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  1. Sex differences in substance use disorders: focus on side effects.

    PubMed

    Agabio, Roberta; Campesi, Ilaria; Pisanu, Claudia; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Although sex differences in several aspects of substance use disorders (SUDs) have been identified, less is known about the importance of possible sex differences in side effects induced by substances of abuse or by medications used to treat SUDs. In the SUD field, the perception of certain subjective effects are actively sought, while all other manifestations might operationally be considered side effects. This article was aimed at reviewing sex differences in side effects induced by alcohol, nicotine, heroin, marijuana and cocaine and by medications approved for alcohol, nicotine and heroin use disorders. A large body of evidence suggests that women are at higher risk of alcohol-induced injury, liver disease, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, brain damages and mortality. The risk of tobacco-induced coronary heart disease, lung disease and health problems is higher for women than for men. Women also experience greater exposure to side effects induced by heroin, marijuana and cocaine. In addition, women appear to be more vulnerable to the side effects induced by medications used to treat SUDs. Patients with SUDs should be advised that the risk of developing health problems may be higher for women than for men after consumption of the same amount of substances of abuse. Doses of medications for SUD women should be adjusted at least according to body weight. The sex differences observed also indicate an urgent need to recruit adequate numbers of female subjects in pre-clinical and clinical studies to improve our knowledge about SUDs in women. PMID:27001402

  2. Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 550 Side Effects WHAT ARE SIDE EFFECTS? WHO GETS SIDE EFFECTS? ... t assume that you will get every side effect that’s listed! Most people have few or only ...

  3. Side Effects of Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... reactions to the different drugs. The doctors, nurses, and pharmacists will describe what to look out for in ... will be monitored very closely by doctors, nurses, and pharmacists to make sure that all side effects are ...

  4. Side Effects (Management)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ...

  5. Emotional Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Emotional Side Effects In this section you can learn more about ... Finding and Paying for Treatment Treatments and Side Effects Survivorship: During and After Treatment Children and Cancer ...

  6. Side Effects of Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction Loss of Fertility Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects: When ...

  7. Effect of gas puffing from different side on lower hybrid wave-plasma coupling in experimental advanced superconductive tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, B. J.; Kong, E. H.; Li, M. H.; Zhang, L.; Wei, W.; Li, Y. C.; Wu, J. H.; Xu, G. S.; Wang, M.; Gong, X. Z.; Shan, J. F.; Liu, F. K.; Zhang, T.; Ekedahl, A.; Zhao, H. L.; Collaboration: EAST Team

    2013-10-15

    Effect of gas puffing from electron-side and ion-side on lower hybrid wave (LHW)-plasma is investigated in experimental advanced superconductive tokamak for the first time. Experimental results with different gas flow rates show that electron density at the grill is higher in the case of gas puffing from electron-side; consequently, a lower reflection coefficient is observed, suggesting better effect of puffing from electron-side on LHW-plasma. The difference in edge density between electron- and ion-side cases suggests that local ionization of puffed gas plays a dominant role in affecting the density at the grill due to different movement direction of ionized electrons and that part of gas has been locally ionized near the gas pipe before diffusing into the grill region. Such difference could be enlarged and important in ITER due to the improvement of plasma parameters and LHW power.

  8. An Examination of Psychotropic Medication Side Effects: Does Taking a Greater Number of Psychotropic Medications from Different Classes Affect Presentation of Side Effects in adults with ID?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahan, Sara; Holloway, Jodie; Bamburg, Jay W.; Hess, Julie A.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the number of psychotropic medications an individual is taking across classes influences side effects among adults with Intellectual Disability (ID). Participants were 80 adults diagnosed with ID. Dependent variables were the composite score and domain scores of the "Matson Evaluation of Drug Side-Effects" ("MEDS"),…

  9. Significant differences in pediatric psychotropic side effects: Implications for school performance.

    PubMed

    Kubiszyn, Thomas; Mire, Sarah; Dutt, Sonia; Papathopoulos, Katina; Burridge, Andrea Backsheider

    2012-03-01

    Some side effects (SEs) of increasingly prescribed psychotropic medications can impact student performance in school. SE risk varies, even among drugs from the same class (e.g., antidepressants). Knowing which SEs occur significantly more often than others may enable school psychologists to enhance collaborative risk-benefit analysis, medication monitoring, data-based decision-making, and inform mitigation efforts. SE data from Full Prescribing Information (PI) on the FDA website for ADHD drugs, atypical antipsychotics, and antidepressants with pediatric indications were analyzed. Risk ratios (RR) are reported for each drug within a category compared with placebo. RR tables and graphs inform the reader about SE incidence differences for each drug and provide clear evidence of the wide variability in SE incidence in the FDA data. Breslow-Day and Cochran Mantel-Haenszel methods were used to test for drug-placebo SE differences and to test for significance across drugs within each category based on odds ratios (ORs). Significant drug-placebo differences were found for each drug compared with placebo, when odds were pooled across all drugs in a category compared with placebo, and between some drugs within categories. Unexpectedly, many large RR differences did not reach significance. Potential explanations are offered, including limitations of the FDA data sets and statistical and methodological issues. Future research directions are offered. The potential impact of certain SEs on school performance, mitigation strategies, and the potential role of the school psychologist is discussed, with consideration for ethical and legal limitations. PMID:22582933

  10. Effect of auditory feedback differs according to side of hemiparesis: a comparative pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Following stroke, patients frequently demonstrate loss of motor control and function and altered kinematic parameters of reaching movements. Feedback is an essential component of rehabilitation and auditory feedback of kinematic parameters may be a useful tool for rehabilitation of reaching movements at the impairment level. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 2 types of auditory feedback on the kinematics of reaching movements in hemiparetic stroke patients and to compare differences between patients with right (RHD) and left hemisphere damage (LHD). Methods 10 healthy controls, 8 stroke patients with LHD and 8 with RHD were included. Patient groups had similar levels of upper limb function. Two types of auditory feedback (spatial and simple) were developed and provided online during reaching movements to 9 targets in the workspace. Kinematics of the upper limb were recorded with an electromagnetic system. Kinematics were compared between groups (Mann Whitney test) and the effect of auditory feedback on kinematics was tested within each patient group (Friedman test). Results In the patient groups, peak hand velocity was lower, the number of velocity peaks was higher and movements were more curved than in the healthy group. Despite having a similar clinical level, kinematics differed between LHD and RHD groups. Peak velocity was similar but LHD patients had fewer velocity peaks and less curved movements than RHD patients. The addition of auditory feedback improved the curvature index in patients with RHD and deteriorated peak velocity, the number of velocity peaks and curvature index in LHD patients. No difference between types of feedback was found in either patient group. Conclusion In stroke patients, side of lesion should be considered when examining arm reaching kinematics. Further studies are necessary to evaluate differences in responses to auditory feedback between patients with lesions in opposite cerebral hemispheres. PMID

  11. Behavioral and Psychiatric Differences in Medication Side Effects in Adults with Severe Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Rivet, Tessa T.; Rojahn, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Participants were 109 adults with severe intellectual disabilities and long histories of psychotropic drug use. Side effect profiles were examined in the context of types of mental health disorders observed using the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-Revised (DASH-II) and the Behavior Problems Inventory-Revised (BPI-01). The best…

  12. Significant Differences in Pediatric Psychotropic Side Effects: Implications for School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiszyn, Thomas; Mire, Sarah; Dutt, Sonia; Papathopoulos, Katina; Burridge, Andrea Backsheider

    2012-01-01

    Some side effects (SEs) of increasingly prescribed psychotropic medications can impact student performance in school. SE risk varies, even among drugs from the same class (e.g., antidepressants). Knowing which SEs occur significantly more often than others may enable school psychologists to enhance collaborative risk-benefit analysis, medication…

  13. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    PubMed

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  14. Comparing Effects and Side Effects of Different School Inspection Systems across Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehren, M. C. M.; Gustafsson, J. E.; Altrichter, H.; Skedsmo, G.; Kemethofer, D.; Huber, S. G.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, different inspection models are compared in terms of their impact on school improvement and the mechanisms each of these models generates to have such an impact. Our theoretical framework was drawn from the programme theories of six countries' school inspection systems (i.e. the Netherlands, England, Sweden, Ireland, the province…

  15. "Side" effects: a misnomer.

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    The tragic results for the babies of patients prescribed thalidomide, although they can indeed be termed "side" effects, hardly warrant so slight an epithet, and Dr Joyce in his paper would like the term to be dropped in favour of "additional" effects of drugs. Despite extensive clinical trials before drugs are put before the prescribing doctor, side effects cannot be entirely anticipated or eliminated, and indeed many are not harmful. However, it is important, Dr Joyce argues, for information to the doctor from the patient and from the doctor to the manufacturer to be collected and evaluated. Only in this way can effects of drugs other than those intended be drawn to the notice of the manufacturer. The commentary by two practising physicians emphasizes the ambiguities in the descriptive literature accompanying a new drug. Dr Herxheimer and Dr Higgs would like to see some sort of panel to be established to reassess drugs in the light of observations on their effects and "side" effects on patients, a task which the existing Committee on Safety of Medicines could not at the moment undertake. A medical need for a new drug should be established before it is manufactured, let alone offered to the general practitioner. PMID:823336

  16. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Infection “I am extra careful to stay away ... doctor or nurse right away. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Infection Take these steps to lower your chances ...

  17. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National ... before taking medicine for diarrhea. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Diarrhea These foods and drinks may help if ...

  18. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points HIV medicines help people with ... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ...

  19. Contraception with subdermal ST-1435 capsules: side-effects, endocrine profiles and liver function related to different lengths of capsules.

    PubMed

    Kurunmäki, H; Toivonen, J; Lähteenmäki, P; Luukkainen, T

    1985-03-01

    One Silastic capsule of 15 mm, 20 mm or 30 mm length was inserted subcutaneously into the ventral aspect of the left forearm or upper arm of 28 healthy women during menstrual bleeding or not later than on the seventh day of the menstrual cycle. A new capsule of the same length was inserted after six months and both capsules were removed twelve months after the first insertion. Side-effects, including changes in body weight, blood pressure, menstrual bleeding and liver function test results, were registered. Blood samples were taken from selected subjects twice a week during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 6th, 7th and 12th month of use. Plasma concentrations of ST-1435 were measured by radioimmunoassay and the effects of treatment on pituitary and ovarian function were determined by assaying plasma concentrations of LH, FSH, estradiol and progesterone. There were no differences in hormonal side-effects between subjects who had a 30 mm capsule or subjects who had 20 mm or 15 mm capsules, but subjects who had 20 or 15 mm capsules had significantly longer bleeding or spotting periods in comparison with subjects who had a 30 mm capsule. There were no changes in blood pressure, body weight or liver function test results in comparison with pre-insertion values. The plasma level of ST-1435 was not significantly higher during the use of 30 mm capsules than during the use of 20 or 15 mm capsules. During the use of the shorter ST-1435 capsules, plasma estradiol elevation and slightly suppressed FSH were seen, while the use of longer capsules resulted in a slight suppression of LH. Progesterone concentrations during monitored cycles indicated anovulation. No pregnancies occurred during the study period of one year. The continuation rate at one year was 71% in the 30 mm capsule group and 57% in the 20 and 15 mm capsule groups taken together. PMID:3922676

  20. Effect of Different Adjuvants on Protection and Side-Effects Induced by Helicobacter suis Whole-Cell Lysate Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bosschem, Iris; Bayry, Jagadeesh; De Bruyne, Ellen; Van Deun, Kim; Smet, Annemieke; Vercauteren, Griet; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Flahou, Bram

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter suis (H. suis) is a widespread porcine gastric pathogen, which is also of zoonotic importance. The first goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of several vaccine adjuvants (CpG-DNA, Curdlan, Freund’s Complete and Incomplete, Cholera toxin), administered either subcutaneously or intranasally along with H. suis whole-cell lysate, to protect against subsequent H. suis challenge in a BALB/c infection model. Subcutaneous immunization with Freund’s complete (FC)/lysate and intranasal immunization with Cholera toxin (CT)/lysate were shown to be the best options for vaccination against H. suis, as determined by the amount of colonizing H. suis bacteria in the stomach, although adverse effects such as post-immunization gastritis/pseudo-pyloric metaplasia and increased mortality were observed, respectively. Therefore, we decided to test alternative strategies, including sublingual vaccine administration, to reduce the unwanted side-effects. A CCR4 antagonist that transiently inhibits the migration of regulatory T cells was also included as a new adjuvant in this second study. Results confirmed that immunization with CT (intranasally or sublingually) is among the most effective vaccination protocols, but increased mortality was still observed. In the groups immunized subcutaneously with FC/lysate and CCR4 antagonist/lysate, a significant protection was observed. Compared to the FC/lysate immunized group, gastric pseudo-pyloric metaplasia was less severe or even absent in the CCR4 antagonist/lysate immunized group. In general, an inverse correlation was observed between IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17, KC, MIP-2 and LIX mRNA expression and H. suis colonization density, whereas lower IL-10 expression levels were observed in partially protected animals. PMID:26115373

  1. Side effects with amiodarone therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, R.; Jowett, N. I.; Thompson, D. R.; Pohl, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    Amiodarone hydrochloride is increasingly being used in the treatment of ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias. Although a highly effective anti-arrhythmic agent, its use is restricted by the high incidence of side effects. To elucidate the value of monitoring serum level of both the parent drug and its active metabolite in predicting the occurrence of side effects, the investigators examined 109 patients from a register of patients treated with amiodarone for the prevalence of known side effects of the drug. The register contained over 90% of patients treated with amiodarone at the Leicester General Hospital during the period of the study. The findings suggest cutaneous side effects and abnormal thyroid function tests (without overt gland dysfunction) are more likely to occur with increasing duration of treatment and cumulative dosage. However, neither the serum amiodarone level nor the serum metabolite level had any predictive power for the occurrence of side effects. In view of this finding, it is recommended that close attention be paid to the continued clinical monitoring of side effects and that there is utility in measuring the serum amiodarone level in each patient to avoid the prescription of unnecessarily high doses. This is necessary not only to lessen the occurrence of cumulative dose-related side effects, but also because the variable but very long half-life of the drug leads to difficulties in relating spot drug levels to long-term effects. PMID:7937427

  2. Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination The smallpox vaccine prevents smallpox. For most people, ... go away without treatment: The arm receiving the vaccination may be sore and red where the vaccine ...

  3. Side Effects and Their Management

    MedlinePlus

    Donate Donate One Time Monthly Event Tribute For brain tumor information and support Call: 800-886-ABTA (2282) ... Care and Treatment Newly Diagnosed Continuum of Care Brain Tumor Treatments Brain Tumor Treatment Locations Treatment Side Effects & ...

  4. [Side effect management of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in urology : Gastrointestinal side effects].

    PubMed

    Lieb, V; Rink, M; Sikic, D; Keck, B

    2016-06-01

    For approximately one decade, tyrosinkinase inhibitors (TKIs, smart drugs) have dramatically changed and improved the treatment of patients suffering from metastasized renal cell carcinoma. However, the different drugs have substantial side effects. Especially gastrointestinal symptoms may be problematic for patients. These side effects represent a challenge for the physician. On the one hand, dosage modifications and treatment interruption should be avoided to minimize the risk for progression. On the other hand, only mild side effects are tolerable for the patient. Based on a literature review, a clear overview of the incidence of possible side effects for the drugs axitinib, cabozantinib, pazopanib, sorafenib, and sunitinib is provided. Furthermore, we give a practical guide on how to prevent and treat the different gastrointestinal side effects. Finally, it is pointed out when dosage modifications or interruption of treatment are necessary and how to expeditiously re-escalate the treatment after mitigation of side effects. PMID:27146873

  5. Electrical transport and field-effect transistors using inkjet-printed SWCNT films having different functional side groups.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Espino, Eduardo; Sala, Giovanni; Pino, Flavio; Halonen, Niina; Luomahaara, Juho; Mäklin, Jani; Tóth, Géza; Kordás, Krisztián; Jantunen, Heli; Terrones, Mauricio; Helistö, Panu; Seppä, Heikki; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Vajtai, Robert

    2010-06-22

    The electrical properties of random networks of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) obtained by inkjet printing are studied. Water-based stable inks of functionalized SWNTs (carboxylic acid, amide, poly(ethylene glycol), and polyaminobenzene sulfonic acid) were prepared and applied to inkjet deposit microscopic patterns of nanotube films on lithographically defined silicon chips with a back-side gate arrangement. Source-drain transfer characteristics and gate-effect measurements confirm the important role of the chemical functional groups in the electrical behavior of carbon nanotube networks. Considerable nonlinear transport in conjunction with a high channel current on/off ratio of approximately 70 was observed with poly(ethylene glycol)-functionalized nanotubes. The positive temperature coefficient of channel resistance shows the nonmetallic behavior of the inkjet-printed films. Other inkjet-printed field-effect transistors using carboxyl-functionalized nanotubes as source, drain, and gate electrodes, poly(ethylene glycol)-functionalized nanotubes as the channel, and poly(ethylene glycol) as the gate dielectric were also tested and characterized. PMID:20481513

  6. Nonprescription ibuprofen: side effect profile.

    PubMed

    Furey, S A; Waksman, J A; Dash, B H

    1992-01-01

    Single doses of nonprescription analgesics are commonly used to treat self-diagnosed conditions. To evaluate the safety of single doses of nonprescription-strength ibuprofen, we examined reported side effects from 15 double-blind, randomized, controlled trials we conducted of the drug to treat various common painful conditions (e.g., headache, sore throat). All studies included placebo and another nonprescription analgesic, acetaminophen. A total of 878 subjects received ibuprofen 200 or 400 mg, 849 acetaminophen 650 or 1000 mg, and 852 placebo. The overall frequency of side effects was comparable: ibuprofen 2.4%, acetaminophen 3.2%, and placebo 2.1%. The frequency of central nervous system symptoms was 0.8%, 2.1%, and 0.9%, respectively. Upper gastro-intestinal upset ranged from 0.8-0.9% of subjects in all groups. We conclude that single doses of nonprescription ibuprofen are well tolerated and demonstrate a side effect profile indistinguishable from that of acetaminophen and placebo. PMID:1437701

  7. Effects, side effects and plasma concentrations of terbutaline in adult asthmatics after inhaling from a dry powder inhaler device at different inhalation flows and volumes.

    PubMed

    Engel, T; Scharling, B; Skovsted, B; Heinig, J H

    1992-04-01

    1. The efficacy of a metered dose inhaler (MDI) is highly dependent on the mode of inhalation. The relatively high built-in resistance in the Turbohaler (TBH), a new dry powder inhaler device for inhalation of terbutaline sulphate and budesonide, reduces the flow during inhalation. We compared five different modes of inhalation using the terbutaline TBH in 10 stable asthmatic subjects, who were tested on 5 consecutive days. 2. Measurement of 10 different parameters of pulmonary function indicated that the full bronchodilatory effect of an inhaled dose was already achieved at 5 min after the inhalation. Inspiratory flows through the TBH varying from 34 to 88 l min-1 resulted in comparable bronchodilation, and a previous exhalation to residual volume proved of no value. However, if, prior to inhalation, an exhalation through the device was performed, a substantially reduced effect was seen. 3. Reducing the inspiratory flow to approximately 34 l min-1 produced slightly reduced side effects and lower plasma terbutaline concentrations. PMID:1576070

  8. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Memory Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Memory Changes What is causing these changes? Your doctor ... thinking or remembering things Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Memory Changes Get help to remember things. Write down ...

  9. Fillers: Contraindications, Side Effects and Precautions

    PubMed Central

    Lafaille, Philippe; Benedetto, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Fillers are generally considered safe. However side effects may happen and hence a practicing dermatologist need to be aware of such side effects, contraindicatons and precaution to be adopted while using fillers. PMID:20606987

  10. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid Retention)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Swelling (Fluid retention) “My hands and feet were swollen and ... at one time. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid retention) Weigh yourself. l Weigh yourself at the ...

  11. Regional lung volume differences between the side-lying and semi-prone positions.

    PubMed

    Mase, Kyoushi; Tagami, Miki; Imura, Shigeyuki; Tomita, Kazuhide; Monma, Masahiko; Nozoe, Masafumi; Takashima, Yukie

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the differences in regional lung volume between the semi-prone (Sim's position) and side-lying position, and the optimal position for increasing lung volume. [Methods] Measurements were performed in both positions on both sides. Sim's position was inclined 45° forward from the side-lying position. A 1.5-T system with a fast advanced spin-echo sequence in the coronal plane was used for magnetic resonance imaging. [Results] The two positions did not significantly differ in total lung capacity and its subdivisions on both sides, except the left lung in the right side-lying position and right Sim's position. In the nondependent lung, the percentage lung volume of the dorsal segment was significantly higher in the right Sim's position than in the right side-lying position. However, no significant difference was observed between the left side-lying and left Sim's position. [Conclusion] The heart was displaced ventrally by gravity in Sim's position and leaned on the ventral parapet. The spaces for the expansion of the ventral and dorsal segments of the lung were decreased and increased in Sim's position, respectively. With a nondependent left lung, the increase in the percentage lung volume of the dorsal segment was greater in Sim's position than in the side-lying position. PMID:27134405

  12. Regional lung volume differences between the side-lying and semi-prone positions

    PubMed Central

    Mase, Kyoushi; Tagami, Miki; Imura, Shigeyuki; Tomita, Kazuhide; Monma, Masahiko; Nozoe, Masafumi; Takashima, Yukie

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the differences in regional lung volume between the semi-prone (Sim’s position) and side-lying position, and the optimal position for increasing lung volume. [Methods] Measurements were performed in both positions on both sides. Sim’s position was inclined 45° forward from the side-lying position. A 1.5-T system with a fast advanced spin-echo sequence in the coronal plane was used for magnetic resonance imaging. [Results] The two positions did not significantly differ in total lung capacity and its subdivisions on both sides, except the left lung in the right side-lying position and right Sim’s position. In the nondependent lung, the percentage lung volume of the dorsal segment was significantly higher in the right Sim’s position than in the right side-lying position. However, no significant difference was observed between the left side-lying and left Sim’s position. [Conclusion] The heart was displaced ventrally by gravity in Sim’s position and leaned on the ventral parapet. The spaces for the expansion of the ventral and dorsal segments of the lung were decreased and increased in Sim’s position, respectively. With a nondependent left lung, the increase in the percentage lung volume of the dorsal segment was greater in Sim’s position than in the side-lying position. PMID:27134405

  13. Side Effects of Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Ahsun; Awais, Rafia; Salem, Riad

    2014-01-01

    Limited therapeutic options are available for hepatic malignancies. Image guided targeted therapies have established their role in management of primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. Radioembolization with yttrium-90 (90Y) microspheres is safe and efficacious for treatment of hepatic malignancies. The tumoricidal effect of radioembolization is predominantly due to radioactivity and not ischemia. This article will present a comprehensive review of the side effects that have been associated with radioembolization using 90Y microspheres. Some of the described side effects are associated with all transarterial procedures. Side effects specific to radioembolization will also be discussed in detail. Methods to decrease the incidence of these potential side effects will also be discussed. PMID:25120955

  14. Metabolic Network Prediction of Drug Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Shaked, Itay; Oberhardt, Matthew A; Atias, Nir; Sharan, Roded; Ruppin, Eytan

    2016-03-23

    Drug side effects levy a massive cost on society through drug failures, morbidity, and mortality cases every year, and their early detection is critically important. Here, we describe the array of model-based phenotype predictors (AMPP), an approach that leverages medical informatics resources and a human genome-scale metabolic model (GSMM) to predict drug side effects. AMPP is substantially predictive (AUC > 0.7) for >70 drug side effects, including very serious ones such as interstitial nephritis and extrapyramidal disorders. We evaluate AMPP's predictive signal through cross-validation, comparison across multiple versions of a side effects database, and co-occurrence analysis of drug side effect associations in scientific abstracts (hypergeometric p value = 2.2e-40). AMPP outperforms a previous biochemical structure-based method in predicting metabolically based side effects (aggregate AUC = 0.65 versus 0.59). Importantly, AMPP enables the identification of key metabolic reactions and biomarkers that are predictive of specific side effects. Taken together, this work lays a foundation for future detection of metabolically grounded side effects during early stages of drug development. PMID:27135366

  15. Side effects of commonly prescribed analgesic medications.

    PubMed

    Carter, Gregory T; Duong, Vicky; Ho, Stanley; Ngo, Kathryn C; Greer, Christopher L; Weeks, Douglas L

    2014-05-01

    Analgesics, including opioids, steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin, acetaminophen, antiepileptics, and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, are medications commonly used to treat many forms of pain. However, all of these agents may have significant adverse side effects. Adverse effects may occasionally be inseparable from desired effects. Side effects are often dose dependent and time dependent. It is critical that the prescribing practitioner and the dispensing pharmacist provide a thorough, understandable review of the potential side effects to all patients before these drugs are administered. Proper monitoring and follow-up during therapy are crucial. PMID:24787343

  16. The effect of different aeration conditions in activated sludge--Side-stream system on sludge production, sludge degradation rates, active biomass and extracellular polymeric substances.

    PubMed

    Habermacher, Jonathan; Benetti, Antonio Domingues; Derlon, Nicolas; Morgenroth, Eberhard

    2015-11-15

    On-site minimization of excess sludge production is a relevant strategy for the operation of small-scale and decentralized wastewater treatment plants. In the study, we evaluated the potential of activated sludge systems equipped with side-stream reactors (SSRs). This study especially focused on how the sequential exposure of sludge to different aeration conditions in the side-stream reactors influences the overall degradation of sludge and of its specific fractions (active biomass, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), EPS proteins, EPS carbohydrates). We found that increasing the solid retention time from 25 to 40 and 80 days enhanced sludge degradation for all aeration conditions tested in the side-stream reactor. Also, the highest specific degradation rate and in turn the lowest sludge production were achieved when maintaining aerobic conditions in the side-stream reactors. The different sludge fractions in terms of active biomass (quantified based on adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) measurements), EPS proteins and EPS carbohydrates were quantified before and after passage through the SSR. The relative amounts of active biomass and EPS to volatile suspended solids (VSS) did not changed when exposed to different aeration conditions in the SSRs, which indicates that long SRT and starvation in the SSRs did not promote the degradation of a specific sludge fraction. Overall, our study helps to better understand mechanisms of enhanced sludge degradation in systems operated at long SRTs. PMID:26295938

  17. A STUDY OF SIDE EFFECTS OF LITHIUM

    PubMed Central

    Rao, A. Venkoba; Hariharasubramanian, N.; Sugumar, A.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY The present report is a study on the side effects experienced by the patients attending the Lithium Clinic of the Institute of Psychiatry, Government Rajaji Hospital, Madurai. Out of the 120 (M 78, F42) patients studied, 97 had side effects. The effects were examined in respect of their frequency, time of onset and course, their relation to one dose and serum levels of lithium and to the clinical response. The duration of therapy ranged from 3 months to 6 years. The most frequent side effects were tremors (26.6%) and polyuria (20.8%). The side effects occurred at varying periods from the onset of therapy. During the first 3 months, tremors, excess salivation, nausea and abdominal discomfort; weight gain, memory defects and polyuria, between 3 months and 1 year; and hypothyroidism, tardive dyskinesia, acne and hair fall beyond one year. PMID:21847262

  18. Unique side effects of interferon.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Hina; Qadeer, Rashid; Kashif, Syed Mohammad; Rehan, Muhammad; Afsar, Salahuddin

    2015-08-01

    Interferon-alpha, a potent mediator of host immune response, has immunomodulatory properties in addition to its antiviral effects. A wide spectrum of autoimmune diseases can occur in patients treated with interferon-alpha for chronic hepatitis B and D, of which clinical systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) accounts for less than 1% and hypothyroidism for 2-4 %. We report herein a case of a 16-year-old male who developed antinuclear antibody (ANA)-negative SLE and hypothyroidism after treatment with interferon-alpha for chronic hepatitis. High index of suspicion is therefore necessary in all patients treated with interferon for early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26228341

  19. A second international cooperative investigation into thioacetazone side effects

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A. B.; Nunn, A. J.; Robinson, D. K.; Fox, Wallace; Somasundaram, P. R.; Tall, Ruth

    1972-01-01

    As part of a large-scale international cooperative investigation into the side effects of thioacetazone-containing regimens in the treatment of tuberculosis, an evaluation has been made of the variation in the frequency of side effects between different countries and between different centres in the same country and of the likely reasons for this variation. In 3 countries patients of different racial origin were under observation in the same hospital. Over a 12-week period of treatment there was considerable variation between the countries and centres in the overall frequency of side effects and of those leading to a major departure from prescribed treatment, the variation being similar for the two thioacetazone-containing regimens and for the streptomycin plus isoniazid control regimen, though at a lower level for the latter. In Malaysia, Singapore, and Trinidad, where different racial groups were under treatment, there was no clear indication that race was an important factor in explaining the differences between countries, except for cutaneous side effects in Trinidad and possibly in Malaysia. It is concluded that the differences in the frequency of side effects to thioacetazone-containing regimens probably result from variation in the closeness of supervision of patients, in the recording and interpretation of side effects, and in environmental factors including the previous use of other medicaments or exposure to sensitizing substances. PMID:4118761

  20. Side effects of cytokines approved for therapy.

    PubMed

    Baldo, Brian A

    2014-11-01

    Cytokines, currently known to be more than 130 in number, are small MW (<30 kDa) key signaling proteins that modulate cellular activities in immunity, infection, inflammation and malignancy. Key to understanding their function is recognition of their pleiotropism and often overlapping and functional redundancies. Classified here into 9 main families, most of the 20 approved cytokine preparations (18 different cytokines; 3 pegylated), all in recombinant human (rh) form, are grouped in the hematopoietic growth factor, interferon, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) families. In the hematopoietin family, approved cytokines are aldesleukin (rhIL-2), oprelvekin (rhIL-11), filgrastim and tbo-filgrastim (rhG-CSF), sargramostim (rhGM-CSF), metreleptin (rh-leptin) and the rh-erythropoietins, epoetin and darbepoietin alfa. Anakinra, a recombinant receptor antagonist for IL-1, is in the IL-1 family; recombinant interferons alfa-1, alfa-2, beta-1 and gamma-1 make up the interferon family; palifermin (rhKGF) and becaplermin (rhPDGF) are in the PDGF family; and rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-7 represent the TGFβ family. The main physicochemical features, FDA-approved indications, modes of action and side effects of these approved cytokines are presented. Underlying each adverse events profile is their pleiotropism, potency and capacity to release other cytokines producing cytokine 'cocktails'. Side effects, some serious, occur despite cytokines being endogenous proteins, and this therefore demands caution in attempts to introduce individual members into the clinic. This caution is reflected in the relatively small number of cytokines currently approved by regulatory agencies and by the fact that 14 of the FDA-approved preparations carry warnings, with 10 being black box warnings. PMID:25270293

  1. Some side-effects of alpha-methyldopa.

    PubMed

    Pillay, V K

    1976-04-10

    Three different regimens of drug treatment for hypertension were compared with regard to the development of undesirable side-effects in a group of 53 patients attending a hypertension clinic. The combination of alpha-methyldopa and chlorthalidone produced the highest incidence of side-effects. Weakness and impotence were most frequently encountered. In contrast, the combination of chlorthalidone, hydralazine and propranolol, and chlorthalidone alone, produced fewer side-effects. It is recommended that alpha-methyldopa should not be a first choice in the treatment of hypertension. PMID:1224274

  2. The Social Side Effects of Acetaminophen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mischkowski, Dominik

    About 23% of all adults in the US take acetaminophen during an average week (Kaufman, Kelly, Rosenberg, Anderson, & Mitchell, 2002) because acetaminophen is an effective physical painkiller and easily accessible over the counter. The physiological side effects of acetaminophen are well documented and generally mild when acetaminophen is consumed in the appropriate dosage. In contrast, the psychological and social side effects of acetaminophen are largely unknown. Recent functional neuroimaging research suggests that the experience of physical pain is fundamentally related to the experience of empathy for the pain of other people, indicating that pharmacologically reducing responsiveness to physical pain also reduces cognitive, affective, and behavioral responsiveness to the pain of others. I tested this hypothesis across three double-blind between-subjects drug intervention studies. Two experiments showed that acetaminophen had moderate effects on empathic affect, specifically personal distress and empathic concern, and a small effect on empathic cognition, specifically perceived pain, when facing physical and social pain of others. The same two experiments and a third experiment also showed that acetaminophen can increase the willingness to inflict pain on other people, i.e., actual aggressive behavior. This effect was especially pronounced among people low in dispositional empathic concern. Together, these findings suggest that the physical pain system is more involved in the regulation of social cognition, affect, and behavior than previously assumed and that the experience of physical pain and responsiveness to the pain of others share a common neurochemical basis. Furthermore, these findings suggest that acetaminophen has unappreciated but serious social side effects, and that these side effects may depend on psychological characteristics of the drug consumer. This idea is consistent with recent theory and research on the context-dependency of neurochemical

  3. Stitching interferometry: side effects and PSD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Michael

    1999-11-01

    Stitching Interferometry is rapidly emerging as an alternative to Standard Interferometry, in the measurement of Large Optics -- such as those found in Laser MegaJoule and NIF. Stitching Interferometry involves multiple overlapping sub-aperture measurements over large components, and a computer software to reconstruct the wavefronts. Obviously, the Stitching Interferometer's measurement characteristics have to be different to those of the Standard Interferometer of same nominal measurement area. Two questions emerge: (1) What metric do we choose to express these characteristics? (2) How does Stitching Interferometry compare to Standard Interferometry, using this metric? We choose to use the PSD to illustrate how Stitching Interferometry of large components compares with Standard Large-Size Interferometry, for various lateral scales. Also, we highlight some important characteristics of Stitching Interferometry, which arise from judicious use of the particular configuration of the device. Ignorance of basic propagation phenomena can lead to bad design of the Stitching Interferometer, and loss of any performance advantage over Standard Interferometry. Because many of these effects are not direct consequences of the Stitching process, we call them side effects. In this paper, we provide basic explanation, and keep the mathematics to a low profile -- indeed, it is not necessary to actually compute anything to understand the effects. However, some very basic formulas, a few numerical tables and lots of graphs are presented, in order to provide basis for discussion.

  4. Enhancing Clinical Trials by Incorporating Side Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrag, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is often seen as a model for evidence-based education, and deservedly so, but evaluators in education have been slow to adopt one of its salient features, attention to side effects. Many education evaluations focus almost exclusively on efficacy, that is on achievement test scores. Regardless of domain, all interventions…

  5. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. Then I got used ... uncovered.” Questions other people have asked: Why does hair fall out? Chemotherapy can harm the cells that ...

  6. Triptans and CNS side-effects: pharmacokinetic and metabolic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dodick, D W; Martin, V

    2004-06-01

    Triptans are the treatment of choice for acute migraine. While seemingly a homogenous group of drugs, results from a meta-analysis reveal significant differences in efficacy and tolerability among oral triptans. The incidence of drug-related central nervous system (CNS) side-effects with some triptans is as high as 15% and may be associated with functional impairment and reduced productivity. The occurrence of adverse events associated with triptans in general, and CNS side-effects in particular, may lead to a delay in initiating or even avoidance of an otherwise effective treatment. Potential explanations for differences among triptans in the incidence of CNS side-effects may relate to pharmacological and pharmacokinetic differences, including receptor binding, lipophilicity, and the presence of active metabolites. Of the triptans reviewed, at clinically relevant doses, almotriptan 12.5 mg, naratriptan 2.5 mg and sumatriptan 50 mg had the lowest incidence of CNS side-effects, while eletriptan 40 and 80 mg, rizatriptan 10 mg and zolmitriptan 2.5 and 5 mg had the highest incidence. The most likely explanations for the differences in CNS side-effects among triptans are the presence of active metabolites and high lipophilicity of the parent compound and active metabolites. Eletriptan, rizatriptan and zolmitriptan have active metabolites, while lipophilicity is lowest for almotriptan and sumatriptan. If CNS side-effects are a clinically relevant concern in the individual patient, use of a triptan with a low incidence of CNS side-effects may offer the potential for earlier initiation of treatment and more effective outcomes. PMID:15154851

  7. The Geographies of Difference: The Production of the East Side, West Side, and Central City School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buendia, Edward; Ares, Nancy; Juarez, Brenda G.; Peercy, Megan

    2004-01-01

    Citywide constructs such as "West Side" or "South Side" are spatial codes that result from more than the informal conversations of city residents. This article shows how elementary school educators in one U.S. metropolitan school district participated in the production of a local knowledge of the East Side and West Side space and individual. It…

  8. Ocular side effects of accutane therapy.

    PubMed

    Lerman, S

    1992-01-01

    The recent interest in treating acne with one of the retinoid drugs has been accompanied by a wide variety of ocular side effects involving the eyelids, cornea, lens, optic nerve and retina. In one group of patients being evaluated for possible efficacy of a retinoic acid analogue in treating psoriasis, several patients complained of difficulty driving at night due to decreased dark adaptation which we were able to document. Fortunately, most of the above side effects tend to disappear within months after the drug is discontinued. However, we have recently seen two cases of dry eye syndrome associated with Accutane therapy that have persisted for more than two years. In addition, scattered reports have appeared regarding cataracts in young patients (teens to early 40's) which developed during, and/or after Accutane treatment. We have examined lens matter derived from two such patients who had extracapsular cataract extractions. Their lens proteins showed an elevation in UV absorptivity (between 330-390 nm) compared with matched control material (derived from Eye Bank specimens) and HPLC analyses demonstrated an abnormal peak in their profiles which was similar to one present in control samples incubated with retinoic acid and was not present in lens protein samples derived from cataracts not associated with Accutance therapy. These observations demonstrate that some of the Accutane induced ocular side affects are not reversible when the drug is stopped, and patients on such therapy should be carefully monitored. PMID:1301795

  9. The nocebo effect: patient expectations and medication side effects.

    PubMed

    Faasse, Kate; Petrie, Keith J

    2013-09-01

    Expectation of treatment side effects is consistently linked with those symptoms being realised. Patient expectations, including those generated by the informed consent process, can have a large influence on the side effects that patients feel after starting a new medical treatment. Such symptoms may be the result of the nocebo effect, whereby the expectation of side effects leads to them being experienced. Side effects may also be due to the misattribution of pre-existing or unrelated symptoms to the new medication. Medical professionals' own negative beliefs about a treatment, especially generic drugs, may further enhance patients' expectations of adverse effects. The news media may also influence expectations, particularly when media attention is directed towards a health or medication scare. This field of research has ethical and clinical implications for both medical professionals and the news media with respect to the level and type of information about treatment side effects that is provided to patients or members of the public. PMID:23842213

  10. A side effect resource to capture phenotypic effects of drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Michael; Campillos, Monica; Letunic, Ivica; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Bork, Peer

    2010-01-01

    The molecular understanding of phenotypes caused by drugs in humans is essential for elucidating mechanisms of action and for developing personalized medicines. Side effects of drugs (also known as adverse drug reactions) are an important source of human phenotypic information, but so far research on this topic has been hampered by insufficient accessibility of data. Consequently, we have developed a public, computer-readable side effect resource (SIDER) that connects 888 drugs to 1450 side effect terms. It contains information on frequency in patients for one-third of the drug–side effect pairs. For 199 drugs, the side effect frequency of placebo administration could also be extracted. We illustrate the potential of SIDER with a number of analyses. The resource is freely available for academic research at http://sideeffects.embl.de. PMID:20087340

  11. [Control of the effects and side-effects of detergents].

    PubMed

    Schneider, W

    1977-08-01

    An examination of detergents on the skin has to take into account the facultative sensibilisation and the wear and tear. In this connection the effect of summation between soapbody and perfume is pointed out as well as the different results of skin tests. To control the obligate effects, first of all a reliable technical reference has to be established; this is the washing activity, to which the side-effects then are related. To measure the hydratation, the resonance-frequency method of Tronnier and Wagener is used, where especially the syndets react very differently: partly similar to water and partly similar to soft soap. Further methods of examination are the measurement of the roughness and the quantitative determination of the fat of the skin. Concerning certain hand wash detergents and industrial cleaners the grade of rubbing is also of interest. Finally the relatively good compatibility of the bioactive detergents and the rinsing agents is discussed. PMID:588219

  12. Cardiovascular side effects of psychopharmacologic therapy.

    PubMed

    Potočnjak, Ines; Degoricija, Vesna; Vukičević Baudoin, Dina; Čulig, Josip; Jakovljević, Miro

    2016-09-15

    WHO defined in 1976 psychopharmaca as drugs affecting psychological functions, behaviour and self-perception. Psychopharmacology is the study of pharmacological agents that affect mental and emotional functions. Creative approach to psychopharmacotherapy reflects a transdisciplinary, integrative and person-centered psychiatry. Psychiatric disorders often occur in cardiac patients and can affect the clinical presentation and morbidity. Cardiovascular (CV) side effects (SE) caused by psychopharmaceutic agents require comprehensive attention. Therapeutic approach can increase placebo and decrease nocebo reactions. The main purpose of this review is to comprehend CV SE of psychotropic drugs (PD). Critical overview of CV SE of PD will be presented in this review. Search was directed but not limited to CV effects of psychopharmacological substances, namely antipsychotics, anxiolytics, hypnotics, sedatives, antidepressants and stimulants. Literature review was performed and data identified by searches of Medline and PubMed for period from 2004 to 2015. Only full articles and abstracts published in English were included. SE of PD are organized according to the following types of CV effects: cardiac and circulatory effects, abnormalities of cardiac repolarisation and arrhythmias and heart muscle disease. There is wide spectrum and various CV effects of PD. Results of this review are based on literature research. The reviewed data came largely from prevalence studies, case reports, and cross-sectional studies. Psychopharmacotherapy of psychiatric disorders is complex and when concomitantly present with CV disease, presentation of drug SEs can significantly contribute to illness course. Further development of creative psychopharmacotherapy is required to deal with CV effects of PD. PMID:27352209

  13. Narrating narcolepsy--centering a side effect.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Britta

    2015-01-01

    The mass-vaccination with Pandemrix was the most important preventive measure in Sweden during the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic of 2009-2010, and covered 60% of the population. From 2010, an increased incidence of the neurological disease narcolepsy was reported, and an association with Pandemrix was affirmed for more than 200 children and young adults. The parental experience of this side effect provided a starting point for a collectively shaped critical narrative to be acted out in public, but also personalized narratives of continual learning about the disease and its consequences. This didactic functionality resulted in active meaning-making practices about how to handle the aftermath--using dark humor, cognitive tricks, and making themselves and their children's bodies both objects and subjects of knowledge. Using material from interviews with parents, this mixing of knowledge work and political work, and the potential for reflective consciousness, is discussed. PMID:25457625

  14. Systemic side effects of locally used oxymetazoline

    PubMed Central

    Dokuyucu, Recep; Gokce, Hasan; Sahan, Mustafa; Sefil, Fatih; Tas, Zeynel Abidin; Tutuk, Okan; Ozturk, Atakan; Tumer, Cemil; Cevik, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The object of the study is to experimentally investigate the possible systemic side effects of Oxymetazoline including its nasal spray which has been in use for a long time both by the physicians and patients. There is no study in the literature to address the damages of oxymetazoline on the end organ. Materials and methods: The study conducted on 2 groups of rat. Group 1 (n = 8): Control; and Group 2 (n = 8): Oxymetazoline. During 4 week, the control group was applied with 2 drops of saline water on each nasal cavity 3 times a day and the other group was applied with 2 drops of oxymetazoline HCl 3 times a day. At the end of experiment, samples from mandible, parotid and tails of the rats were taken in 10% formalin for histopathological investigations. Results: In histopathological experiments, when compared with the control group, the oxymetazoline group showed significant increase in many of the histopathological parameters (ischemic changes: P = 0.0001; congestion: P = 0.0006; arterial thrombosis: P = Ns; PNL accumulations: P = 0.001; necrosis: P = 0.0001; and ulceration: P = 0.014). The results of histopathologic tests on the samples taken from mandible and parotid gland, in comparison with the control group, showed no significant increase (focal inflammation: P = Ns; and lymphocyte aggregation: P = Ns). Conclusion: Due to the damage that the long-term use of nasal spray including oxymetazoline, it may cause injury on the end organ, which we revealed in our histopathological experiments. We believe that it’s essential for the physicians to provide information on the side effects of the medicine to their patients who use for a long term. PMID:25932218

  15. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Skin and Nail Changes

    MedlinePlus

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Skin and Nail Changes “I was glad to ... human services national institutes of health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Skin and Nail Changes Protect your skin from ...

  16. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Fatigue (Feeling Weak and Very Tired)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Fatigue (Feeling weak and very tired) Why do ... manage or treat your fatigue. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Fatigue (Feeling weak and very tired) Take time ...

  17. Reducing Aversion to Side Effects in Preventive Medical Treatment Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Erika A.; Weinstein, Neil D.; Colditz, Graham A.; Emmons, Karen M.

    2007-01-01

    Laypeople tend to be overly sensitive to side effects of treatments that prevent illness, possibly leading them to refuse beneficial therapies. This Internet-based study attempted to reduce such side effect aversion by adding graphic displays to the numerical risk probabilities. It also explored whether graphics reduce side effect aversion by…

  18. Hyperprolactinaemia - a risperidone side-effect.

    PubMed

    Grahovac, Tanja; Ruzić, Klementina; Medved, Paola; Pavesić-Radonja, Aristea; Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta

    2010-03-01

    A 47 year old patient has been treated for psychotic depression for the last 5 years. The illness began manifesting through the symptoms of depressive thoughts, intrapsychic tension, projectivity, derealisation phenomena and pre-psychotic fears. She was treated with a combination of antidepressives, anxiolitics and hypnotics in ambulatory conditions. The therapy applied did not obtain the effects expected due to which an atypical antipsychotic was administered subsequently - risperidone, a 2 mg dose in the evening. After commencing the antipsychotic treatment, the symptoms started to weaken and a steady remission was obtained. Two years after a regular risperidone administration (in combination with fluoxetine, alprazolam and flurazepam) the patient reported some "bleeding" in October 2006. Hormonal blood tests were performed and high prolactin values were registered (2567.0 mIJ/L),due to which a gradual risperidone retractement was indicated. Medicamentous hyperprolactinaemia is a well known side effect of risperidone. A gradual risperidone retractement lead to a lowered and normal prolactin level within a month. PMID:20305606

  19. Safety and side effect profile of fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Wernicke, Joachim F

    2004-09-01

    Fluoxetine was the first selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor to be widely available for treatment of depression and numerous other neuropsychiatric disorders. Its attributes have been described in numerous scientific papers, and it has been the subject of a considerable volume of lay press. Fluoxetine is generally safe and well-tolerated. Common adverse events reported with the recommended dose of 20 mg/day are referable to the gastrointestinal system and the nervous system. The approved dose range is up to 80 mg/day, and when higher doses are used, adverse events are more common. The long half-life of fluoxetine and its active metabolite essentially preclude a withdrawal phenomenon. It is an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 and other CYP enzymes, which increases the potential for drug interactions. However, most of these are not clinically important. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of some of the most important information related to safety and side effects of this drug. PMID:15335304

  20. Nonspecific side effects of oral contraceptives: nocebo or noise?

    PubMed

    Grimes, David A; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2011-01-01

    Side effects of combined oral contraceptives are the most common reason why women discontinue them. Over the past half century, an elaborate mythology about these ill effects has evolved, fueled by rumor, gossip and poor-quality research. In contrast, placebo-controlled randomized trials document that nonspecific side effects are not significantly more common with combined oral contraceptives than with inert pills. These reported nonspecific side effects may reflect the nocebo phenomenon (the inverse of a placebo): if women are told to expect noxious side effects, these complaints occur because of the power of suggestion. Alternatively, nonspecific complaints may simply reflect their background prevalence in the population. Because Level I evidence documents no important increase in nonspecific side effects with oral contraceptives, counseling about these side effects or including them in package labeling is unwarranted and probably unethical. When in doubt, clinicians should err on the side of optimism. PMID:21134497

  1. Toward achieving optimal response: understanding and managing antidepressant side effects

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Karen; Posternak, Michael; Jonathan, E. Alpert

    2008-01-01

    The safety and tolerability of antidepressants have improved considerably over the past two decades, Nevertheless, antidepressant side effects are still common and problematic. The majority of patients treated with contemporary agents experience one or more bothersome side effects. These side effects often create barriers to achieving depressive remission, as well as to preventing relapse and recurrence. Clinicians tend to underestimate the prevalence of side effects, and as many as one quarter of patients discontinue their antidepressants because of difficult-to-tolerate side effects; others may continue on antidepressant therapy but experience diminished quality of life related to troublesome side effects. This article reviews the prevalence of side effects, the impact of side effects on treatment adherence, and methodological issues including the challenge of distinguishing side effects from residual depressive symptoms, discontinuation effects, and general medical problems. In addition, we address the most common side effects such as sexual dysfunction, gastrointestinal problems, sleep disturbance, apathy, and fatigue, and offer strategies for management that may help patients achieve optimal response to pharmacotherapy. PMID:19170398

  2. Side Effects of Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists in Asthmatic Children

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Semiha Bahceci; Nacaroglu, Hikmet Tekin; Unsal Karkiner, Canan Sule; Gunay, Ilker; Can, Demet

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are drugs which have been widely used more than ten years. As the use of LTRAs increases, our knowledge with respect to their side effects increases as well. Objectives: The objective of our study was to evaluat the observed side effects of LTRAs used in patients with astma. Patients and Methods: 1024 patients treated only with LTRAs owing to asthma or early wheezing were included in the study for a five-year period. The observed side effects of LTRAs in these patients were retrospectively investigated. The side effects were divided into two parts as psychiatric and non-psychiatric. Results: Among the 1024 cases included in the study, 67.5% of the patients out of 41 with side effects were male, 32.5% were female and the average age was 6.5 years. The rate of patients with asthma was 63.41% and 36.58% of the patients had early wheezing. It was determined that sex, age and diagnosis (early wheezing or asthma) of the patients were ineffective in the emergence of side effects. The average period for the emergence of side effects was the first month. It was observed that hyperactivity was the most frequently observed psychiatric side effect and that abdominal pain was the non-psychiatric side effect. Conclusions: The side effects of LTRAs were common in children. Therefore, patients must be informed at the beginning of the treatment and they must be evaluated at certain intervals. PMID:26495098

  3. Clinical side effects during aerosol therapy: cutaneous and ocular effects.

    PubMed

    Geller, David E

    2007-01-01

    Aerosolized medications maximize clinical benefit by targeting the airways and minimize side effects by reducing (though not eliminating) systemic exposure. Aerosolized drugs delivered with a facemask may inadvertently deposit on the face and in the eyes, raising concerns about cutaneous and ocular side effects with these drugs. Cases of anisocoria have been reported from exposure of the eyes to aerosol bronchodilators. Whether inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) can cause skin and eye problems like those seen with systemic or topical steroids is more difficult to answer. Patients who take ICS may have other corticosteroid exposures, or have other conditions that predispose them to side effects, making the analysis of the ICS risk challenging. Also, many studies were not designed to search for cutaneous or ocular effects, or may have been too short to detect these effects. Nevertheless, ICS have been associated with an increased risk of skin thinning, bruising, cataracts and possibly glaucoma in adults, but not in children. The risks increase with advanced age, higher doses, and longer duration of use. In children, the risks of cataracts and glaucoma were negligible with ICS, whether a mouthpiece or a mask interface was used. Side effects like skin rash and conjunctivitis occurred at low frequencies similar to placebo or comparator drugs. We do not know whether exposed children will have increased risks from ICS later in life. Therefore, it is wise to avoid face and eye deposition when possible, and to use the minimally effective dose. PMID:17411401

  4. Computational Performance Evaluation of a Side Structure Considering Stamping Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Se-Ho; Kim, Kee-Poong

    In this paper, the influence of the stamping effect is investigated in the performance analysis of a side structure. The analysis covers the performance evaluation such as crashworthiness and NVH. Stamping analyses are carried out for a center pillar, and then, numerical simulations are carried out in order to identify the stamping effect on the crashworthiness and the natural frequency. The result shows that the analysis considering the forming history leads to a different result from that without considering the stamping effect, which demonstrates that the design of auto-body should be carried out considering the stamping history for accurate assessment of various performances.

  5. Effects of number of side dumps and side dump angles on outlet parameters in a side-dump combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojtahedpoor, M.; Doustdar, M. M.; Soltani, H.; Chegini, M.

    2012-11-01

    A numerical study on the effect of side-dump number on fuel droplets sizing and effective mass fraction have been investigated in present paper. The mass of fuel vapor inside the flammability limit is named as the effective mass fraction. In the first step we have considered a side-dump combustor with two dumps and dump angle of 0o (plumb to cylinder) and by increasing the entrance airflow velocity from 20 to 30, 40 and 50 (m/s) respectively, the mean diameter of fuel droplets sizing and effective mass fraction have been studied. After this step, we have changed the number of dumps from two to four and we have repeated last examination again. To fulfill the calculations a modified version of KIVA-3V code which is a transient, three-dimensional, multiphase, multicomponent code for the analysis of chemically reacting flows with sprays, is used.

  6. Side-effects of topical steroids: A long overdue revisit

    PubMed Central

    Coondoo, Arijit; Phiske, Meghana; Verma, Shyam; Lahiri, Koushik

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of topical steroids (TS) of varying potency have rendered the therapy of inflammatory cutaneous disorders more effective and less time-consuming. However the usefulness of these has become a double edged sword with constantly rising instances of abuse and misuse leading to serious local, systemic and psychological side effects. These side effects occur more with TS of higher potency and on particular areas of the body like face and genitalia. The article reviews the side effects of TS with special mention about peadiatric age group, also includes the measures for preventing the side effects. PMID:25396122

  7. Beam characteristics in two different proton uniform scanning systems: A side-by-side comparison

    PubMed Central

    Nichiporov, Dmitri; Hsi, Wen; Farr, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare clinically relevant dosimetric characteristics of proton therapy fields produced by two uniform scanning systems that have a number of similar hardware components but employ different techniques of beam spreading. Methods: This work compares two technologically distinct systems implementing a method of uniform scanning and layer stacking that has been developed independently at Indiana University (IU) and by Ion Beam Applications, S. A. (IBA). Clinically relevant dosimetric characteristics of fields produced by these systems are studied, such as beam range control, peak-to-entrance ratio (PER), lateral penumbra, field flatness, effective source position, precision of dose delivery at different gantry angles, etc. Results: Under comparable conditions, both systems controlled beam range with an accuracy of 0.5 mm and a precision of 0.1 mm. Compared to IBA, the IU system produced pristine peaks with a slightly higher PER (3.23 and 3.45, respectively) and smaller, symmetrical, lateral in-air penumbra of 1 mm compared to about 1.9/2.4 mm in the inplane/crossplane (IP/CP) directions for IBA. Large field flatness results in the IP/CP directions were similar: 3.0/2.4% for IU and 2.9/2.4% for IBA. The IU system featured a longer virtual source-to-isocenter position, which was the same for the IP and CP directions (237 cm), as opposed to 212/192 cm (IP/CP) for IBA. Dose delivery precision at different gantry angles was higher in the IBA system (0.5%) than in the IU system (1%). Conclusions: Each of the two uniform scanning systems considered in this work shows some attractive performance characteristics while having other features that can be further improved. Overall, radiation field characteristics of both systems meet their clinical specifications and show comparable results. Most of the differences observed between the two systems are clinically insignificant. PMID:22559626

  8. Beam characteristics in two different proton uniform scanning systems: A side-by-side comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Nichiporov, Dmitri; Hsi Wen; Farr, Jonathan

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: To compare clinically relevant dosimetric characteristics of proton therapy fields produced by two uniform scanning systems that have a number of similar hardware components but employ different techniques of beam spreading. Methods: This work compares two technologically distinct systems implementing a method of uniform scanning and layer stacking that has been developed independently at Indiana University (IU) and by Ion Beam Applications, S. A. (IBA). Clinically relevant dosimetric characteristics of fields produced by these systems are studied, such as beam range control, peak-to-entrance ratio (PER), lateral penumbra, field flatness, effective source position, precision of dose delivery at different gantry angles, etc. Results: Under comparable conditions, both systems controlled beam range with an accuracy of 0.5 mm and a precision of 0.1 mm. Compared to IBA, the IU system produced pristine peaks with a slightly higher PER (3.23 and 3.45, respectively) and smaller, symmetrical, lateral in-air penumbra of 1 mm compared to about 1.9/2.4 mm in the inplane/crossplane (IP/CP) directions for IBA. Large field flatness results in the IP/CP directions were similar: 3.0/2.4% for IU and 2.9/2.4% for IBA. The IU system featured a longer virtual source-to-isocenter position, which was the same for the IP and CP directions (237 cm), as opposed to 212/192 cm (IP/CP) for IBA. Dose delivery precision at different gantry angles was higher in the IBA system (0.5%) than in the IU system (1%). Conclusions: Each of the two uniform scanning systems considered in this work shows some attractive performance characteristics while having other features that can be further improved. Overall, radiation field characteristics of both systems meet their clinical specifications and show comparable results. Most of the differences observed between the two systems are clinically insignificant.

  9. Pharmacogenetics and Antipsychotics: Therapeutic Efficacy and Side Effects Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Ping; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Antipsychotic drug is the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia, and there are large inter-individual differences is clinical response and side effects. Pharmacogenetics provides a valuable tool to fulfill the promise of personalized medicine by tailoring treatment based on one's genetic markers. Areas covered in this review This article reviews the pharmacogenetic literature from early 1990s to 2010, focusing on two aspects of drug action: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Genetic variants in the neurotransmitter receptors including dopamine and serotonin, and metabolic pathways of drugs including CYP2D6 and COMT, were discussed in association with clinical drug response and side effects. What the reader will gain Readers are expected to learn the up-to-date evidence in pharmacogenetic research, and to gain familiarity to the issues and challenges facing the field. Take home message Pharmacogenetic research of antipsychotic drugs is both promising and challenging. There is consistent evidence that some genetic variants can affect clinical response and side effects. However, more studies that are designed specifically to test pharmacogenetic hypotheses are clearly needed to advance the field. PMID:21162693

  10. Building the process-drug–side effect network to discover the relationship between biological Processes and side effects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Side effects are unwanted responses to drug treatment and are important resources for human phenotype information. The recent development of a database on side effects, the side effect resource (SIDER), is a first step in documenting the relationship between drugs and their side effects. It is, however, insufficient to simply find the association of drugs with biological processes; that relationship is crucial because drugs that influence biological processes can have an impact on phenotype. Therefore, knowing which processes respond to drugs that influence the phenotype will enable more effective and systematic study of the effect of drugs on phenotype. To the best of our knowledge, the relationship between biological processes and side effects of drugs has not yet been systematically researched. Methods We propose 3 steps for systematically searching relationships between drugs and biological processes: enrichment scores (ES) calculations, t-score calculation, and threshold-based filtering. Subsequently, the side effect-related biological processes are found by merging the drug-biological process network and the drug-side effect network. Evaluation is conducted in 2 ways: first, by discerning the number of biological processes discovered by our method that co-occur with Gene Ontology (GO) terms in relation to effects extracted from PubMed records using a text-mining technique and second, determining whether there is improvement in performance by limiting response processes by drugs sharing the same side effect to frequent ones alone. Results The multi-level network (the process-drug-side effect network) was built by merging the drug-biological process network and the drug-side effect network. We generated a network of 74 drugs-168 side effects-2209 biological process relation resources. The preliminary results showed that the process-drug-side effect network was able to find meaningful relationships between biological processes and side effects in an

  11. Effect of back-side-coated electrodes on electrochemical performances of lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yunju; Son, Bongki; Choi, Jaecheol; Kim, Jong Hun; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Yong Min

    2015-02-01

    In order to investigate the effect of back-side coating of cathodes and anodes upon electrochemical performances of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), four different pouch-type lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2, LCO)/graphite unit cells with different coating conditions are prepared and compared in a systematic manner. Their electrochemical performance, in terms of Coulombic efficiency, capacity realization, capacity retention ability, and rate capabilities, is investigated. From the results, we confirm an opposing relationship existing between back-side-coated cathodes and anodes, in that the coated cathodes provide improved cell performance, while the coated anodes impede it. This is attributed to the fact that, as is generally understood, cathodes act as noble lithium (Li) ion suppliers for LIBs, while anodes consume a large portion of Li ions to form surface layers during the first charging process. Furthermore, we also confirm that the magnitude of the back-side coating effect for LCO and graphite are somewhat different. The double-side-coated cathodes have a notable positive effect on cell performances in contrast to the negative effect seen with the double-side-coated anodes. As a result, unit cells employing double-side-coated cathodes with single-side-coated anodes show the best performance, followed by those based on double-side-coated cathodes with double-side-coated anodes rather than single-side-coated cathodes with single-side coated anodes.

  12. Antipsychotic Drug Side Effects for Persons with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are the most frequently prescribed of the psychotropic drugs among the intellectually disabled (ID) population. Given their widespread use, efforts to systematically assess and report side effects are warranted. Specific scaling methods such as the "Matson Evaluation of Side Effects" ("MEDS"), the "Abnormal Inventory Movement…

  13. A review of the adverse side effects associated with antipsychotics as related to their efficacy.

    PubMed

    Pakpoor, Jina; Agius, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Since the introduction of antipsychotic medication for the treatment of psychosis, a wide range of different types of antipsychotic drugs have been developed while their side effects have become evident. The side effects of both the typical and atypical generation of antipsychotics have important consequences for the quality of life of recipients, stigma experienced and also the level of care of patients. It is well acknowledged that the side effects of antipsychotics reduce compliance with the medication. In this review the data for an association between typical and atypical antipsychotics and the main side effects that are well-supported in the literature was explored: weight gain and associated metabolic effects; extrapyramidal symptoms and tardive dyskinesia; prolactin elevation and associated sexual effects; QTc elongation; and a group of miscellaneous side effects. It has been demonstrated that the production of adverse effects following the use of antipsychotic medication differs widely both between atypical and typical drugs but also within these subgroups. Considering the wide range of antipsychotics available amongst both groups and the differing effects they have on patients in terms of side effects, there is reason to believe that a more personalised approach to antipsychotic treatment should be considered. Additionally, screening for risk factors, screening for the appearance of side effects, as well as good communication with patients about the side effects and other options available are important tasks for clinicians in order to optimise concordance with medication. PMID:25413553

  14. Arthritis Possible Side Effect of Certain Cancer Drugs: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159602.html Arthritis Possible Side Effect of Certain Cancer Drugs: Study Doctors should weigh ... research is needed to confirm a cause-and-effect relationship, the researchers said. Still, "I don't ...

  15. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Osteoporosis (Last updated 1/11/2016; last reviewed 1/11/2016) Key ... in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents: Adverse Effects of Antiretroviral Agents From the National Institutes of ...

  16. Benoxaprofen: side-effect profile in 300 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Halsey, J P; Cardoe, N

    1982-01-01

    Out of 300 patients who had taken benoxaprofen for a mean of 6.4 months, 196 (65.3%) reported side effects, resulting in 104 patients (34.6%) having the drug withdrawn. Out of 42 patients aged over 70, 35 (83.3%) had side effects and 29 (69.0%) had the drug withdrawn because of them. cutaneous side effects accounted for 180 (69.5%) of all 259 side effects reported. The commonest cutaneous side effect was photosensitivity, which occurred in 86 patients (28.6%). Photosensitivity, which occurred in half of the patients treated in the summer, resulted in withdrawal of benoxaprofen in 26 (30.2%) of the patients who experienced it. Onycholysis was observed in 38 patients (12.6%) and was frequently unnoticed by patients. The overall incidence of gastric side effects was 12.6% (38 patients), and the figure rose to 40.5% (17 cases) in patients over 70. During treatment with benoxaprofen one patient developed an active duodenal ulcer but no cases of major gastrointestinal haemorrhage occurred. Multiple subepidermal cysts (milia) were observed in 16 patients, who had been treated for a mean of 10.8 months. These findings show that benoxaprofen is a potent phototoxic drug and that the manufacturers' recommended dosage of 600 mg daily is associated with an unacceptable incidence of side effects in the elderly. Images p1366-a PMID:6803978

  17. Reported Sildenafil Side Effects in Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension Patients

    PubMed Central

    Siehr, Stephanie L.; McCarthy, Elisa K.; Ogawa, Michelle T.; Feinstein, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sildenafil, a phosphodiestase type 5 inhibitor, was approved in 2005 for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in adults and is commonly used off-label for pediatric patients. Little is known, however, about sildenafil’s side effects in this population. Methods: Single institution, longitudinal survey-based study performed in an outpatient pediatric cardiology clinic. Pediatric patients on sildenafil [alone or in combination with other pulmonary hypertension (PH) therapies] completed questionnaires regarding frequency of vascular, gastrointestinal, neurologic, and hematologic side effects. Results: Between January 2011 and May 2014, 66 pediatric patients with PH on sildenafil filled out 214 surveys, 32 patients (96 surveys) on monotherapy, and 43 patients (118 surveys) on sildenafil plus an endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA) (bosentan or ambrisentan) and/or a prostacyclin (epoprostenol or treprostinil). Overall, 30% of respondents identified at least one side effect. For all patients on sildenafil, incidence of side effects by system was 37% gastrointestinal, 35% vascular, and 22% neurologic. For patients on sildenafil monotherapy, incidence of side effects by system was 24% gastrointestinal, 21% vascular, and 18% neurologic compared to patients on combination therapy who reported an incidence of 48% gastrointestinal, 45% vascular, and 25% neurologic. Conclusion: Incidence of vascular, gastrointestinal, and neurologic side effect in pediatric patients on sildenafil therapy for PAH was 30%. Side effects were more common in patients on combination therapy with an ERA and/or prostacyclin than in patients on sildenafil monotherapy. PMID:25806361

  18. Evaluation of vehicle side airbag effectiveness in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, Angelo; Newstead, Stuart; Scully, Jim

    2013-05-01

    Side airbag systems were first introduced into vehicles around 1995 to help protect occupants from injury in side impact crashes. International studies have shown that side airbags are effective in reducing the risk of death and injury, however, serious injuries can still occur even when side airbags deploy. The objective of this study was to use detailed injury information from insurance injury compensation claims data linked to Police reported crash data to determine the effectiveness of side airbags in reducing the risk of death or injury for occupants involved in side impact crashes in Victoria, Australia based on the specific body regions that side airbag systems are designed to protect. It was found that head and torso-protecting dual airbag systems designed to protect the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen are highly effective in reducing driver death or injury due to near side crashes. They were associated with a statistically significant reduction of 41.1% (25.9%, 53.2%) in the odds of death or injury across all body regions; and a 48.0% (28.0%, 62.4%) reduction in the odds of death or injury to the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen. The study did not find any evidence that torso-protecting airbags alone are effective in reducing death or injury. Analysis results indicate that head and torso-protecting side airbag systems in vehicles are a highly effective technology for reducing the risk of death or injury to vehicle occupants in near side crashes. The magnitude of the injury reduction benefits estimated indicate that fitment of this technology to all vehicles should be a high priority and will yield significant savings in overall road trauma. PMID:23499979

  19. Races of Heliconius erato (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae) found on different sides of the Andes show wing size differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in wing size in geographical races of Heliconius erato distributed over the western and eastern sides of the Andes are reported on here. Individuals from the eastern side of the Andes are statistically larger in size than the ones on the western side of the Andes. A statistical differenc...

  20. Membrane Transporters as Mediators of Cisplatin Effects and Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Ciarimboli, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Transporters are important mediators of specific cellular uptake and thus, not only for effects, but also for side effects, metabolism, and excretion of many drugs such as cisplatin. Cisplatin is a potent cytostatic drug, whose use is limited by its severe acute and chronic nephro-, oto-, and peripheral neurotoxicity. For this reason, other platinum derivatives, such as carboplatin and oxaliplatin, with less toxicity but still with antitumoral action have been developed. Several transporters, which are expressed on the cell membranes, have been associated with cisplatin transport across the plasma membrane and across the cell: the copper transporter 1 (Ctr1), the copper transporter 2 (Ctr2), the P-type copper-transporting ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B, the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), and the multidrug extrusion transporter 1 (MATE1). Some of these transporters are also able to accept other platinum derivatives as substrate. Since membrane transporters display a specific tissue distribution, they can be important molecules that mediate the entry of platinum derivatives in target and also nontarget cells possibly mediating specific effects and side effects of the chemotherapeutic drug. This paper summarizes the literature on toxicities of cisplatin compared to that of carboplatin and oxaliplatin and the interaction of these platinum derivatives with membrane transporters. PMID:24278698

  1. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Urination Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... nurse if you have any of these changes: l A strong urge to urinate more often l Urine that is cloudy, or is a different ... such as orange, red, green, or dark yellow l Urine that has a strong smell l Trouble ...

  2. Beliefs about medicines predict non-specific side effects in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Orav, E. John; Liang, Matthew H.; Horne, Robert; Barsky, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study examines determinants of patient’s side effects from arthritis medication. Proposed predictors were patient’s beliefs about medications, objective disease activity, treatment regimen, psychiatric and rheumatoid arthritis symptoms. Methods In a longitudinal design 100 rheumatoid arthritis outpatients were investigated at baseline and again at 6-months after receiving both pharmacological and psychosocial treatment. Results Multivariate analyses showed no influence of disease status, type of treatment, psychiatric or arthritis symptoms on side effects. Heightened concerns about arthritis medication at baseline predicted side effects at baseline (partial correlation rp = .37, p < .001) and at 6-months (rp = .25, p < .001), after controlling for relevant disease and treatment related variables. In a cross-lagged panel analysis, prior experience with side effects from arthritis medication was ruled out as a cause of heightened concerns, indicating that negative beliefs contribute genuinely to side effects. A comparison of patients who did and did not start new medications showed no difference in side effects in patients with positive beliefs about medications, but led to significantly more side effects in patients with negative beliefs. Conclusions Patient’s beliefs about arthritis medication were stable and consistently associated with side effects. Patients with greater concerns about their arthritis medications are at higher risk for developing side effects, especially when starting new drugs. Identifying those patients is important to avoid premature drug discontinuation. Research into cause and preventability of negative attitudes to prescribed medicines is needed. PMID:20191574

  3. The Unexpected Side-Effects of Dissonance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodner, Ehud; Gilboa, Avi; Amir, Dorit

    2007-01-01

    The effects of dissonant and consonant music on cognitive performance were examined. Situational dissonance and consonance were also tested and determined as the state where one's opinion is contrasted or matched with the majority's opinion, respectively. Subjects performed several cognitive tasks while listening to a melody arranged dissonantly,…

  4. Exanthema medicamentosum as a side effect of promazine.

    PubMed

    Lasić, Davor; Cvitanović, Marija Zuljan; Uglešić, Boran; Višić, Vitomir; Hlevnjak, Ivana

    2011-06-01

    Dermatological side effects of psychopharmacological drugs are fortunately not so often. They are mostly presented in the group of mood stabilizers and antiepileptic drugs, particularly the carbamazepine and lamotrigine, and can be manifested through the Stevens Johnson syndrome, Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN)/Lyell's syndrome with about 30% lethality. According to the literature the group of phenothiazines is the category of drugs with rare appearances of skin reactions. Promazine, aliphatic phenothiazines antipsychotic, including less frequent side effects in the leaflet states increased skin sensitivity to sun, skin rash-associated with contact dermatitis, allergic reactions, cholestatic icterus. The only reported dermatological side effect of promazine is its metabolites deposition in the cornea. Analyzing the e-data basis we have not found references connecting the Exanthema medicamentosum as a side effect of promazine. A forty-two years old female patient was admitted to the Dermatological Clinic because of suspected exanthema, undoubtedly caused by promazine as a medication for Sy. Borderline. PMID:21685860

  5. Antithyroid Drug Side Effects in the Population and in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-04-01

    In a Danish population study using health registers, agranulocytosis caused by antithyroid drugs was 4 times more frequent than liver failure. Both were very rare in pregnancy, where birth defects were the dominant side effect. PMID:26815881

  6. [Side effect management of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in urology : Hypertension].

    PubMed

    Sikic, D; Meidenbauer, N; Lieb, V; Keck, B

    2016-07-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors like sunitinib, sorafenib, pazopanib or axintinib are regarded the standard of care in the systemic therapy of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. However, the many side effects associated with this therapy pose challenges for the treating physician and the patient. This review offers an overview of the classification and the treatment of hypertension, which is one of the major side effects induced by all tyrosine kinase inhibitors, in order to improve treatment efficacy and patient compliance. PMID:27146871

  7. CNS-related side-effects with metoprolol and atenolol.

    PubMed

    Cove-Smith, J R; Kirk, C A

    1985-01-01

    Vivid and bizarre dreams, hallucinations, sleep disturbance and psychosis have all been described following treatment with beta-blockers. It has been suggested that these central nervous system (CNS) side-effects are related to the degree of lipophilicity of the beta-blocker. A randomized double-blind crossover study was performed to compare the incidence of CNS side-effects with atenolol and metoprolol in hypertensive patients who had reported CNS side-effects with lipophilic beta-blockers. Eleven women and six men completed the study, in which a 30-item psychiatric questionnaire was used to detect changes in psychological status and possible CNS side-effects. Discontinuation of the original lipophilic beta-blocker produced a significant improvement in quality of sleep, dreams, concentration, memory, energy, and anxiety. No significant CNS side-effects were reported with atenolol, but introduction of metoprolol caused a significant increase in the incidence of sleep disturbance (p less than 0.01) and restless nights (p less than 0.05), as well as failure to achieve satisfactory sexual intercourse (p less than 0.05). When compared with atenolol, metoprolol was associated with a significantly higher incidence of restless disturbed nights (p less than 0.05). Blood pressure control was identical for both beta-blockers. This study appears to confirm the association between CNS-related side-effects and the lipophilicity of beta-blockers. PMID:4054193

  8. Sleeptalking! Sleepwalking! Side Effects of Montelukast

    PubMed Central

    Alkhuja, Samer; Gazizov, Natalya

    2013-01-01

    A 16-year-old Caucasian female presented to the pulmonary clinic for a followup on her asthma. Due to the worsening of allergy-related symptoms, therapy with montelukast 10 mg daily was started and resulted in good relief of the patient's symptoms. In the nights following initiating therapy with montelukast, the patient's mother reported daily parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking and sleepwalking. Montelukast was discontinued, and that resulted in absence of the parasomnias. In a second attempt montelukast was reinstituted to control the patient's symptoms. Parasomnias were immediately reported after resuming therapy. Montelukast was then discontinued indefinitely. Our patient has never had any history of parasomnias, and since the discontinuation of montelukast, parasomnias were never reported again. Parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking or sleepwalking were not previously reported as adverse effects of montelukast. Alternative modalities to treat allergy-related symptoms in patients, who develop parasomnias while receiving montelukast, should be explored. PMID:24093069

  9. Soy and phytoestrogens: possible side effects.

    PubMed

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are present in certain edible plants being most abundant in soy; they are structurally and functionally analogous to the estrogens. Phytoestrogens have been applied for compensation of hormone deficiency in the menopause. At the same time, soy products are used in infant food and other foodstuffs. Furthermore, soy is applied as animal fodder, so that residual phytoestrogens and their active metabolites such as equol can remain in meat and influence the hormonal balance of the consumers. There have been only singular reports on modified gender-related behavior or feminization in humans in consequence of soy consumption. In animals, the intake of phytoestrogens was reported to impact fertility, sexual development and behavior. Feminizing effects in humans can be subtle and identifiable only statistically in large populations. PMID:25587246

  10. Sleeptalking! Sleepwalking! Side effects of montelukast.

    PubMed

    Alkhuja, Samer; Gazizov, Natalya; Alexander, Mary Ellen

    2013-01-01

    A 16-year-old Caucasian female presented to the pulmonary clinic for a followup on her asthma. Due to the worsening of allergy-related symptoms, therapy with montelukast 10 mg daily was started and resulted in good relief of the patient's symptoms. In the nights following initiating therapy with montelukast, the patient's mother reported daily parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking and sleepwalking. Montelukast was discontinued, and that resulted in absence of the parasomnias. In a second attempt montelukast was reinstituted to control the patient's symptoms. Parasomnias were immediately reported after resuming therapy. Montelukast was then discontinued indefinitely. Our patient has never had any history of parasomnias, and since the discontinuation of montelukast, parasomnias were never reported again. Parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking or sleepwalking were not previously reported as adverse effects of montelukast. Alternative modalities to treat allergy-related symptoms in patients, who develop parasomnias while receiving montelukast, should be explored. PMID:24093069

  11. Side effects of antimotion sickness drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. D.; Manno, J. E.; Manno, B. R.; Redetzki, H. M.; Wood, M. D.; Vekovius, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects on operational proficiency of the antimotion sickness drugs scopolamine, promethazine and d-amphetamine are tested using a computerized pursuit meter. Proficiency is not significantly affected by oral doses of 0.25 mg or 0.50 mg scopolamine but is descreased by oral or I.M. doses of 25 mg promethazine. The performance decrement associated with 25 mg oral promethazine is prevented when combined with 10 mg oral d-amphetamine. The combination of 25 mg I.M. promethazine, 25 mg oral promethazine and 10 mg d-amphetamine produces less performance decrement than oral or I.M. doses of promethazine alone, though more performance decrement than a placebo. I.M. promethazine is adsorbed slowly and consequently may provoke drowsiness.

  12. Perceived side effects of oral contraceptives among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Herold, E S; Goodwin, M S

    1980-11-22

    Knowledge and attitudes of adolescent females regarding the side effects of oral contraceptives were investigated. The data source was a large study of sexual and contraceptive attitudes and experience. The questionnaire responses of 486 single females attending 10 birth control and pregnancy counseling centers in Ontario, Canada were examined. The age range of the subjects was from 13-20; 71% were attending school and 69% were living at home. They were attending the centers in order to obtain contraceptives (55%), to renew OC prescriptions (20%), or to receive pregnancy counseling (25%). 29% of the subjects had used OCs before coming to the clinic, but 91% planned to use OC after their clinic visit. 8% were planning to use an IUD; 1% were planning to use a diaphragm; and less than 1% were planning to have their boyfriend use condoms. 85% of the subjects indicated that they had heard abut side effcts of OCs with weight gain as the best known side effect. Other side effects familiar to many included nausea, circulatory disorders, headaches, emotional changes, menstrual problems and cancer. About 1/2 of the subjects had learned about these side effects from the mass media or female friends, 25% from a school sex education class, 15% from their mothers, and 3% from a physician. Despite knowledge regarding side effects, most of the subjects had positive attitudes toward OCs with 59% believing that the advnatages outweighed any disadvantages. PMID:7448666

  13. 'Side effects' of health promotion: an example from Austrian schools.

    PubMed

    Gugglberger, Lisa; Flaschberger, Edith; Teutsch, Friedrich

    2014-07-01

    While the existence of side effects of medical interventions is common knowledge and widely investigated, possible unintended effects of health promotion (HP) interventions are only sparsely discussed in the HP literature. Drawing on qualitative evaluation data generated within an on-going process evaluation of a regional health-promoting schools network in Austria, we demonstrate which desirable and undesirable effects HP practice can have for teachers. Thirteen group discussions with teachers (n = 63) and headteachers (n = 9) acting as health coordinators in the network schools were conducted between 2010 and 2013. These data were analysed using systems and thematic analyses. In our example, desirable side effects included health coordinators gaining new relationships, new skills and benefiting from improved infrastructure. The undesirable side effects centred on stress, work overload and frustration, due to the additional work brought about by HP practice, negative reactions by colleagues as well as by technicalities of the network. The undesirable side effects of HP predominated in our study, pointing to several implications like the need to accommodate the concept of HP in the teachers' core responsibilities; the participation of all staff members and students in a whole-school approach toward SHP, and the need for changes on an organizational level. Based on this study, we come to the conclusion that a systematic approach to investigating and analysing side effects of HP is currently lacking in HP research and suggest that theoretical examination and more empirical research is needed. PMID:24997192

  14. Hypoxic radiosensitizers: prospects for effective compounds with fewer toxic side-effects.

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, W. D.; Mroczkowski, Z.; Agrawal, K. C.

    1978-01-01

    Several radiosensitizing chemicals, including a family of simple nitroimidazoles, were examined in E. coli and compared with misonidazole for toxic side-effects on endpoints such as mutagenesis, cell killing and inhibition of the synthesis of the inducible enzyme beta-galactosidase. While all the compounds were similar to misonidazole or better in radiosensitization, marked differences in the various side effects were found. There results show that for E. coli it is possible to find compounds that sensitize as well as misonidazole but which have decreased mutagenicity and fewer other side-effects. Of the compounds examined, KA121 (2,5-dinitroimidazole) is the most promising for future study because it combines good radiosensitization with low mutagenicity and toxicity. PMID:98175

  15. Endocrine side effects of broad-acting kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lodish, Maya B.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2011-01-01

    Targeted therapy in oncology consists of drugs that specifically interfere with abnormal signaling pathways that are dysregulated in cancer cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) take advantage of unique oncogenes that are activated in certain types of cancer, and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, many kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy are somewhat nonselective, and most have additional mechanisms of action at the cellular level which are not completely understood. The use of these agents has increased our knowledge of important side effects, of which the practicing clinician must be aware. Recently proposed endocrine-related side effects of these agents include alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, and glucose metabolism, and adrenal function. This review summarizes the most recent data on the endocrine side effects of TKIs. PMID:20603395

  16. Hemispheric side of damage influences sex-related differences in smoking cessation in neurological patients

    PubMed Central

    Gaznick, Natassia; Bechara, Antoine; Tranel, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of smoking behavior vary between the sexes. There is evidence that decision-making, which is one of the key “executive functions” necessary for making life-style modifications such as smoking cessation, is relatively lateralized to the right hemisphere in males and left hemisphere in females. In the current study, we examined whether the side of brain lesion has a differential effect on smoking behavior between the sexes. We hypothesized sex differences in smoking cessation based on lesion side. Participants were 49 males and 50 females who were smoking at the time of lesion onset. The outcome variable was abstinence from smoking (quit rate) at least one year post lesion. We found that in patients with left hemisphere damage, quit rates were significantly higher in males than in females; however, in patients with right hemisphere damage, quit rates were not statistically different. The findings support previous cognitive neuroscience literature showing that components of behavior responsible for maintaining addiction tend to be more strongly lateralized in males, whereas in females there is a more bilateral distribution. Our study provides further evidence for differences in lateralization of complex behavior between the sexes, which has significant implications for differences in treatment strategies between the sexes. PMID:24872115

  17. Visualisation of edge effects in side-gated graphene nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Vishal; Lartsev, Arseniy; Manzin, Alessandra; Yakimova, Rositza; Tzalenchuk, Alexander; Kazakova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Using local scanning electrical techniques we study edge effects in side-gated Hall bar nanodevices made of epitaxial graphene. We demonstrate that lithographically defined edges of the graphene channel exhibit hole conduction within the narrow band of ~60-125 nm width, whereas the bulk of the material is electron doped. The effect is the most pronounced when the influence of atmospheric contamination is minimal. We also show that the electronic properties at the edges can be precisely tuned from hole to electron conduction by using moderate strength electrical fields created by side-gates. However, the central part of the channel remains relatively unaffected by the side-gates and retains the bulk properties of graphene. PMID:25073589

  18. Genome-wide pharmacogenomic study of citalopram-induced side effects in STAR*D.

    PubMed

    Adkins, D E; Clark, S L; Åberg, K; Hettema, J M; Bukszár, J; McClay, J L; Souza, R P; van den Oord, E J C G

    2012-01-01

    Affecting about 1 in 12 Americans annually, depression is a leading cause of the global disease burden. While a range of effective antidepressants are now available, failure and relapse rates remain substantial, with intolerable side effect burden the most commonly cited reason for discontinuation. Thus, understanding individual differences in susceptibility to antidepressant therapy side effects will be essential to optimize depression treatment. Here we perform genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify genetic variation influencing susceptibility to citalopram-induced side effects. The analysis sample consisted of 1762 depression patients, successfully genotyped for 421K single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR(*)D) study. Outcomes included five indicators of citalopram side effects: general side effect burden, overall tolerability, sexual side effects, dizziness and vision/hearing side effects. Two SNPs met our genome-wide significance criterion (q<0.1), ensuring that, on average, only 10% of significant findings are false discoveries. In total, 12 additional SNPs demonstrated suggestive associations (q<0.5). The top finding was rs17135437, an intronic SNP within EMID2, mediating the effects of citalopram on vision/hearing side effects (P=3.27 × 10(-8), q=0.026). The second genome-wide significant finding, representing a haplotype spanning ∼30 kb and eight genotyped SNPs in a gene desert on chromosome 13, was associated with general side effect burden (P=3.22 × 10(-7), q=0.096). Suggestive findings were also found for SNPs at LAMA1, AOX2P, EGFLAM, FHIT and RTP2. Although our findings require replication and functional validation, this study demonstrates the potential of GWAS to discover genes and pathways that potentially mediate adverse effects of antidepressant medications. PMID:22760553

  19. Appearance-related side effects of HIV-1 treatment.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Trevor

    2006-01-01

    In the early years of the AIDS epidemic, HIV infection was associated with visible signs and symptoms, adding to the stigma associated with the disease. Physical manifestations associated with HIV infection included muscle wasting, lymphadenopathy, Kaposi's sarcoma, candidiasis, molluscum contagiosum, and hairy leukoplakia. With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, particularly the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in 1996, many of these outward manifestations of the disease became rare. Ironically, however, the treatments used to control HIV infection (and its visible markers) have themselves been associated with appearance-related side effects. Patients may develop changes in fat distribution, rashes, skin hyperpigmentation, or paronychia. These effects not only have cosmetic and psychological consequences but also may decrease adherence to therapy, potentially causing regimen failure and drug resistance. Newer antiretroviral agents offer improved potency, more convenient dosing, and more treatment options with the potential for fewer side effects and drug interactions, which should foster optimal adherence by the patient. However, these newer drugs are also associated with appearance-related side effects, which must be considered in the selection of treatment regimens. This paper reviews the appearance-related side effects associated with classes of antiretroviral drugs as well as individual agents, including the newer antiretrovirals. PMID:16426151

  20. Cardiovascular side effects of inhaled salbutamol in hypoxic asthmatic patients

    PubMed Central

    Burggraaf, J; Westendorp, R; Veen, J; Schoemaker, R; Sterk, P; Cohen, A; Blauw, G

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Beta-2 adrenoceptor agonists have been associated with sudden death in asthma patients but the cause and underlying mechanism are unclear. Animal experiments indicate that the combination of hypoxia and β2 agonists may result in detrimental cardiovascular effects. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of hypoxia on the systemic vascular effects of salbutamol in patients with asthma who are hypoxic by assessing forearm blood flow (FBF) as a measure of peripheral vasodilatation.
METHODS—Eight men with mild asthma underwent the following treatments: normoxia + placebo (NP), normoxia + salbutamol (NS), hypoxia+ placebo (HP), and hypoxia + salbutamol (HS). The period of mask breathing started at t=0 minutes, lasted for 60 minutes, and at 30 minutes 800 µg salbutamol was inhaled. The experiment was completed 30 minutes after the inhalation (t=60 minutes). For the hypoxia treatment the SpO2 level was 82%. Differences between treatments were sought using factorial ANOVA on percentage change from the pretreatment value.
RESULTS—There were no significant differences in blood pressure and potassium levels between the treatments. After 60 minutes the increase in FBF was 13% (95% CI -12 to 39) more for HP treatment than for NP, 21% (95% CI -5 to 46) more for NS than for NP, and 32% (95% CI 7 to 58) more for HS than for HP (p=0.016). The inhalation of salbutamol during hypoxia resulted in a significant increase in FBF of 45% (95% CI 20 to 71) compared with NP (p=0.001).
CONCLUSION—Patients with asthma who are hypoxic and inhale β2 agonists have serious systemic vascular side effects which may be an additional explanation for the association between asthma treatment and sudden death.

 PMID:11413357

  1. Juvenile anadromous salmonid production in upper Columbia River side channels with different levels of hydrological connection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martens, Kyle D.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the contribution of three types of side channels based on their hydrologic connectivity (seasonally disconnected, partially connected, and connected) to production of juvenile anadromous salmonids. Juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss and Chinook Salmon O. tshawytscha were found in all three of these side channel types and in each year of the study. Upon connection with the main stem at high flows, the seasonally disconnected side channels experienced an emptying out of the previous year's fish while filling with young-of-year fish during the 2- to 4-month period of hydrologic connection. There were no differences between the densities of juvenile steelhead and Chinook Salmon and the rate of smolts produced among the three types of side channels. Recently reintroduced Coho Salmon O. kisutch had sporadic presence and abundance in partially and connected side channels, but the smolt production rate was over two times that of steelhead and Chinook Salmon in seasonally disconnected side channels. Within seasonally disconnected side channels, young-of-year salmonids in deep pools (≥100 cm) had greater survival than those in shallow pools (<100 cm). Densities of juvenile steelhead in all side channel types were similar to those in tributaries and were higher than in main-stem lateral margins. Juvenile Chinook Salmon densities were higher in side channels than in both tributary and main-stem lateral margins. Our results suggest that improving quality of pool habitat within seasonally disconnected side channels can result in improved survival for juvenile anadromous salmonids during the period of disconnection. Habitat improvement in these seasonally disconnected side channels should be recognized as a worthy restoration strategy, especially when full connectivity of side channels may not be a feasible target (e.g., through lack of water availability) or when full connectivity may present too high a risk (e.g., flooding, stream capture, bank

  2. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Rash

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Rash (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points A rash is an irritated ... health care provider tells you to. What HIV medicines can cause a hypersensitivity reaction? Nevirapine (brand name: ...

  3. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Lipodystrophy

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Lipodystrophy (Last updated 9/13/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points Lipodystrophy refers to the changes ... loss on the face and leg . Which HIV medicines are linked to lipodystrophy? Although more research is ...

  4. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Hepatotoxicity

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Hepatotoxicity (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points Hepatotoxicity means damage to the ... the liver can be life-threatening. What HIV medicines can cause hepatotoxicity? HIV medicines in the following ...

  5. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Diabetes (Last updated 9/13/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points Diabetes is a disease in ... are also infected with hepatitis C. What HIV medicines increase the risk of type 2 diabetes? Some ...

  6. Complementary strategies for the management of radiation therapy side effects.

    PubMed

    Stubbe, Christine E; Valero, Meighan

    2013-07-01

    Patients with cancer utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a variety of purposes, one of which is the reduction of side effects of conventional treatment. With a large number of their patients using CAM, it is important for advanced practitioners in oncology to have an understanding of these therapies to better guide their patients. Side effects of radiation therapy that may have dose-limiting poten-tial include diarrhea, mucositis, skin toxicity, and xerostomia. A com-mon side effect that is not necessarily dose-limiting but considerably troublesome to patients is cancer- and treatment-related fatigue. The CAM therapies that may alleviate some of the side effects of radiation therapy include probiotics, psyllium, exercise, melatonin, honey, acu-puncture, and calendula. Therapies that require more research or have been shown to be ineffective include aloe vera, glutamine, and deglyc-yrrhizinated licorice. This article provides an overview of these thera-pies as well as related research and analysis. PMID:25032003

  7. The SIDER database of drugs and side effects

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Michael; Letunic, Ivica; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Bork, Peer

    2016-01-01

    Unwanted side effects of drugs are a burden on patients and a severe impediment in the development of new drugs. At the same time, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) recorded during clinical trials are an important source of human phenotypic data. It is therefore essential to combine data on drugs, targets and side effects into a more complete picture of the therapeutic mechanism of actions of drugs and the ways in which they cause adverse reactions. To this end, we have created the SIDER (‘Side Effect Resource’, http://sideeffects.embl.de) database of drugs and ADRs. The current release, SIDER 4, contains data on 1430 drugs, 5880 ADRs and 140 064 drug–ADR pairs, which is an increase of 40% compared to the previous version. For more fine-grained analyses, we extracted the frequency with which side effects occur from the package inserts. This information is available for 39% of drug–ADR pairs, 19% of which can be compared to the frequency under placebo treatment. SIDER furthermore contains a data set of drug indications, extracted from the package inserts using Natural Language Processing. These drug indications are used to reduce the rate of false positives by identifying medical terms that do not correspond to ADRs. PMID:26481350

  8. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, Mateus Machado; Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre S

    2011-09-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis, has multiple pharmacological actions, including anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about its safety and side effect profile in animals and humans. This review describes in vivo and in vitro reports of CBD administration across a wide range of concentrations, based on reports retrieved from Web of Science, Scielo and Medline. The keywords searched were "cannabinoids", "cannabidiol" and "side effects". Several studies suggest that CBD is non-toxic in non-transformed cells and does not induce changes on food intake, does not induce catalepsy, does not affect physiological parameters (heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature), does not affect gastrointestinal transit and does not alter psychomotor or psychological functions. Also, chronic use and high doses up to 1,500 mg/day of CBD are reportedly well tolerated in humans. Conversely, some studies reported that this cannabinoid can induce some side effects, including inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism, alterations of in vitro cell viability, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased activities of p-glycoprotein and other drug transporters. Based on recent advances in cannabinoid administration in humans, controlled CBD may be safe in humans and animals. However, further studies are needed to clarify these reported in vitro and in vivo side effects. PMID:22129319

  9. Complementary Strategies for the Management of Radiation Therapy Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Stubbe, Christine E.; Valero, Meighan

    2013-01-01

    Patients with cancer utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a variety of purposes, one of which is the reduction of side effects of conventional treatment. With a large number of their patients using CAM, it is important for advanced practitioners in oncology to have an understanding of these therapies to better guide their patients. Side effects of radiation therapy that may have dose-limiting poten­tial include diarrhea, mucositis, skin toxicity, and xerostomia. A com­mon side effect that is not necessarily dose-limiting but considerably troublesome to patients is cancer- and treatment-related fatigue. The CAM therapies that may alleviate some of the side effects of radiation therapy include probiotics, psyllium, exercise, melatonin, honey, acu­puncture, and calendula. Therapies that require more research or have been shown to be ineffective include aloe vera, glutamine, and deglyc­yrrhizinated licorice. This article provides an overview of these thera­pies as well as related research and analysis. PMID:25032003

  10. Neuropsychologic side-effects of tacrolimus in pediatric renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Markus J; Spartà, Giuseppina; Laube, Guido F; Miozzari, Marco; Neuhaus, Thomas J

    2003-04-01

    Calcineurin inhibition with tacrolimus has been used after renal transplantation (RTPL) as rescue therapy for insufficient immunological control or if cyclosporin A (CSA) toxicity occurred. Neurologic side-effects occur but are rare in children, usually presenting as tremor; however, serious complications, e.g. the posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome are also documented. Twenty children (10 girls) were switched to tacrolimus: 11 (55%) for immunological reasons (n = 9: steroid-resistant rejection; n = 2: recurrent rejections) and nine for CSA side-effects. Tacrolimus was started at a median of 8 wk (range 10 d to 8.7 yr) after RTPL and was continued for a median of 2.5 yr (range 5 wk to 4.6 yr). Renal function significantly improved over a period of 12 months following conversion to tacrolimus (glomerular filtration rate 56 +/- 19 vs. 66 +/- 16 mL/min/1.73 m2; p < 0.03; n = 13). Fifteen of 20 (75%) patients tolerated tacrolimus well. The most frequent side-effects were neuropsychological and behavioral symptoms in three children, ranging from anorexia nervosa-like symptoms with weight loss, amenorrhea, depression and school problems to severe insomnia and to aggressive and anxious behavior in one child. Only the latter child was exposed to toxic tacrolimus blood levels. All side-effects were fully reversible after discontinuation of tacrolimus. In conclusion, tacrolimus had a beneficial effect on renal function and was well tolerated in the majority of pediatric patients. However, neuropsychologic and behavioral side-effects are important and maybe underrecognized in children. PMID:12709079

  11. The glass transition of polymers with different side-chain stiffness confined in free-standing thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shi-Jie; Qian, Hu-Jun; Lu, Zhong-Yuan

    2015-02-01

    The effect of confinement on the glass transition temperature Tg of polymeric glass formers with different side chain stiffness is investigated by coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. We find that polymer with stiffer side groups exhibits much more pronounced Tg variation in confinement compared to that with relatively flexible side groups, in good agreement with experiments. Our string analysis demonstrates that the polymer species dependence of dynamics can be described by an Adam-Gibbs like relation between the size of cooperatively rearranging regions and relaxation time. However, the primary effect of changing side-group stiffness is to alter the activation barrier for rearrangement, rather than string size. We clarify that free-surface perturbation is the primary factor in determining the magnitude of Tg variation for polymers in confinement: It is more significant for polymers having higher Tg and results in much more pronounced reduction of surface Tg and then the overall Tg of the polymers.

  12. Effects of Small-Sided Games on Physical Conditioning and Performance in Young Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, first, the movement actions performed during two different small-sided games and, second, their effects on a series of field endurance and technical tests. Thirty-four young soccer players (age: 13 ± 0.9 yrs; body mass: 62.3 ± 15.1 kg; height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m) participated in the study. Small-sided games included three-a-side (3 versus 3 players) and six-a-side (6 versus 6 players) games consisting of 10 bouts of 4 min duration with 3 min active recovery between bouts. Soccer player performance was evaluated using five field tests: a) 30m sprint, b) throw-in for distance, c) Illinois Agility Test, d) dribbling the ball and e) horizontal jump before, in the middle and after the implementation of both game situations. Heart rate was monitored during the entire testing session. Each game was also filmed to measure soccer movements within the game. The ANOVA analysis indicated that the three-a- side games displayed significantly higher heart rate values compared with the six-a-side games (p < 0.05). The number of short passes, kicks, tackles, dribbles and scoring goals were significantly higher during the three-a-side compared with the six-a-side game condition (p < 0. 05) while players performed more long passes and headed the ball more often during the six-a-side (p < 0.05). After the three-a-side games, there was a significant decline in sprint and agility performance (p < 0.05), while after both game conditions significant alterations in the throw-in and the horizontal jump performance were observed (p < 0.05). The results of the present study indicated that three-a-side games provide higher stimulus for physical conditioning and technical improvement than six-a-side games and their use for training young soccer players is recommended. Key points Three-a-side games display higher HR compared with six-a-side games. In the three-a-side games players performed more short passes, kicks, dribbles, tackles and scored more goals

  13. AB40. Sexual side effects of medical treatment of BPH

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jun

    2014-01-01

    The medical and surgical management of BPH/LUTS can affect erectile function (EF), cause ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) or affect libido. Five alpha reductase inhibitors, such as finasteride and dutasteride have good efficacy for benign prostatic hyperplasia, however they have also sexual side effects including loss of libido, erectile dysfunction and decreased ejaculatory volume. Also, alpha adrenergic blockers are well known and standard medical treatment options for BPH/LUTS, and in spite of their high efficacy and low adverse effects, retrograde and diminished ejaculation are potential sexual side effects. Although the prevalence of five alpha reductase inhibitors and alpha adrenergic blockers are not high, their impact on the patients’ quality of life must be regarded as important as their efficacy for BPH/LUTS. This lecture will review the effects of these therapies on sexual function.

  14. Effect of protein crystal hydration on side chain conformational heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atakisi, Hakan; Moreau, David; Hopkins, Jesse; Thorne, Robert; Robert Thorne's group Team

    The structure of protein crystals is determined in part by water-mediated interactions involving both protein surface-ordered (hydration) and bulk water, and so is sensitive to the relative humidity of the environment. Monoclinic lysozyme provides a remarkable model for studying structural changes induced by dehydration, as it maintains excellent order for relative humidities (r.h.) down to 5%, corresponding to solvent content of 9% by volume, much smaller than the 88% (22% by volume) at which lysozyme loses its enzymatic activity. Although the main chain conformation does not change significantly, the effect of dehydration on side chain conformations has not been systematically studied. High resolution (1.1 to 1.7 A) structural data sets for monoclinic lysozyme at r.h. between 99% and 11% have been analyzed to identify major and minor side chain conformers at each humidity, and to map out how the side chain conformational ensemble evolves with hydration. Modest dehydration produces comparable overall effects to cooling to T =100 K, but with conformational changes largely confined to solvent-exposed residues. The largest side chain conformation changes occur at humidities that deplete water within the first two hydration shells.

  15. Supply-side and demand-side cost sharing in deregulated social health insurance: which is more effective?

    PubMed

    Trottmann, Maria; Zweifel, Peter; Beck, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    Microeconomic theory predicts that if patients are fully insured and providers are paid fee-for-service, utilization of medical services exceeds the efficient level ('moral hazard effect'). In Switzerland, both demand-side and supply-side cost sharing have been introduced to mitigate this problem. Analyzing a panel dataset of about 160,000 adults, we find both types of cost sharing to be effective in curtailing the use of medical services. However, when moral hazard mitigation is traded off against risk selection, the minimum-deductible, supply-side cost sharing option ranks first, followed by the medium-deductible demand-side alternative, making the supply-side option somewhat more effective. PMID:22105043

  16. Acute side effects of homologous interleukin-3 in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    van Gils, F. C.; Mulder, A. H.; van den Bos, C.; Burger, H.; van Leen, R. W.; Wagemaker, G.

    1993-01-01

    Interleukin-3 treatment of juvenile rhesus monkeys elicits a dose- and time-dependent syndrome that includes urticaria, palpable lymph nodes, splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, anemia, vomiting, diarrhea, intestinal bleeding, edema, and arthritis, apart from a strong stimulation of hemopoiesis. Arthritis was found to occur significantly more often in animals expressing the major histocompatibility complex alleles B9 and Dr5. Histological analysis revealed an abundance of mast cells in urticaria and, to a lesser extent, in lungs and synovia of arthritic joints. Active osteoclasts were abundant in ribs and arthritic joints. Extramedullary hemopoiesis was encountered in liver, spleen, and kidneys. The spleen showed deposits of hemosiderin, and in the liver, Kupffer cells were loaded with iron, indicating enhanced turnover of hemoglobin. Lymph nodes and bone marrow showed macrophages involved in hemophagocytosis, which probably contributed to the development of anemia and thrombopenia. Biochemical parameters in sera were indicative of parenchymal liver damage, with cholestasis and increased erythrocyte destruction. The side effects were strongly reduced in monkeys subjected to total body irradiation just before interleukin-3 treatment. Histamine antagonists were not significantly effective in preventing side effects, which is explained by the perpetual stimulation of basophilic granulocytes by exogenous interleukin-3. The nature of the side effects indicates that interleukin-3 may be involved in the pathogenesis of acute type hypersensitivity reactions and arthritis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8256852

  17. Psychological side effects of immune therapies: symptoms and pathomechanism.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, David; Kovacs, Peter; Eszlari, Nora; Gonda, Xenia; Juhasz, Gabriella

    2016-08-01

    Immunotherapies revolutionised the treatment of several disorders but show specific side-effect profiles which frequently involve psychological symptoms. Long term interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) therapy can cause wide-ranging psychiatric side-effects from fatigue, insomnia, anxiety to full-blown depression. This treatment-emergent depression shares several symptoms with major depressive disorder (MDD) with a predominance of somatic/neurovegetative symptoms, and can be treated with antidepressants. However, this experience directed research to inflammatory mechanisms in MDD. MDD has been confirmed as a heterogeneous disorder with a subgroup of patients suffering from low-grade chronic inflammation and frequently resistant to traditional antidepressant treatment. Thus future research should develop strategies to identify those MDD patients who could benefit from drugs acting through inflammatory pathways. PMID:27456240

  18. Renewable energy - what are its environmental side effects

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.

    1983-02-01

    This article reviews the National Audubon Society's report ''Side Effects of Renewable Energy Sources (SERES).'' The report, prepared by Dr. Larry Medsker, surveyed nine types of renewable energy, identifed the possible problems with each type, and showed how the problem could be minimized or avoided. Tables that list the consequences of development and the accompanying environmental stresses on land, air, water, wildlife, and flora are contained in the report.

  19. Characterization of MODIS mirror side difference in the reflective solar spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, X.; Angal, A.; Sun, J.; Wu, A.; Choi, T.; Xiong, X.

    2011-10-01

    The MODIS instruments onboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft, launched in December 1999 and May 2002, respectively, have successfully operated through the present time. MODIS collects the Earth view (EV) data via a twosided paddle wheel scan mirror at angles of incidence (AOI) from 10.5 to 65.5 degrees. Reflective properties between the two mirror sides are not identical with large differences seen in Terra MODIS reflective solar bands (RSB). This paper describes a methodology to calculate and monitor MODIS RSB mirror side differences using EV observations. The longterm trends of response differences between two mirror sides are evaluated using different EV targets. Results show that the on-orbit changes in the properties of the scan mirror are wavelength and AOI dependent with large mirror side differences observed at shorter wavelengths in larger AOI. Starting from 2005, the mirror side difference has gradually exhibited a seasonally dependent feature in Terra MODIS visible spectral bands, which is mainly due to the changes in the scan mirror polarization property. In addition to fully characterizing on-orbit changes of the MODIS scan mirror properties, results and discussions provided in this paper will help clarify their impacts on the Level 1B data products and support future efforts to maintain MODIS data quality.

  20. Beta-blocker therapy: identification and management of side effects.

    PubMed

    Dennis, K E; Froman, D; Morrison, A S; Holmes, K D; Howes, D G

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new beta-Blocker Visual Analog Scale designed to identify and quantify the impact that the side effects of beta-blocker therapy have on people's lives, and the self-management practices people use to mediate their influence. Instruments included the 20-item beta-Blocker Visual Analog Scale and the Profile of Mood States. Subjects had hypertension; 51 men were involved in a larger study involving antihypertensive medications and exercise, and 19 men and women were receiving beta-blocker therapy as first-line drug of choice. Estimates of internal consistency reliability, content validity, and concurrent and discriminant validity were moderately strong. The most problematic side effects were related to lack of sleep, vivid or active dreams, lack of energy and pep, diminished interest in sexual activity, and changes in vision. Among self-management practices used to mediate side effects were planning rest and activity periods, thinking carefully before reacting, and seeking out others for support. PMID:1680114

  1. Effects of rotational side preferences on immobile behavior of normal mice in the forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Krahe, Thomas E; Filgueiras, Claudio C; Schmidt, Sergio L

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that side preferences in spontaneous rotational behavior are determinant of differences in vulnerability to the effects of the learned helplessness paradigm. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of side preferences of rotational behavior in another animal model of depression, the forced swimming test. Immobility was also investigated upon repeated testing sessions and in interaction with sex. Swiss mice (69 males and 73 females) were submitted to three sessions (test time = 5 min) of forced swimming. Immobile and turning behaviors were measured for each session and within each testing session. Consistency of laterality was defined considering the persistence of the same side turning preference in the three sessions. In general, there was an increase in immobility as test progressed and upon repeated testing sessions. Marked interindividual differences in mice immobile behavior were observed when consistency of laterality was considered. Consistent-right-turners presented greater immobility in the first session and better test-retest reliability, indicating that for this group, the adoption of immobile behavior was faster and more reliable over time. Immobility was higher for side-consistent males than for side-consistent females in the first session. This difference became even greater when consistent-right-turner males were compared to consistent-left-turner females. These results reinforce the idea that side preferences of spontaneous rotational behavior may account for interindividual differences in animal models of depression. PMID:11853109

  2. [Management of the cutaneous side effects of chemotherapies and targeted therapies].

    PubMed

    Delyon, Julie; Gerard, Maud; Nicodeme, Marguerite; Fromantin, Isabelle; Loirat, Delphine

    2015-06-01

    The treatments used in oncology cause frequent cutaneous side effects. The different types of cutaneous toxicities depend on the class of anti-tumour therapies and can involve the skin, mucosa, nails and hair. Effectively managing these cutaneous toxicities requires adapted preventive and curative measures in order to reduce their impact, notably on patients' quality of life. PMID:26146316

  3. [Non-steroidal antirheumatics: side-effects and interactions].

    PubMed

    Felder, M

    1982-08-28

    Side effects of non-steroidal antirheumatic drugs (NSAD) may occur in any organ system, since the prostaglandins, the synthesis of which is inhibited by NSAD, play a role in numerous adverse cellular processes throughout the body. Besides these physiologic regulations there are adverse effects of NSAD, such as bone marrow aplasia, of unexplained etiology. The interactions of NSAD are of clinical relevance in drug types such as the salicylates, pyrazolons and fenamic acids (e.g. interactions with cumarin derivatives). The clinically relevant interactions of NSAD are discussed in detail. PMID:6982512

  4. Thermogenic side effects to migratory predisposition in shorebirds.

    PubMed

    Vézina, François; Jalvingh, Kirsten M; Dekinga, Anne; Piersma, Theunis

    2007-03-01

    In the calidrine sandpiper red knot (Calidris canutus), the weeks preceding takeoff for long-distance migration are characterized by a rapid increase in body mass, largely made up of fat but also including a significant proportion of lean tissue. Before takeoff, the pectoral muscles are known to hypertrophy in preparation for endurance flight without any specific training. Because birds facing cold environments counterbalance heat loss through shivering thermogenesis, and since pectoral muscles represent a large proportion of avian body mass, we asked the question whether muscle hypertrophy in preparation for long-distance endurance flight would induce improvements in thermogenic capacity. We acclimated red knots to different controlled thermal environments: 26 degrees C, 5 degrees C, and variable conditions tracking outdoor temperatures. We then studied within-individual variations in body mass, pectoral muscle size (measured by ultrasound), and metabolic parameters [basal metabolic rate (BMR) and summit metabolic rate (M(sum))] throughout a 3-mo period enclosing the migratory gain and loss of mass. The gain in body mass during the fattening period was associated with increases in pectoral muscle thickness and thermogenic capacity independent of thermal acclimation. Regardless of their thermal treatment, birds showing the largest increases in body mass also exhibited the largest increases in M(sum). We conclude that migratory fattening is accompanied by thermoregulatory side effects. The gain of body mass and muscle hypertrophy improve thermogenic capacity independent of thermal acclimation in this species. Whether this represents an ecological advantage depends on the ambient temperature at the time of fattening. PMID:17138724

  5. Pharmaceutical ethics and physician liability in Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Gaurav J; Amber, Kyle T

    2013-12-01

    We review Side Effects, a 2013 film involving bioethics, pharmaceuticals, and financial conspiracies. After the main character Emily unsuccessfully attempts suicide, she begins receiving care from a psychiatrist, Dr. Banks. Following numerous events, she is placed on a fictional antidepressant, Ablixa, which leads her to suffer from sleepwalking. During an episode of sleepwalking she commits a serious crime. The film poses an interesting dilemma: How responsible would the physician be in this instance? We analyze this question by applying numerous ethical principles. PMID:23996742

  6. Glycopyrrolate-induced respiratory arrest: an unusual side effect.

    PubMed

    D'souza, S; Gowler, V

    2015-03-01

    A descriptive case report of a 22-year-old woman, scheduled for elective laparotomy who had a respiratory arrest after premedication with inj glycopyrrolate and ondansetron. Respiratory arrest is an uncommon side effect of glycopyrrolate with very few published reports. Ondansteron can also cause respiratory arrest, however is most often associated with bradycardia. This patient had tachycardia and respiratory arrest and is suggestive of glycopyrrolate-induced respiratory arrest. This case report highlights the importance of strict vigilance by the anaesthesiologist even during premedication. PMID:25557856

  7. [Rare side effects in management of hyperthyroidism. Case report].

    PubMed

    Sohár, Gábor; Kovács, Mónika; Györkös, Andrea; Gasztonyi, Beáta

    2016-05-29

    The authors present the case history of a patient suffering from hyperthyroidism. The diagnostic procedures revealed the presence of propylthiouracyl induced vasculitis with renal involvement, that recovered completely after the withdrawal of propylthiouracyl and corticosteroid treatment. Thereafter, the patient was treated with thiamasol, that caused agranulocytosis with fever. After transient litium carbonate therapy a succesful thyreoidectomy was performed. Cumulative serious side effects of antithyroid drugs are rare. This case highlights some of the challenges and complications encountered in the management of hyperthyroidism. PMID:27211356

  8. Linezolid induced black hairy tongue: a rare side effect.

    PubMed

    Aijazi, Ishma; Abdulla, Fadhil M

    2014-01-01

    Linezolid induced black hairy tongue is a rare benign reversible side effect of linezolid therapy. We report a case of a 61 year old diabetic lady who developed thrombocytopenia and black hairy discoloration of the tongue after being prescribed linezolid for foot osteomyelitis by the orthopaedic surgeon. Patient was encouraged to practice good oral dental hygiene, advised to use a soft tooth brush, regular mouth wash and baking soda containing tooth paste. The condition resolved four weeks after cessation of the antibiotic therapy. PMID:25671958

  9. Psychiatric side effects of medications prescribed in internal medicine

    PubMed Central

    Casagrande Tango, Rodrigo

    2003-01-01

    Several pharmacological treatments used in internal medicine can induce psychiatric side effects (PSEs) that mimic diagnoses seen in psychiatry. PSEs may occur upon withdrawal or intoxication, and also at usual therapeutic doses. Drugs that may lead to depressive, anxious, or psychotic syndromes include corticosteroids, isotretinoin, levo-dopar mefloquine, interferon-a, and anabolic steroids, as well as some over-the-counter medications. PSEs are often difficult to diagnose and can be very harmful to patients. PSEs are discussed in this review, as well as diagnostic clues to facilitate their identification. PMID:22034468

  10. Assessment of Protein Side-Chain Conformation Prediction Methods in Different Residue Environments

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Lenna X.; Kang, Xuejiao; Kihara, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Computational prediction of side-chain conformation is an important component of protein structure prediction. Accurate side-chain prediction is crucial for practical applications of protein structure models that need atomic detailed resolution such as protein and ligand design. We evaluated the accuracy of eight side-chain prediction methods in reproducing the side-chain conformations of experimentally solved structures deposited to the Protein Data Bank. Prediction accuracy was evaluated for a total of four different structural environments (buried, surface, interface, and membrane-spanning) in three different protein types (monomeric, multimeric, and membrane). Overall, the highest accuracy was observed for buried residues in monomeric and multimeric proteins. Notably, side-chains at protein interfaces and membrane-spanning regions were better predicted than surface residues even though the methods did not all use multimeric and membrane proteins for training. Thus, we conclude that the current methods are as practically useful for modeling protein docking interfaces and membrane-spanning regions as for modeling monomers. PMID:24619909

  11. Memory for Medication Side Effects in Younger and Older Adults: The Role of Subjective and Objective Importance

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Michael C.; McGillivray, Shannon; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults often experience memory impairments, but can sometimes use selective processing and schematic support to remember important information. The current experiments investigate to what degree younger and healthy older adults remember medication side effects that were subjectively or objectively important to remember. Participants studied a list of common side effects, and rated how negative these effects were if they were to experience them, and were then given a free recall test. In Experiment 1, the severity of the side effects ranged from mild (e.g., itching) to severe (e.g., stroke), and in Experiment 2, certain side effects were indicated as critical to remember (i.e., “contact your doctor if you experience this”). There were no age differences in terms of free recall of the side effects, and older adults remembered more severe side effects relative to mild effects. However, older adults were less likely to recognize critical side effects on a later recognition test, relative to younger adults. The findings suggest that older adults can selectively remember medication side effects, but have difficulty identifying familiar but potentially critical side effects, and this has implications for monitoring medication use in older age. PMID:25331278

  12. Functional possibilities for forming different inverse population distributions in diode-side-pumped laser heads

    SciTech Connect

    Grechin, S G; Nikolaev, P P; Sharandin, E A

    2014-10-31

    The functional possibilities of diode-side-pumped laser heads of solid-state lasers for forming inverse population distributions of different types are analysed. The invariants determining the relationship between the laser head parameters upon scaling are found. The results of comparative experimental studies are presented. (lasers)

  13. The Relation between Different Facets of Creativity and the Dark Side of Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahmen-Wassenberg, Phoebe; Kämmerle, Monika; Unterrainer, Human-Friedrich; Fink, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relation between different facets of creativity and personality, focusing on the dark side of personality. In a sample of 247 students, psychometric measures for the assessment of the dark triad of personality (subclinical narcissism, Machiavellianism, subclinical psychopathy), personality organization (structural deficit:…

  14. Similarities and differences of aerosol optical properties between southern and northern sides of the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C.; Ma, Y. M.; Panday, A.; Cong, Z. Y.; Yang, K.; Zhu, Z. K.; Wang, J. M.; Amatya, P. M.; Zhao, L.

    2014-03-01

    topography. The diurnal pattern in precipitation appears to contribute to diurnal changes in AOD through the effect of precipitation scavenging. AOD exhibits diurnal patterns related to emissions in Pokhara, while it does not at the other two high-altitude sites. At EVK2-CNR, the daytime airflow carries aerosols up from lower-altitude polluted regions, leading to increasing AOD, while the other two stations are less influenced by valley winds. Surface heating influences the local convection, which further controls the vertical aerosol exchange and the diffusion rate of pollution to the surrounding areas. Fine and coarse mode particles are mixed together on the southern side of the Himalaya in spring, which may lead to the greater inter-annual difference in diurnal cycles of Ångström exponent (AE) at EVK2-CNR than that at QOMS_CAS.

  15. Species differences in unlocking B-side electron transfer in bacterial reaction centers.

    PubMed

    Dylla, Nicholas P; Faries, Kaitlyn M; Wyllie, Ryan M; Swenson, Angela M; Hanson, Deborah K; Holten, Dewey; Kirmaier, Christine; Laible, Philip D

    2016-08-01

    The structure of the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center (RC) reveals symmetry-related electron transfer (ET) pathways, but only one path is used in native RCs. Analogous mutations have been made in two Rhodobacter (R.) species. A glutamic acid at position 133 in the M subunit increases transmembrane charge separation via the naturally inactive (B-side) path through impacts on primary ET in mutant R. sphaeroidesRCs. Prior work showed that the analogous substitution in the R. capsulatusRC also increases B-side activity, but mainly affects secondary ET. The overall yields of transmembrane ET are similar, but enabled in fundamentally different ways. PMID:27325608

  16. Effect of Flow Rate of Side-Type Orifice Intake on Withdrawn Water Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guangning

    2014-01-01

    Side-type orifice intake is a type of selective withdrawal facility used in managing reservoirs to mitigate the negative effects of low-temperature water. Based on the temperature data of a thermal stratified reservoir in China, an experiment was conducted in flume to study the influence of intake flow rate on withdrawn water temperature with different temperature distributions. Results indicated that withdrawn water temperature changed with different flow rates. The temperature change was determined by the water temperature gradients above and below the intake, whereas the change trend of temperature depended on the difference between the water temperature gradient above and below the intake. We likewise proposed a new equation with which the withdrawn water temperature of a thermal stratified reservoir using a side-type orifice could be calculated. These findings could be directly applied to the design and operation of side-type orifice intake in thermal stratified reservoirs. PMID:25019100

  17. Radioprotective agents for the prevention of side effects induced by radioiodine-131 therapy.

    PubMed

    Noaparast, Zohreh; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal

    2013-08-01

    Radioiodine 131 ((131)I) has been used worldwide for the ablation of remnant thyroidal tissue after surgery or as the first-line treatment for Graves' disease. Although the use of (131)I is becoming increasingly prevalent, there is evidence suggesting that this treatment is associated with side effects such as salivary gland dysfunction and an increased risk of leukemia. This article aims to review the potential use of radioprotective agents and the side effects induced by (131)I therapy. Several synthetic and natural compounds have been investigated in preclinical and clinical studies. The protective agents reduced the toxicity of (131)I, mainly in the salivary glands, and mitigated the genetic damage through different mechanisms. There are limited clinical studies evaluating the use of radioprotective agents in patients undergoing radioiodine therapy. However, lemon candies, lemon juice and sugarless chewing gum have been proposed to be beneficial for minimizing the side effects of radioiodine within the salivary glands. PMID:23902246

  18. Ocular Side Effect of Tinidazole: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kauser, Hina; Qadir, Maniah; Anwar, Waseem

    2014-01-01

    Ocular side effects in the form of punctate epithelial erosions with the use of tinidazole - a 5-nitroimidazole group of drugs is very rare. A 32-year-old male was prescribed tablet tinidazole for the treatment of amoebiasis but developed adverse effects in the form of blisters on both upper and lower lips with itching and burning sensation, itching and burning on penile and anal area associated with punctate epithelial erosions of cornea of both the eyes. All these are rare manifestations but punctate epithelial erosions of cornea has never been reported in the literature so far. Punctate epithelial erosions of cornea have not previously been reported and should be added to the list of complications of tinidazole. Hence, this case is being reported. PMID:25657970

  19. Ocular side effect of tinidazole: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Kauser, Hina; Qadir, Maniah; Anwar, Waseem

    2014-01-01

    Ocular side effects in the form of punctate epithelial erosions with the use of tinidazole - a 5-nitroimidazole group of drugs is very rare. A 32-year-old male was prescribed tablet tinidazole for the treatment of amoebiasis but developed adverse effects in the form of blisters on both upper and lower lips with itching and burning sensation, itching and burning on penile and anal area associated with punctate epithelial erosions of cornea of both the eyes. All these are rare manifestations but punctate epithelial erosions of cornea has never been reported in the literature so far. Punctate epithelial erosions of cornea have not previously been reported and should be added to the list of complications of tinidazole. Hence, this case is being reported. PMID:25657970

  20. Extrapyramidal side effects with low doses of amisulpride

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Nikhiles; Singh, Om P.; Sen, Subrata

    2014-01-01

    Amisulpride, the newly introduced antipsychotic in India, is claimed to be effective in both positive and negative symptom schizophrenia and related disorders, though it has little or no action on serotonergic receptors. Limbic selectivity and lower striatal dopaminergic receptor binding capacity causes very low incidence of EPS. But, in clinical practice, we are getting EPS with this drug even at lower doses. We have reported three cases of akathisia, acute dystonia, and drug-induced Parkinsonism with low doses of amisulpride. So, we should keep this side effect in mind when using amisulpride. In fact, more studies are required in our country to find out the incidence of EPS and other associated mechanism. PMID:24891713

  1. Effect of weight, height and BMI on injury outcome in side impact crashes without airbag deployment.

    PubMed

    Pal, Chinmoy; Tomosaburo, Okabe; Vimalathithan, K; Jeyabharath, M; Muthukumar, M; Satheesh, N; Narahari, S

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive analysis is performed to evaluate the effect of weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of occupants on side impact injuries at different body regions. The accident dataset for this study is based on the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for accident year 2000-08. The mean BMI values for driver and front passenger are estimated from all types of crashes using NASS database, which clearly indicates that mean BMI has been increasing over the years in the USA. To study the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, BMI was split into three groups namely (1) thin (BMI<21), (2) normal (BMI 24-27), (3) obese (BMI>30). For more clear identification of the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, a minimum gap of three BMI is set in between each adjacent BMI groups. Car model years from MY1995-1999 to MY2000-2008 are chosen in order to identify the degree of influence of older and newer generation of cars in side impact injuries. Impact locations particularly side-front (F), side-center (P) and side-distributed (Y) are chosen for this analysis. Direction of force (DOF) considered for both near side and far side occupants are 8 o'clock, 9 o'clock, 10 o'clock and 2 o'clock, 3 o'clock and 4 o'clock respectively. Age <60 years is also one of the constraints imposed on data selection to minimize the effect of bone strength on the occurrence of occupant injuries. AIS2+ and AIS3+ injury risk in all body regions have been plotted for the selected three BMI groups of occupant, delta-V 0-60kmph, two sets (old and new) of car model years. The analysis is carried with three approaches: (a) injury risk percentage based on simple graphical method with respect to a single variable, (b) injury distribution method where the injuries are marked on the respective anatomical locations and (c) logistic regression, a statistical method, considers all the related variables together. Lower extremity injury risk appears to be high for thin BMI

  2. Psychiatric side effects of mefloquine: applications to forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron; Block, Jerald; Nevin, Remington Lee

    2013-01-01

    Mefloquine (previously marketed in the United States as Lariam®) is an antimalarial medication with potent psychotropic potential. Severe psychiatric side effects due to mefloquine intoxication are well documented, including anxiety, panic attacks, paranoia, persecutory delusions, dissociative psychosis, and anterograde amnesia. Exposure to the drug has been associated with acts of violence and suicide. In this article, we discuss the history of mefloquine use and describe plausible mechanisms of its psychotropic action. Mefloquine intoxication has not yet been successfully advanced in legal proceedings as a defense or as a mitigating factor, but it appears likely that it eventually will be. Considerations for the application of claims of mefloquine intoxication in forensic settings are discussed. PMID:23771936

  3. Minoxidil use in dermatology, side effects and recent patents.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Alfredo; Cantisani, Carmen; Melis, Luca; Iorio, Alessandra; Scali, Elisabetta; Calvieri, Stefano

    2012-05-01

    Minoxidil, a vasodilator medication known for its ability to slow or stop hair loss and promote hair regrowth, was first introduced, exclusively as an oral drug, to treat high blood pressure. It was however discovered to have the important side-effect of increasing growth or darkening of fine body hairs; this led to the development of a topical formulation as a 2% concentration solution for the treatment of female androgenic alopecia or 5% for treating male androgenic alopecia. Measurable changes disappear within months after discontinuation of treatment. The mechanism by which it promotes hair growth is not fully understood. Minoxidil is a potassium channel opener, causing hyperpolarization of cell membranes and it is also a vasodilator, it is speculated that, by widening blood vessels and opening potassium channels, it allows more oxygen, blood and nutrients to the follicle. This can also cause follicles in the telogen phase to shed, usually soon to be replaced by new, thicker hairs in a new anagen phase. It needs to be applied regularly, once or twice daily, for hair gained to be maintained, and side effects are common. The most common adverse reactions of the topical formulation are limited to irritant and allergic contact dermatitis on the scalp. There have been cases of allergic reactions to the nonactive ingredient propylene glycol, which is found in some topical solution especially if they are galenic. Increased hair loss which can occur during Minoxidil use, is due to the synchronization of the hair cycle that the treatment induces. In this review, we described its mechanism of action, use in dermatology and some patents related to alternative treatment of allergic reactions due to its use. PMID:22409453

  4. Focused Study on the Quiet Side Effect in Dwellings Highly Exposed to Road Traffic Noise

    PubMed Central

    Renterghem, Timothy Van; Botteldooren, Dick

    2012-01-01

    This study provides additional evidence for the positive effect of the presence of a quiet façade at a dwelling and aims at unraveling potential mechanisms. Locations with dominant road traffic noise and high Lden-levels at the most exposed façade were selected. Dwellings both with and without a quiet façade were deliberately sought out. Face-to-face questionnaires (N = 100) were taken to study the influence of the presence of a quiet side in relation to noise annoyance and sleep disturbance. As a direct effect, the absence of a quiet façade in the dwelling (approached as a front-back façade noise level difference smaller than 10 dBA) leads to an important increase of at least moderately annoyed people (odds-ratio adjusted for noise sensitivity equals 3.3). In an indirect way, a bedroom located at the quiet side leads to an even stronger reduction of the self-reported noise annoyance (odds-ratio equal to 10.6 when adjusted for noise sensitivity and front façade Lden). The quiet side effect seems to be especially applicable for noise sensitive persons. A bedroom located at the quiet side also reduces noise-induced sleep disturbances. On a loud side, bedroom windows are more often closed, however, conflicting with the preference of dwellers. PMID:23330222

  5. Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects: What to Do about Changes When You Urinate

    MedlinePlus

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects What to do about changes when you urinate “ ... drinking enough each day. Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects: Changes when you urinate Ask about drinks or ...

  6. [Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine: side effect profile of important therapeutic drugs].

    PubMed

    Ochsendorf, F R; Runne, U

    1991-03-01

    Precise knowledge of the undesirable effects of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine allows better exploitation of their therapeutic effects. Retinopathy can be avoided by observing a maximum daily dosage of 3.5-4 mg/kg ideal body weight for chloroquine and 6-6.5 mg/kg for hydroxychloroquine. In this way, both can be used for long-term therapy. The pharmacokinetics of chloroquine (storage in deep compartments with long plasma half-life) means that it can cumulate, especially with higher dosages and in the presence of renal or hepatic insufficiency. A high plasma concentration reinforces the side-effects without reinforcing the therapeutic effects. Besides subjective symptoms (e.g. anorexia, diarrhoea, nausea), the following undesirable reactions are significant. On the skin exanthema, hyperpigmentation and photodynamic reactions can develop. The hair can become white in blonde and red-haired men. In the eye, chloroquine deposits in the cornea and disturbances of accommodation can occur, besides retinopathy. Neuromyopathy and central nervous system disturbances (e.g. psychosis) are rare, as is impairment of auditory function or blood cells. During pregnancy there is a risk of potential fetal damage (hearing loss, abortion). An acute overdose is extremely dangerous: the lethal dose is 1 g for children and 4 g for adults. As death occurs rapidly, chloroquine has to be stored where it is absolutely inaccessible to children. PMID:2055762

  7. Mood and cognitive side effects of interferon-alpha therapy.

    PubMed

    Valentine, A D; Meyers, C A; Kling, M A; Richelson, E; Hauser, P

    1998-02-01

    The central nervous system side effects associated with interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) therapy, including depression and cognitive changes, can compromise otherwise effective immunotherapy. The term "depression" has multiple meanings ranging from a feeling of sadness to a neuropsychiatric disorder with defined diagnostic criteria. A syndrome of mood disturbance with memory impairment, cognitive slowing, and impaired executive function is common with IFN-alpha therapy and is consistent with mild subcortical dementia. Cognitive deficits and mood disorder may occur independently, and in some cases depression is a reactive phenomenon. Risk factors for development of IFN-alpha neurotoxicity include duration of treatment, high-dose therapy, and prior cranial irradiation or neurologic illness. Past or current psychiatric illness also may put the patient at risk. Subtypes of major depression are associated with neuroendocrine and neurochemical alterations that are consistent with the observed activities of IFN-alpha. This may provide insight into the etiology of IFN-alpha neurotoxicity, as well as possible interventions. Assessment of the neuropsychiatric status of patients treated with IFN-alpha should be a standard of care. Possible pharmacologic interventions to decrease the neurotoxicity associated with IFN-alpha therapy include antidepressants, psychostimulants, and opioid antagonists. Preliminary clinical and research experience suggests that it is possible to effectively palliate IFN-alpha toxicity. PMID:9482539

  8. The Side-Effect Effect in Children Is Robust and Not Specific to the Moral Status of Action Effects

    PubMed Central

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Behne, Tanya; Clüver, Annette; Dallmann, Stephanie; Weidner, Sarah; Waldmann, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Adults’ intentionality judgments regarding an action are influenced by their moral evaluation of this action. This is clearly indicated in the so-called side-effect effect: when told about an action (e.g. implementing a business plan) with an intended primary effect (e.g. raise profits) and a foreseen side effect (e.g. harming/helping the environment), subjects tend to interpret the bringing about of the side effect more often as intentional when it is negative (harming the environment) than when it is positive (helping the environment). From a cognitive point of view, it is unclear whether the side-effect effect is driven by the moral status of the side effects specifically, or rather more generally by its normative status. And from a developmental point of view, little is known about the ontogenetic origins of the effect. The present study therefore explored the cognitive foundations and the ontogenetic origins of the side-effect effect by testing 4-to 5-year-old children with scenarios in which a side effect was in accordance with/violated a norm. Crucially, the status of the norm was varied to be conventional or moral. Children rated the bringing about of side-effects as more intentional when it broke a norm than when it accorded with a norm irrespective of the type of norm. The side-effect effect is thus an early-developing, more general and pervasive phenomenon, not restricted to morally relevant side effects. PMID:26218422

  9. The Side-Effect Effect in Children Is Robust and Not Specific to the Moral Status of Action Effects.

    PubMed

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Behne, Tanya; Clüver, Annette; Dallmann, Stephanie; Weidner, Sarah; Waldmann, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Adults' intentionality judgments regarding an action are influenced by their moral evaluation of this action. This is clearly indicated in the so-called side-effect effect: when told about an action (e.g. implementing a business plan) with an intended primary effect (e.g. raise profits) and a foreseen side effect (e.g. harming/helping the environment), subjects tend to interpret the bringing about of the side effect more often as intentional when it is negative (harming the environment) than when it is positive (helping the environment). From a cognitive point of view, it is unclear whether the side-effect effect is driven by the moral status of the side effects specifically, or rather more generally by its normative status. And from a developmental point of view, little is known about the ontogenetic origins of the effect. The present study therefore explored the cognitive foundations and the ontogenetic origins of the side-effect effect by testing 4-to 5-year-old children with scenarios in which a side effect was in accordance with/violated a norm. Crucially, the status of the norm was varied to be conventional or moral. Children rated the bringing about of side-effects as more intentional when it broke a norm than when it accorded with a norm irrespective of the type of norm. The side-effect effect is thus an early-developing, more general and pervasive phenomenon, not restricted to morally relevant side effects. PMID:26218422

  10. [Analgesics in geriatric patients. Adverse side effects and interactions].

    PubMed

    Gosch, Markus

    2015-07-01

    Pain is a widespread symptom in clinical practice. Older adults and chronically ill patients are particularly affected. In multimorbid geriatric patients, pharmacological pain treatment is an extension of a previously existing multimedication. Besides the efficacy of pain treatment, drug side effects and drug-drug interactions have to be taken into account to minimize the health risk for these patients. Apart from the number of prescriptions, the age-related pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes significantly increase the risk among older adults. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) is widespread but NSAIDs have the highest risk of adverse drug reactions and drug interactions. In particular, the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal and coagulation systems are affected. Apart from the known toxic effect on the liver (in high doses), paracetamol (acetaminophen) has similar risks although to a lesser degree. According to current data, metamizol is actually better than its reputation suggests. The risk of potential drug interactions seems to be low. Apart from the risk of sedation in combination with other drugs, tramadol and other opioids can induce the serotonin syndrome. Among older adults, especially in the case of polypharmacy, an individualized approach should be considered instead of sticking to the pain management recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) in order to minimize drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions. PMID:26152872

  11. Ophthalmological side effects of interferon therapy of chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Medhat, Eman; Esmat, Gamal; Hamza, Eman; Abdel Aziz, Amr; Fouad Fathalah, Waleed; Zakaria, Zeinab; Mostafa, Sameh

    2016-01-01

    Background Egypt has one of the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. Ophthalmological side effects are recognized complications of interferon (IFN) therapy. This study aimed to evaluate IFN-induced ophthalmological manifestations in patients receiving PEGylated interferon (PEG IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) and to assess the effect of IFN duration, response and systemic risk factors on the severity. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 100 patients with chronic HCV who were candidates for PEG-IFN and RBV therapy. All patients were subjected to clinical and ophthalmological examination, laboratory investigations, abdominal ultrasound, colored fundus photography and fundus fluorescein angiography, follow up was made at weeks 12, 24, and 48 of treatment. Results IFN-induced retinopathy had been found in (9/100; 9%), 5 (5/9; 55.5%) of them had bilateral lesions, (3/9; 33.3%) were treatment responders and (6/9; 66.6%) non responders. The time of retinopathy appearance was mainly at W12. Retinopathy was asymptomatic in most of the affected patients (7/9; 77.77%) and reversible, cotton wool spots was the major associated sign. Patients with older age, DM and or HTN, and non-responders to antiviral therapy were associated with more severe retinopathy. Conclusions Retinopathy is not a rare complication of IFN therapy for chronic HCV infection, but fortunately it’s asymptomatic and reversible. Ophthalmological assessment at base-line and at follow up during IFN treatment is very important. PMID:27275462

  12. Medical and Behavioral Symptoms as Potential Medication Side Effects in Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdovinos, Maria G.; Caruso, Mary; Roberts, Celeste; Kim, Geunyoung; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of medical and behavioral symptoms that could occur as side effects of psychotropic medication was assessed in a sample of 30 adults with developmental disabilities. Using a retrospective chart review method, we measured symptoms in six a priori classes of potential side effects over a 2-year period. The majority of side effects…

  13. Development of Support System for Breast Cancer Patients--Managing Side Effects through an Internet-Based System.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Hiromi; Kato, Yasuhisa; Handa, Satoko; Nara, Tamaki; Sonoda, Masayuki; Baba, Mai; Akahori, Hiromi; Kuroda, Eiji; Nakamura, Seigo

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy in the outpatient setting is effective in improving patients' quality of life (QOL). However, the increasing availability of targeted molecular agents in addition to conventional anti-cancer medications has placed increased importance on managing adverse events and educating patients about side effects that can affect their QOL. We developed an Internet-based "Patient Support System"to enable patients at home to communicate symptoms of side effects and administration status to a hospital interface that documents and monitors the ongoing side-effect profile. In a trial of 8 patients scheduled to receive chemotherapy before or after surgery, our system enabled medical staff to quantitatively confirm data on side effects recorded daily by the outpatients, demonstrating that it functions effectively in maintaining the patient's QOL. Moreover, it clearly identified significant differences in the occurrence and status of side effects between patients receiving the same anticancer medication. Patients reported that the onset of side effects and recovery status could be confirmed objectively, thus enabling self-management of the disease, which helped greatly in managing side effects and schedules throughout the treatment period. This system has potential as a supportive tool for activities of daily living while maintaining QOL and improving the overall therapeutic effect. PMID:26809531

  14. Urologic medications and ophthalmologic side effects: a review

    PubMed Central

    Gani, Johan; Perlis, Nathan; Radomski, Sidney B.

    2012-01-01

    Commonly prescribed urologic medications can have significant ophthalmologic side effects. The existing information can be conflicting. We looked at alpha-blockers and intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS), phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors and non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and lastly anticholinergic medications and glaucoma. There is no conclusive scientific data on what to do if the risk of urinary retention is low to moderate, however, we recommend that patients having cataract surgery should stop alpha-blocker medications preoperatively. If there is a high risk of urinary retention, the alpha-blocker should not be withheld, with the active involvement of the ophthalmologist. The role of using 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs) can be considered. There is no convincing evidence that PDE5 inhibitors cause non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), but patients should be advised of the possible risk of visual loss, especially in patients with risk factors of ischemic heart disease. Acute angle closure glaucoma (AACG or closed angle glaucoma) is very rarely caused by anticholinergic medications in patients with narrow angle anterior eye chambers. However, these medications are safe in patients with open angle glaucoma or treated closed angle glaucoma. Urologists should inquire about the patient’s glaucoma history from his/her ophthalmologist before starting an anticholinergic medication. PMID:22396371

  15. [Sleep related eating disorders as a side effect of zolpidem].

    PubMed

    Valiensi, Stella Maris; Cristiano, Edgardo; Martínez, Oscar A; Reisin, Ricardo C; Alvarez, Florencia

    2010-01-01

    Zolpidem is a hypnotic drug used in sleep disorders. It binds selectively to alpha 1 subunit of the GABA A benzodiazepine receptor. Zolpidem reduces sleep latency, number of arousals and increases the total time of sleep. However, it is considered that it may increase phase 3 of non rapid eye movement sleep, where somnambulism can take place. Our aim is to report 8 cases of sleep related eating disorders associated with the use of this drug. We have evaluated the medical history of 8 patients who had received zolpidem for sleeping disorders and who have presented sleep related eating disorders. Eight patients (6 women, 2 men) aged between 32 to 72 years old, which received 10 mg of zolpidem/night except 1 that received 12.5 mg, were presented. They have referred strange eating behavior compatible to sleep related eating disorder. Symptoms appeared at a mean of 39.8 days after starting the medication. The numbers of nocturnal episodes recorded by the family or by the patient were 1 to 8 episodes of nocturnal eating per night. The morning after, patients found leftovers from the night before which they did not recall to have eaten. The remission was complete after discontinuing zolpidem. Zolpidem may induce sleep related eating disorder in about 1% of patients, although we consider there may be a subdiagnosis of this phenomenon. It will be important to bear in mind and look for this side effect because all the episodes could easily be controlled by withdrawing the drug. PMID:20529770

  16. Treatment of neuroblastoma with metaiodobenzylguanidine: results and side effects

    SciTech Connect

    Treuner, J.; Klingebiel, T.; Bruchelt, G.; Feine, U.; Niethammer, D.

    1987-01-01

    Between April 1984 and December 1985 we treated ten children suffering from neuroblastoma in a total of 25 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) courses. Five had had a relapse of neuroblastoma stage III or IV, three had never achieved a remission in spite of intensive chemotherapy, and two were treated with an unstable remission. The children were each administered from 1 to 5 courses with a dosage per course of between 1295 and 9065 MBq. The sum of the single doses during the whole course of therapy ranged between 3145 and 21,904 MBq per child. Five of five children suffering from bone pain and fever became free of complaints during the first three treatment days. Six of eight children with manifest tumor at onset of therapy responded well to the treatment: response extended from transitory decrease in elevated catecholamine levels in serum and urine to complete disappearance of large abdominal tumor masses. We also observed a decrease in bone marrow involvement and a stabilization of osteolytic lesions. Seven of these eight children died in spite of a good response from 55 to 350 days after the first MIBG treatment course. The only side effect we witnessed was a reversible bone marrow depression. In three children we combined the MIBG therapy with bone marrow transplantation.

  17. GESSE: Predicting Drug Side Effects from Drug-Target Relationships.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Nueno, Violeta I; Souchet, Michel; Karaboga, Arnaud S; Ritchie, David W

    2015-09-28

    The in silico prediction of unwanted side effects (SEs) caused by the promiscuous behavior of drugs and their targets is highly relevant to the pharmaceutical industry. Considerable effort is now being put into computational and experimental screening of several suspected off-target proteins in the hope that SEs might be identified early, before the cost associated with developing a drug candidate rises steeply. Following this need, we present a new method called GESSE to predict potential SEs of drugs from their physicochemical properties (three-dimensional shape plus chemistry) and to target protein data extracted from predicted drug-target relationships. The GESSE approach uses a canonical correlation analysis of the full drug-target and drug-SE matrices, and it then calculates a probability that each drug in the resulting drug-target matrix will have a given SE using a Bayesian discriminant analysis (DA) technique. The performance of GESSE is quantified using retrospective (external database) analysis and literature examples by means of area under the ROC curve analysis, "top hit rates", misclassification rates, and a χ(2) independence test. Overall, the robust and very promising retrospective statistics obtained and the many SE predictions that have experimental corroboration demonstrate that GESSE can successfully predict potential drug-SE profiles of candidate drug compounds from their predicted drug-target relationships. PMID:26251970

  18. Massive proteinuria: a possible side effect of pyrantel pamoate?

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Pietro; Bersani, Iliana; Bottaro, Giorgia; Vitelli, Ottavio; Liberatore, Pio; Gatto, Antonio; del Bufalo, Francesca; Romano, Valerio; Stabile, Achille

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced renal injury represents a frequent clinical entity. The most common drugs associated with acute tubular necrosis are aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, radiocontrast agents, and cyclosporine, but no data exist about the potential renal toxicity due to anthelmintics administration. Anthelmintics are commonly considered quite safe agents, and side effects such as gastrointestinal, neurologic, hematologic, or hepatic injury have been only rarely described. We report a 4-year-old boy with persistent massive proteinuria without any other symptoms/signs suggesting nephrotic syndrome (NS). The only relevant anamnestic data was the administration of pyrantel pamoate due to oxyuriasis 7 days before the proteinuria development. The patient was affected by NS diagnosed 6 months before and treated with a 12-week course of corticosteroids. During follow-up, carried out at 3 and 6 months after discharge, he did not show further episodes of proteinuria, and no clinical symptoms/signs suggesting a relapse of NS were ever detected. Considering that the proteinuria observed in our patient spontaneously disappeared after 10 days without any treatment, apart from the interruption of the anthelmintic therapy, we would like to alert pediatricians about the possible occurrence of anthelmintics-related renal complications especially among predisposed patients and to perform a watchful waiting not considering the presence of even massive proteinuria as a certain sign of NS relapse. PMID:21500989

  19. Minimising menopausal side effects whilst treating endometriosis and fibroids.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Paul D; McLaren, James S; Rymer, Janice; Morris, Edward P

    2015-03-01

    Medical management of endometriosis and fibroids involves manipulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to alter the balance of sex hormones thereby inhibiting disease progression and ameliorate symptoms. Unfortunately, resultant menopausal symptoms sometimes limit the tolerability and duration of such treatment. The use of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists to treat these diseases can result in short-term hypoestrogenic and vasomotor side effects as well as long-term impacts on bone health and cardiovascular risk. The routine use of add-back hormone replacement has reduced these risks and increased patient compliance, making this group of drugs more useful as a medium-term treatment option. The estrogen threshold hypothesis highlights the concept of a 'therapeutic window' in which bone loss is minimal but the primary disease is not aggravated. It explains why add-back therapy is appropriate for such patients and helps to explain the basis behind new developments in the treatment of hormonally responsive gynaecological conditions such as gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonists and progesterone receptor modulators. PMID:25802141

  20. Real-World Data on: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Cascade, Elisa; Kalali, Amir H; Wigal, Sharon B

    2010-04-01

    In this article, we provide information on patient-reported side effects from a cross-section of real-world patients. Specifically, data on side effects were tabulated for patients taking one of the following attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications: amphetamine and dextroamphetamine; atomoxetine; dexmethylphenidate; isdexamfetamine; and methylphenidate. Forty-eight percent of the approximately 325 patients surveyed reported having experienced a side effect as a result of taking an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medication. Most common side effects mentioned included loss of appetite, sleep problems, and mood disturbances. Only 21 percent of side effects were considered very bothersome or extremely bothersome. Regardless of how bothersome the side effects were, only 20 percent of patients mentioned the side effects to their prescribing physicians. PMID:20508803

  1. Frontal Plane Knee Moments in Golf: Effect of Target Side Foot Position at Address

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, Scott K.; Noffal, Guillermo J.

    2010-01-01

    Golf has the potential to keep people active well into their later years. Injuries to the target side knee have been reported in golfers, yet no mechanisms for these injuries have been proposed. The loads on the knee during the golf swing may be insufficient to cause acute injury, yet they may be a factor in the progression of overuse/degenerative conditions; therefore, research developing swing modifications that may alter loading of the knee is warranted. It has been suggested that the proper golf set-up position has the target-side foot externally rotated but no reasoning for this modification has been provided. Frontal plane knee moments have been implicated in many knee pathologies. Therefore, this study used a 3-dimensional link segment model to quantify the frontal plane knee moments during the golf swing in a straight (STR) and externally rotated (EXT) target-side foot position. Subjects were 7 collegiate golfers and knee moments were compared between conditions using repeated measures T-tests. The golf swing knee moment magnitudes were also descriptively compared to those reported for two athletic maneuvers (drop jump landing, side-step cutting) and activities of daily living (gait, stair ascent). The EXT condition decreased the peak knee adduction moment as compared to the STR condition; however, foot position had no effect on the peak knee abduction moment. Also, the magnitude of the knee adduction moments during the two activities of daily living were 9-33% smaller than those experienced during the two different golfing conditions. The drop jump landing and golf swing knee moments were of similar magnitude (STR= - 5%, EXT= + 8%); however, the moments associated with side- step cutting were 50-71% larger than those on the target side knee during the golf swing. The loading of the target side knee during the golf swing may be a factor in the development and progression of knee pathologies and further research should examine ways of attenuating these loads

  2. Preventing side-channel effects in continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkach, Ivan; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Filip, Radim

    2016-03-01

    The role of the side channels in the continuous-variable quantum key distribution is studied. It is shown how the information leakage through a side channel from the trusted sender station increases the vulnerability of the protocols to the eavesdropping in the main quantum communication channel. Moreover, the untrusted noise infusion by an eavesdropper on the trusted receiving side breaks the security even for a purely attenuating main quantum channel. As a method to compensate for the effect of the side-channel leakage on the sender side, we suggest several types of manipulations on the side-channel input. It is shown that by applying the modulated coherent light on the input of the side channel that is optimally correlated to the modulation on the main signal and optionally introducing additional squeezing in the case of the squeezed-state protocol, the negative influence of the lossy side channel on the sender side can be completely removed. For the trusted receiving side, the method of optimal monitoring of the residual noise from the side-channel noise infusion is suggested and shown to be able to completely eliminate the presence of the noisy side channel. We therefore prove that the side-channel effects can be completely removed using feasible operations if the trusted parties access the respective parts of the side channels.

  3. Side effects of aesthetic therapy by lasers and IPL source: a dark side of the correct management of the patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskarbski, George V.

    2004-09-01

    A medical practice by laser or IPL device means professional experience, reputation, strong economical investment, while a patient needs results for the bill he pays. In front of a publicity of non-invasive solutions for a broad base of clinical applications, the everyday practice offers embarrassing side effects about which it is better to prepare the users. Inefficiency, hypo-hyper-pigmentations, scars show that we need to have clear instructions and experienced studies, before emphasizing good results.

  4. Pseudotumour cerebri as a side effect of leuprorelin acetate.

    PubMed

    Boot, J H

    1996-01-01

    Leuprorelin acetate is a synthetic nona-peptide analogue of the naturally occurring gonadotrophin releasing hormone LH-RH (hypothalamus), used in the treatment of sterility, endometriosis or prostatic cancer. In a 35 year old woman, treated with leuprorelin acetate, after 5 months treatment, the side-effects (hot flushes, sweating, sleeping disorders), appeared to be rather unbearable. Medication was ended. The endocrine reversion to the normal physiological balance was association with high fever (38.9 degrees C) during an 8 day period. Increasing scotomas resulted in a gradual loss of eyesight in one eye, associated with a normal visual acuity. Unilateral papilloedema was observed, indicating the possibility of tumor cerebri. Fluorescein angiography demonstrated an intense leakage of the right optic disc. No signs of retinal vascular malformations were seen. The eye pressure was normal. No signs of hemorrhages were observed. Visual field examination showed an enlarged blind spot with a few scotomas above the centre of fixation. CT scan of the brain was normal, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was normal, indicated by IgG production. Six months after ending the leuprorelin acetate treatment, the eyesight was spontaneously 100% recovered. It is most likely that leuprorelin acetate is responsible for the emergence of pseudotumor cerebri. As described by Prof. Sidi et al(1), leuprorelin strongly induces increased liquor pressure, being the intermediate mechanism between hormonal treatment and an ante grade mechanical force, on the optic nervus. Because of the risk of permanent loss of eyesight, it is strongly advised to verify eye parameters conscientiously during leuprorelin treatment. PMID:8867506

  5. Mechanism study on the effects of side assisting gas velocity during CO{sub 2} laser welding process

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Linjie; Zhang Jianxun; Gong Shuili

    2009-07-15

    An experimental study on the effects of side assisting gas during CO{sub 2} laser welding has been carried out, and it is found that side assisting gas velocity can significantly affect the laser induced plasma and the weld cross-sectional geometry. In order to get better understanding on the associated mechanism, a three dimensional model based on the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy has been developed to simulate the spatial distributions of plasma temperature under different side assisting gas velocities. Furthermore, ray-tracing method is employed to investigate the variation of bremsstrahlung absorption and power density distribution on keyhole walls at different side assisting gas velocities with the assumption of conical keyhole shape. The results show that the diminishing of refraction and bremsstrahlung absorption due to an increase in side assisting gas velocity results in an increase in heat transfer efficiency, which contributes to the increase of weld cross-sectional area and penetration depth.

  6. Pharmacogenomic and clinical data link non-pharmacokinetic metabolic dysregulation to drug side effect pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Daniel C.; Filipp, Fabian V.; Bordbar, Aarash; Jensen, Kasper; Smith, Jeffrey W.; Herrgard, Markus J.; Mo, Monica L.; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2015-01-01

    Drug side effects cause a significant clinical and economic burden. However, mechanisms of drug action underlying side effect pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we integrate pharmacogenomic and clinical data with a human metabolic network and find that non-pharmacokinetic metabolic pathways dysregulated by drugs are linked to the development of side effects. We show such dysregulated metabolic pathways contain genes with sequence variants affecting side effect incidence, play established roles in pathophysiology, have significantly altered activity in corresponding diseases, are susceptible to metabolic inhibitors and are effective targets for therapeutic nutrient supplementation. Our results indicate that metabolic dysregulation represents a common mechanism underlying side effect pathogenesis that is distinct from the role of metabolism in drug clearance. We suggest that elucidating the relationships between the cellular response to drugs, genetic variation of patients and cell metabolism may help managing side effects by personalizing drug prescriptions and nutritional intervention strategies. PMID:26055627

  7. A predictor for side effects in patients with Alzheimer's disease treated with deferoxamine mesylate.

    PubMed

    Kruck, T P; Fisher, E A; McLachlan, D R

    1993-01-01

    In a previously reported clinical trial, patients with Alzheimer's disease were treated with deferoxamine mesylate, which resulted in a 50% reduction in the average rate of deterioration over 2 years. There were five deaths in the untreated group during the trial and no deaths in the treated group, although five of 25 treated patients reported anorexia. Deferoxamine metabolite analysis of urine for 24 hours after deferoxamine injection from sensitive and nonsensitive patients showed marked differences. Occurrence of side effects correlated with increased formation of a monoamine oxidase catalyzed (major) metabolite, MFO1. The metabolite ratio, MFO1/total metabolites, plus parent drug (TOT) showed a bimodal distribution with a mean +/- SD value of 0.68 +/- 0.06 for the nonsensitive and 0.79 +/- 0.04 for sensitive patients. The MFO1/TOT ratio discriminates between sensitive and nonsensitive patients, and we suggest that the half difference mark between the two mean values (0.735) can be used as a predictor of side effects. Patients with a MFO1/TOT ratio of greater than 0.70 would be considered at risk and observed for onset of side effects. Patients with a MFO1/TOT ratio greater than 0.80 would be considered for immediate adjunct treatment with isoniazid or other monoamine oxidase inhibitors. PMID:8422739

  8. The other side of progestins: effects in the brain.

    PubMed

    Giatti, Silvia; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Pesaresi, Marzia

    2016-08-01

    Progestins are a broad class of progestational agents widely differing in their chemical structures and pharmacological properties. Despite emerging data suggest that progestins, besides their action as endometrial protection, can also have multiple nonreproductive functions, much remains to be discovered regarding the actions exerted by these molecules in the nervous system. Here, we report the role exerted by different progestins, currently used for contraception or in postmenopausal hormone replacement therapies, in regulating cognitive functions as well as social behavior and mood. We provide evidence that the effects and mechanisms underlying their actions are still confusing due to the use of different estrogens and progestins as well as different doses, duration of exposure, route of administration, baseline hormonal status and age of treated women. We also discuss the emerging issue concerning the relevant increase of these substances in the environment, able to deeply affect aquatic wildlife as well as to exert a possible influence in humans, which may be exposed to these compounds via contaminated drinking water and seafood. Finally, we report literature data showing the neurobiological action of progestins and in particular their importance during neurodegenerative events. This is extremely interesting, since some of the progestins currently used in clinical practice exert neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in the nervous system, opening new promising opportunities for the use of these molecules as therapeutic agents for trauma and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27339142

  9. Multisystemic Side Effects of an Indispensable Old Drug: A Case Report of Chronic Lithium Use (A Patient with Multiple Side Effects of Lithium)

    PubMed Central

    Demirtas, Levent; Akbas, Emin Murat; Degirmenci, Husnu; Gurel, Ali; Duzgun, Eren

    2015-01-01

    Presented here is a case of long-term lithium use, with multiple emerging lithium-associated side effects. An 82-year-old woman was brought into the emergency department because of loss of consciousness. According to the physical examination and laboratory analyses, patient was diagnosed with lithium-associated hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), symptomatic sinus bradycardia, and thyroid dysfunction. In the literature, there is a limited number of case reports with lithium induced multiple clinical conditions. Multiple clinical manifestations due to the side effects of chronic lithium use might be seen. Health care professionals should keep in mind that lithium-related side effects might trigger or exacerbate each other. To avoid toxicity, close follow-up and clinical supervision are important for the early diagnosis and treatment of these side effects, due to the narrow therapeutic index and obscure clinical signs and symptoms of toxicity. PMID:26604931

  10. The Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Helicobacter pylori Eradication Rates and Side Effects during Eradication Therapy: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Yini; Reinhardt, Jan D.; Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhang, Guoxin

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous meta-analyses reported that probiotics improve the effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication during antibiotic therapy, while results regarding a possible reduction of side effects remained inconclusive. Moreover, the effectiveness of different strains of probiotics has not been studied so far. It is further conceivable that probiotics will produce additional effects only if antibiotics are relatively ineffective. Methods This meta-analysis includes eligible randomized controlled trials examining effects of probiotics supplementation on eradication rates (ER) and side effects, published up to May 2014. Sub-group analysis was performed to compare different probiotic strains and antibiotic therapies with different effectiveness in controls (ER <80% vs.>80%). Publication bias was assessed with funnel plots and Harbord's test. The quality of the trials was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results Thirty-three RCTs involving a total of 4459 patients met the inclusion criteria in case of eradication rates of which 20 assessed total side effects in addition. Overall, the pooled eradication rate in probiotics supplementation groups was significantly higher than in controls (ITT analysis: RR 1.122, 95% CI 1.086–1.159, PP analysis: RR 1.114, 95% CI 1.070–1.159). Sub group-analysis could, however, confirm this finding only for four individual strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei DN-114001, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Bifidobacterium infantis 2036) and for relatively ineffective antibiotic therapies. There was a significant difference between groups in the overall incidence of side effects (RR 0.735, 95% CI 0.598–0.902). This result was, however, only confirmed for non-blinded trials. Conclusions The pooled data suggest that supplementation with specific strains of probiotics compared with eradication therapy may be considered an option for increasing eradication rates, particularly when antibiotic

  11. Living with antipsychotic medication side-effects: the experience of Australian mental health consumers.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Paul; Meehan, Tom; Stomski, Norman Jay

    2015-06-01

    The present study explores people's experience of living with antipsychotic medication side-effects. Qualitative data were gathered through semistructured interviews with 10 mental health consumers in a community care setting in Australia. The interview transcriptions were content analysed, and enhanced by combining manifest and latent content. Important contextual cues were identified through replaying the audio-recordings. Several main themes emerged from the analysis, including the impact of side-effects, attitudes to the use of medication and side-effects, and coping strategies to manage medication side-effects. Each participant reported between six and seven side-effects on average, which were often pronounced and had a major disruptive impact on their lives. Of these effects, the most commonly mentioned was sedation, which the participants described as leaving them in a 'zombie'-like state. Most participants expressed an attitude of acceptance about the side-effects. The participants' most common strategy to manage side-effects was to change the dosage of the medication. Other common side-effect management strategies involved using other medications to control side-effects, and diverse self-help techniques, the most common of which was relaxation/distraction techniques. PMID:25529392

  12. Studies of the Effects of Side Walls on VLSI Semiconductor Devices.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xin Sheng

    1990-08-01

    Properties and effects of side walls in very large scale integrated (VLSI) devices are explored and studied. Many side wall related properties, such as damage on side walls caused by reactive ion etching (RIE) and ion implantation, impurity diffusion in from side walls, segregation of atoms to side walls, and side wall heat absorption, are investigated and found to be significant. Properties of the side walls are compared to those of a horizontal surface. The wake potential of a fast charged particle is derived for an atomic system using a first-order quantum -mechanical perturbation theory. The atomic Coulomb excitation cross sections of the target atoms by this wake potential are then derived and found to be large. Numerical results for a model system of condensed atomic hydrogen show that the wake potential is important and should be included in calculating the atomic Coulomb excitation cross sections in condensed matter. The wake potential along the path of a fast charged particle is also calculated for the case of hydrogen 1s 2s and 2p transitions without a cutoff parameter. A computer program has been written to simulate the RBS spectrum from stripes that are similar to VLSI device components. The simulation fits experimental data well and can be used to determine diffusion in horizontal directions. It also provides an accurate way of measuring angle of the stripe side walls. The charged particle stopping power change due to the transition to the superconducting state is estimated and measured. The change of stopping power depends on the energy gap of the superconductor, and may be measurable for low energy charged particles. The relative stopping power difference of a 1 MeV proton between the superconducting and normal states of polycrystalline YBa_2 Cu_3O_7 at 77K was measured to be 0.06 +/- 0.14%. The hydrogen concentration in CVD P glass, CVD TEOS oxide, phosphorus doped TEOS oxide, plasma enhanced CVD oxide, low pressure CVD nitride and plasma enhanced

  13. Yoga-Based Rehabilitation Program in Reducing Physical and Emotional Side Effects in Patients With Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-09

    Alopecia; Anxiety; Breast Carcinoma; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Colorectal Carcinoma; Depression; Fatigue; Lung Carcinoma; Nausea and Vomiting; Pain; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Sleep Disorder; Weight Change

  14. Norms Inform Mental State Ascriptions: A Rational Explanation for the Side-Effect Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttich, Kevin; Lombrozo, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind, the capacity to understand and ascribe mental states, has traditionally been conceptualized as analogous to a scientific theory. However, recent work in philosophy and psychology has documented a "side-effect effect" suggesting that moral evaluations influence mental state ascriptions, and in particular whether a behavior is…

  15. Metabolic Disturbances, Side Effect Profile and Effectiveness of Clozapine in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Hazari, Nandita; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Data on effect of clozapine on metabolic syndrome in adolescent patients with psychosis are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and incidence of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents with psychotic disorders prior to clozapine and while receiving clozapine. Secondary aims were to study the effectiveness and side effect profile of clozapine. Materials and Methods: Thirteen child and adolescent patients were evaluated at baseline, 3 months, and a follow-up beyond 6 months. Assessments were made for metabolic profile, effectiveness by positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), and side effects. Results: Prior to starting of clozapine, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 23%. After 3 months on clozapine, 38.5% (5/13) patients fulfilled criteria of metabolic syndrome and further on follow-up beyond 6 months (with last observation carried forward) 46.2% (6/13) had developed metabolic syndrome. There was a significant reduction in PANSS scores at 3 months and follow-up more so in those who developed metabolic syndrome at 3 months. Among the other side effects, hypersalivation was the most common side effect (100%) followed by sedation (69%). Conclusion: Half the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents on clozapine can be attributed to other factors prior to starting of clozapine, and another half can be attributed to clozapine. Clozapine is effective in an adolescent population. PMID:27335518

  16. Quantification and Analysis of Offensive Situations in Different Formats of Sided Games In Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Jorge Diaz-Cidoncha; Román, Ignacio Refoyo; Calleja-González, Julio; Dellal, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    There has been a lot of research that enabled soccer to improve: its technique, tactics and strategy through analysis and training. Nevertheless, players’ need to interact with each other turns any defending or attacking situation into complex solutions with a wide range of variables to be considered, in which the player is never isolated and must make the move that has the most positive impact on play. Fifty-four sided games played in three different formats (5v5, 7v7 and 9v9) and with two age groups (U9 and U14) were filmed at three soccer clubs in Spain in order to identify the most relevant attacking moves, from a technical and tactical perspective. This study used the observational method; it is descriptive and is applied through well-prepared systematic quantitative observation in a natural environment. A key part of the method involved viewing the match recordings and logging moves that had been categorised beforehand. Cohen’s Kappa analysis showed that the results for the most representative variables presented a substantial degree of concordance (0.61–0.80). The results show that there were significant variations depending on the game format, and the following study will present a description and analysis of the aspects that had considerable influence on attacking moves in different formats of sided games (5v5, 7v7 and 9v9). The study also presents various practical applications for the area of training and analysing both youth and professional soccer. PMID:25713680

  17. Side-gate modulation effects on high-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Xiaolong; Ye, Weiguang; Wu, Zefei; Han, Yu; Han, Tianyi; He, Yuheng; Cai, Yuan; Wang, Ning

    2014-12-15

    High-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors with double side-gates of graphene have been experimentally realized. The double side-gates can effectively modulate the electronic properties of graphene nanoribbon capacitors. By applying anti-symmetric side-gate voltages, we observed significant upward shifting and flattening of the V-shaped capacitance curve near the charge neutrality point. Symmetric side-gate voltages, however, only resulted in tilted upward shifting along the opposite direction of applied gate voltages. These modulation effects followed the behavior of graphene nanoribbons predicted theoretically for metallic side-gate modulation. The negative quantum capacitance phenomenon predicted by numerical simulations for graphene nanoribbons modulated by graphene side-gates was not observed, possibly due to the weakened interactions between the graphene nanoribbon and side-gate electrodes caused by the Ga{sup +} beam etching process.

  18. Effects and side effects associated with the non-nutritional use of tryptophan by humans.

    PubMed

    Fernstrom, John D

    2012-12-01

    The daily nutritional requirement for L-tryptophan (Trp) is modest (5 mg/kg). However, many adults choose to consume much more, up to 4-5 g/d (60-70 mg/kg), typically to improve mood or sleep. Ingesting L-Trp raises brain tryptophan levels and stimulates its conversion to serotonin in neurons, which is thought to mediate its actions. Are there side effects from Trp supplementation? Some consider drowsiness a side effect, but not those who use it to improve sleep. Though the literature is thin, occasional side effects, seen mainly at higher doses (70-200 mg/kg), include tremor, nausea, and dizziness, and may occur when Trp is taken alone or with a drug that enhances serotonin function (e.g., antidepressants). In rare cases, the "serotonin syndrome" occurs, the result of too much serotonin stimulation when Trp is combined with serotonin drugs. Symptoms include delirium, myoclonus, hyperthermia, and coma. In 1989 a new syndrome appeared, dubbed eosinophilia myalgia syndrome (EMS), and was quickly linked to supplemental Trp use. Key symptoms included debilitating myalgia (muscle pain) and a high peripheral eosinophil count. The cause was shown not to be Trp but a contaminant in certain production batches. This is not surprising, because side effects long associated with Trp use were not those associated with the EMS. Over 5 decades, Trp has been taken as a supplement and as an adjunct to medications with occasional modest, short-lived side effects. Still, the database is small and largely anecdotal. A thorough, dose-related assessment of side effects remains to be conducted. PMID:23077193

  19. Effects of the interstrip gap on the efficiency and response of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torresi, D.; Forneris, J.; Grassi, L.; Acosta, L.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Fisichella, M.; Grilj, V.; Jakic, M.; Lattuada, M.; Mijatovic, T.; Milin, M.; Prepolec, L.; Skukan, N.; Soic, N.; Stanko, D.; Tokic, V.; Uroic, M.; Zadro, M.

    2016-05-01

    In this work the effects of the segmentation of the electrodes of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSDs) are investigated. In order to characterize the response of the DSSSDs we perform a first experiment by using tandem beams of different energies directly sent on the detector and a second experiment by mean of a proton microbeam. Results show that the effective width of the inter-strip region and the efficiency for full energy detection, varies with both detected energy and bias voltage. The experimental results are qualitatively reproduced by a simplified model based on the Shockley-Ramo-Gunn framework.

  20. Cost effectiveness of solar DHW systems: results of side-by-side tests of active and passive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Athoe, J.; Beach, C.; Gleman, S.

    1981-01-01

    Four solar domestic hot water systems were assembled at the Florida Solar Energy Systems Test Facility and run side-by-side for 6 months in the Florida sunshine. The systems included (1) a 40 ft/sup 2/, 80 gal pumped direct system with differential control, (2) a 40 ft/sup 2/, 80 gal pumped direct system with snap switch control, (3) a 24 ft/sup 2/, 40 gal thermosiphon system, and (4) a bread-box water heater (originally a Baer-type or horizontal tank system with about 20 ft/sup 2/ aperture and 66 gallon tank, later changed to a tilted tank, 24 ft/sup 2/, 40 gallon system). These systems were run without backup power and under a draw of 63 gallons per day for each system. The installed costs of these systems were estimated on a consistent basis. Results of the tests are presented, including thermal efficiency (heat delivered to load divided by sunshine incident upon collector), water draw temperature, and cost effectiveness (heat per day per dollar system cost) of the system. Based on data for the colder half of the year in Florida, it is concluded: (1) differential and snap switch controls perform about equally well, (2) the thermosiphon is the most cost-effective, (3) the more costly the system, the higher the temperature of the water it delivers, and (4) the less costly systems are adequate for some purposes, and about as cost-effective as the more expensive systems.

  1. The Relationship among Side Effects Associated with Anti-Epileptic Medications in Those with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian; Turygin, Nicole; Kozlowski, Alison M.; Horovitz, Max

    2011-01-01

    Seizures are fairly common in those with intellectual disabilities. In order to treat these seizures, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are often used and in many cases are effective. However, these medications often create a variety of associated side effects. In order to monitor these side effects, measures such as the SEIZES-B have been used. While…

  2. Enquiry into the Side Effects of School Inspection in a "Low-Stakes" Inspection Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penninckx, Maarten; Vanhoof, Jan; De Maeyer, Sven; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study into the occurrence of the side effects of school inspection through in-depth interviews in five case schools. The study investigates the extent to which strategic activities, disturbing effects and emotional side effects occur in the case schools. The study also aims to understand features that may…

  3. Long-Term Side Effects of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Caldemeyer, Lauren; Dugan, Michael; Edwards, John; Akard, Luke

    2016-04-01

    Most patients with chronic myeloid leukemia have deep and durable responses when treated with BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Imatinib (the first approved TKI), nilotinib, and dasatinib are used in newly diagnosed, relapsed or intolerant patients, while bosutinib and ponatinib are used only in relapsed or intolerant patients. Previously the drug of choice was related to the likelihood of response and, to a small extent, patient comorbidities. The long-term toxicities, particularly cardiopulmonary side effects, are now impacting treatment choice, making patient comorbidities of significant concern. About 10 % of patients do not tolerate their initial BCR-ABL1 TKI and an increasing number are developing long-term side effects, particularly with the second generation drugs. Side effects of the five drugs reviewed here highlight the differences between cardiovascular, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and endocrine toxicities, as well as possible second malignancies. There is increasing evidence that patients whose disease is controlled by TKI's will have greater impact on their quality of life from comorbidities or drug adverse events than from the disease itself. Research into management of long-term toxicities is needed. PMID:26922746

  4. Cutaneous Sarcoidosis: An Uncommon Side Effect of Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin Use for Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Elson Vidal; Gaburri, Ana Karla; Gaburri, Debora; Sementilli, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) has evolved in the past 15 years and combination of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin is its current standard therapy. However, several side effects are commonly observed and frequently lead to transient or definitive interruption of treatment. Although sarcoidosis in its systemic or cutaneous form is a very rare side effect in such circumstances, some cases have been reported even with conventional interferon. This brief review of the literature and description of a case of sarcoidosis occurring in a tattoo and a scar patient's face, during treatment with pegylated interferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin, is an educative report directed in special to dermatologists. The lesion improved after drug interruption and recurred after retreatment with pegylated interferon alpha-2a. We conclude that this side effect must call the attention of doctors to seek for the diagnosis and therapy as soon as possible in such circumstances. No differences were noticed neither with alpha-2a nor alpha-2b pegylated interferon employment. PMID:21103255

  5. [Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on side effects of CAP therapy in gynecological malignant tumors].

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Y; Okazaki, T; Okamura, S; Ueki, M; Sugimoto, O

    1989-07-01

    We concomitantly administered a large dose of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) to gynecological malignant tumor patients undergoing CAP therapy (CAP). Hematological changes in the peripheral blood were compared between concomitant MPA patients and those not receiving MPA to examine the effect of MPA in reducing the marrow depression which is the major side effect of CAP. 1) Leukocyte count reached minimum at the second week of CAP in both groups. There was no significant difference in the count between the two groups. At the third week of CAP, the count improved to 84% of the pre-CAP level in patients receiving MPA and to 68% in those not receiving MPA, a significant difference (p less than 0.01). At the fourth week, leukocyte counts were 105% and 96% of pre-CAP levels, respectively. There was no difference between the two groups, but the leukocyte count returned to the pre-CAP level in the patients receiving MPA. 2) Platelet count showed changes similar to those in the leukocyte count. In patients receiving MPA, the count improved more rapidly within three weeks (118%, p less than 0.01), and was significantly higher at the fourth week (107%, p less than 0.05) than in patients not receiving MPA. 3) Reticulocyte count reached minimum in the first week, thereafter improving rapidly in both groups. No differences were noted between the two groups. 4) The periods needed for one course of CAP were 27.7 +/- 3.3 days in the patients receiving MPA and 29.5 +/- 3.7 days in the patients not receiving MPA, making for a significant difference between the two groups (p less than 0.05). These results show that MPA accelerates recovery from marrow depression caused by CAP. It is anticipated, therefore, that MPA will be helpful in the application of various chemotherapies which are expected to be frequently conducted in the future. PMID:2526618

  6. Continuum behavior of lattice QED, discretized with one-sided lattice differences, in one-loop order

    SciTech Connect

    Sadooghi, N.; Rothe, H.J.

    1997-06-01

    A lattice action for QED is considered, where the derivatives in the Dirac operator are replaced by one-sided lattice differences. A systematic expansion in the lattice spacing of the one-loop contribution to the fermion self-energy, vacuum polarization tensor, and vertex function is carried out for an arbitrary choice of one-sided lattice differences. It is shown that only the vacuum polarization tensor possesses the correct continuum limit, while the fermion self-energy and vertex function receive noncovariant contributions. A lattice action, discretized with a fixed choice of one-sided lattice differences, therefore, does not define a renormalizable field theory. The noncovariant contributions can, however, be eliminated by averaging the expression over all possible choices of one-sided lattice differences. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Prevalence of Side Effects Treatment with Carbamazepine and Other Antiepileptics in Patients with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Koliqi, Rozafa; Polidori, Carlo; Islami, Hilmi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This paper reveals the studies of carbamazepine monitoring in the manifestation of side effects during clinical use. It is important to realize that these ranges are derived statistically, with most patients who have high levels suffering side effects and some with poor control having low levels. Broadly, the newer agents have advantages of lower risk of side effects and less drug interaction. At the presence they are more expensive than the, than “older” agents. Current recommendations and practice are to use newer agents as second line drugs, although in some countries there are gaining favour as potential first line agents. Methods: In the study 91 patients with epilepsy were involved from which 53 or 58.2% were female and 38 or 41.8% were male with no great significant difference between two genders (X2=2.47, P=0.116). However, according to the study results female patients had slightly greater prevalence of epilepsy than man. Average age of epileptic patients was 23.2 years (SD ± 16.4 years), in the range 1–66 years. Patient distribution was present within all age-groups, but 59.4% of all patients were up to 20 years old. The highest prevalence of epilepsy was in the group age 6-15 years old: 33.0%. There were also children 1 – 5 years old with 7 or 7.7% of the patients, and the patients older than 60 years with 4 or 4.4% of the patients. Patient distribution according to the age and gender results with no female patient over 60 year old and more female patients in the age group 1-5 years. However statistically this did not produce a highly significant difference (T-test= 0.72, P=0.437) between average age according to the gender. The average age of the female gender was 22.1 year (SD ± 14.2 years), with the range 2-55 years, while the average age of the male patients was 24.6 year (SD ±19.2 years), with the range 1-66 years. Conclusion: Unwanted side effects of antiepileptic drugs analyzed in the study are frequent, but not so severe as

  8. Asymmetric Cancer Hallmarks in Breast Tumors on Different Sides of the Body.

    PubMed

    Campoy, Emanuel M; Laurito, Sergio R; Branham, María T; Urrutia, Guillermo; Mathison, Angela; Gago, Francisco; Orozco, Javier; Urrutia, Raul; Mayorga, Luis S; Roqué, María

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades it has been established that breast cancer arises through the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in different cancer related genes. These alterations confer the tumor oncogenic abilities, which can be resumed as cancer hallmarks (CH). The purpose of this study was to establish the methylation profile of CpG sites located in cancer genes in breast tumors so as to infer their potential impact on 6 CH: i.e. sustained proliferative signaling, evasion of growth suppressors, resistance to cell death, induction of angiogenesis, genome instability and invasion and metastasis. For 51 breast carcinomas, MS-MLPA derived-methylation profiles of 81 CpG sites were converted into 6 CH profiles. CH profiles distribution was tested by different statistical methods and correlated with clinical-pathological data. Unsupervised Hierarchical Cluster Analysis revealed that CH profiles segregate in two main groups (bootstrapping 90-100%), which correlate with breast laterality (p = 0.05). For validating these observations, gene expression data was obtained by RealTime-PCR in a different cohort of 25 tumors and converted into CH profiles. This analyses confirmed the same clustering and a tendency of association with breast laterality (p = 0.15). In silico analyses on gene expression data from TCGA Breast dataset from left and right breast tumors showed that they differed significantly when data was previously converted into CH profiles (p = 0.033). We show here for the first time, that breast carcinomas arising on different sides of the body present differential cancer traits inferred from methylation and expression profiles. Our results indicate that by converting methylation or expression profiles in terms of Cancer Hallmarks, it would allow to uncover veiled associations with clinical features. These results contribute with a new finding to the better understanding of breast tumor behavior, and can moreover serve as proof of principle for other

  9. Asymmetric Cancer Hallmarks in Breast Tumors on Different Sides of the Body

    PubMed Central

    Campoy, Emanuel M.; Laurito, Sergio R.; Branham, María T.; Urrutia, Guillermo; Mathison, Angela; Gago, Francisco; Orozco, Javier; Urrutia, Raul; Mayorga, Luis S.; Roqué, María

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades it has been established that breast cancer arises through the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in different cancer related genes. These alterations confer the tumor oncogenic abilities, which can be resumed as cancer hallmarks (CH). The purpose of this study was to establish the methylation profile of CpG sites located in cancer genes in breast tumors so as to infer their potential impact on 6 CH: i.e. sustained proliferative signaling, evasion of growth suppressors, resistance to cell death, induction of angiogenesis, genome instability and invasion and metastasis. For 51 breast carcinomas, MS-MLPA derived-methylation profiles of 81 CpG sites were converted into 6 CH profiles. CH profiles distribution was tested by different statistical methods and correlated with clinical-pathological data. Unsupervised Hierarchical Cluster Analysis revealed that CH profiles segregate in two main groups (bootstrapping 90–100%), which correlate with breast laterality (p = 0.05). For validating these observations, gene expression data was obtained by RealTime-PCR in a different cohort of 25 tumors and converted into CH profiles. This analyses confirmed the same clustering and a tendency of association with breast laterality (p = 0.15). In silico analyses on gene expression data from TCGA Breast dataset from left and right breast tumors showed that they differed significantly when data was previously converted into CH profiles (p = 0.033). We show here for the first time, that breast carcinomas arising on different sides of the body present differential cancer traits inferred from methylation and expression profiles. Our results indicate that by converting methylation or expression profiles in terms of Cancer Hallmarks, it would allow to uncover veiled associations with clinical features. These results contribute with a new finding to the better understanding of breast tumor behavior, and can moreover serve as proof of principle for other

  10. Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Side Effect Impacted on Quality of Life, and Depressive Symptomatology: A Mixed-Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Yang, Joyce P; Simoni, Jane M; Fredriksen-Goldsen, karen I; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien; Zhao, Hongxin

    2013-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is known for its side effects. In this paper, we describe ART side effects as experienced by Chinese HIV+ individuals. This study presents two stages of a research project, combining qualitative in-depth interviews (29 HIV+ participants) with quantitative statistical data analysis (N = 120). All data was collected between July 2005 to March 2008 at Beijing's Ditan Hospital. Consent was obtained from each participant for the qualitative interview and again for the quantitative survey. During in-depth interviews, Chinese HIV+ patients reported experiencing digestive discomfort, skin rashes, numbness, memory loss, nightmares, and dizziness, which not only brought them physical discomfort, but also interrupted different dimensions of their social lives. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses revealed that those who reported more severe side effects also experienced greater depressive mood after controlling for other clinical and psychosocial factors. ART side effects are one of the primary reasons causing HIV+ individuals to delay or stop taking life-saving medication; therefore, clinical interventions are critically needed to assist HIV+ individuals in managing ART side effects. ART side effects reinforced existing negative attitudes toward ART and lead to lower ART adherence. Future research should focus on developing culturally sensitive interventions to enhance HIV+ self-management, to alleviate physical and psychological burden from ART and HIV. PMID:24083060

  11. Current Status of the Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Cervantes, Paige E.

    2013-01-01

    The Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS) is currently the best established and most researched measure of drug side effects in the intellectual disability (ID) literature. Initial research was conducted on its psychometric properties such as reliability and validity. More recent research studies have used the measure to determine the…

  12. The effective theory of quintessence: the w < -1 side unveiled

    SciTech Connect

    Creminelli, Paolo; Vernizzi, Filippo; D'Amico, Guido; Norena, Jorge E-mail: damico@sissa.it E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr

    2009-02-15

    We study generic single-field dark energy models, by a parametrization of the most general theory of their perturbations around a given background, including higher derivative terms. In appropriate limits this approach reproduces standard quintessence, k-essence and ghost condensation. We find no general pathology associated to an equation of state w{sub Q} < -1 or in crossing the phantom divide w{sub Q} = -1. Stability requires that the w{sub Q} < -1 side of dark energy behaves, on cosmological scales, as a k-essence fluid with a virtually zero speed of sound. This implies that one should set the speed of sound to zero when comparing with data models with w{sub Q} < -1 or crossing the phantom divide. We summarize the theoretical and stability constraints on the quintessential plane (1+w{sub Q}) vs. speed of sound squared.

  13. Estimated metabolic and mechanical demands during different small-sided games in elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Gaudino, Paolo; Alberti, Giampietro; Iaia, F Marcello

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the extent to which game format (possession play, SSG-P and game with regular goals and goalkeepers, SSG-G) and the number of players (5, 7 and 10 a-side) influence the physical demands of small-sided soccer games (SSGs) in elite soccer players. Training data were collected during the in-season period from 26 English Premier League outfield players using global positioning system technology. Total distance covered, distance at different speed categories and maximal speed were calculated. In addition, we focused on changes in velocity by reporting the number of accelerations and decelerations carried out during the SSGs (divided in two categories: moderate and high) and the absolute maximal values of acceleration and deceleration achieved. By taking into account these parameters besides speed and distance values, estimated energy expenditure and average metabolic power and distance covered at different metabolic power categories were calculated. All variables were normalized by time (i.e., 4min). The main findings were that the total distance, distances run at high speed (>14.4kmh(-1)) as well as absolute maximum velocity, maximum acceleration and maximum deceleration increased with pitch size (10v10>7v7>5v5; p<.05). Furthermore, total distance, very high (19.8-25.2kmh(-1)) and maximal (>25.2kmh(-1)) speed distances, absolute maximal velocity and maximum acceleration and deceleration were higher in SSG-G than in SSG-P (p<.001). On the other hand, the number of moderate (2-3ms(-2)) accelerations and decelerations as well as the total number of changes in velocity were greater as the pitch dimensions decreased (i.e., 5v5>7v7>10v10; p<.001) in both SSG-G and SSG-P. In addition, predicted energy cost, average metabolic power and distance covered at every metabolic power categories were higher in SSG-P compared to SSG-G and in big than in small pitch areas (p<.05). A detailed analysis of these drills is pivotal in contemporary football as it

  14. Perphenazine suspension: a new, old treatment, side effects and continuous use.

    PubMed

    Chrisphonte, Pascale; Ostroff, Robert B; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2012-09-01

    A number of innovative delivery systems for acute antipsychotic pharmacotherapy have been developed over the years which include oral suspensions, rapidly dissolving wafers and acute intramuscular preparations. Currently, the availability of first generation antipsychotic (FGA) formulations is limited to two high potency agents: haloperidol and fluphenazine. At Yale New-Haven Psychiatric Hospital, the hospital pharmacy was able to create perphenazine suspension, a mid-potency FGA, with a record of effectiveness and tolerability that was no worse than that of second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) in the CATIE trial. In this study we compare perphenazine suspension to other first and SGAs in the risk of extrapyramidal reactions and whether or not patients were continued on the same antipsychotic they were started with at the time of discharge. Medical records of patients who received acute pharmacotherapy in a unique form while hospitalized at Yale New Haven Psychiatric Hospital from July 2009 to December 2009 were examined. All data were collected thru a chart review using a form that was created to systematically document experiences. A total of 229 patients were included in the study. There were no significant differences between treatment groups on gender, age, race or diagnosis. In the entire samples 1.75% had pseudo-parkonisnism, 1.31% had acute dystonia, 0.04% had tardive dyskinesia, 1.31% akithesia, and 4.8% any neurological side effects. There were no significant differences between agents in the likelihood of any of these side effects or of having any side effect. Higher use of anticholinergics was found in patients treated with FGAs. We also found that 77% were discharged on the same antipsychotic agent they received when they were initially hospitalized. A wide range of acute oral pharmacoptherapy in non-tablet formulations of first and SGAs should be available in psychiatric hospital formularies. FGAs seems to be as well tolerated as SGAs. PMID

  15. Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario.

    PubMed

    Keller, David P; Feng, Ellias Y; Oschlies, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited. PMID:24569320

  16. Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario

    PubMed Central

    Keller, David P.; Feng, Ellias Y.; Oschlies, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited. PMID:24569320

  17. Synchronized vortex shedding and sound radiation from two side-by-side rectangular cylinders of different cross-sectional aspect ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Octavianty, Ressa Asai, Masahito

    2015-10-15

    Synchronized vortex shedding from two side-by-side cylinders and the associated sound radiation were examined experimentally at Reynolds numbers of the order of 10{sup 4} in low-Mach-number flows. In addition to a pair of square cylinders, a pair of rectangular cylinders, one with a square cross section (d × d) and the other with a rectangular cross section (d × c) having a cross-sectional aspect ratio (c/d) of 1.2–1.5, was considered. The center-to-center distance between the two cylinders L/d was 3.6, 4.5, and 6.0; these settings were within the non-biased flow regime for side-by-side square cylinders. In case of a square cylinder pair, anti-phase synchronized vortex shedding occurring for L/d = 3.6 and 4.5 generated a quadrupole-like sound source which radiated in-phase, planar-symmetric sound in the far field. Synchronized vortex shedding from the two rectangular cylinders with different c/d also occurred with almost the same frequency as the characteristic frequency of the square-cylinder wake in the case of the small center-to-center distance, L/d = 3.6, for all the cylinder pairs examined. The synchronized sound field was anti-phase and asymmetric in amplitude, unlike the case of a square cylinder pair. For larger spacing L/d = 4.5, synchronized vortex shedding and anti-phase sound still occurred, but only for close cross-sectional aspect ratios (c/d = 1.0 and 1.2), and highly modulated sound was radiated with two different frequencies due to non-synchronized vortex shedding from the two cylinders for larger differences in c/d. It was also found that when synchronized vortex shedding occurred, near-wake velocity fluctuations exhibited high spanwise-coherency, with a very sharp spectral peak compared with the single-cylinder case.

  18. Simulation of mixed convection in a channel with cavity heated from different sides using fluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadun, Mohd Noor Asril; Haminudin, Nor Faizah Binti; Zakaria, Mohamad Shukri; Manaf, Muhammad Zaidan Abdul; Hanafi, Mohd Hafidzal Mohd

    2015-05-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) is one of the methods used in industry and in education to solve problems related to fluid flow in closed channel. Through simulation, the type of fluid flow, streamlines and vorticity can be seen to determine the ability of the airway is produced through a rectangular shape to remove contaminants that are trapped in it. In addition, the project is also looking at the effects of conductive heat transfer that being supply at the sided wall to the water flow and it will be seen whether able to help the flow of air to remove pollutants altogether. Time is the element that is reviewed and any. Interest in the rate of contaminants being transfer was varied by the investigated ratio of neither 2:1, 4:1 nor 1:2 to the length and width in 2D simulation for best possible cavity design. The removal percentage shown that as the aspect ratio increase, the removal rate also increase with steady flow constant.

  19. Deficits in neuronal cytochrome P450 activity attenuate opioid analgesia but not opioid side effects.

    PubMed

    Hough, Lindsay B; Nalwalk, Julia W; Cleary, Rachel A; Phillips, James G; Fang, Cheng; Yang, Weizhu; Ding, Xinxin

    2014-10-01

    Morphine-like analgesics act on µ opioid receptors in the CNS to produce highly effective pain relief, but the same class of receptors also mediates non-therapeutic side effects. The analgesic properties of morphine were recently shown to require the activity of a brain neuronal cytochrome P450 epoxygenase, but the significance of this pathway for opioid side effects is unknown. Here we show that brain P450 activity is not required for three of morphine׳s major side effects (respiratory depression, constipation, and locomotor stimulation). Following systemic or intracerebroventricular administration of morphine, transgenic mice with brain neuron - specific reductions in P450 activity showed highly attenuated analgesic responses as compared with wild-type (control) mice. However, brain P450-deficient mice showed normal morphine-induced side effects (respiratory depression, locomotor stimulation, and inhibition of intestinal motility). Pretreatment of control mice with the P450 inhibitor CC12 similarly reduced the analgesia, but not these side effects of morphine. Because activation of brain µ opioid receptors produces both opioid analgesia and opioid side effects, dissociation of the mechanisms for the therapeutic and therapy-limiting effects of opioids has important consequences for the development of analgesics with reduced side effects and/or limited addiction liability. PMID:25062792

  20. Evaluatıng the effectiveness of frozen shoulder treatment on the right and left sides

    PubMed Central

    Alptekin, Hasan Kerem; Aydın, Tuğba; İflazoğlu, Enes Serkan; Alkan, Mirsad

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate treatments with interferential current, hot pack, ultrasound therapy, stretching, strengthening and range-of-motion exercises, comparing between the right and left shoulders in terms of pain and functional capacity in patients with frozen shoulder. This was a retrospective study. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-four patients (34 right side, 30 left side) were treated with interferential current and hot pack application for 20 min each, ultrasound therapy for 3 min, regular range-of-motion exercises, stretching exercises, strengthening with a Theraband in all directions and post-exercise proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. All cases were evaluated with visual analogue scales for pain, passive and active range of motion, Constant score, and the shoulder disability questionnaire, at baseline and 7 and 12 weeks after baseline. [Results] Marked improvement was noted in all patients in both right and left sides after treatment, and at 7 and 12 weeks of follow-up compared with baseline. There was no significant difference between the right and left shoulder groups, in all outcome measures. [Conclusion] The combination of physical therapy, exercise, and manual techniques is effective in treating frozen shoulder. The location of the lesion in the right or left shoulder does not, in itself, affect the prognosis or treatment outcome. PMID:26957759

  1. Evaluatıng the effectiveness of frozen shoulder treatment on the right and left sides.

    PubMed

    Alptekin, Hasan Kerem; Aydın, Tuğba; İflazoğlu, Enes Serkan; Alkan, Mirsad

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate treatments with interferential current, hot pack, ultrasound therapy, stretching, strengthening and range-of-motion exercises, comparing between the right and left shoulders in terms of pain and functional capacity in patients with frozen shoulder. This was a retrospective study. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-four patients (34 right side, 30 left side) were treated with interferential current and hot pack application for 20 min each, ultrasound therapy for 3 min, regular range-of-motion exercises, stretching exercises, strengthening with a Theraband in all directions and post-exercise proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. All cases were evaluated with visual analogue scales for pain, passive and active range of motion, Constant score, and the shoulder disability questionnaire, at baseline and 7 and 12 weeks after baseline. [Results] Marked improvement was noted in all patients in both right and left sides after treatment, and at 7 and 12 weeks of follow-up compared with baseline. There was no significant difference between the right and left shoulder groups, in all outcome measures. [Conclusion] The combination of physical therapy, exercise, and manual techniques is effective in treating frozen shoulder. The location of the lesion in the right or left shoulder does not, in itself, affect the prognosis or treatment outcome. PMID:26957759

  2. Cardiac side effects of trastuzumab in breast cancer patients – single centere experiences

    PubMed Central

    Leś, Dominika; Sarzyczny-Słota, Danuta; Nowara, Elżbieta

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study The aim of this study was to present our own experiences concerning risk factors for cardiac side effects in the study group. Material and methods The study was performed in 120 patients with HER2-overexpressing breast cancer who received immunotherapy in the Clinical and Experimental Oncology Department, between 2006 and 2011. Results LVEF reduction > 10% of the baseline fraction was observed in 10 (8%) patients. Symptomatic heart failure occurred in two individuals. Due to persistent cardiotoxicity five patients (4%) had to discontinue therapy prematurely. Risk factors for cardiac toxicity in the analyzed group included: previous radiotherapy to the left side of the chest (p = 0.05), higher BMI (p = 0.05), negative steroid receptor status (p = 0.045) and low baseline LVEF (p < 0.001). Patients receiving radiotherapy were more likely to develop cardiotoxicity if presenting older age (p = 0.0003). Conclusions Previous radiotherapy to the left side of the chest, negative steroid receptor status, high BMI and low baseline LVEF were associated with increased risk of cardiac dysfunction. There was no difference between patients receiving adjuvant therapy and those treated due to metastatic disease. PMID:23788989

  3. Effects of polymer side chains on the self-assembling of conjugated polymer in thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yunfei; Wang, Yiqing; Bunz, Uvw H. F.; Perahia, Dvora

    2006-03-01

    Conjugated polymers are inherently semi-conducting and optically active materials, with immense potential applications in organic electro-optical devices. The chemical structure of the polymer including the rigidity of the backbone and the nature of substituents affect their association as well as their electro-optical response. The following work reports the effects of different side chains on the structure and fluorescence of highly conjugated polymer, poly(para phenyleneethynylene) (PPE). When substituted by long polylactide side chains they self-assemble into wires with fingerprint-like arrangement, casting from chloroform solutions on oxidized silicon wafer. With increasing content of poor solvent, the dimension of the structures increased and then crystallized area appeared, as showed in AFM studies. The introducing of the long flexible polymer side chains has significantly reduced the stacking between rigid backbones. This in tern results in a frequency shift in their fluoresces response, indication changes in the electronic levels. Direct measurements of the electronic levels using ATM are currently in progress.

  4. Side effects and complication of Port-A-Cath.

    PubMed

    Iannarone, Claudio; Sacco, Fabrizio; Micozzi, Marco; Fegiz, Alessandra; Fiorelli, Silvia; Vendittelli, Vincenza; Pinto, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Central venous catheter techniques find at present use for administering of NPT, for the drug injection ( especially chemiotherapeutic drugs) because of the possible damage of a few substances when perfused in a peripheral way. At present port-a-cath find their most extensive use: these are systems which can be set up and tolerated for many months. For the access to subclavian vein must be necessary put in supine decubitus, with light Trendelenburg position, with the opposite arm along the body and the head turned on the opposite side. In this way the clavicle is in perpendicular position with regard to the sternal handlebar, except for patient affected with bpco, kypho-scoliosis, scapular-homeral arthrosis. In these patients the clavicle can put on a particular course, oblique and upper as to the sternal articular face. So there is a serious obstacle to the passage to the metal needle under the clavicle. KEY WORDS: Chemiotherapy, CVC, NPT, Port-a-Cath. PMID:23103553

  5. Assessing the Effectiveness and Side-Effects of Ocean Alkalinity Enhancement in an Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S. E.; Ridgwell, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    At present, the potential to decrease atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations by manipulating the carbon cycle (carbon geoengineering) is being considered as a fourth possible option for addressing anthropogenic climate change, alongside emissions reductions, adaptation and solar geoengineering. This study sets out to assess the effectiveness and potential side-effects of ocean alkalinity enhancement, or ';liming the ocean', as a means to slow the current increase in atmospheric CO2. In order to achieve this, an Earth system model (cGENIE) was used to run both individual simulations as well as a number of 934-member ensembles, to assess each surface ocean grid cell individually, for effectiveness and side-effects of ocean alkalinity enhancement. Effectiveness and side-effects were considered both temporally and spatially and under both steady-state scenarios (of 1x, 2x and 4x pre-industrial pCO2), and using RCP scenarios 4.5 and 8.5. Some consideration of the amount of lime potentially required to have a useful impact on atmospheric CO2 concentration and ocean acidification has also been carried out and compared to current mining capabilities, as an initial step towards considering the feasibility of such an intervention. This research aims to inform the emerging debate around geoengineering by providing an initial insight into where, when and how frequently lime could be used to most efficiently contribute to efforts to slow the rate of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, as well as insights into the caveats and side-effects that may accompany ocean alkalinity enhancement interventions.

  6. Effects of Alkylthio and Alkoxy Side Chains in Polymer Donor Materials for Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chaohua; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2016-02-01

    Side chains play a considerable role not only in improving the solubility of polymers for solution-processed device fabrication, but also in affecting the molecular packing, electron affinity and thus the device performance. In particular, electron-donating side chains show unique properties when employed to tune the electronic character of conjugated polymers in many cases. Therefore, rational electron-donating side chain engineering can improve the photovoltaic properties of the resulting polymer donors to some extent. Here, a survey of some representative examples which use electron-donating alkylthio and alkoxy side chains in conjugated organic polymers for polymer solar cell applications will be presented. It is envisioned that an analysis of the effect of such electron-donating side chains in polymer donors would contribute to a better understanding of this kind of side chain behavior in solution-processed conjugated organic polymers for polymer solar cells. PMID:26754772

  7. Psychopharmacology of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects and Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Golmirzaei, Javad; Mahboobi, Hamidreza; Yazdanparast, Maryam; Mushtaq, Gohar; Kamal, Mohammad A; Hamzei, Enayatollah

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children which manifests with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention. Several drugs are used in treatment of ADHD. Stimulants, atomoxetine, anti-depressants, and bupropion are common medications used in the treatment of ADHD. Stimulants are widely used as the first line treatment in children with ADHD. Their mechanism of action is the release of dopamine and norepinephrine in central nervous system. Methylphenidate is the most common stimulant used for the treatment of ADHD. Methylphenidate significantly reduces ADHD symptoms in children both at home and school and improves their social skills. Methylphenidate is safe in healthy children and has shown to have no cardiac side effects in these patients. Other medications include: Atomoxetine, Amphetamines, Clonidine, Melatonin, and anti-depressants. Effects, side effects, and mechanism of action these drugs have been discussed in this paper. PMID:26601963

  8. Fear appeals and treatment side-effects: an effective combination for HIV prevention?

    PubMed

    Slavin, S; Batrouney, C; Murphy, D

    2007-01-01

    Recent rises in the incidence of HIV infections among gay men in Australia have produced widespread discussion about appropriate health promotion responses. This has sometimes included calls for a return to fear-based campaigns, exemplified by the Grim Reaper advertisements in HIV. This paper discusses results from four focus groups that tested mock campaign material based on an appeal to fear. Five different poster images were tested among groups distinguished by age and HIV serostatus. Three posters used side-effects from treatments as the fear trigger and two used death from AIDS. A number of themes arose in response to the material including 'othering', shame and scepticism about HIV treatments. The meanings of these themes are explored in the light of current health-promotion theory. This data demonstrates that fear is an ineffective tool for HIV health promotion. It further demonstrates that feelings of shame and stigma are likely to be exacerbated in gay men, leading to poorer health outcomes in various ways. PMID:17129868

  9. Short-Term Side Effects after Radioiodine Treatment in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Liyan; Li, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. I-131 therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) could induce adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to report and analyze symptoms after I-131 treatment within the hospitalization and present relevant medical intervention. Methods. I-131 doses ranging from 3.7 to 9.25 GBq (100–250 mCi) were administrated for thyroid remnant ablation or treating DTC metastases. 117 patients with DTC for I-131 therapy were monitored through the video and intercommunicating with standardized questionnaire at different time points after I-131 oral administration. Adverse effects were recorded and relevant clinical factors were analyzed. Results. Among all the 117 patients, 55 cases complained of neck's pain or swelling and 79 cases presented with gastrointestinal symptoms. Pain or swelling of salivary gland occurred in 15 patients, headache and vertigo in 10, insomnia in 9, vocal cord paralysis in 6, fatigue or general malaise in 6, and foreign body sensation in 5. Body numbness and urinary symptoms were observed in only 1 case, respectively. Those side effects were related with sex, pre-I-131 treatment TSH levels, frequency of I-131 therapy, and lymph node metastases. Conclusions. Short-term side effects after I-131 therapy for DTC patients varied individually; severe symptoms were not uncommon but generally did not need emergent medical intervention. PMID:26989683

  10. Patient perceptions of the side-effects of chemotherapy: the influence of 5HT3 antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    de Boer-Dennert, M.; de Wit, R.; Schmitz, P. I.; Djontono, J.; v Beurden, V.; Stoter, G.; Verweij, J.

    1997-01-01

    In 1983, Coates conducted a survey that ranked the side-effects perceived by patients receiving chemotherapy in the order of their severity. Vomiting and nausea were found to be the two most distressing side-effects. They have an impact on quality of life and compliance with treatment. The development of 5HT3 antagonists has been a major step forward in the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Presently, these antiemetics are routinely used as concomitant therapy in emetogenic chemotherapy regimens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of 5HT3 antagonists on patient perceptions of the side-effects of chemotherapy. Coates' survey was replicated in patients who received 5HT3 antagonists for acute nausea and vomiting resulting from emetogenic chemotherapy. Patients received the survey to identify those physical and non-physical side-effects that they attributed to chemotherapy and were asked to rank the five most distressing side-effects. Of the 197 patients who consented to take part in the study, 181 were evaluable. Nausea, hair loss and vomiting were described as the three most distressing side-effects of chemotherapy. Eighty per cent of all the patients actually experienced nausea and 57% experienced vomiting. Hair loss appeared to be more distressing to women (P < 0.001) but, in other aspects, gender, age and marital status did not influence the ranking of the three most distressing side-effects. Constipation was ranked as 6th and was not identified as a distressing side-effect in 1983. Nausea and vomiting remain to be the first and third most distressing side-effects of chemotherapy, even though the incidence and severity of acute nausea and vomiting are now significantly reduced. PMID:9376266

  11. Modification of eucalyptus pulp fiber using silane coupling agents with aliphatic side chains of different length

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of three silane coupling agents with different aliphatic chain lengths on the hydrophobicity of eucalyptus pulp fiber. The three silanes coupling agents used (isobutyltrimethoxysilane, methyltrimethoxysilane, and n-octyltriethoxysilane [OTES]) we...

  12. Risperidone-induced Gingival Bleeding in a Pediatric Case: A Dose-dependent Side Effect

    PubMed Central

    Hergüner, Sabri; Özayhan, Hatice Yardım; Erdur, Emire Aybuke

    2016-01-01

    There are several case reports on risperidone-related bleeding; however, to our knowledge, there is no report about gingival bleeding associated with risperidone in the literature. We presented a case who experienced gingival bleeding when risperidone dose was increased to 0.5 mg/day, and subsided after decreasing the dose to 0.25 mg/day, suggesting a dose-dependent side-effect. The bleeding side effect of risperidone might be caused by several mechanisms, including 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor antagonism. Although bleeding associated with risperidone is rarely reported, clinicians should be aware of this side effect. PMID:27121433

  13. Correlation between Serum Level of Antiepileptic Drugs and their Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Abbashar; Abdulgalil, Amira; Omer, Faroug; Eltoum, Hassan; Hamad, Ahmed; El-Adil, Omer; Mubarak, Bedraldin; Malkaldar, Mohmad; Idris, Iway; Alwidaa, Yasin; Mahmoud, Esam

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study is to investigate the relation between serum levels of anticonvulsants and their side effects. Methods This is a prospective cross sectional hospital based study conducted at Al Shaab Teaching Hospital. 120 patients were included in the study. The AEDs used were phenytoin, phenobarbitone, carbamazibine, and sodium valproate. Results The results showed that the side effects among the studied group were not uncommon. Conclusion There was no relationship between serum levels of AEDs and their side effects. PMID:22125692

  14. Anti-prostglandin therapy in prevention of side-effects of intrauterine contraceptive devices.

    PubMed

    Ylikorkala, O; Kauppila, A; Siljander, M

    1978-08-19

    The efficacy of an anti-prostaglandin, tolfenamic acid (T.A.), in the prevention of side-effects after insertion of a copper-T200 intrauterine contraceptive device (I.U.D.) was evaluated in a double-blind trial in 160 women. T.A. relieved pain and reduced bleeding after insertion and during three subsequent menstruations without serious side-effects. A scoring system for the assessment of I.U.D. side-effects showed that the acceptability of I.U.D. was significantly better in women treated with T.A. than in those given placebo. PMID:79760

  15. Risperidone-induced Gingival Bleeding in a Pediatric Case: A Dose-dependent Side Effect.

    PubMed

    Hergüner, Sabri; Özayhan, Hatice Yardım; Erdur, Emire Aybuke

    2016-05-31

    There are several case reports on risperidone-related bleeding; however, to our knowledge, there is no report about gingival bleeding associated with risperidone in the literature. We presented a case who experienced gingival bleeding when risperidone dose was increased to 0.5 mg/day, and subsided after decreasing the dose to 0.25 mg/day, suggesting a dose-dependent side-effect. The bleeding side effect of risperidone might be caused by several mechanisms, including 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor antagonism. Although bleeding associated with risperidone is rarely reported, clinicians should be aware of this side effect. PMID:27121433

  16. [Side effects of drugs on the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Muñoz-Corcuera, Marta; Bascones-Ilundain, Cristina

    2015-02-01

    Although drugs are the most powerful therapeutic tools we have for improving the quality of life of the population, their use is not free of adverse effects. Today there are many polymedicated patients, and it is difficult to find the cause of their adverse effects that increase exponentially when more than 4 drugs are combined. There are a large number of drugs that can result in numerous adverse effects in the oral cavity. The most common are xerostomia, altered taste, gingival enlargement and mucositis caused by cancer treatment. We also review other disorders of the salivary glands, oral mucosal changes, pigmentations, halitosis, osteonecrosis, opportunistic infections and bleeding diathesis. PMID:24629691

  17. Antimalarials in dermatology: mechanism of action, indications, and side effects.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Caruncho, C; Bielsa Marsol, I

    2014-04-01

    Antimalarial drugs have been in common use in dermatology since the 1950s. Their mechanism of action is complex, and it is now known that they act through various pathways. We review the indications for antimalarials in dermatology, their adverse effects, and some less well-known effects, such as their antithrombotic and hypolipidemic action. The most recent recommendations concerning ophthalmological screening in patients on antimalarials are also reviewed. PMID:24656224

  18. Comparison of side effects between buprenorphine and meloxicam used postoperatively in Dutch belted rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Cooper, Coreen S; Metcalf-Pate, Kelly A; Barat, Christopher E; Cook, Judith A; Scorpio, Diana G

    2009-05-01

    One of the challenges facing veterinarians and investigators who use rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a surgical model in biomedical research is choosing an appropriate and efficacious postoperative analgesic without systemic complications and side effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gastrointestinal side effects associated with the postoperative use of buprenorphine in Dutch Belted rabbits. We also evaluated the analgesic meloxicam as an alternative to opioid administration during the postoperative period. Rabbits were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups during the postoperative period after routine ovariohysterectomy: buprenorphine (n = 10), meloxicam (n = 10), and incisional infiltration with bupivicaine (no treatment control; n = 10). Feed intake, fecal production, weight loss, urine output, and other physiologic parameters were monitored and behavior and pain assessments were performed for 7 d after surgery and compared with baseline values collected before surgery. All rabbits showed decreased pellet consumption, fecal production, and weight on day 1 after surgery. This effect was severe in some rabbits that received bupivicaine; therefore treatment of this entire group with metoclopramide, fluids, and hay was instituted to reverse gut stasis. No significant difference in feed consumption and fecal production was present between the buprenorphine- and meloxicam-treated groups. On the basis of these results, meloxicam appears to be a suitable alternative or adjunct to buprenorphine for alleviating postoperative pain with minimal risk of anorexia and gastrointestinal ileus. PMID:19476717

  19. An unusual side effect of isotretinoin: retinoid dermatitis affecting external urethral meatus.

    PubMed

    Alli, Nuran; Yorulmaz, Ahu

    2015-01-01

    Isotretinoin (Iso) is the most effective drug against severe nodulocystic acne. As a synthetic oral retinoid, Iso exerts its actions by modulating cell growth and differentiation. Targeting all the pathophysiologic processes in acne development, Iso has been considered to be an unique drug, however it has several side effects. While chelitis, xerosis, ocular sicca, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, hyperlipidemia are the most common side effects, teratogenicity and depressive symptoms are the most concerning ones. In addition, Iso has unusual side effects which have been described for the first time in the literature. Here, we report a remarkable side effect of Iso in a 23-years-old male patient with retinoid dermatitis affecting the external uretral meatus. To our knowledge, only few cases of retinoid dermatitis in the urethral mucosa due to Iso have been reported in the literature so far. PMID:24964168

  20. Side-Effects of Glyphosate to the Parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

    PubMed

    Stecca, C S; Bueno, A F; Pasini, A; Silva, D M; Andrade, K; Filho, D M Z

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the side-effects of glyphosate to the parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) when parasitoids were exposed to this chemical at the pupal (inside host eggs) and adult stages. Bioassays were conducted under laboratory conditions according to the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) standard methods for testing side-effects of pesticides to egg parasitoids. Different glyphosate-based pesticides (Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, Roundup WG®, and Zapp Qi®) were tested at the same acid equivalent concentration. Treatments were classified following the IOBC toxicity categories as (1) harmless, (2) slightly harmful, (3) moderately harmful, and (4) harmful. When tested against T. remus adults, Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, and Roundup WG® reduced parasitism 2 days after parasitoid emergence, being classified as slightly harmful. Differently, when tested against T. remus pupae, all tested glyphosate-based products did not differ in their lethal effect and therefore did not reduce T. remus adult emergence or parasitism capacity, being classified as harmless. However, differences on sublethal toxicity were found. Parasitism of individuals emerging from parasitized eggs sprayed at the pupal stage of T. remus with Zapp Qi® was lower compared to control, but parasitism was still higher than 66%, and therefore, Zapp Qi® was still classified as harmless. In conclusion, all tested glyphosate-based products can be used in agriculture without negative impact to T. remus as none was classified as harmful or moderately harmful to this parasitoid when exposure occurred at the pupal or adult stages. PMID:26842914

  1. Muscle- and skeletal-related side-effects of statins: tip of the iceberg?

    PubMed

    Auer, Johann; Sinzinger, Helmut; Franklin, Barry; Berent, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of muscle- and skeletal-related side-effects of statins includes varied myalgias and weakness, an asymptomatic increase in the concentration of creatine kinase and other biochemical parameters, myositis and rhabdomyolysis. Currently, there is no consensus on the definition of 'statin myopathy'. Evidence suggests that deleterious effects may also be associated with the volume or dosage of structured exercise and/or the intensity of physical activity. Moreover, non-muscle adverse effects on the joints and tendons are often overlooked and underemphasized. The incidence of myopathy associated with statin treatment typically ranges between 1.5% and 10%. Few data are available regarding the prevalence of muscle- related symptoms associated with different statins and the distribution of affected muscles. Furthermore, discrepancies between clinical trials and daily practice may emanate, in part, because of inconsistent definitions or exclusion criteria.The pathophysiology of statin-related myopathy is incompletely understood. A dose-dependent and proapoptotic effect, direct effects on mitochondria, drug interactions and genetic factors, or combinations thereof, may be involved. Recently, a rare immune-mediated myopathy triggered by statin use has been described. With the increasing number of patients treated with statins and with more patients being prescribed high doses of potent statins to achieve low-density lipoprotein targets, muscle-related side-effects will become more prevalent. Currently, the only effective treatment is the discontinuation of statin use. Further research is needed to develop alternative LDL-lowering drugs when statins are not well tolerated and to establish additional effective strategies to manage lipids and lipoproteins. PMID:25230981

  2. [Side effects in aesthetic medicine. Spectrum, management and avoidance].

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Goldman, A; Naoum, C

    2013-03-01

    Aesthetic medicine has become increasingly popular in the last two decades. The same trend has occurred in dermatology. Aesthetic dermatology prefers minimally invasive procedures. Nevertheless, even these procedures are not free of possible adverse effects. The spectrum of possible adverse effects, their management and prevention are discussed for four popular procedures in aesthetic dermatology, i.e. chemical peels, mesotherapy, botulinum toxin, and dermal fillers. Aesthetic procedures should only be performed by well-educated, well-trained medical doctors with an excellent medical background, never by lay persons. PMID:23430168

  3. NEW APPLICATIONS OF ADAPTOGENS TO REDUCE RADIATION SIDE EFFECTS.

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, S N; Antipina, U D; Arzhakova, L I; Protodyakonov, S V

    2015-01-01

    One of the live medical issues today is to find medication to prevent adverse effects of ionizing radiation on the immune and hematopoietic systems. In Yakutia where in most of its regions the overall environmental situation is getting worse due to the development of natural deposits including radioactive deposits, this problem remains vital. The purpose of this work is to study radioprotective properties of adaptogens in the case of the hematopoietic system under irradiation. The studies were conducted on certain groups of hybrid mice. We used the methods of radiation exposure by a radiological apparatus RUM-25 on hybrid mice followed by studying the cellularity of bone marrow, spleen and thymus. The functional activity of all compartments of early hematopoiesis (bone marrow hematopoiesis) was identified by the exogenous colony forming method. The study found that the extracts of reindeer and moose antlers have a stimulating effect on the functional activity of the hematopoietic precursors in response to radiation. The study medication stimulates regeneration processes in the thymus and bone marrow after irradiation. Further, the adaptogens stimulatory effect on CFU functional activity was identified. The most pronounced effect has the extracts of reindeer antlers "Epsorin". PMID:26887117

  4. Oral tissues and orthodontic treatment: common side effects.

    PubMed

    Farronato, G; Giannini, L; Galbiati, G; Cannalire, P; Martinelli, G; Tubertini, I; Maspero, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide a literature review about the problems that can occur during orthodontic treatment. Using the PubMed database we collected items that would provide information regarding the direct consequences of the placement of an orthodontic appliance: coming to the discussion of the following topics: candida infections, the effects on the soft tissues, the effects on periodontal tissues and effects on hard tissues. The presence of appliances in the oral cavity increases the prevalence of people with candida, specifically the species Candida Albicans is the most frequently isolated. The balance between the clearance of the microorganism, the colonization and the state of candidiasis depends both on the virulence of the fungus, and the competence of the host immune system. On soft tissues, cases of ulceration of the upper jaw by a rapid palatal expander and pyogenic granuloma due to quad helix appliance have been reported. The second one is mostly observed on vestibular gingiva. The first one was found, however, in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus type 1 because of the tissue modifications induced by this pathological condition. The more severe periodontic effects are those caused by incorrect use of orthodontic elastic separators. Finally, the White Spot Lesions are the direct consequences of a wrong conditioning of enamel when attaching the bracket. They represent a first stage of caries in the positioning area of the bracket. The orthodontist is required to intercept these issues not to affect the success of the treatment. PMID:24270203

  5. Performance outcomes and unwanted side effects associated with energy drinks.

    PubMed

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Pallarés, Jesús G

    2014-10-01

    Energy drinks are increasingly popular among athletes and others. Advertising for these products typically features images conjuring great muscle power and endurance; however, the scientific literature provides sparse evidence for an ergogenic role of energy drinks. Although the composition of energy drinks varies, most contain caffeine; carbohydrates, amino acids, herbs, and vitamins are other typical ingredients. This report analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on prolonged submaximal (endurance) exercise as well as on short-term strength and power (neuromuscular performance). It also analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on the fluid and electrolyte deficit during prolonged exercise. In several studies, energy drinks have been found to improve endurance performance, although the effects could be attributable to the caffeine and/or carbohydrate content. In contrast, fewer studies find an ergogenic effect of energy drinks on muscle strength and power. The existing data suggest that the caffeine dose given in studies of energy drinks is insufficient to enhance neuromuscular performance. Finally, it is unclear if energy drinks are the optimal vehicle to deliver caffeine when high doses are needed to improve neuromuscular performance. PMID:25293550

  6. A review of trials investigating efavirenz-induced neuropsychiatric side effects and the implications.

    PubMed

    Gaida, Razia; Truter, Ilse; Grobler, Christoffel; Kotze, Theunis; Godman, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Efavirenz is part of the first-line treatment for HIV patients including those in South Africa with approximately 50% experiencing neuropsychiatric side effects. A systematic review of papers reporting neuropsychiatric side effects with efavirenz published between January 2001 and December 2014 was performed, to provide guidance. 13 articles were reviewed. Patient ages ranged between 37 to 41 years, with a high percentage males. Scales used to measure incidence and severity of side effects were varied; with disease severity or stage not reported. Patients with psychoses were excluded. Most commonly reported side effects were a reduction in sleep quality, depression, dizziness and anxiety. These were generally mild and not warranting discontinuation of efavirenz. It is difficult to directly compare the studies. Standardised methods need to be introduced and all patient groups represented including the elderly, children, patients with active symptomatic illness and more women especially among the African population. PMID:26900637

  7. A second international co-operative investigation into thioacetazone side-effects*

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A. B.; Nunn, A. J.; Robinson, D. K.; Ferguson, G. C.; Fox, Wallace; Tall, Ruth

    1970-01-01

    As part of a large-scale international, co-operative investigation into the side-effects produced by thioacetazone employed in the treatment of tuberculosis, an evaluation has been made of a supplement incorporating vitamins and an antihistamine as a prophylactic. Over a 12-week period of treatment, the additive supplement failed to reduce the over-all frequency of side-effects or the frequency of side-effects leading to a major departure from prescribed treatment. There was also no evidence that the more serious side-effects, particularly rashes, jaundice and agranulocytosis, were reduced by the additives, although the occurrence of vomiting, which was however infrequent, was reduced. In view of this lack of appreciable benefit, as well as the higher cost and impaired keeping properties of tablets containing thioacetazone plus isoniazid when the supplement is added, the use of the supplement as a prophylactic cannot be recommended. PMID:4098113

  8. Metabolic side effects and pharmacogenetics of second-generation antipsychotics in children.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Angela M; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are increasingly being used to treat children for a range of mental health conditions, for example, anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder. SGA treatment is associated with weight gain and cardiometabolic side effects such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and elevated blood pressure, in some, but not all children. This review provides an overview of the potential role of pharmacogenomics in predisposing a child to unhealthy weight gain and cardiometabolic side effects with SGA treatment. Specifically, the review includes a synopsis of the evidence for cardiometabolic side effects in SGA-treated children, illustrating the extent and depth of the problem; summarizes the potential long-term consequences of developing cardiometabolic risk during childhood and highlights genetic variants that may be useful in predicting cardiometabolic side effects in SGA-treated children. PMID:26107755

  9. Nasal Symptoms After Radioiodine Therapy: A Rarely Described Side Effect with Similar Frequency to Lacrimal Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Salivary and lacrimal side effects of radioiodine therapy have been carefully described. However, nasal side effects are rarely described. The objective of this study was to document the frequency of nasal side effects in comparison to the already well-documented lacrimal side effects and to determine contributing risk factors. Methods: A retrospective review of the medical records of 807 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who received care at an academic medical center was conducted. Four hundred eleven patients who received treatment with radioactive iodine (RAI) were identified and included in the analysis. The frequency of both nasal and lacrimal side effects was ascertained. Factors that may have contributed to patients sustaining nasal damage after RAI therapy were also documented. These factors included radioactive iodine dose, method of preparation for receiving RAI therapy, and patient characteristics. Results: The mean dose of RAI administered was 109 mCi. Forty-three patients (10.5%) and 40 patients (9.7%) developed nasal and lacrimal side effects, respectively, following RAI treatment. The mean time of onset of nasal symptoms was 11 days, compared with 10 months for lacrimal symptoms. Radioiodine dose and body mass index were significantly positively and negatively correlated, respectively, with sustaining nasal side effects (p values of 0.04 and 0.01, respectively). Similarly, both RAI dose and body mass index were significantly correlated, positively and negatively, respectively, with sustaining lacrimal side effects (p values of 0.02 and 0.01). Preparation for treatment using a withdrawal protocol was associated with increased risk of both nasal and lacrimal side effects, compared with a recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) protocol (p values of <0.01 and 0.01). The odds ratios (95% confidence interval [CI]) for nasal and lacrimal side effects with recombinant rhTSH preparation were 0.22 [0.11–0.44] and 0.37 [0.18–0

  10. Understanding the side effects of emission trading: implications for waste management.

    PubMed

    Braschel, Nina; Posch, Alfred; Pierer, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The trading of emission allowances is an important market instrument in climate policy. However, the inclusion of certain branches of industry in the trading system not only provides incentives for emission reduction, it also entails unwanted side effects. Thus, the objective of the present study is to identify such side effects-positive and negative-by examining the potential impact of waste management inclusion in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS). Desk research was supplemented with qualitative and quantitative empirical analysis (based on expert interviews and a questionnaire) in order to analyse the related perceptions and expectations of actors and stakeholders. The impact of waste management inclusion in the EU ETS is analysed in terms of the following three areas: (i) costs and cost pass-through, (ii), competitiveness and market position, and (iii) carbon leakage. Concerning expectations in the area of costs, both the interviewed experts and the practitioners surveyed thought that costs were likely to increase or that they could be passed on to customers. However, experts and practitioners differed with respect to the possibility of carbon leakage. Clearly, increased knowledge of the possible impact arising from inclusion of the waste sector in the EU ETS would enable managers to become more proactive and to manage waste streams and treatment options more economically. PMID:24323330

  11. Exploring Motivations, Awareness of Side Effects, and Attitudes among Potential Egg Donors.

    PubMed

    Gezinski, Lindsay B; Karandikar, Sharvari; Carter, James; White, Melinda

    2016-05-01

    This research study surveyed prospective egg donors at orientation to (a) understand women's motivations to donate eggs, (b) assess awareness and knowledge of egg donation prior to entry into the egg donation program, and (c) explore attitudes toward egg donation. Ninety-two women completed the questionnaire at one fertility clinic located in the Midwest between August 2011 and August 2012. Descriptive and inferential statistics as well as textual analysis were used to analyze the data. Three themes emerged regarding participant motivations: (1) altruistic, (2) financial, and (3) desire to pass on genetic material. The majority of participants were unconcerned with potential physical and psychological side effects; however, differences emerged based on motherhood status and educational level. Although potential donors felt recipients should receive some information about the donor, they tended to value privacy regarding information giving to resultant offspring. This research study has implications for social work practice, policy, and future research. It is crucial that women receive adequate procedural and side effect information prior to engaging in egg donation. PMID:27263197

  12. SIDE-EFFECTS OF COMMONLY USED CROP PROTECTION PRODUCTS IN PEAR ON TWO BENEFICIAL MIRIDAE BUGS.

    PubMed

    Vrancken, K; Belien, T; Bylemans, D

    2015-01-01

    Anthocoris nemoralis, Anthocoris nemorum and Orius spp. are not the only beneficial predatory bugs inhabiting pear orchards in Belgium. Quite often, the Miridae bugs Heterotoma spp. and Pilophorus spp. can be found during spring and summer in these orchards, thereby feeding on several pests such as psyllids, aphids, spider mites, ... . Side-effects are usually assessed on Anthocoris and Orius spp., but due to the potential importance of Miridae bugs in pest reduction, we tested some commonly used crop protection products used in pear cultivation on Heterotoma planicornis and Pilophorus perplexus (residue-based tests in petri-dishes). One day after treatment, mortalities already could be observed for some products. Seven days after treatment, abamectin, deltamethrin and thiacloprid were considered the most toxic products as stated by the IOBC classification. This outcome was then analysed with regard to different treatment schedules, providing insights in potential side-effects on crop protection treatments on the composition of beneficial fauna in pear orchards. PMID:27145577

  13. Intrauterine contraceptives: a review of uses, side effects, and candidates.

    PubMed

    Shimoni, Noa'a

    2010-03-01

    This article reviews the two intrauterine devices (IUDs) available in the United States: the TCu380A, marketed as ParaGard (Duramed Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Pomona, NY), and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), marketed as Mirena (Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Wayne, NJ). The properties of the two devices are detailed, as well as noncontraceptive indications and appropriate candidates for use. Studies consistently demonstrate that the devices are safe, effective, and provide cost savings when compared with other reversible methods. The TCu380A may be used as postcoital contraception with close to 100% effectiveness. Menstrual blood loss is likely to increase with the TCu380A and decrease with the LNG-IUS. Reduction in menstrual blood loss and endometrial suppression make the LNG-IUS an increasingly popular treatment for menorrhagia, endometriosis, adenomyosis, and as an adjunct to estrogen therapy. IUDs may be inserted immediately after a first- or second-trimester abortion, immediately postpartum, and >or=4 weeks postpartum. Candidacy for IUDs has expanded, and includes nulliparous women, adolescents, and women with immunocompromised conditions including HIV. PMID:20352561

  14. Elevated eating disorder symptoms in women with a history of oral contraceptive side effects.

    PubMed

    Bird, Jessica L; Oinonen, Kirsten A

    2011-08-01

    Previous research suggests a link between gonadal hormones and eating disorder symptomatology. This study examined the role of gonadal hormones and hormonal sensitivity in eating disorder (ED) symptoms by using oral contraceptive (OC) side effect history as an indicator of hormonal sensitivity. A questionnaire containing two scales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and an OC side effect scale was completed by 174 healthy women who had used OCs. Histories of emotional and physical OC side effects were evaluated as predictors of body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness. Women with a history of negative OC side effects had higher levels of ED symptoms. After controlling for body mass index (BMI) and depression scores, OC side effect history remained a significant predictor of body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness. The experience of OC side effects may indicate a greater risk for increased eating disorder symptoms. The findings provide further support for a hormonal link to ED symptoms, as women who are more "sensitive" to exogenous gonadal hormones also experience more ED symptoms. PMID:21725835

  15. Evaluation of antimotion sickness drug side effects on performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. D.; Manno, J. E.; Manno, B. R.; Redetzki, H. M.; Wood, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of antimotion-sickness drugs on the performance in computerized-pursuit-meter tests of groups of ten 18-30-yr-old male and female subjects are investigated experimentally using double-blind placebo techniques. The results are presented in tables and graphs and discussed in detail. The proficiency scores are as good as or better than placebo values for subjects given d-amphetamine (DA) 5 or 10 mg, promethazine (P) 25 mg + scopolamine (S) 400 ng + DA 10 mg, S 1 mg + DA 10 mg, S 250-600 ng, marezine 50 mg, meclizine 50 mg, dimenhydrinate 50 mg, S 1 mg + DA 5 mg, or P 25 mg + DA 10 mg. Significantly lower scores are seen in subjects given S 800 ng or 1 mg, P 25 mg (oral or IM), P 25 mg + S 400 ng, and P 25 mg oral + P 25 mg IM + DA 10 mg.

  16. Beneficial and side effects of arginine vasopressin and terlipressin for septic shock.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xudong; Zhu, Yu; Zhen, Danyang; Chen, Xiao Ming; Yue, Wu; Liu, Liangming; Li, Tao

    2015-05-15

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and its analog, terlipressin (TP), were all demonstrated beneficial for septic shock. What advantages and disadvantages that AVP and TP have for septic shock as well as the mechanism, however, are not completely known. With cecal ligation and puncture-induced septic shock rats and lipopolysaccharide-induced septic shock rabbits, we systematically compared the beneficial and side effects of AVP and TP, in septic shock and the sex difference, and investigated their relationship to Rho kinase and calcium sensitivity. The results indicated that low dose of TP (2.6 μg/kg/h) in combination with norepinephrine (NE) improving vascular reactivity and animal survival were superior to a small dose of AVP (0.03 U/kg/h) in septic shock rats and rabbits. This improving effect of AVP and TP on vascular reactivity was closely related to the activation of Rho-kinase and Rho-kinase-mediating vascular calcium sensitization. A small dose of TP did not result in hyponatremia, did not increase blood bilirubin and decrease platelet count, whereas AVP did. Animal survival and vascular reactivity in female rats after TP or AVP administration were slightly better than male rats, while there were no significant differences. It was suggested that a small dose of TP has better beneficial effect and less side effects on septic shock than AVP. AVP and TP improving vascular reactivity is closely related to Rho-kinase activation and calcium sensitivity improvement. TP or plus NE may be more appropriate for early emergency care for severe septic shock than AVP. PMID:25769491

  17. Switching effect of the side chain on quantum walks on triple graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yi-Mu; Lu, Li-Hua; Li, You-Quan

    2015-07-01

    We consider a continuous-time quantum walk on a triple graph and investigate the influence of the side chain on propagation in the main chain. Calculating the interchange of the probabilities between the two parts of the main chain, we find that a switching effect appears if there is an odd number of points in the side chain when concrete conditions between the length of the main chain and the position of the side chain are satisfied. However, such an effect does not occur if there is an even number of points in the side chain. We also suggest two proposals for experiments to demonstrate this effect, which may be employed to design a new type of switching device.

  18. Cardiac Side-effects From Breast Cancer Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C W; Kirby, A M

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer radiotherapy reduces the risk of cancer recurrence and death. However, it usually involves some radiation exposure of the heart and analyses of randomised trials have shown that it can increase the risk of heart disease. Estimates of the absolute risks of radiation-related heart disease are needed to help oncologists plan each individual woman's treatment. The risk for an individual woman varies according to her estimated cardiac radiation dose and her background risk of ischaemic heart disease in the absence of radiotherapy. When it is known, this risk can then be compared with the absolute benefit of the radiotherapy. At present, many UK cancer centres are already giving radiotherapy with mean heart doses of less than 3 Gy and for most women the benefits of the radiotherapy will probably far outweigh the risks. Technical approaches to minimising heart dose in breast cancer radiotherapy include optimisation of beam angles, use of multileaf collimator shielding, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, treatment in a prone position, treatment in deep inspiration (including the use of breath-hold and gating techniques), proton therapy and partial breast irradiation. The multileaf collimator is suitable for many women with upper pole left breast cancers, but for women with central or lower pole cancers, breath-holding techniques are now recommended in national UK guidelines. Ongoing work aims to identify ways of irradiating pan-regional lymph nodes that are effective, involve minimal exposure of organs at risk and are feasible to plan, deliver and verify. These will probably include wide tangent-based field-in-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy or arc radiotherapy techniques in combination with deep inspiratory breath-hold, and proton beam irradiation for women who have a high predicted heart dose from intensity-modulated radiotherapy. PMID:26133462

  19. [Recording of possible side effects in the Bureau for Side Effects of Drugs and research activities in 1992].

    PubMed

    Stricker, B H; Ottervanger, J P

    1993-08-28

    In 1992, the Netherlands Centre for Monitoring of Adverse Reactions to Drugs received 1248 reports of suspected adverse reactions. The most important reports concerned chest pain to sumatriptan, cholestatic hepatitis to itraconazole and taste loss to terbinafine. Other important reports pertained to confusion and hallucinations in children on deptropine, postasphyctic encephalopathy of a newborn after intrapartum administration of nalbuphine, torsades de pointes to terodiline, fever to neuroleptics, muscle necrosis to intramuscular administration of diclofenac, gout during use of acetylsalicylic acid, psychic effects of vigabatrine and sudden death during fluorescence angiography. It is the policy of the Netherlands centre to publish as many relevant reports as possible in order to facilitate medical practitioners to adapt their pharmacotherapeutic choice. In close collaboration with several universities, the Netherlands centre currently develops systems and methods for postmarketing surveillance. PMID:8371825

  20. Occupant kinematics and estimated effectiveness of side airbags in pole side impacts using a human FE model with internal organs.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shigeki; Yasuki, Tsuyoshi; Kitagawa, Yuichi

    2008-11-01

    When a car collides against a pole-like obstacle, the deformation pattern of the vehicle body-side tends to extend to its upper region. A possible consequence is an increase of loading to the occupant thorax. Many studies have been conducted to understand human thoracic responses to lateral loading, and injury criteria have been developed based on the results. However, injury mechanisms, especially those of internal organs, are not well understood. A human body FE model was used in this study to simulate occupant kinematics in a pole side impact. Internal organ parts were introduced into the torso model, including their geometric features, material properties and connections with other tissues. The mechanical responses of the model were validated against PMHS data in the literature. Although injury criterion for each organ has not been established, pressure level and its changes can be estimated from the organ models. Finite element simulations were conducted assuming a case where a passenger vehicle collides against a pole at 29km/h. Occupant kinematics, force-deformation responses and pressure levels were compared between cases with and without side airbag deployment. The results indicated that strain to the ribs and pressure to the organs was smaller with side airbag deployment. The side airbag widened the contact area at the torso, helping to distribute the force to the shoulder, arm and chest. Such distributed force helped generate relatively smaller deformation in the ribs. Furthermore, the side airbag deployment helped restrict the spine displacement. The smaller displacement contributed to lowering the magnitude of contact force between the torso and the door. The study also examined the correlations between the pressure levels in the internal organs, rib deflection, and V*C of chest. The study found that the V*C(t) peak appeared to be synchronized with the organ pressure peak, suggesting that the pressure level of the internal organs could be one possible

  1. Concerns about contraceptive side effects among young Latinas: a focus-group approach.

    PubMed

    Gilliam, Melissa L; Warden, Meredith; Goldstein, Chava; Tapia, Beatriz

    2004-10-01

    To identify perceptions and attitudes about contraceptive side effects in young, low-income Latina adolescents through focus-group conversations. We conducted seven focus-group discussions with Latino females in an outpatient clinic and community setting. Qualitative methodology was used to analyze data. Participants were recruited from the outpatient gynecology clinic at the University of Illinois at Chicago, and from the Easter Seals Day Care Center. Women were recruited if they were Latino and between the ages of 18 and 26 years (N = 40). Participants cited both perceptions of side effects as well as personal experience with side effects as reasons for not using or discontinuing the use of contraception. Women also demonstrated incorrect knowledge about contraception, and tended to value anecdotal information over information from health professionals. These factors led to reliance on less-effective methods of contraception, placing participants at risk for unintended pregnancy. Concern about side effects, fear of health consequences and misinformation were identified as barriers to effective contraceptive use in young, low-income Latinas. Providers caring for this population should address potential concerns about side effects of contraception as well as assess patients' understanding in light of cultural and language barriers. PMID:15451334

  2. Poly-dimethylsiloxane derivates side chains effect on syntan functionalized Polyamide fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migani, V.; Weiss, H.; Massafra, M. R.; Merlo, A.; Colleoni, C.; Rosace, G.

    2011-02-01

    Poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymers finishing of Polyamide-6,6 (PA66) fabrics involves ionic interactions between reactive groups on the PDMS polymers and the ones of the textile fabric. Such interactions could be strengthened by a pretreatment with a fixing agent to promote either ion-ion and H-bonding and ion-dipole forces. These forces could contribute towards the building of substantial PDMS-PA66 systems and the achieving of better adhesion properties to fabrics. Four different silicone polymers based on PDMS were applied on a synthetic tanning agent (syntan) finished Polyamide-6,6 fabric under acid conditions. Soxhlet extraction method and ATR FT-IR technique were used to investigate the application conditions. The finishing parameters such as pH and temperature together with fastness, mechanical and performance properties of the treated samples were studied and related to PDMS side chains effect on syntan functionalized Polyamide fabric.

  3. Effect of Court Dimensions on Players’ External and Internal Load during Small-Sided Handball Games

    PubMed Central

    Corvino, Matteo; Tessitore, Antonio; Minganti, Carlo; Sibila, Marko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different court dimensions on the internal and external load during small-sided handball games. Six male amateur handball players took part in this study and participated in three different 8-min 3vs3 (plus goalkeepers) small-sided handball games (each repeated twice). The three court dimensions were 12×24m, 30×15m and 32×16m. Through Global Positioning System devices (SPI pro elite 15Hz, GPSports) and video analysis, the following parameters were recorded: cyclic and acyclic movements (distance covered and number of technical actions executed), heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Total distance travelled increased with court dimensions (885.2m ± 66.6m in 24×12m; 980.0m ± 73.4m in 30×15m; 1095.0m ± 112.9m in 32×16m, p < 0.05). The analysis of distance covered in the four speed zones (0–1.4 m·s-1; 1.4–3.4 m·s-1; 3.4–5.2 m·s-1; >5.2 m·s-1) highlighted substantial differences: playing with the 30×15m court in comparison to the 24×12m, the players covered less distance in the first speed zone (p = 0.012; ES = 0.70) and more distance in the second (p = 0.049; ES = 0.73) and third (p = 0.012; ES = 0.51) speed zones. Statistical differences were also found between the 24×12m and 32×16m courts: the players covered more distance in the second and third speed zones (p = 0.013, ES = 0.76; p = 0.023 ES = 0.69) with the 32×16m court in comparison to the 24×12m. There was no significant effect of court dimensions on the technical parameters (number of team actions, passes, piston movements toward goal and defensive activities), the number of specific handball jumps and changes of direction, and the time spent in the different heart rate zones. Considering the average data of all the experimental conditions together (24×12m, 30×15m, 32×16m), a pronounced statistical difference was highlighted between the values in first two HR zones and the last two (p < 0.05; large ES). The

  4. Do SSRI Antidepressants Increase The Risk of Extrapyramidal Side Effects In Patients Taking Antipsychotics?

    PubMed Central

    Allsbrook, Matthew; Fries, Brant E.; Szafara, Kristina L.; Regal, Randolph E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Among antidepressants, selective serotonin reup-take inhibitors (SSRIs) have enjoyed great popularity among clinicians as well as generally wide acceptance and tolerance among patients. A potentially overlooked side effect of SSRIs is the occasional occurrence of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), which could be a concern when SSRIs are used with antipsychotics. This study was designed to explore the possible association between SSRI antidepressant use and the incidence of EPS side effects in patients who take concomitant antipsychotic medications. Methods: The University of Michigan conducted a study at the four Michigan state mental health hospitals between May 2010 and October 2010. The Michigan Public Health Institute collected data using the InterRAI Mental Health Assessment (InterRAI MH). The present study is a retrospective cohort analysis of the cross-sectional data that were collected. Within these institutions, 693 residents were using antipsychotics. We measured the observed frequency of seven EPS recorded in the InterRAI MH within three groups of patients: 1) those on antipsychotic drugs who were taking an SSRI antidepressant; 2) those on antipsychotic drugs who were not taking an antidepressant; and 3) those on antipsychotic drugs who were taking a non-SSRI antidepressant. Differences in the prevalence of EPS were tested using one-way analysis of variance. Results: There were no significant differences in the observed EPS frequencies among the three groups (F2,18 = 0.01; P < 0.9901). Conclusion: In this study, SSRIs did not appear to potentiate the occurrence of EPS in patients using antipsychotics. PMID:26909002

  5. Mobile Phone Based System Opportunities to Home-based Managing of Chemotherapy Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Davoodi, Somayeh; Mohammadzadeh, Zeinab; Safdari, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Applying mobile base systems in cancer care especially in chemotherapy management have remarkable growing in recent decades. Because chemotherapy side effects have significant influences on patient’s lives, therefore it is necessary to take ways to control them. This research has studied some experiences of using mobile phone based systems to home-based monitor of chemotherapy side effects in cancer. Methods: In this literature review study, search was conducted with keywords like cancer, chemotherapy, mobile phone, information technology, side effects and self managing, in Science Direct, Google Scholar and Pub Med databases since 2005. Results: Today, because of the growing trend of the cancer, we need methods and innovations such as information technology to manage and control it. Mobile phone based systems are the solutions that help to provide quick access to monitor chemotherapy side effects for cancer patients at home. Investigated studies demonstrate that using of mobile phones in chemotherapy management have positive results and led to patients and clinicians satisfactions. Conclusion: This study shows that the mobile phone system for home-based monitoring chemotherapy side effects works well. In result, knowledge of cancer self-management and the rate of patient’s effective participation in care process improved. PMID:27482134

  6. A clinical communication tool for the assessment of psychotropic medication side effects.

    PubMed

    Ashoorian, Deena; Davidson, Rowan; Rock, Daniel; Dragovic, Milan; Clifford, Rhonda

    2015-12-15

    The primary aim was to assess usability of the My Medicines and Me Questionnaire (M3Q) as a self-reported questionnaire for mental health patients to subjectively express side effects experienced with their psychotropic medications. The secondary aim was to evaluate patients' attitudes towards treatment and psychotropic medications following dialogue with their clinicians about side effects. Questionnaires were administered at six adult mental health facilities. A total of 205 participants were divided into intervention (facilitated dialogue) and non-intervention groups (no facilitated dialogue). The mean completion time for the M3Q was 15min (SD=6.5) with only 11 (5%) patients requiring assistance. The most commonly reported side effect was sedation (77%) and weight gain was ranked as the most bothersome (23%). The previously validated M3Q provided patients with the opportunity to express the impact these effects had on their lives. Side effects were the most common reason given for non-adherence. There were no significant changes in patient attitudes towards treatment and medications in the intervention group, mainly due to the logistical challenges in the clinicians' ability to view the questionnaire for the subsequent meeting with the patient. The M3Q demonstrated its usability in allowing patients to easily express their subjective experiences with side effects. PMID:26518225

  7. Efficacy and Side Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Menopausal Symptoms: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lian-Wei; Jia, Man; Salchow, Roland; Kentsch, Michael; Cui, Xue-Jun; Deng, Hong-Yong; Sun, Zhuo-Jun; Kluwe, Lan

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates 23 (9 Chinese and 14 non-Chinese) randomized controlled trials for efficacy and side effects of Chinese herbal medicine on menopausal symptoms. Menopause was diagnosed according to western medicine criteria in all studies while seven Chinese studies and one non-Chinese study further stratified the participants using traditional Chinese medical diagnosis “Zheng differentiation.” Efficacy was reported by all 9 Chinese and 9/14 non-Chinese papers. Side effects and adverse events were generally mild and infrequent. Only ten severe adverse events were reported, two with possible association with the therapy. CHM did not increase the endometrial thickness, a common side effect of hormone therapy. None of the studies investigated long-term side effects. Critical analysis revealed that (1) high-quality studies on efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for menopausal syndrome are rare and have the drawback of lacking traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis (Zheng-differentiation). (2) Chinese herbal medicine may be effective for at least some menopausal symptoms while side effects are likely less than hormone therapy. (3) All these findings need to be confirmed in further well-designed comprehensive studies meeting the standard of evidence-based medicine and including Zheng-differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23365599

  8. The use of energy drinks in sport: perceived ergogenicity and side effects in male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Salinero, Juan J; Lara, Beatriz; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Areces, Francisco; Gallo-Salazar, César; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-11-14

    The use of caffeine containing energy drinks has dramatically increased in the last few years, especially in the sport context because of its reported ergogenic effect. The ingestion of low to moderate doses of caffeinated energy drinks has been associated with adverse side effects such as insomnia or increased nervousness. The aim of the present study was to assess psycho-physiological changes and the prevalence of side effects resulting from the ingestion of 3 mg caffeine/kg body mass in the form of an energy drink. In a double-blind and placebo controlled experimental design, ninety experienced and low-caffeine-consuming athletes (fifty-three male and thirty-seven female) in two different sessions were provided with an energy drink that contained 3 mg/kg of caffeine or the same decaffeinated energy drink (placebo; 0 mg/kg). At 60 min after the ingestion of the energy drink, participants completed a training session. The effects of ingestion of these beverages on psycho-physiological variables during exercise and the rate of adverse side effects were measured using questionnaires. The caffeinated energy drink increased self-perceived muscle power during exercise compared with the placebo beverage (6·41 (sd 1·7) v. 5·66 (sd 1·51); P= 0·001). Moreover, the energy drink produced a higher prevalence of side effects such as insomnia (31·2 v. 10·4 %; P< 0·001), nervousness (13·2 v. 0 %; P= 0·002) and activeness (16·9 v. 3·9 %; P= 0·007) than the placebo energy drink. There were no sex differences in the incidence of side effects (P>0·05). The ingestion of an energy drink with 3 mg/kg of caffeine increased the prevalence of side effects. The presence of these side effects was similar between male and female participants. PMID:25212095

  9. The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation. PMID:26157675

  10. Improving Patient Safety by Identifying Side Effects from Introducing Bar Coding in Medication Administration

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Emily S.; Cook, Richard I.; Render, Marta L.

    2002-01-01

    Objective. In addition to providing new capabilities, the introduction of technology in complex, sociotechnical systems, such as health care and aviation, can have unanticipated side effects on technical, social, and organizational dimensions. To identify potential accidents in the making, the authors looked for side effects from a natural experiment, the implementation of bar code medication administration (BCMA), a technology designed to reduce adverse drug events (ADEs). Design. Cross-sectional observational study of medication passes before (21 hours of observation of 7 nurses at 1 hospital) and after (60 hours of observation of 26 nurses at 3 hospitals) BCMA implementation. Measurements. Detailed, handwritten field notes of targeted ethnographic observations of in situ nurse–BCMA interactions were iteratively analyzed using process tracing and five conceptual frameworks. Results. Ethnographic observations distilled into 67 nurse–BCMA interactions were classified into 12 categories. We identified five negative side effects after BCMA implementation: (1) nurses confused by automated removal of medications by BCMA, (2) degraded coordination between nurses and physicians, (3) nurses dropping activities to reduce workload during busy periods, (4) increased prioritization of monitored activities during goal conflicts, and (5) decreased ability to deviate from routine sequences. Conclusion. These side effects might create new paths to ADEs. We recommend design revisions, modification of organizational policies, and “best practices” training that could potentially minimize or eliminate these side effects before they contribute to adverse outcomes. PMID:12223506

  11. Drug side-effect prediction based on the integration of chemical and biological spaces.

    PubMed

    Yamanishi, Yoshihiro; Pauwels, Edouard; Kotera, Masaaki

    2012-12-21

    Drug side-effects, or adverse drug reactions, have become a major public health concern and remain one of the main causes of drug failure and of drug withdrawal once they have reached the market. Therefore, the identification of potential severe side-effects is a challenging issue. In this paper, we develop a new method to predict potential side-effect profiles of drug candidate molecules based on their chemical structures and target protein information on a large scale. We propose several extensions of kernel regression model for multiple responses to deal with heterogeneous data sources. The originality lies in the integration of the chemical space of drug chemical structures and the biological space of drug target proteins in a unified framework. As a result, we demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method on the simultaneous prediction of 969 side-effects for approved drugs from their chemical substructure and target protein profiles and show that the prediction accuracy consistently improves owing to the proposed regression model and integration of chemical and biological information. We also conduct a comprehensive side-effect prediction for uncharacterized drug molecules stored in DrugBank and confirm interesting predictions using independent information sources. The proposed method is expected to be useful at many stages of the drug development process. PMID:23157436

  12. Cataplexy as a side effect of modafinil in a patient without narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Eduardo; Pereira, Danielle; da Silva Behrens, Nilce Sanny Costa; de Almeida Fonseca, Hassana; Calvancanti, Paola Oliveira; de Araújo Lima, Taís Figueiredo; Pradella-Hallinan, Marcia; Castro, Juliana; Tufik, Sergio; Coelho, Fernando Morgadinho Santos

    2014-03-01

    Narcolepsy is a disease in which there is diurnal excessive sleepiness with sleep attacks and a prevalence in the general population of 1/4000 individuals. Classically, it is characterized by cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations and fragmented sleep. The use of modafinil in the treatment of narcolepsy is the first option of treatment for diurnal excessive sleepiness. Although considered a safe drug for use in patients with narcolepsy, being utilized for more than 20 years, modafinil possesses a series of side effects, some of them still not fully researched or described. Side effects such as headache, nausea, anxiety, insomnia, lumbago, diarrhea, dyspepsia, rhinitis and vertigo are the most frequent. However, the clinical follow-up of patients under treatment with modafinil must be intensive and the side effects ought to be noted and evaluated. The under-response to treatment or the unexpected side effects must always be directed to differential diagnostics. The objective of this article is to describe an unexpected side effect of the use of modafinil in a patient with incorrect diagnosis of narcolepsy. PMID:26483900

  13. Pill side effects, continuation found similar whether self-prescribed or prescribed by doctor.

    PubMed

    1976-09-01

    In developing countries, especially Latin America, women obtain oral contraceptives without a physician's prescription. While these women experience more side effects, they have fewer accidental pregnancies than women who obtain the pills through a physician/prescription. A probability sample of 6692 Colombian women in Bogota were interviewed in 1974. Almost 1 in 20 of all women, and almost 1 in 13 of those married or living in a union, said they began using the pill on their own as their first method of contraception. The characteristics of the women without prescriptions were similar to those with, but self-prescribers were slightly older, had more children, and were less educated. 7 in 10 women of both groups continued pill use for 1 year; about 6 in 10 still used the pill after 2 years. Both groups gave side effects as their reason for discontinuation. The most frequently cited side effect was headache. None of the women reported the more serious complications, thrombophlebitis and thromboembolism. Women who did not begin with medical advice were less likely to seek it when they had side effects attributed to the pill. Half as many self-prescribers (24%), as users with a prescription (46%), reported visiting a private physician about side effects. 11% self-prescribers, compared with 25%, sought other professional help. PMID:12299650

  14. Effect of alkyl side-chain length on the photophysical, morphology and photoresponse properties of poly(3-alkylthiophene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei-Long; Yang, Xiao-Yu; Zheng, Fei; Jin, Han-Dong; Hao, Xiao-Tao

    2015-12-01

    The effect of alkyl side-chain length on the photophysical, morphology and photoresponse properties of poly (3-alkylthiophene) (P3AT) has been investigated. Butyl, hexyl, octyl, decyl, and dodecyl side chains have been studied. In solution state, the average lifetime of poly (3-octylthiophene) (P3OT) is the shortest among P3AT solution owing to the strong intrachain interaction. The fluorescence lifetime of P3AT solution increases with the side-chain length increasing. A similar trend occurs in the P3AT films. This phenomenon illustrates conformation ‘memory’ property evolving from solution state to solid film. The four lifetimes represent different photophysical processes and have been systematically analyzed. The photodetector based on P3DDT is a suitable candidate for practical application owing to the fast, reversible photoresponse and photostability. The high performance of P3DDT-based photodetector is correlated to the optimized morphology and strong interchain interaction which promotes the exciton delocalization.

  15. Exercise for the Management of Side Effects and Quality of Life among Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Mustian, Karen M.; Sprod, Lisa K.; Palesh, Oxana G.; Peppone, Luke J.; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Mohile, Supriya G.; Carroll, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity may play an important role in the rehabilitation of cancer survivors during and following treatment. Current research suggests numerous beneficial outcomes are experienced in cancer survivors undergoing exercise interventions during or following cancer treatment. Exercise not only plays a role in managing side effects but also improves functional capacity and quality of life. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the oncology literature supporting the use of exercise as an effective intervention for improving cancer-related fatigue, other side effects, functional capacity, and quality of life among cancer survivors. PMID:19904073

  16. Different growth sensitivity to climate of the conifer Juniperus thurifera on both sides of the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSoto, Lucía; Varino, Filipa; Andrade, José P.; Gouveia, Celia M.; Campelo, Filipe; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Nabais, Cristina

    2014-12-01

    Mediterranean plants cope with cold wet winters and dry hot summers, with a drought gradient from northwest to southeast. Limiting climatic conditions have become more pronounced in the last decades due to the warming trend and rainfall decrease. Juniperus thurifera L., a long-lived conifer tree endemic to the western Mediterranean region, has a disjunct distribution in Europe and Africa, making it a suitable species to study sensitivity to climate in both sides of the Mediterranean Basin. Tree-ring width chronologies were built for three J. thurifera stands at Spain (Europe) and three in Morocco (Africa) and correlated with monthly temperature and precipitation. The temporal stability of climate-growth relationships was assessed using moving correlations; the drought effect on growth was calculated using the monthly standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) at different temporal scales. In the wettest stands, increasing spring temperature and summer precipitation enhanced growth, while in the driest stands, growth was enhanced by higher spring precipitation and lower summer temperature. The climate-growth correlations shifted during the twentieth century, especially since the 1970s. Particularly noticeable is the recent negative correlation with previous autumn and winter precipitation in the wettest stands of J. thurifera, probably related with an effect of cloud cover or flooding on carbon storage depletion for next year growth. The driest stands were affected by drought at long time scales, while the wettest stands respond to drought at short time scales. This reveals a different strategy to cope with drought conditions, with populations from drier sites able to cope with short periods of water deficit.

  17. Different growth sensitivity to climate of the conifer Juniperus thurifera on both sides of the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    DeSoto, Lucía; Varino, Filipa; Andrade, José P; Gouveia, Celia M; Campelo, Filipe; Trigo, Ricardo M; Nabais, Cristina

    2014-12-01

    Mediterranean plants cope with cold wet winters and dry hot summers, with a drought gradient from northwest to southeast. Limiting climatic conditions have become more pronounced in the last decades due to the warming trend and rainfall decrease. Juniperus thurifera L., a long-lived conifer tree endemic to the western Mediterranean region, has a disjunct distribution in Europe and Africa, making it a suitable species to study sensitivity to climate in both sides of the Mediterranean Basin. Tree-ring width chronologies were built for three J. thurifera stands at Spain (Europe) and three in Morocco (Africa) and correlated with monthly temperature and precipitation. The temporal stability of climate-growth relationships was assessed using moving correlations; the drought effect on growth was calculated using the monthly standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) at different temporal scales. In the wettest stands, increasing spring temperature and summer precipitation enhanced growth, while in the driest stands, growth was enhanced by higher spring precipitation and lower summer temperature. The climate-growth correlations shifted during the twentieth century, especially since the 1970s. Particularly noticeable is the recent negative correlation with previous autumn and winter precipitation in the wettest stands of J. thurifera, probably related with an effect of cloud cover or flooding on carbon storage depletion for next year growth. The driest stands were affected by drought at long time scales, while the wettest stands respond to drought at short time scales. This reveals a different strategy to cope with drought conditions, with populations from drier sites able to cope with short periods of water deficit. PMID:24659114

  18. Trastuzumab and target-therapy side effects: Is still valid to differentiate anthracycline Type I from Type II cardiomyopathies?

    PubMed Central

    Riccio, Gennaro; Coppola, Carmela; Piscopo, Giovanna; Capasso, Immacolata; Maurea, Carlo; Esposito, Emanuela; De Lorenzo, Claudia; Maurea, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The improvement in cancer therapy and the increasing number of long term survivors unearth the issue of cardiovascular side effects of anticancer treatments. As a paradox in cancer survivors, delayed cardiotoxicity has emerged as a significant problem. Two categories of cardiotoxic side effects of antineoplastic drugs have been previously proposed: Type I cardiotoxicity, defined as permanent cardiotoxicity, is usually caused by anthracyclines; Type II cardiotoxicity, considered as reversible cardiotoxicity, has been mainly related to monoclonal antibodies. The cardiotoxicity of antibodies has been associated to trastuzumab, a humanized anti-ErbB2 monoclonal antibody currently in clinical use for the therapy of breast carcinomas, which induces cardiac dysfunction when used in monotherapy, or in combination with anthracyclines. Furthermore, recent retrospective studies have shown an increased incidence of heart failure and/or cardiomyopathy in patients treated with trastuzumab, that can persist many years after the conclusion of the therapy, thus suggesting that the side toxic effects are not always reversible as it was initially proposed. On the other hand, early detection and prompt therapy of anthracycline associated cardiotoxicity can lead to substantial recovery of cardiac function. On the basis of these observations, we propose to find a new different classification for cardiotoxic side effects of drugs used in cancer therapy. PMID:26836985

  19. The effects and side effects of punishing the autistic behaviors of a deviant child1

    PubMed Central

    Risley, Todd R.

    1968-01-01

    Timeout procedures in the home and extinction and reinforcement of incompatible behaviors in the laboratory failed to eliminate the disruptive and dangerous climbing behavior of a deviant child. Punishment with electric shock was used to eliminate this behavior in the laboratory and then in the home. The effects were reversible and were restricted to specific stimulus conditions. A less severe form of punishment was used to eliminate the child's autistic rocking. Other behaviors of the subject were continuously measured in the laboratory to determine the side effects of punishment. No suppression of other behaviors correlated with punishment was noted. However, the rate of some behaviors increased when punishment was used to eliminate deviant behaviors, but these increases were, primarily, desirable. PMID:16795157

  20. Predicting the neurobehavioral side effects of dexamethasone in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Warris, Lidewij T; van den Akker, Erica L T; Aarsen, Femke K; Bierings, Marc B; van den Bos, Cor; Tissing, Wim J E; Sassen, Sebastiaan D T; Veening, Margreet A; Zwaan, Christian M; Pieters, Rob; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M

    2016-10-01

    Although dexamethasone is an effective treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), it can induce a variety of serious neurobehavioral side effects. We hypothesized that these side effects are influenced by glucocorticoid sensitivity at the tissue level. We therefore prospectively studied whether we could predict the occurrence of these side effects using the very low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST) or by measuring trough levels of dexamethasone. Fifty pediatric patients (3-16 years of age) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were initially included during the maintenance phase (with dexamethasone) of the Dutch ALL treatment protocol. As a marker of glucocorticoid sensitivity, the salivary very low-dose DST was used. A post-dexamethasone cortisol level <2.0nmol/L was considered a hypersensitive response. The neurobehavioral endpoints consisted of questionnaires regarding psychosocial and sleeping problems administered before and during the course of dexamethasone (6mg/m(2)), and dexamethasone trough levels were measured during dexamethasone treatment. Patients with a hypersensitive response to dexamethasone had more behavioral problems (N=11), sleeping problems, and/or somnolence (N=12) (P<0.05 for all three endpoints). The positive predictive values of the DST for psychosocial problems and sleeping problems were 50% and 30%, respectively. Dexamethasone levels were not associated with neurobehavioral side effects. We conclude that neither the very low-dose DST nor measuring dexamethasone trough levels can accurately predict dexamethasone-induced neurobehavioral side effects. However, patients with glucocorticoid hypersensitivity experienced significantly more symptoms associated with dexamethasone-induced depression. Future studies should elucidate further the mechanisms by which neurobehavioral side effects are influenced by glucocorticoid sensitivity. PMID:27448086

  1. Brain stem as a target site for the metabolic side effects of olanzapine.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Imran J; Miyata, Kayoko; Zsombok, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is widely prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder despite causing undesirable metabolic side effects. A variety of mechanisms and brain sites have been proposed as contributors to the side effects; however, the role of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV), which plays a crucial role in the regulation of subdiaphragmatic organs and thus governs energy and glucose homeostasis, is largely unknown. Identifying the effect of olanzapine on the excitability of DMV neurons in both sexes is thus crucial to understanding possible underlying mechanisms. Whole cell patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings were conducted in stomach- and liver-related DMV neurons identified with retrograde viral tracers and in random DMV neurons. The effect of olanzapine on the neuronal excitability of DMV neurons both in male and female mice was established. Our data demonstrate that olanzapine hyperpolarizes the DMV neurons in both sexes and this effect is reversible. The hyperpolarization is associated with decreased firing rate and input resistance. Olanzapine also decreases the excitability of a subset of stomach- and liver-related DMV neurons. Our study demonstrates that olanzapine has a powerful effect on DMV neurons in both sexes, indicating its ability to reduce vagal output to the subdiaphragmatic organs, which likely contributes to the metabolic side effects observed in both humans and experimental models. These findings suggest that the metabolic side effects of olanzapine may partially originate in the DMV. PMID:26719086

  2. Assessing Side Effects of Pharmacotherapy Treatment of Bipolar Disorder: A 20-Year Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Smith, Kimberly R.; Terlonge, Cindy; Thorson, Ryan T.; Dixon, Dennis R.

    2006-01-01

    A substantial literature on the effective treatment of bipolar disorder has begun to appear, particularly in the last 20 years.The majority of treatments studied have employed medications, particularly mood stabilizers, a typical antipsychotics and antidepressants. Most treatments produce side effects and medications are no exception. A review of…

  3. [Side effect management of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in urology : Fatigue and hypothyroidism].

    PubMed

    Sikic, D; Lüdecke, G; Lieb, V; Keck, B

    2016-05-01

    Not only has the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinomas (mRCC) changed the therapeutic options for this disease significantly, but with the occurrence of typical side effects this therapy also poses a challenge for the treating physician. Fatigue und hypothyroidism are two common side effects of TKI therapy that can often appear simultaneously. By reducing the patients' quality of life these side effects often lead to a discontinuation of therapy. With this review we want to give the treating physician an overview of the classification and the specific treatment of TKI-induced fatigue and hypothyroidism in order to maximize patients' compliance and the therapeutic efficacy of TKI therapy. PMID:27119958

  4. Unusual Side Effects of Interferon Beta-1a in Patient with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Maryam; Pour Manshadi, Seyed Mohammad Yousof Mostafavi; Naderi, Nafiseh; Dehghan, Abolfazl; Azizi, Sanaz

    2012-01-01

    This is a descriptive case report of a 30-year-old man with massive epistaxis, echymosis on arms, abnormal CBC and increased plasma urea and creatinine level (i.e. above normal range). Probably, these are as side effects of interferon beta-1a injection. This is the first report according to our literature search (Pub Med, Google scholar, ISI web of knowledge, ProQuest, MD consult, Science Direct, and SCOPUS) about interferon beta-1a related abnormal kidney function tests hereafter. Abnormal kidney function tests (i.e. increased plasma urea and creatinie level) is not a known as side effect of interferon beta-1a. This case indicates, likely potential for development of these side effects with this medication. PMID:23922529

  5. Do the benefits outweigh the side effects of colorectal cancer surveillance? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Augestad, Knut Magne; Rose, Johnie; Crawshaw, Benjamin; Cooper, Gregory; Delaney, Conor

    2014-05-15

    Most patients treated with curative intent for colorectal cancer (CRC) are included in a follow-up program involving periodic evaluations. The survival benefits of a follow-up program are well delineated, and previous meta-analyses have suggested an overall survival improvement of 5%-10% by intensive follow-up. However, in a recent randomized trial, there was no survival benefit when a minimal vs an intensive follow-up program was compared. Less is known about the potential side effects of follow-up. Well-known side effects of preventive programs are those of somatic complications caused by testing, negative psychological consequences of follow-up itself, and the downstream impact of false positive or false negative tests. Accordingly, the potential survival benefits of CRC follow-up must be weighed against these potential negatives. The present review compares the benefits and side effects of CRC follow-up, and we propose future areas for research. PMID:24834140

  6. Do the benefits outweigh the side effects of colorectal cancer surveillance? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Augestad, Knut Magne; Rose, Johnie; Crawshaw, Benjamin; Cooper, Gregory; Delaney, Conor

    2014-01-01

    Most patients treated with curative intent for colorectal cancer (CRC) are included in a follow-up program involving periodic evaluations. The survival benefits of a follow-up program are well delineated, and previous meta-analyses have suggested an overall survival improvement of 5%-10% by intensive follow-up. However, in a recent randomized trial, there was no survival benefit when a minimal vs an intensive follow-up program was compared. Less is known about the potential side effects of follow-up. Well-known side effects of preventive programs are those of somatic complications caused by testing, negative psychological consequences of follow-up itself, and the downstream impact of false positive or false negative tests. Accordingly, the potential survival benefits of CRC follow-up must be weighed against these potential negatives. The present review compares the benefits and side effects of CRC follow-up, and we propose future areas for research. PMID:24834140

  7. Knowledge of Psychiatric Nurses About the Potentially Lethal Side-Effects of Clozapine.

    PubMed

    De Hert, Marc; De Beugher, Annelien; Sweers, Kim; Wampers, Martien; Correll, Christoph U; Cohen, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Clozapine is an antipsychotic with superior efficacy in treatment refractory patients, and has unique anti-suicidal properties and a low propensity to cause extrapyramidal side-effects. Despite these advantages, clozapine utilization is low. This can in part be explained by a number of potentially lethal side effects of clozapine. Next to psychiatrists nurses play a crucial role in the long-term management of patients with schizophrenia. It is therefore important that nurses know, inform and monitor patients about the specific side-effects of clozapine. A recent study of psychiatrists published in 2011 has shown that there was a gap in the knowledge about side-effects of clozapine. The knowledge about side-effects of clozapine in nurses has never been studied. This cross-sectional study evaluated the knowledge base regarding the safety of clozapine, and its potential mediators, of psychiatric nurses in 3 psychiatric hospitals in Belgium with a specifically developed questionnaire based on the literature and expert opinion (3 clozapine experts). A total of 85 nurses completed the questionnaire. The mean total score was 6.1 of a potential maximum score of 18. Only 3 of the 18 multiple choice knowledge questions were answered correctly by more than 50% of nurses. Only 24.9% of participants passed the test (>50% correct answers). Nurses working on psychosis units were more likely to pass the test (xx.y% vs yy.z%, p=0.0124). There was a trend that nurses with a lower nursing diploma were more likely to fail the test (p=0.0561). Our study clearly identifies a large gap in the basic knowledge of psychiatric nurses about clozapine and its side-effects. Knowledge could be increased by more emphasis on the topic in nurse's training curricula as well as targeted onsite training. Only 23.5% of participants indicate that there was sufficient information in their basic nursing training. PMID:26804506

  8. Ciclesonide: A Pro-Soft Drug Approach for Mitigation of Side Effects of Inhaled Corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Mukker, Jatinder Kaur; Singh, Ravi Shankar Prasad; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2016-09-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids are used as one of the first-line drug therapy in patients with asthma. However, their long-term use is associated with various oropharyngeal and systemic side and adverse effects. Design of pro-soft drug is one of the strategies, which was adopted in the design of ciclesonide for mitigation of side effects usually observed with the use of inhaled corticosteroids. Ciclesonide, a pro-soft drug, is converted to an active metabolite desisobutyryl-ciclesonide in the lungs. The anti-inflammatory effect of desisobutyryl-ciclesonide is much higher than ciclesonide, and therefore, the local effect of the metabolite is higher with lower systemic side effects. Ciclesonide has favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties as inhaled corticosteroid including low oral bioavailability, high plasma protein binding and rapid systemic clearance, high pulmonary deposition and distribution and long pulmonary residence duration. These advantageous properties make ciclesonide a very effective treatment option with low side effects. Various clinical studies support safety and efficacy of ciclesonide use in mild, moderate, and severe asthma patients. PMID:27339407

  9. Sneaky side effects and ineffectiveness of an immunotherapy with ipilimumab in a case of metastatic melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Krecké, Nathalie; Zimmer, Anna; Friesenhahn-Ochs, Bettina; Müller, Cornelia S. L.; Vogt, Thomas; Pföhler, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ipilimumab is an anti-CTLA-4 antibody that is approved for the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma. Side-effects are mostly immune-mediated and in many cases the lack of specific symptoms leads to delayed diagnosis and treatment of adverse events. We present the case of a female patient who experienced an uncommon combination of adverse reactions while undergoing therapy with ipilimumab and where the absence of specificity of the symptoms led to late diagnosis and treatment of side effects. Autoimmune disease was neither associated with tumor response nor with prolonged survival. PMID:27574531

  10. Usage and Perceived Side Effects of Personal Protective Measures against Mosquitoes among Current Users in Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajesh; Meena, G. S.; Singh, M. M.; Sahoo, Jyotiranjan; Ingle, G. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Mosquito-borne diseases constitute an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The use of personal protective measures (PPM) like mats, bednets, screening, repellents, liquid vaporizers, mosquito coils, and so forth has been advocated as an effective tool in control of mosquito-borne diseases, but data about the safety profile of personal protective measures is still scarce. Objective. To study the usage and side effects of personal protective measures against mosquitoes among current users in Delhi. Materials and Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study among 350 adult individuals selected by systematic sampling method. Data was collected using pretested semistructured questionnaire after taking written informed consent. Data was analysed using SPSS version 17. Chi-square/Fisher's Exact test was used for qualitative variables to find association and P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results. Out of 350 families selected, 210 belonged to rural area and 140 to urban area. Personal protective measures were used by 219 (62.5%) subjects. Liquid vaporizer was the most preferred method (41.4%). Most common perceived side effect of personal protective measures was headache (7.7%). Other perceived side effects were cough (3.2%), sore throat (2.7%), allergy (1.3%), and eye irritation (0.9%) predominantly among coil users. Conclusion. There is a need to have a close watch for side effects of personal protective measures among users. Further research is also needed to develop safe and effective personal protective measures against mosquitoes. PMID:24616805

  11. Effect of the Game Design, the Goal Type and the Number of Players on Intensity of Play in Small-Sided Soccer Games in Youth Elite Players

    PubMed Central

    González-Rodenas, Joaquín; Calabuig, Ferran; Aranda, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of game design modification, the type of the goal and the number of players on the intensity of play in small-sided soccer games (SSGs) in youth elite players. Twenty young soccer players (age 13.7 ± 0.5 years, body mass 57.4 ± 7.8 kg, body height 1.67 ± 7.8 m, maximal heart rate 201.1 ± 8.2 beats/min) performed three types of SSGs (possession play (PP) vs. regular goals (RG) vs. small goals (SG)) in both four-a-side and six-a-side formats. The heart rate responses were recorded and analysed as an indicator of the intensity of play. The four-a-side format obtained higher intensity of play than six-a-side for PP (p<0.05), but not for SG and RG. SG showed higher intensity of play than RG for four-a-side (p<0.001), but not for six-a-side. PP registered higher intensity of play than RG (p<0.05), but not than SG in four-a-side, whereas in six-a-side no differences were found between the three formats. In conclusion, the modification of variables such as the number of players, the game design and the type of the goal influences the intensity of play in small-sided soccer games in youth players. PMID:26839623

  12. Effect of the Game Design, the Goal Type and the Number of Players on Intensity of Play in Small-Sided Soccer Games in Youth Elite Players.

    PubMed

    González-Rodenas, Joaquín; Calabuig, Ferran; Aranda, Rafael

    2015-12-22

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of game design modification, the type of the goal and the number of players on the intensity of play in small-sided soccer games (SSGs) in youth elite players. Twenty young soccer players (age 13.7 ± 0.5 years, body mass 57.4 ± 7.8 kg, body height 1.67 ± 7.8 m, maximal heart rate 201.1 ± 8.2 beats/min) performed three types of SSGs (possession play (PP) vs. regular goals (RG) vs. small goals (SG)) in both four-a-side and six-a-side formats. The heart rate responses were recorded and analysed as an indicator of the intensity of play. The four-a-side format obtained higher intensity of play than six-a-side for PP (p<0.05), but not for SG and RG. SG showed higher intensity of play than RG for four-a-side (p<0.001), but not for six-a-side. PP registered higher intensity of play than RG (p<0.05), but not than SG in four-a-side, whereas in six-a-side no differences were found between the three formats. In conclusion, the modification of variables such as the number of players, the game design and the type of the goal influences the intensity of play in small-sided soccer games in youth players. PMID:26839623

  13. Computational Analysis of an effect of aerodynamic pressure on the side view mirror geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murukesavan, P.; Mu'tasim, M. A. N.; Sahat, I. M.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of aerodynamic flow effects on side mirror geometry for a passenger car using ANSYS Fluent CFD simulation software. Results from analysis of pressure coefficient on side view mirror designs is evaluated to analyse the unsteady forces that cause fluctuations to mirror surface and image blurring. The fluctuation also causes drag forces that increase the overall drag coefficient, with an assumption resulting in higher fuel consumption and emission. Three features of side view mirror design were investigated with two input velocity parameters of 17 m/s and 33 m/s. Results indicate that the half-sphere design shows the most effective design with less pressure coefficient fluctuation and drag coefficient.

  14. Superior digestive tract side effects after prolonged treatment with NSAIDs in patients with osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rogoveanu, OC; Streba, CT; Vere, CC; Petrescu, L; Trăistaru, R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) represent one of the classes of drugs commonly recommended for patients with osteoarthritis. These drugs have side effects that sometimes affect the digestive tract. Patients and Methods: 30 patients with either axial or peripheral osteoarthritis, hospitalized between January 2013 and January 2015 in the Rehabilitation Clinic of the Clinical Emergency County Hospital of Craiova, were followed. All the patients included had upper gastrointestinal endoscopy performed, excluding patients who had a history of gastritis, endoscopically demonstrated ulcer or those with a history of gastrointestinal dyspeptic phenomena. Results: The endoscopic examination found acute erosive gastritis in eight cases, gastric ulcer (four cases) and duodenal ulcer (six cases). No serious complications were encountered. Four patients had no clinical manifestations with endoscopic expression. Lesions were mainly mild esophagitis (Grade I) and only in three cases, esophagitis grade II or III was found. Twelve patients (40%) had Helicobacter pylori infection and had endoscopic changes (gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, or gastric lesions). Conclusions: The adverse effects of NSAIDs in patients with osteoarthritis vary in severity. Patient age significantly influences the severity of injuries. We have not found significant differences in the incidence of COX2 selective and non-selective NSAID-induced lesions. Pathogenic interaction between the NSAID and Helicobacter Pylori infection is most often a synergistic effect in the development of gastritis or gastroduodenal ulcer. PMID:26664470

  15. Balancing opioid-induced gastrointestinal side effects with pain management: Insights from the online community.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Cynthia B; Reid, Mark W; Arnold, Corey; Patel, Haridarshan; Ursos, Lyann; Sa'adon, Roee; Pourmorady, Jonathan; Spiegel, Brennan M R

    2015-01-01

    Opioids cause gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, pain, and (in 40 percent) constipation that diminish patients' quality of life. Outside traditional surveys, little is known about the opioid-induced constipation (OIC) patient experience and its impact on pain management. The purpose of this study was to use data from social media platforms to qualitatively examine patient beliefs about OIC and other prominent GI side effects, their impact on effective pain management and doctor-patient interaction. The authors collected Tweets from March 25 to July 31, 2014, and e-forum posts from health-related social networking sites regardless of timestamp. The authors identified specific keywords related to opioids and GI side effects to locate relevant content in the dataset, which was then manually coded using ATLAS.ti software. The authors examined 2,519,868 Tweets and more than 1.8 billion e-forum posts, of which, 88,586 Tweets and 9,767 posts satisfied the search criteria. Three thousand three individuals experienced opioidinduced GI side effects, mostly related to phenanthrenes (n = 1,589), and 1,274 (42.4 percent) individuals described constipation. Over-the-counter medications and nonevidence-based natural approaches were most commonly used to alleviate constipation. Many individuals questioned, rotated, reduced, or stopped their opioid treatments as a result of their GI side effects. Investigation of social media reveals a struggle to balance pain management with opioid-induced GI side effects, especially constipation. Individuals are often unprepared to treat OIC, to modify opioid regiments without medical advice, and to resort to using natural remedies and treatments lacking scientific evidence of effectiveness. These results identify opportunities to improve physician-patient communication and explore effective treatment alternatives. PMID:26535966

  16. Real World Data Driven Evolution of Volvo Cars’ Side Impact Protection Systems and their Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Lotta; Lindman, Magdalena; Svanberg, Bo; Carlsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the outcome of the continuous improved occupant protection over the last two decades for front seat near side occupants in side impacts based on a real world driven working process. The effectiveness of four generations of improved side impact protection are calculated based on data from Volvo’s statistical accident database of Volvo Cars in Sweden. Generation I includes vehicles with a new structural and interior concept (SIPS). Generation II includes vehicles with structural improvements and a new chest airbag (SIPSbag). Generation III includes vehicles with further improved SIPS and SIPSbag as well as the new concept with a head protecting Inflatable Curtain (IC). Generation IV includes the most recent vehicles with further improvements of all the systems plus advanced sensors and seat belt pretensioner activation. Compared to baseline vehicles, vehicles of generation I reduce MAIS2+ injuries by 54%, generation II by 61% and generation III by 72%. For generation IV effectiveness figures cannot be calculated because of the lack of MAIS2+ injuries. A continuous improved performance is also seen when studying the AIS2+ pelvis, abdomen, chest and head injuries separately. By using the same real world driven working process, future improvements and possibly new passive as well as active safety systems, will be developed with the aim of further improved protection to near side occupants in side impacts. PMID:21050597

  17. Evaluation of Detector-to-Detector and Mirror Side Differences for Terra MODIS Reflective Solar Bands Using Simultaneous MISR Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, A.; Barnes, W.

    2011-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the five Earth-observing instruments on-board the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth-Observing System(EOS) Terra spacecraft, launched in December 1999. It has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from 0.41 to 14.4 mm and collects data at three nadir spatial resolutions: 0.25 km for 2 bands with 40 detectors each, 0.5 km for 5 bands with 20 detectors each and 1 km for the remaining 29 bands with 10 detectors each. MODIS bands are located on four separate focal plane assemblies (FPAs) according to their spectral wavelengths and aligned in the cross-track direction. Detectors of each spectral band are aligned in the along-track direction. MODIS makes observations using a two-sided paddle-wheel scan mirror. Its on-board calibrators (OBCs) for the reflective solar bands (RSBs) include a solar diffuser (SD), a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) and a spectral-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). Calibration is performed for each band, detector, sub-sample (for sub-kilometer resolution bands) and mirror side. In this study, a ratio approach is applied to MODIS observed Earth scene reflectances to track the detector-to-detector and mirror side differences. Simultaneous observed reflectances from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), also onboard the Terra spacecraft, are used with MODIS observed reflectances in this ratio approach for four closely matched spectral bands. Results show that the detector-to-detector difference between two adjacent detectors within each spectral band is typically less than 0.2% and, depending on the wavelengths, the maximum difference among all detectors varies from 0.5% to 0.8%. The mirror side differences are found to be very small for all bands except for band 3 at 0.44 mm. This is the band with the shortest wavelength among the selected matching bands, showing a time-dependent increase for the mirror side difference. This

  18. Acute bilateral glaucoma and panuveitis as a side effect of topiramate for weight loss treatment.

    PubMed

    Pikkel, Yoav Yechezkel

    2014-01-01

    A 54-year-old male patient presented to our clinic with acute angle-closure glaucoma and panuveitis in both eyes after being treated with topiramate for binge eating and obesity. This case report emphasises the hazardous side effects of treatment with topiramate with unusual indication and the precaution a caretaker must take when treating a patient. PMID:24744070

  19. Clinical management of clozapine patients in relation to efficacy and side-effects.

    PubMed

    Naber, D; Holzbach, R; Perro, C; Hippius, H

    1992-05-01

    Medical charts of 480 schizophrenic in-patients (581 treatments) were analysed to evaluate the efficacy and side-effects of clozapine. Clozapine treatment lasted for mean 49 (s.d. 38) days. Of the sample, 11.0% showed worsening or no change, 31.5% slight improvement, 53.0% marked improvement and 4.5% almost total reduction of symptoms. At least one major side-effect occurred in 68.0% of patients. A combination of clozapine with classical neuroleptics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines or lithium is tolerated by most patients, but increases the incidence of some side-effects. Clozapine treatment had to be discontinued because of severe side-effects in 8.6% of patients. In 81 schizophrenic out-patients, clozapine significantly reduced the days of in-patient treatment and number of hospital readmissions. Two patients developed leucopenia but had no complications after clozapine withdrawal. This study indicates a satisfactory benefit/risk ratio and compliance in most of the patients. PMID:1358128

  20. 21 CFR 209.10 - Content and format of the side effects statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Content and format of the side effects statement. 209.10 Section 209.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REQUIREMENT FOR AUTHORIZED DISPENSERS AND PHARMACIES TO DISTRIBUTE...

  1. 21 CFR 209.11 - Dispensing and distributing the side effects statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REQUIREMENT FOR AUTHORIZED DISPENSERS AND PHARMACIES TO DISTRIBUTE A...) Each authorized dispenser or pharmacy must distribute the side effects statement with each prescription... distributed with new and refill prescriptions. (b) An authorized dispenser or pharmacy must choose one or...

  2. 21 CFR 209.11 - Dispensing and distributing the side effects statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REQUIREMENT FOR AUTHORIZED DISPENSERS AND PHARMACIES TO DISTRIBUTE A...) Each authorized dispenser or pharmacy must distribute the side effects statement with each prescription... distributed with new and refill prescriptions. (b) An authorized dispenser or pharmacy must choose one or...

  3. 21 CFR 209.10 - Content and format of the side effects statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Content and format of the side effects statement. 209.10 Section 209.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REQUIREMENT FOR AUTHORIZED DISPENSERS AND PHARMACIES TO DISTRIBUTE...

  4. 21 CFR 209.10 - Content and format of the side effects statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Content and format of the side effects statement. 209.10 Section 209.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REQUIREMENT FOR AUTHORIZED DISPENSERS AND PHARMACIES TO DISTRIBUTE...

  5. 21 CFR 209.11 - Dispensing and distributing the side effects statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REQUIREMENT FOR AUTHORIZED DISPENSERS AND PHARMACIES TO DISTRIBUTE A...) Each authorized dispenser or pharmacy must distribute the side effects statement with each prescription... distributed with new and refill prescriptions. (b) An authorized dispenser or pharmacy must choose one or...

  6. Spontaneous Recovery of Previously Extinguished Behavior as an Alternative Explanation for Extinction-Related Side Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Raymond J.; Mays, Nicole M.

    2007-01-01

    Extinction is accepted as a viable intervention for behaviors that are hypothesized to be maintained by contingent attentional reinforcement. However, it is frequently acknowledged that extinction has potential numerous side effects, including the generation of aggressive behavior. This explanation does not provide a behavioral conceptualization…

  7. Monitoring Metabolic Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotics in People with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teeluckdharry, Sadira; Sharma, Sujit; O'Rourke, Elizabeth; Tharian, Priyanka; Gondalekar, Anjali; Nainar, Feroz; Roy, Meera

    2013-01-01

    This audit was undertaken prospectively to examine the compliance of a group of psychiatrists against guidelines they developed for monitoring the onset of metabolic syndrome, a potential side effect of antipsychotic medication, especially second generation or atypical ones. Phase 1 of the audit was to set standards by a questionnaire survey of…

  8. Side Effects of Minocycline Treatment in Patients with Fragile X Syndrome and Exploration of Outcome Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utari, Agustini; Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Rivera, Susan M.; Schneider, Andrea; Hagerman, Randi J.; Faradz, Sultana M. H.; Ethell, Iryna M.; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2010-01-01

    Minocycline can rescue the dendritic spine and synaptic structural abnormalities in the fragile X knock-out mouse. This is a review and preliminary survey to document side effects and potential outcome measures for minocycline use in the treatment of individuals with fragile X syndrome. We surveyed 50 patients with fragile X syndrome who received…

  9. Benzodiazepine Behavioral Side Effects: Review and Implications for Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalachnik, John E.; Hanzel, Thomas E.; Sevenich, Robert; Harder, Stuart R.

    2002-01-01

    A literature review found behavioral side effects occurred for 13% of 446 individuals with mental retardation who were prescribed benzodiazepine for either behavioral or psychiatric conditions (n=138, 17.4%), epilepsy (n=20, 15.4%), or other medical conditions such as myoclonus or cerebral palsy (n=100, 2%). Implications of nonrecognition are…

  10. Positive Side Effects of a Job-Related Training Program for Older Adults in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Minhong; Choi, Jae-Sung

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate empirically positive side effects of a job-related training program on older adults' self-esteem, depression, and social networks. A total of 70 older adults participated in the study after completing the Older Paraprofessional Training Program developed and provided by the Continuing Education…

  11. Rectifying Properties of Oligo(Phenylene Ethynylene) Heterometallic Molecular Junctions: Molecular Length and Side Group Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Rui-Qin; Zhang, Guang-Ping; Li, Zong-Liang

    2014-01-01

    The rectifying properties of α,ω-dithiol terminated oligo(phenylene ethynylene) molecules sandwiched between heterometallic electrodes, including the molecular length and side group effects, are theoretically investigated using the fully self-consistent nonequilibrium Green's function method combined with density functional theory. The results show nonlinear variation with changes in molecule length: when the molecule becomes longer, the current decreases at first and then increases while the rectification shifts in the opposite direction. This stems from the change in molecular eigenstates and the coupling between the molecule and electrodes caused by different molecular lengths. The rectifying behavior of heterometallic molecular junctions can be attributed to the asymmetric molecule-electrode contacts, which lead to asymmetric electronic tunneling spectra, molecular eigenvalues, molecular orbitals, and potential drop at reversed equivalent bias voltages. Our results provide a fundamental understanding of the rectification of heterometallic molecular junction, and a prediction of rectifiers with different rectification properties from those in the experiment, using electrodes with reduced sizes. PMID:25220880

  12. Cardiovascular side effects related with use of synthetic cannabinoids "bonzai" : two case reports.

    PubMed

    Atik, Sezen Ugan; Dedeoğlu, Reyhan; Varol, Fatih; Çam, Halit; Eroğlu, Ayşe Güler; Saltık, Levent

    2015-03-01

    Information about the effects of synthetic cannabinoids "bonzai" on the cardiovascular system is limited. In this article, two patients in whom different cardiological side effects were observed following use of synthetic cannabinoids 'bonzai' were presented. Our first patient who was a 16-year old boy presented to pediatric emergency department with severe chest pain which had started one hour before. On electrocardiographic examination, ST segment elevations greater than 3 mm were observed in DII, DIII, AVF and V5-V6 derivations which caused to suspicious myocardial infarction. Cardiac catheterization was performed and coronary angiographic findings were found to be normal. When the patient was questioned again, it was learned that he used synthetic cannabinoid 'bonzai'. The second patient who was aged 18 years and addicted to synthetic cannabinoid 'bonzai' was brought to our emergency department by his friends because of clouding of consciousness. Dopamine treatment was started in the patient whose cardiac apical beat reduced to 40/min and who was found to develop hypertension, because bradycardia worsened. However, the blood pressure increased rapidly and dopamine treatment was stopped. Heart rate and blood pressure monitoring was continued. Use of synthetic cannabinoids 'bonzai' should be kept in mind in patients who present to emergency departments with chest pain and complaints related with the cardiovascular system. PMID:26078698

  13. Cardiovascular side effects related with use of synthetic cannabinoids “bonzai” : two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Atik, Sezen Ugan; Dedeoğlu, Reyhan; Varol, Fatih; Çam, Halit; Eroğlu, Ayşe Güler; Saltık, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Information about the effects of synthetic cannabinoids “bonzai” on the cardiovascular system is limited. In this article, two patients in whom different cardiological side effects were observed following use of synthetic cannabinoids ‘bonzai’ were presented. Our first patient who was a 16-year old boy presented to pediatric emergency department with severe chest pain which had started one hour before. On electrocardiographic examination, ST segment elevations greater than 3 mm were observed in DII, DIII, AVF and V5–V6 derivations which caused to suspicious myocardial infarction. Cardiac catheterization was performed and coronary angiographic findings were found to be normal. When the patient was questioned again, it was learned that he used synthetic cannabinoid ‘bonzai’. The second patient who was aged 18 years and addicted to synthetic cannabinoid ‘bonzai’ was brought to our emergency department by his friends because of clouding of consciousness. Dopamine treatment was started in the patient whose cardiac apical beat reduced to 40/min and who was found to develop hypertension, because bradycardia worsened. However, the blood pressure increased rapidly and dopamine treatment was stopped. Heart rate and blood pressure monitoring was continued. Use of synthetic cannabinoids ‘bonzai’ should be kept in mind in patients who present to emergency departments with chest pain and complaints related with the cardiovascular system. PMID:26078698

  14. Effects of Yoga on Cancer-Related Fatigue and Global Side-Effect Burden in Older Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Sprod, Lisa K.; Fernandez, Isabel D.; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Peppone, Luke J.; Atkins, James N.; Giguere, Jeffrey; Block, Robert; Mustian, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sixty percent of cancer survivors are 65 years of age or older. Cancer and its treatments lead to cancer-related fatigue and many other side effects, in turn, creating substantial global side-effect burden (total burden from all side effects) which, ultimately, compromises functional independence and quality of life. Various modes of exercise, such as yoga, reduce cancer-related fatigue and global side-effect burden in younger cancer survivors, but no studies have specifically examined the effects of yoga on older cancer survivors. Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a 4-week yoga intervention (Yoga for Cancer Survivors: YOCAS©®) on overall cancer-related fatigue, and due to its multidimensional nature, the subdomains of cancer-related fatigue (general, physical, emotional, and mental) and global side-effect burden in older cancer survivors. Materials and Methods We conducted a secondary analysis on data from a multicenter phase III randomized controlled clinical trial with 2 arms (standard care and standard care plus a 4-week YOCAS©® intervention). The sample for this secondary analysis was 97 older cancer survivors (≥ 60 years of age), between 2 months and 2 years post-treatment, who participated in the original trial. Results Participants in the YOCAS©® intervention arm reported significantly lower cancer-related fatigue, physical fatigue, mental fatigue, and global side-effect burden than participants in the standard care arm following the 4-week intervention period (p<0.05). Conclusions YOCAS©® is an effective standardized yoga intervention for reducing cancer-related fatigue, physical fatigue, mental fatigue, and global side-effect burden among older cancer survivors. PMID:25449185

  15. Effects of Progressive Body Weight Support Treadmill Forward and Backward Walking Training on Stroke Patients’ Affected Side Lower Extremity’s Walking Ability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Lee, Kyoungbo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of progressive body weight supported treadmill forward and backward walking training (PBWSTFBWT), progressive body weight supported treadmill forward walking training (PBWSTFWT), progressive body weight supported treadmill backward walking training (PBWSTBWT), on stroke patients’ affected side lower extremity’s walking ability. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 36 chronic stroke patients were divided into three groups with 12 subjects in each group. Each of the groups performed one of the progressive body weight supported treadmill training methods for 30 minute, six times per week for three weeks, and then received general physical therapy without any other intervention until the follow-up tests. For the assessment of the affected side lower extremity’s walking ability, step length of the affected side, stance phase of the affected side, swing phase of the affected side, single support of the affected side, and step time of the affected side were measured using optogait and the symmetry index. [Results] In the within group comparisons, all the three groups showed significant differences between before and after the intervention and in the comparison of the three groups, the PBWSTFBWT group showed more significant differences in all of the assessed items than the other two groups. [Conclusion] In the present study progressive body weight supported treadmill training was performed in an environment in which the subjects were actually walked, and PBWSTFBWT was more effective at efficiently training stroke patients’ affected side lower extremity’s walking ability. PMID:25540499

  16. Double side read-out technique for mitigation of radiation damage effects in PbWO4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchini, M. T.; Auffray, E.; Benaglia, A.; Cavallari, F.; Cockerill, D.; Dolgopolov, A.; Faure, J. L.; Golubev, N.; Hobson, P. R.; Jain, S.; Korjik, M.; Mechinski, V.; Singovski, A.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Tarasov, I.; Zahid, S.

    2016-04-01

    Test beam results of a calorimetric module based on 3×3×22 cm3 PbWO4 crystals, identical to those used in the CMS ECAL Endcaps, read out by a pair of photodetectors coupled to the two opposite sides (front and rear) of each crystal are presented. Nine crystals with different level of induced absorption, from 0 to 20 m‑1, have been tested using electrons in the 50–200 GeV energy range. Photomultiplier tubes have been chosen as photodetectors to allow for a precise measurement of highly damaged crystals. The information provided by this double side read-out configuration allows to correct for event-by-event fluctuations of the longitudinal development of electromagnetic showers. By strongly mitigating the effect of non-uniform light collection efficiency induced by radiation damage, the double side read-out technique significantly improves the energy resolution with respect to a single side read-out configuration. The non-linearity of the response arising in damaged crystals is also corrected by a double side read-out configuration and the response linearity of irradiated crystals is restored. In high radiation environments at future colliders, as it will be the case for detectors operating during the High Luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider, defects can be created inside the scintillator volume leading to a non-uniform response of the calorimetric cell. The double side read-out technique presented in this study provides a valuable way to improve the performance of calorimeters based on scintillators whose active volumes are characterized by high aspect ratio cells similar to those used in this study.

  17. An Internet-based survey on characteristics of laser tattoo removal and associated side effects.

    PubMed

    Klein, Annette; Rittmann, Ines; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Tattoo removal by laser therapy is a frequently performed procedure in dermatological practices. Quality-switched ruby, alexandrite, or Nd:YAG lasers are the most suitable treatment devices. Although these techniques are regarded as safe, both temporary and permanent side effects might occur. Little has been published on the frequency of complications associated with laser tattoo removal. We performed an Internet survey in German-speaking countries on characteristics of laser tattoo removal and associated side effects. A total number of 157 questionnaires entered the final analysis. Motivations for laser tattoo removal were mainly considering the tattoo as youthful folly (29%), esthetic reasons (28%), and 6% indicated medical problems. One third of participants were unsatisfied with the result of laser tattoo removal, and a complete removal of the tattoo pigment was obtained in 38% only. Local transient side effects occurred in nearly all participants, but an important rate of slightly visible scars (24%) or even important scarring (8%) was reported. Every fourth participant described mild or intense tan when the laser treatment was performed, and the same number of people indicated UV exposure following laser therapy, which should normally be avoided in these circumstances. As reported in the literature, nearly half of the participants experienced hypopigmentation in the treated area. Our results show that from the patients' point of view there is an important rate of side effects occurring after laser tattoo removal. Appropriate pretreatment counseling with regard to realistic expectations, possible side effects, and the application of test spots is mandatory to ensure patient satisfaction. Laser treatment should be performed by appropriately trained personnel only. PMID:23907603

  18. [Childhood vaccinations anno 2004. II. The real and presumed side effects of vaccination].

    PubMed

    Rümke, H C; Visser, H K

    2004-02-21

    Vaccinations protect to a high degree against infectious diseases, but may cause side effects. In the Netherlands since 1962 the adverse events following immunizations are registered and analysed by the National Institute of Health and Environment (RIVM). Since 1983 a permanent Committee of the Dutch Health Council reviews adverse events reported to the RIVM. With the so-called killed vaccines the side effects are mainly local (redness, swelling, pain) or general (fever, listlessness, irritability, sleep and eating problems). They are seen mainly after DPT-IPV vaccination against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and poliomyelitis. Some side effects occur rarely (collapse reactions, discoloured legs, persistent screaming and convulsions) and very rarely serious neurological events are reported. After MMR vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella, cases of arthritis, thrombocytopenia and ataxia are reported sporadically. Usually, they have a spontaneous recovery. During recent years a scala of diseases or symptoms have been associated with vaccination (presumed side effects). Careful and extensive investigations have shown that such hypotheses could not be supported. Examples are allergic diseases as asthma, diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis (after hepatitis B vaccination), autism and inflammatory bowel disease (after MMR vaccination) and sudden infant death syndrome. The total number of cases where at least a possible relation between side effects and vaccination is observed--apart from local reactions and moderate general symptoms--is very rare (about 0.25 per 1000 vaccinations) and does not balance the benefits from vaccination. There appears increasing doubt about the use and safety of vaccinations. More research is needed about the motives of people to choose for and against vaccination. The education about vaccination for parents and professionals who are involved with vaccination has to be improved. Internet can play an important role. PMID:15032089

  19. Patterns of Care and Side Effects for Patients Prescribed Methadone for Treatment of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Macey, Tara A.; Weimer, Melissa B.; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; Dobscha, Steven K.; Morasco, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This manuscript evaluates physician monitoring practices and incidence of cardiac side effects following initiation of methadone for treatment of chronic pain as compared to patients who began treatment for chronic pain with morphine sustained release (SR). Design We retrospectively reviewed medical record data on all new initiations of methadone and compared results of physician monitoring practices to patients with new initiations of morphine SR. A standardized chart tool was used to capture clinical data. Data related to health service utilization and clinical diagnoses were obtained from the VA clinical information system. Setting A single VA medical center in the Pacific Northwest. Patients Chronic pain patients prescribed methadone (n=92) or morphine (n=90) in the calendar year 2008. Results There was no difference between patients prescribed methadone versus patients prescribed morphine SR in the likelihood of receiving an electrocardiogram (ECG) prior to initiating medication (53% versus 54%) or in the year after opioid initiation (37% versus 40%). The two groups also did not differ in rates of developing prolonged QTc intervals (>450 ms) (11% versus 17%). Seventy-two percent of all patients discontinued their long-acting opioid regimens before 90 days due to adverse effects or insufficient pain relief. Conclusion Despite recommendations for standardized assessment and cardiac risk monitoring, few patients prescribed methadone received an ECG, and this occurred at a rate that did not differ from patients prescribed morphine SR. Patients discontinued both medications at high rates. Further research is needed to evaluate the clinical significance of QTc prolongation in patients treated with methadone. PMID:24353045

  20. Differences in nutrient composition and choice of side dishes between red meat and fish dinners in Norwegian adults

    PubMed Central

    Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Løken, Elin Bjørge; Wandel, Margareta; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-based dietary guidelines often recommend increased consumption of fish and reduced intake of red and processed meat. However, little is known about how changing the main protein source from red meat to fish may influence the choice of side dishes. Objective To investigate whether side dish choices differed between red meat and fish dinners. Moreover, to compare intakes of macronutrients and selected micronutrients in red meat and fish dinners and to see whether whole-day intakes of these nutrients differed between days with red meat dinners and days with fish dinners. Design Data were collected in a cross-sectional nationwide Norwegian dietary survey using two non-consecutive telephone-administered 24-h recalls. The recalls were conducted approximately 4 weeks apart. In total, 2,277 dinners from 1,517 participants aged 18–70 were included in the analyses. Results Fish dinners were more likely to include potatoes and carrots than red meat dinners, whereas red meat dinners more often contained bread, tomato sauce, and cheese. Red meat dinners contained more energy and iron; had higher percentages of energy (E%) from fat, saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat; and a lower E% from protein and polyunsaturated fat than fish dinners. Fish dinners contained more vitamin D, β-carotene, and folate than red meat dinners. Similar differences were found when comparing whole-day intakes of the same nutrients on days with red meat versus fish dinners. Conclusion Fish dinners were accompanied by different side dishes than red meat dinners. With regard to nutrient content, fish dinners generally had a healthier profile than red meat dinners. However, iron intake was higher for red meat dinners. Information about associated foods will be useful both for developing public health guidelines and when studying associations between dietary factors and health outcomes. PMID:26781818

  1. Control of the anchoring behavior of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals: effect of branching in the side chains of polyacrylates.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Collard, David M; Park, Jung O; Srinivasarao, Mohan

    2002-08-28

    A temperature-driven anchoring transition in a polymer/nematic fluid composite that is far from the bulk nematic-isotropic transition temperature is reported. A series of poly(methylheptyl acrylates) were studied to probe the subtle effects of the side chain structure of the polymer on control of the anchoring. A polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film made from TL205 and 1-methylheptyl acrylate shows only planar anchoring over the temperature range studied, while the films made from TL205 and each of the other methylheptyl acrylates or n-heptyl acrylate show the homeotropic-to-planar anchoring transition at temperatures between 70 and 78 degrees C. An interfacial model is proposed in which the different conformation of the side chains is suggested as the cause for the dramatic difference in the observed anchoring behavior. PMID:12188649

  2. R-ketamine: a rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant without psychotomimetic side effects.

    PubMed

    Yang, C; Shirayama, Y; Zhang, J-c; Ren, Q; Yao, W; Ma, M; Dong, C; Hashimoto, K

    2015-01-01

    Although the efficacy of racemate ketamine, a rapid onset and sustained antidepressant, for patients with treatment-resistant depression was a serendipitous finding, clinical use of ketamine is limited, due to psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. Behavioral and side-effect evaluation tests were applied to compare the two stereoisomers of ketamine. To elucidate their potential therapeutic mechanisms, we examined the effects of these stereoisomers on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-TrkB signaling, and synaptogenesis in selected brain regions. In the social defeat stress and learned helplessness models of depression, R-ketamine showed a greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant effect than S-ketamine (esketamine). Furthermore, R-ketamine induced a more potent beneficial effect on decreased dendritic spine density, BDNF-TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus from depressed mice compared with S-ketamine. However, neither stereoisomer affected these alterations in the nucleus accumbens of depressed mice. In behavioral tests for side effects, S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, precipitated behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperlocomotion, prepulse inhibition deficits and rewarding effects. In addition, a single dose of S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, caused a loss of parvalbumin (PV)-positive cells in the prelimbic region of the medial PFC and DG. These findings suggest that, unlike S-ketamine, R-ketamine can elicit a sustained antidepressant effect, mediated by increased BDNF-TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the PFC, DG and CA3. R-ketamine appears to be a potent, long-lasting and safe antidepressant, relative to S-ketamine, as R-ketamine appears to be free of psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. PMID:26327690

  3. Collective Impact versus Collaboration: Sides of the Same Coin OR Different Phenomenon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prange, Kelly; Allen, Joseph A.; Reiter-Palmon, Roni

    2016-01-01

    Collective impact is a recently developed concept and approach to solving social problems that rectifies many of the issues associated with isolated impact. We compared collective impact and the formal definition of collaboration and made integrations between the two concepts. Specifically, we explored effective assessment and facilitation methods…

  4. Development of the My Medicines and Me (M3Q) side effect questionnaire for mental health patients: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ashoorian, Deena M.; Davidson, Rowan M.; Rock, Daniel J. T.; Seubert, Liza J.; Clifford, Rhonda M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the acceptability, content validity and usability of the My Medicines and Me (M3Q) self-report side effect questionnaire. Methods: Eight focus groups consisting of mental health patients, carers, general practitioners, psychiatrists, mental health nurses and pharmacists were conducted, involving 78 participants. Two researchers independently examined the transcriptions and analysed the data thematically using an inductive method. Results: The findings supported changes to the formatting, length and phrasing of questions in the original version of the questionnaire. Although the groups provided differing views on the usability of the M3Q in clinical practice, the patient and carer groups were unconditionally in favour of such a tool to be used systematically to describe patients’ subjective experiences with side effects. Conclusion: The differing contribution made by all groups involved in the administration and completion of the M3Q assisted with content validity of the questionnaire. The acceptability and usability of this novel side effect questionnaire was also explored, with many participants agreeing it was a necessary tool for a patient centred approach to treatment. Following implementation of the changes to the current format of the questionnaire, investigation into the uptake and use in clinical practice should be carried out. PMID:26557985

  5. The association of HIV/AIDS treatment side effects with health status, work productivity, and resource use.

    PubMed

    daCosta DiBonaventura, Marco; Gupta, Shaloo; Cho, Michelle; Mrus, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Due to stable incidence and improved survival rates, there are an increasing number of patients living with HIV/AIDS in the USA. Although highly effective, current antiretroviral therapies are associated with a variety of side effects. The role side effects play on health outcomes has not been fully examined. The current study assessed the association of medication side effects with (1) self-assessed health status; (2) work productivity and activity impairment; and (3) healthcare resource utilization. Data were from a cross-sectional patient-reported survey fielded in the USA using a dual methodology of Internet and paper questionnaires. A total of 953 patients living with HIV/AIDS who were currently taking a medication for their condition were included in the analyses. The most frequent side effects reported by patients were fatigue (70.72%), diarrhea (62.96%), insomnia (58.97%), dizziness (52.78%), neuropathy (52.68%), joint pain (52.36%), nausea (51.63%), and abdominal pain (50.37%). The presence of each side effect was associated with reduced self-assessed health status, increased productivity loss, increased activity impairment, and increased healthcare resource use. Controlling for CD4 cell counts in regression modeling did little to diminish the impact of side effects. Although not all side effects were associated with all outcomes, every side effect was associated with worse health status, some measure of increased work productivity loss, and/or some measure of increased healthcare resource use. Patients are living longer with HIV and, therefore, spending a greater length of time on treatment. The results of the current study suggest that many of these patients are experiencing a wide array of side effects from these therapies. These side effects have demonstrated a profound association with self-assessed health, work productivity, and healthcare resource use. Improved management of these side effects or development of treatments with a better side effect

  6. Side Effects and Efficacy of Neuraxial Opioids in Pregnant Patients at Delivery: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Sarah; Fernando, Roshan

    2016-05-01

    Neuraxial opioids are an integral part of obstetric anaesthesia and have contributed to greatly improved analgesia for labour and caesarean delivery, both intraoperatively and postoperatively. Despite these advantages, neuraxial opioids may be associated with a number of side effects, some of which (such as respiratory depression), although rare, may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The risk of respiratory depression appears to be increased with less lipophilic opioids such as morphine but can be reduced with careful patient selection and monitoring. Other side effects such as pruritus and nausea and vomiting appear to be dose-related and so can be limited by choosing the appropriate dose to optimise analgesia whilst limiting the adverse effects. Urinary retention, the potential neurotoxic effects of neuraxial opioids and the postulated effects on the foetus are also considered but currently it is felt there is not enough evidence to make strong recommendations with regard to specific drugs or dosage. This review aims to discuss the mechanism and incidence of these side effects as well as, where possible, their prevention. PMID:26832926

  7. [The role of the hospital pharmacist in the prevention, treatment and management of the side effects associated with antiretroviral treatment].

    PubMed

    Morillo Verdugo, R; Fernández Lisón, L C; Huertas Fernández, M J; Martín Conde, M T; Roldan Morales, J C; Ruano Camps, R; Serrano López De Las Hazas, J I; Ibarra Barrueta, O; Illaro Uranga, A

    2010-01-01

    At present, the side effects associated with antiretroviral treatment are the main reasons for discontinuation of this kind of therapy, both in clinical trials and in regular clinical practise. On the other hand, due to the change of direction that our profession has suffered in recent years, we face the need to establish a different relationship with the patient, achieving direct and effective Pharmaceutical Care within a framework of shared responsibility for therapeutic results. Pharmacist interventions should be aimed at improving the quality of life of patients, which can only be achieved with a multidisciplinary approach and individualised and adjusted to new patterns of toxicity of the drugs currently used. The pharmacist who does this work must know how to interpret these side effects, giving accurate information to the patient about both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment and correct pharmaceutical follow-up which clearly sets forth the criteria for referral to medical appointments. The aim of this paper is to establish baselines so that the hospital pharmacist can perform clearly and uniformly in the prevention, identification and management of major side effects: gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, dermatological, at the central nervous system and kidney level, associated with antiretroviral therapy. PMID:20655783

  8. Depo Provera. Position paper on clinical use, effectiveness and side effects.

    PubMed

    Bigrigg, A; Evans, M; Gbolade, B; Newton, J; Pollard, L; Szarewski, A; Thomas, C; Walling, M

    1999-07-01

    has an advantage over the combined oral contraceptive pill, and provides a simple, effective alternative for women who cannot use the pill for these reasons. Similarly, it has been suggested that women who suffer from focal migraine and are therefore advised against use of the combined oral contraceptive pill can still use progestogen-only contraceptives. Although the POP is medically safe in these circumstances, in young women it is less effective, and involves strict time keeping, which will be disadvantageous for some women. Side effects, long term use and schedules of administration are also discussed. The use of local protocols to allow nurse administration is to be supported both in general practice and the clinic situation. Perhaps the most important issue surrounding the use of DMPA is that of patient information. The method has had a particularly bad public image, which naturally makes potential users anxious and subject to misinformation from poorly informed or biased sources. Also, it is temporarily irreversible during its three months duration, so the duration of any problems or anxieties resulting from side effects may be longer than for other methods. It is of paramount importance that easily understood, accurate patient information leaflets are available, since biased and inaccurate information is readily available from women's magazines, perpetuating the myths surrounding the method. PMID:10454658

  9. Mechanistic differences between methanol and dimethyl ether carbonylation in side pockets and large channels of mordenite.

    PubMed

    Boronat, Mercedes; Martínez, Cristina; Corma, Avelino

    2011-02-21

    The activity and selectivity towards carbonylation presented by Brønsted acid sites located inside the 8MR pockets or in the main 12MR channels of mordenite is studied by means of quantum-chemical calculations, and the mechanistic differences between methanol and DME carbonylation are investigated. The selectivity towards carbonylation is higher inside the 8MR pockets, where the competitive formation of DME and hydrocarbons that finally leads to catalyst deactivation is sterically impeded. Moreover, inclusion of dispersion interactions in the calculations leads to agreement between the calculated activation barriers for the rate determining step and the experimentally observed higher reactivity of methoxy groups located inside the 8MR channels. PMID:21249237

  10. The Effects of Man-Marking on Work Intensity in Small-Sided Soccer Games

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Jake K.; Tsui, Man-Chung; Smith, Andrew W.; Carling, Christopher; Chan, Gar-Sun; Wong, Del P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of manipulating defensive rules: with and without man-marking (MM and NMM) on exercise intensity in 3 vs. 3 small- sided games (SSGs). Twelve adolescent soccer players (age: 16.2 ± 0.7 years; body mass: 55.7 ± 6.4 kg; body height: 1.70 ± 0.07 m) participated in this repeated measures study. Each participant performed in four different SSGs formats: 3 vs. 3 MM with and without goals and 3 vs. 3 NMM with and without goals. Each SSG lasted 3 x 4 minutes interspersed with 4 minutes passive recovery. The percentage heart rate reserve (%HRreserve) was recorded continuously during SSG and session-rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) after the SSG. MANOVA showed that defensive rule had significant effects on intensity (F = 5.37, p < 0.01). Specifically, MM during SSG induced significantly higher %HRreserve compared to NMM (Goal: 80.5 vs. 75.7%; No goal: 80.5 vs. 76.1%; p < 0.05, effect size = 0.91-1.06), irrespective of the presence or absence of goals. However, only MM with the presence of goals induced significant higher session-RPE compared to NMM (7.1 vs. 6. 0; p < 0.05, effect size = 1.36), whereas no difference in session-RPE was observed between MM and NMM (7.4 vs. 6.9; p > 0.05, effect size = 0.63) when no goals were used. Higher intra-class reliability and lower coefficient of variation values were also reported in MM as compared to NMM. This study in youth soccer players shows there is ~4.5% increase in heart rate response by using the man-marking in 3 vs. 3 SSG thus the intensity of SSG can be significantly increased when using man-marking tactics. Key pointsIntensity level of exercise during games can be raised if man-marking rule is adopted.No significant differences in perceived exertion were found in no goal SSG with and without man-marking.Adding goals in 3 vs. 3 SSG can lower perceived exertion without leading to large variations in intensity level. PMID:24149127

  11. Road Traffic Noise and Annoyance: A Quantification of the Effect of Quiet Side Exposure at Dwellings

    PubMed Central

    de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Janssen, Sabine A.; Vos, Henk; Salomons, Erik M.; Zhou, Han; van den Berg, Frits

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that residents may benefit from a “quiet side” to their dwellings. The influence of the level of road traffic noise exposure at the least exposed side on road traffic noise annoyance was studied in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Road traffic noise exposure was assessed at the most and least exposed façade (Lden,most and Lden,least respectively) of dwellings for subjects in a population based survey (N = 1,967). It was investigated if and to what extent relative quietness at the least exposed façade affected the level of road traffic noise annoyance by comparing two groups: (1) The subgroup with a relatively quiet façade; (2) the subgroup without a relatively quiet façade (large versus small difference in exposure between most and least exposed façade; DIF ≥ 10 dB and DIF < 10 dB respectively). In addition, it was investigated if and to what extent Lden,least affected the level of road traffic noise annoyance. Results indicate a significantly lower road traffic noise annoyance score at a given Lden,most, in the subgroup with DIF ≥ 10 dB versus DIF < 10 dB. Furthermore, results suggest an effect of Lden,least independent of Lden,most. The estimated size of the effect expressed in an equivalent change in Lden,most approximated 5 dB for both the difference between the two subgroups (DIF ≥ 10 dB and DIF < 10 dB), and for a 10 dB change in Lden,least. PMID:23736655

  12. Efficiency and detrimental side effects of denitrifying bioreactors for nitrate reduction in drainage water.

    PubMed

    Weigelhofer, Gabriele; Hein, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    A laboratory column experiment was conducted to test the efficiency of denitrifying bioreactors for the nitrate (NO3-N) removal in drainage waters at different flow rates and after desiccation. In addition, we investigated detrimental side effects in terms of the release of nitrite (NO2-N), ammonium (NH4-N), phosphate (PO4-P), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), methane (CH4), and dinitrogen oxide (N2O). The NO3-N removal efficiency decreased with increasing NO3-N concentrations, increasing flow rates, and after desiccation. Bioreactors with purely organic fillings showed higher NO3-N removal rates (42.6-55.7 g NO3-N m(-3) day(-1)) than those with organic and inorganic fillings (6.5-21.4 g NO3-N m(-3) day(-1)). The release of NO2-N and DOC was considerable and resulted in concentrations of up to 800 μg NO2-N L(-1)and 25 mg DOC L(-1) in the effluent water. N2O concentrations increased by 4.0 to 15.3 μg N2O-N L(-1) between the influent and the effluent, while CH4 production rates were low. Our study confirms the high potential of denitrifying bioreactors to mitigate NO3-N pollution in drainage waters, but highlights also the potential risks for the environment. PMID:25943519

  13. Managing the Personal Side of Health: How Patient Expertise Differs from the Expertise of Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Background When patients need health information to manage their personal health, they turn to both health professionals and other patients. Yet, we know little about how the information exchanged among patients (ie, patient expertise) contrasts with the information offered by health professionals (ie, clinician expertise). Understanding how patients’ experiential expertise contrasts with the medical expertise of health professionals is necessary to inform the design of peer-support tools that meet patients’ needs, particularly with the growing prevalence of largely unguided advice sharing through Internet-based social software. Objective The objective of our study was to enhance our understanding of patient expertise and to inform the design of peer-support tools. We compared the characteristics of patient expertise with that of clinician expertise for breast cancer. Methods Through a comparative content analysis of topics discussed and recommendations offered in Internet message boards and books, we contrasted the topic, form, and style of expertise shared in sources of patient expertise with sources of clinician expertise. Results Patient expertise focused on strategies for coping with day-to-day personal health issues gained through trial and error of the lived experience; thus, it was predominately personal in topic. It offered a wealth of actionable advice that was frequently expressed through the narrative style of personal stories about managing responsibilities and activities associated with family, friends, work, and the home during illness. In contrast, clinician expertise was carried through a prescriptive style and focused on explicit facts and opinions that tied closely to the health care delivery system, biomedical research, and health professionals’ work. These differences were significant between sources of patient expertise and sources of clinician expertise in topic (P < .001), form (P < .001), and style (P < .001). Conclusion Patients

  14. Ab initio molecular orbital configuration interaction study of Ni(PH sub 3 ) sub 2 (N sub 2 ). Differences in electron correlation effects between. eta. sup 1 -end-on and. eta. sup 2 -side-on N sub 2 coordination modes

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaki, Shigeyoshi; Ohkubo, Katsutoshi )

    1989-07-27

    Structure and bonding nature of Ni(PH{sub 3}){sub 2}({eta}{sup 1}-N{sub 2}), Ni(PH{sub 3}){sub 2}({eta}{sup 2}-N{sub 2}) ({eta}{sup 1}-N{sub 2} = {eta}-end-on N{sub 2}, {eta}{sup 2}-N{sub 2} = {eta}{sup 2}-N{sub 2} = {eta}{sup 2}-side-on N{sub 2}), and Ni(PH{sub 3}){sub 2}(C{sub 2}h{sub 4}) are studied with ab initio MO Moeller-Plesset (MP) perturbation and single-double configuration interaction (SD-CI) methods. Introduction of electron correlation effects is indispensable for investigating the relative stability of two coordination modes, {eta}{sup 1}-end-on and {eta}{sup 2}-side-on coordinations, of the N{sub 2} complex. Although the binding energies of both coordination modes are almost the same on the Hartree-Fock level, introducing electron correlation effects with MP2, MP4(DQ), MP4(SDQ), and SD-CI methods yield much larger binding energy of the {eta}{sup 1}-end-on N{sub 2} coordination than that of the {eta}{sup 2}-side-on N{sub 2} coordination. Electron correlation effects on the Ni-N{sub 2} distance are also noticeable; in the {eta}{sup 1}-end-on mode, the Ni-N{sub 2} distance shortens by about 0.1 {angstrom} upon introducing electron correlation effects with MP2, MP4, and SD-CI methods, and the resultant Ni-N{sub 2} distance agrees well with the experimental value. However, introducing electron correlation effects with the SD-CI method only slightly changes the Ni-N{sub 2} distance of Ni(PH{sub 3}){sub 2}({eta}{sup 2}-N{sub 2}) and slightly lengthens the Ni-C distance of Ni(PH{sub 3}){sub 2}(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}), whereas both Ni-N and Ni-C bonds significantly lengthen by about 0.2-0.3 {angstrom} upon MP2 and MP4 calculations. A comparison of the optimized Ni-C distance and the calculated binding energy of the {eta}{sup 1}-end-on N{sub 2} coordination with the experimental values suggests that the SD-CI method is more reliable than the MP method in these complexes.

  15. The flip side of the other-race coin: They all look different to me.

    PubMed

    Laurence, Sarah; Zhou, Xiaomei; Mondloch, Catherine J

    2016-05-01

    Poorer recognition of other-race faces than own-races faces has been attributed to a problem of discrimination (i.e., telling faces apart). The conclusion that 'they all look the same to me' is based on studies measuring the perception/memory of highly controlled stimuli, typically involving only one or two images of each identity. We hypothesized that such studies underestimate the challenge involved in recognizing other-race faces because in the real world, an individual's appearance varies in a number of ways (e.g., lighting, expression, hairstyle), reducing the utility of relying on pictorial cues to identity. In two experiments, Caucasian and East Asian participants completed a perceptual sorting task in which they were asked to sort 40 photographs of two unfamiliar identities into piles such that each pile contained all photographs of a single identity. Participants perceived more identities when sorting other-race faces than own-race faces, both when sorting celebrity (Experiment 1) and non-celebrity (Experiment 2) faces, suggesting that in the real world, 'they all look different to me'. We discuss these results in the light of models in which each identity is represented as a region in a multidimensional face space; we argue that this region is smaller for other-race than own-race faces. PMID:26366460

  16. Bright and dark vessels on stroke imaging: different sides of the same coin?

    PubMed Central

    Vural, Atay; Gocmen, Rahsan; Oguz, Kader Karli; Topcuoglu, Mehmet Akif; Arsava, Ethem Murat

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Prominent hypointense cerebral vessels on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) and the hyperintense vessel sign (HVS) on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging are considered as markers of compromised tissue perfusion in cerebral ischemia. In this study, we aimed to identify the correlation between HVS on FLAIR and hypointense vessels on SWI, and to determine whether these imaging features provide independent prognostic information in patients with ischemic stroke. METHODS We retrospectively analyzed consecutive ischemic stroke patients with proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion who underwent SWI and FLAIR within 24 h of symptom onset. The presence of hypointense vessels on SWI and hyperintense vessels on FLAIR in >4 of 10 slices encompassing the MCA territory were considered to represent prominent hypoperfusion. RESULTS Among 50 patients, 62% had a prominent HVS on FLAIR and 68% had prominent hypointense vessels on SWI. There was a moderate but significant correlation between the number of slices with HVS on FLAIR and prominent hypointense vessels on SWI (r=0.425, P = 0.002). In multivariate analyses, the prominence of hypointense vessels on SWI, but not HVS on FLAIR, was significantly associated with a higher discharge NIHSS score (P = 0.027), mRS score (P = 0.021), and lesion growth (P = 0.050). CONCLUSION The significant, albeit moderate, correlation between markers of compromised tissue perfusion on FLAIR and SWI suggests that these imaging features reflect different but interrelated aspects of cerebral hemodynamics during ischemic stroke. Our findings highlight that while HVS on FLAIR denotes the presence of leptomeningeal collaterals, hypointense vessels on SWI signify the sufficiency of cerebral blood flow at the tissue level and are therefore more critical in terms of prognosis. PMID:27015319

  17. Cirrus cloud seeding: a climate engineering mechanism with reduced side effects?

    PubMed

    Storelvmo, T; Boos, W R; Herger, N

    2014-12-28

    Climate engineering, the intentional alteration of Earth's climate, is a multifaceted and controversial topic. Numerous climate engineering mechanisms (CEMs) have been proposed, and the efficacies and potential undesired consequences of some of them have been studied in the safe environments of numerical models. Here, we present a global modelling study of a so far understudied CEM, namely the seeding of cirrus clouds to reduce their lifetimes in the upper troposphere, and hence their greenhouse effect. Different from most CEMs, the intention of cirrus seeding is not to reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching Earth's surface. This particular CEM rather targets the greenhouse effect, by reducing the trapping of infrared radiation by high clouds. This avoids some of the caveats that have been identified for solar radiation management, for example, the delayed recovery of stratospheric ozone or drastic changes to Earth's hydrological cycle. We find that seeding of mid- and high-latitude cirrus clouds has the potential to cool the planet by about 1.4 K, and that this cooling is accompanied by only a modest reduction in rainfall. Intriguingly, seeding of the 15% of the globe with the highest solar noon zenith angles at any given time yields the same global mean cooling as a seeding strategy that involves 45% of the globe. In either case, the cooling is strongest at high latitudes, and could therefore serve to prevent Arctic sea ice loss. With the caveat that there are still significant uncertainties associated with ice nucleation in cirrus clouds and its representation in climate models, cirrus seeding appears to represent a powerful CEM with reduced side effects. PMID:25404685

  18. Stem Cell Therapies for the Treatment of Radiation-Induced Normal Tissue Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Benderitter, Marc; Caviggioli, Fabio; Chapel, Alain; Coppes, Robert P.; Guha, Chandan; Klinger, Marco; Malard, Olivier; Stewart, Fiona; Tamarat, Radia; Luijk, Peter Van

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Targeted irradiation is an effective cancer therapy but damage inflicted to normal tissues surrounding the tumor may cause severe complications. While certain pharmacologic strategies can temper the adverse effects of irradiation, stem cell therapies provide unique opportunities for restoring functionality to the irradiated tissue bed. Recent Advances: Preclinical studies presented in this review provide encouraging proof of concept regarding the therapeutic potential of stem cells for treating the adverse side effects associated with radiotherapy in different organs. Early-stage clinical data for radiation-induced lung, bone, and skin complications are promising and highlight the importance of selecting the appropriate stem cell type to stimulate tissue regeneration. Critical Issues: While therapeutic efficacy has been demonstrated in a variety of animal models and human trials, a range of additional concerns regarding stem cell transplantation for ameliorating radiation-induced normal tissue sequelae remain. Safety issues regarding teratoma formation, disease progression, and genomic stability along with technical issues impacting disease targeting, immunorejection, and clinical scale-up are factors bearing on the eventual translation of stem cell therapies into routine clinical practice. Future Directions: Follow-up studies will need to identify the best possible stem cell types for the treatment of early and late radiation-induced normal tissue injury. Additional work should seek to optimize cellular dosing regimes, identify the best routes of administration, elucidate optimal transplantation windows for introducing cells into more receptive host tissues, and improve immune tolerance for longer-term engrafted cell survival into the irradiated microenvironment. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21: 338–355. PMID:24147585

  19. Animal Models in Studies of Cardiotoxicity Side Effects from Antiblastic Drugs in Patients and Occupational Exposed Workers

    PubMed Central

    Lamberti, Monica; Giovane, Giancarlo; Garzillo, Elpidio M.; Avino, Franca; Feola, Antonia; Porto, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Cardiotoxicity is an important side effect of cytotoxic drugs and may be a risk factor of long-term morbidity for both patients during therapy and also for staff exposed during the phases of manipulation of antiblastic drugs. The mechanism of cardiotoxicity studied in vitro and in vivo essentially concerns the formation of free radicals leading to oxidative stress, with apoptosis of cardiac cells or immunologic reactions, but other mechanisms may play a role in antiblastic-induced cardiotoxicity. Actually, some new cytotoxic drugs like trastuzumab and cyclopentenyl cytosine show cardiotoxic effects. In this report we discuss the different mechanisms of cardiotoxicity induced by antiblastic drugs assessed using animal models. PMID:24701565

  20. Image-guided preoperative prediction of pyramidal tract side effect in deep brain stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgarten, C.; Zhao, Y.; Sauleau, P.; Malrain, C.; Jannin, P.; Haegelen, C.

    2016-03-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the medial globus pallidus is a surgical procedure for treating patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Its therapeutic effect may be limited by the presence of pyramidal tract side effect (PTSE). PTSE is a contraction time-locked to the stimulation when the current spreading reaches the motor fibers of the pyramidal tract within the internal capsule. The lack of side-effect predictive model leads the neurologist to secure an optimal electrode placement by iterating clinical testing on an awake patient during the surgical procedure. The objective of the study was to propose a preoperative predictive model of PTSE. A machine learning based method called PyMAN (for Pyramidal tract side effect Model based on Artificial Neural network) that accounted for the current of the stimulation, the 3D electrode coordinates and the angle of the trajectory, was designed to predict the occurrence of PTSE. Ten patients implanted in the medial globus pallidus have been tested by a clinician to create a labeled dataset of the stimulation parameters that trigger PTSE. The kappa index value between the data predicted by PyMAN and the labeled data was .78. Further evaluation studies are desirable to confirm whether PyMAN could be a reliable tool for assisting the surgeon to prevent PTSE during the preoperative planning.

  1. The Role of Bisphosphonates in Multiple Myeloma: Mechanisms, Side Effects, and the Future

    PubMed Central

    Pozzi, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    Zoledronic acid and pamidronate are two potent anticatabolic nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (BPs) used extensively in diseases with high bone turnover such as multiple myeloma (MM). In this review we focus on their biology and their current and future use in MM, and highlight some of the most common and emerging side effects. Although the primary target cells for BPs are osteoclasts, new insights suggest other cell types of the bone microenvironment as possible targets, including osteoblasts, endothelial cells, immune cells, and cancer cells. Here, we focus on the current guidelines for the use of BPs in MM and address side effects such as renal toxicity, osteonecrosis of the jaw, and low-energy fractures. Finally, we approach the future of BP use in MM in the context of other bone-targeted agents, evaluating ongoing clinical trials addressing alternate dosing and schedules of BP administration in MM patients. PMID:21493759

  2. Atypical antipsychotics are not all alike: side effects and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs are not all alike with respect to their pharmacologies, therapeutic uses, and side eff ects, although many clinicians lump them together and do not distinguish among them. Risk assessment for the potential use of a drug, such as aripiprazole (Abilify), should not focus on any particular adverse effect, but rather should consider risk assessment in a broader context. Specifically, what are the alternatives, and what are their inherent risk profiles? What is the risk of no treatment? Side eff ects commonly associated with a particular drug or class of drugs can also occur with other drugs. For any drug prescribed for any reason, prescribers should document discussion about common and potentially serious adverse effects, as well as document clinical monitoring. Alternative treatments and their inherent risks, along with the risks of not taking medication for a particular condition, should also be discussed with patients and documented. PMID:25346958

  3. Identifying Tinnitus-Related Genes Based on a Side-Effect Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Elgoyhen, A B; Langguth, B; Nowak, W; Schecklmann, M; De Ridder, D; Vanneste, S

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus, phantom sound perception, is a worldwide highly prevalent disorder for which no clear underlying pathology has been established and for which no approved drug is on the market. Thus, there is an urgent need for new approaches to understand this condition. We used a network pharmacology side-effect analysis to search for genes that are involved in tinnitus generation. We analyzed a network of 1,313 drug–target pairs, based on 275 compounds that elicit tinnitus as side effect and their targets reported in databases, and used a quantitative score to identify emergent significant targets that were more common than expected at random. Cyclooxigenase 1 and 2 were significant, which validates our approach, since salicylate is a known tinnitus generator. More importantly, we predict previously unknown tinnitus-related targets. The present results have important implications toward understanding tinnitus pathophysiology and might pave the way toward the design of novel pharmacotherapies. PMID:24477090

  4. Palladium nanoparticle decorated silicon nanowire field-effect transistor with side-gates for hydrogen gas detection

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Jae-Hyuk; Yun, Jeonghoon; Park, Inkyu; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2014-01-06

    A silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW FET) with local side-gates and Pd surface decoration is demonstrated for hydrogen (H{sub 2}) detection. The SiNW FETs are fabricated by top-down method and functionalized with palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) through electron beam evaporation for H{sub 2} detection. The drain current of the PdNP-decorated device reversibly responds to H{sub 2} at different concentrations. The local side-gates allow individual addressing of each sensor and enhance the sensitivity by adjusting the working region to the subthreshold regime. A control experiment using a non-functionalized device verifies that the hydrogen-sensitivity is originated from the PdNPs functionalized on the SiNW surface.

  5. Finite element analysis of occupant head injuries: parametric effects of the side curtain airbag deployment interaction with a dummy head in a side impact crash.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xingqiao; Potula, S; Grewal, H; Solanki, K N; Tschopp, M A; Horstemeyer, M F

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we investigated and assessed the dependence of dummy head injury mitigation on the side curtain airbag and occupant distance under a side impact of a Dodge Neon. Full-scale finite element vehicle simulations of a Dodge Neon with a side curtain airbag were performed to simulate the side impact. Owing to the wide range of parameters, an optimal matrix of finite element calculations was generated using the design method of experiments (DOE); the DOE method was performed to independently screen the finite element results and yield the desired parametric influences as outputs. Also, analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques were used to analyze the finite element results data. The results clearly show that the influence of moving deformable barrier (MDB) strike velocity was the strongest influence parameter on both cases for the head injury criteria (HIC36) and the peak head acceleration, followed by the initial airbag inlet temperature. Interestingly, the initial airbag inlet temperature was only a ~30% smaller influence than the MDB velocity; also, the trigger time was a ~54% smaller influence than the MDB velocity when considering the peak head accelerations. Considering the wide range in MDB velocities used in this study, results of the study present an opportunity for design optimization using the different parameters to help mitigate occupant injury. As such, the initial airbag inlet temperature, the trigger time, and the airbag pressure should be incorporated into vehicular design process when optimizing for the head injury criteria. PMID:23567214

  6. Construction of Drug Network Based on Side Effects and Its Application for Drug Repositioning

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hao; Liu, Qi; Wei, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Drugs with similar side-effect profiles may share similar therapeutic properties through related mechanisms of action. In this study, a drug-drug network was constructed based on the similarities between their clinical side effects. The indications of a drug may be inferred by the enriched FDA-approved functions of its neighbouring drugs in the network. We systematically screened new indications for 1234 drugs with more than 2 network neighbours, 36.87% of the drugs achieved a performance score of Normalized Discounted Cumulative Gain in the top 5 positions (NDCG@5)≥0.7, which means most of the known FDA-approved indications were well predicted at the top 5 positions. In particular, drugs for diabetes, obesity, laxatives and antimycobacterials had extremely high performance with more than 80% of them achieving NDCG@5≥0.7. Additionally, by manually checking the predicted 1858 drug-indication pairs with Expression Analysis Systematic Explorer (EASE) score≤10−5 (EASE score is a rigorously modified Fisher exact test p value), we found that 80.73% of such pairs could be verified by preclinical/clinical studies or scientific literature. Furthermore, our method could be extended to predict drugs not covered in the network. We took 98 external drugs not covered in the network as the test sample set. Based on our similarity criteria using side effects, we identified 41 drugs with significant similarities to other drugs in the network. Among them, 36.59% of the drugs achieved NDCG@5≥0.7. In all of the 106 drug-indication pairs with an EASE score≤0.05, 50.94% of them are supported by FDA approval or preclinical/clinical studies. In summary, our method which is based on the indications enriched by network neighbors may provide new clues for drug repositioning using side effects. PMID:24505324

  7. Multiple side effects of penicillamine therapy in one patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Essigman, W K

    1982-01-01

    Skin rashes, proteinuria, systemic lupus erythematosus, polymyositis and myasthenia gravis have all been recorded as complications of penicillamine therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A patient who had developed all 5 is now described. The skin lesion resembled elastosis perforans serpiginosa, which has been reported as a rare side effect in patients with Wilson's disease but not in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with penicillamine. Images PMID:6216862

  8. [Untoward side effects of chemoradiotherapy in children with malignant brain tumors].

    PubMed

    Morozova, S K; Begun, I V; Spivak, L V; Radiuk, K A; Papkevich, I I; Savich, T V; Pershaĭ, E B; Vashkevich, T I; Aleĭnikova, O V

    2002-01-01

    Untoward side-effects of chemoradiotherapy were compared in 48 children treated for brain tumors and those in remission lasting from less than 12 months to 11 years. The investigation concerned disturbances in the neurologic, endocrine, cardiovascular, urinary, hepatobiliary and psychic systems; neurologic ones proved the most frequent. No cases of heart failure were reported among patients with brain tumors during remission. Hormonal study revealed inhibited thyroid function in brain tumor sufferers. PMID:12455363

  9. Vision related quality of life and topical glaucoma treatment side effects

    PubMed Central

    Nordmann, Jean-Philippe; Auzanneau, Nadia; Ricard, Séverine; Berdeaux, Gilles

    2003-01-01

    Background Local tolerance of topical glaucoma treatment is important to achieve a good compliance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of local anti-glaucoma drug side effects on the vision-related quality of life (QoL). Methods A mail survey was sent to 20,000 homes of a panel representative of the French population asking whether one member of the family was suffering from ocular hypertension (OHT) or glaucoma. (POAG) A computer-assisted telephone interviewing system was used to confirm self-reported glaucoma, to describe the disease and its treatment, and medical item consumption. Vision-related QoL was assessed with the NEI-VFQ-25 (National Eye Institute Visual – Function Questionnaire) and local tolerance with the COMTOL (Comparison of Ophthalmic Medications for TOLerability). Results 13,352 homes (66.7%) answered the mail. 581 people declared they were suffering from glaucoma or OHT. Prevalence was 1.8%, increasing with age. 204 patients were selected at random Their NEI-VFQ-25 global score showed an overall good QoL. Two domain scores showed some deterioration: general health and driving. 62.4% of the patients cited at least one local side effect. 25.4% had burning, 20.8% blurred vision and 20.2% tearing. Poor vision related QoL was associated with the presence of local side effects leading to poor perceived treatment satisfaction. Dissatisfied patients visited their ophthalmologist more frequently. Conclusion Based on a representative French sample, poor vision related QoL was associated with topical drug side effects that also impact patient satisfaction and compliance. Longitudinal data collection should be performed to confirm our findings. PMID:14667241

  10. Is Dysguesia Going to be a Rare or a Common Side-effect of Amlodipine?

    PubMed

    Pugazhenthan, T; Singh, H; Kumar, P; Hariharan, B

    2014-03-01

    A very rare side-effect of amlodipine is dysguesia. A review of the literature produced only one case. We report a case about a female with essential hypertension on drug treatment with amlodipine developed loss of taste sensation. Condition moderately improved on stoppage of the drug for 25 days. We conclude that amlodipine can cause dysguesia. Here, we describe the clinical presentation and review the relevant literature on amlodipine and dysguesia. PMID:25031906

  11. [Prevention of neuro- and cardiotoxic side effects of tuberculosis chemotherapy with noopept].

    PubMed

    Mordyk, A V; Lysov, A V; Kondria, A V; Gol'dzon, M A; Khlebova, N V

    2009-01-01

    The study evaluated clinical efficiency of noopept used to prevent adverse side effects of antituberculous agents. It included 60 patients with newly diagnosed respiratory tuberculosis. Those in group 1 (n = 30) received 10 mg of noopept twice daily during the first month. The treatment promoted functional normalization of vegetative nervous system and antioxidative systems, reduced manifestations of anxiety, decreased frequency of adverse neuro- and cardiotoxic responses to antituberculous drugs. PMID:19565831

  12. Side-effects of cidofovir in the treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Dikkers, Frederik G.

    2008-01-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a chronic and difficult to treat disease of the larynx. In 1998, the first article was published that described the use of the antiviral substance cidofovir to treat this disease. Although the results are promising, there remains some concern about the potential carcinogenicity of cidofovir. There is a demand for a qualitative review of the side-effects of this medicine. In this review, the side-effects of cidofovir are investigated. Special attention was given to the potential carcinogenicity of cidofovir. For this review a search is performed in PubMed and EMBASE for relevant articles in which the use of intralesional cidofovir for patients with RRP is described. Eventually, 31 articles could be included for this review. In these articles a total of 188 patients with RRP were described who underwent therapy with intralesional cidofovir. Five of these patients have developed dysplasia of the larynx during the treatment with cidofovir. This is a percentage of 2.7. This percentage is concurrent with the incidence of spontaneous malignant degeneration of RRP (2–3%). Based on this review, it can be concluded that the use of intralesional cidofovir does not increase the risk of laryngeal dysplasia. Apart from the articles that describe the intralesional administration of cidofovir, some articles have been published in which the use of intravenous cidofovir is described as a therapy for RRP. Therefore, a summary is given on the side-effects of intralesional cidofovir as well as a summary on the reported side-effects of the intravenous administration of cidofovir. Based on the outcomes of this review, recommendations are given for a safe use of cidofovir for treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in the future. PMID:18458927

  13. [Acetaminophen-induced hypothermia, an AIDS related side-effect? About 4 cases].

    PubMed

    Denes, Eric; Amaniou, Monique; Rogez, Jean-Philippe; Weinbreck, Pierre; Merle, Louis

    2002-10-01

    Hypothermia is an uncommon side effect of acetaminophen. We report 4 cases of HIV-infected patients who developed hypothermia after intravenous injection of propacetamol (the parenteral formulation of acetaminophen). The mechanism of this hypothermia is unknown. AIDS-induced changes in the metabolism of acetaminophen, could be an explanation. AIDS-associated opportunistic diseases may account for part of the mechanism. These hypothermias occur within 6 hours after the injection, are well tolerated and regress spontaneously. PMID:12486392

  14. Effective side length formula for resonant frequency of equilateral triangular microstrip antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guney, Kerim; Kurt, Erhan

    2016-02-01

    A novel and accurate expression is obtained by employing the differential evolution algorithm for the effective side length (ESL) of the equilateral triangular microstrip antenna (ETMA). This useful formula allows the antenna engineers to accurately calculate the ESL of the ETMA. The computed resonant frequencies (RFs) show very good agreement with the experimental RFs when this accurate ESL formula is utilised for the computation of the RFs for the first five modes.

  15. [Myoclonus as a side effect to citalopram treatment in a patient with liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Forsberg-Gillving, Mimmi; Bode, Matthias; Sindrup, Søren Hein

    2015-09-21

    Side effects such as myoclonus and tremor are rare when treating with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). We present a case where a patient with known liver cirrho-sis and in treatment with citalopram developed myoclonus, tremor and gait difficulties. The symptoms were reduced when the SSRI dose was decreased. In patients with unexplained movement disorders the usage of SSRIs should be considered as a cause. Furthermore, treatment with SSRIs should be carefully assessed in patients with reduced liver function. PMID:26418639

  16. Side effects in the neonate from psychotropic agents excreted through breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Ananth, J

    1978-07-01

    Neuroleptics, antidepressants, lithium, anxiolytics, and hypnotics may be excreted in breast milk. Because of the danger to the neonate, drugs such as diazepam, lithium, bromides, reserpine, and opium alkaloids should not be given to lactating women, and barbiturates, haloperidol, and penfluridol should be administered with caution. The side effects produced as a result of breast-feeding of the infant by mothers consuming psychotropic drugs are reviewed and possible preventive measures are discussed. PMID:665791

  17. Phenotypic side effects prediction by optimizing correlation with chemical and target profiles of drugs.

    PubMed

    Kanji, Rakesh; Sharma, Abhinav; Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-11-01

    Despite technological progresses and improved understanding of biological systems, discovery of novel drugs is an inefficient, arduous and expensive process. Research and development cost of drugs is unreasonably high, largely attributed to the high attrition rate of candidate drugs due to adverse drug reactions. Computational methods for accurate prediction of drug side effects, rooted in empirical data of drugs, have the potential to enhance the efficacy of the drug discovery process. Identification of features critical for specifying side effects would facilitate efficient computational procedures for their prediction. We devised a generalized ordinary canonical correlation model for prediction of drug side effects based on their chemical properties as well as their target profiles. While the former is based on 2D and 3D chemical features, the latter enumerates a systems-level property of drugs. We find that the model incorporating chemical features outperforms that incorporating target profiles. Furthermore we identified the 2D and 3D chemical properties that yield best results, thereby implying their relevance in specifying adverse drug reactions. PMID:26252576

  18. [Predicting side effects of the treatment of chronic hepatitis with peginterferon alpha-2A with ribaverin].

    PubMed

    Sarkisiants, N K; Grigorian, É G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to monitor the commonest side effects of the treatment of chronic hepatitis with peginterferon alpha-2A (PEG-IFN) and ribaverin (RBV) and the influence of various factors on their development. The work was done in the Department of Infectious Disease, Erevan State Medical University. Monitoring 16 adverse reactions was carried out with the use of special tables within 1, 2, 4 and 6 months after the onset of therapy in patients with genotypes 2 and 3 and in addition after 8, 10 and 12 months in patients with genotype 1. The influence of independent prognostic factors was estimated by logistic regression analysis. The commonest side effects of PEG-IFN plus RBV therapy were leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, weight loss, depression, fatigue, and insomnia that occurred at one time or another in more than half of the patients. Weight loss during therapy amounted to 8.36 kg (95% CI 6.7-10) (maximum 21 kg). Myalgia, anorexia, arthralgia, headache, alopecia, and vomiting were documented in 20-50% of the cases. Anemia, pruritis, eruption, erythema, and hair shedding at injection sites occurred in 1/4 of the patients. It is concluded that logistic regression analysis with matching selected prognostic factors permits to estimate the probability of such side effects as weight loss, flu-like syndrome, and myalgia. PMID:24159787

  19. Nonlinear side effects of fs pulses inside corneal tissue during photodisruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisterkamp, A.; Ripken, T.; Mamom, T.; Drommer, W.; Welling, H.; Ertmer, W.; Lubatschowski, H.

    In order to evaluate the potential for refractive surgery, fs laser pulses of 150-fs pulse duration were used to process corneal tissue of dead and living animal eyes. By focusing the laser radiation down to spot sizes of several microns, very precise cuts could be achieved inside the treated cornea, accompanied with minimum collateral damage to the tissue by thermal or mechanical effects. During histo-pathological analysis by light and transmission electron microscopy considerable side effects of fs photodisruption were found. Due to the high intensities at the focal region several nonlinear effects occurred. Self-focusing, photodissociation, UV-light production were observed, leading to streak formation inside the cornea.

  20. Investigating the Effects of Side Airbag Deployment in Real-World Crashes Using Crash Comparison Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Loftis, Kathryn L.; Weaver, Ashley A.; Stitzel, Joel D.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate side airbag (SAB) deployment in near side crashes and compare injuries and contact points between occupants with and without SAB deployment. Using NASS 2000–2008 and selecting for near side cases, with PDOF ± 20 degrees from 90 or 270, for non-pregnant adult belted occupants, there were 20,253 (weighted) SAB deployments. NASS showed that SABs have been increasing within the fleet, comprising 2% of airbags in 2000 and increasing to 33% of airbags in 2008. To investigate deployed SABs, we developed a three-step methology to pair CIREN cases to study the effects of deployment on occupant outcome. The first step involved extracting near side impacts from CIREN with adult, non-pregnant occupants seated in row 1 (drivers or right front passengers). In the second step, each case was quantitatively compared to FMVSS 214 barrier test standards using a 6 point similarity scoring system. Cases scoring at least 3 points were then qualitatively analyzed and 33 pairs of cases of the same vehicle make/model but opposite SAB status were chosen. Occupants with deployed SAB had reduced occurrences and severity of head and face, neck and cervical spine, and thoracic injuries and fewer injurious contacts to side components including the door, a-pillar, and window sill. SAB deployment was statistically significant for reducing occupant MAIS and ISS and thorax airbags were statistically significant for reducing thoracic and neck/cervical spine injury severity. The average ISS with SAB deployment was 21, while the average ISS of those without was 33. This study establishes methods for performing comparisons between CIREN cases based on regulatory conditions and shows injury reduction in key body regions with SAB deployment. PMID:22105386

  1. Thermoelectric effect in the Kondo dot side-coupled to a Majorana mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khim, Heunghwan; López, Rosa; Lim, Jong Soo; Lee, Minchul

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the linear thermoelectric response of an interacting quantum dot side-coupled by one of two Majorana modes hosted by a topological superconducting wire. We employ the numerical renormalization group technique to obtain the thermoelectrical conductance L in the Kondo regime while the background temperature T, the Majorana-dot coupling Γm, and the overlap ɛm between the two Majorana modes are tuned. We distinguish two transport regimes in which L displays different features: the weak- (ΓmTK) regimes, where TK is the Kondo temperature. For an infinitely long nanowire where the Majorana modes do not overlap (ɛm = 0), the thermoelectrical conductance in the weak-coupling regime exhibits a peak at T ~ Γmeffect in a smaller energy scale Γ'm and gives rise to an additional peak in Γ ~ Γ'm, whose sign is opposite to that at T ~ Γm. In the strong-coupling regime this additional peak can cause a non-monotonic behavior of L with respect to the dot gate. Finally, in order to identify the fingerprint of Majorana physics, we compare the Majorana case with its counterpart in which the Majorana bound states are replaced by a (spin-polarized) ordinary bound state and find that the thermoelectric features for finite ɛm are the genuine effect of the Majorana physics.

  2. Comparative study of double blind clinical trial in side-effects among Areca catechu l., Thai traditional herbal formula and mebendazole

    PubMed Central

    Samappito, Supachai; Srichaikul, Buavaroon; Viroj, Jaruwan; Bakker, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study was carried out in Mahasarakham Primary Healthcare Center, Mahasarakham province in the area of Northeastern of Thailand. The experiment was randomized control trial clinical study in order to examine the side effects of Areca catechu Linn., Thai traditional formulae medicine, mebendazole in the treatment of anti-helmintic activity of mixed worms infection in human. Materials and Methods: The experimental group consisted of 15 patients and 5 patients for control group with inclusion and exclusion criteria, which were screened by parasitologist with the selection of mixed worm infection patient samples. The investigation of side effects was recorded after the treatment of each group of patient with different kinds of 4 group of medicine. Results: The percentage of side effects was collected by nurses and confirmed by the physician at Mahasarakham Health Center, which were diarrhea and nausea side effects. The percentage of side effects by the treatments of Areca catechu Linn., Thai traditional formulae medicine, mebendazole were investigated by the physician and the pharmacist, which the result showed 20% of diarrhea in Areca catechu Linn., 20% of nausea in Areca catechu Linn, 20% in side effect of diarrhea in mebendazole treatment, and no side effects were found by the treatment of TTFM. The result showed that Areca catechu Linn. had higher side effects among the 3 anti-helmintic drugs. Conclusion: The findings indicate to increase the numbers of samples of worm-infected patients, which the samples can be identified with the specification of helminthes genus and species in order to obtain the efficacy by the treatment using Areca catechu Linn and also indicates to increase various forms of dosage preparations and various demographic locations in Thailand. PMID:23767018

  3. Synthesis of cyclic polyesters: effects of alkoxy side chains in salicylaldiminato tin(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Wongmahasirikun, Phonpimon; Prom-on, Paweenuch; Sangtrirutnugul, Preeyanuch; Kongsaeree, Palangpon; Phomphrai, Khamphee

    2015-07-21

    A new class of salicylaldiminato tin(II) catalysts having different alkoxy side chains has been developed. The ligands were modified to have different lengths and flexibilities such as –(CH2)2– (2a), –(CH2)3– (2b), –(ortho-C6H4)CH2– (2c) and –(CH2)2–O–(CH2)2– (2d). Complexes 2a, b were characterized crystallographically revealing a more constrained environment around the metal in complex 2a. These catalysts are active for the solvent-free polymerization of L-lactide and ε-caprolactone. Complex 2a having a shorter side chain was shown to better promote intramolecular transesterification affording cyclic polylactides and cyclic poly(ε-caprolactone). Complexes 2b and 2d having longer side chains produced cyclic poly(ε-caprolactone) as a major product but failed to give cyclic polylactides. PMID:25757191

  4. Photobehavior of the geometrical isomers of two 1,4-distyrylbenzene analogues with side groups of different electron donor/acceptor character.

    PubMed

    Ciorba, S; Galiazzo, G; Mazzucato, U; Spalletti, A

    2010-10-14

    The photobehavior of two 1,4-distyrylbenzene analogues where the central benzene ring is asymmetrically substituted with a pyrid-4-ylethenyl group at one side and thien-2-ylethenyl or a p-nitrostyryl group at the other side, has been studied in two solvents at room temperature. The four geometrical isomers (EE, ZE, EZ, and ZZ) of each compound were separated by the combined use of HPLC and spectrophotometric techniques. The radiative/reactive competition in their excited state relaxation was particularly examined: the diabatic/adiabatic contributions were estimated and a reasonable interpretation of the photoisomerization mechanism was proposed. The role of the conformational isomers was also investigated by measured and computed spectral data. Since the different electron donor/acceptor character of the side groups of these molecules can induce charge transfer phenomena that can affect the relaxation pathways of their excited states, the photobehavior was compared in inert and polar solvents to clarify the role of the intramolecular charge transfer. The latter was found to affect markedly the relaxation properties and to induce interesting fluorosolvatochromic effects, particularly in the p-nitro derivative. The participation of the triplet state in the reaction mechanism of the latter was also investigated by flash photolysis and sensitized experiments. PMID:20857985

  5. δ-Methyl Branching in the Side Chain Makes the Difference: Access to Room-Temperature Discotics.

    PubMed

    Kirres, Jochen; Knecht, Friederike; Seubert, Philipp; Baro, Angelika; Laschat, Sabine

    2016-04-18

    Although discotic liquid crystals are attractive functional materials, their use in electronic devices is often restricted by high melting and clearing points. Among the promising candidates for applications are [15]crown-5 ether-based liquid crystals with peripheral n-alkoxy side chains, which, however, still have melting points above room temperature. To overcome this problem, a series of o-terphenyl and triphenylene [15]crown-5 ether derivatives was prepared in which δ-methyl-branched alkoxy side chains of varying lengths substitute the peripheral linear alkoxy chains. The mesomorphic properties of the novel crown ethers were studied by differential scanning calorimetry, polarizing optical microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. δ-Methyl branching indeed lowers melting points resulting in room-temperature hexagonal columnar mesophases. The mesophase widths, which ranged from 87 to 30 K for o-terphenyls, significantly increased to 106-147 K for the triphenylenes depending on the chain lengths, revealing the beneficial effect of a flat mesogen, due to improved π-π interactions. PMID:26853226

  6. Protective gloves of polymeric materials. Experimental permeation testing and clinical study of side effects.

    PubMed

    Mellström, G

    1991-01-01

    In the occupational use and handling of hazardous chemicals and infectious materials, exposure must be minimized. To diminish the risk of direct skin contact and percutaneous toxicity, the use of protective gloves is one of the most important measures to consider. For effective protection, the selection process must include evaluation of permeation test data as well as the risk of side effects possibly caused by the glove materials. In permeation testing (in vitro), breakthrough time and permeation rate are key values measured. Test conditions such as size and design of the permeation test cell, flow rate of the collecting medium through the test cell, measurement systems, testing procedures and analytical equipment can vary and can have crucial influence on the test results. In the present investigation, five permeation test cells of different sizes and design were used, the collecting gas flow rate was varied between 60 and 120 ml/min and 120 to 500 ml/min, the ASTM F 739 and ISO/DIS standard test procedures were performed using two different measurement systems, and in vitro versus in vivo testing techniques were studied. Gloves and glove materials of neoprene were exposed to four organic solvents. The breakthrough times (in vitro) for the test chemicals were slightly influenced by variations in cell size and design, flow rate and test procedure. The only significant influence on the breakthrough time values was between the two measurement systems, direct flow and automatic sampling. On the other hand, the permeation rate values were affected to a much greater extent, in most cases significantly. The test conditions in the in vitro and in vivo procedures differed in many ways and the test results were therefore compared on a relative basis. The breakthrough time values for the solvents through gloves of vinyl, natural rubber and butyl rubber were in the same rank order in both in vitro and in vivo testing. There was no evident correlation between the relative

  7. Effects of Mach Numbers on Side Force, Yawing Moment and Surface Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohail, Muhammad Amjad; Muhammad, Zaka; Husain, Mukkarum; Younis, Muhammad Yamin

    2011-09-01

    In this research, CFD simulations are performed for air vehicle configuration to compute the side force effect and yawing moment coefficients variations at high angle of attack and Mach numbers. As the angle of attack is increased then lift and drag are increased for cylinder body configurations. But when roll angle is given to body then side force component is also appeared on the body which causes lateral forces on the body and yawing moment is also produced. Now due to advancement of CFD methods we are able to calculate these forces and moment even at supersonic and hypersonic speed. In this study modern CFD techniques are used to simulate the hypersonic flow to calculate the side force effects and yawing moment coefficient. Static pressure variations along the circumferential and along the length of the body are also calculated. The pressure coefficient and center of pressure may be accurately predicted and calculated. When roll angle and yaw angle is given to body then these forces becomes very high and cause the instability of the missile body with fin configurations. So it is very demanding and serious problem to accurately predict and simulate these forces for the stability of supersonic vehicles.

  8. Leakage and field emission in side-gate graphene field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bartolomeo, A.; Giubileo, F.; Iemmo, L.; Romeo, F.; Russo, S.; Unal, S.; Passacantando, M.; Grossi, V.; Cucolo, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    We fabricate planar graphene field-effect transistors with self-aligned side-gate at 100 nm from the 500 nm wide graphene conductive channel, using a single lithographic step. We demonstrate side-gating below 1 V with conductance modulation of 35% and transconductance up to 0.5 mS/mm at 10 mV drain bias. We measure the planar leakage along the SiO2/vacuum gate dielectric over a wide voltage range, reporting rapidly growing current above 15 V. We unveil the microscopic mechanisms driving the leakage, as Frenkel-Poole transport through SiO2 up to the activation of Fowler-Nordheim tunneling in vacuum, which becomes dominant at higher voltages. We report a field-emission current density as high as 1 μA/μm between graphene flakes. These findings are important for the miniaturization of atomically thin devices.

  9. Effect of Side Chains on Molecular Conformation of Anthracene-Ethynylene-Phenylene-Vinylene Oligomers: A Comparative Density Functional Study With and Without Dispersion Interaction.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chuanding; Hoppe, Harald; Beenken, Wichard J D

    2016-06-01

    Using density functional calculations with and without dispersion interaction, we studied the effects of linear octyl and branched 2-ethylhexyl side chains on the oligomer conformation of the conjugated copolymer poly(p-anthracene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(p-phenylene-vinylene). With dispersion included, the branched side chains can cause significant bending of the oligomer backbone, while without dispersion they induce mainly torsional disorder. The oligomers with mainly linear side chains keep good planarity when optimized with and without dispersion. Despite their dramatically different conformations, the calculated absorption spectra of the oligomers with various side chain combinations are very similar, indicating that the conformation of the copolymer is not the main reason for the experimentally observed different spectra of ordered and disordered phases. PMID:27163652

  10. Ocular side effects and trichomegaly of eyelashes induced by erlotinib: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Celik, Tuba; Kosker, Mustafa

    2015-02-01

    Therapeutics belonging to the group of epidermal growth factor inhibitors are currently in widespread use for the treatment of certain malignancies, especially in advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A wide spectrum of the cutaneous side effects of these drugs are well known but the ocular side effects and trichomegaly of eyelashes are rarely reported, particularly for an ophthalmology audience. This report presents a case of erlotinib induced eyelash trichomegaly and the other ocular side effects of this drug in a 74 year-old female patient with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. Trichomegaly is not a drug-limiting side effect, however long eyelashes often cause eyeball irritation and corneal epithelial defects. Herein, the authors emphasize the importance of recognizing this side effect in order to avoid from severe complications such as corneal ulcers in uncared patients. PMID:25249292

  11. A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites.

    PubMed

    Pozzebon, Alberto; Tirello, Paola; Moret, Renzo; Pederiva, Marco; Duso, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant), key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine. PMID:26466903

  12. A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites

    PubMed Central

    Pozzebon, Alberto; Tirello, Paola; Moret, Renzo; Pederiva, Marco; Duso, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant), key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine. PMID:26466903

  13. Properties of flow near a side-wall of a circular cylinder with tangential blowing - Effects of slot shape at cylinder-side-wall juncture and angular location of a blowing slot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waka, R.; Yoshino, F.; Hayashi, T.

    1985-06-01

    An experiment was carried out to understand effects of the slot shape at the cylinder-side-wall juncture and the angular location of a blowing slot on the spanwise distributions of various characteristic values near the side-wall of a circular cylinder with tangential blowing. The range of the side-wall effects and the characteristic values near the side-wall are much influenced by the slot shape and the location of the slot. When the slot shaped like a knife edge, termed 'Edge', is used, the range of the side-wall effects becomes narrower as the angular location of the blowing slot is farther downstream.

  14. Being healthy or looking good? The effectiveness of health versus appearance-focused arguments in two-sided messages.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Erlinde; Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    Two experimental studies test the effectiveness of health versus appearance-related arguments in two-sided messages. The first study shows that two-sided messages to discourage suntanning are more effective when using appearance-focused instead of health-focused arguments. Study 2 elaborates on the underlying mechanism and extends the generalization of the results of the first study, by investigating two-sided messages to promote physical exercise. The results show that for health-motivated consumers, a health-focused message is more effective, whereas for appearance-motivated consumers, an appearance-focused message is more effective. This matching effect is mediated by argument relevance. PMID:23682067

  15. [Effects and side effects of estrogens and gestagens in pediatric and adolescent gynecology].

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, C

    1990-10-01

    An overview is given on the indications and possibilities of estrogen-progestagen medication in girls during childhood and adolescence. The physiological effects of estrogen and progestagen treatment are described, and practical advice is given for the management with estrogens-progestagens of labial adhesions, lichen sclerosus, vulvovaginitis, breast anomalies, the different forms of amenorrhoeas, pubertas tarda, anorexia-bulimia, bleeding anomalies and high stature. PMID:2079940

  16. Anti-Angiogenic Drugs: Involvement in Cutaneous Side Effects and Wound-Healing Complication

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: The uses of anti-angiogenic drugs have not only made an impact on the battle to eliminate cancer but are also responsible for a number of medical complications. The long-term use of these drugs has increased the spectrum and incidence of cutaneous side effects and wound-healing complications. It is, therefore, necessary to understand the overall impact that these drugs have on patient care. Recent Advances: This review highlights the role of vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor in angiogenesis and wound healing and looks at how angiogenic inhibitors promote wound-healing complications. Critical Issues: With an increased use of anti-angiogenic drugs for the treatment of various cancers and ocular diseases, there is an increased need for clinicians to define the risks and to optimize the usage of these drugs to reduce the incidence of cutaneous side effects and wound-healing complications. In addition, awareness is needed when treating patients on anti-angiogenic drugs so as not to exacerbate potential wound-healing complications when performing surgical procedures. Future Directions: Clinicians and surgeons will need to develop management guidelines to optimize patient care to reduce the risk of morbidity. When performing a surgical procedure, the impact of adverse effects from the use of anti-angiogenic drugs should be considered to ensure the welfare of the patient. In addition, the development of more specific inhibitors is necessary to reduce target effects to reduce the occurrence of adverse effects. PMID:25302138

  17. Anterior Uveitis Caused by Ocular Side Effects of Afatinib: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Todokoro, Daisuke; Itakura, Hirotaka; Ibe, Takashi; Kishi, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Afatinib is a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor that has been shown to be effective against EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) resistant to conventional EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib. Although ocular side effects of gefitinib and erlotinib have been reported, those for afatinib have yet to be definitively established. This report presents details on the first case of unilateral iridocyclitis associated with the side effects of afatinib therapy. A 75-year-old Japanese male ex-smoker with EGFR-mutated NSCLC underwent afatinib therapy for multiple metastases. At 2 weeks, bilateral conjunctivitis developed. Topical medication and a 1-week afatinib washout period resulted in the improvement of the conjunctivitis. However, 3 days after the resumption of afatinib, the patient developed unilateral granulomatous anterior uveitis in his right eye. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement indicated a decimal visual acuity of 0.2, while the slit-lamp findings were characterized by granulomatous inflammation, keratic precipitates, Koeppe nodules and posterior synechiae. There was no evidence suggesting other intraocular inflammatory disease or metastatic tumor. The left eye was intact. The use of topical medication including steroids and a washout of afatinib resulted in a gradual subsiding of the anterior uveitis. After resolution of the anterior uveitis, oral afatinib was resumed. BCVA of the right eye finally recovered to a decimal acuity of 1.0. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the possibility that side effects associated with afatinib could cause granulomatous anterior uveitis. PMID:26933433

  18. Anterior Uveitis Caused by Ocular Side Effects of Afatinib: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Todokoro, Daisuke; Itakura, Hirotaka; Ibe, Takashi; Kishi, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Afatinib is a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor that has been shown to be effective against EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) resistant to conventional EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib. Although ocular side effects of gefitinib and erlotinib have been reported, those for afatinib have yet to be definitively established. This report presents details on the first case of unilateral iridocyclitis associated with the side effects of afatinib therapy. A 75-year-old Japanese male ex-smoker with EGFR-mutated NSCLC underwent afatinib therapy for multiple metastases. At 2 weeks, bilateral conjunctivitis developed. Topical medication and a 1-week afatinib washout period resulted in the improvement of the conjunctivitis. However, 3 days after the resumption of afatinib, the patient developed unilateral granulomatous anterior uveitis in his right eye. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement indicated a decimal visual acuity of 0.2, while the slit-lamp findings were characterized by granulomatous inflammation, keratic precipitates, Koeppe nodules and posterior synechiae. There was no evidence suggesting other intraocular inflammatory disease or metastatic tumor. The left eye was intact. The use of topical medication including steroids and a washout of afatinib resulted in a gradual subsiding of the anterior uveitis. After resolution of the anterior uveitis, oral afatinib was resumed. BCVA of the right eye finally recovered to a decimal acuity of 1.0. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the possibility that side effects associated with afatinib could cause granulomatous anterior uveitis. PMID:26933433

  19. Antidepressant treatment of premature ejaculation: discontinuation rates and prevalence of side effects for dapoxetine and paroxetine in a naturalistic setting.

    PubMed

    Jern, P; Johansson, A; Piha, J; Westberg, L; Santtila, P

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate prevalence of and reasons for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) discontinuation, and compare the two most common SSRIs used in premature ejaculation (PE) treatment, in naturalistic settings (that is, outside clinical trials). The sample consisted of 132 Finnish men with a mean age of 42.5 years (s.d. = 10.6) who had received medical treatment for lifelong PE. The men were enlisted for the study after identifying individuals from the third author's (a physician specializing in sexual medicine) patient registry. Participants responded to a secure, online questionnaire. PE treatment-related side effects of, and discontinuation rates for, different SSRIs were retrospectively self-reported. Treatment efficacy and happiness with treatment were retrospectively self-assessed. Discontinuation rates were uniformly high, ranging from 28.8 to 70.6% between different SSRIs. Dapoxetine was associated with the highest dropout rates (70.6%), and paroxetine the lowest, discontinuation rates. Limited efficacy and side effects were the most common reasons for discontinuation. Paroxetine was more effective and better tolerated than dapoxetine. A considerable number of patients chose to spontaneously discontinue treatment, especially so in the case of dapoxetine, corroborating recent studies conducted in naturalistic settings. Further research efforts are necessary to develop new and improve existing PE treatment alternatives. PMID:25410962

  20. Effect of veneer side wettability on bonding quality of Eucalyptus globulus plywoods prepared using a tannin-phenol-formaldehyde adhesive.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, G; González-Alvarez, J; López-Suevos, F; Antorrena, G

    2003-05-01

    The influence of rotary peeling on the different behaviour of tight and loose sides of Eucalyptus globulus veneers has been studied. The presence of lathe checks on the loose sides favours wettability, the contact angle decreasing more rapidly on these sides than on tight sides. Additionally, pine bark tannins improved wettability due to their surfactant character. Bonding quality tests carried out on plywoods prepared using a tannin-phenol-formaldehyde adhesive showed that fracture almost invariably occurred in a glue line with at least one loose side, where wood failure appeared. This behaviour, confirmed by analysing the glue lines by means of fluorescence microscopy, was due to the large surface alterations of the loose sides which reduced mechanical strength but allowed greater penetration of the adhesive giving rise to high wood failure. PMID:12507878

  1. Patient-reported side effects, concerns and adherence to corticosteroid treatment for asthma, and comparison with physician estimates of side-effect prevalence: a UK-wide, cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Vanessa; Metcalf, Leanne; Versnel, Jenny; Upton, Jane; Walker, Samantha; Horne, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-adherence to corticosteroid treatment has been shown to reduce treatment efficacy, thus compromising asthma control. Aims: To examine the experiences of treatment side effects, treatment concerns and adherence to inhaled (ICS) and oral corticosteroids (OCS) among people with asthma and to identify the degree of concordance between clinician estimates of side effects and the prevalence reported by patients. Methods: Asthma UK members were sent validated questionnaires assessing treatment concerns, experiences of side effects and adherence. Questionnaires measuring clinicians’ estimates of the prevalence of corticosteroid side effects were completed online. Results: Completed questionnaires were returned by 1,524 people taking ICS, 233 taking OCS and 244 clinicians (67% of clinicians were primary care nurses). Among people with asthma, 64% of those taking ICS and 88% of those taking OCS reported ⩾1 side effect. People reporting high adherence to ICS (t=−3.09, P<0.005) and those reporting low adherence to OCS (t=1.86, P<0.05; one-tailed test) reported more side effects. There was a disparity between clinicians’ estimates of the frequency of side effects and the frequency reported by people with asthma: e.g., although 46% of people taking ICS reported sore throat, clinicians estimated that this figure would be 10%. Patients who reported side effects had stronger concerns about both ICS (r=0.46, P<0.0001) and OCS (r=0.50, P<0.0001). Concerns about corticosteroids were associated with low adherence to ICS (t=6.90, P<0.0001) and OCS (t=1.71; P<0.05; one-tailed test). Conclusions: An unexpectedly large proportion of people with asthma experienced side effects and had strong concerns about their treatment, which compromised adherence. These findings have implications for the design of interventions to optimise asthma control through improved adherence. PMID:26158805

  2. Behavioral side effects in rats treated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors suggested used as prophylactics against nerve agents.

    PubMed

    Myhrer, Trond; Enger, Siri; Aas, Pål

    2010-05-01

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in combination with an anticholinergic, particularly anticholinergics with antiglutamatergic properties, can effectively protect against nerve agent-induced seizures and lethality. The objective of the present study was to examine potential behavioral side effects of the anticholinesterases physostigmine (0.1mg/kg), galantamine (3mg/kg), huperzine (0.5mg/kg), and donepezil (2.5mg/kg) alone or each drug in combination with anticholinergic procyclidine (3mg/kg). The results showed that rats injected intraperitoneally with galantamine displayed a mild cognitive deficit in terms of reduced preference for novelty that was similarly found among animals treated with procyclidine combined with either galantamine or donepezil. Locomotor activity and rearing were radically depressed in all groups treated with anticholinesterases as well as in combination with procyclidine. Reductions in activity were most prominent for rats injected with galantamine alone. Equalizing effects of cholinesterase inhibitors and anticholinergics were absent in the present context. Findings from previous studies that both systemic and local (amygdala) application of physostigmine cause increased fear-motivated freezing response in rats, may explain the marked reductions in activity among the present rats. In view of these findings, use of anticholinesterases (crossing the blood-brain barrier) as prophylactics against nerve agents must be carefully examined to avoid severe side effects. PMID:20184916

  3. [Side effects and consequences of frequently used antibiotics in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Cerny, A

    1996-03-30

    Oral antimicrobial substances belonging to the beta-lactams, quinolones, macrolides, tetracyclines and the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination are among the most prescribed classes of drugs in private practice. Knowledge of the potential side effects considered in the light of various patient-associated factors such as genetic makeup, renal and liver function, underlying diseases, drug allergies and coadministered drugs, is important in order to minimize the risk of adverse reactions. This article reviews important side effect patterns and focuses on more recent aspects of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and beta-lactam allergy relevant to the practicing physician. Diarrhea occurring during antibiotic treatment raises the possibility of Clostridium-difficile-associated disease, which may evolve into life-threatening toxic megacolon. Mild cases with resolving symptoms after discontinuation of the antibiotic usually do not require further workup. More severe cases with watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, dehydration and electrolyte abnormalities warrant rapid diagnosis, cessation of antibiotic treatment and specific treatment including oral metronidazole. The use of oral vancomycin as a first line drug is discouraged because of the possibility of selecting vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Hypersensitivity reactions to beta-lactams are the most important type of side effects which can often be prevented. Patients with a history of beta-lactam associated IgE-mediated hypersensitivity (hives, wheezing or hypotension) should undergo penicillin skin testing. The frequently observed maculopapular rash associated with aminopenicillins without hives is in most cases not caused by an IgE-mediated mechanism. Patients with previous life-threatening penicillin allergy such as anaphylaxis or Lyell's syndrome should not undergo skin testing. Currently available tests do not reliably predict cephalosporin hypersensitivity. More recent data suggest that crossreactivity between

  4. A new early cognitive screening measure to detect cognitive side-effects of electroconvulsive therapy?

    PubMed

    Martin, Donel M; Katalinic, Natalie; Ingram, Anna; Schweitzer, Isaac; Smith, Deidre J; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Loo, Colleen K

    2013-12-01

    Cognitive side-effects from electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can be distressing for patients and early detection may have an important role in guiding treatment decisions over the ECT course. This prospective study examined the utility of an early cognitive screening battery for predicting cognitive side-effects which develop later in the ECT course. The screening battery, together with the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), was administered to 123 patients at baseline and after 3 ECT treatments. A more detailed cognitive battery was administered at baseline, after six treatments (post ECT 6) and after the last ECT treatment (post treatment) to assess cognitive side-effects across several domains: global cognition, anterograde memory, executive function, speed and concentration, and retrograde memory. Multivariate analyses examined the predictive utility of change on items from the screening battery for later cognitive changes at post ECT 6 and post treatment. Results showed that changes on a combination of items from the screening battery were predictive of later cognitive changes at post treatment, particularly for anterograde memory (p < 0.01), after controlling for patient and treatment factors. Change on the MMSE predicted cognitive changes at post ECT 6 but not at post treatment. A scoring method for the new screening battery was tested for discriminative ability in a sub-sample of patients. This study provides preliminary evidence that a simple and easy-to-administer measure may potentially be used to help guide clinical treatment decisions to optimise efficacy and cognitive outcomes. Further development of this measure and validation in a more representative ECT clinical population is required. PMID:24074514

  5. Side effects of using nitrates to treat heart failure and the acute coronary syndromes, unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Thadani, Udho; Ripley, Toni L

    2007-07-01

    Nitrates are potent venous dilators and anti-ischemic agents. They are widely used for the relief of chest pain and pulmonary congestion in patients with acute coronary syndromes and heart failure. Nitrates, however, do not reduce mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Combination of nitrates and hydralazine when given in addition to beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce mortality and heart failure hospitalizations in patients with heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction who are of African-American origin. Side effects during nitrate therapy are common but are less well described in the literature compared with the reported side effects in patients with stable angina pectoris. The reported incidence of side effects varies highly among different studies and among various disease states. Headache is the most commonly reported side effect with an incidence of 12% in acute heart failure, 41-73% in chronic heart failure, 3-19% in unstable angina and 2-26% in acute myocardial infarction. The reported incidence of hypotension also differs: 5-10% in acute heart failure, 20% in chronic heart failure, 9% in unstable angina and < 1-48% in acute myocardial infarction, with the incidence being much higher with concomitant nitrate therapy plus angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Reported incidence of dizziness is as low as 1% in patients with acute myocardial infarction to as high as 29% in patients with heart failure. Severe headaches and/or symptomatic hypotension may necessitate discontinuation of nitrate therapy. Severe life threatening hypotension or even death may occur when nitrates are used in patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction associated with right ventricular dysfunction or infarction, or with concomitant use of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors or N-acetylcysteine. Despite the disturbing observational reports in the literature that continuous and prolonged use of nitrates may lead to

  6. Extrapyramidal side-effects of low-dose aripiprazole in an 11-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Satyakam

    2016-01-01

    Partial agonism of D2 and 5-HT1A receptors accounts for the low incidence of extrapyramidal side-effects of aripiprazole. Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) during treatment with therapeutical doses of aripiprazole have been reported in adults and children. To the best of our knowledge, no cases of EPS with low doses (5 mg) have been reported until now. In this article, we present an 11-year-old child who developed EPS on low doses (5 mg) aripiprazole. This case emphasizes the need for careful surveillance for the development of EPS in patients treated even with low doses of aripiprazole. PMID:26933364

  7. Treatment Modifications and Treatment-Limiting Toxicities or Side Effects: Risk Factors and Temporal Trends.

    PubMed

    Pantazis, Nikos; Psichogiou, Mina; Paparizos, Vassilios; Gargalianos, Panagiotis; Chini, Maria; Protopapas, Konstantinos; Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Panos, George; Chrysos, George; Sambatakou, Helen; Katsarou, Olga; Touloumi, Giota

    2015-07-01

    Combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) modifications are often required due to treatment failure or side effects. We investigate cART regimens' durability, frequency of treatment-limiting adverse events, and potential risk factors and temporal trends. Data were derived from the Athens Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (AMACS). Statistical analyses were based on survival techniques, allowing for multiple contributions per individual. Overall, 2,756 individuals, aged >15 years, initiated cART. cART regimens were grouped by their initiation date into four calendar periods (1995-1998, 1999-2002, 2003-2006, and 2007+). Median [95% confidence interval (CI)] time to first treatment modification was 2.11 (1.95-2.33) years; cumulative probabilities at 1 year were 31.6%, 29.0%, 33.1%, and 29.6% for the four periods, respectively. cART modifications were less frequent in more recent years (adjusted HR=0.96 per year; p<0.001). Longer treatment duration was associated with lower HIV-RNA, higher CD4 counts, and being previously ART naive. cART modifications due to treatment failure became less frequent in recent years (adjusted HR=0.91 per year; p<0.001). Estimated (95% CI) 1 year cumulative probabilities of treatment-limiting side effects were 16.4% (12.0-21.3%), 19.3% (15.6-23.3%), 24.9% (20.3-29.7%), and 21.1% (13.4-29.9%) for the four periods, respectively, with no significant temporal trends. Risk of side effects was lower in nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens or triple nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-based cART regimens. Treatment modifications have become less frequent in more recent years. This could be partly attributed to the lower risk for side effects of NNRTI-based cART regimens and mainly to the improved efficacy of newer drugs. However, the rate of drugs substitutions due to adverse events remains substantially high. PMID:25950848

  8. A review of nicotinamide: treatment of skin diseases and potential side effects.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, Heidi M

    2014-12-01

    Nicotinamide, also known as niacinamide, is the amide form of vitamin B3. It is a precursor of essential coenzymes for numerous reactions in the body including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Nicotinic acid, also known as niacin, is converted into nicotinamide in the body. The use of topical nicotinamide in the treatment of acne vulgaris; melasma; atopic dermatitis; rosacea; and oral nicotinamide in preventing nonmelanoma skin cancer is discussed. The possible side effects and consequences of excessive nicotinamide exposure are reviewed, including suggestions nicotinamide might have a role in the development of diabetes, Parkinson's disease, and liver damage. PMID:25399625

  9. Extrapyramidal side-effects of low-dose aripiprazole in an 11-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Satyakam

    2016-01-01

    Partial agonism of D2 and 5-HT1A receptors accounts for the low incidence of extrapyramidal side-effects of aripiprazole. Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) during treatment with therapeutical doses of aripiprazole have been reported in adults and children. To the best of our knowledge, no cases of EPS with low doses (5 mg) have been reported until now. In this article, we present an 11-year-old child who developed EPS on low doses (5 mg) aripiprazole. This case emphasizes the need for careful surveillance for the development of EPS in patients treated even with low doses of aripiprazole. PMID:26933364

  10. Immediate skin responses to laser and light treatments: Warning endpoints: How to avoid side effects.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Molly; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Avram, Mathew M; Anderson, R Rox

    2016-05-01

    Lasers are versatile, commonly used treatment tools in dermatology. While it is tempting to follow manufacturer's guidelines or other "recipes" for laser treatment, this approach alone can be a recipe for disaster. Specific and immediate skin responses or endpoints exist and are clinically useful because they correlate with underlying mechanisms that are either desirable (ie, therapeutic), undesirable (ie, warning signs of injury or side effects), or incidental. The observation of clinical endpoints is a safe and reliable guide for appropriate treatment. This article presents the warning endpoints during specific dermatologic laser treatments, and the accompanying article presents the therapeutic endpoints, their underlying mechanisms, and the utility of these endpoints. PMID:27085227

  11. Independent Metrics for Protein Backbone and Side-Chain Flexibility: Time Scales and Effects of Ligand Binding.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Julian E; Waldner, Birgit J; Huber, Roland G; von Grafenstein, Susanne; Kramer, Christian; Liedl, Klaus R

    2015-03-10

    Conformational dynamics are central for understanding biomolecular structure and function, since biological macromolecules are inherently flexible at room temperature and in solution. Computational methods are nowadays capable of providing valuable information on the conformational ensembles of biomolecules. However, analysis tools and intuitive metrics that capture dynamic information from in silico generated structural ensembles are limited. In standard work-flows, flexibility in a conformational ensemble is represented through residue-wise root-mean-square fluctuations or B-factors following a global alignment. Consequently, these approaches relying on global alignments discard valuable information on local dynamics. Results inherently depend on global flexibility, residue size, and connectivity. In this study we present a novel approach for capturing positional fluctuations based on multiple local alignments instead of one single global alignment. The method captures local dynamics within a structural ensemble independent of residue type by splitting individual local and global degrees of freedom of protein backbone and side-chains. Dependence on residue type and size in the side-chains is removed via normalization with the B-factors of the isolated residue. As a test case, we demonstrate its application to a molecular dynamics simulation of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) on the millisecond time scale. This allows for illustrating different time scales of backbone and side-chain flexibility. Additionally, we demonstrate the effects of ligand binding on side-chain flexibility of three serine proteases. We expect our new methodology for quantifying local flexibility to be helpful in unraveling local changes in biomolecular dynamics. PMID:26579739

  12. Simple stochastic fingerprints towards mathematical modeling in biology and medicine 2. Unifying Markov model for drugs side effects.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Monteagudo, Maykel; González-Díaz, Humberto; Uriarte, Eugenio

    2006-10-01

    Most of present mathematical models for biological activity consider just the molecular structure. In the present article we pretend extending the use of Markov chain models to define novel molecular descriptors, which consider in addition other parameters like target site or biological effect. Specifically, this mathematical model takes into consideration not only the molecular structure but the specific biological system the drug affects too. Herein, a general Markov model is developed that describes 19 different drugs side effects grouped in eight affected biological systems for 178 drugs, being 270 cases finally. The data was processed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifying drugs according to their specific side effects, forward stepwise was fixed as strategy for variables selection. The average percentage of good classification and number of compounds used in the training/predicting sets were 100/95.8% for endocrine manifestations, (18 out of 18)/(13 out of 14); 90.5/92.3% for gastrointestinal manifestations, (38 out of 42)/(30 out of 32); 88.5/86.5% for systemic phenomena, (23 out of 26)/(17 out of 20); 81.8/77.3% for neurological manifestations, (27 out of 33)/(19 out of 25); 81.6/86.2% for dermal manifestations, (31 out of 38)/(25 out of 29); 78.4/85.1% for cardiovascular manifestation, (29 out of 37)/(24 out of 28); 77.1/75.7% for breathing manifestations, (27 out of 35)/(20 out of 26) and 75.6/75% for psychiatric manifestations, (31 out of 41)/(23 out of 31). Additionally a back-projection analysis (BPA) was carried out for two ulcerogenic drugs to prove in structural terms the physical interpretation of the models obtained. This article develops a mathematical model that encompasses a large number of drugs side effects grouped in specifics biological systems using stochastic absolute probabilities of interaction ((A)pi(k)(j)) by the first time. PMID:16847720

  13. Respiratory dyskinesia--an under-recognized side-effect of neuroleptic medications.

    PubMed

    Bhimanil, Mukesh Mohan; Bhimani, Mukesh; Khan, Murad Moosa; Khan, Muhammad Faheem Ashraf; Waris, Muhammad Shiraz

    2011-09-01

    Respiratory dyskinesia is an under-recognized side effect of neuroleptic administration. There are only few studies that have addressed the prevalence of respiratory dyskinesia in patients with tardive dyskinesia. Our case report highlights the need to regularly examine patients on antipsychotics for any evidence of dyskinetic movements including respiratory musculature. Since RD is underrecognized and misdiagnosed, early detection can improve long term prognosis as treatment options are few and usually of only limited effect. A 62-year-old Asian male, retired civil engineer, had more than 20 years history of depressive illness, developed antidepressant induced hypomania, and was given risperidone upto 1 mg per day. He developed extrapyrmidal side effects as tremors, rigidity and later dyskinetic movements of lips with shortness of breathing, dyspnoea, grunting or gasping. He was referred to the pulmonologist who got the neccessary medical work up done, which was normal. A diagnosis of respiratory dyskinesia was made. Respiratory dyskinesia is an under-recognised and distressing condition that clinicians need to be aware of when treating patients with anti-psychotic medications. And also there is a need to regularly examine patients on antipsychotics for any evidence of dyskinetic movements including respiratory musculature for early diagnosis and better outcome. This case report also is worth reading for professionals of other specialties also because of the presentation of this patient, it can be easily misdiagnosed and result in poor outcome. PMID:22360044

  14. Brief Exposure to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Reduces Side-Effect Symptoms in Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Doerfler, R Eric; Goodfellow, Linda

    2016-01-01

    No study has tested the effectiveness of individualized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions to reduce persistent nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients on continuous antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our objective was to determine if CBT could reduce nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients with HIV on ART. Men ages 40 to 56 years on ART (n = 18) at a suburban HIV clinic were randomly assigned to a control group or the CBT intervention. Usual adherence education and side-effect management were provided to both groups. Symptoms, health perception, medication adherence, and side-effect-reducing medication use were measured at four time points over 3 months. Participants in the intervention group rated usual fatigue and worst fatigue at 60 days, and nausea duration at 90 days significantly lower than controls (p < .05). Brief CBT training may reduce fatigue and nausea in patients with HIV undergoing ART. PMID:26996984

  15. FoodWiki: a Mobile App Examines Side Effects of Food Additives Via Semantic Web.

    PubMed

    Çelik Ertuğrul, Duygu

    2016-02-01

    In this article, a research project on mobile safe food consumption system (FoodWiki) is discussed that performs its own inferencing rules in its own knowledge base. Currently, the developed rules examines the side effects that are causing some health risks: heart disease, diabetes, allergy, and asthma as initial. There are thousands compounds added to the processed food by food producers with numerous effects on the food: to add color, stabilize, texturize, preserve, sweeten, thicken, add flavor, soften, emulsify, and so forth. Those commonly used ingredients or compounds in manufactured foods may have many side effects that cause several health risks such as heart disease, hypertension, cholesterol, asthma, diabetes, allergies, alzheimer etc. according to World Health Organization. Safety in food consumption, especially by patients in these risk groups, has become crucial, given that such health problems are ranked in the top ten health risks around the world. It is needed personal e-health knowledge base systems to help patients take control of their safe food consumption. The systems with advanced semantic knowledge base can provide recommendations of appropriate foods before consumption by individuals. The proposed FoodWiki system is using a concept based search mechanism that performs on thousands food compounds to provide more relevant information. PMID:26590979

  16. Effects of RF side-bands on spectral reproducibility for infrared synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Biscardi, R.; Ramirez, G.; Williams, G.P.; Zimba, C.

    1994-11-01

    We have investigated the effects of audio side-bands from the main RF of the NSLS VUV storage ring on beam motion and specifically on spectral reproducibility in the infra-red region. For this spectral region it is advantageous to use Michelson interferometers because of their high throughput (Jacquinot advantage). A second advantage is that interferometers inherently give a multiplex or Felgett advantage, since one is always looking at all the wavelengths for all of the measuring time, even though there is only one detector. In such instruments it is beneficial to scan the moving mirror at a fast rate so that any mechanical or other low frequency noise shows up as a slow modulation in the interferogram and disappears altogether in the Fourier transform from the spectral region of interest. However, audio frequency side-bands appear from the RF energy restoring cavity as noise on the beam. These always occur at multiples of 60 Hz and can thus be readily identified. They can also be confirmed by changing the mirror velocity which changes where they appear in the spectra in a predictable way. In the present work, we measured spectra while simultaneously reducing and shifting the side bands in the RF and thus were able to correlate the effects and ultimately eliminate them as a source of noise. Ultimately we were able to achieve reproducibilities of <1% in 15 seconds of scanning time across the entire spectral region from 800 cm{sup {minus}1} to 4000cm{sup {minus}1} with a sample throughput of only l0{sup {minus}10} meter{sup 2} steradians.

  17. TESTING SIDE-EFFECTS OF COMMON PESTICIDES ON A. SWIRSKII UNDER GREENHOUSE CIRCUMSTANCES.

    PubMed

    Audenaert, J; Vissers, M; Gobin, B

    2014-01-01

    If a grower uses predatory mites, and should use chemical compounds, he needs to be very careful in his choice of products. The selected products have to be efficient against the target pest and at the same time compatible with the present beneficial's. Useful tools for such product selection under greenhouse circumstances are side effects lists. These lists are freely available on the websites of producing companies of biological control agents. But not all products (e.g. newly developed ones) have been tested for side effects. Moreover the information already available in these tables is not based on field tests. For this reason, we have developed a protocol for quick screening of side effects of chemical plant protection products under field conditions. For these experiments we have chosen the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii as test organism, because this is an often used phytoseiid mite, which is very sensitive to pesticides. Hibiscus rosa sinensis is the standard reference plant in our side effects trials because the chosen predatory mite has shown very good control of pests on this plant species. The experimental design consists of eight test objects in 4 replications. Test object 1 is a positive reference (water spray) and test object 2 a negative reference (deltamethrin spray, a product with long residual activity against beneficial organisms). The plot size is 0,68 m2 and each plot contains 32 Hibiscus plants. The greenhouse temperature is set at 20±2°C. The test strategy has the following sequence: introduction of an overdose of Amblyseius swirskii mites 14 days before spraying the pesticides > precount of predatory mites 4 days before application (4DBA) > spray application (A) for the 6 test products and for the 2 references > counting's after application (1, 2, 4, 8 en 12 weeks after application = 1 till 12WAA). The counting's of the number of predatory mites are performed on 20 Hibiscus leaves/plot under a binocular. Because of the absence of any

  18. Uncaria tomentosa for Reducing Side Effects Caused by Chemotherapy in CRC Patients: Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Farias, I L G; Araújo, M C S; Farias, J G; Rossato, L V; Elsenbach, L I; Dalmora, S L; Flores, N M P; Durigon, M; Cruz, I B M; Morsch, V M; Schetinger, M R C

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Uncaria tomentosa in minimizing the side effects of chemotherapy and improving the antioxidant status of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, a randomized clinical trial was conducted. Patients (43) undergoing adjuvant/palliative chemotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil/leucovorin + oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4) were split into two groups: the UT group received chemotherapy plus 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily and the C group received only FOLFOX4 and served as a control. Blood samples were collected before each of the 6 cycles of chemotherapy, and hemograms, oxidative stress, enzymes antioxidants, immunologic parameters, and adverse events were analyzed. The use of 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily during 6 cycles of FOLFOX4 did not change the analyzed parameters, and no toxic effects were observed. PMID:21869902

  19. Sympathomimetic activity of a Hoodia gordonii product: a possible mechanism of cardiovascular side effects.

    PubMed

    Roza, Orsolya; Lovász, Norbert; Zupkó, István; Hohmann, Judit; Csupor, Dezső

    2013-01-01

    Hoodia gordonii, a popular appetite suppressant, is widely used as an ingredient in many food supplements despite the fact that supporting scientific evidence is scarce. Recently alarming side effects of H. gordonii products (increased blood pressure and elevated pulse rate) have been reported. The aim of our study was to elucidate the underlying mechanism of these symptoms. A H. gordonii-containing product was tested for sympathomimetic activity. Isolated organ experiments on rat uterine rings revealed smooth muscle relaxant effect with a substantial component mediated through β -adrenergic receptors. Chromatographic comparison of the analyzed product and authentic plant material confirmed that the herbal product contained Hoodia spp. extract, and its cardiovascular effects may be linked to the compounds of the plant. PMID:24307991

  20. Uncaria tomentosa for Reducing Side Effects Caused by Chemotherapy in CRC Patients: Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Farias, I. L. G.; Araújo, M. C. S.; Farias, J. G.; Rossato, L. V.; Elsenbach, L. I.; Dalmora, S. L.; Flores, N. M. P.; Durigon, M.; Cruz, I. B. M.; Morsch, V. M.; Schetinger, M. R. C.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Uncaria tomentosa in minimizing the side effects of chemotherapy and improving the antioxidant status of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, a randomized clinical trial was conducted. Patients (43) undergoing adjuvant/palliative chemotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil/leucovorin + oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4) were split into two groups: the UT group received chemotherapy plus 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily and the C group received only FOLFOX4 and served as a control. Blood samples were collected before each of the 6 cycles of chemotherapy, and hemograms, oxidative stress, enzymes antioxidants, immunologic parameters, and adverse events were analyzed. The use of 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily during 6 cycles of FOLFOX4 did not change the analyzed parameters, and no toxic effects were observed. PMID:21869902

  1. The Epidemiologic Vocabulary of the West and the Former Soviet Union: Different Sides of the Same Science

    PubMed Central

    Grigoryan, Anna; Clarke, Carmen; Zueva, Lyudmila; Chumachenko, Tetyana; Maes, Edmond F.; Smoak, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    relating to infectious disease surveillance, analysis of surveillance data, and outbreak investigation. In order to compare the definitions of each term and to elucidate differences in usage and existing gaps, all definitions were translated into English and Russian so that the definitions could be compared side by side and discussed by the working group. Results Six hundred and thirty one terms from 27 English and 51 Russian sources were chosen for inclusion based on their importance in applied epidemiology in either the West or the FSU. Review of the definitions showed that many terms within biosurveillance and infectious disease public health practice are used differently, and some concepts are lacking altogether in the Russian or English literature. Significant gaps in FSU epidemiology are in the areas of biostatistics and epidemiologic study designs. There are distinctive differences in FSU and Western epidemiology in the conceptualization and classification of disease transmission, surveillance practices, and control measures. Conclusions Epidemiologic concepts and definitions significantly differed in the FSU and Western literature. To improve biosurveillance and international collaboration, recognition of these differences must occur. Detailed analysis of epidemiology terminology differences will be discussed in the presentation and paper. Major limitations of the work were scarcity of prior research on the subject and lack of bilingual epidemiologists with the good understanding of FSU and Western approaches. A bilingual reference in the form of a dictionary will greatly improve mutual comprehension and collaboration in the areas of biosurveillance and public health practice.

  2. Effect of a multi-sided concave liner barrel design on thickness and roughness of teat-end hyperkeratosis.

    PubMed

    Haeussermann, Angelika; Britten, Justine; Britten, Allan; Pahl, Christian; Älveby, Nils; Hartung, Eberhard

    2016-05-01

    In a round liner barrel, the force of the closing liner is transferred by the two opposite sides of the liner wall to the teat apex. Liners with a multi-sided barrel shape close at three or more planes and distribute their force to a larger area of the teat apex. The objective of the study was to investigate effects of a liner with a multi-sided concave barrel design on the degree of teat-end hyperkeratosis, thickness and roughness, and on the time delay until thickness or roughness of teat-end hyperkeratosis responded to the experimental liner. The investigations were done on two dairy farms, one in USA and one in Germany. A split-udder arrangement of liners was used, and control treatment was a liner with round barrel shape. The test period comprised 14 weeks in the first study and 16 weeks in the second study. Thickness of teat-end hyperkeratosis was influenced by farm and test week. Roughness was influenced by farm, test week and treatment. In the first study, the incidence of rough teat-end hyperkeratosis was about 28 and 42% lower in teats milked with the experimental liner than in teats milked with the control liner by test weeks 11 and 14, respectively. In the second study, incidence of rough teat-end hyperkeratosis was rare in general, and in addition hardly occurred in teats milked with the experimental liner. The results indicate that the barrel design of the experimental liner causes similar effects on different farms but magnitude of the effect depends on initial incidence of teat end hyperkeratosis in the herd. PMID:27210492

  3. Association of immunological disorders in lethal side effect of NSAIDs on beta-glucan-administered mice.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Ohno, N; Adachi, Y; Yadomae, T

    2001-07-01

    (1-->3)-beta-D-Glucan (beta-glucan) is a biological response modifier that regulates host immune response. We have found that the combination of a beta-glucan and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), indomethacin (IND), induced lethal toxicity in mice [Yoshioka et al. (1998) FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol., 21, 171-179]. This study was undertaken to analyze the mechanism of the lethal side effect. Combination of a beta-glucan and IND increased the number of leukocytes, especially macrophages and neutrophils, in various organs and these cells were activated. The activated state of these cells was supported by the enhanced production of interferon-gamma in the presence of IND in vitro culture of the peritoneal exudate cells. Intestinal bacterial flora was translocated into the peritoneal cavity in these mice to cause peritonitis. Comparing the toxicity of various NSAIDs, nabumetone, a partially cyclooxygenase-2-selective NSAID with weaker toxicity to the gastrointestinal tract, did not exhibit a lethal side effect. These facts strongly suggested that gastrointestinal damage by NSAIDs was more severe in beta-glucan-administered mice, resulting in peritonitis by enteric bacteria and leading to death. PMID:11476975

  4. Cutaneous Side Effects of BRAF Inhibitors in Advanced Melanoma: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gönül, Müzeyyen

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma has recently been increasing. BRAF mutations have been found in 40–60% of melanomas. The increased activity of BRAF V600E leads to the activation of downstream signaling through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which plays a key role as a regulator of cell growth, differentiation, and survival. The use of BRAF inhibitors in metastatic melanoma with BRAF mutation ensures clinical improvement of the disease. Vemurafenib and dabrafenib are two selective BRAF inhibitors approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Both drugs are well tolerated and successfully used in clinical practice. However, some adverse reactions have been reported in patients in the course of treatment. Cutaneous side effects are the most common adverse events among them with a broad spectrum. Both the case reports and several original clinical trials reported cutaneous reactions during the treatment with BRAF inhibitors. In this review, the common cutaneous side effects of BRAF inhibitors in the treatment of metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation were reviewed. PMID:27042173

  5. Psychiatric side effects of acute high-dose corticosteroid therapy in neurological conditions.

    PubMed

    Lotan, Itay; Fireman, Liora; Benninger, Felix; Weizman, Abraham; Steiner, Israel

    2016-07-01

    It has been implied that high-dose corticosteroids (CSs) commonly cause psychiatric side effects. Here, we examined the rate and risk factors of psychiatric side effects during high-dose CS treatment in patients with neurological disorders. Patients treated with high-dose intravenous CSs for neurological disorders were evaluated for depression, mania, and psychosis using the Beck Depression Inventory, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Young Mania Rating Scale, and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale before CS treatment, immediately after, and 1 month following treatment. Forty-nine consecutive patients were monitored. There was a reduction in the Beck Depression Inventory and Geriatric Depression Scale scores as well as in the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores throughout the study period and a transitory increase in the Young Mania Rating Scale score immediately after CS administration. Thus, a tendency to develop transient mild euphoria during high-dose CS treatment exists, but is reversible at 1 month, whereas a reduction in depressive symptoms tended to persist. Overall, our data indicate that high-dose CS treatment for neurological diseases is relatively safe with respect to psychiatric complications. PMID:26938038

  6. Blood pressure control with selective vagal nerve stimulation and minimal side effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plachta, Dennis T. T.; Gierthmuehlen, Mortimer; Cota, Oscar; Espinosa, Nayeli; Boeser, Fabian; Herrera, Taliana C.; Stieglitz, Thomas; Zentner, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Hypertension is the largest threat to patient health and a burden to health care systems. Despite various options, 30% of patients do not respond sufficiently to medical treatment. Mechanoreceptors in the aortic arch relay blood pressure (BP) levels through vagal nerve (VN) fibers to the brainstem and trigger the baroreflex, lowering the BP. Selective electrical stimulation of these nerve fibers reduced BP in rats. However, there is no technique described to localize and stimulate these fibers inside the VN without inadvertent stimulation of non-baroreceptive fibers causing side effects like bradycardia and bradypnea. Approach. We present a novel method for selective VN stimulation to reduce BP without the aforementioned side effects. Baroreceptor compound activity of rat VN (n = 5) was localized using a multichannel cuff electrode, true tripolar recording and a coherent averaging algorithm triggered by BP or electrocardiogram. Main results. Tripolar stimulation over electrodes near the barofibers reduced the BP without triggering significant bradycardia and bradypnea. The BP drop was adjusted to 60% of the initial value by varying the stimulation pulse width and duration, and lasted up to five times longer than the stimulation. Significance. The presented method is robust to impedance changes, independent of the electrode's relative position, does not compromise the nerve and can run on implantable, ultra-low power signal processors.

  7. Epigenetic side-effects of common pharmaceuticals: a potential new field in medicine and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Csoka, Antonei B; Szyf, Moshe

    2009-11-01

    The term "Epigenetics" refers to DNA and chromatin modifications that persist from one cell division to the next, despite a lack of change in the underlying DNA sequence. The "epigenome" refers to the overall epigenetic state of a cell, and serves as an interface between the environment and the genome. The epigenome is dynamic and responsive to environmental signals not only during development, but also throughout life; and it is becoming increasingly apparent that chemicals can cause changes in gene expression that persist long after exposure has ceased. Here we present the hypothesis that commonly-used pharmaceutical drugs can cause such persistent epigenetic changes. Drugs may alter epigenetic homeostasis by direct or indirect mechanisms. Direct effects may be caused by drugs which affect chromatin architecture or DNA methylation. For example the antihypertensive hydralazine inhibits DNA methylation. An example of an indirectly acting drug is isotretinoin, which has transcription factor activity. A two-tier mechanism is postulated for indirect effects in which acute exposure to a drug influences signaling pathways that may lead to an alteration of transcription factor activity at gene promoters. This stimulation results in the altered expression of receptors, signaling molecules, and other proteins necessary to alter genetic regulatory circuits. With more chronic exposure, cells adapt by an unknown hypothetical process that results in more permanent modifications to DNA methylation and chromatin structure, leading to enduring alteration of a given epigenetic network. Therefore, any epigenetic side-effect caused by a drug may persist after the drug is discontinued. It is further proposed that some iatrogenic diseases such as tardive dyskinesia and drug-induced SLE are epigenetic in nature. If this hypothesis is correct the consequences for modern medicine are profound, since it would imply that our current understanding of pharmacology is an oversimplification

  8. The apparent quorum-sensing inhibitory activity of pyrogallol is a side effect of peroxide production.

    PubMed

    Defoirdt, Tom; Pande, Gde Sasmita Julyantoro; Baruah, Kartik; Bossier, Peter

    2013-06-01

    There currently is more and more interest in the use of natural products, such as tea polyphenols, as therapeutic agents. The polyphenol compound pyrogallol has been reported before to inhibit quorum-sensing-regulated bioluminescence in Vibrio harveyi. Here, we report that the addition of 10 mg · liter(-1) pyrogallol protects both brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) and giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) larvae from pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, whereas the compound showed relatively low toxicity (therapeutic index of 10). We further demonstrate that the apparent quorum-sensing-disrupting activity is a side effect of the peroxide-producing activity of this compound rather than true quorum-sensing inhibition. Our results emphasize that verification of minor toxic effects by using sensitive methods and the use of appropriate controls are essential when characterizing compounds as being able to disrupt quorum sensing. PMID:23545532

  9. [Prophylaxis and treatment of side effects due to iodinated contrast media relevant to radiological practice].

    PubMed

    Becker, C

    2007-09-01

    Increased utilization of iodinated contrast media may be associated with increased incidence of adverse events. The most important side effects include contrast-induced nephropathy, anaphylactoid reaction, thyrotoxicosis, and extravasation. In patients with moderate renal dysfunction, saline hydration and reduction of contrast media volume are recommended. No regime to prevent anaphylactoid reactions has yet proven to be efficient. If subclinical hyperthyroidism has been determined, prophylaxis with sodium perchlorate is advised. Contrast-induced nephropathy is commonly transient and needs to be followed over time. Mild general anaphylactoid reactions may be treated with antihistaminic drugs and corticosteroids. Furthermore the choice of the X-ray contrast media might influence the risk of any adverse effects. PMID:17768601

  10. Overview of clinical use and side effect profile of valsartan in Chinese hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qi-Fang; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed the Chinese and English literature for the efficacy and safety data of valsartan monotherapy or combination therapy in Chinese hypertensive patients. According to the data of ten randomized controlled trials, valsartan monotherapy was as efficacious as another angiotensin receptor blocker or other classes of antihypertensive drugs, excepting the slightly inferior diastolic blood pressure-lowering effect in comparison with calcium channel blockers. According to the data of six randomized controlled trials, valsartan combination, with hydrochlorothiazide, amlodipine, or nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system, was more efficacious than monotherapy of valsartan, amlodipine, or nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system. According to these trials, valsartan had an acceptable tolerability, regardless of whether it was used as monotherapy or in combination therapy. Nonetheless, several rare side effects have been reported, indicating that it should still be used with caution. This is of particular importance given that there are millions of hypertensive patients, worldwide, currently exposed to the drug. PMID:24403822

  11. Thyroid side effects prophylaxis in front of nuclear power plant accidents.

    PubMed

    Agopiantz, Mikaël; Elhanbali, Ouifak; Demore, Béatrice; Cuny, Thomas; Demarquet, Léa; Ndiaye, Cumba; Barbe, Françoise; Brunaud, Laurent; Weryha, Georges; Klein, Marc

    2016-02-01

    The better knowledge of the mechanisms of nuclear incidents and lessons learned from accidents in the recent past to improve the effectiveness of measures taken following a nuclear accident exposure to fallout of radioactive iodine isotopes. Thus, immediate, passive measures, such as containment, and stopping consumption of contaminated products are paramount. The earliest possible administration of stable iodine as potassium iodide (KI) reduces significantly (up to 90% if taken at the same time of the accident) thyroid radioactive contamination. These tablets should be given in priority to children and pregnant women. The side effects are minor. KI is not recommended for persons aged over 60 years, or for adults suffering from cardiovascular disorders. PMID:26830953

  12. Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency – Benefits, Side Effects, and Risks of Growth Hormone Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Mary L.; Merriam, George R.; Kargi, Atil Y.

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency of growth hormone (GH) in adults results in a syndrome characterized by decreased muscle mass and exercise capacity, increased visceral fat, impaired quality of life, unfavorable alterations in lipid profile and markers of cardiovascular risk, decrease in bone mass and integrity, and increased mortality. When dosed appropriately, GH replacement therapy (GHRT) is well tolerated, with a low incidence of side effects, and improves most of the alterations observed in GH deficiency (GHD); beneficial effects on mortality, cardiovascular events, and fracture rates, however, remain to be conclusively demonstrated. The potential of GH to act as a mitogen has resulted in concern over the possibility of increased de novo tumors or recurrence of pre-existing malignancies in individuals treated with GH. Though studies of adults who received GHRT in childhood have produced conflicting reports in this regard, long-term surveillance of adult GHRT has not demonstrated increased cancer risk or mortality. PMID:23761782

  13. The Association between Insomnia and Insomnia Treatment Side Effects on Health Status, Work Productivity, and Healthcare Resource Use.

    PubMed

    DiBonaventura, Marco; Richard, Lance; Kumar, Maya; Forsythe, Anna; Flores, Natalia M; Moline, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to compare health outcomes (i.e., health-related quality of life [HRQoL], productivity at work, and healthcare resource use visits) between those with insomnia and non-insomnia controls, (2) to compare health outcomes between those treated for insomnia and non-insomnia controls, and (3) to assess the prevalence of side effects of insomnia medications and their relationship with health outcomes. Data from the 2013 US (N = 75,000) and 5EU (N = 62,000) National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS) were used. The NHWS is a patient-reported survey administered to a demographically representative sample of adults. Those who met DSM-V criteria for insomnia and, separately, those treated for insomnia were compared with equivalently sized control groups who were identified using a propensity score matching method. Outcomes included HRQoL (Short Form 36v2), productivity at work (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment-General Health questionnaire), and healthcare resource use visits in the past 6 months and were analyzed using one-way ANOVAs. Among those with treated insomnia, those with and without side effects were compared on health outcomes using general linear models controlling for confounding variables. Patients with insomnia (n = 4147) and treated insomnia (n = 2860) in the 5EU reported significantly worse HRQoL than controls (health utilities: 0.60 vs. 0.74; 0.60 vs. 0.74, respectively), greater overall work impairment (38.74% vs. 14.86%; 39.50% vs. 15.66%), and more physician visits in the past 6 months (9.10 vs. 4.08; 9.58 vs. 4.11). Similar findings were observed in the US. Among those treated for insomnia, 13.56% and 24.55% in the US and 5EU, respectively, were non-adherent due to side effects. In the US, non-adherence was associated with significantly worse HRQoL (health utilities: 0.60 vs. 0.64, p <.05) and greater overall work impairment (37.71% vs. 29.08%, p <.05), among other significant differences. These relationships were

  14. The Association between Insomnia and Insomnia Treatment Side Effects on Health Status, Work Productivity, and Healthcare Resource Use

    PubMed Central

    DiBonaventura, Marco; Richard, Lance; Kumar, Maya; Forsythe, Anna; Flores, Natalia M.; Moline, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to compare health outcomes (i.e., health-related quality of life [HRQoL], productivity at work, and healthcare resource use visits) between those with insomnia and non-insomnia controls, (2) to compare health outcomes between those treated for insomnia and non-insomnia controls, and (3) to assess the prevalence of side effects of insomnia medications and their relationship with health outcomes. Data from the 2013 US (N = 75,000) and 5EU (N = 62,000) National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS) were used. The NHWS is a patient-reported survey administered to a demographically representative sample of adults. Those who met DSM-V criteria for insomnia and, separately, those treated for insomnia were compared with equivalently sized control groups who were identified using a propensity score matching method. Outcomes included HRQoL (Short Form 36v2), productivity at work (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment—General Health questionnaire), and healthcare resource use visits in the past 6 months and were analyzed using one-way ANOVAs. Among those with treated insomnia, those with and without side effects were compared on health outcomes using general linear models controlling for confounding variables. Patients with insomnia (n = 4147) and treated insomnia (n = 2860) in the 5EU reported significantly worse HRQoL than controls (health utilities: 0.60 vs. 0.74; 0.60 vs. 0.74, respectively), greater overall work impairment (38.74% vs. 14.86%; 39.50% vs. 15.66%), and more physician visits in the past 6 months (9.10 vs. 4.08; 9.58 vs. 4.11). Similar findings were observed in the US. Among those treated for insomnia, 13.56% and 24.55% in the US and 5EU, respectively, were non-adherent due to side effects. In the US, non-adherence was associated with significantly worse HRQoL (health utilities: 0.60 vs. 0.64, p <.05) and greater overall work impairment (37.71% vs. 29.08%, p <.05), among other significant differences. These relationships were

  15. A study of interunit dispersion around multistory buildings with single-sided ventilation under different wind directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Z. T.; Mak, C. M.

    2014-05-01

    This study examines the interunit dispersion characteristics in and around multistory buildings under wind-induced single-sided ventilation conditions using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method, under the hypothesis that infectious respiratory aerosols exhausted from a unit can reenter into another unit in a same building through opened windows. The effect of balconies on the interunit dispersion pattern is considered. The RNG k - ɛ model and the two-layer near-wall model are employed to establish the coupled indoor and outdoor airflow field, and the tracer gas technique is adopted to simulate pollutant dispersion. Reentry ratios from each unit to other units under prevailing wind directions are quantified and the possible interunit dispersion routes are then revealed. It is found that many reentry ratios appear to reach around 10.0%, suggesting that the interunit dispersion is an important pollutant transmission route. The interunit dispersion pattern is highly dependent on the incident wind direction and the fact whether the building has protrusive envelope features. On average, the strongest dispersion occurs on the windward wall of the buildings under oblique wind direction, owing to high ACH (air change per hour) values and unidirectional spread routes. Except under a normal incident wind, the presence of balconies intensifies the interunit dispersion by forming dispersion channels to increase the reentry ratios.

  16. Review of demand-side bidding programs: Impacts, costs, and cost-effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, C.A.; Kito, M.S.

    1994-05-01

    In December 1987, Central Maine Power (CMP) instituted the first competitive bidding program that allowed developers to propose installation of conservation measures. Since then, about 30 utilities in 14 states have solicited bids from energy service companies (ESCOs) and customers to reduce energy demand in residential homes and in commercial and industrial facilities. Interest in the use of competitive procurement mechanisms for demand-side resources continues to grow. In this study, the authors build upon earlier work conducted by LBL in collaboration with others (Goldman and Busch 1992; Wolcott and Goldman 1992). They have developed methods to compare bid prices and program costs among utilities. They also characterize approaches used by utilities and developers to allocate risks associated with DSM resources based on their review of a large sample of signed contracts. These contracts are analyzed in some detail because they provide insights into the evolving roles and responsibilities of utilities, customers, and third party contractors in providing demand-side management (DSM) services. The analysis also highlights differences in the allocation of risks between traditional utility rebate programs and DSM bidding programs.

  17. Hysterosalpingocontrast sonography (HyCoSy): evaluation of the pain perception, side effects and complications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tubal and uterine cavity diseases commonly compromise female fertility. At the present time, hysteroscopy, laparoscopy with chromopertubation and RX-Hysterosalpingography (RX-HSG) are widely accepted screening procedures enabling the effective assessment of both tubal patency and uterine cavity. Nevertheless, consistent evidence supports the reliability of Hysterosalpingocontrast sonography (HyCoSy) in uterine cavity and tubal patency investigation, as a part of the standard infertility work-up. This prospective study was aimed at evaluating the tolerability of the technique as well as the incidence of related side effects and complications in a large series of infertile patients. Methods Pain perception of 632 infertile women was measured by means of an 11-point numeric rating scale. Side effects and late complications were also recorded. Results The mean numeric rating scale was 2.15 ± 2.0 SD. Most of the patients (374/632, 59.17%) rated HyCoSy as a non-painful procedure, whereas 24.36% (154/632) women reported mild pelvic pain and 9.96% (63/632) classified the discomfort as “moderate”. Only 6.48% (41/632) of the patient population experienced severe pelvic pain. Fifteen (2.37%) patients required drug administration for pain relief. Twenty-six patients (4.11%) showed mild vaso-vagal reactions that resolved without atropine administration. No severe vaso-vagal reactions or late complications were observed. Conclusions HyCoSy is a well-tolerated examination and the associated vagal effects are unusual and generally mild. Consequently, we support its introduction as a first-line procedure for tubal patency and uterine cavity investigation in infertile women. PMID:23968513

  18. Analysis of differential secondary effects of novel rexinoids: select rexinoid X receptor ligands demonstrate differentiated side effect profiles.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Pamela A; Jurutka, Peter W; Wagner, Carl E; van der Vaart, Arjan; Kaneko, Ichiro; Chavez, Pedro I; Ma, Ning; Bhogal, Jaskaran S; Shahani, Pritika; Swierski, Johnathon C; MacNeill, Mairi

    2015-03-01

    In order to determine the feasibility of utilizing novel rexinoids for chemotherapeutics and as potential treatments for neurological conditions, we undertook an assessment of the side effect profile of select rexinoid X receptor (RXR) analogs that we reported previously. We assessed pharmacokinetic profiles, lipid and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in rats, and cell culture activity of rexinoids in sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) induction and thyroid hormone inhibition assays. We also performed RNA sequencing of the brain tissues of rats that had been dosed with the compounds. We show here for the first time that potent rexinoid activity can be uncoupled from drastic lipid changes and thyroid axis variations, and we propose that rexinoids can be developed with improved side effect profiles than the parent compound, bexarotene (1). PMID:26038698

  19. Analysis of differential secondary effects of novel rexinoids: select rexinoid X receptor ligands demonstrate differentiated side effect profiles

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Pamela A; Jurutka, Peter W; Wagner, Carl E; van der Vaart, Arjan; Kaneko, Ichiro; Chavez, Pedro I; Ma, Ning; Bhogal, Jaskaran S; Shahani, Pritika; Swierski, Johnathon C; MacNeill, Mairi

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the feasibility of utilizing novel rexinoids for chemotherapeutics and as potential treatments for neurological conditions, we undertook an assessment of the side effect profile of select rexinoid X receptor (RXR) analogs that we reported previously. We assessed pharmacokinetic profiles, lipid and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in rats, and cell culture activity of rexinoids in sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) induction and thyroid hormone inhibition assays. We also performed RNA sequencing of the brain tissues of rats that had been dosed with the compounds. We show here for the first time that potent rexinoid activity can be uncoupled from drastic lipid changes and thyroid axis variations, and we propose that rexinoids can be developed with improved side effect profiles than the parent compound, bexarotene (1). PMID:26038698

  20. Effects of fin pattern on the air-side heat transfer coefficient in plate finned-tube heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Beecher, D.T.; Fagan, T.J.

    1987-06-01

    The effects of air velocity, heat exchanger geometry, and fin patternation on air-side heat transfer in plate finned tube heat exchangers were investigated experimentally using a single-fin passage model. The geometric parameters considered included tube diameter, transverse tube spacing, longitudinal tube spacing, number of tube rows, and fin spacing. The effects of fin pattern depth and number of fin patterns per longitudinal tube row were investigated for a pattern consisting of corrugations of triangular cross-section transverse to the direction of airflow. The heat transfer data were correlated in terms of the dimensionless heat transfer coefficient (Nusselt number) based on the arithmetic mean temperature difference, Nu/sub a/, and the Graetz number, Gz, a dimensionless measure of the level of flow development.

  1. Effects of fin pattern on the air side heat transfer coefficient in plate finned tube heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Beecher, D.T.; Fagan, T.J.

    1987-06-01

    The effects of air velocity, heat exchanger geometry and fin pattern on air side heat transfer in plate finned tube heat exchangers were investigated experimentally using a single fin passage model. The geometric parameters considered included tube diameter, transverse tube spacing, longitudinal tube spacing, number of tube rows and fin spacing. The effects of fin pattern depth and number of fin patterns per longitudinal tube row were investigated for a pattern consisting of corrugations of triangular cross section transverse to the direction of air flow. The heat transfer data were correlated in terms of the dimensionless heat transfer coefficient (Nussult number) based on the arithmetic mean temperature difference Nu/sub a/ and the Graetz number Gz, a dimensionless measure of the level of flow development.

  2. The effect of side-chain functionality and hydrophobicity on the gene delivery capabilities of cationic helical polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rujing; Zheng, Nan; Song, Ziyuan; Yin, Lichen; Cheng, Jianjun

    2014-03-01

    The rational design of effective and safe non-viral gene vectors is largely dependent on the understanding of the structure-property relationship. We herein report the design of a new series of cationic, α-helical polypeptides with different side charged groups (amine and guanidine) and hydrophobicity, and mechanistically unraveled the effect of polypeptide structure on the gene delivery capability. Guanidine-containing polypeptides displayed superior membrane activities to their amine-containing analogues via the pore formation mechanism, and thus possessed notably higher transfection efficiencies. Elongating the hydrophobic side chain also potentiated the membrane activities of the polypeptides, while at the meantime caused higher cytotoxicities. Upon an optimal balance between membrane activity and cytotoxicity, maximal transfection efficiency was achieved which outperformed commercial reagent Lipofectamine™ 2000 (LPF2000) by 3-6 folds. This study thus provides mechanistic insights into the rational design of non-viral gene delivery vectors, and the best-performing materials identified also serve as a promising addition to the existing systems. PMID:24439403

  3. Amifostine reduces side effects and improves complete response rate during radiotherapy: Results of a meta-analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sasse, Andre Deeke; Gontijo de Oliveira Clark, Luciana; Sasse, Emma Chen . E-mail: sasse@evidencias.com.br; Clark, Otavio Augusto Camara

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of amifostine in diminishing radiotherapy side effects and whether or not it protects the tumor. Methods and Materials: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of 14 included randomized controlled trials, comprising 1451 patients, comparing the use of radiotherapy vs. radiotherapy plus amifostine for cancer treatment. Results: The use of amifostine significantly reduced the risk of developing mucositis (odds ratio [OR], 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-0.48; p < 0.00001), esophagitis (OR, 0.38; CI, 0.26-0.54; p < 0.00001), acute xerostomia (OR, 0.24; CI, 0.15-0.36; p < 0.00001), late xerostomia (OR, 0.33; CI, 0.21-0.51; p < 0.00001), dysphagia (OR, 0.26; CI, 0.07-0.92; p 0.04), acute pneumonitis (OR, 0.15; CI, 0.07-0.31; p < 0.00001) and cystitis (OR, 0.17; CI, 0.09-0.32; p < 0.00001). There was no difference in overall response rate between the groups. However, complete response rate was superior for patients using amifostine (OR, 1.81; CI, 1.10-2.96; p = 0.02). Conclusions: This systematic review shows that amifostine significantly reduces the side effects of radiation therapy. The efficacy of radiotherapy was not itself affected by the use of this drug and patients receiving amifostine were able to achieve higher rates of complete response.

  4. Spadin as a new antidepressant: absence of TREK-1-related side effects.

    PubMed

    Moha Ou Maati, H; Veyssiere, J; Labbal, F; Coppola, T; Gandin, C; Widmann, C; Mazella, J; Heurteaux, C; Borsotto, M

    2012-01-01

    Despite several decades of research, current antidepressant (AD) treatments remain of a limited efficacy justifying the need to find new drugs. These drugs have to be more efficacious, more rapid and display lesser side effects. Using rodent models, we recently identified spadin as a new antidepressant molecule that acts more quickly than classical ADs, working within 4 days to get same effects obtained with other ADs after 21 days. Spadin blocks TREK-1 K(2P) potassium channels that are considered as new targets for ADs. Deletion of the TREK-1 channel is known to increase sensitivity to pain, seizures and ischemia. Thus blocking these channels could result in deleterious side effects. In this study we showed that spadin did not interfere with other TREK-1 controlled functions such as pain, epilepsy and ischemia. We also demonstrated that spadin was unable to inhibit currents generated by TREK-2, TRAAK, TASK and TRESK four other K2P channels. More importantly, spadin did not induce cardiac dysfunctions, did not block I(Kr) and I(Ks) and did not modify the systolic pressure or cardiac pulses. After a three week treatment spadin remained an efficacious AD and did not modify the infarct size in brain following focal ischemia. Finally, we showed that kainate induced seizures and glycemia were not modified by spadin treatments. These data, together with those previously published reinforce the idea that spadin represents a good candidate for a new generation of ADs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'. PMID:21807005

  5. Heteropterys tomentosa (A. Juss.) infusion counteracts Cyclosporin a side effects on the ventral prostate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cyclosporin A (CsA) is an immunosuppressive drug widely used in treatment of auto-immune diseases or after organ transplants. However, several side effects are commonly associated with CsA long term intake, some regarding to loss of reproductive organ function due to oxidative damage. Considering that phytotherapy is an important tool often used against oxidative stress, we would like to describe the beneficial effects of Heteropterys tomentosa intake to minimize the damage caused by CsA to the ventral prostate tissue of Wistar rats under laboratorial conditions. Methods Thirty adult Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) were divided into: control group (water); CsA group (Cyclosporin A); Ht group (H. tomentosa infusion) and CsA + Ht group (CsA and H. tomentosa infusion). Plasmic levels of hepatotoxicity markers, triglycerides, cholesterol and glucose were quantified. The ventral prostate tissue was analyzed under light microscopy, using stereological, morphometrical and immunohistochemical techniques. Results H. tomentosa did not cause any alterations either of the plasmic parameters or of the ventral prostate structure. CsA caused alterations of GOT, total and indirect bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels in the plasma; CsA-treated rats showed alterations of the ventral prostate tissue. There were no alterations regarding the plasma levels of GOT, triglycerides and glucose of CsA + Ht animals. The same group also showed normalization of most of the parameters analyzed on the ventral prostate tissue when compared to the CsA group. The treatments did not alter the pattern of AR expression or the apoptotic index of the ventral prostate epithelium. Conclusions The results suggest a protective action of the H. tomentosa infusion against the side effects of CsA on the ventral prostate tissue, which could also be observed with plasmic biochemical parameters. PMID:23406403

  6. Toxicity interactions and ways of reducing side effects of anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Gola, A; Orzechowska-Juzwenko, K

    1982-01-01

    Side effects of cytostatics commonly used in the Haematology Clinic are analysed. The toxic action on the host's organs is discussed in L-asparaginase, azathioprine, bleomycine, busulfan, cyclophosphamide, cytosin-arabinoside, daunorubicine, fluorouracil, mercaptopurine, methotrexate, dichlorplatinum, procarbazine and the vinca alkaloids. In addition to toxic symptoms arising from single organs the most important 21 anticancer drugs are gathered in a table. Metabolism of activation and inactivation are mentioned to interprete symptoms of toxicity. Furthermore, the interactions between commonly administered drugs and carcinostatics which may enhance or suppress their carcinostatic efficacy are exposed. A final survey of possible pharmacological rescue measures, which may improve the tolerance of anticancer drugs by diminishing their toxicity is presented. PMID:6184274

  7. SideRack: A Cost-Effective Addition to Commercial Zebrafish Housing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Leonard; Gill, Ryan; Balciuniene, Jorune

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Commercially available aquatic housing systems provide excellent and relatively trouble-free hardware for rearing and housing juvenile as well as adult zebrafish. However, the cost of such systems is quite high and potentially prohibitive for smaller educational and research institutions. The need for tank space prompted us to experiment with various additions to our existing Aquaneering system. We also noted that high water exchange rates typical in commercial systems are suboptimal for quick growth of juvenile fish. We devised a housing system we call “SideRack,” which contains 20 large tanks with air supply and slow water circulation. It enables cost-effective expansion of existing fish facility, with a key additional benefit of increased growth and maturation rates of juvenile fish. PMID:24611601

  8. Modeling and Simulating of Single Side Short Stator Linear Induction Motor with the End Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzehbahmani, Hamed

    2011-09-01

    Linear induction motors are under development for a variety of demanding applications including high speed ground transportation and specific industrial applications. These applications require machines that can produce large forces, operate at high speeds, and can be controlled precisely to meet performance requirements. The design and implementation of these systems require fast and accurate techniques for performing system simulation and control system design. In this paper, a mathematical model for a single side short stator linear induction motor with a consideration of the end effects is presented; and to study the dynamic performance of this linear motor, MATLAB/SIMULINK based simulations are carried out, and finally, the experimental results are compared to simulation results.

  9. [Hair-like hyperkeratoses in patients with kidney transplants. A new cyclosporin side-effect].

    PubMed

    Izakovic, J; Büchner, S A; Düggelin, M; Guggenheim, R; Itin, P H

    1995-12-01

    We report a 31-year-old renal transplant patient treated with cyclosporin A who developed an unusual sebaceous gland hyperplasia accompanied by a disseminated follicular spiny hyperkeratosis. Those alterations were most evident on his face and limbs. In some locations hairy hyperkeratosis with authentic hair neogenesis was found. The histology of these alterations showed a marked hyperkeratosis of the hair follicles with formation of hair-like spikes either alone or in connection with hairs. The presence of true hairs distinguishes our case from the morphologically similar disseminated spiked hyperkeratosis and other spiny keratinization disorders. Scanning electron microscopy helped to demonstrate the hair-like structure of these keratoses. Some of the sebaceous glands showed cystic widening of their lumina, which were filled with abundant amorphous eosinophilic material, a finding similar to earlier observations. Our case demonstrates that these skin alterations should be classified as side effects of cyclosporin A and that they are apparently dose-dependent. PMID:8567267

  10. The effect of yield strength on side-bonding upset welds

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.G.; Perkins, M.A.

    1991-09-24

    During the course of 9{degree} tapered side-bonding resistance upset weld development at Mound, various studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of yield strength on welds in 304L stainless steel. The results of these studies have concluded that at high yield strengths there may be a minor reduction in the length of Class 2 or better bond. Satisfactory welds have been produced with materials having yield strengths ranging from 36.0 to 141.0 ksi. However, when body yield strengths exceed 80.0 ksi a minor decrease in bond lengths begins. A significant inverse relationship between stem yield strength and bond length was shown to exist. 8 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. [Risks and side effects of periodontitis therapy. Focus on restorative possibilities for improving esthetic defects].

    PubMed

    Schmidlin, Patrick R

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal of the prophylaxis and therapy of periodontitis is the establishment and the preservation of the secondary oral health. Thereby, the main expected outcomes are the reduction of inflammation and probing pocket depths. During the healing process, some tissue shrinkage during the reparative process and healing is inevitable in most cases and leads to more or less pronounced recession. The latter can cause subsequent secondary side effects due to dentin exposure, which appear - in most cases - unwanted and negative, i. e. hypersensitivity, increased caries risk, erosion and abrasion of the exposed dentin. These pathologic conditions may also encounter esthetic and functional impairments. The aim of this article is to elucidate and discuss these potential clinical pitfalls and their minimal-invasive management, especially when using adhesive strategies using composite resin materials. PMID:22684997

  12. Investigation of side wall effects on an inward scramjet inlet at Mach number 8.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolim, Tiago Cavalcanti

    Experimental and computational studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of a scramjet inlet as the side cowl length is changed. A slender inward turning inlet of a total length of 304.8 mm, a span of 50.8 mm with the compression at 11.54 deg and CR = 4.79 was used. The side cowl lengths were of 0, 50.8 and 76.2 mm. The UTA Hypersonic Shock Tunnel facility was used in the reflected mode. The model was instrumented with nine piezoelectric pressure transducers, for static and total pressure measurements. A wedge was mounted at the rear of the inlet in order to accommodate a Pitot pressure rake. The driven tube was instrumented with three pressure transducers. Two of them were used to measure the incident shock wave speed, and a third one was used for stagnation pressure measurements during a test. Furthermore, a Pitot probe was installed below the model in order to measure the impact pressure on each run, this reading along with the driven sensor readings, allowed us for the calculation of freestream properties. During the experiments, nominal stagnation enthalpy of 0.67 MJ/kg and stagnation pressure of 3.67 MPa were achieved. Freestream conditions were Mach number 8.6 and Reynolds number of 1.94 million per m. Test times were 300 - 500 microseconds. Numerical simulations using RANS with the Wilcox K-w turbulence model were performed using ANSYS Fluent. The results from the static pressure measurements presented a good agreement with CFD predictions. Moreover, the uniformity at the inlet exit was achieved within the experimental precision. The experiments showed that the cowl length has a pronounced effect in the pressure distribution on the inlet and a minor effect in the exit flow Mach number. The numerical results confirmed these trends and showed that a complex flow structure is formed in the cowl-ramp corners; a non-uniform transverse shock structure was found to be related to the cowl leading edge position. Cross flow due to the side expansion

  13. [Effects of antidepressants in different populations].

    PubMed

    Vartanian, F E

    1984-01-01

    A total of 370 patients were subjected to a comprehensive international examination (within the frameworks of the WHO) by the double blind method for the efficacy of low (75 mg/day) and high (150 mg/day) doses of antidepressants (maprotiline, amitriptyline, imipramine). In 324 patients, the time course of the psychopathological disorders and side effects was studied with the aid of special scales and maps. The selection of the population and, therefore, the selection of the 7 cooperative WHO centers was based on the necessity of the maximal coverage of possible cultural, economic and ethnic relations in the patients' populations. Analysis of the total appraised ratios obtained in the course of 3 examinations of the patients has shown definite differences in the efficacy of high and low doses of the drugs under study. The data obtained indicate that the therapeutic response was equal whatever the dose (in the developing and Asian countries). In the developed countries, high doses of the drugs were found to be more effective than low ones. PMID:6705901

  14. Erectile dysfunction as rare side effect in the simultaneous intrathecal application of morphine and clonidine.

    PubMed

    Koman, Gershom; Alfieri, Alex; Rachingter, Jens; Strauss, Christian; Scheller, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We report on the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with a history of chronic neuropathic pain treated with intrathecal application of morphine for many years. In spite of significant dose escalation, considerable pain relief had not been achieved. Ziconotide had been tried but not only did it not provide pain relief, but it also caused severe side effects in this patient. A combination of morphine and clonidine was delivered by a programmable pump, slowly increasing the clonidine rate over several weeks. For ease of transition and minimization of hospitalization, which was a special concern to this patient, combining clonidine and morphine was chosen over monotherapy with hydromorphone, with both possibilities being described as equal alternatives in the literature. Considerable pain relief was achieved during week 2 at a clonidine dose of 0.040 mg/d, thereby decreasing the visual analog score (VAS) from 10 to 4. Yet, after developing erectile dysfunction and relative hypotension soon after beginning clonidine treatment, the patient decided not to continue with the combined application of morphine and clonidine. Treatment was therefore switched back to the former monotherapy with morphine. Thereafter, erectile dysfunction disappeared and blood pressure returned to habitual high levels. Although common in systemic application, erectile dysfunction caused by the intrathecal application of clonidine has not been described yet in the literature. In this patient, this rare side effect decisively impaired life quality, subjectively outweighing the considerable pain relief which could be achieved after formerly inefficacious treatment. Further and prospective investigation might be needed to estimate the connection of erectile dysfunction to intrathecal application of clonidine. PMID:22828698

  15. Benzolamide improves oxygenation and reduces acute mountain sickness during a high-altitude trek and has fewer side effects than acetazolamide at sea level.

    PubMed

    Collier, David J; Wolff, Chris B; Hedges, Anne-Marie; Nathan, John; Flower, Rod J; Milledge, James S; Swenson, Erik R

    2016-06-01

    Acetazolamide is the standard carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor used for acute mountain sickness (AMS), however some of its undesirable effects are related to intracellular penetrance into many tissues, including across the blood-brain barrier. Benzolamide is a much more hydrophilic inhibitor, which nonetheless retains a strong renal action to engender a metabolic acidosis and ventilatory stimulus that improves oxygenation at high altitude and reduces AMS. We tested the effectiveness of benzolamide versus placebo in a first field study of the drug as prophylaxis for AMS during an ascent to the Everest Base Camp (5340 m). In two other studies performed at sea level to test side effect differences between acetazolamide and benzolamide, we assessed physiological actions and psychomotor side effects of two doses of acetazolamide (250 and 1000 mg) in one group of healthy subjects and in another group compared acetazolamide (500 mg), benzolamide (200 mg) and lorazepam (2 mg) as an active comparator for central nervous system (CNS) effects. At high altitude, benzolamide-treated subjects maintained better arterial oxygenation at all altitudes (3-6% higher at all altitudes above 4200 m) than placebo-treated subjects and reduced AMS severity by roughly 50%. We found benzolamide had fewer side effects, some of which are symptoms of AMS, than any of the acetazolamide doses in Studies 1 and 2, but equal physiological effects on renal function. The psychomotor side effects of acetazolamide were dose dependent. We conclude that benzolamide is very effective for AMS prophylaxis. With its lesser CNS effects, benzolamide may be superior to acetazolamide, in part, because some of the side effects of acetazolamide may contribute to and be mistaken for AMS. PMID:27433337

  16. Effect of cationic side-chains on intracellular delivery and cytotoxicity of pH sensitive polymer-doxorubicin nanocarriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chen; Kievit, Forrest M.; Cho, Yong-Chan; Mok, Hyejung; Press, Oliver W.; Zhang, Miqin

    2012-10-01

    Fine-tuning the design of polymer-doxorubicin conjugates permits optimization of an efficient nanocarrier to greatly increase intracellular uptake and cytotoxicity. Here, we report synthesis of a family of self-assembled polymer-doxorubicin nanoparticles and an evaluation of the effects of various types of side-chains on intracellular uptake and cytotoxicity of the nanocarriers for lymphoma cells. Monomers with three different cationic side-chains (CA) and pKa's, i.e., a guanidinium group (Ag), an imidazole group (Im), and a tertiary amine group (Dm), were comparatively investigated. The cationic monomer, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and doxorubicin (Dox) were reacted with 1,4-(butanediol) diacrylate (BUDA) to prepare a poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) polymer via Michael addition. All three polymer-Dox conjugates spontaneously formed nanoparticles (NP) through hydrophobic interactions between doxorubicin in aqueous solution, resulting in NP-Im/Dox, NP-Ag/Dox, and NP-Dm/Dox, with hydrodynamic sizes below 80 nm. Doxorubicin was linked to all 3 types of NPs with a hydrazone bond to assure selective release of doxorubicin only at acidic pH, as it occurs in the tumor microenvironment. Both NP-Im/Dox and NP-Ag/Dox exhibited much higher intracellular uptake by Ramos cells (Burkitt's lymphoma) than NP-Dm/Dox, suggesting that the type of side chain in the NPs determines the extent of intracellular uptake. As a result, NP-Im/Dox and NP-Ag/Dox showed cytotoxicity that was comparable to free Dox in vitro. Our findings suggest that the nature of surface cationic group on nanocarriers may profoundly influence their intracellular trafficking and resulting therapeutic efficacy. Thus, it is a crucial factor to be considered in the design of novel carriers for intracellular drug delivery.

  17. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules containing atrazine towards maize plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Halley; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia; Sousa, Gustavo; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo; Fraceto, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were ten-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species), as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.). One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL-1), maize plants presented 15 and 21 % decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected four and eight days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a ten-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL-1), a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting crop growth.

  18. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules containing atrazine toward maize plants.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Halley C; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia B R; Sousa, Gustavo F M; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo B; Fraceto, Leonardo F

    2015-01-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were 10-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species), as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.). One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL(-1)), maize plants presented 15 and 21% decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected 4 and 8 days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a 10-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL(-1)), a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting crop growth

  19. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules containing atrazine toward maize plants

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Halley C.; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia B. R.; Sousa, Gustavo F. M.; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo B.; Fraceto, Leonardo F.

    2015-01-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were 10-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species), as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.). One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL−1), maize plants presented 15 and 21% decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected 4 and 8 days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a 10-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL−1), a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting crop growth

  20. Shortening or Abolishing Shift Report as the Effect of ENR and EMR Implementation, and Its Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Asami; Nakajima, Anna; Fukuju, Yuri; Mori, Natsumi; Shimoda, Mariko; Kurihara, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the shortening or abolishing shift report as the effect of implementing electronic nursing and medical records and its side effects at 10 Japanese hospitals. The majority of staff nurses accepted this change, but both directors and staff nurses recognized the risk of insufficient collection and communication of patient information, difficulties of understanding the risks and matters of patients not under care and an increase in time to collect information from the computer before starting patient care. Directors should carefully evaluate and reduce the negative influences associated with changing or eliminating the traditional shift report. PMID:27577330

  1. Large-scale automatic extraction of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs from full-text oncological articles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-06-01

    Targeted anticancer drugs such as imatinib, trastuzumab and erlotinib dramatically improved treatment outcomes in cancer patients, however, these innovative agents are often associated with unexpected side effects. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these side effects are not well understood. The availability of a comprehensive knowledge base of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs has the potential to illuminate complex pathways underlying toxicities induced by these innovative drugs. While side effect association knowledge for targeted drugs exists in multiple heterogeneous data sources, published full-text oncological articles represent an important source of pivotal, investigational, and even failed trials in a variety of patient populations. In this study, we present an automatic process to extract targeted anticancer drug-associated side effects (drug-SE pairs) from a large number of high profile full-text oncological articles. We downloaded 13,855 full-text articles from the Journal of Oncology (JCO) published between 1983 and 2013. We developed text classification, relationship extraction, signaling filtering, and signal prioritization algorithms to extract drug-SE pairs from downloaded articles. We extracted a total of 26,264 drug-SE pairs with an average precision of 0.405, a recall of 0.899, and an F1 score of 0.465. We show that side effect knowledge from JCO articles is largely complementary to that from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug labels. Through integrative correlation analysis, we show that targeted drug-associated side effects positively correlate with their gene targets and disease indications. In conclusion, this unique database that we built from a large number of high-profile oncological articles could facilitate the development of computational models to understand toxic effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs. PMID:25817969

  2. Polypropylene non-woven meshes with conformal glycosylated layer for lectin affinity adsorption: the effect of side chain length.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiang-Yu; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2014-03-01

    The unique characteristics of polypropylene non-woven meshes (PPNWMs), like random network of overlapped fibers, multiple connected pores and overall high porosity, make them high potentials for use as separation or adsorption media. Meanwhile, carbohydrates can specifically recognize certain lectin through multivalent interactions. Therefore glycosylated PPNWMs, combing the merits of both, can be regarded as superior affinity membranes for lectin adsorption and purification. Here, we describe a versatile strategy for the glycosylation of PPNWMs. Two hydrophilic polymers with different side chain length, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) and poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (POEGMA), were first conformally tethered on the polypropylene fiber surface by a modified plasma pretreatment and benzophenone (BP) entrapment UV irradiation process. Then glucose ligands were bound through the reaction between the hydroxyl group and acetyl glucose. Chemical changes of the PPNWMs surface were monitored by FT-IR/ATR. SEM pictures show that conformal glucose ligands can be achieved through the modified process. After deprotection, the glycosylated PPNWMs became superhydrophilic and had high specific recognition capability toward Concanavalin A (Con A). Static Con A adsorption experiments were further performed and the results indicate that fast adsorption kinetics and high binding capacity can be accomplished at the same time. We also found that increasing the side chain length of polymer brushes had positive effect on protein binding capacity due to improved chain mobility. Model studies suggest a multilayer adsorption behavior of Con A. PMID:24398082

  3. Effects of treadmill versus overground soccer match simulations on biomechanical markers of anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in side cutting.

    PubMed

    Azidin, R M Firhad Raja; Sankey, Sean; Drust, Barry; Robinson, Mark A; Vanrenterghem, Jos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether treadmill versus overground soccer match simulations have similar effects on knee joint mechanics during side cutting. Nineteen male recreational soccer players completed a 45-min treadmill and overground match simulation. Heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every 5 min. Prior to exercise (time 0 min), at "half-time" (time 45 min) and 15 min post-exercise (time 60 min), participants performed five trials of 45° side-cutting manoeuvres. Knee abduction moments and knee extension angles were analysed using two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (α = 0.05). Physiological responses were significantly greater during the overground (HR 160 ± 7 beats ∙ min(-1); RPE 15 ± 2) than the treadmill simulation (HR 142 ± 5 beats ∙ min(-1); RPE 12 ± 2). Knee extension angles significantly increased over time and were more extended at time 60 min compared with time 0 min and time 45 min. No significant differences in knee abduction moments were observed. Although knee abduction moments were not altered over time during both simulations, passive rest during half-time induced changes in knee angles that may have implications for anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. PMID:25583274

  4. Health sector demand-side financial incentives in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review on demand- and supply-side effects.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Saji S; Mutasa, Ronald; Friedman, Jed; Das, Ashis

    2014-01-01

    Demand-side financial incentive (DSF) is an emerging strategy to improve health seeking behavior and health status in many low- and middle-income countries. This narrative synthesis assessed the demand- and supply-side effects of DSF. Forty one electronic data bases were searched to screen relevant experimental and quasi-experimental study designs. Out of the 64 selected papers, 28 were eligible for this review and they described 19 DSF initiatives across Asia, Africa and Latin America. There were three categories of initiatives, namely long-run multi-sectoral programs or LMPs (governmental); long-run health-exclusive programs (governmental); and short-run health-exclusive initiatives (both governmental and non-governmental). Irrespective of the nature of incentives and initiatives, all DSF programs could achieve their expected behavioral outcomes on healthcare seeking and utilization substantially. However, there existed a few negative and perverse outcomes on health seeking behavior and DSF's impact on continuous health seeking choices (e.g. bed net use and routine adult health check-ups) was mixed. Their effects on maternal health status, diarrhea, malaria and out-of-pocket expenditure were under-explored; while chronic non-communicable diseases were not directly covered by any DSF programs. DSF could reduce HIV prevalence and child deaths, and enhance nutritional and growth status of children. The direction and magnitude of their effects on health status was elastic to the evaluation design employed. On health system benefits, despite prioritizing on vulnerable groups, DSF's substantial effect on the poorest of the poor was mixed compared to that on the relatively richer groups. Though DSF initiatives intended to improve service delivery status, many could not optimally do so, especially to meet the additionally generated demand for care. Causal pathways of DSF's effects should be explored in-depth for mid-course corrections and cross-country learning on their

  5. Effect of side-chain asymmetry on the intermolecular structure and order-disorder transition in alkyl-substituted polyfluorenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaapila, M.; Stepanyan, R.; Torkkeli, M.; Haase, D.; Fröhlich, N.; Helfer, A.; Forster, M.; Scherf, U.

    2016-04-01

    We study relations among the side-chain asymmetry, structure, and order-disorder transition (ODT) in hairy-rod-type poly(9,9-dihexylfluorene) (PF6) with two identical side chains and atactic poly(9-octyl-9-methyl-fluorene) (PF1-8) with two different side chains per repeat. PF6 and PF1-8 organize into alternating side-chain and backbone layers that transform into an isotropic phase at TODT(PF 6 ) and TbiODT(PF 1 -8 ) . We interpret polymers in terms of monodisperse and bidisperse brushes and predict scenarios TODTside-chain length above or below the average grafting distance). Calorimetry and x-ray scattering indicate the condition TODT(PF 6 ) ˜TbiODT(PF 1 -8 ) following the low grafting prediction. PF6 side chains coming from the alternating backbone layers appear as two separate layers with thickness H (PF 6 ) , whereas PF1-8 side chains appear as an indistinguishable bilayer with a half thickness Hbilayer(PF 1 -8 ) /2 ≈H (PF 6 ) . The low grafting density region is structurally possible but not certain for PF6 and confirmed for PF1-8.

  6. A pharmacokinetic approach to resolving spinal and systemic contributions to epidural alfentanil analgesia and side-effects.

    PubMed

    Coda, B A; Brown, M C; Schaffer, R L; Donaldson, G; Shen, D D

    1995-09-01

    A pilot study was conducted in 7 normal volunteers to demonstrate the feasibility of employing pharmacokinetic tailoring to achieve matching plasma opioid concentration-time curves after epidural (e.p.) and intravenous (i.v.) alfentanil administration. Each subject participated in 1 pretest and 2 test sessions. Our pain model was cutaneous electrical stimulation of the finger and toe, adjusted to produce a baseline pain report of 5 (strong pain on a 0-5 scale). On test day 1, subjects received e.p. alfentanil (750 micrograms) and an i.v. saline infusion. Serial measurements of analgesia, end tidal CO2, pupil size, subjective side effects, and plasma alfentanil concentrations were conducted before and at various time intervals over a 4-h period after alfentanil administration. On test day 2, subjects received e.p. saline and a pharmacokinetically tailored i.v. infusion (using individual pharmacokinetics determined on the pretest day) designed to achieve a plasma concentration-time profile identical to that observed on the epidural day. The same battery of effect measurements was administered as on the 1st test day. Plasma alfentanil was measured to verify the accuracy of the tailored infusion. Plasma alfentanil concentration profiles were nearly identical on both test days. Peak plasma alfentanil concentrations were near the reported minimum effective analgesic concentration (MEAC). Overall, analgesia was slightly greater with e.p. administration. Onset of pain relief was rapid, and duration was approximately 1.5 h with e.p. and 1 h with i.v. alfentanil. There were no differences in pupil size, ETCO2, or subjective side effects between e.p. versus i.v. administration. We conclude that systemic redistribution from the epidural space appears to account for most, but not all, of the analgesia. PMID:8657433

  7. Radiogenic Side Effects After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Photon Radiotherapy of Choroidal Melanoma in 212 Patients Treated Between 1997 and 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Dunavoelgyi, Roman; Dieckmann, Karin; Gleiss, Andreas; Sacu, Stefan; Kircher, Karl; Georgopoulos, Michael; Georg, Dietmar; Zehetmayer, Martin; Poetter, Richard

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate side effects of hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy for patients with choroidal melanoma. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and twelve patients with choroidal melanoma unsuitable for ruthenium-106 brachytherapy or local resection were treated stereotactically at the Medical University of Vienna between 1997 and 2007 with a Linac with 6-MV photon beams in five fractions with 10, 12, or 14 Gy per fraction. Examinations for radiogenic side effects were performed at baseline and every 3 months in the first 2 years, then every 6 months until 5 years and then once a year thereafter until 10 years after radiotherapy. Adverse side effects were assessed using slit-lamp examination, funduscopy, gonioscopy, tonometry, and, if necessary, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography. Evaluations of incidence of side effects are based on an actuarial analysis. Results: One hundred and eighty-nine (89.2%) and 168 (79.2%) of the tumors were within 3 mm of the macula and the optic disc, respectively. The five most common radiotherapy side effects were retinopathy and optic neuropathy (114 cases and 107 cases, respectively), cataract development (87 cases), neovascular glaucoma (46 cases), and corneal epithelium defects (41 cases). In total, 33.6%, 38.5%, 51.2%, 75.5%, and 77.6% of the patients were free of any radiation retinopathy, optic neuropathy, cataract, neovascular glaucoma, or corneal epithelium defects 5 years after radiotherapy, respectively. Conclusion: In centrally located choroidal melanoma hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy shows a low to moderate rate of adverse long-term side effects comparable with those after proton beam radiotherapy. Future fractionation schemes should seek to further reduce adverse side effects rate while maintaining excellent local tumor control.

  8. [Fenofibrate: animal toxicology in relation to side-effects in man (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Blane, G F; Pinaroli, F

    1980-12-22

    Chronic toxicity studies of fenofibrate were carried out in rats (3 months), dogs (7 et 24 months) and Rhesus monkeys (12 months). The results in the last named species (78 animals) were of particular interest, since the treated monkeys had normal size liver without histological abnormalities. Electron microscopy showed no increase in the number of hepatic peroxisomes. Long-term toxicity studies in rats failed to show any increase in the incidence of altered hepatocytes or of neoplastic tumours in treated animals. However, a few peroxisomes were found in animals receiving the highest doses of fenofibrate. In reproduction studies there was no evidence of teratogenic effects in rats with doses 45 times higher than the human dose, nor in rabbits with doses of 300 mg/kg/day. In mutagenicity studies fenofibrate proved unable to bind with DNA and could not, therefore, have any effect on genes. The side-effects encountered in clinical practice (e.g. digestive disorders, sexual fatigue, myalgia, alopecia) were rare and obliged to discontinue treatment in very few cases. Long-term clinical trials failed to demonstrate any fenofibrate-induced pathology, such as malignant or benign tumours, or biliary or urinary lithiasis. Serum transaminases were increased in 10 to 20% of the patients, but the rise was transient and never reached pathological levels. Electron microscope study of liver biopsies from patients treated with fenofibrate showed no proliferation of peroxisomes. PMID:7208340

  9. Glucocorticoid (dexamethasone)-induced metabolome changes in healthy males suggest prediction of response and side effects

    PubMed Central

    Bordag, Natalie; Klie, Sebastian; Jürchott, Kathrin; Vierheller, Janine; Schiewe, Hajo; Albrecht, Valerie; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Schwartz, Christoph; Schichor, Christian; Selbig, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are indispensable anti-inflammatory and decongestant drugs with high prevalence of use at ~0.9% of the adult population. Better holistic insights into glucocorticoid-induced changes are crucial for effective use as concurrent medication and management of adverse effects. The profiles of 214 metabolites from plasma of 20 male healthy volunteers were recorded prior to and after ingestion of a single dose of 4 mg dexamethasone (+20 mg pantoprazole). Samples were drawn at three predefined time points per day: seven untreated (day 1 midday - day 3 midday) and four treated (day 3 evening - day 4 evening) per volunteer. Statistical analysis revealed tremendous impact of dexamethasone on the metabolome with 150 of 214 metabolites being significantly deregulated on at least one time point after treatment (ANOVA, Benjamini-Hochberg corrected, q < 0.05). Inter-person variability was high and remained uninfluenced by treatment. The clearly visible circadian rhythm prior to treatment was almost completely suppressed and deregulated by dexamethasone. The results draw a holistic picture of the severe metabolic deregulation induced by single-dose, short-term glucocorticoid application. The observed metabolic changes suggest a potential for early detection of severe side effects, raising hope for personalized early countermeasures increasing quality of life and reducing health care costs. PMID:26526738

  10. A Pilot Study on Tamoxifen Sexual Side Effects and Hand Preference in Male Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L; Popa, Florian; Bratucu, Eugen; Straja, Dan; Manea, Mirela; Georgescu, Simona R; Paunica, Stana; Bratucu, Mircea; Balalau, Cristian; Constantin, Vlad D

    2015-08-01

    Recent clinical and imaging studies suggest that sex hormones modulate sexuality according to a psychophysiologic process of lateralization of the brain, with androgens playing a greater role in sexual functioning of left hemibrain/right handedness and estrogens possibly for right hemibrain/left handedness. Based on this perspective, the current study attempted to specify the relationship between hand preference, estrogens, and sexual function in subjects with male breast cancer, taking into account the sexual side effects of tamoxifen as the agent for inhibiting estrogen action. Twenty-eight Romanian men-17 right-handed and 11 left-handed-undergoing treatment with tamoxifen for male breast cancer participated in this study. These men were assessed both prior to and during tamoxifen treatment using the International Index of Erectile Function, a standardized instrument used for the evaluation of various aspects of sexual functioning, including erectile function (EF), orgasmic function (OF), sexual desire (SD), and overall functioning (OF). A main effect for handedness was found on EF, OF, SD, and OS scales, with right-handed men showing higher functioning than left-handed men. Regarding interaction effects, the left-handed group of men showed greater decreased sexual functioning during tamoxifen (on three subscales: OF, SD, OS) compared to right-handed men. Further research should be conducted in order to support and refine this potential lateralized process of sexual neuromodulation within the brain. PMID:26108899

  11. Redox nanoparticle increases the chemotherapeutic efficiency of pioglitazone and suppresses its toxic side effects.

    PubMed

    Thangavel, Sindhu; Yoshitomi, Toru; Sakharkar, Meena Kishore; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2016-08-01

    Pioglitazone is a widely used anti-diabetic drug that induces cytotoxicity in cancer cells; however, its clinical use is questioned due to its associated liver toxicity caused by increased oxidative stress. We therefore employed nitroxide-radical containing nanoparticle, termed redox nanoparticle (RNP(N)) which is an effective scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a drug carrier. RNP(N) encapsulation increased pioglitazone solubility, thus increasing cellular uptake of encapsulated pioglitazone which reduced the dose required to induce toxicity in prostate cancer cell lines. Investigation of in vitro molecular mechanism of pioglitazone revealed that both apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were involved in tumor cell death. In addition, intravenously administered pioglitazone-loaded RNP(N) produced significant tumor volume reduction in vivo due to enhanced permeation and retention effect. Most importantly, oxidative damage caused by pioglitazone in the liver was significantly suppressed by pioglitazone-loaded RNP(N) due to the presence of nitroxide radicals. It is interesting to note that oral administration of encapsulated pioglitazone, and co-administration of RNP(N) and pioglitazone, i.e., no encapsulation of pioglitazone in RNP(N) also significantly contributed to suppression of the liver injury. Therefore, use of RNP(N) either as an adjuvant or as a carrier for drugs with severe side effects is a promising chemotherapeutic strategy. PMID:27235996

  12. New insights into dietary supplements used in sport: active substances, pharmacological and side effects.

    PubMed

    Koncic, Marijana Zovko; Tomczyk, Michal

    2013-08-01

    As a society we are increasingly concerned about our physical appearance. For example, as much as 24% of people in developed countries admittedly exercise to improve their performance. Professional sportsmen and amateurs alike are in a constant search for new means that will enable them better sport results in shorter time. Among those means, a prominent place belongs to dietary supplements. However, the producers often advertise products whose use in sports is neither scientifically founded nor safe. This brings on an irrational use of herbal supplements which sometimes leads to unwanted side effects, but is more often of little use. Thus, the aim of this review will be to systematically evaluate some of the herbal supplements that are used as adaptogenic and ergogenic aids in sport. The review will include available data on Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera, Schisandra chinensis, Tribulus terrestris, Vitis vinifera, Citrus aurantium, and others. Their effects, active ingredients as well as possible adverse effects will be discussed with special focus on clinical studies. PMID:23574283

  13. [Current view on chloroquine derivative treatment from rheumatologist perspective and possible ocular side effects].

    PubMed

    Pawlak-Buś, Katarzyna; Gaca-Wysocka, Magdalena; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Leszczyński, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    Anti-malarial drugs specifically hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) or chloroquine (CQ) are very effective in treating and preventing the symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases. These medications have shown to improve joint and muscle pain and arthritis, skin rashes, fatique, fever and also to control systemic signs of lupus as pericarditis or pleuritis. Shortterm and long-term treatment reduce cholesterol and have anti-platelet effect with decreasing risk of cardiovascular disease. The lupus patients on anti-malarials have also lower risk of cumulative organ damage due to reduce the amount of steroids. They may help to decrease lupus flares, mortality and are the key to controlling lupus long term outcome. Some lupus patients should be on anti-malarials for the rest of their life. For this reason, the key question is weather these drugs are absolutely safe and can be long term used in all lupus patients as a background therapy? Potential non-specific side effects occur very rare and are usually minor and last for short period. The major concerns are retinal deposits damage which could be potential reversible especially during hydroxychloroquine treatment. Nevertheless, ophthalmologist examination is still needed before starting to take HCQ or CQ and at to follow-up visits every 6-12 months. In conclusion it seems that anti-malarials are safe and have more clinical benefits than risks and from rheumatologist point of view should be more widely use in all lupus patients. PMID:27088206

  14. [Analysis of the cardiac side effects of antipsychotics: Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database (JADER)].

    PubMed

    Ikeno, Takashi; Okumara, Yasuyuki; Kugiyama, Kiyotaka; Ito, Hiroto

    2013-08-01

    We analyzed the cases of side effects due to antipsychotics reported to Japan's Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2012. We used the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database (JADER) and analyzed 136 of 216,945 cases using the defined terms. We also checked the cardiac adverse effects listed in the package inserts of the antipsychotics involved. We found cases of Ikr blockade resulting in sudden death (49 cases), electrocardiogram QT prolonged (29 cases), torsade de pointes (TdP, 19 cases), ventricular fibrillation (VF, 10 cases). M2 receptor blockade was observed in tachycardia (8 cases) and sinus tachycardia (3 cases). Calmodulin blockade was involved in reported cardiomyopathy (3 cases) and myocarditis (1 case). Multiple adverse events were reported simultaneously in 14 cases. Our search of package inserts revealed warnings regarding electrocardiogram QT prolongation (24 drugs), tachycardia (23), sudden death (18), TdP (14), VF (3), myocarditis (1) and cardiomyopathy (1). We suggest that when an antipsychotic is prescribed, the patient should be monitored regularly with ECG, blood tests, and/or biochemical tests to avoid adverse cardiac effects. PMID:25069255

  15. Effect of orientation of euphausiids and copepods on acoustic target strength: Implications for measurements from down-looking and side-looking acoustic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutor, Malinda; Cowles, Timothy J.

    2001-05-01

    Multifrequency acoustics is a potentially useful tool for zooplankton ecologists to rapidly map distributional patterns and determine taxonomic and size composition of scatterers. This is typically done with down-looking or side-looking acoustic systems. The ability to estimate taxonomic and size composition acoustically depends upon accurate models of scattering from zooplankton. In this study, distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) models of individual zooplankton were used to illustrate that the frequency dependence of expected scattering is different for down-looking and side-looking acoustic systems due to the differences in orientation of scatters within the sampled volume. The results show that peaks and nulls occur at different frequencies for each system with maximum target strength differences of 30 dB. The models were used to predict volume scattering (SV) based on zooplankton collected from MOCNESS tows. Predicted SV was compared to SV measured by both a down-looking HTI acoustic system and a side-looking TAPS. The results showed that changes in orientation can have large effects on predicted total SV, particularly at higher frequencies, and demonstrate that choice of orientation parameters is important and different parameters should be used when comparing predicted SV with measured SV from down-looking or side-looking acoustic systems.

  16. Profile and mechanisms of gastrointestinal and other side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

    PubMed

    Rainsford, K D

    1999-12-13

    The popular view that all nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) act by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins has been challenged by the discovery that they also affect a wide variety of cellular processes that are important for their therapeutic actions and side effects. Although recognition of the differential activities of new and established NSAIDs on the activities of the cyclooxygenases (COXs) affecting production of inflammatory prostaglandins (from COX-2) and those that are physiologically important (from COX-1) may have significance for the prostaglandin components of the underlying inflammatory and physiologic processes, there are important features of their chemical structures that determine the various cellular and biochemical actions of these agents. Several established NSAIDs have low propensity to cause gastrointestinal (GI) ulceration and bleeding that may relate to these drugs having unique pharmacokinetic characteristics (pro-drugs, protein binding, etc). They also have weak effects on the production of GI mucosal prostaglandins and have specific physicochemical characteristics such that they cause minimal damage to mucosal membranes or effects on nonprostaglandin-related cellular mechanisms important in mucosal defenses. Some of the new COX-2-selective drugs with methyl or amino-sulfonyl moieties have relatively high pKa values and other properties that are similar to established NSAIDs with low GI ulcerogenicity. These physicochemical properties may contribute to the low irritancy of the new COX-2-selective drugs quite apart from their sparing of COX-1 in the GI mucosa. With concerns that some established NSAIDs may accelerate cartilage destruction in osteoarthritis (OA), interest is now focusing on whether the COX-2-selective drugs may have a lower potential for this adverse effect by avoiding the inhibitory effects on cartilage proteoglycan metabolism seen with such drugs as indomethacin and the salicylates. Meloxicam appears to

  17. Side effects, adherence self-efficacy, and adherence to antiretroviral treatment: a mediation analysis in a Chinese sample.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Zhenping; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Xu, Jinping; Zhou, Yuejiao; Qiao, Shan; Shen, Zhiyong; Stanton, Bonita

    2016-07-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a lifelong treatment. To date, ART adherence is suboptimal for most patients in resource-poor settings. Previous research indicates that medication side effects are perceived to be a significant barrier of high ART adherence. Data regarding the role of adherence self-efficacy in mediating the relationship between side effects from ART and adherence to ART are limited; thus, this study examines this potential mediational role of self-efficacy. A cross-sectional survey of 2987 people living with HIV aged ≥18 years was conducted in 2012-2013 in Guangxi Autonomous Region (Guangxi) which has one of the fastest-growing HIV rates in China. Of the total sample, 2146 (72.1%) participants had initiated ART. Participants reported the number of days of completing the daily dose of ART in the past month; adherence was defined as completing the daily dose at least 28 days in the last month (≥90%). Side effects were significantly negatively related to adherence to ART. Mediation analyses indicated that adherence self-efficacy significantly mediated the side effects-adherence relationship. Future interventions to increase adherence self-efficacy and effective coping with side effects among HIV patients are needed in order to improve their ART adherence. PMID:27010870

  18. Contraceptive effect and potential side-effects of deslorelin acetate implants in rats (Rattus norvegicus): Preliminary observations

    PubMed Central

    Grosset, Claire; Peters, Stijn; Peron, Franck; Figuéra, Joëlle; Navarro, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    During the last ten years, numerous species have been treated with deslorelin implants to induce contraception. The aims of the study were 1) to assess contraceptive efficacy of 4.7 mg subcutaneous deslorelin implants in rats, 2) to determine the latency of contraceptive effect, and 3) to determine potential side effects. Three experimental females were implanted and their estrous cycle was studied by vaginal smear. Two weeks after implantation, a male whose fertility was previously assessed with a control female, was introduced into their cage. No female conceived during the 4 mo following implantation. Additionally, 38 pet rats were recruited from clients in practice to test for potential side effects, including 6 males and 32 females with a mean age of 14 mo. Local reaction and transient weight gain during the first 2 wk, as well as behavioral changes were recorded. According to this pilot study, deslorelin implant could be used as a contraceptive method in female rats. The latency period is about 2 wk. Nevertheless, it might be possible to refine the treatment further using hormonal measurements. The duration of contraceptive effect is to be determined in an upcoming study. PMID:23277700

  19. Neuropsychiatric Side-Effects of Interferon-Alpha Treatment: Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Options

    PubMed Central

    ZAHIU, Carmen Denise Mihaela; RIMBAS, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    Interferon alpha (IFN-α) is the approved standard of care for chronic hepatitis C and B. Unfortunately, it has neuropsychiatric side-effects that have a major impact upon the quality of life and the drug adherence. The mechanism of IFN-α-induced behavioral changes is complex, involving interactions between the immune system, the endocrine system, the monoaminergic systems and the opioid receptors. Recent studies support the neurodegeneration hypothesis as a possible mechanism of IFN-α-induced depressive behavior. Although a meta-analysis showed that antidepressant pretreatment effectively reduces the incidence and severity of depressive symptoms, irrespective of pre-existing psychiatric disorders, it is not approved for prophylactic use. The "on demand" treatment strategy is justified as the majority of patients have only mild depressive symptoms. Patients with risk factors for depression undergoing IFN-α therapy need to be regularly screened and followed-up by a psychiatric specialist. Further studies should be conducted to show which therapy is the most appropriate to reduce the neuropsychiatric symptoms that are related to the use of IFN-α and to investigate the clinical significance of IFN-α-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:25705266

  20. Kondo effect in a quantum dot side-coupled to a topological superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Minchul; Lim, Jong Soo; López, Rosa

    2013-06-01

    We investigate the dynamical and transport features of a Kondo dot side coupled to a topological superconductor (TS). The Majorana fermion states (MFSs) formed at the ends of the TS are found to be able to alter the Kondo physics profoundly: For an infinitely long wire where the MFSs do not overlap (ɛm=0) a finite dot-MFS coupling (Γm) reduces the unitary-limit value of the linear conductance by exactly a factor 3/4 in the weak-coupling regime (ΓmTK), on the other hand, the spin-split Kondo resonance takes place due to the MFS-induced Zeeman splitting, which is a genuine many-body effect of the strong Coulomb interaction and the topological superconductivity. We find that the original Kondo resonance is fully restored once the MFSs are strongly hybridized (ɛm>Γm). This unusual interaction between the Kondo effect and the MFS can thus serve to detect the Majorana fermions unambiguously and quantify the degree of overlap between the MFSs in the TS.

  1. The Use of Dietary Supplements to Alleviate Androgen Deprivation Therapy Side Effects during Prostate Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dueregger, Andrea; Heidegger, Isabel; Ofer, Philipp; Perktold, Bernhard; Ramoner, Reinhold; Klocker, Helmut; Eder, Iris E.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of male cancer death in Western societies, is typically androgen-dependent, a characteristic that underlies the rationale of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Approximately 90% of patients initially respond to ADT strategies, however many experience side effects including hot flashes, cardiotoxicity, metabolic and musculoskeletal alterations. This review summarizes pre-clinical and clinical studies investigating the ability of dietary supplements to alleviate adverse effects arising from ADT. In particular, we focus on herbal compounds, phytoestrogens, selenium (Se), fatty acids (FA), calcium, and Vitamins D and E. Indeed, there is some evidence that calcium and Vitamin D can prevent the development of osteoporosis during ADT. On the other hand, caution should be taken with the antioxidants Se and Vitamin E until the basis underlying their respective association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and PCa tumor development has been clarified. However, many other promising supplements have not yet been subjected large-scale clinical trials making it difficult to assess their efficacy. Given the demographic trend of increased PCa diagnoses and dependence on ADT as a major therapeutic strategy, further studies are required to objectively evaluate these supplements as adjuvant for PCa patients receiving ADT. PMID:25338271

  2. The use of dietary supplements to alleviate androgen deprivation therapy side effects during prostate cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Dueregger, Andrea; Heidegger, Isabel; Ofer, Philipp; Perktold, Bernhard; Ramoner, Reinhold; Klocker, Helmut; Eder, Iris E

    2014-10-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of male cancer death in Western societies, is typically androgen-dependent, a characteristic that underlies the rationale of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Approximately 90% of patients initially respond to ADT strategies, however many experience side effects including hot flashes, cardiotoxicity, metabolic and musculoskeletal alterations. This review summarizes pre-clinical and clinical studies investigating the ability of dietary supplements to alleviate adverse effects arising from ADT. In particular, we focus on herbal compounds, phytoestrogens, selenium (Se), fatty acids (FA), calcium, and Vitamins D and E. Indeed, there is some evidence that calcium and Vitamin D can prevent the development of osteoporosis during ADT. On the other hand, caution should be taken with the antioxidants Se and Vitamin E until the basis underlying their respective association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and PCa tumor development has been clarified. However, many other promising supplements have not yet been subjected large-scale clinical trials making it difficult to assess their efficacy. Given the demographic trend of increased PCa diagnoses and dependence on ADT as a major therapeutic strategy, further studies are required to objectively evaluate these supplements as adjuvant for PCa patients receiving ADT. PMID:25338271

  3. Effects of Causes and Causes of Effects: Some Remarks From the Sociological Side

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Herbert L.

    2014-01-01

    Sociology is pluralist in subject matter, theory, and method, and thus a good place to entertain ideas about causation associated with their use under the law. I focus on two themes of their article: (1) the legal lens on causation that “considers populations in order to make statements about individuals” and (2) the importance of distinguishing between effects of causes and causes of effects. PMID:25477697

  4. Assessment of oral side effects of Antiepileptic drugs and traumatic oro-facial injuries encountered in Epileptic children

    PubMed Central

    Ghafoor, P A Fazal; Rafeeq, Mohammed; Dubey, Alok

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is a chronic disorder with unpredictably recurring seizure. Uncontrolled attacks can put patients at risk of suffering oro-facial trauma. Antiepileptic drugs (AED) provide satisfactory control of seizures in most of the patients with epilepsy. However use of AED has been found to cause many side effects inclusive of side effects in the oral cavity also. Materials & Methods: This study was conducted on 150 epileptic children, who were on anti epileptic medication for one year. Results: Gingival over growth was seen as common side effect of the AED drugs. Lip and cheek biting were the most common soft tissue injury, while tooth fracture was the most common hard tissue dental injury. Conclusion: General physicians, physicians & dentists should be well aware of the potential side effects of AED. A Dentist should be well versed and trained to manage oro-facial injuries in the emergency department. How to cite the article: Ghafoor PA, Rafeeq M, Dubey A. Assessment of oral side effects of Antiepileptic drugs and traumaticoro-facial injuries encountered in Epileptic children. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):126-8. PMID:24876713

  5. Measurement of daily physical activity using the SenseWear Armband: Compliance, comfort, adverse side effects and usability.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Renae J; Tsai, Ling Ling Y; Wootton, Sally L; Ng, L W Cindy; Dale, Marita T; McKeough, Zoe J; Alison, Jennifer A

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the acceptability of wearing physical activity-monitoring devices. This study aimed to examine the compliance, comfort, incidence of adverse side effects, and usability when wearing the SenseWear Armband (SWA) for daily physical activity assessment. In a prospective study, 314 participants (252 people with COPD, 36 people with a dust-related respiratory disease and 26 healthy age-matched people) completed a purpose-designed questionnaire following a 7-day period of wearing the SWA. Compliance, comfort levels during the day and night, adverse side effects and ease of using the device were recorded. Non-compliance with wearing the SWA over 7 days was 8%. The main reasons for removing the device were adverse side effects and discomfort. The SWA comfort level during the day was rated by 11% of participants as uncomfortable/very uncomfortable, with higher levels of discomfort reported during the night (16%). Nearly half of the participants (46%) experienced at least one adverse skin irritation side effect from wearing the SWA including itchiness, skin irritation and rashes, and/or bruising. Compliance with wearing the SWA for measurement of daily physical activity was found to be good, despite reports of discomfort and a high incidence of adverse side effects. PMID:26879695

  6. A prospective double-blind study of side effects associated with the administration of amantadine for influenza A virus prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Bryson, Y J; Monahan, C; Pollack, M; Shields, W D

    1980-05-01

    During a study of efficacy of amantadine prophylaxis of influenza A virus infection in young adults, gross and subtle side effects were monitored. Eighty-eight students were randomly selected to receive either amantadine or placebo for four weeks or both in a sequential crossover design of two weeks each. Side effects (i.e., dizziness, nervousness, and insomnia) occurred in 33% of those receiving amantadine and in 10% of those receiving placebo (P less than 0.005). Although side effects were well tolerated by most subjects, six volunteers discontinued amantadine because of marked complaints. Cessation of side effects occurred in more than half of those continuing amantadine. Sixteen students receiving amantadine had decreased performance on sustained attention tasks as compared with ones receiving placebo (P less than 0.05). Gross and subtle side effects of amantadine observed in this study on currently recommended dosage are higher than previously reported, which may be an important factor in consideration of mass prophylaxis. PMID:7373087

  7. Splenic Trauma as an Adverse Effect of Torso-Protecting Side Airbags: Biomechanical and Case Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, Jason J.; Brasel, Karen J.; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    Injury mechanisms from frontal airbags, first identified in anecdotal reports, are now well documented for pediatric, small female, and out-of-position occupants. In contrast, torso side airbags have not yet been consistently associated with specific injury risks in field assessments. To determine possible torso side airbag-related injuries, the present study identified crashes involving side airbags from reports within the CIREN, NASS, and SCI databases. Injury patterns were compared to patterns from lateral crashes in absence of side airbag. Splenic trauma (AIS 3+) was found present in five cases of torso side airbag deployment at lower impact severity (as measured by velocity change and compartment intrusion) than cases of splenic trauma without side airbag. Five additional cases were found to contain similar injury patterns but occurred with greater crash severity. To supplement case analyses, full scale sled tests were conducted with a THOR-NT dummy and cadaveric specimen. Four THOR tests with door- and seat-mounted torso side airbags confirmed that out-of-position (early inflation stage) airbag contact elevated thoracic injury metrics compared to optimal (fully inflated) contact. Out-of-position seat-mounted airbag deployment also produced AIS 3 splenic trauma in the cadaveric specimen. Due to potentially sudden or delayed onset of intraperitoneal hemorrhage and hypovolemic shock following splenic trauma, further biomechanical investigation of this anecdotal evidence is essential to identify injury mechanisms, prevention techniques, and methods for early diagnosis. PMID:20184829

  8. The role of 3-O-methyldopa in the side effects of L-dopa.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Sook Y; Chen, Hongtao; King, Jennifer; Charlton, Clivel

    2008-03-01

    Long-term treatment of L-dopa for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients induces adverse effects, including dyskinesia, on-off and wearing-off symptoms. However, the cause of these side effects has not been established to date. In the present study, therefore, 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD), which is a major metabolite of L-dopa, was tested to determine whether it plays a role in the aforementioned adverse effects. The effects of 3-OMD on the dopaminergic nervous system in the brain were investigated, by examining behavioral, biochemical, and cellular changes in male Sprague-Dawley rats and catecholamine-producing PC12 neuronal cells. The results revealed that the intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of 1 micromol of 3-OMD impaired locomotor activities by decreasing movement time (MT), total distance (TD), and the number of movement (NM) by 70, 74 and 61%, respectively. The biochemical analysis results showed that a single administration of 1 micromole of 3-OMD decreased the dopamine turnover rate (DOPAC/DA) by 40.0% in the rat striatum. 3-OMD inhibited dopamine transporter and uptake in rat brain striatal membranes and PC12 cells. The subacute administration of 3-OMD (5 days, icv) also significantly impaired the locomotor activities and catecholamine levels. 3-OMD induced cytotoxic effects via oxidative stress and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in PC12 cells, indicating that 3-OMD can damage neuronal cells. Furthermore, 3-OMD potentiated L-dopa toxicity and these toxic effects induced by both 3-OMD and L-dopa were blocked by vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) in PC12 cells, indicating that 3-OMD may increase the toxic effects of L-dopa to some extent by oxidative stress. Therefore, the present study reveals that 3-OMD accumulation from long-term L-dopa treatment may be involved in the adverse effects of L-dopa therapy. Moreover, L-dopa treatment might accelerate the progression of PD, at least in part, by 3-OMD. PMID:17713853

  9. Parent-completed scales for measuring seizure severity and severity of side-effects of antiepileptic drugs in childhood epilepsy: development and psychometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Carpay, H A; Arts, W F; Vermeulen, J; Stroink, H; Brouwer, O F; Peters, A C; van Donselaar, C A; Aldenkamp, A P

    1996-07-01

    We have developed two outcome measures for childhood epilepsy: a seizure severity (SS) scale and a side-effects (SE) scale. Both scales have been designed for completion by parents. The scales were tested in two pilot phases and the results of this stepwise analysis are described here. The final scales' psychometric properties were assessed in a group of 80 children with active epilepsy, representative of the population at whom the scales were aimed: children with chronic epilepsy, aged 4-16 years, including all seizure types and epilepsies, as well as children with neurological comorbidity. The SS scale and SE scale showed good internal consistency and test-retest stability. Although there was a significant positive correlation between the SS scale and the SE scale, this was low, indicating that the scales measure a different clinical trait. The SE scale consisted of two subscales: a Toxic subscale, measuring the severity of dose-related side-effects, and a Chronic subscale, measuring the severity of long-term behavioural and cognitive side-effects. These subscales for side-effects showed a high correlation and can be used as a joint scale. These scales have the potential to improve outcome assessment in childhood epilepsy and they can be used to assess important aspects of quality of life in this population. PMID:8832193

  10. Seasonal and sex differences in responsiveness to adrenocorticotropic hormone contribute to stress response plasticity in red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis).

    PubMed

    Dayger, Catherine A; Lutterschmidt, Deborah I

    2016-04-01

    As in many vertebrates, hormonal responses to stress vary seasonally in red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis). For example, males generally exhibit reduced glucocorticoid responses to a standard stressor during the spring mating season. We asked whether variation in adrenal sensitivity to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) explains why glucocorticoid responses to capture stress vary with sex, season and body condition in red-sided garter snakes. We measured glucocorticoids at 0, 1 and 4 h after injection with ACTH (0.1 IU g(-1)body mass) or vehicle in males and females during the spring mating season and autumn pre-hibernation period. Because elevated glucocorticoids can influence sex steroids, we also examined androgen and estradiol responses to ACTH. ACTH treatment increased glucocorticoids in both sexes and seasons. Spring-collected males had a smaller integrated glucocorticoid response to ACTH than autumn-collected males. The integrated glucocorticoid response to ACTH differed with sex during the spring, with males having a smaller glucocorticoid response than females. Although integrated glucocorticoid responses to ACTH did not vary with body condition, we observed an interaction among season, sex and body condition. In males, ACTH treatment did not alter androgen levels in either season, but androgen levels decreased during the sampling period. Similar to previous studies, plasma estradiol was low or undetectable during the spring and autumn, and therefore any effect of ACTH treatment on estradiol could not be determined. These data provide support for a mechanism that partly explains how the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis integrates information about season, sex and body condition: namely, variation in adrenal responsiveness to ACTH. PMID:26896543

  11. Children Living with Violence against Their Mothers: The Side Effects on Their Behaviour, Self-Image and School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutselini, Mary; Valanidou, Floria

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of children's exposure to violence against their mothers. It particularly considers the sided-effects of this violence on the children's behaviour, self-image and school performance. The research indicates that (1) violence against women victimises not only the mothers but also their children, even if the…

  12. Mediators of a Brief Hypnosis Intervention to Control Side Effects in Breast Surgery Patients: Response Expectancies and Emotional Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Guy H.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Schnur, Julie B.; David, Daniel; Silverstein, Jeffrey H.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that response expectancies and emotional distress mediate the effects of an empirically validated presurgical hypnosis intervention on postsurgical side effects (i.e., pain, nausea, and fatigue). Method: Women (n = 200) undergoing breast-conserving surgery (mean age = 48.50 years;…

  13. The Effectiveness of the Component Impact Test Method for the Side Impact Injury Assessment of the Door Trim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Younghan; Koo, Jeong-Seo

    The complete evaluation of the side vehicle structure and the occupant protection is only possible by means of the full scale side impact crash test. But, auto part manufacturers such as door trim makers can not conduct the test especially when the vehicle is under the developing process. The main objective of this study is to obtain the design guidelines by a simple component level impact test. The relationship between the target absorption energy and impactor speed were examined using the energy absorbed by the door trim. Since each different vehicle type required different energy levels on the door trim. A simple impact test method was developed to estimate abdominal injury by measuring reaction force of the impactor. The reaction force will be converted to a certain level of the energy by the proposed formula. The target of absorption energy for door trim only and the impact speed of simple impactor are derived theoretically based on the conservation of energy. With calculated speed of dummy and the effective mass of abdomen, the energy allocated in the abdomen area of door trim was calculated. The impactor speed can be calculated based on the equivalent energy of door trim absorbed during the full crash test. With the proposed design procedure for the door trim by a simple impact test method was demonstrated to evaluate the abdominal injury. This paper describes a study that was conducted to determine sensitivity of several design factors for reducing abdominal injury values using the matrix of orthogonal array method. In conclusion, with theoretical considerations and empirical test data, the main objective, standardization of door trim design using the simple impact test method was established.

  14. Increased hexosaminidase activity in antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects: possible association with higher occurrence in bipolar disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Tunca, Zeliha; Resmi, Halil; Ozkara, H Asuman; Ciliv, Gönenc; Celtikci, Basak; Alptekin, Koksal; Ozerdem, Aysegul; Akdede, Berna Kivircik; Baykara, Burak; Birsoy, Bilge; Ergor, Gul

    2008-07-01

    Dystonic movements and Parkinsonism are frequently seen in gangliosidoses and these conditions have been reported to modify dopaminergic plasticity. We investigated whether the activity of hexosaminidase, a type-two ganglioside (GM2) degrading enzyme, correlates with drug-induced extrapyramidal system (EPS) side effects in psychiatric patients. We compared hexosaminidase activity in the lymphocytes of 29 EPS-positive patients, 13 EPS-negative patients, and 30 healthy volunteers. The activities of A and B isoforms of hexosaminidase were higher in EPS-positive patients than EPS-negative patients and healthy controls. Multivariate analysis suggested an interaction with increased B isoform activity and EPS side effects in female bipolar disorder patients. Higher levels of hexosaminidase enzyme activity may explain the frequent occurrence of antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects in mood disorder patients. PMID:18436361

  15. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices on Energy Drink Consumption and Side Effects in a Cohort of Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Casuccio, Alessandra; Bonanno, Valentina; Catalano, Rosanna; Cracchiolo, Manuela; Giugno, Sara; Sciuto, Valentina; Immordino, Palmira

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning energy drink consumption and the prevalence of side effects among medical students. Twenty-two percent of respondents were regular users, particularly men (p < .0005). Users were younger (p = .027) and drank alcohol more frequently (p = .008) than "non-users." Forty-nine percent consumed alcohol associated with energy drinks. Forty-five percent of medical students declared side effects after energy drink consumption, such as palpitations (35%), insomnia (21%), and irritability (20%). The study confirms a large use of energy drinks among students and the occurrence of side effects. The use of energy drinks may influence the ingestion of large amounts of alcohol. PMID:26466517

  16. Side Effects Related to 5 α-Reductase Inhibitor Treatment of Hair Loss in Women: A Review.

    PubMed

    Seale, Lauren R; Eglini, Ariana N; McMichael, Amy J

    2016-04-01

    5 α-reductase inhibitors such as finasteride and dutasteride have been studied for the treatment of hair loss in men, with finasteride being the only Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment. Increasingly, in recent years, off-label use of these drugs has been employed in the treatment of female pattern hair loss (FPHL) and frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) in women. Side effects with 5 α-reductase inhibitors can include changes in sexual function, and recent publications have characterized an increasing prevalence of these in men. A review of 20 peer-reviewed articles found that very few side effects, or adverse events, related to sexual function have been reported in studies in which dutasteride or finasteride has been used to treat hair loss in women. Future publications should investigate not only the efficacy of these drugs in treating FPHL and FFA, but the side effect profile in patients as well. PMID:27050696

  17. Effect of charged amino acid side chain length on lateral cross-strand interactions between carboxylate- and guanidinium-containing residues in a β-hairpin.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsiou-Ting; Liu, Shing-Lung; Chiu, Wen-Chieh; Fang, Chun-Jen; Chang, Hsien-Chen; Wang, Wei-Ren; Yang, Po-An; Li, Jhe-Hao; Huang, Shing-Jong; Huang, Shou-Ling; Cheng, Richard P

    2015-05-01

    β-Sheet is one of the major protein secondary structures. Oppositely charged residues are frequently observed across neighboring strands in antiparallel sheets, suggesting the importance of cross-strand ion pairing interactions. The charged amino acids Asp, Glu, Arg, and Lys have different numbers of hydrophobic methylenes linking the charged functionality to the backbone. To investigate the effect of side chain length of guanidinium- and carboxylate-containing residues on lateral cross-strand ion pairing interactions at non-hydrogen-bonded positions, β-hairpin peptides containing Zbb-Agx (Zbb = Asp, Glu, Aad in increasing length; Agx = Agh, Arg, Agb, Agp in decreasing length) sequence patterns were studied by NMR methods. The fraction folded population and folding energy were derived from the chemical shift deviation data. Peptides with high fraction folded populations involved charged residue side chain lengths that supported high strand propensity. Double mutant cycle analysis was used to determine the interaction energy for the potential lateral ion pairs. Minimal interaction was observed between residues with short side chains, most likely due to the diffused positive charge on the guanidinium group, which weakened cross-strand electrostatic interactions with the carboxylate side chain. Only the Aad-Arg/Agh interactions with long side chains clearly exhibited stabilizing energetics, possibly relying on hydrophobics. A survey of a non-redundant protein structure database revealed that the statistical sheet pair propensity followed the trend Asp-Arg < Glu-Arg, implying the need for matching long side chains. This suggested the need for long side chains on both guanidinium-bearing and carboxylate-bearing residues to stabilize the β-hairpin motif. PMID:25646959

  18. Effect of rare earth oxide on the properties of laser cladding layer and machining vibration suppressing in side milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanhua; Sun, Jie; Li, Jianfeng

    2014-12-01

    Laser cladding, which can increase the hardness and wear resistance of the used components, is widely used in remanufacture and sustainable manufacturing field. Generally, laser cladding layer should to be machined to meet the function as well as the assembly requirements. Milling is an effective mean for precision machining. However, there exist great differences of physical and mechanical performances between laser cladding layer and substrate material, including microstructure, hardness, wear resistance, etc. This produces some new milling problems for laser cladding layer, such as machining vibration which may lead to low productivity and worse surface integrity. Thus, it is necessary to develop a novel laser cladding powder which can improve the surface hardness and wear resistance, while reducing the machining vibration in milling. Laser cladding layer was prepared by FeCr alloy and La2O3 mixed powder. The effect of La2O3 on the coating properties was investigated. Signal analysis methods of the time and frequency domain were used to evaluate the effect of the La2O3 on machining vibration in the side milling laser cladding layer. The key findings of this study are: (a) with the La2O3 content increasing, the grain size decreases dramatically and the microstructure of laser cladding layer are refine; (b) the hardness and wear resistance of the coatings with La2O3 are improved significantly; and (c) the machining vibrations of laser cladding layer with La2O3 are obviously reduced and the chatter is effectively avoided occurring.

  19. Key role of macrophages in hypotensive side effects of immunoglobulin preparations. Studies in an animal model.

    PubMed Central

    Bleeker, W K; Agterberg, J; Rigter, G; van Rooijen, N; Bakker, J C

    1989-01-01

    Intravenous administration of certain immunoglobulin preparations may cause severe adverse reactions, especially in hypogammaglobulinaemic patients. Because the exact mechanism of the adverse reactions is still unknown, we investigated the severe, prolonged hypotension induced in anaesthetized rats on rapid i.v. infusion of standard immunoglobulin preparations. The hypotensive response was previously shown to be associated with IgG aggregates in the preparations but independent of complement activation. We found that the hypotension could be prevented by treating the rats with a specific receptor antagonist of platelet-activating factor; or by depletion of the macrophages of the rats; or by pretreatment with monomeric IgG. This provided evidence that the hypotension is initiated by interaction of IgG-aggregates with Fc-receptors on macrophages, leading to the production of platelet-activating factor. We conclude that the rat model provides a sensitive and reproducible test system for macrophage-activating properties of immunoglobulin preparations for i.v. administration which may lead to vasoactive side effects. PMID:2805404

  20. The effect of side-chain liquid crystalline concentration in liquid crystal on dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gökçen, M.; Köysal, O.; Yıldırım, M.; Altındal, Ş.

    2012-08-01

    As liquid crystal (LC), E63 and as doping material, side-chain liquid crystalline polymer (SLCP) were used in this study. In order to observe the effect of SLCP concentration in LC on the dielectric properties in a wide range of frequency and bias voltage, SLCP was doped into E63 with 0 (pure E63), 1 and 10 wt%. The bias voltage and frequency dependence of the dielectric properties of pure E63 and doped mixtures (E63/SCLP) have been investigated using the admittance spectroscopy method (C-V and G/ω-V) in the frequency range of 10 kHz-10 MHz at room temperature. The values of dielectric constant (ɛ‧) and real (M‧) and imaginary (M″) parts of electric modulus of the pure E63 and E63/SLCP (1 and 10%) were calculated using the measured admittance values. Moreover, dielectric anisotropy (Δɛ) was also obtained for each sample as a function of frequency. Results show that the values of dielectric parameters are strong functions of frequency and applied bias voltage depending on the concentration amount. Furthermore, dielectric anisotropy has negative values according to p/n type changing for each sample after a critical frequency value.

  1. Side effects of bone-targeted therapies in advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Domschke, Christoph; Schuetz, Florian

    2014-10-01

    In up to 75% of cases, advanced breast cancer patients eventually develop bone metastases with often debilitating skeletal-related events (SREs). Osteoclast inhibitors are commonly used as therapeutic mainstay with clinical studies showing superiority of denosumab over bisphosphonates (e.g., zoledronate) for the prevention of SREs. The present review discusses the adverse event profile of these agents, and addresses the prevention and management of untoward side effects. Adverse events associated with osteoclast inhibitors comprise osteonecrosis of the jaw and hypocalcemia. Hypocalcemia is more common with denosumab, particularly in severe renal dysfunction. During therapy, the appropriate prevention of these adverse events includes close attention to dental health, avoidance of invasive dental procedures, supplementation with calcium and vitamin D unless patients are hypercalcemic, and regular monitoring of relevant serum values. Relating to the risk of nephrotoxicity, bisphosphonates but not denosumab have been incriminated. Therefore, serum creatinine levels should be checked prior to each dose of zoledronate, and in severe renal dysfunction (creatinine clearance < 30 ml/min) zoledronate is contraindicated anyway. Acute-phase reactions are particularly linked to bisphosphonates. Consequently, if these adverse events predominate, switching to denosumab is recommended. PMID:25759613

  2. Apoptosis in snowflake yeast: novel trait, or side effect of toxic waste?

    PubMed

    Pentz, Jennifer T; Taylor, Bradford P; Ratcliff, William C

    2016-05-01

    Recent experiments evolving de novo multicellularity in yeast have found that large cluster-forming genotypes also exhibit higher rates of programmed cell death (apoptosis). This was previously interpreted as the evolution of a simple form of cellular division of labour: apoptosis results in the scission of cell-cell connections, allowing snowflake yeast to produce proportionally smaller, faster-growing propagules. Through spatial simulations, Duran-Nebreda and Solé (J. R. Soc. Interface 12, 20140982 (doi:10.1073/pnas.1115323109)) develop the novel null hypothesis that apoptosis is not an adaptation, per se, but is instead caused by the accumulation of toxic metabolites in large clusters. Here we test this hypothesis by synthetically creating unicellular derivatives of snowflake yeast through functional complementation with the ancestral ACE2 allele. We find that multicellular snowflake yeast with elevated apoptosis exhibit a similar rate of apoptosis when cultured as single cells. We also show that larger snowflake yeast clusters tend to contain a greater fraction of older, senescent cells, which may explain why larger clusters of a given genotype are more apoptotic. Our results show that apoptosis is not caused by side effects of spatial structure, such as starvation or waste product accumulation, and are consistent with the hypothesis that elevated apoptosis is a trait that co-evolves with large cluster size. PMID:27146690

  3. Premorbid functioning in schizophrenia: relation to baseline symptoms, treatment response, and medication side effects.

    PubMed

    Strous, Rael D; Alvir, Jose M J; Robinson, Delbert; Gal, Gilad; Sheitman, Brian; Chakos, Miranda; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2004-01-01

    Impaired premorbid functioning prior to the onset of acute psychosis has frequently been noted in schizophrenia. This study examined retrospectively the premorbid status of patients in their first episode of psychosis in order to determine relationships with baseline symptoms, treatment response, and medication side effects. One hundred eleven schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients participating in a large prospective study of first episode schizophrenia were evaluated with the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS). Premorbid functioning in males became progressively worse over time. Deficit state patients exhibited worse premorbid functioning. A third of patients exhibited sustained poor premorbid functioning. At various developmental stages, lower "sociability and withdrawal" scores correlated with increased time to treatment response, more severe negative symptoms, increased drug-induced parkinsonism, and deterioration of premorbid functioning. Various mean PAS scores predicted susceptibility to tardive dyskinesia. Our findings suggest that prior to acute psychosis onset there are certain behavioral precursors reflected in premorbid functioning that may predict subsequent illness manifestations. Measures of premorbid functioning indicate that disease pathogenesis is manifest, albeit more subtly, prior to presentation of first psychotic symptoms. PMID:15279045

  4. Systematic prediction of drug combinations based on clinical side-effects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Zhang, Ping; Qu, Xiaoyan A; Sanseau, Philippe; Yang, Lun

    2014-01-01

    Drug co-prescription (or drug combination) is a therapeutic strategy widely used as it may improve efficacy and reduce side-effect (SE). Since it is impractical to screen all possible drug combinations for every indication, computational methods have been developed to predict new combinations. In this study, we describe a novel approach that utilizes clinical SEs from post-marketing surveillance and the drug label to predict 1,508 novel drug-drug combinations. It outperforms other prediction methods, achieving an AUC of 0.92 compared to an AUC of 0.69 in a previous method, on a much larger drug combination set (245 drug combinations in our dataset compared to 75 in previous work.). We further found from the feature selection that three FDA black-box warned serious SEs, namely pneumonia, haemorrhage rectum, and retinal bleeding, contributed mostly to the predictions and a model only using these three SEs can achieve an average area under curve (AUC) at 0.80 and accuracy at 0.91, potentially with its simplicity being recognized as a practical rule-of-three in drug co-prescription or making fixed-dose drug combination. We also demonstrate this performance is less likely to be influenced by confounding factors such as biased disease indications or chemical structures. PMID:25418113

  5. Canagliflozin-induced pancreatitis: a rare side effect of a new drug.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Mudit; Kabbani, Ahmad A; Chhabra, Akansha

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is most commonly attributed to gallstones, alcohol abuse, and metabolic disorders such as hyperlipidemia and hypercalcemia. Medications are an infrequent yet commonly overlooked etiology of pancreatitis. Although several drugs have been implicated, antidiabetic agents are a rare cause for drug-induced pancreatitis. Canagliflozin is a new drug in the class of SGLT-2 inhibitors used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Serious reported side effects include renal impairment, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. Pancreatitis as a result of canagliflozin, however, is exceedingly rare. Here we describe a case of a 33-year old female who presented with severe acute pancreatitis in the setting of recent initiation of canagliflozin. Given the timing of her presentation and after excluding all other possible etiologies, it was determined that canagliflozin was the likely source of her illness. This case highlights the importance of identifying drug-induced pancreatitis, especially in novel drugs, as it is commonly neglected in patients with multiple medical comorbidities and those taking numerous medications. Prompt identification of drug-induced pancreatitis can improve management as well as decrease morbidity and mortality in these individuals. PMID:26170677

  6. Side Effects of Radiographic Contrast Media: Pathogenesis, Risk Factors, and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Tasanarong, Adis

    2014-01-01

    Radiocontrast media (RCM) are medical drugs used to improve the visibility of internal organs and structures in X-ray based imaging techniques. They may have side effects ranging from itching to a life-threatening emergency, known as contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). We define CIN as acute renal failure occurring within 24–72 hrs of exposure to RCM that cannot be attributed to other causes. It usually occurs in patients with preexisting renal impairment and diabetes. The mechanisms underlying CIN include reduction in medullary blood flow leading to hypoxia and direct tubule cell damage and the formation of reactive oxygen species. Identification of patients at high risk for CIN is important. We have reviewed the risk factors and procedures for prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers a deep evaluation of them both. The first rule to follow in patients at risk of CIN undergoing radiographic procedure is monitoring renal function by measuring serum creatinine and calculating the eGFR before and once daily for 5 days after the procedure. It is advised to discontinue potentially nephrotoxic medications, to choose radiocontrast media at lowest dosage, and to encourage oral or intravenous hydration. In high-risk patients N-acetylcysteine may also be given. PMID:24895606

  7. Systematic prediction of drug combinations based on clinical side-effects

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui; Zhang, Ping; Qu, Xiaoyan A.; Sanseau, Philippe; Yang, Lun

    2014-01-01

    Drug co-prescription (or drug combination) is a therapeutic strategy widely used as it may improve efficacy and reduce side-effect (SE). Since it is impractical to screen all possible drug combinations for every indication, computational methods have been developed to predict new combinations. In this study, we describe a novel approach that utilizes clinical SEs from post-marketing surveillance and the drug label to predict 1,508 novel drug-drug combinations. It outperforms other prediction methods, achieving an AUC of 0.92 compared to an AUC of 0.69 in a previous method, on a much larger drug combination set (245 drug combinations in our dataset compared to 75 in previous work.). We further found from the feature selection that three FDA black-box warned serious SEs, namely pneumonia, haemorrhage rectum, and retinal bleeding, contributed mostly to the predictions and a model only using these three SEs can achieve an average area under curve (AUC) at 0.80 and accuracy at 0.91, potentially with its simplicity being recognized as a practical rule-of-three in drug co-prescription or making fixed-dose drug combination. We also demonstrate this performance is less likely to be influenced by confounding factors such as biased disease indications or chemical structures. PMID:25418113

  8. Side-effects of henna and semi-permanent 'black henna' tattoos: a full review.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C

    2013-07-01

    Henna, the dried and powdered leaf of Lawsonia inermis, is widely used as a dye for the skin, hair, and nails, and as an expression of body art, especially in Islamic and Hindu cultures. As it stains the skin reddish-brown, it is also called red henna. Black henna is the combination of red henna with p-phenylenediamine (PPD), and is used for temporary 'black henna tattoos'. This article provides a full review of the side-effects of topical application of red and black henna, both cutaneous (allergic and non-allergic) and systemic. Red henna appears to be generally safe, with rare instances of contact allergy and type I hypersensitivity reactions. In children with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, topical application of henna may cause life-threatening haemolysis. Black henna tattoos will induce contact allergy to its ingredient PPD at an estimated frequency of 2.5%. Once sensitized, the patients may experience allergic contact dermatitis from the use of hair dyes containing PPD. There are often cross-reactions to other hair dyes, dyes used in textiles, local anaesthetics, and rubber chemicals. The sensitization of children to PPD may have important consequences for health and later career prospects. Systemic toxicity of black henna has been reported in certain African countries. PMID:23782354

  9. Climate change in metacommunities: dispersal gives double-sided effects on persistence

    PubMed Central

    Eklöf, Anna; Kaneryd, Linda; Münger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is increasingly affecting the structure and dynamics of ecological communities both at local and at regional scales, and this can be expected to have important consequences for their robustness and long-term persistence. The aim of the present work is to analyse how the spatial structure of the landscape and dispersal patterns of species (dispersal rate and average dispersal distance) affects metacommunity response to two disturbances: (i) increased mortality during dispersal and (ii) local species extinction. We analyse the disturbances both in isolation and in combination. Using a spatially and dynamically explicit metacommunity model, we find that the effect of dispersal on metacommunity persistence is two-sided: on the one hand, high dispersal significantly reduces the risk of bottom-up extinction cascades following the local removal of a species; on the other hand, when dispersal imposes a risk to the dispersing individuals, high dispersal increases extinction risks, especially when dispersal is global. Large-bodied species with long generation times at the highest trophic level are particularly vulnerable to extinction when dispersal involves a risk. This suggests that decreasing the mortality risk of dispersing individuals by improving the quality of the habitat matrix may greatly increase the robustness of metacommunities. PMID:23007082

  10. Citalopram-induced hyponatraemia and parkinsonism: potentially fatal side-effects not to be missed.

    PubMed

    Damali Amiri, Negin; Wijenaike, Nishan

    2014-01-01

    The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as citalopram, is on the rise and, as such, clinicians must be vigilant of rare side-effects associated with this group of medications. We report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented to West Suffolk Hospital with a fall, confusion and movement abnormalities, and was found to have a serum sodium of 105 on admission. He was managed with hypertonic saline, dopamine agonists and intensive physiotherapy. Despite initially deteriorating neurologically, he made a remarkable recovery, and was discharged home at his pre-admission baseline. The learning points from this report are as follows: (1) regular monitoring of electrolytes on starting an SSRI (and similarly selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors-SNRIs) in SSRI/SNRIs naïve patients, (2) awareness of possible citalopram-induced parkinsonism and the potential benefits of dopamine agonists as one management strategy and (3) vigilant fluid/electrolyte monitoring in patients with profound hyponatraemia. PMID:25391825

  11. Drug utilization evaluation of meropenem and correlation of side effects with renal status of patients in a teaching based hospital.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Umair; Yousuf, Rabia Ismail; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris

    2014-09-01

    Meropenem is a restricted, broad spectrum and expensive antibiotic. The major consequences of irrational use of restricted antibiotics are increase drug resistance and drug expenditure. The use of antibiotics, specifically restricted antibiotics, must be monitored continuously to increase its adherence to the standard guidelines to avoid such problems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of meropenem use with respect to renal status of patients in a teaching based hospital. A retrospective study was carried out from 1st January 2013 to 30th June 2013 to determine the evaluation of meropenem use in accordance to the criteria developed through national (Infectious disease society of Pakistan) and international guidelines (Health care infection control practices advisory committee). The data was recorded on data collection form by thorough reviewing of patients' medical records. Main outcomes measured were indication, dose, interval, duration, creatinine clearance, complete blood count and culture sensitivity test. Correlation of different variable (side effects and generalized health) was also observed with reference to renal status of patients. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics. A total of 201 cases of meropenem prescription were identified during the study period. The variable, which was most consistent with the criteria was 'indication', in which 97.52% of meropenem prescription was indicated in diseases encouraged by guidelines. However, the use of meropenem as an empirical therapy was the major problem reported in this study as it adhered to in only 43% of the cases. It was also noted that prevalence of side effects increased when meropenem was prescribed in renal compromised patients, and also observed that generalized health of patients decreased with meronem use in renal unstable patients. Thrombocytopenia was the major problem associated with the meropenem use (37.81%). The study detected various

  12. MAVEN remote sensing observations of Comet Siding Spring and its effects on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, N. M.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    The MAVEN spacecraft enters Mars orbit four weeks before Comet Siding Spring's passage by the planet. If orbit insertion and commissioning go according to plan, MAVEN is poised to make once-in-a-lifetime remote sensing observations of the comet and its effects on Mars. MAVEN's Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph (IUVS) was designed to map emissions from common solar system gases and is therefore well suited to obtaining multispectral images of the comet at close range. IUVS's 115-340nm spectral range includes emissions from H, O, C, S, CO, CO2, and OH. The instrument includes the first interplanetary UV echelle which may be capable of measuring the D/H ratio given sufficient time on target. During IUVS's campaign on 17 October 2014, the comet's apparent size will increase 50% as it approaches. MAVEN's truly unique opportunity is the search for potential changes in the atmosphere due to the comet. Since MAVEN was conceived to measure the atmosphere's response to changing solar influences, it is perfectly situated to detect atmospheric changes due to the deposition of gas, dust, energy and momentum from the comet. MAVEN will obtain the "before" picture by observing Mars for approximately two days pre-comet, and the "after" picture starting soon after its closest approach. IUVS's multiple observing modes each present an opportunity to detect atmospheric changes. First, limb scans of atmospheric emissions from 70 to 225 km altitude could detect new species, including metal ions from the dust, as well as detect changes in the atmospheric scale height due to heating by incoming cometary gas and dust. Second, scans of the extended atmospheric corona up to 4500 km altitude will be sensitive to atoms and molecules ejected or rebounding from atmospheric collisions, especially H, O and OH. Finally, multispectral imaging of the planet's disk might even detect "auroral"-type influences on the segment of the nightside directed into the comet flow. The primary limitation on MAVEN

  13. [A double-blind study on the effect of dexetimide in the control of neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal side-effects].

    PubMed

    Chen, Y

    1991-08-01

    A double-blind study was carried out on the therapeutic effects of dexetimide and artane in the control of neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal side-effects in 261 cases of schizophrenia. The authors found that therapeutic effects of two drugs for the control of extrapyramidal signs were equal. Dexetimidal had the advantages of less side-effects, less dosage and long-action. PMID:1683277

  14. Cholesterol Analogs with Degradation-resistant Alkyl Side Chains Are Effective Mycobacterium tuberculosis Growth Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Frank, Daniel J; Zhao, Yan; Wong, Siew Hoon; Basudhar, Debashree; De Voss, James J; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2016-04-01

    Cholest-4-en-3-one, whether added exogenously or generated intracellularly from cholesterol, inhibits the growth ofMycobacterium tuberculosiswhen CYP125A1 and CYP142A1, the cytochrome P450 enzymes that initiate degradation of the sterol side chain, are disabled. Here we demonstrate that a 16-hydroxy derivative of cholesterol, which was previously reported to inhibit growth ofM. tuberculosis, acts by preventing the oxidation of the sterol side chain even in the presence of the relevant cytochrome P450 enzymes. The finding that (25R)-cholest-5-en-3β,16β,26-triol (1) (and its 3-keto metabolite) inhibit growth suggests that cholesterol analogs with non-degradable side chains represent a novel class of anti-mycobacterial agents. In accord with this, two cholesterol analogs with truncated, fluorinated side chains have been synthesized and shown to similarly block the growth in culture ofM. tuberculosis. PMID:26833565

  15. Searching for low percolation thresholds within amphiphilic polymer membranes: The effect of side chain branching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorenbos, G.

    2015-06-01

    Percolation thresholds for solvent diffusion within hydrated model polymeric membranes are derived from dissipative particle dynamics in combination with Monte Carlo (MC) tracer diffusion calculations. The polymer backbones are composed of hydrophobic A beads to which at regular intervals Y-shaped side chains are attached. Each side chain is composed of eight A beads and contains two identical branches that are each terminated with a pendant hydrophilic C bead. Four types of side chains are considered for which the two branches (each represented as [C], [AC], [AAC], or [AAAC]) are splitting off from the 8th, 6th, 4th, or 2nd A bead, respectively. Water diffusion through the phase separated water containing pore networks is deduced from MC tracer diffusion calculations. The percolation threshold for the architectures containing the [C] and [AC] branches is at a water volume fraction of ˜0.07 and 0.08, respectively. These are much lower than those derived earlier for linear architectures of various side chain length and side chain distributions. Control of side chain architecture is thus a very interesting design parameter to decrease the percolation threshold for solvent and proton transports within flexible amphiphilic polymer membranes.

  16. Searching for low percolation thresholds within amphiphilic polymer membranes: The effect of side chain branching

    SciTech Connect

    Dorenbos, G.

    2015-06-14

    Percolation thresholds for solvent diffusion within hydrated model polymeric membranes are derived from dissipative particle dynamics in combination with Monte Carlo (MC) tracer diffusion calculations. The polymer backbones are composed of hydrophobic A beads to which at regular intervals Y-shaped side chains are attached. Each side chain is composed of eight A beads and contains two identical branches that are each terminated with a pendant hydrophilic C bead. Four types of side chains are considered for which the two branches (each represented as [C], [AC], [AAC], or [AAAC]) are splitting off from the 8th, 6th, 4th, or 2nd A bead, respectively. Water diffusion through the phase separated water containing pore networks is deduced from MC tracer diffusion calculations. The percolation threshold for the architectures containing the [C] and [AC] branches is at a water volume fraction of ∼0.07 and 0.08, respectively. These are much lower than those derived earlier for linear architectures of various side chain length and side chain distributions. Control of side chain architecture is thus a very interesting design parameter to decrease the percolation threshold for solvent and proton transports within flexible amphiphilic polymer membranes.

  17. Effects of Small-Sided Games vs. Interval Training in Aerobic Fitness and Physical Enjoyment in Young Elite Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Los Arcos, Asier; Vázquez, Juan Sebastián; Martín, Juan; Lerga, Javier; Sánchez, Felipe; Villagra, Federico; Zulueta, Javier J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Small-Sided Games (SSG) vs. Interval Training (IT) in soccer training on aerobic fitness and physical enjoyment in youth elite soccer players during the last 8 weeks of the season. Seventeen U-16 male soccer players (age = 15.5 ± 0.6 years, and 8.5 years of experience) of a Spanish First Division club academy were randomized to 2 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 9) and IT group (n = 8). In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 11 sessions with different SSGs, whereas the IT group performed the same number of sessions of IT. Players were tested before and after the 6-week training intervention with a continuous maximal multistage running field test and the counter movement jump test (CMJ). At the end of the study, players answered the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES). During the study, heart rate (HR) and session perceived effort (sRPE) were assessed. SSGs were as effective as IT in maintaining the aerobic fitness in elite young soccer players during the last weeks of the season. Players in the SSG group declared a greater physical enjoyment than IT (P = 0.006; ES = 1.86 ± 1.07). Coaches could use SSG training during the last weeks of the season as an option without fear of losing aerobic fitness while promoting high physical enjoyment. PMID:26331623

  18. Effects of Small-Sided Games vs. Interval Training in Aerobic Fitness and Physical Enjoyment in Young Elite Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Juan; Lerga, Javier; Sánchez, Felipe; Villagra, Federico; Zulueta, Javier J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Small-Sided Games (SSG) vs. Interval Training (IT) in soccer training on aerobic fitness and physical enjoyment in youth elite soccer players during the last 8 weeks of the season. Seventeen U-16 male soccer players (age = 15.5 ± 0.6 years, and 8.5 years of experience) of a Spanish First Division club academy were randomized to 2 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 9) and IT group (n = 8). In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 11 sessions with different SSGs, whereas the IT group performed the same number of sessions of IT. Players were tested before and after the 6-week training intervention with a continuous maximal multistage running field test and the counter movement jump test (CMJ). At the end of the study, players answered the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES). During the study, heart rate (HR) and session perceived effort (sRPE) were assessed. SSGs were as effective as IT in maintaining the aerobic fitness in elite young soccer players during the last weeks of the season. Players in the SSG group declared a greater physical enjoyment than IT (P = 0.006; ES = 1.86 ± 1.07). Coaches could use SSG training during the last weeks of the season as an option without fear of losing aerobic fitness while promoting high physical enjoyment. PMID:26331623

  19. Modulators of γ-Secretase Activity Can Facilitate the Toxic Side-Effects and Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Svedružić, Željko M.; Popović, Katarina; Šendula-Jengić, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Background Selective modulation of different Aβ products of an intramembrane protease γ-secretase, could be the most promising strategy for development of effective therapies for Alzheimer's disease. We describe how different drug-candidates can modulate γ-secretase activity in cells, by studying how DAPT affects changes in γ-secretase activity caused by gradual increase in Aβ metabolism. Results Aβ 1–40 secretion in the presence of DAPT shows biphasic activation-inhibition dose-response curves. The biphasic mechanism is a result of modulation of γ-secretase activity by multiple substrate and inhibitor molecules that can bind to the enzyme simultaneously. The activation is due to an increase in γ-secretase's kinetic affinity for its substrate, which can make the enzyme increasingly more saturated with otherwise sub-saturating substrate. The noncompetitive inhibition that prevails at the saturating substrate can decrease the maximal activity. The synergistic activation-inhibition effects can drastically reduce γ-secretase's capacity to process its physiological substrates. This reduction makes the biphasic inhibitors exceptionally prone to the toxic side-effects and potentially pathogenic. Without the modulation, γ-secretase activity on it physiological substrate in cells is only 14% of its maximal activity, and far below the saturation. Significance Presented mechanism can explain why moderate inhibition of γ-secretase cannot lead to effective therapies, the pharmacodynamics of Aβ-rebound phenomenon, and recent failures of the major drug-candidates such as semagacestat. Novel improved drug-candidates can be prepared from competitive inhibitors that can bind to different sites on γ-secretase simultaneously. Our quantitative analysis of the catalytic capacity can facilitate the future studies of the therapeutic potential of γ-secretase and the pathogenic changes in Aβ metabolism. PMID:23308095

  20. Effects of emphasising opposition and cooperation on collective movement behaviour during football small-sided games.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, B; Marcelino, R; Torres-Ronda, L; Torrents, C; Sampaio, J

    2016-07-01

    Optimizing collective behaviour helps to increase performance in mutual tasks. In team sports settings, the small-sided games (SSG) have been used as key context tools to stress out the players' awareness about their in-game required behaviours. Research has mostly described these behaviours when confronting teams have the same number of players, disregarding the frequent situations of low and high inequality. This study compared the players' positioning dynamics when manipulating the number of opponents and teammates during professional and amateur football SSG. The participants played 4v3, 4v5 and 4v7 games, where one team was confronted with low-superiority, low- and high-inferiority situations, and their opponents with low-, medium- and high-cooperation situations. Positional data were used to calculate effective playing space and distances from each player to team centroid, opponent team centroid and nearest opponent. Outcomes suggested that increasing the number of opponents in professional teams resulted in moderate/large decrease in approximate entropy (ApEn) values to both distance to team and opponent team centroid (i.e., the variables present higher regularity/predictability pattern). In low-cooperation game scenarios, the ApEn in amateurs' tactical variables presented a moderate/large increase. The professional teams presented an increase in the distance to nearest opponent with the increase of the cooperation level. Increasing the number of opponents was effective to overemphasise the need to use local information in the positioning decision-making process from professionals. Conversely, amateur still rely on external informational feedback. Increasing the cooperation promoted more regularity in spatial organisation in amateurs and emphasise their players' local perceptions. PMID:26928336

  1. Clinical features and drug induced side effects in early versus late antidepressant responders.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Chiara; Marsano, Agnese; Balestri, Martina; De Ronchi, Diana; Serretti, Alessandro

    2013-10-01

    Early antidepressant response (2nd week) has been reported as the result of a true antidepressant effect and a predictor of subsequent stable response. With the purpose to study the clinical profile of early response/remission (2nd week) compared to late response/remission (4th-6th weeks), two independent major depressive disorder (MDD) samples (the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression or STAR*D n=1922 and an Italian sample n=171) were investigated. Patients were treated with citalopram in the STAR*D while in a naturalistic setting in the Italian sample. Depressive symptomatology was assessed by the Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale weekly in the Italian sample and biweekly by the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Clinician Rated in the STAR*D. Logistic regression was used to investigate possible predictors of early response and the Bonferroni correction was applied. In the STAR*D, higher levels of baseline core depressive symptoms (Bech subscale) were associated with early response (p=0.00017), as well as lower baseline insomnia (p=0.003) and higher work and social functioning (p=0.001). In the Italian sample none of these variables were associated with the phenotype, but a non significant trend of lower baseline quality of life (p=0.078) was observed in late remitters. In the STAR*D late responders reported higher levels of antidepressant induced side effects, especially difficulty in sleeping (p=5.68e-13), with a non significant trend in the same direction in the Italian sample (p=0.09). The identification of late versus early antidepressant responders at the beginning of the treatment may be useful to guide therapeutic choices in clinical settings. PMID:23800418

  2. The effects of the application of low-dye taping on paretic side plantar pressure among patients with plantar fasciitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan; Lee, Sangyong; Kim, Shingyun; Hwangbo, Gak

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of low-dye taping on paretic side plantar pressure in patients with plantar fasciitis. [Subjects] The 30 patients in this study were randomly allocated to a low-dye taping group (n = 15) or a conservative treatment group (n =15). [Methods] Both groups received treatment thrice a week for six weeks. BioRescue was used to measure the weight distribution of the patients’ paretic side. [Results] Within-group comparison showed that the posterior weight distribution significantly increased among patients in both groups. However, comparison between the two groups showed that the low-dye taping group’s posterior weight distribution was significantly higher than that of the conservative treatment group. [Conclusion] These findings show that the application of low-dye taping is an effective intervention for paretic-side plantar pressure among patients with plantar fasciitis. PMID:26696737

  3. The effects of the application of low-dye taping on paretic side plantar pressure among patients with plantar fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan; Lee, Sangyong; Kim, Shingyun; Hwangbo, Gak

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of low-dye taping on paretic side plantar pressure in patients with plantar fasciitis. [Subjects] The 30 patients in this study were randomly allocated to a low-dye taping group (n = 15) or a conservative treatment group (n =15). [Methods] Both groups received treatment thrice a week for six weeks. BioRescue was used to measure the weight distribution of the patients' paretic side. [Results] Within-group comparison showed that the posterior weight distribution significantly increased among patients in both groups. However, comparison between the two groups showed that the low-dye taping group's posterior weight distribution was significantly higher than that of the conservative treatment group. [Conclusion] These findings show that the application of low-dye taping is an effective intervention for paretic-side plantar pressure among patients with plantar fasciitis. PMID:26696737

  4. A Questionnaire-based Study of the Views of Schizophrenia Patients and Psychiatric Healthcare Professionals in Japan about the Side Effects of Clozapine

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Ippei; Hanya, Manako; Uno, Junji; Amano, Yuhei; Fukai, Keiko; Fujita, Kiyoshi; Kamei, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is well documented that clozapine treatment causes agranulocytosis, but it can also induce drowsiness, constipation, and hypersalivation; however, these symptoms are usually less severe. It has been reported that clozapine-treated patients with schizophrenia and psychiatric healthcare professionals consider different side effects to be important. The aim of this study was to assess current practice related to the side effects of clozapine in clozapine-treated patients with schizophrenia and psychiatric healthcare professionals in Japan. Methods Data were collected from January 2014 to August 2015 in Okehazama Hospital, Kakamigahara Hospital, and Numazu Chuo Hospital. Clozapine-treated patients with schizophrenia and psychiatric healthcare professionals (psychiatrists and pharmacists) were enrolled in this study. Results Of the 106 patients and 120 psychiatric healthcare professionals screened, 100 patients and 104 healthcare professionals were included in this study. We asked the patients what side effects caused them trouble and we asked psychiatric healthcare professionals what side effects caused them concern. The patients and psychiatrists held similarly positive views regarding the efficacy of clozapine. The healthcare professionals were concerned about agranulocytosis (92.4%), blood routines (61.3%). On the other hand, the patients experienced hypersalivation (76.0%), sleepiness (51.0%). A positive correlation (R=0.696) was found between patient satisfaction and DAI-10 score. Conclusion Patients experienced more problems than healthcare professionals expected. However, usage experience of clozapine healthcare professionals tended to have similar results to patients. It is necessary that all healthcare professionals fully understand the efficacy and potential side effects of clozapine. This is very important for promoting clozapine treatment in Japan. PMID:27489383

  5. Consumption of Energy Drinks Among Lebanese Youth: A Pilot Study on the Prevalence and Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Background: The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. Objectives: This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. Patients and Methods: A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged between 13 and 30 years in private and public schools and universities in Lebanon over 5 months. A self-administered questionnaire was used inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, consumption patterns, attitudes and beliefs about energy drinks. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Data was analyzed using SPSS 17. Results: We studied 1500 students (mean age: 18.92 ± 1.85; 51.3% were males). The overall prevalence of energy drinks consumption was 63.6% (60.5% were males), among which 50.5% used alcoholic energy drinks. Respondents indicated that most consumed energy drinks were “Red Bull” and “Boom Boom” (70.9% and 51.5% respectively). In total, 64.5% of participants believed the effect of these drinks in energizing the body, and 72.7% believed that they can stimulate intellectual capacities. In addition, 29.6% of consumers experienced at least one adverse effect, where tachycardia was reported in 21.1% of cases. On the other hand, desired effects felt after consumption were mostly pleasure (33.8%). Males had a 3-time more risk of consuming such drinks compared to females (OR: 0.381, P < 0.001; 95% CI: 0.300-0.484). Additionally, this analysis demonstrated a significant association between energy drinks consumption and regions outside Beirut (OR: 1.401, P: 0.006; 95% CI: 1.103-1.781), medical field of work (OR: 0.376, P: 0.010; 95% CI: 0.179-0.790) and higher personal income (OR: 1.317, P < 0.001; 95% CI: 1.117-1.553). Conclusions: This study

  6. Flibanserin has anxiolytic effects without locomotor side effects in the infant rat ultrasonic vocalization model of anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Podhorna, J; Brown, R E

    2000-01-01

    This study compared the effects of flibanserin, a novel 5-HT1A agonist/5-HT2A antagonist; diazepam, a traditional anxiolytic; and imipramine, a traditional antidepressant, on separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), locomotor behaviour, negative geotaxis and body temperature of 7–8-day-old rat pups.Flibanserin (5, 10, 25 and 50 mg kg−1 s.c.) reduced USVs but had no effects on locomotor behaviour or negative geotaxis. Lower doses of flibanserin (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg kg−1 s.c.) had no effect on any behaviour. Diazepam (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg kg−1 s.c.) not only reduced the USVs but also increased rolling and increased the latency of the negative geotaxic response. Imipramine (10, 15, 20 and 30 mg kg−1 s.c.) reduced USVs, increased total locomotor activity and rolling but had no effect on negative geotaxis. None of the drugs altered body temperature.Our data showed that flibanserin is as effective in reducing the USVs as diazepam and imipramine but has a lower incidence of motor side effects. This suggests that flibanserin might be effective for the treatment of mood disturbances such as anxiety. PMID:10864879

  7. Quality of life in colon cancer patients with skin side effects: preliminary results from a monocentric cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors are widely prescribed anticancer drugs. Patients treated commonly develop dermatologic adverse drugs reactions, but rarely they are involved in systematic evaluation of their quality of life. This monocentric cross sectional study is carried out to assess quality of life in colon cancer patients experienced skin side effects due to anti epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors therapy. Methods Consecutive patients with skin side effects to therapy treated at Fondazione Poliambulanza were enrolled in this study. Quality of life was evaluated with the Italian validated version of Skindex-29 questionnaire, exploring three dimensions: symptoms, emotional, and physical functioning. Skindex-29 was administered one time between the eighth and the twelfth week of the treatment. Results Forty-five consecutive patients, mainly with metastatic colon cancer (29 female, 16 male), with an average age of 59.31 years (ranging from 34-78) were included in the study and analyzed. Patients showed a great impact of skin side effects on symptoms (mean 43), followed by emotional (mean 30), and functioning (mean 26) scales. In general women, the 55-65 age class, and patients with partial remission reported the worst quality of life. Conclusions Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors' skin side effects have an important impact on quality of life in advanced colon cancer patients; symptoms scale is the most effect respect to emotional and functioning scales. PMID:20398332

  8. Effective Energy Simulation and Optimal Design of Side-lit Buildings with Venetian Blinds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Tian

    Venetian blinds are popularly used in buildings to control the amount of incoming daylight for improving visual comfort and reducing heat gains in air-conditioning systems. Studies have shown that the proper design and operation of window systems could result in significant energy savings in both lighting and cooling. However, there is no convenient computer tool that allows effective and efficient optimization of the envelope of side-lit buildings with blinds now. Three computer tools, Adeline, DOE2 and EnergyPlus widely used for the above-mentioned purpose have been experimentally examined in this study. Results indicate that the two former tools give unacceptable accuracy due to unrealistic assumptions adopted while the last one may generate large errors in certain conditions. Moreover, current computer tools have to conduct hourly energy simulations, which are not necessary for life-cycle energy analysis and optimal design, to provide annual cooling loads. This is not computationally efficient, particularly not suitable for optimal designing a building at initial stage because the impacts of many design variations and optional features have to be evaluated. A methodology is therefore developed for efficient and effective thermal and daylighting simulations and optimal design of buildings with blinds. Based on geometric optics and radiosity method, a mathematical model is developed to reasonably simulate the daylighting behaviors of venetian blinds. Indoor illuminance at any reference point can be directly and efficiently computed. They have been validated with both experiments and simulations with Radiance. Validation results show that indoor illuminances computed by the new models agree well with the measured data, and the accuracy provided by them is equivalent to that of Radiance. The computational efficiency of the new models is much higher than that of Radiance as well as EnergyPlus. Two new methods are developed for the thermal simulation of buildings. A

  9. The Two Sides of the Mental Clock: The Imaginal Hemispatial Effect in the Healthy Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conson, Massimiliano; Cinque, Fausta; Trojano, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    When subjects are asked to compare the mental images of two analog clocks telling different times (the mental clock test), they are faster to process angles formed by hands located in the right than in the left half of the dial. In the present paper, we demonstrate that this Imaginal HemiSpatial Effect (IHSE) can be also observed in two modified…

  10. ITPA Polymorphisms Are Associated with Hematological Side Effects during Antiviral Therapy for Chronic HCV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Maan, Raoel; van der Meer, Adriaan J.; Brouwer, Willem Pieter; Plompen, Elisabeth P. C.; Sonneveld, Milan J.; Roomer, Robert; van der Eijk, Annemiek A.; Groothuismink, Zwier M. A.; Hansen, Bettina E.; Veldt, Bart J.; Janssen, Harry L. A.; Boonstra, Andre; de Knegt, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective Genetic polymorphisms in the inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) gene have been associated with the protection from early ribavirin(RBV)-induced hemolytic anemia among patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the functional ITPA variants and hematological side effects during antiviral therapy with pegylated interferon (PegIFN) and RBV. Patients and Methods This cohort study included all consecutive Caucasian patients treated for chronic HCV infection with PegIFN and RBV between 2000 and 2009 for whom a serum sample was available for genetic testing. The predicted inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPase) activity was based on the genotypes of the SNPs rs1127354 and rs7270101. Decline in hemoglobin (Hb) during antiviral therapy, as well as dose reductions, blood transfusions and use of erythropoietin were assessed. Results In total, 213 patients were included. The predicted ITPase activity was normal among 152 (71%) patients; 61 (29%) patients had ITPase deficiency. By multivariable linear regression, RBV dose in mg per kilogram (Beta 0.09, 95%CI 0.04–0.13, p<0.001) and normal ITPase activity (Beta 0.89, 95%CI 0.64–1.14, p<0.001) were associated with more Hb decline at week 4 of treatment. Patients with normal ITPase activity underwent more dose adjustments of RBV than patients with ITPase deficiency (19(13%) vs 1(2%),p = 0.014) and received erythropoietin more frequently (12 (8%) vs 0 (0%),p = 0.024). Conclusion Genetic variants in the ITPA gene protected against RBV treatment-induced anemia among Caucasian patients with chronic HCV infection. Patients with normal ITPase activity underwent more dose reductions of RBV and received erythropoietin more frequently. PMID:26441325

  11. Testicular germ cell tumor: Short and long-term side effects of treatment among survivors

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Thierry; Sideris, Spyridon; Aoun, Fouad; van Velthoven, Roland; Sirtaine, Nicolas; Paesmans, Marianne; Ameye, Lieveke; Awada, Ahmad; Devriendt, Daniel; Peltier, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Long-term prognosis of germ cell tumor (GCT) types is excellent, however, treatment is associated with non-negligible complication rates and a negative impact on quality of life. The present study described treatment results in terms of survival, both short and long-term toxicity, and paternity rates in a cohort of patients treated at Jules Bordet Institute, University ULB of Brussels (Brussels, Belgium). The present study analyzed the data of a cohort of patients with GCT types. Pre-operative patient and tumor characteristics were described. Performance status, pulmonary function tests and renal clearance prior to chemotherapy were noted. Chemotherapeutic regimens and their associated toxicities were analyzed. The duration to event-free, cancer-specific and overall survivals were estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves. A total of 115 patients (median age, 31-years-old) were treated for a GCT at Jules Bordet Institute. At a median follow-up of 6-years, 11 (10%) patients had relapsed and 2 (2%) developed a second malignant neoplasm. At the final follow-up, 97 (89%) and 6 (5.5%) patients exhibited complete and partial remission, respectively. A total of 6% of patients exhibited a progressive disease. In terms of short-term toxicity, 11% of patients presented with febrile neutropenia. The 10-year overall survival rate and relapse-free survival rate were 93.4 and 89.8%, respectively. The paternity rate post-treatment was 27%. Testicular GCT survivors suffered from short- and long-term treatment-associated side effects on both a physical and psychological level. A long-term close follow-up is necessary in order to assist the patient with these treatment-induced complications. PMID:27588190

  12. Aging and HIV/AIDS: pathogenetic role of therapeutic side effects

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Rebecca A; Lewis, William

    2014-01-01

    The intersection of aging and HIV/AIDS is a looming ‘epidemic within an epidemic.’ This paper reviews how HIV/AIDS and its therapy cause premature aging or contribute mechanistically to HIV-associated non-AIDS illnesses (HANA). Survival with HIV/AIDS has markedly improved by therapy combinations containing nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors (PIs) called HAART (highly active anti-retroviral therapy). Because NRTIs and PIs together prevent or attenuate HIV-1 replication, and prolong life, the population of aging patients with HIV/AIDS increases accordingly. However, illnesses frequently associated with aging in the absence of HIV/AIDS appear to occur prematurely in HIV/AIDS patients. Theories that help to explain biological aging include oxidative stress (where mitochondrial oxidative injury exceeds antioxidant defense), chromosome telomere shortening with associated cellular senescence, and accumulation of lamin A precursors (a nuclear envelop protein). Each of these has the potential to be enhanced or caused by HIV/AIDS, antiretroviral therapy, or both. Antiretroviral therapy has been shown to enhance events seen in biological aging. Specifically, antiretroviral NRTIs cause mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial DNA defects that resemble features of both HANA and aging. More recent clinical evidence points to telomere shortening caused by NRTI triphosphate-induced inhibition of telomerase, suggesting telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) inhibition as being a pathogenetic contributor to premature aging in HIV/AIDS. PIs may also have a role in premature aging in HIV/AIDS as they cause prelamin A accumulation. Overall, toxic side effects of HAART may both resemble and promote events of aging and are worthy of mechanistic studies. PMID:24336070

  13. The long-term side effects of radiation therapy for benign brain tumors in adults

    SciTech Connect

    al-Mefty, O.; Kersh, J.E.; Routh, A.; Smith, R.R. )

    1990-10-01

    Radiation therapy plays an integral part in managing intracranial tumors. While the risk:benefit ratio is considered acceptable for treating malignant tumors, risks of long-term complications of radiotherapy need thorough assessment in adults treated for benign tumors. Many previously reported delayed complications of radiotherapy can be attributed to inappropriate treatment or to the sensitivity of a developing child's brain to radiation. Medical records, radiological studies, autopsy findings, and follow-up information were reviewed for 58 adult patients (31 men and 27 women) treated between 1958 and 1987 with radiotherapy for benign intracranial tumors. Patient ages at the time of irradiation ranged from 21 to 87 years (mean 47.7 years). The pathology included 46 pituitary adenomas, five meningiomas, four glomus jugulare tumors, two pineal area tumors, and one craniopharyngioma. Average radiation dosage was 4984 cGy (range 3100 to 7012 cGy), given in an average of 27.2 fractions (range 15 to 45 fractions), over a period averaging 46.6 days. The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 31 years (mean 8.1 years). Findings related to tumor recurrence or surgery were excluded. Twenty-two patients had complications considered to be delayed side effects of radiotherapy. Two patients had visual deterioration developing 3 and 6 years after treatment; six had pituitary dysfunction; and 17 had varying degrees of parenchymal changes of the brain, occurring mostly in the temporal lobes and relating to the frequent presentation of pituitary tumors. One clival tumor with the radiographic appearance of a meningioma, developed 30 years post-irradiation for acromegaly. This study unveils considerable delayed sequelae of radiotherapy in a series of adult patients receiving what is considered safe treatment for benign brain tumors. 163 refs.

  14. Ferrous Sulfate Supplementation Causes Significant Gastrointestinal Side-Effects in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tolkien, Zoe; Stecher, Lynne; Mander, Adrian P.; Pereira, Dora I. A.; Powell, Jonathan J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The tolerability of oral iron supplementation for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia is disputed. Objective Our aim was to quantify the odds of GI side-effects in adults related to current gold standard oral iron therapy, namely ferrous sulfate. Methods Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating GI side-effects that included ferrous sulfate and a comparator that was either placebo or intravenous (IV) iron. Random effects meta-analysis modelling was undertaken and study heterogeneity was summarised using I2 statistics. Results Forty three trials comprising 6831 adult participants were included. Twenty trials (n = 3168) had a placebo arm and twenty three trials (n = 3663) had an active comparator arm of IV iron. Ferrous sulfate supplementation significantly increased risk of GI side-effects versus placebo with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.32 [95% CI 1.74–3.08, p<0.0001, I2 = 53.6%] and versus IV iron with an OR of 3.05 [95% CI 2.07-4.48, p<0.0001, I2 = 41.6%]. Subgroup analysis in IBD patients showed a similar effect versus IV iron (OR = 3.14, 95% CI 1.34-7.36, p = 0.008, I2 = 0%). Likewise, subgroup analysis of pooled data from 7 RCTs in pregnant women (n = 1028) showed a statistically significant increased risk of GI side-effects for ferrous sulfate although there was marked heterogeneity in the data (OR = 3.33, 95% CI 1.19-9.28, p = 0.02, I2 = 66.1%). Meta-regression did not provide significant evidence of an association between the study OR and the iron dose. Conclusions Our meta-analysis confirms that ferrous sulfate is associated with a significant increase in gastrointestinal-specific side-effects but does not find a relationship with dose. PMID:25700159

  15. Characteristics, Perceived Side Effects and Benefits of Electronic Cigarette Use: A Worldwide Survey of More than 19,000 Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E.; Romagna, Giorgio; Tsiapras, Dimitris; Kyrzopoulos, Stamatis; Voudris, Vassilis

    2014-01-01

    Background: Electronic cigarette (EC) use has grown exponentially over the past few years. The purpose of this survey was to assess the characteristics and experiences of a large sample of EC users and examine the differences between those who partially and completely substituted smoking with EC use. Methods: A questionnaire was prepared, translated into 10 different languages and uploaded in an online survey tool. EC users were asked to participate irrespective of their current smoking status. Participants were divided according to their smoking status at the time of participation in two subgroups: former smokers and current smokers. Results: In total, 19,414 participants were included in the analysis, with 88 of them (0.5%) reported not being smokers at the time of EC use initiation. Complete substitution of smoking was reported by 81.0% of participants (former smokers) while current smokers had reduced smoking consumption from 20 to 4 cigarettes per day. They were using ECs for a median of 10 months. They initiated EC use with a median of 18 mg/mL nicotine-concentration liquids; 21.5% used higher than 20 mg/mL. Only 3.5% of participants were using 0-nicotine liquids at the time of the survey. Former smokers were highly dependent (Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence = 7) and were heavier smokers (21 cigarettes per day when smoking) compared to current smokers. The most important reasons for initiating EC use for both subgroups was to reduce the harm associated with smoking and to reduce exposure of family members to second-hand smoking. Most considered ECs as less harmful than tobacco cigarettes, while 11.0% considered them absolutely harmless. Side effects were reported by more than half of the participants (59.8%), with the most common being sore/dry mouth and throat; side effects were mild and in most cases were subsequently resolved (partially or completely). Participants experienced significant benefits in physical status and improvements in pre

  16. Solar radiation management - on feasibility, side effects, and reaching the 2 degree target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, Hannele; Laakso, Anton; Ekholm, Tommi; Maalick, Zubair; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Kokkola, Harri; Romakkaniemi, Sami

    2015-04-01

    Solar radiation management (SRM), i.e. artificially increasing the reflectivity of the Earth, has been suggested as a fast-response, low-cost method to mitigate the impacts of potential rapid future climate change. We have used 1) large eddy simulations as well as an aerosol-climate model and an earth system model to investigate the feasibility and side effects of two types of SRM (marine cloud brightening and stratospheric sulfur injections) and 2) a sequential decision-making approach to determine strategies that combine emission reductions and an uncertain SRM option to limit global mean temperature increase to 2 degree. Regarding stratospheric injections, we find that a large explosive volcanic eruption taking place while SRM is in full force would result in overcooling of the planet, as expected; however, the radiative and climate effects would be clearly smaller than could be expected from the sum of the effects from volcanic eruption alone or SRM alone. In addition, the stratospheric sulphur load would recover from the eruption faster under SRM and natural conditions. If the eruption took place in the high latitudes, the resulting global forcing would be highly dependent on the season of the eruption. Furthermore, regarding marine cloud brightening we find that the spraying of sea water drops leads to cooling due to evaporation and leads to delay in particle dispersion. This delay enhances particle scavenging, and can influence the efficacy of cloud seeding. In terms of combining emission reductions and SRM to reach the 2° C warming target, we find that before the termination risk for SRM can be completely excluded, the acceptable greenhouse gas emission pathways remain only slightly higher than in scenarios without SRM. More generally, the uncertainties in SRM start time, acceptable magnitude and sustainability mean that it can be only a limited substitute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions. If an additional constraint for CO2 concentration to

  17. The Lack of Side Effects of an Ineffective Treatment Facilitates the Development of a Belief in Its Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Fernando; Barberia, Itxaso; Matute, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Some alternative medicines enjoy widespread use, and in certain situations are preferred over conventional, validated treatments in spite of the fact that they fail to prove effective when tested scientifically. We propose that the causal illusion, a basic cognitive bias, underlies the belief in the effectiveness of bogus treatments. Therefore, the variables that modulate the former might affect the latter. For example, it is well known that the illusion is boosted when a potential cause occurs with high probability. In this study, we examined the effect of this variable in a fictitious medical scenario. First, we showed that people used a fictitious medicine (i.e., a potential cause of remission) more often when they thought it caused no side effects. Second, the more often they used the medicine, the more likely they were to develop an illusory belief in its effectiveness, despite the fact that it was actually useless. This behavior may be parallel to actual pseudomedicine usage; that because a treatment is thought to be harmless, it is used with high frequency, hence the overestimation of its effectiveness in treating diseases with a high rate of spontaneous relief. This study helps shed light on the motivations spurring the widespread preference of pseudomedicines over scientific medicines. This is a valuable first step toward the development of scientifically validated strategies to counteract the impact of pseudomedicine on society. PMID:24416194

  18. Targets of drugs are generally, and targets of drugs having side effects are specifically good spreaders of human interactome perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Lopez, Áron R.; Szalay, Kristóf Z.; Türei, Dénes; Módos, Dezső; Lenti, Katalin; Korcsmáros, Tamás; Csermely, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Network-based methods are playing an increasingly important role in drug design. Our main question in this paper was whether the efficiency of drug target proteins to spread perturbations in the human interactome is larger if the binding drugs have side effects, as compared to those which have no reported side effects. Our results showed that in general, drug targets were better spreaders of perturbations than non-target proteins, and in particular, targets of drugs with side effects were also better spreaders of perturbations than targets of drugs having no reported side effects in human protein-protein interaction networks. Colorectal cancer-related proteins were good spreaders and had a high centrality, while type 2 diabetes-related proteins showed an average spreading efficiency and had an average centrality in the human interactome. Moreover, the interactome-distance between drug targets and disease-related proteins was higher in diabetes than in colorectal cancer. Our results may help a better understanding of the network position and dynamics of drug targets and disease-related proteins, and may contribute to develop additional, network-based tests to increase the potential safety of drug candidates. PMID:25960144

  19. A Comparison of Psychotropic Drug Side Effect Profiles in Adults Diagnosed with Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Julie; Matson, Johnny; Neal, Daniene; Mahan, Sara; Fodstad, Jill; Bamburg, Jay; Holloway, Jodie

    2010-01-01

    Forty-eight adults diagnosed with intellectual disabilities and Autistic Disorder or Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified were examined with regard to psychotropic medication side effects. Participants were divided into 4 groups: no psychotropic medication group (n = 9); atypical antipsychotic medication group (n = 13);…

  20. Questionnaire about the Adverse Events and Side Effects Following Botulinum Toxin A Treatment in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Blaszczyk, Izabela; Foumani, Nazli Poorsafar; Ljungberg, Christina; Wiberg, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injections for treatment of spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) have been used for about two decades. The treatment is considered safe but a low frequency of adverse events (AE) has been reported. A good method to report AEs is necessary to verify the safety of the treatment. We decided to use an active surveillance of treatment-induced harm using a questionnaire we created. We studied the incidence of reported AEs and side effects in patients with CP treated with BoNT-A. We investigated the relationship between the incidence of AEs or side effects and gender, age, weight, total dose, dose per body weight, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and number of treated body parts. Seventy-four patients with CP participated in our study. In 54 (51%) of 105 BoNT-A treatments performed in 45 (61%) patients, there were 95 AEs and side effects reported, out of which 50 were generalized and/or focal distant. Severe AEs occurred in three patients (4%), and their BoNT-A treatment was discontinued. Consecutive collection of the AE and side-effect incidence using our questionnaire can increase the safety of BoNT-A treatment in patients with CP. PMID:26561833