1995 (Catania, Sicily) as well as photographs of few astronomers related with Moldova and Romania: V. Grigorevskii, N. Donitch, V.Nadolschi, D. Mangeron, two nice clocks in Prague, as well as a map of the Sanctuary in Orheiul -Vechi (Bessarabia) with an supposed ancient calendar.

Gaina, Alex

2005-10-01

420

Special Issue: International Conference on Physics of Light-Matter Coupling in Nanostructures III  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3rd International Conference on Physics of Light-Matter Coupling in Nanostructures (PLMCN3) took place in Acireale, Sicily, Italy from 1-4 October 2003. The aim of this conference was to review the fundamental background for realization of a new generation of opto-electronic devices such as polariton lasers, new optical switches and emitters based on microcavities. The idea was to combine the experience of spectroscopists and theorists with that of specialists in crystals growth of wide-band semiconductors (GaN, CdTe, ZnSe, ZnO) and organic materials.

Kavokin, Alexey; Laussy, Fabrice P.

2004-04-01

421

Malta: World Oil Report 1991  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Malta awarded offshore Blocks IV and V to Texaco, covering 716,000 acres 29 mi east of the country, and not far from Sicily's Vega field. Work program will consist of a seismic survey during the first year, followed by drilling during the initial three- year exploration phase. A production-sharing contract was also signed with an Amoco subsidiary covering Blocks II and III, which are located in Area 3, north of the island, and south of Vega.

Not Available

1991-08-01

422

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

423

A portable PIXE system for the in situ characterisation of black and red pigments in neolithic, copper age and bronze age pottery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the determination of the chromophoric elements in black and red pigments in ancient neolithic, copper age and bronze age pottery are presented. The measurements were carried out by using a recently developed portable PIXE system and Were performed at the Archaeological Museum of Licata (Sicily). The results confirm the presence of Manganese in black pigments of Castelluccio style pottery and indicate, for the first time, a strong presence of manganese in copper age pottery of the Serraferlicchio style, and in neolithic pottery of the Serra d'Alto style.

Pappalardo, L.

1999-04-01

424

Volcanic Ash Monitoring and FOrecaSting between Sicilia and Malta arEa and sharinG of the resUlts foR aviatiOn safety: the VAMOS SEGURO project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mt. Etna, in Italy, is one of the most active volcanoes in the world and during its frequent explosive episodes, eruption columns rise to several kilometers and fine ash is dispersed hundreds kilometers away from the vent reaching the neighboring countries. The Maltese Islands, for example, are situated at the center of the Mediterranean, only 100 km south of Sicily and, due to the close proximity, have been already affected by the past Etna volcanic activity. A reliable monitoring and forecasting system of Etna volcanic ash has to include all areas that could be reached by volcanic ash. For this reason, a new research project named VAMOS SEGURO, has been recently funded by Programma di Cooperazione Transfrontaliera Italia-Malta 2007-2013, with the aim to reduce the impact that Etna's explosive activity has in the area between Sicily and Malta. This project is developed within a cooperation between the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica, Osservatorio Etneo, the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), Comune of Montedoro, in Caltanissetta, the University of Malta, and Consorzio Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM). In this project, several instruments (e.g. aerosol optical depth analyzer, microbalance, laser cascade instrument, meteorological stations, aethelometer) have been installed at Giordan lighthouse at Xewkija, in Gozo, managed by the University of Malta. Furthermore, an innovative Lidar system with scanning capability, has been designed and realized by CNISM and is able to indentify the area affected by volcanic ash in Sicily and quantify the ash concentration in atmosphere. The Lidar may be transported and installed in the INAF astronomical observatories of Noto and Serra La Nave, only 7 km away from the Etna summits, and in Montedoro. Finally, an automatic forecasting system produces dispersal maps for the region between Sicily and Malta and for a typical Etna scenario. Results of simulations are daily visible at www.ct.ingv.it/vamosseguro. The system is collecting measurements of ash and SO2 plumes and will provide warnings to the competent civil and aviation authorities in Catania and Malta during Etna eruptions.

Scollo, Simona; Azzopardi, Francelle; Boselli, Antonella; Coltelli, Mauro; Ellul, Raymond; Leto, Giuseppe; Pisani, Gianluca; Prestifilippo, Michele; Saliba, Martin; Schiavone, Joseph; Spata, Gaetano; Spinelli, Nicola; Wang, Xuan; Zanmar Sanchez, Ricardo

2013-04-01

425

The NEMO Acoustic Test Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) Collaboration is constructing, 25 km E from Catania (Sicily) at 2000 m depth, an underwater test site to perform long-term tests of prototypes and new technologies for astrophysical HE neutrino telescopes. In this framework the collaboration deployed an electro-optical cable equipped with several e.o. terminations. An experimental apparatus for the measurement of underwater acoustic background was also installed and connected to shore on 22 Jan 2005, allowing continuous on-line monitoring of deep-sea noise in the range 30 Hz - 40 kHz. Underwater noise spectra were produced and classification of transient signals is under way.

Riccobene, G.

426

Reconstruction of the environmental evolution of a Sicilian saltmarsh (Italy).  

PubMed

The present study deals with the reconstruction of the environmental evolution of a Trapani saltmarsh (southwestern Sicily, Italy) by combining different analytical approaches such as metal content evaluation, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry, and benthic foraminifera identification. A 41 cm core was collected in the sediments of a Trapani saltmarsh (southwestern Sicily, Italy) at a water depth of about 50 cm. Different time intervals were recognized, each characterized by peculiar features that testify different environmental conditions. In particular, the bottom layers of the sediment core (41-28 cm) comprised the lowest amount of mud fraction, only some selected metals, and the lowest foraminiferal density. Here, co-occurrence of abundant microcrystals of gypsum and Ammonia tepida is indicative of hyper-saline conditions. In the sediments from 28 to 6 cm, mud fraction and number of metal elements resulted higher due to the increase of the anthropogenic pressure. The sediments in the last time interval, corresponding to the environmental recovery of the saltmarsh, showed an increase of foraminiferal density, a decrease of the mud fraction, and a trend in the metal concentration attributable to the protection policy applied since 1990. NMR relaxometry parameters highlighted the changes of sediment chemical-physical heterogeneity going from the bottom to the top of the core. These heterogeneities have been related to the different intervals recognized as aforementioned. The present study highlights how the anthropogenic pressure modifies the environmental conditions of a transitional ecosystem like saltmarshes. PMID:23307077

Maccotta, Antonella; De Pasquale, Claudio; Caruso, Antonio; Cosentino, Claudia; Alonzo, Giuseppe; Conte, Pellegrino

2013-01-10