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1

Mental health survey among landmine survivors in Siem Reap province, Cambodia.  

PubMed

Many survivors of the Khmer Rouge period in Cambodia and the subsequent war with Vietnam have now returned to Cambodia. In this two-stage household cluster survey in Siem Reap Province in Cambodia, we explored the mental health consequences on 166 landmine injury survivors selected from 1000 household in 50 clusters and an oversample of all landmine survivors. We found a prevalence of anxiety of 62% for all respondents, 74% for depression, and 34% for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These prevalences were statistically significantly higher than among the adult population who had not been injured by landmines. These data underscore the importance of providing mental health care services for the people in Siem Reap Province in Cambodia who have been injured by landmines. PMID:22873010

Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Blanton, Curtis; Zalewski, Tami; Tor, Svang; McDonald, Laura; Lavelle, James; Brooks, Robert; Anderson, Mark; Mollica, Richard

2012-01-01

2

Application of integrated magnetic resonance sounding and resistivity methods for borehole implementation. A case study in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geophysical survey was conducted in Cambodia to measure the contribution of geophysics to a running drilling programme. The geology of the area (the province of Siem Reap) mainly consists of recent heterogeneous sediments of sand, silt and clay. The thickness of this formation ranges from 20 to 100 m and lies on Jurassic to Tertiary rocks. Surveys were done

Jean-Michel Vouillamoz; Marc Descloitres; Jean Bernard; Pierre Fourcassier; Laurent Romagny

2002-01-01

3

HIV/AIDS, beersellers and critical community health psychology in Cambodia: a case study.  

PubMed

This case study illustrates a participatory framework for confronting critical community health issues using 'grass-roots' research-guided community-defined interventions. Ongoing work in Cambodia has culturally adapted research, theory and practice for particular, local health-promotion responses to HIV/AIDS, alcohol abuse and other challenges in the community of Siem Reap. For resource-poor communities in Cambodia, we recycle such 'older' concepts as 'empowerment' and 'action research'. We re-imagine community health psychology, when confronted with 'critical', life-and-death issues, as adjusting its research and practices to local, particular ontological and epistemological urgencies of trauma, morbidity and mortality. PMID:24058105

Lubek, Ian; Lee, Helen; Kros, Sarath; Wong, Mee Lian; Van Merode, Tiny; Liu, James; McCreanor, Tim; Idema, Roel; Campbell, Catherine

2014-01-01

4

The value of intermittent point-prevalence surveys of healthcare-associated infections for evaluating infection control interventions at Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background There are limited data on the epidemiology of paediatric healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) and infection control in low-income countries. We describe the value of intermittent point-prevalence surveys for monitoring HCAI and evaluating infection control interventions in a Cambodian paediatric hospital. Methods Hospital-wide, point-prevalence surveys were performed monthly in 2011. Infection control interventions introduced during this period included a hand hygiene programme and a ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) care bundle. Results Overall HCAI prevalence was 13.8/100 patients at-risk, with a significant decline over time. The highest HCAI rates (50%) were observed in critical care; the majority of HCAIs were respiratory (61%). Klebsiella pneumoniae was most commonly isolated and antimicrobial resistance was widespread. Hand hygiene compliance doubled to 51.6%, and total VAP cases/1000 patient-ventilator days fell from 30 to 10. Conclusion Rates of HCAI were substantial in our institution, and antimicrobial resistance a major concern. Point-prevalence surveys are effective for HCAI surveillance, and in monitoring trends in response to infection control interventions.

Stoesser, N; Emary, K; Soklin, S; Peng An, K; Sophal, S; Chhomrath, S; Day, NPJ; Limmathurotsakul, D; Nget, P; Pangnarith, Y; Sona, S; Kumar, V; Moore, CE; Chanpheaktra, N; Parry, CM

2013-01-01

5

Cambodia.  

PubMed

The population of Cambodia stood at 6.25 million in 1986, with an average annual growth rate of 2.1%. Life expectancy is presently 42 years for men and 44.9 years for women. The government is currently disputed between resistance groups and Vietnamese-installed authorities in Phnom Penh. No single authority controls the entire country. The urban population increased sharply during the 1970-75 war, but after seizing power the Khmer Rouge forced most urban residents to return to rural areas as peasants. Massive numbers of people were executed for political reasons or died of starvation and disease during the Khmer Rouge period and after the dislocations caused by the Vietnamese invasion: an estimated 1.5-3 million people are estimated to have died out of a 1975 population of 7.3 million. The resistance forces have grown in size and effectiveness since 1985 and now challenge Vietnam's position in Cambodia. The Cambodian economy, badly damaged by the war and the Khmer Rouge regime, has only slowly begun to recover. Per capita gross national product (GNP) is estimated at less than US$100. The food situation remains precarious, with shortages of rice, meat, vegetables, sugar, flour, and dairy products. Extensive damage to the country's irrigation system, on which rice production depends, has only begun to be repaired. Basic services such as electricity and water are erratic. Although literacy and primary education campaigns have achieved success, health conditions remain poor. PMID:12177940

1987-04-01

6

Angkor, Cambodia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an image of the area around the city of Angkor, Cambodia. The city houses an ancient complex of more than 60 temples dating back to the 9th century. The principal complex, Angkor Wat, is the bright square just left of the center of the image. It is surrounded by a reservoir that appears in this image as a thick black line. The larger bright square above Angkor Wat is another temple complex called Angkor Thom. Archeologists studying this image believe the blue-purple area slightly north of Angkor Thom may be previously undiscovered structures. In the lower right is a bright rectangle surrounded by a dark reservoir, which houses the temple complex Chau Srei Vibol. In its heyday, Angkor had a population of 1 million residents and was the spiritual center for the Khmer people until it was abandoned in the 15th century. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on the 15th orbit of the space shuttle Endeavour on September 30, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 55 kilometers by 85 kilometers (34 miles by 53 miles) that is centered at 13.43 degrees north latitude and 103.9 degrees east longitude. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). The body of water in the south-southwest corner is Tonle Sap, Cambodia's great central lake. The urban area at the lower left of the image is the present-day town of Siem Reap. The adjoining lines are both modern and ancient roads and the remains of Angkor's vast canal system that was used for both irrigation and transportation. The large black rectangles are ancient reservoirs. Today the Angkor complex is hidden beneath a dense rainforest canopy, making it difficult for researchers on the ground to study the ancient city. The SIR-C/X-SAR data are being used by archaeologists at the World Monuments Fund and the Royal Angkor Foundation to understand how the city grew, flourished and later fell into disuse over an 800-year period. The data are also being used to help reconstruct the vast system of hydrological works, canals and reservoirs, which have gone out of use over time. Research teams from more than 11 countries will be using this data to study the Angkor complex.

Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

1995-01-01

7

Qualitative understanding of an international learning experience: what Australian undergraduate nurses and midwives said about a Cambodia placement?  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to report the experiences of three groups of Australian undergraduate nursing and midwifery students undertaking an international learning experience in Cambodia. Relying on an interpretative research design using qualitative content analysis, data were drawn from a sub-group of undergraduate third-year bachelor and dual degree nursing/midwifery students at a Queensland university, Australia. Students from a clinical placement in Siem Reap, Cambodia for a 4-week period in the January of 2010-2012 completed a formal expression of interest, and at three time intervals a questionnaire comprising open-ended questions. The evaluation by the undergraduate nursing/midwifery students of the clinical experience in Cambodia is understood through two core themes: global citizen/better citizen, personal/professional development. The findings have implications for university curriculum developers interested in the internationalization of nursing and midwifery programmes to ensure students are well equipped to practice in diverse multicultural and global health systems. PMID:24713009

Tuckett, Anthony; Crompton, Peta

2014-04-01

8

Application of integrated magnetic resonance sounding and resistivity methods for borehole implementation. A case study in Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A geophysical survey was conducted in Cambodia to measure the contribution of geophysics to a running drilling programme. The geology of the area (the province of Siem Reap) mainly consists of recent heterogeneous sediments of sand, silt and clay. The thickness of this formation ranges from 20 to 100 m and lies on Jurassic to Tertiary rocks. Surveys were done with direct current methods [one-dimensional vertical electrical sounding (1D VES), and two-dimensional (2D) electrical imaging], time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) sounding and proton magnetic resonance sounding (MRS). To validate the geophysical results, boreholes were drilled and tested with electrical logs and pumping tests. We found that: (1) The resistivity methods (VES, 2D electrical imaging and TDEM) are very sensitive to the groundwater electrical conductivity which is highly heterogeneous within the province. A preliminary relationship between measured groundwater conductivity and aquifer resistivity is proposed. (2) The MRS gives accurate information on groundwater occurrence for the 5- to 60-m-deep layers. A preliminary relationship between MRS data (aquifer transmissivity estimated from MRS field measurements) and hydrodynamic parameters (aquifer local transmissivity and borehole relative specific capacity estimated from borehole pumping tests) is proposed. (3) The resistivity methods and MRS are complementary, and a joint use is recommended. (4) At the survey scale, the borehole success rate was improved from 56% to 90% by the use of geophysics. Crossing the technical and cost analyses, we propose a geophysical methodology to implement boreholes in the province of Siem Reap. This methodology could both increase the borehole success rate and save money at the programme scale. It consists of the use of: MRS, TDEM and electrical methods jointly where the borehole success rate is less than 30%. MRS and TDEM jointly where the borehole success rate ranges from 30% to 50%. Electrical methods (VES and 2D electrical imaging) as standard methods.

Vouillamoz, Jean-Michel; Descloitres, Marc; Bernard, Jean; Fourcassier, Pierre; Romagny, Laurent

2002-05-01

9

Pediatric suppurative parotitis in Cambodia between 2007 and 2011.  

PubMed

The causes of suppurative parotitis in Cambodian children are not known. We describe 39 cases at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, between January 2007 and July 2011 (0.07/1000 hospital attendances). The median age was 5.7 years with no neonates affected. Burkholderia pseudomallei was cultured in 29 (74%) cases. No deaths occurred; 1 child developed facial nerve palsy. PMID:22531239

Stoesser, Nicole; Pocock, Joanna; Moore, Catrin E; Soeng, Sona; Chhat, Hor P; Sar, Poda; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Day, Nicholas; Thy, Vann; Sar, Vuthy; Parry, Christopher M

2012-08-01

10

Pediatric Suppurative Parotitis in Cambodia 2007-2011  

PubMed Central

The causes of suppurative parotitis in Cambodian children are not known. We describe 39 cases at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap between January 2007 and July 2011 (0.07/1000 hospital attendances). The median age was 5.7 years with no neonates affected. B. pseudomallei was cultured in 29 (74%) cases. No deaths occurred; one child developed a facial nerve palsy.

Stoesser, Nicole; Pocock, Joanna; Moore, Catrin Elisabeth; Soeng, Sona; Chhat, Hor Put; Sar, Poda; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Day, Nicholas; Thy, Vann; Sar, Vuthy; Parry, Christopher M.

2012-01-01

11

Belize's REAP Programme.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the Rural Education and Agriculture Program (REAP) in Belize, a program which attempts to develop positive attitudes towards agriculture and influence young people to remain in rural Belize and engage in agricultural work. Examines factors that have contributed to the program's success. (GEA)

Jennings, Zellynne

1988-01-01

12

Cambodia: Self Study Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Guide is intended to provide U.S. Government personnel in the foreign affairs community with an overview of important issues related to Cambodia's history, geography, politics, economics, culture, religion, media, and international relations. The Guid...

C. Etcheson

2004-01-01

13

Rabies Situation in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRabies, a fatal but preventable zoonosis, is a major public health problem in developing countries. In Cambodia the disease burden is largely underestimated because patients with encephalitis following dog bites are rarely hospitalized and die at home. Since 1998 Institut Pasteur in Cambodia (IPC), Phnom Penh has been the only source of free post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and post-mortem diagnosis.MethodsThe 1998–2007

Sowath Ly; Philippe Buchy; Nay Yim Heng; Sivuth Ong; Nareth Chhor; Hervé Bourhy; Sirenda Vong

2009-01-01

14

History of USAID in Cambodia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

USAID's current program in Cambodia traces its roots to humanitarian assistance activities in support of Cambodian non-communist resistance groups beginning in 1986. U.S. assistance to Cambodia accelerated sharply after the signing of the Paris Peace Acco...

2009-01-01

15

Cambodia in Turmoil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cambodia, or the People's Republic of Kampuchea, has existed as a nation since the fifth century, and in general has offered a peaceful, agrarian life to its inhabitants. But, for the past decade this once tranquil land has suffered turmoil and tyranny un...

M. T. Avants

1986-01-01

16

Seeking Justice in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the Khmer Rouge regime took power in Cambodia in 1975, its leaders hoped to establish a utopian rural communist society without cities, private property or money. They declared a new beginning of history, Year Zero, and a new nation, Democratic Kampuchea. Although they modeled their revolution on the Soviet Union under Stalin and China under Mao Tse-Tung, they believed

Gregory H. Stanton

17

Education in Cambodia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes future education policy and strategic priorities in Cambodia for the new millennium, taking account of the labor market and the fiscal and institutional development outlooks. Also explored are access to education, gender issues, and financial aspects. Discusses some education efficiency issues and discusses their implications for public…

Journal of Southeast Asian Education, 2000

2000-01-01

18

Echoes of Ancient Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author of this article chose Cambodia's Angkor temples as a jumping-off point for her students' exploration of printmaking. This article describes a lesson in which students used subjects, themes, and symbols that demonstrate knowledge of contexts, values, and aesthetics that communicate intended meaning in artworks.

Feiring, Nancy Click

2004-01-01

19

Continuous CS Analysis of Using the SIEM to Introduction to Computer Programming Education in the School of Engineering Evening Division at the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve students’ motivation, the SIEM (School of Information Environment Method) which is the education method for the introduction of the computer programming education was developed. We focus on students’ motivation, and we have measured students’ motivation as the educational effects. After the SIEM was developed in the School of Information Environment, it applied to introduction to the computer programming education in the School of Engineering Evening Division at the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. It is effective for the improvement of students’ motivation. By adding the Customer Satisfaction Analysis to the SIEM Analysis, it was able to clarify the priority level of the SIEM assessment item. In this paper, we describe results of the Customer Satisfaction Analysis.

Dohi, Shinichi; Miyakawa, Osamu; Konno, Noriko

20

2009 Investment Climate Statement - Cambodia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cambodia, a developing country, began the transformation from a command economy to the free market in the late 1980s. It is now integrating into the regional and world trading framework. In 1999, Cambodia joined the Association of Southeast Asian Nations ...

2009-01-01

21

Cambodia and Southeast Asian Regionalism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study has been made of aspects of Cambodian foreign policy to discern factors impinging on Cambodian participation in regional cooperation efforts in Southeast Asia--particularly in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Cambodia's reliance...

B. K. Gordon A. V. Cyr

1969-01-01

22

Cambodia and Southeast Asian Regionalism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study is presented of aspects of Cambodian foreign policy to discern factors impinging on Cambodian participation in regional cooperation efforts in Southeast Asia--particularly in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Cambodia's reliance ...

B. K. Gordon A. V. Cyr

1969-01-01

23

The Relevant Education for Agriculture and Production (REAP) Nine-Year Evaluation: Implications for Development Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Belize's Relevant Education for Agriculture and Production (REAP) national primary school program is described in data from seven annual formative evaluations (1979-1985). The 1984-85 program/school evaluation included 54 rural REAP schools and utilized a 43-item questionnaire containing eight quality sub-variables. The quality of REAP schools…

Massey, Romeo M.

24

The Rural Education and Agriculture Program (REAP): Belize's New Approach to Rural Primary Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rural Education and Agriculture Program (REAP) was initiated in response to perceived deficiencies in the rural primary schools of Belize. Since its inception in 1976, REAP has moved through two of its anticipated three phases (Pilot Phase, July 1976-June 1979; District-Level Phase, July 1979-June 1982). REAP integrates academic subjects with…

Massey, Romeo M.

25

Women Reap More Benefits from Higher Education, Study Finds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education offers a variety of benefits, both economic and non-economic, and women seem to reap much bigger economic benefits from earning an associate's degree or a bachelor's degree than their male counterparts, according to a new study. The study's author said this revelation could shed some light on why the numbers of women in college…

Troumpoucis, Patricia

2004-01-01

26

Oncology in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Cambodia, a country of 14 million inhabitants, was devastated during the Khmer Rouge period and thereafter. The resources of treatment are rare: only one radiotherapy department, renovated in 2003, with an old cobalt machine; few surgeons trained to operate on cancer patients; no hematology; no facilities to use intensive chemotherapy; no nuclear medicine department and no palliative care unit. Cervical cancer incidence is one of the highest in the world, while in men liver cancer ranks first (20% of all male cancers). Cancers are seen at stage 3 or 4 for 70% of patients. There is no prevention program - only a vaccination program against hepatitis B for newborns - and no screening program for cervical cancer or breast cancer. In 2010, oncology, recognized as a full specialty, was created to train the future oncologists on site at the University of Phnom Penh. A new National Cancer Center will be built in 2013 with modern facilities for radiotherapy, medical oncology, hematology and nuclear medicine. Cooperation with foreign countries, especially France, and international organizations has been established and is ongoing. Progress is occurring slowly due to the shortage of money for Cambodian institutions and the lay public. PMID:22538443

Eav, S; Schraub, S; Dufour, P; Taisant, D; Ra, C; Bunda, P

2012-01-01

27

Health care clinics in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Under the Pol Pot Khmer Rouge regime, most physicians with clinical experience were either killed or fled the country. The few practitioners who managed to survive were forced to hide their knowledge; much of that knowledge and experience is now lost. As part of a general process of national rehabilitation, Cambodia has trained since the 1980s hundreds of physicians and physician assistants. There were 700 physicians, 1300 physician assistants, and 4000 nurses in the country by 1992. Problems do, however, remain with medical education in Cambodia. In particular, the medical texts and lectures are in French, a language which very few of the younger generation speak; instructional texts are designed to meet the needs of developing nations, not a rehabilitating one like Cambodia; emphasis is upon curative health care, hospitals, and vertical programs instead of primary and preventive health care; Cambodian physicians are used to a system based upon the division of patients by ability to pay instead of by age, disease, or need; corruption has grown as the cost of living has outstripped the level of official salaries; and there is neither professional contact, feedback, nor program evaluation within health care programs. The authors is a resident in obstetrics and gynecology at the University of Chicago who worked at two clinics during a stay in Phnom Penh. She recommends that instead of simply training more doctors, these training-related problems should be addressed, including a revision of the curriculum to include both primary health care medicine and psychiatry. Moreover, people in Cambodia need to be taught the importance of preventive health care, which should then reduce the number of visits to physicians. This process will be accomplished more effectively with the cooperation of physicians, the government, nongovernmental organizations, and international organizations associated with health care. PMID:7787486

Wollschlaeger, K

1995-04-01

28

An Investigation of the Reap Reading/Study Procedure: Its Rationale and Efficacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six sections of a college reading and study skills class were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions in a study of the effects of a new teaching-learning strategy, REAP, a procedure for improving reading, writing, and study. One group received instruction and practice in REAP; one, in SQ3R; and one, in the regular study skills…

Eanet, Marilyn Gillis

29

Revisiting Primary School Dropout in Rural Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies on school dropout in Cambodia often used data from subjects after they already dropped out or statistics from education-related institutions. Using data from children in two rural provinces before they dropped out, this study examines four main factors in order to identify their influence on primary school dropout in Cambodia.…

No, Fata; Sam, Chanphirun; Hirakawa, Yukiko

2012-01-01

30

The Rocket Engine Advancement Program 2 (REAP2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Rocket Engine Advancement Program (REAP) 2 program is being conducted by a university propulsion consortium consisting of the University of Alabama in Huntsville, Penn State University, Purdue University, Tuskegee University and Auburn University. It has been created to bring their combined skills to bear on liquid rocket combustion stability and thrust chamber cooling. The research team involves well established and known researchers in the propulsion community. The cure team provides the knowledge base, research skills, and commitment to achieve an immediate and continuing impact on present and future propulsion issues. through integrated research teams composed of analysts, diagnosticians, and experimentalists working together in an integrated multi-disciplinary program. This paper provides an overview of the program, its objectives and technical approaches. Research on combustion instability and thrust chamber cooling are being accomplished

Harper, Brent (Technical Monitor); Hawk, Clark W.

2004-01-01

31

Cambodia Honey Value Chain Assessment: Strengthening Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in Cambodia. Cambodia MSME 2/BEE Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The USAID Cambodia MSME Project is being implemented by Development Alternatives, Inc. (DAI). The Project improves the performance of firms in select value chains, supports publicprivate dialogue and strengthens the public sector through targeted technica...

A. McNaughton M. Sotha

2009-01-01

32

Cambodia: Background and U.S. Relations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cambodia has made some notable progress, with foreign assistance, in developing its economy, nurturing a civil society, and holding elections that are at least procedurally democratic. A number of significant problems remain, however. Weak legal and finan...

T. Lum

2005-01-01

33

Cambodia-China Relation: Past, Present and Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cambodia's geographical, economical, and cultural landscapes as well as the multi- faceted mutual influences and interactions between Cambodia and China have allowed Cambodia-China bilateral relations to take a vital position in Beijing's foreign policy. Currently, the relations of the two countries have reached a new peak in terms of political, diplomatic, military, economic, and social aspects. This paper describes and

Phou Sambath

34

Migrant Interactions with Elderly Parents in Rural Cambodia and Thailand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines interactions between older adults living in rural areas of Thailand and Cambodia and their adult children. Thai data come from the Survey of the Welfare of the Elderly (N = 3,202 older adults and 17,517 adult children). Cambodia data are from the Survey of the Elderly in Cambodia (N = 777 older adults and 3,751 adult children).…

Zimmer, Zachary; Korinek, Kim; Knodel, John; Chayovan, Napaporn

2008-01-01

35

Cambodia: The Odyssey of the Khmer People  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bruce Sharp, in collaboration with a host of colleagues, has developed this Web site dealing with the history and culture of Cambodia. Paying close attention to the Khmer Rouge period of the country's history, the site contains a wealth of general information and statistics about Cambodia that will help visitors seeking a basic overview of the country's current status. The site is divided into numerous sections, several that will be of particular interest to visitors. The Oral Histories section contains a dozen narratives from Cambodian men and women who lived in Cambodia during the reign of Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge. A photo gallery hosts several photo essays by Mr. Sharp, including some dramatic shots of Angkor Wat. Finally, the site also has a search engine and a What's New section that lists new material that is periodically added to the site.

2002-01-01

36

31 CFR 500.565 - Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. 500.565 Section 500.565 ...remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. (a) The remittances specified...relative is a national of Vietnam or Cambodia, is a resident of Vietnam,...

2009-07-01

37

Cambodia: human trafficking legislation threatens HIV response.  

PubMed

In February 2008, Cambodia's new Law on the Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation was promulgated and went into effect. The law criminalizes sex for money, public soliciting for prostitution and many forms of financial transactions connected to sex work. The law has been criticized for conflating sex work and trafficking. PMID:19294783

Pearshouse, Richard

2008-12-01

38

Arguing about Cambodia: Genocide and Political Interest  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the time the Khmer Rouge seized power in April 1975, people have argued over the actions and intentions of the communist regime in Cambodia. During the years following the revolution, scholars and journalists debated allegations that the Khmer Rouge was committing genocide. Even after communist Vietnam toppled the neighboring regime, debate remained fierce. Much of the positioning by academics,

Donald W. Beachler

2009-01-01

39

Demographic and Health Survey 2000: Cambodia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With great pleasure, we would like to introduce the first ever Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey that was conducted successfully in the year 2000. This survey is sponsored by UNFPA, UNICEF, and USAID, and technical assistance was provided by ORC Macr...

2001-01-01

40

Reemergence of Chikungunya Virus in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), probably Asian genotype, was first detected in Cambodia in 1961. Despite no evidence of acute or recent CHIKV infections since 2000, real-time reverse transcription PCR of serum collected in 2011 detected CHIKV, East Central South African genotype. Spatiotemporal patterns and phylogenetic clustering indicate that the virus probably originated in Thailand.

Duong, Veasna; Andries, Anne-Claire; Ngan, Chantha; Sok, Touch; Richner, Beat; Asgari-Jirhandeh, Nima; Bjorge, Steve; Huy, Rekol; Ly, Sovann; Laurent, Denis; Hok, Bunheng; Roces, Maria Concepcion; Ong, Sivuth; Char, Meng Chuor; Deubel, Vincent; Tarantola, Arnaud

2012-01-01

41

Area Handbook for the KHMER Republic (Cambodia).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook, one of a series designed to be useful to the military and others with an interest in foreign affairs, contains basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of Cambodia. There are four major sections to the handbook. Section one describes the general character of the society and examines…

Whitaker, Donald P.; And Others

42

Self-Assessment in the REAP Tutor: Knowledge, Interest, Motivation, & Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-assessment questionnaires have long been used in tutoring systems to help researchers measure and evaluate various aspects of a student's performance during learning activities. In this paper, we chronicle the efforts made in the REAP project, a language tutor developed to teach vocabulary to ESL students through reading activities, to…

Dela Rosa, Kevin; Eskenazi, Maxine

2013-01-01

43

An Investigation of the REAP Reading/Study Procedure: Its Rationale and Efficacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the value of the Read-Encode-Annotate-Ponder (REAP) procedure as a teaching/learning strategy, focusing on its use of written annotations designed to achieve specific learning objectives. Subjects were 105 students in six college reading/study skills classes who were assigned to one of three treatment conditions: the…

Eanet, Marilyn G.

44

Reserve Educational Assistance Program (REAP), Chapter 1607 Title 10, U.S. Code  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Reserve Education Assistance Program, or REAP (Chapter 1607 of title 10, U.S. Code), is a new benefit providing educational assistance to members of the reserve components--Selected Reserve (Sel Res) and Individual Ready Reserve (IRR)--who are called or ordered to active service in response to a war or national emergency, as declared by the…

US Department of Veterans Affairs, 2005

2005-01-01

45

Harm reduction in Cambodia: a disconnect between policy and practice  

PubMed Central

In 2003 the Government of Cambodia officially began to recognise that harm reduction was an essential approach to preventing HIV among people who use drugs and their sexual partners. Several programs aiming to control and prevent HIV among drug users have been implemented in Cambodia, mostly in the capital, Phnom Penh. However, there have been ongoing tensions between law enforcement and harm reduction actors, despite several advocacy efforts targeting law enforcement. This study attempts to better understand the implementation of harm reduction in Cambodia and how the policy environment and harm reduction program implementation has intersected with the role of law enforcement officials in Cambodia.

2012-01-01

46

UNTAC, CEAT, other international actions and the restoration of Cambodia`s forestry policy  

SciTech Connect

Although no verifiable hard data regarding the rate of nation-wide deforestation in Cambodia exists, it is understood that on account of increasing logging activities, uncontrolled forest fires, increased demand for agricultural land and fuel wood for charcoal production and other domestic usage, the rates of deforestation and the degradation of existing forests will continue to be on the rise if no effective policy and management plans are established soon. There now seems to be international recognition and acceptance of the fact that unless the impact of human activities are incorporated into forestry management plans, the problems of deforestation in the world`s poorest regions will continue unabated. The depletion of this natural resource brings about complex changes in the environment which results in such phenomenon as global warming. Sound forest policies and management practices are central to the global warming solution. Without these, human survival remains, potentially, threatened. An essential key to the development of such policies and management practices lies in the identification of the problems related to the forests. In this process of identification and subsequent concrete actions in restoring Cambodia`s forest policies and management practices, the Royal government of Cambodia has been assisted and supported by the international community through organizations and agencies. The examine and appraisal of such assistance and the strategies and efforts of the Royal Government of Cambodia, is the main theme of this paper.

Mareth, M. [Secretariat of State for Environment of Cambodia, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Vanderstighelen, D.; Bann, C.; Ngongi, M.I. [Cambodian Environmental Advisory Team, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Aertgeerts, R. [Office for Project Services United Nations Development Program, New York, NY (United States); Eav, B.B. [Dept. of Agriculture, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1995-03-01

47

Changing Patterns of Gastrointestinal Parasite Infections in Cambodian Children: 2006-2011  

PubMed Central

We studied gastrointestinal parasites in symptomatic Cambodian children attending a provincial hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia between 2006 and 2011. A total of 16?372 faecal samples were examined by direct microscopy. Parasites were detected in 3121 (19.1%) samples and most common were Giardia lamblia (8.0% of samples; 47.6% disease episodes), hookworm (5.1%; 30.3%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (2.6%; 15.6%). The proportion of infected children increased, and the number of disease episodes effectively treated with a single dose of mebendazole decreased, over the 5-year period.

Hor, Put Chhat; Soeng, Sona; Sun, Sopheary; Lee, Sue J.; Parry, Christopher M.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Stoesser, Nicole

2012-01-01

48

Introduction of rehabilitation nursing concepts in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Cambodia is a poor country in Southeast Asia; 80% of its 14.1 million people are sustenance farmers (Central Intelligence Agency, 2006). Health Volunteers Overseas, based in Washington, DC, and Sihanouk Hospital of Hope in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, collaborate to recruit master's-prepared nurse educators to participate in volunteer teaching trips to enhance the knowledge and skill set of Cambodian staff nurses. A methodical series of steps were taken to develop a basic lecture series regarding the care of patients with brain and spinal cord injuries, taking into consideration Cambodian healthcare beliefs and health system resources. This article describes the processes used to develop the lectures and the realities of teaching on the other side of the world. PMID:21882795

Reed, Karen S

2011-01-01

49

Education Reform Context and Process in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite Cambodia's long history of education development (Clayton 1995; Dy and Ninomiya 2003), the discussion of the country's\\u000a contemporary education sector usually begins with the destructive Khmer Rouge regime (Chhinh 2004; Keng and Clayton 2007).\\u000a This analytical chapter of politics and economics of education reform begins with a discussion of the Khmer Rouge regime during\\u000a which almost two million people

Sitha Chhinh; Sideth S. Dy

50

Potential for rural electrification based on biomass gasification in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Around 76% of the 10,452 villages of Cambodia will still be without electricity in the year 2010. We examined the potential of biomass gasification fuelled by alternative resources of agricultural residues and woody biomass to increase rural power supply, using geographic and social economic databases provided by the Royal Government of Cambodia. About 77% of villages currently without electricity have

Hitofumi Abe; Akio Katayama; Bhuwneshwar P. Sah; Tsuyoshi Toriu; Sat Samy; Phon Pheach; Mark A. Adams; Pauline F. Grierson

2007-01-01

51

A Multimedia Approach to ODL for Agricultural Training in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Open distance learning (ODL) has long been an important option for formal and non-formal education (NFE) in most developed and developing countries, but less so in post-conflict countries, including Cambodia. However, in Cambodia there is now greater awareness that ODL can complement traditional face-to-face educational approaches, particularly as…

Grunfeld, Helena; Ng, Maria Lee Hoon

2013-01-01

52

75 FR 11620 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Cambodia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Public Notice 6918] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Cambodia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State...7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Cambodia, and I hereby waive such restriction. This...

2010-03-11

53

Tradition, Modernity, and the Development of Education in Cambodia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews Cambodia's educational development, characterized by a series of successive crises since the country's independence from France in 1953. Examines various approaches of development discourse to the educational crisis, and suggests that previous analyses of Cambodia's educational development have failed to recognize the tensions generated by…

Ayres, David M.

2000-01-01

54

Introduction of ICT and Multimedia into Cambodia's Teacher Training Centres  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the integration of ICT in the teacher training centres of Cambodia. It focuses on the collaboration between the Teacher Training Department of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MoEYS) of Cambodia and VVOB (Flemish Association for Development Cooperation and Technical Assistance), which is aimed at improving ICT…

Dionys, David

2012-01-01

55

Cambodia’s patient zero: The political economy of foreign aid and avian influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

What happens when a developing country with poor health infrastructure and even poorer animal health surveillance is thought to be a potential source for the next emerging infectious disease? This is the story of Cambodia and Avian Influenza. This paper undertakes a review of the relevant literature and analyzes the results of detailed semi-structured interviews of individuals highly engaged in

Sophal Ear

2009-01-01

56

Ground-water resources of Cambodia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cambodia (now the Khmer Republic), in tropical, humid southeast Asia, has an area of 175,630 km and a population of about 5 million. The Mekong River, one of the world's largest rivers, flows through Cambodia. Also, the Tonle Sap (Grand Lac), a highly productive fresh-water lake, functions as a huge off-channel storage reservoir for flood flow of the Mekong River. Surfacewater discharge in streams and rivers of Cambodia is abundant during the wet season, mid-May through mid-November, when 85 percent of the precipitation falls, but is frequently deficient during the remainder of the year. Annual rainfall ranges from 1,370 mm in the central lowlands to more than 5,000 mm in the mountainous highlands. The mean annual temperature for the country is 27.5?C and the evaporation rate is high. During 1960-63, 1,103 holes were drilled in 16 of the 18 khets (provinces), of which 795 or approximately 72 percent, were productive wells at rates ranging from 1.1 to 2,967 l/min. The productive wells ranged in depth from 2 to 209.4 m and were 23.2 m deep on the average. Mr. Rasmussen ' studied the subsurface geology of Cambodia in considerable detail by examining drillers' logs and constructing nine geologic cross sections. The principal aquifer tapped by drilled wells in Cambodia is the Old Alluvium. In many places, however, dug wells and a few shallow drilled wells obtain water from the Young Alluvium. Sandstone of the Indosinias Formation yields moderate to small quantities of water to wells in a number of places. Also, wells tapping water-bearing basalt have a small to moderate yield. The quality of water is recorded in only a few analyses. The dissolved solids concentrations appear to be generally low so that the water is usable for most purposes without treatment. Some well waters, however, are high in iron and would have to be aerated and filtered before use. In this report, well records are tabulated, and the geology and hydrology is discussed by khets. The bulk of the available information is on the central lowlands and contiguous low plateaus, as the mountainous areas on the west and the high plateaus on the east are relatively unexplored with respect to their ground-water availability. No persistent artesian aquifer has been identified nor have any large potential ground-water sources been found .although much of the country yet remains to be explored by test drilling. Well irrigation for garden produce is feasible on a modest scale in many localities throughout Cambodia. It does not seem likely, however, that large-scale irrigation from wells will come about in the future. Ground water may be regarded as a widely available supplemental source to surface water for domestic, small-scale industrial, and irrigation use.

Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

1977-01-01

57

[First epidemiologic data on pneumonia in Cambodia].  

PubMed

About 15% of deaths in adults are related to lung infections in Cambodia. Some knowledge on microbial epidemiology is crucial for deciding first-line antibiotic treatment. However, to date, these data are not available in Cambodia. Consequently, antibiotic prescription relies on French or neighborhood's countries guidelines, which are possibly not suitable. This cases-series aimed to provide data on microbial ecology in pneumonia. Medical charts of patients newly admitted for lung infection in the pulmonology unit of Preah Kossamak Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Ninety-four patients were included and 29% had a complete microbiological diagnosis. Main germs isolated were: Gram-negative bacilli (n=20; 70.4%) and M. tuberculosis infections (n=7; 25.9%). There was one case of myeloïdosis. No S. pneumonia was isolated, possibly due to sample shipping tropical conditions. Antibiograms showed high resistance profiles. Although this study bring new data in the field, it also showed that European guidelines for antibiotic are not relevant in such countries and stress the need for further dedicated and prospective studies. PMID:24210153

Avrillon, V; Ny, C; Chan, S; Souquet, P-J; Couraud, S

2014-06-01

58

Khmer Rouge archives: accountability, truth, and memory in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that archives play a significant role in fostering three elements essential to Cambodia’s recovery: accountability,\\u000a truth, and memory. First, archives have an enduring power to hold the regime accountable because they were the catalyst for\\u000a an international human rights tribunal, as shown by the relentless activism of the archives’ director, international efforts\\u000a to preserve Khmer Rouge records,

Michelle Caswell

2010-01-01

59

Selective Mortality During the Khmer Rouge Period in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspects of the long-term demographic impact of genocide during the period of the Khmer Rouge (1975-79) in Cambodia are analyzed. Mortality data for siblings from the Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey in 2000 demonstrate that excess mortality was extremely high and heavily concentrated during 1974-80. The study also shows that mortality was highly selective during that period. Adult males were

Damien Walque

2005-01-01

60

Reaping Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about collecting, describing and classifying terrestrial and lunar rocks. Learners will collect and describe rocks of varying texture, color and shapes. Descriptors will include color, presence or absence of grains and grain size, textures, banding and other patterns. From the descriptions, learners will classify their collected rocks and extend their knowledge to classify lunar rocks. This activity is in Unit 1 of the Exploring the Moon teacher's guide and is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

61

Analysis of Radar Images of Angkor, Cambodia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the 1996 AIRSAR Pacific Rim Deployment, data were collected over Angkor in Cambodia. The temples of Angkor date the succession of cities to the 9th-13th century AD, but little is known of its prehistoric habitation. A related area of archaeological debate has been the origin, spiritual meaning and use of the hydraulic constructions in the urban zone. The high resolution, multi-channel capability of AIRSAR, together with the unprecedentedly accurate topography provided by TOPSAR, offer identification and delineation of these features. Examples include previously unrecorded circular earthworks around circular village sites, detection of unrecorded earthwork dykes, reservoirs and canal features, and of temple sites located some distance from the main temple complex at Angkor.

Freeman, Anthony; Hensley, Scott; Moore, Elizabeth

2000-01-01

62

Nipah Virus in Lyle's Flying Foxes, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

We conducted a survey in Cambodia in 2000 on henipavirus infection among several bat species, including flying foxes, and persons exposed to these animals. Among 1,072 bat serum samples tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, antibodies reactive to Nipah virus (NiV) antigen were detected only in Pteropus lylei species; Cynopterus sphinx, Hipposideros larvatus, Scotophilus kuhlii, Chaerephon plicata, Taphozous melanopogon, and T. theobaldi species were negative. Seroneutralization applied on a subset of 156 serum samples confirmed these results. None of the 8 human serum samples was NiV seropositive with the seroneutralization test. One virus isolate exhibiting cytopathic effect with syncytia was obtained from 769 urine samples collected at roosts of P. lylei specimens. Partial molecular characterization of this isolate demonstrated that it was closely related to NiV. These results strengthen the hypothesis that flying foxes could be the natural host of NiV. Surveillance of human cases should be implemented.

Counor, Dorian; Ong, Sivuth; Faure, Caroline; Seng, Vansay; Molia, Sophie; Walston, Joe; Georges-Courbot, Marie Claude; Deubel, Vincent; Sarthou, Jean-Louis

2005-01-01

63

The glycemic status of diabetes in an urban area of Cambodia.  

PubMed

Recently the Korea Diabetes Association participated in the 'Cambodia-Korea Twinning Project' to help Cambodia establish its own modernized diabetes center and to raise awareness of the seriousness of diabetes. Here we report the status of diabetes in an urban area of Cambodia as obtained through this project. PMID:24629411

Jung, Chang Hee; Kim, Kwang Joon; Lee, Yun-Kyu; Kwon, Jin-Hyun; Lee, Byung Wan; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Park, Joong-Yeol; Khun, Touch; Cha, Bong-Yun; Cho, Nam H

2014-05-01

64

Avian influenza: the political economy of disease control in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Abstract In the wake of avian flu outbreaks in 2004, Cambodia received $45 million in commitments from international donors to help combat the spread of animal and human influenza, particularly avian influenza (H5N1). How countries leverage foreign aid to address the specific needs of donors and the endemic needs of the nation is a complex and nuanced issue throughout the developing world. Cambodia is a particularly compelling study in pandemic preparedness and the management of avian influenza because of its multilayered network of competing local, national, and global needs, and because the level of aid in Cambodia represents approximately $2.65 million per human case-a disproportionately high number when compared with neighbors Vietnam and Indonesia. This paper examines how the Cambodian government has made use of animal and human influenza funds to protect (or fail to protect) its citizens and the global community. It asks how effective donor and government responses were to combating avian influenza in Cambodia, and what improvements could be made at the local and international level to help prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. Based on original interviews, a field survey of policy stakeholders, and detailed examination of Cambodia's health infrastructure and policies, the findings illustrate that while pandemic preparedness has shown improvements since 2004, new outbreaks and human fatalities accelerated in 2011, and more work needs to be done to align the specific goals of funders with the endemic needs of developing nations. PMID:22702421

Ear, Sophal

2011-01-01

65

REAP. Rehabilitation Education Advancement and Placement (A Program in Adult Basic Education). Final Project Report. June 1969.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rehabilitation Education Advancement and Placement (REAP) program, a pilot demonstration project sponsored by the Research and Training Center at the University of Pittsburgh and the Pennsylvania Rehabilitation Center (PRC), operated for 30 weeks and provided Adult Basic Education Training for rehabilitation clients. The ultimate goal of the…

Pittsburgh Univ., PA. Research and Training Center in Vocational Rehabilitation.

66

TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN CAMBODIA: OPPORTUNITIES FOR JAPANESE COMPANIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cambodia has an emerging economy with relatively high economic growth and political stability. Since the 1990s, the country has undergone economic reforms and transformed to become a market economy with strong support from the international donor community and various organizations. Tourism is the third largest sector of the economy after agriculture and the garment industry, and the second largest income

Vannarith Chheang

67

The Teaching of Foreign Languages in Cambodia: A Historical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching of foreign languages in Cambodia is examined in the light of its recent history. The paper describes the French colonial period, beginning in 1863, the emergence of the independent state under King Sihanouk (1953-70), the Khmer Republic (1970-75) and Democratic Kampuchea (1975-79), during which the infamous mass killings took place,…

Neau, Vira

2003-01-01

68

Preventing Future Genocide: A vision for Peace Museum in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genocide is a crime against humanity which is beyond the parameters of war crime as the perpetrators could choose to prevent it. It is specifically about the tragedy of human lives caused by human action to accomplish political, social or spiritual goals. Genocide is unique from one place to the other. For example, the genocide in Cambodia was different from

Soth Plai NGARM

69

Echinostoma revolutum Infection in Children, Pursat Province, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

To determine the prevalence of helminthic infections in Pursat Province, Cambodia, we tested fecal specimens from 471 children, 10–14 years of age, in June 2007. The prevalence of infection with echinostome flukes ranged from 7.5% to 22.4% in 4 schools surveyed. Adult worms were identified as Echinostoma revolutum.

Sohn, Woon-Mok; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S.; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong; Lee, Soon-Hyung

2011-01-01

70

Media reporting of tenofovir trials in Cambodia and Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Two planned trials of pre-exposure prophylaxis tenofovir in Cambodia and Cameroon to prevent HIV infection in high-risk populations were closed due to activist pressure on host country governments. The international news media contributed substantially as the primary source of knowledge transfer regarding the trials. We aimed to characterize the nature of reporting, specifically focusing on the issues identified by

Edward Mills; Beth Rachlis; Ping Wu; Elaine Wong; Kumanan Wilson; Sonal Singh

2005-01-01

71

Prey Meas Goldmine, Ratanakirri, Cambodia July 18, 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury is used to extract gold in simple gold mines in Ratanakirri province, NE Cambodia. Before introduction of retorts, the gold amalgam was heated with an open flame to volatilize mercury and recover gold. The process resulted in release of mercury and elevated mercury levels in the hair of gold workers handling mercury. Fifty kilometers downstream hair levels of villagers

Tom Murphy; Jay Guo

72

Mental Health Policy Development: Case Study of Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify key issues in the mental health policy development process in Cambodia that will contribute to an increased understanding of how mental health policy gets on the public policy agenda, how it stays there and why policy implementation fails or succeeds. The research was formative because mental health policy analysis is a young and newly emerging discipline.Method: A

Alexis Stockwell; Harvey Whiteford; Clare Townsend; Donald Stewart

2005-01-01

73

Species diversity and ecology of Tonle Sap Great Lake, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tonle Sap Great Lake in Cambodia, the largest natural freshwater lake in southeast Asia, is situated within the fl oodplain of the Mekong River. Water levels in the lake vary by about 8 m between the dry season minimum and the wet season maximum when waters from the Mekong River back up the Tonle Sap River. The lake is highly

Ian C. Campbell; Colin Poole; Wim Giesen; John Valbo-Jorgensen

2006-01-01

74

The Holocene history and development of the Tonle Sap, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tonle Sap, the ‘Great Lake’ of central Cambodia, is the central component of wetland ecosystems in the lower Mekong River basin, and is of enormous conservation value. The lake's unusual hydraulic relationship with the Mekong River, and its consequent sensitivity to monsoon variability, makes the Tonle Sap sensitive to climate change. Exploring the dynamics and development of this system

Dan Penny

2006-01-01

75

The Peoples and Cultures of Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A handbook for those involved in Southeast Asian refugee assistance discusses some of the values and customs that refugee groups from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam may have in common and looks at the different countries and peoples of the region. A section on the shared values and customs of Indochinese refugees focuses on aspects of family life,…

Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Language and Orientation Resource Center.

76

Re-Orientations in Moral Education in Cambodia Since 1975  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, Cambodia has transitioned from a communist state to a liberal democracy following market economic practices. Transition in the political economy has, in turn, influenced education and, more specifically, moral education. In this article, I define moral education more broadly than many, as additionally dedicated to the preparation…

Clayton, Thomas

2005-01-01

77

Household Determinants of Schooling Progression among Rural Children in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the individual and household determinants that affected the chances of Cambodian rural children being enrolled in or dropping out of school before completing grade four. Data were obtained from interviews with 159 children aged between 12 to 18 years and their families from two rural villages in Pursat province of Cambodia. The…

Keng, Chansopheak

2004-01-01

78

Influenza activity in Cambodia during 2006-2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is little information about influenza disease among the Cambodian population. To better understand the dynamics of influenza in Cambodia, the Cambodian National Influenza Center (NIC) was established in August 2006. To continuously monitor influenza activity, a hospital based sentinel surveillance system for ILI (influenza like illness) with a weekly reporting and sampling scheme was established in five sites

Sek Mardy; Sovann Ly; Seng Heng; Sirenda Vong; Chea Huch; Chea Nora; Nima Asgari; Megge Miller; Isabelle Bergeri; Sybille Rehmet; Duong Veasna; Weigong Zhou; Takeshi Kasai; Sok Touch; Philippe Buchy

2009-01-01

79

Academic Achievement among Adolescents in Cambodia: Does Caregiver Trauma Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How will hostilities occurring around today's world influence future generations in affected areas? Cambodia may be one place where this question can be answered, and academic achievement is one way to measure these effects. Cambodian adolescent/caregiver dyads (n=288) were examined for links between caregiver trauma history and adolescent…

Eng, Sothy; Mulsow, Miriam; Cleveland, Harrington; Hart, Sybil L.

2009-01-01

80

The Molluscan Fauna of Thailand, Cambodia and Laos.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reports of human schistosomiasis from various localities in the Mekong valley initiated a systematic survey of molluscan fauna at and around these foci in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia which was sponsored by two grants between 1963 and 1969. This report is ...

R. A. M. Brandt

1971-01-01

81

Towards a low carbon future – the development and application of REAP Tourism, a destination footprint and scenario tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the development and application of a bespoke modelling and scenario tool to quantify the full greenhouse gas (CO2e) footprint associated with visitor activity and consumption. Designed for use by destination decision-makers, it helps understand the full CO2e impact of visitors, explores potential mitigation strategies and identifies emissions reduction possibilities. REAP Tourism can calculate direct and indirect supply

Emma Rachel Whittlesea; Anne Owen

2012-01-01

82

Evaluation test of ALIS in Cambodia for humanitarian demining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ALIS is a hand-held dual sensor developed by Tohoku University, Japan since 2002. Dual sensor is a general name of sensor for humanitarian demining, which are equipped with metal detector and GPR. ALIS is only one hand-held dual sensor, which can record the sensor position with sensor signals. Therefore, the data can be processed after data acquisition, and can increase the imaging capability. ALIS has been tested in some mine affected courtiers including Afghanistan (2004), Egypt(2005), Croatia(2006-) and Cambodia(2007-). Mine fields at each country has different conditions and soil types. Therefore testes at the real mine fields are very important. ALIS has detected more than 30 AP-Mines in evaluation test in Cambodia held in 2009.

Sato, Motoyuki

2010-04-01

83

Justice, Human Rights, and Reconciliation in Postconflict Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retribution? Restitution? Reconciliation? “Justice” comes in many forms as witnessed by the spike in war crimes tribunals,\\u000a Truth & Reconciliation Commissions, hybrid tribunals and genocide trials. Which, if any form is appropriate should be influenced\\u000a by the culture of the people affected. It took Cambodia over three decades to finally address the ghosts of its Khmer Rouge\\u000a past with the

Susan Dicklitch; Aditi Malik

2010-01-01

84

3 CFR - Presidential Determination for the Kingdom of Cambodia Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Presidential Determination for the Kingdom of Cambodia Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import...Presidential Determination for the Kingdom of Cambodia Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import...hereby determine that the Kingdom of Cambodia has ceased to be a...

2010-01-01

85

The socio-demographic legacy of the Khmer Rouge period in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study presented in this paper is an examination of the long-term impact of genocide during the period of the Khmer Rouge regime (1975–79) in Cambodia. The very high and selective mortality of the period had a major impact on the population structure of Cambodia. Fertility and marriage rates were both very low under the Khmer Rouge, but recovered immediately

Damien de Walque

2006-01-01

86

Cambodia: Background and U.S. Relations. (Updated Apr 30, 2009).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the past few years, U.S. policy toward the Kingdom of Cambodia has broadened from a human rights focus to a multi-faceted approach. A key challenge for U.S. policy toward Cambodia lies in combining and balancing efforts to improve relations and to prom...

T. Lum

2009-01-01

87

76 FR 33019 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Royal Government of Cambodia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Royal Government of Cambodia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State...1) of the Act with respect to the Royal Government of Cambodia and I hereby waive such restriction. This determination...

2011-06-07

88

The Problem of "Choice" and the Construction of the Demand for English in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses Cambodia as a case study to problematise the notion of choice in the spread of English. I explore specific historical contexts which were central to the construction of the demand for English and English language teaching (ELT) in Cambodia. The actions of a range of external agencies resulted in the close discursive articulation of…

Clayton, Stephen

2008-01-01

89

Ensuring Gender Equity in Education for All: Is Cambodia on Track?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender-equity goals in Cambodia are intimately linked with socio-economic and cultural biases that are embedded in the very system of education and in the society as a whole. There are, however, strong indicators that the vicious cycle in Cambodia's education system could be broken, and here the commitment of key stakeholders and partnership modes…

Velasco, Esther

2004-01-01

90

Highland Children's Education Project: A Pilot Project on Bilingual Education in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report was produced by UNESCO in partnership with CARE International in Cambodia for the "Highland Children's Education Project" (HCEP) to show how bilingual primary education has been implemented among the Tampuen and Kreung ethnic minority groups in six remote villages in the northeastern province of Ratanakiri, Cambodia. Central to HCEP is…

Middleborg, Jorn

2005-01-01

91

78 FR 17745 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cambodia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cambodia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State...requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Cambodia and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination...

2013-03-22

92

Enhancing Aid Effectiveness in Education through a Sector-Wide Approach in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2001 the government of Cambodia has striven to advance policy-led education reform based on a sector-wide approach. This paper critically reviews the status and progress of Cambodia's education reform from the perspective of the aid's effectiveness. The paper looks at the performance of the sector reform in the three priority areas…

Hattori, Hiroyuki

2009-01-01

93

"A Frog in a Well": The Exclusion of Disabled People from Work in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on ethnographic research conducted in north-west Cambodia in 2000-2001, this paper examines why disabled people experience systematic marginalisation in the labour market. Although there are no official data on the relationship between disability and employment status in Cambodia, this research suggests that disabled people are more likely…

Gartrell, Alexandra

2010-01-01

94

Prevalence and barriers to HIV testing among mothers at a tertiary care hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Barriers to HIV testing in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: One-third of all new HIV infections in Cambodia are estimated to be due to mother-to-child transmission. Although the Ministry of Health adopted a policy of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC), nearly a quarter of pregnant mothers were not tested in 2007. Greater acceptance of HIV testing is a challenge despite Cambodia's adoption of the PITC policy. METHODS: A

Yuri Sasaki; Moazzam Ali; Vong Sathiarany; Koum Kanal; Kazuhiro Kakimoto

2010-01-01

95

Rebuilding the ruins: dental services and manpower in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Between 1975 and 1979 Cambodia suffered a massive destruction of its social structures under the Khmer Rouge. The dental profession was almost annihilated and the dental school in Phnom Penh stripped bare. Dental training has now begun again and the long process of restoration is in progress. The ratio of dentists to the population is still pitifully low and public services are concentrated in Phnom Penh and in provincial towns. Traditional dentists provide the only accessible dental care in many places. A primary oral health care system has yet to be developed. PMID:1937851

Durward, C S; Todd, R V

1991-10-01

96

Collaborative development of anatomy workshops for medical and dental students in Cambodia.  

PubMed

After Phnom Penh was liberated from the Khmer Rouge in 1979, health science education in Cambodia had to be completely rebuilt. In this article, the authors report the results of a teaching collaboration between the University of Melbourne (Australia), the International University (Cambodia), and the University of Health Sciences (Cambodia). The main objectives in this collaboration were to provide the opportunity for dental and medical students in Cambodia to attend resourced anatomy workshops and to provide an opportunity for anatomy teachers in Cambodia to gain experience in implementing anatomy workshops of the style that are routinely used in the medical and dental curricula at the University of Melbourne. Experienced anatomy educators from the Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Melbourne, designed and resourced a series of workshops and then delivered these in collaboration with Cambodian teaching staff in Phnom Penh. The Cambodian students who participated in the workshops were incredibly engaged and enthusiastic. The students' evaluations (by questionnaire) indicated a very positive response to the workshops. All of the workshop resources were donated to the two universities so that the staff could continue to implement similar workshops, and plans were developed to continue our collaboration by developing more resourced workshops for this purpose in the future. Two staff members from Cambodia will travel to Melbourne to participate in anatomy workshops and dissection classes at the University of Melbourne. We hope that this extension of the collaboration provides further support and impetus for the development of anatomy education in Cambodia in the future. PMID:21710643

Hayes, Jennifer A; Ivanusic, Jason J; le Roux, Cara M; Hatzopoulos, Kate; Gonsalvez, David; Hong, Someth; Durward, Callum

2011-01-01

97

Aetiology of meningitis in HIV-infected patients in a referral hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.  

PubMed

The HIV epidemic in Cambodia is one of the most extensive in Asia. Meningitis accounts for a substantial proportion of HIV-related morbidity and mortality in Cambodia. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify the clinical and spinal fluid characteristics of patients undergoing spinal tap at an AIDS referral hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia during a 16-month period. Of 932 charts reviewed, 89 met criteria for analysis. Overall mortality was 49.4%. Cryptococcus was the most commonly identified pathogen (83%), followed by mycobacteria (8%). No pathogen was identified in 9% of charts reviewed. In hospital mortality was similar in all groups. PMID:14769172

Chhin, S; Rozycki, G; Pugatch, D; Harwell, J I

2004-01-01

98

Echinostoma ilocanum Infection in Oddar Meanchey Province, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Fecal examinations using the Kato Katz technique were performed on a total of 1,287 villagers (945 students and 342 general inhabitants) of Oddar Meanchey Province, Cambodia in May 2007 and November 2009. The overall intestinal helminth egg positive rate was 23.9%, and the most prevalent helminth species was hookworms (21.6%). Other helminth eggs detected included echinostomes (1.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.8%), small trematode eggs (0.7%), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini and Haplorchis spp., and Hymenolepis nana (0.4%). In order to recover adult echinostomes, we treated 2 patients with 10-15 mg/kg praziquantel and purged. Total 14 adult echinostomes, 1 and 13 worms from each patient, were collected. The echinostomes characteristically had 49-51 collar spines and 2 round or slightly lobated testes. They were identified as Echinostoma ilocanum (Garrison, 1908) Odhner, 1911. So far as literature are concerned, this is the first record on the discovery of human E. ilocanum infection in Cambodia.

Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S.; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Kang, A-Reum; Kim, Mok-Ryun; Park, Jung-Mi; Ji, Soo-Hyeon; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

2011-01-01

99

Rodent-borne hantaviruses in Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Thailand.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the circulation of hantaviruses present in southeast Asia, a large scale survey of small mammal species was carried out at seven main sites in the region (Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Thailand). Small scale opportunistic trapping was also performed at an eighth site (Cambodia). Using a standard IFA test, IgG antibodies reacting to Hantaan virus antigens were detected at six sites. Antibody prevalence at each site varied from 0 to 5.6% with antibodies detected in several rodent species (Bandicota indica, B. savilei, Maxomys surifer, Mus caroli, M. cookii, Rattus exulans, R. nitidius, R. norvegicus, and R. tanezumi). When site seroprevalence was compared with site species richness, seropositive animals were found more frequently at sites with lower species richness. In order to confirm which hantavirus species were present, a subset of samples was also subjected to RT-PCR. Hantaviral RNA was detected at a single site from each country. Sequencing confirmed the presence of two hantavirus species, Thailand and Seoul viruses, including one sample (from Lao PDR) representing a highly divergent strain of Seoul virus. This is the first molecular evidence of hantavirus in Lao PDR and the first reported L segment sequence data for Thailand virus. PMID:22124701

Blasdell, Kim; Cosson, Jean François; Chaval, Yannick; Herbreteau, Vincent; Douangboupha, Bounneuang; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Lundqvist, Ake; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Morand, Serge; Buchy, Philippe

2011-12-01

100

31 CFR 500.565 - Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia...Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 500.565 Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and...

2010-07-01

101

The Long-Term Legacy of the Khmer Rouge Period in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

De Walque studies the long-term impact of genocide during the period of the Khmer Rouge (1975?79) in Cambodia and contributes to the literature on the economic analysis of conflict. Using mortality data for siblings from the Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey in 2000, he shows that excess mortality was extremely high and heavily concentrated during 1974?80. Adult males had been

Damien de Walque

2004-01-01

102

Witnessing and re-enacting in Cambodia: reflection on shifting testimonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty years after the collapse of the Khmer Rouge regime (1975–1979) how do Cambodians cope with the traumatic legacy of\\u000a Pol Pot’s reign of terror? What forms does witnessing take on in post-socialist and transitional Cambodia as senior Khmer\\u000a Rouge leaders await prosecution at the Cambodian Tribunal? The paper examines aspects of witnessing in today’s Cambodia, expressing\\u000a each in its

Stéphanie Benzaquen

2011-01-01

103

Magnitude of arsenic pollution in the Mekong and Red River Deltas — Cambodia and Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Large alluvial deltas of the Mekong,River in southern Vietnam and Cambodia and the Red River in northern Vietnam have groundwaters that are exploited for drinking water by private tube-wells, which are of increasing demand since the mid-1990s. This paperpresentsanoverviewofgroundwaterarsenicpollutionintheMekongdelta:arsenicconcentrationsrangedfrom1–1610 ?g\\/Lin Cambodia (average 217 ?g\\/L) and 1–845 ?g\\/L in southern Vietnam (average 39 ?g\\/L), respectively. It also evaluates the situation

Michael Berg; Caroline Stengel; P TRANG; P HUNGVIET; M SAMPSON; M LENG; S SAMRETH; D FREDERICKS

2007-01-01

104

Living arrangements and socio-demographic conditions of older adults in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Since the takeover of Cambodia by the Khmer Rouge in 1975, the social conditions within the country have been understudied. Only recently has dependable socio-demographic data become available. We use some these data to examine living arrangements and other socio-demographic conditions among Cambodia's older population. We compare results to those recently found in Thailand and Vietnam, two neighboring countries, in order to place Cambodia within a regional context. On balance, living arrangements in Cambodia are similar to those in neighboring countries. Older adults are likely to be living with a child and in a variety of diverse arrangements involving different family members. We attempt to get at gender preference for coresident children indirectly by adjusting living arrangement patterns for Cambodia's unique sex and marital status structure. We find a predominance of elders living with never married children of either sex and a slight daughter preference. Older adults in Cambodia may face particular challenges due to the influences of the past decades of instability and violence. We conclude our paper with a discussion of how future research might assist in developing a national policy for older adults. PMID:14617979

Zimmer, Z; Kim, S K

2001-01-01

105

Cigarette smoking and tuberculosis in Cambodia: findings from a national sample  

PubMed Central

Background Cambodia has very high rates of tuberculosis and smoked tobacco use among adults. Efforts to control both tobacco use and tuberculosis in Cambodia need to be informed by nationally representative data. Our objective is to examine the relation between daily cigarette smoking and lifetime tuberculosis (TB) history in a national sample of adults in Cambodia. Methods In 2011, a multi-stage, cluster sample of 15,615 adults (ages 15?years and older) from all regions of Cambodia were administered the Global Adult Tobacco Survey by interviewers from the National Institute of Statistics of Cambodia. Results Our findings include: 1) among daily smokers, a significant positive relation between TB and number of cigarettes smoked per day (OR?=?1.70 [95% CI 1.01, 2.87]) and pack-years of smoking (OR?=?1.53 [95% CI 1.05, 2.25]) 2) a non-significant 58% increase in odds of ever having being diagnosed with TB among men who smoked manufactured cigarettes (OR?=?1.58 [95% CI 0.97, 2.58]). Conclusion In Cambodia, manufactured cigarette smoking was associated with lifetime TB infection and the association was most evident among the heaviest smokers (> 1 pack per day, > 30 pack years).

2013-01-01

106

Leptospira and Rodents in Cambodia: Environmental Determinants of Infection  

PubMed Central

We investigated infection of rodents and shrews by Leptospira spp. in two localities of Cambodia (Veal Renh, Kaev Seima) and in four types of habitat (forests, non-flooded lands, lowland rain-fed paddy fields, houses) during the wet and the dry seasons. Habitat preference was common, and rodent and shrew species were found only in houses or in rain-fed paddy fields or in forests. Among 649 small mammals trapped belonging to 12 rodent species and 1 shrew species, 71 of 642 animals tested were carriers of Leptospira according to the 16S ribosomal RNA marker used. Rodent infection was higher in low-slope locations, corresponding to rain-fed paddy fields, especially in the rainy season and in Kaev Seima. Rodents (Rattus exulans) and shrews (Suncus murinus) inhabiting households showed significantly low levels of infections, whereas rodents living in and near to forests (shrubby wasteland, orchards) showed high levels of infection.

Ivanova, Svilena; Herbreteau, Vincent; Blasdell, Kim; Chaval, Yannick; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; Morand, Serge

2012-01-01

107

Labor migration and mental health in Cambodia: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Labor migration is thought to have significant mental and physical health impacts, given the risks for exploitation and abuse of migrant workers, particularly among those in semiskilled and unskilled positions, although empirical data are limited. This qualitative study, conducted in July 2010 in Banteay Meanchey Province, Cambodia, focused on psychosocial and mental health signs and symptoms associated with labor migration among Cambodian migrant workers to Thailand. Two qualitative methods identified a number of mental health problems faced by Cambodian migrant workers in Thailand, including the presence of anxiety and depression-like problems among this population, described in local terminology as pibak chet (sadness), keut chreun (thinking too much), and khval khvay khnong chet (worry in heart). Key informants revealed the extent to which psychosocial well-being is associated with conditions of poverty, including debt and lack of access to basic services. PMID:24566505

Meyer, Sarah R; Robinson, W Courtland; Chhim, Sotheara; Bass, Judith K

2014-03-01

108

Multiple populations of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Cambodia.  

PubMed

We describe an analysis of genome variation in 825 P. falciparum samples from Asia and Africa that identifies an unusual pattern of parasite population structure at the epicenter of artemisinin resistance in western Cambodia. Within this relatively small geographic area, we have discovered several distinct but apparently sympatric parasite subpopulations with extremely high levels of genetic differentiation. Of particular interest are three subpopulations, all associated with clinical resistance to artemisinin, which have skewed allele frequency spectra and high levels of haplotype homozygosity, indicative of founder effects and recent population expansion. We provide a catalog of SNPs that show high levels of differentiation in the artemisinin-resistant subpopulations, including codon variants in transporter proteins and DNA mismatch repair proteins. These data provide a population-level genetic framework for investigating the biological origins of artemisinin resistance and for defining molecular markers to assist in its elimination. PMID:23624527

Miotto, Olivo; Almagro-Garcia, Jacob; Manske, Magnus; Macinnis, Bronwyn; Campino, Susana; Rockett, Kirk A; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Lim, Pharath; Suon, Seila; Sreng, Sokunthea; Anderson, Jennifer M; Duong, Socheat; Nguon, Chea; Chuor, Char Meng; Saunders, David; Se, Youry; Lon, Chantap; Fukuda, Mark M; Amenga-Etego, Lucas; Hodgson, Abraham V O; Asoala, Victor; Imwong, Mallika; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Nosten, François; Su, Xin-Zhuan; Ringwald, Pascal; Ariey, Frédéric; Dolecek, Christiane; Hien, Tran Tinh; Boni, Maciej F; Thai, Cao Quang; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; Conway, David J; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Zongo, Issaka; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Alcock, Daniel; Drury, Eleanor; Auburn, Sarah; Koch, Oliver; Sanders, Mandy; Hubbart, Christina; Maslen, Gareth; Ruano-Rubio, Valentin; Jyothi, Dushyanth; Miles, Alistair; O'Brien, John; Gamble, Chris; Oyola, Samuel O; Rayner, Julian C; Newbold, Chris I; Berriman, Matthew; Spencer, Chris C A; McVean, Gilean; Day, Nicholas P; White, Nicholas J; Bethell, Delia; Dondorp, Arjen M; Plowe, Christopher V; Fairhurst, Rick M; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

2013-06-01

109

Leptospira and rodents in Cambodia: environmental determinants of infection.  

PubMed

We investigated infection of rodents and shrews by Leptospira spp. in two localities of Cambodia (Veal Renh, Kaev Seima) and in four types of habitat (forests, non-flooded lands, lowland rain-fed paddy fields, houses) during the wet and the dry seasons. Habitat preference was common, and rodent and shrew species were found only in houses or in rain-fed paddy fields or in forests. Among 649 small mammals trapped belonging to 12 rodent species and 1 shrew species, 71 of 642 animals tested were carriers of Leptospira according to the 16S ribosomal RNA marker used. Rodent infection was higher in low-slope locations, corresponding to rain-fed paddy fields, especially in the rainy season and in Kaev Seima. Rodents (Rattus exulans) and shrews (Suncus murinus) inhabiting households showed significantly low levels of infections, whereas rodents living in and near to forests (shrubby wasteland, orchards) showed high levels of infection. PMID:22665613

Ivanova, Svilena; Herbreteau, Vincent; Blasdell, Kim; Chaval, Yannick; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; Morand, Serge

2012-06-01

110

A Culture Under Siege: Post-Colonial Higher Education and Teacher Education in Cambodia from 1953 to 1979.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Charts the 20-year rise and fall of higher education and teacher education in Cambodia beginning with political independence in 1953 and ending with the devastation wrought by the Khmer Rouge. Discusses the effects of political instability, civil war, and the Vietnam War on Cambodia's educational system. (MJP)

Le Masson, Gildas; Fergusson, Lee C.

1997-01-01

111

Coping Methods: Personal and Community Resources Used among Cambodians in Cambodia and Cambodian-Americans in Lowell, Massachusetts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative research assesses mental health resources from the perspective of providers in Cambodia and in Lowell, Massachusetts. The research documents culturally relevant coping strategies available to Cambodians for combating the effects of trauma and stress. Interviews were conducted with 11 caregivers in Cambodia and with 6 providers in…

pierSath, Chath

112

Radar Image with Color as Height, Ancharn Kuy, Cambodia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of Ancharn Kuy, Cambodia, was taken by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR). The image depicts an area northwest of Angkor Wat. The radar has highlighted a number of circular village mounds in this region, many of which have a circular pattern of rice fields surrounding the slightly elevated site. Most of them have evidence of what seems to be pre-Angkor occupation, such as stone tools and potsherds. Most of them also have a group of five spirit posts, a pattern not found in other parts of Cambodia. The shape of the mound, the location in the midst of a ring of rice fields, the stone tools and the current practice of spirit veneration have revealed themselves through a unique 'marriage' of radar imaging, archaeological investigation, and anthropology.

Ancharn Kuy is a small village adjacent to the road, with just this combination of features. The region gets slowly higher in elevation, something seen in the shift of color from yellow to blue as you move to the top of the image.

The small dark rectangles are typical of the smaller water control devices employed in this area. While many of these in the center of Angkor are linked to temples of the 9th to 14th Century A.D., we cannot be sure of the construction date of these small village tanks. They may pre-date the temple complex, or they may have just been dug ten years ago!

The image dimensions are approximately 4.75 by 4.3 kilometers (3 by 2.7 miles) with a pixel spacing of 5 meters (16.4 feet). North is at top. Image brightness is from the C-band (5.6 centimeters, or 2.2 inches) wavelength radar backscatter, which is a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color; that is going from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again; corresponds to 10 meters (32.8 feet) of elevation change.

AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR mode, AIRSAR collects radar interferometry data from two spatially separated antennas (2.6 meters, or 8.5 feet). Information from the two antennas is used to form radar backscatter imagery and to generate highly accurate elevation data. Built, operated and managed by JPL, AIRSAR is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise program. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2002-01-01

113

Association between Arsenic Exposure and Diabetes Mellitus in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Whereas studies in Taiwan found associations between arsenic exposure from drinking water and diabetes mellitus (DM), studies in other countries yielded inconsistent results, and diet might be a confounder. We conducted a study in Cambodia, where people have non-Western style diet, to evaluate the association. We measured well water and urine samples and examined skin signs of arsenicosis to assess arsenic exposure and used questionnaires to collect data on potential risk factors. We performed a fingertip blood glucose test followed by measurement of hemoglobin A1c to assess DM. The 43-male and 99-female participants had an average age of 40.4 years. We found that participants with skin signs of arsenicosis had a higher level of arsenic in the drinking water (1101.1 versus 972.2??g/L, P = 0.02). Drinking water with arsenic levels above the median (907.25??g/L) was associated with a nearly twofold increase in the risk of DM (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5–5.8), so was having skin sings of arsenicosis (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 0.5–5.6). The ORs did not reach statistical significance most likely because of the small case number. Therefore, further studies with larger study populations are needed to confirm our findings.

Huang, Jhih-Wei; Cheng, Ya-Yun; Sung, Tzu-Ching; Guo, How-Ran

2014-01-01

114

Microbiological effectiveness of mineral pot filters in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Mineral pot filters (MPFs) are household water treatment (HWT) devices that are manufactured and distributed by the private sector, with millions of users in Southeast Asia. Their effectiveness in reducing waterborne microbes has not been previously investigated. We purchased three types of MPFs available on the Cambodian market for systematic evaluation of bacteria, virus, and protozoan surrogate microbial reduction in laboratory challenge experiments following WHO recommended performance testing protocols. Results over the total 1500 L testing period per filter indicate that the devices tested were highly effective in reducing Esherichia coli (99.99%+), moderately effective in reducing bacteriophage MS2 (99%+), and somewhat effective against Bacillus atrophaeus, a spore-forming bacterium we used as a surrogate for protozoa (88%+). Treatment mechanisms for all filters included porous ceramic and activated carbon filtration. Our results suggest that these commercially available filters may be at least as effective against waterborne pathogens as other, locally available treatment options such as ceramic pot filters or boiling. More research is needed on the role these devices may play as interim solutions to the problem of unsafe drinking water in Cambodia and globally. PMID:23030639

Brown, Joe; Chai, Ratana; Wang, Alice; Sobsey, Mark D

2012-11-01

115

Paleoenvironmental history of the West Baray, Angkor (Cambodia)  

PubMed Central

Angkor (Cambodia) was the seat of the Khmer Empire from the 9th to 15th century AD. The site is noted for its monumental architecture and complex hydro-engineering systems, comprised of canals, moats, embankments, and large reservoirs, known as barays. We infer a 1,000-y, 14C-dated paleoenvironmental record from study of an approximately 2-m sediment core taken in the largest Khmer reservoir, the West Baray. The baray was utilized and managed from the time of construction in the early 11th century, through the 13th century. During that time, the West Baray received relatively high rates of detrital input. In the 14th century, linear sedimentation rates diminished by an order of magnitude, yielding a condensed section that correlates temporally with episodes of regional monsoon failure during the late 14th and early 15th century, recorded in tree ring records from Vietnam. Our results demonstrate that changes in the water management system were associated with the decline of the Angkorian kingdom during that period. By the 17th century, the West Baray again functioned as a limnetic system. Ecologic and sedimentologic changes over the last millennium, detected in the baray deposits, are attributed to shifts in regional-scale Khmer water management, evolving land use practices in the catchment, and regional climate change.

Day, Mary Beth; Hodell, David A.; Brenner, Mark; Chapman, Hazel J.; Curtis, Jason H.; Kenney, William F.; Kolata, Alan L.; Peterson, Larry C.

2012-01-01

116

Basic Education for Rural Children: Current Facts, Situation and Challenges in Post-Conflict Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was a comparative study conducted between the two schools namely Kdie Tatam (KT) supported by the State and NGOs and Kbal Samraong (KS) supported by the State only. A field work was conducted in Samraong district of Takeo province, Cambodia where data gathered from both primary and secondary sources. The primary data was fundamentally obtained from a household survey

Sok Serey

117

Reduced Victim Participation: A Misstep by the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article focuses on the ruling of the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) which reduces the participation of the victims of the Cambodian conflict in the criminal trial proceedings of their tormentors and former members of the Khmer Rouge. It explores the goals of the ECCC. A brief historical overview of the Khmer Rouge conflict from April

David S. Sokol

2011-01-01

118

The Impact of Past Conflicts and Social Disruption on the Elderly in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cambodia experienced violence during the rule of the Khmer Rouge in the 1970s. Many who died were the children or spouses of today's elderly. This may have resulted in an erosion of family support in a country where formal channels of assistance are virtually absent. This article examines the extent to which current Cambodian elderly experienced deaths of children or

Zachary Zimmer; John Knodel; Kiry Sovan Kim; Sina Puch

2006-01-01

119

Cambodia Deals with its Past: Collective Memory, Demonisation and Induced Amnesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how successive Cambodian governments have regarded the so?called Khmer Rouge regime, which ruled Cambodia between 1975 and 1979. Between 1979 and 1993, Cambodian governments demonised the Khmer Rouge but since the late 1990s, and the collapse of the Khmer Rouge as a movement, the government has enforced a policy of collective amnesia. In closing, the rationales for

David Chandler

2008-01-01

120

Building the New Cambodia: Educational Destruction and Construction under the Khmer Rouge, 1975-1979.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the educational destruction and construction in Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia) under the Khmer Rouge regime. Explains that in constructing the Democratic Kampuchea education system the Khmer Rouge sought to harness the power of education to their agenda of egalitarian, self-reliant, and agrarian socialism. (CMK)

Clayton, Thomas

1998-01-01

121

The Development of Libraries in Cambodia: The Post-Khmer Rouge Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the recent development of libraries in Cambodia. Topics include rebuilding the infrastructure; restoring old libraries and opening new ones; government libraries; public libraries; academic libraries; cultural considerations; collections; staffing; support from the United Nations and other international organizations; and the lack of…

D'Amicantonio, John

1997-01-01

122

War Crimes Accountability: Justice and Reconciliation in Cambodia and East Timor?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The end of the Cold War witnessed a renewed attempt to deal with massive human rights violations. Efforts to establish accountability in Cambodia and East Timor through war crimes tribunals or truth commissions regarding the Khmer Rouge and Suharto's Indonesia have been obstructed by domestic forces and outside powers. Since the domestic courts lack impartiality and resources, tribunals and truth

James Rae

2003-01-01

123

Health risk assessment of inorganic arsenic intake of Cambodia residents through groundwater drinking pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to compare the magnitudes and health impacts of arsenic and other toxic trace elements in well water, groundwater and hair samples were collected from three areas with different arsenic exposure scenarios in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. Ampil commune in Kampong Cham province was selected as an uncontaminated area, Khsarch Andaet commune in Kratie province was selected

Kongkea Phan; Suthipong Sthiannopkao; Kyoung-Woong Kim; Ming Hung Wong; Vibol Sao; Jamal Hisham Hashim; Mohamed Salleh Mohamed Yasin; Syed Mohamed Aljunid

2010-01-01

124

Indochinese Refugee Experience. Refugees from Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia in Nova Scotia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Firsthand accounts by refugees from Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam, telling how they escaped from Indochina and how they are adjusting to life in Canada (and particularly Nova Scotia), form the greater part of this book. Most of the accounts are by Vietnamese. Information is also provided on the history of the Canadian refugee program, and on the…

Ngo, Xuong, Comp.; Guay, Marcel, Ed.

125

Using local knowledge to inventory deep pools, important fish habitats in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mekong River is the largest river in Southeast Asia and it supports a major inland fishery. The river flows through Cambodia for about 500 kms, traversing four provinces. Important fisheries habitats include deep pools, rapids, floodplains and associated wetlands. Deep pools (un loong in Khmer) have been mentioned by several researchers as important refuge habitats for fish. The definition

S. Chan; S. Putrea; K. Sean; K. G. Hortle

126

High Prevalence of HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Indirect Sex Workers in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The goal of this study was to assess the baseline prev- alence of and risk factors for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among beer girls enrolled in a behavioral interven- tion in Battambang, Cambodia. Methods: Ninety-two of 114 women participated in baseline inter- viewing, HIV\\/STI testing, and STI treatment. Blood specimens were tested for syphilis and HIV

Andrea A. Kim; Ly Penh Sun; Chhea Chhorvann; Christina Lindan; Frits Van Griensven; Peter H. Kilmarx; Pachara SirivongrangsoN; Janice K. Louie; Hor Bun Leng; Kimberly Page-Shafer

2005-01-01

127

Prospects for Self-Determination in South Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study examines the possibilities for stability in Laos, Cambodia and South Vietnam in the 1970's, after withdrawal of U.S. Forces. The study reviews the power potential and aims of Communist China visa-avis the three countries, and assesses the potent...

A. H. Johnson

1970-01-01

128

Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Surveillance at Live Poultry Markets, Cambodia, 2011  

PubMed Central

In Cambodia, influenza A(H5N1) virus surveillance at live poultry markets (LPMs) relies on virus isolation from poultry specimens; however, virus is rarely detected by this method. We tested 502 environmental LPM samples: 90 were positive by PCR, 10 by virus isolation. Virus circulation could be better monitored by environmental sampling of LPMs.

Horm, Srey Viseth; Sorn, San; Allal, Lotfi

2013-01-01

129

How Road Traffic Injuries Affect Household Welfare in Cambodia Using the Millennium Development Goals Benchmarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reveals the welfare costs of traffic injuries in Cambodia at the beginning of a decade in which greater research and resources will be focused on road safety. The results quantify how road traffic injuries affect progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) using survey data from 100 Cambodian households. The median age of the police-reported casualties was 28

Matthew Ericson; Pagna Kim

2011-01-01

130

Affecting Reform: Explaining the Kingdom of Cambodia's Contributions to United Nations Peacekeeping Operations in Comparative Context.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Kingdom of Cambodia has recently begun to provide Royal Cambodian Armed Forces personnel to United Nations-led peacekeeping operations in Africa and the Middle East. This thesis draws on systemic, regional, and domestic level theories for why states c...

M. D. Ryan

2011-01-01

131

Disability and Democracy in Cambodia: An Integrative Approach to Community Building and Civic Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The political framework through which the various communities of disabled persons in Cambodia advocate for and claim their rights is complex and confusing. Both governmental and non-governmental actors engage this political framework through the mobilization of persons from the various disabled communities, competing in the civic sphere through…

Zook, Darren C.

2010-01-01

132

Impact of School Readiness Program Interventions on Children's Learning in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To reduce the high repetition rates in early years of primary school, the government of Cambodia piloted a school readiness program (SRP) in the first two months of Grade 1 of primary school. This study examines whether such intervention has effects on students' immediate acquisition of school readiness skills as well as students' longer term…

Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Bredenberg, Kurt

2009-01-01

133

Vernaculars in Literacy and Basic Education in Cambodia, Laos and Thailand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three Southeast Asian polities, Cambodia, Laos and Thailand share much of their geography, history, culture, religion and language. Not all speakers of more than 100 languages spoken in the area have a sufficient knowledge of the respective national languages, Khmer, Lao and Thai. Yet, for the most part, the national languages are the only…

Kosonen, Kimmo

2005-01-01

134

Cambodia: Summary Report. The Impact of Informal School Fees. Asia-South Pacific Education Watch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A prior study of costs of education in Cambodia was undertaken by Mark Bray in 1999. In his study he suggests that: "... the scale of dropout from Cambodian primary schools has been demonstrated to be high. Costs appear to be an important factor for many households when making decisions to withdraw their children from school." In that study,…

de Guzman, Sylvia

2007-01-01

135

Reviewing the Role of Teachers in Achieving Education for All in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last 20 years education policies in Cambodia have been driven by the global Education for All (EFA) campaign and have resulted in a rapid increase in the rates of primary education enrolment. However, the increasing number of children enrolling in schools has not always translated into high rates of primary education completion. Against…

Kim, Chae-Young; Rouse, Martyn

2011-01-01

136

Student Achievement and Education Policy in a Period of Rapid Expansion: Assessment Data Evidence from Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyses student achievement and school quality in large samples of schools in Cambodia. Descriptive summaries of student proficiency levels in language and mathematics reveal large gaps between average performance in grades three and six. Given the near universal completion rates for grade three--and lower access to grade six--these…

Marshall, Jeffery H.; Chinna, Ung; Nessay, Puth; Hok, Ung Ngo; Savoeun, Va; Tinon, Soeur; Veasna, Meung

2009-01-01

137

Situation Reports--Brasil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data relating to population and family planning in six foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Brazil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

138

Identification of Genotype 1 Hepatitis E Virus in Samples from Swine in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major enterically transmitted pathogen in many developing countries, where it causes outbreaks and sporadic cases of acute hepatitis. A study conducted with pigs from several livestock farms in Cambodia identified one swine genotype 1 HEV isolate as being associated with prevalent swine genotype 3 HEV.

Caron, M.; Enouf, V.; Than, S. C.; Dellamonica, L.; Buisson, Y.; Nicand, E.

2006-01-01

139

State of Cybersecurity and the Roadmap to Secure Cyber Community in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents background information and the progress of the government effort on Cyber Security in Cambodia. Firstly, this study establishes a framework to assess the current effort of Cambodian government on cybersecurity. Secondly, the results of the assessment are used to develop policy implication, serving as roadmap to secure national online community. Furthermore, this paper discusses the process to

Sopheak Cheang; Sinawong Sang

2009-01-01

140

CHANGES IN STI SERVICES FOLLOWING A COMMUNITY BASED STI-INTERVENTION PROJECT IN CAMBODIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess changes in sexually transmitted infections (STI) related care following a STI project with a particular focus on registered brothel-based (direct) female sex workers (DFSWs) in four border provinces of Cambodia. A survey of health care facilities providing STI care was undertaken and the results compared with a baseline survey done two years

Nigel O'Farrell; Phal Sano; Seng Sopheap; Lon Say Heng; Ly Penh Sun; Mean Chhi Vun; Knut Fylkesnes; Peter Godwin

2008-01-01

141

Educational Financing and Budgeting in Cambodia. Financial Management of Education Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains a detailed description of the challenges faced by educational finance and budgeting in Cambodia. Until recently, educational financing took the form of emergency budgets and was limited to government planning for teacher salaries and costs of examinations. There has been a general lack of coordination between provinces and the…

Pheng, Duy; Sovonn, Hang; Soly, Yos

142

Reaping benefits from diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of diversity management initiatives using three good practice examples from employers operating in the manufacturing, IT and charity sectors in the UK. Design methodology\\/approach – Using IBM, Jaguar Land Rover and Scope as case studies, the paper follows the introduction and maintenance of diversity policies based on internal

Andrea Broughton; Marie Strebler

2008-01-01

143

"Almost a role model of what we would like to do everywhere": British American Tobacco in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To examine British American Tobacco's (BAT's) renewed interest in Cambodia from the early 1990s, reviewing negotiations to establish a joint venture and the subsequent conduct of BAT Cambodia (BATC). Methods: Analysis of previously confidential BAT documents relevant to the Cambodian market. Results: With the advent of comparative political stability in the early 1990s, BAT was quick to explore the possibilities for investment. The Cambodian government urgently required foreign investment, offering inducements and assistance to investors. In developing a joint venture, BAT saw a cost effective opportunity to dominate the local market and to defend its regional interests, Cambodia being viewed as strategically located to support smuggling. Given minimal advertising regulation, BATC have undertaken wide ranging promotions and sought to prevent advances in tobacco control. Conclusions: BATC is presented as a contribution to Cambodia's regeneration, but the documents highlight its exploitation of state incapacity and an escalating threat to public health.

MacKenzie, R; Collin, J; Sopharo, C; Sopheap, Y

2004-01-01

144

Transpiration characteristics of a rubber plantation in central Cambodia.  

PubMed

The rapid and widespread expansion of rubber plantations in Southeast Asia necessitates a greater understanding of tree physiology and the impacts of water consumption on local hydrology. Sap flow measurements were used to study the intra- and inter-annual variations in transpiration rate (Et) in a rubber stand in the low-elevation plain of central Cambodia. Mean stand sap flux density (JS) indicates that rubber trees actively transpire in the rainy season, but become inactive in the dry season. A sharp, brief drop in JS occurred simultaneously with leaf shedding in the middle of the dry season in January. Although the annual maxima of JS were approximately the same in the two study years, the maximum daily stand Et of ?2.0 mm day(-1) in 2010 increased to ?2.4 mm day(-1) in 2011. Canopy-level stomatal response was well explained by changes in solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit, soil moisture availability, leaf area, and stem diameter. Rubber trees had a relatively small potential to transpire at the beginning of the study period, compared with average diffuse-porous species. After 2 years of growth in stem diameter, transpiration potential was comparable to other species. The sensitivity of canopy conductance (gc) to atmospheric drought indicates isohydric behavior of rubber trees. Modeling also predicted a relatively small sensitivity of gc to the soil moisture deficit and a rapid decrease in gc under extreme drought conditions. However, annual observations suggest the possibility of a change in leaf characteristics with tree maturity and/or initiation of latex tapping. The estimated annual stand Et was 469 mm year(-1) in 2010, increasing to 658 mm year(-1) in 2011. Diagnostic analysis using the derived gc model showed that inter-annual change in stand Et in the rapidly growing young rubber stand was determined mainly by tree growth rate, not by differences in air and soil variables in the surrounding environment. Future research should focus on the potentially broad applicability of the relationship between Et and tree size as well as environmental factors at stands different in terms of clonal type and age. PMID:24646689

Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Tateishi, Makiko; Lim, Tiva K; Mudd, Ryan G; Ziegler, Alan D; Giambelluca, Thomas W; Yin, Song

2014-03-01

145

Radar Image with Color as Height, Sman Teng, Temple, Cambodia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of Cambodia's Angkor region, taken by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), reveals a temple (upper-right) not depicted on early 19th Century French archeological survey maps and American topographic maps. The temple, known as 'Sman Teng,' was known to the local Khmer people, but had remained unknown to historians due to the remoteness of its location. The temple is thought to date to the 11th Century: the heyday of Angkor. It is an important indicator of the strategic and natural resource contributions of the area northwest of the capitol, to the urban center of Angkor. Sman Teng, the name designating one of the many types of rice enjoyed by the Khmer, was 'discovered' by a scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., working in collaboration with an archaeological expert on the Angkor region. Analysis of this remote area was a true collaboration of archaeology and technology. Locating the temple of Sman Teng required the skills of scientists trained to spot the types of topographic anomalies that only radar can reveal.

This image, with a pixel spacing of 5 meters (16.4 feet), depicts an area of approximately 5 by 4.7 kilometers (3.1 by 2.9 miles). North is at top. Image brightness is from the P-band (68 centimeters, or 26.8 inches) wavelength radar backscatter, a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color represents 25 meters (82 feet) of elevation change, so going from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again corresponds to 25 meters (82 feet) of elevation change.

AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR mode, AIRSAR collects radar interferometry data from two spatially separated antennas (2.6 meters, or 8.5 feet). Information from the two antennas is used to form radar backscatter imagery and to generate highly accurate elevation data. Built, operated and managed by JPL, AIRSAR is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise program. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2002-01-01

146

Respondent-driven sampling on the Thailand-Cambodia border. I. Can malaria cases be contained in mobile migrant workers?  

PubMed Central

Background Reliable information on mobility patterns of migrants is a crucial part of the strategy to contain the spread of artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites in South-East Asia, and may also be helpful to efforts to address other public health problems for migrants and members of host communities. In order to limit the spread of malarial drug resistance, the malaria prevention and control programme will need to devise strategies to reach cross-border and mobile migrant populations. Methodology The Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method was used to survey migrant workers from Cambodia and Myanmar, both registered and undocumented, in three Thai provinces on the Thailand-Cambodia border in close proximity to areas with documented artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites. 1,719 participants (828 Cambodian and 891 Myanmar migrants) were recruited. Subpopulations of migrant workers were analysed using the Thailand Ministry of Health classification based on length of residence in Thailand of greater than six months (long-term, or M1) or less than six months (short-term, or M2). Key information collected on the structured questionnaire included patterns of mobility and migration, demographic characteristics, treatment-seeking behaviours, and knowledge, perceptions, and practices about malaria. Results Workers from Cambodia came from provinces across Cambodia, and 22% of Cambodian M1 and 72% of Cambodian M2 migrants had been in Cambodia in the last three months. Less than 6% returned with a frequency of greater than once per month. Of migrants from Cambodia, 32% of M1 and 68% of M2 were planning to return, and named provinces across Cambodia as their likely next destinations. Most workers from Myanmar came from Mon state (86%), had never returned to Myanmar (85%), and only 4% stated plans to return. Conclusion Information on migratory patterns of migrants from Myanmar and Cambodia along the malaria endemic Thailand-Cambodian border within the artemisinin resistance containment zone will help target health interventions, including treatment follow-up and surveillance.

2011-01-01

147

Radar Image with Color as Height, Hariharalaya, Cambodia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hariharalaya, the ancient 9th Century A.D. capitol of the Khmer in Cambodia, is shown in the upper center portion of this NASA Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) image. The image was acquired during the 1996 PACRIM mission with AIRSAR operating in the TOPSAR mode. At the center of the image is the terraced sandstone temple mountain of the King Indravarman, the Bakong. The smaller enclosed rectangular feature just to the north is Preah Ko. Further to the south are more rectangular features, temples and water reservoirs attributed to other kings in the earlier part of the 9th Century A.D. and maybe even earlier. Just visible at the top on the image is a long linear feature that forms the southern border of the immense water reservoir, at the center of which is the Lolei temple. The city was the first capitol of the Khmer after the 802 A.D. ceremony consecrating the king as 'Devaraja'. This usually translated as 'god who was king' or 'king who was god'. In the next century, the center of power shifted to the northwest, to the area known today as Angkor.

Thus this early capital is unique both in being the first after the historical 'founding' of the Khmer Empire, and for being inhabited for a relatively short time. Although kings returned from Angkor in the 11th and 12th Centuries A.D. to build the temple known as the Lolei and to construct the tower in the center of Bakong, the city of Hariharalaya remained on the perimeter of royal power. It was revered, however, as part of a longstanding and important custom of ancestral veneration. This manifested itself in a complex set of rituals honoring one's forebears--also ensuring legitimacy for one's claim to the throne. So behind this seemingly simple patterning of rectangles on the radar image lies many layers of history, ritual and meaning for the Khmer people, past and present.

Image dimensions are approximately 6 by 4.8 kilometers (3.7 by 3 miles) with a pixel spacing of 5 meters (16.4 feet). North is at top. Image brightness is from the C-band (5.6 centimeters, or 2.2 inches wavelength) radar backscatter, which is a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color--from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again--represents 10 meters (32.8 feet) of elevation change.

AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR mode, AIRSAR collects radar interferometry data from two spatially separated antennas (2.6 meters, or 8.5 feet). Information from the two antennas is used to form radar backscatter imagery and to generate highly accurate elevation data. Built, operated and managed by JPL, AIRSAR is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise program. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2002-01-01

148

Infectious Etiologies of Acute Febrile Illness among Patients Seeking Health Care in South-Central Cambodia  

PubMed Central

The agents of human febrile illness can vary by region and country suggesting that diagnosis, treatment, and control programs need to be based on a methodical evaluation of area-specific etiologies. From December 2006 to December 2009, 9,997 individuals presenting with acute febrile illness at nine health care clinics in south-central Cambodia were enrolled in a study to elucidate the etiologies. Upon enrollment, respiratory specimens, whole blood, and serum were collected. Testing was performed for viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. Etiologies were identified in 38.0% of patients. Influenza was the most frequent pathogen, followed by dengue, malaria, and bacterial pathogens isolated from blood culture. In addition, 3.5% of enrolled patients were infected with more than one pathogen. Our data provide the first systematic assessment of the etiologies of acute febrile illness in south-central Cambodia. Data from syndromic-based surveillance studies can help guide public health responses in developing nations.

Kasper, Matthew R.; Blair, Patrick J.; Touch, Sok; Sokhal, Buth; Yasuda, Chadwick Y.; Williams, Maya; Richards, Allen L.; Burgess, Timothy H.; Wierzba, Thomas F.; Putnam, Shannon D.

2012-01-01

149

A clinic based survey of blindness and eye disease in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To survey the spectrum of eye disease presenting to rural eye clinics in Cambodia.?METHODS—A total of 1381 patients seen consecutively at 13 eye clinics were examined and the findings recorded.?RESULTS—231 (16.7%) were bilaterally blind (visual acuity <3/60 in both eyes); 263 (19%) were unilaterally blind, and 169 (12%) had low vision (visual acuity <6/18 in the better eye). Cataract was the commonest cause of visual loss in all three categories and was responsible respectively in 69%, 40%, and 55% of each group. Trachoma was diagnosed in 13% of patients. Thirty three of them needed lid surgery for trichiasis.?CONCLUSION—With the difficult practical and political situation in Cambodia there seems little prospect of making substantial inroads into the backlog of avoidable blindness in the near future.??

Thomson, I.

1997-01-01

150

Resistance and renewal: health sector reform and Cambodia's national tuberculosis programme.  

PubMed

Following the destruction of Cambodia's health infrastructure during the Khmer Rouge period (1975-1979) and the subsequent decade of United Nations sanctions, international development assistance has focused on reconstructing the country's health system. The recognition of Cambodia's heavy burden of tuberculosis (TB) and the lapse of TB control strategies during the transition to democracy prompted the national tuberculosis programme's relaunch in the mid-1990s as WHO-backed health sector reforms were introduced. This paper examines the conflicts that arose between health reforms and TB control programmes due to their different operating paradigms. It also discusses how these tensions were resolved during introduction of the DOTS strategy for TB treatment. PMID:17768522

Hill, Peter S; Tan Eang, Mao

2007-08-01

151

The socio-demographic legacy of the Khmer Rouge period in Cambodia.  

PubMed

The study presented in this paper is an examination of the long-term impact of genocide during the period of the Khmer Rouge regime (1975-79) in Cambodia. The very high and selective mortality of the period had a major impact on the population structure of Cambodia. Fertility and marriage rates were both very low under the Khmer Rouge, but recovered immediately after the regime's collapse. Because of the shortage of eligible men, the age and education differences between partners tended to decline. The period also had a lasting impact on the educational attainment of the population. The school system collapsed during the period and therefore individuals -- especially men -- who were of school age at the time have a lower educational attainment than those from the preceding and subsequent birth cohorts. PMID:16754253

de Walque, Damien

2006-07-01

152

Assessing arsenic intake from groundwater and rice by residents in Prey Veng province, Cambodia.  

PubMed

We investigated total daily intake of As by residents in Prey Veng province in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. Groundwater (n = 11), rice (n = 11) and fingernail (n = 23) samples were randomly collected from the households and analyzed for total As by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Calculation indicated that daily dose of inorganic As was greater than the lower limits on the benchmark dose for a 0.5% increased incidence of lung cancer (BMDL0.5 equals to 3.0 ?g d(-1) kg(-1)body wt.). Moreover, positive correlation between As in fingernail and daily dose of As from groundwater and rice and total daily dose of As were found. These results suggest that the Prey Veng residents are exposed to As in groundwater. As in rice is an additional source which is attributable to high As accumulation in human bodies in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. PMID:24231403

Phan, Kongkea; Phan, Samrach; Heng, Savoeun; Huoy, Laingshun; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

2014-02-01

153

Toward modeling regionally specific human security using GIS: case study Cambodia.  

PubMed

A new methodology for measuring human security is presented. The three stages of the methodology are: i) threat assessment, ii) data collection and organization, and iii) data visualization and analysis, using Geographic Information Systems. Results from a Cambodia case study are highlighted. The United Nations Development Program's notion of human security, which gives equal weight to economic, health, food, political, personal, and environmental factors, is used. Country-specific threats in each category are determined, and local, spatially referenced data are collected. In this paper, poverty, dengue fever, and tuberculosis are used as examples of the analytic process. Regions of Cambodia exposed to all three of these threats ("hot spots") are located, and spatial correlation between poverty, dengue fever, and tuberculosis is calculated. The methodology i) advances a broad concept of human security, ii) will potentially assist policy and decision makers, and iii) identifies research questions that cannot be resolved using single-sector analysis. PMID:16201215

Owen, Taylor; Slaymaker, Olav

2005-08-01

154

Community and School-Based Health Education for Dengue Control in Rural Cambodia: A Process Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Dengue fever continues to be a major public health problem in Cambodia, with significant impact on children. Health education is a major means for prevention and control of the National Dengue Control Program (NDCP), and is delivered to communities and in schools. Drawing on data collected in 2003–2004 as part of an ethnographic study conducted in eastern Cambodia, we explore the approaches used in health education and their effectiveness to control dengue. Community health education is provided through health centre outreach activities and campaigns of the NDCP, but is not systematically evaluated, is under-funded and delivered irregularly; school-based education is restricted in terms of time and lacks follow-up in terms of practical activities for prevention and control. As a result, adherence is partial. We suggest the need for sustained routine education for dengue prevention and control, and the need for approaches to ensure the translation of knowledge into practice.

Khun, Sokrin; Manderson, Lenore

2007-01-01

155

Do marriages forget their past? Marital stability in post-Khmer Rouge Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the impact of three main destabilizing factors on marital stability in Cambodia: the radical reformation\\u000a of marriage under the Khmers Rouges (KR); the imbalanced gender ratio among marriageable adults resulting from gendered mortality\\u000a during the KR regime; and, after decades of isolation from the West, a period of rapid social change. Although there is evidence\\u000a of declining

Patrick Heuveline; Bunnak Poch

2006-01-01

156

Middle to late Holocene initiation of the annual flood pulse in Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia, possesses one of the most productive inland fisheries in the world and is a vital natural resource\\u000a for the country. The lake is connected to the Mekong River via the Tonle Sap River. Flow in the Tonle Sap River reverses seasonally,\\u000a with water exiting the lake in the dry season and entering the lake during the

Mary Beth Day; David A. Hodell; Mark Brenner; Jason H. Curtis; George D. Kamenov; Thomas P. Guilderson; Larry C. Peterson; William F. Kenney; Alan L. Kolata

2011-01-01

157

[Evaluation of the epidemic caused by the human immunodeficiency virus in Cambodia].  

PubMed

The infection by the human immunodeficiency virus is in the process of expanding to a dramatical level in South East Asia. At the moment, the few available datas on Cambodia are increasingly worrying, with a rate of seropositivity of prostitutes higher than 9% in 1992 and a clear progression of the rate of seropositivity of blood donors: 1.3% by the second quarter of 1993. PMID:8009090

Guérin, B; L'Her, P; Lenègre-Thourin, I; Kruy, S L; Tea, P; Tea, P; Oung, C

1993-01-01

158

Spatial and seasonal changes of net plankton and zoobenthos in Lake Tonle Sap, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify spatial and seasonal differences in net plankton and zoobenthos in Lake Tonle Sap, Cambodia, quantitative surveys\\u000a were carried out at 14 stations in the north and south basins in high- and low-water seasons during 2003–2005. In the phytoplankton\\u000a communities, a diatom Aulacoseira granulata dominated throughout the lake in the high-water seasons, while blue-green algae, mostly composed of Microcystis,

Akifumi Ohtaka; Ryusei Watanabe; Sokrithy Im; Rachna Chhay; Shinji Tsukawaki

2010-01-01

159

Failure of artesunate-mefloquine combination therapy for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in southern Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Resistance to anti-malarial drugs hampers control efforts and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality from malaria. The efficacy of standard therapies for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria was assessed in Chumkiri, Kampot Province, Cambodia. METHODS: One hundred fifty-one subjects with uncomplicated falciparum malaria received directly observed therapy with 12 mg\\/kg artesunate (over three days) and 25

William O Rogers; Rithy Sem; Thong Tero; Pheaktra Chim; Pharath Lim; Sinuon Muth; Duong Socheat; Frédéric Ariey; Chansuda Wongsrichanalai

2009-01-01

160

Poverty, Wealth Inequality and Health among Older Adults in Rural Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Little research exists on health determinants among adults living in economically deprived regions despite the fact that these areas comprise a good part of the world. This paper examines the distribution of wealth then tests associations between wealth inequality and a variety of health outcomes, among older adults, in one of the world's poorest regions – rural Cambodia. Data from the 2004 Survey of the Elderly in Cambodia are employed. Using a disablement framework to conceptualize health, associations between four health components and a wealth inequality measure are tested. The wealth inequality measure is based on an index that operationalizes wealth as ownership of household assets and household structural components. Results confirm difficult economic conditions in rural Cambodia. The lowest wealth quintile lives in households that own nothing, while the next quintiles are only slightly better off. Nevertheless, logistic regressions that adjust for other covariates indicate heterogeneity in health across quintiles that appear qualitatively similar, with the bottom quintiles reporting the most health problems. An exception is disability, which presents a U-shaped association. It is difficult to determine mechanisms behind the relationship using cross-sectional data, but the paper speculates on possible causal directions, both from wealth to health and vice-versa. The analysis suggests the ability to generalize the relationship between wealth inequality and health to extremely poor populations as a very small difference in wealth makes a relatively large difference with respect to health associations among those in meager surroundings.

Zimmer, Zachary

2007-01-01

161

Suicidal expressions among young people in Nicaragua and Cambodia: a cross-cultural study  

PubMed Central

Background Whereas prevalence of suicidal expressions among young people is fairly similar in different countries, less is known about associated risk factors. This study compares young people in Nicaragua and Cambodia to examine if the pattern of association between mental health problems and suicidal expressions differs. Methods 368 and 316 secondary school students, from each country respectively, participated. Self-reported suicidal expressions, exposure to suicidal behavior in significant others and mental health problems among the students were measured using Attitude Towards Suicide (ATTS) and the Youth Self-Report (YSR) questionnaires. Results Prevalence of serious suicidal expressions (plans and attempts) during recent year, did not differ between countries. Cambodian young people scored significantly higher on all eight YSR-syndromes, except for withdrawn/depressed. In Nicaragua, all YSR-syndromes were significantly associated with serious suicidal expressions in both genders compared to Cambodia where only one syndrome showed an association in each gender; Withdrawn/depressed among girls and Somatic complaints among boys. Associations between being exposed to suicide among significant others and serious suicidal expressions also differed between Cambodia and Nicaragua. Conclusions While the magnitude of serious suicidal expressions is similar between these structurally similar but culturally different countries, determinants behave differently. Qualitative studies are warranted to further explore cultural specific determinants for suicidal expressions among young people.

2012-01-01

162

Achieving universal access and moving towards elimination of new HIV infections in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Introduction In the mid-1990s, Cambodia faced one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in Asia. For its achievement in reversing this trend, and achieving universal access to HIV treatment, the country received a United Nations millennium development goal award in 2010. This article reviews Cambodia’s response to HIV over the past two decades and discusses its current efforts towards elimination of new HIV infections. Methods A literature review of published and unpublished documents, including programme data and presentations, was conducted. Results and discussion Cambodia classifies its response to one of the most serious HIV epidemics in Asia into three phases. In Phase I (1991–2000), when adult HIV prevalence peaked at 1.7% and incidence exceeded 20,000 cases, a nationwide HIV prevention programme targeted brothel-based sex work. Voluntary confidential counselling and testing and home-based care were introduced, and peer support groups of people living with HIV emerged. Phase II (2001–2011) observed a steady decline in adult prevalence to 0.8% and incidence to 1600 cases by 2011, and was characterized by: expanding antiretroviral treatment (coverage reaching more than 80%) and continuum of care; linking with tuberculosis and maternal and child health services; accelerated prevention among key populations, including entertainment establishment-based sex workers, men having sex with men, transgender persons, and people who inject drugs; engagement of health workers to deliver quality services; and strengthening health service delivery systems. The third phase (2012–2020) aims to attain zero new infections by 2020 through: sharpening responses to key populations at higher risk; maximizing access to community and facility-based testing and retention in prevention and care; and accelerating the transition from vertical approaches to linked/integrated approaches. Conclusions Cambodia has tailored its prevention strategy to its own epidemic, established systematic linkages across different services and communities, and achieved nearly universal coverage of HIV services nationwide. Still, the programme must continually (re)prioritize the most effective and efficient interventions, strengthen synergies between programmes, contribute to health system strengthening, and increase domestic funding so that the gains of the previous two decades are sustained, and the goal of zero new infections is reached.

Vun, Mean Chhi; Fujita, Masami; Rathavy, Tung; Eang, Mao Tang; Sopheap, Seng; Sovannarith, Samreth; Chhorvann, Chhea; Vanthy, Ly; Sopheap, Oum; Welle, Emily; Ferradini, Laurent; Sedtha, Chin; Bunna, Sok; Verbruggen, Robert

2014-01-01

163

ADDITIONAL AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES FROM THE PHNOM SAMKOS WILDLIFE SANCTUARY IN NORTHWESTERN CARDAMOM MOUNTAINS, CAMBODIA, WITH COMMENTS ON THEIR TAXONOMY AND THE DISCOVERY OF THREE NEW SPECIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen novel records of amphibians and reptiles (eight frogs, seven lizards, and four snakes) from the northwestern portion of the Cardamom Mountains are reported. Six of these, including three undescribed species, are new records for Cambodia. This underscores the importance of the Cardamom Mountains and Cambodia as a whole in biodiversity estimates of Indochina and the extent to which it

L. Lee Grismer; Thy Neang; Thou Chav; Perry L. Wood; Jamie R. Oaks; Jeremy Holden

2008-01-01

164

Prevalence and barriers to HIV testing among mothers at a tertiary care hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Barriers to HIV testing in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background One-third of all new HIV infections in Cambodia are estimated to be due to mother-to-child transmission. Although the Ministry of Health adopted a policy of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC), nearly a quarter of pregnant mothers were not tested in 2007. Greater acceptance of HIV testing is a challenge despite Cambodia's adoption of the PITC policy. Methods A hospital-based quantitative and cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of and barriers to HIV testing among mothers after delivery at the National Maternal and Child Health Center in Phnom Penh. The Center is one of the largest maternal and child care hospitals in the country to offer PITC services. All 600 eligible mothers who were admitted to the hospital after delivery from October to December 2007 were approached and recruited. Data were collected via a semi-structured questionnaire. Results The prevalence of HIV testing among women who delivered at the hospital was 76%. In multivariate logistic regression, factors such as the perceived need to obtain a partner's permission to be tested (OR=0.27, 95% CI=0.14-0.51, p<0.01), the lack of knowledge about HIV prevention and treatment (OR=0.38, CI=0.22-0.66, p<0.01), and the lack of access to ANC services (OR=0.35, 95% CI=0.21-0.58, p<0.01) were found to be the main barriers to HIV testing. Conclusion To achieve greater acceptance of HIV testing, counseling on HIV prevention and treatment must be provided not only to mothers but also to their partners. In addition, utilization of non-laboratory staff such as midwives to provide HIV testing services in rural health facilities could lead to the greater acceptance of HIV testing.

2010-01-01

165

Sex work and HIV in Cambodia: trajectories of risk and disease in two cohorts of high-risk young women in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Objectives HIV prevalence among Cambodian female sex workers (FSW) is among the highest in Southeast Asia. We describe HIV prevalence and associated risk exposures in FSW sampled serially in Phnom Penh, Cambodia (Young Women's Health Study (YWHS)), before and after the implementation of a new law designed to combat human trafficking and sexual exploitation. Design Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from two prospective cohorts. Setting Community-based study in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Participants Women aged 15–29?years, reporting ?2 sexual partners in the last month and/or engaged in transactional sex in the last 3?months, were enrolled in the studies in 2007 (N=161; YWHS-1), and 2009 (N=220; YWHS-2) following information sessions where 285 and 345 women attended. Primary outcomes HIV prevalence, sexual risk behaviour, amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) and alcohol use, and work-related factors were compared in the two groups, enrolled before and after implementation of the new law. Results Participants in the two cohorts were similar in age (median 25?years), but YWHS-2 women reported fewer sex partners, more alcohol use and less ATS use. A higher proportion of YWHS-2 compared with YWHS-1 women worked in entertainment-based venues (68% vs 31%, respectively). HIV prevalence was significantly lower in the more recently sampled women: 9.2% (95% CI 4.5% to 13.8%) vs 23% (95% CI 16.5% to 29.7%). Conclusions Sex work context and risk have shifted among young FSW in Phnom Penh, following implementation of anti-prostitution and anti-trafficking laws. While both cohorts were recruited using the same eligibility criteria, more recently sampled women had lower prevalence of sexual risk and HIV infection. Women engaging more directly in transactional sex have become harder to sample and access. Future prevention research and programmes need to consider how new policies and demographic changes in FSW impact HIV transmission.

Page, Kimberly; Stein, Ellen; Sansothy, Neth; Evans, Jennifer; Couture, Marie-Claude; Sichan, Keo; Cockroft, Melissa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Kaldor, John; Maher, Lisa

2013-01-01

166

Beliefs About Tobacco, Health, and Addiction Among Adults in Cambodia: Findings from a National Survey  

PubMed Central

There remains a very high rate of smoked and smokeless tobacco use in the Western Pacific Region. The most recent findings from national adult tobacco surveys indicate that very few daily users of tobacco intend to quit tobacco use. In Cambodia, a nation that is predominantly Buddhist, faith-based tobacco control programs have been implemented where, under the fifth precept of Buddhism that proscribes addictive behaviors, monks were encouraged to quit tobacco and temples have been declared smoke-free. In the present study, we included items on a large national tobacco survey to examine the relation between beliefs (faith-based, other) about tobacco, health, and addiction among adults (18 years and older). In a stratified, multistage cluster sample (n = 13,988) of all provinces of Cambodia, we found that (1) 88–93% believe that Buddhist monks should not use tobacco, buy tobacco, or be offered tobacco during a religious ceremony; (2) 86–93% believe that the Wat (temple) should be a smoke-free area; (3) 93–95% believe that tobacco is addictive in the same way as habits (opium, gambling, alcohol) listed under the fifth precept of Buddhism; and (4) those who do not use tobacco are significantly more likely to cite a Buddhist principle as part of their anti-tobacco beliefs. These data indicate that anti-tobacco sentiments are highly prevalent in the Buddhist belief system of Cambodian adults and are especially evident among non-users of tobacco. Our findings indicate that faith-based initiatives could be an effective part of anti-tobacco campaigns in Cambodia.

Yel, Daravuth; Bui, Anthony; Job, Jayakaran S.; Knutsen, Synnove; Singh, Pramil N.

2012-01-01

167

Surveillance on chronic arsenic exposure in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia using different biomarkers.  

PubMed

Thousands of Cambodia populations are currently at high risks of both toxic and carcinogenic effects through drinking arsenic-rich groundwater. In order to determine and assess the use of arsenic contents in different biological samples as biomarkers of chronic arsenic exposure from drinking arsenic-rich groundwater in Cambodia, individual scalp hair, fingernail and toenail were collected from three different provinces in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. After washing and acid-digestion, digestate was analyzed for total arsenic by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Chemical analysis of the acid-digested hair revealed that among 270 hair samples cut from Kandal, 78.1% had arsenic content in scalp hair (As(h)) greater than the typical As(h) (1.00 ?g g(-1)), indicating possible arsenic toxicity. Concurrently, 1.2% and 0.6% were found elevated in Kratie (n=84) and Kampong Cham (n=173), respectively. Similarly, the upper end of the ranges for arsenic contents in fingernail (As(fn)) and toenail (As(tn)) clipped from Kandal (fingernail n=241; toenail n=187) were higher than the normal arsenic content in nail (0.43-1.08 ?g g(-1)), however, none was observed elevated in both Kratie (fingernail n=76, toenail n=42) and Kampong Cham (fingernail n=83; toenail n=52). Significant positive intercorrelations between groundwater arsenic concentration (As(w)), average daily dose (ADD) of arsenic, As(h), As(fn) and As(tn) suggest that As(h), As(fn) and As(tn) can be used as biomarkers of chronic arsenic exposure from drinking arsenic-rich groundwater, in which As(h) is more favorable than As(fn) and As(tn) due to the ease of sample processing and analytical measurements, respectively. PMID:21820958

Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

2011-12-01

168

Acute undifferentiated febrile illness in rural cambodia: a 3-year prospective observational study.  

PubMed

In the past decade, malaria control has been successfully implemented in Cambodia, leading to a substantial decrease in reported cases. Wide-spread use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has revealed a large burden of malaria-negative fever cases, for which no clinical management guidelines exist at peripheral level health facilities. As a first step towards developing such guidelines, a 3-year cross-sectional prospective observational study was designed to investigate the causes of acute malaria-negative febrile illness in Cambodia. From January 2008 to December 2010, 1193 febrile patients and 282 non-febrile individuals were recruited from three health centers in eastern and western Cambodia. Malaria RDTs and routine clinical examination were performed on site by health center staff. Venous samples and nasopharyngeal throat swabs were collected and analysed by molecular diagnostic tests. Blood cultures and blood smears were also taken from all febrile individuals. Molecular testing was applied for malaria parasites, Leptospira, Rickettsia, O. tsutsugamushi, Dengue- and Influenza virus. At least one pathogen was identified in 73.3% (874/1193) of febrile patient samples. Most frequent pathogens detected were P. vivax (33.4%), P. falciparum (26.5%), pathogenic Leptospira (9.4%), Influenza viruses (8.9%), Dengue viruses (6.3%), O. tsutsugamushi (3.9%), Rickettsia (0.2%), and P. knowlesi (0.1%). In the control group, a potential pathogen was identified in 40.4%, most commonly malaria parasites and Leptospira. Clinic-based diagnosis of malaria RDT-negative cases was poorly predictive for pathogen and appropriate treatment. Additional investigations are needed to understand their impact on clinical disease and epidemiology, and the possible role of therapies such as doxycycline, since many of these pathogens were seen in non-febrile subjects. PMID:24755844

Mueller, Tara C; Siv, Sovannaroth; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Fleischmann, Erna; Ariey, Frédéric; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; González, Iveth J; Christophel, Eva-Maria; Abdur, Rashid; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Bell, David; Menard, Didier

2014-01-01

169

The association between household poverty rates and tuberculosis case notification rates in Cambodia, 2010  

PubMed Central

Introduction Poverty is a risk factor for tuberculosis (TB); it increases the risk of infection and active disease but limits diagnostic opportunities. The role of poverty in the stagnant case detection in Cambodia is unclear. This study aims to assess the relationship between district household poverty rates and sputum-positive TB case notification rates (CNRs) in Cambodia in 2010. Methods Poisson regression models were used to calculate the relative risk of new sputum-positive TB CNR for Operational Districts (ODs) with different poverty rates using data from the National Centre for Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control and the National Committee for SubNational Democratic Development. Models were adjusted for other major covariates and a geographical information system was used to examine the spatial distribution of these covariates in the country. Results The univariate model showed a positive association between household poverty rates and sputum-positive TB CNRs. However, in multivariate models, after adjusting for major covariates, household poverty rates showed a significantly negative association with sputum-positive TB CNRs (relative risk [RR] = 0.95 per 5% increase in poverty rate). The negative association was stronger among males than females (RR = 0.93 versus 0.96 per 5% increase in poverty rate). Similar spatial patterns were observed between household poverty rates and other covariates, particularly OD population density. Conclusion Household poverty rate is associated with a decrease in sputum-positive TB CNR in Cambodia, particularly in men. The potential of combining surveillance data and socioeconomic variables should be explored further to provide more insights for TB control programme planning.

Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad; Nishikiori, Nobuyuku; Eang, Mao Tan

2013-01-01

170

A cross-sectional investigation of the quality of selected medicines in Cambodia in 2010  

PubMed Central

Background Access to good-quality medicines in many countries is largely hindered by the rampant circulation of spurious/falsely labeled/falsified/counterfeit (SFFC) and substandard medicines. In 2006, the Ministry of Health of Cambodia, in collaboration with Kanazawa University, Japan, initiated a project to combat SFFC medicines. Methods To assess the quality of medicines and prevalence of SFFC medicines among selected products, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in Cambodia. Cefixime, omeprazole, co-trimoxazole, clarithromycin, and sildenafil were selected as candidate medicines. These medicines were purchased from private community drug outlets in the capital, Phnom Penh, and Svay Rieng and Kandal provinces through a stratified random sampling scheme in July 2010. Results In total, 325 medicine samples were collected from 111 drug outlets. Non-licensed outlets were more commonly encountered in rural than in urban areas (p?Cambodia: newer-generation medicines are also targeted. Concerted efforts by both domestic and foreign manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers, and regulatory authorities should help improve the quality of medicines.

2014-01-01

171

Do marriages forget their past? Marital stability in post-Khmer Rouge Cambodia.  

PubMed

This paper assesses the impact of three main destabilizing factors on marital stability in Cambodia: the radical reformation of marriage under the Khmers Rouges (KR); the imbalanced gender ratio among marriageable adults resulting from gendered mortality during the KR regime; and, after decades of isolation from the West, a period of rapid social change. Although there is evidence of declining marital stability in the most recent period, marriages contracted under the KR appear as stable as adjacent marriage cohorts. Thesefindings suggest that the conditions under which spouses were initially paired matter less for marital stability than does their contemporaneous environment. PMID:16579210

Heuveline, Patrick; Poch, Bunnak

2006-02-01

172

High Prevalence and Spatial Distribution of Strongyloides stercoralis in Rural Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background The threadworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, endemic in tropical and temperate climates, is a neglected tropical disease. Its diagnosis requires specific methods, and accurate information on its geographic distribution and global burden are lacking. We predicted prevalence, using Bayesian geostatistical modeling, and determined risk factors in northern Cambodia. Methods From February to June 2010, we performed a cross-sectional study among 2,396 participants from 60 villages in Preah Vihear Province, northern Cambodia. Two stool specimens per participant were examined using Koga agar plate culture and the Baermann method for detecting S. stercoralis infection. Environmental data was linked to parasitological and questionnaire data by location. Bayesian mixed logistic models were used to explore the spatial correlation of S. stercoralis infection risk. Bayesian Kriging was employed to predict risk at non-surveyed locations. Principal Findings Of the 2,396 participants, 44.7% were infected with S. stercoralis. Of 1,071 strongyloidiasis cases, 339 (31.6%) were among schoolchildren and 425 (39.7%) were found in individuals under 16 years. The incidence of S. stercoralis infection statistically increased with age. Infection among male participants was significantly higher than among females (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4–2.0; P<0.001). Participants who defecated in latrines were infected significantly less than those who did not (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4–0.8; P?=?0.001). Strongyloidiasis cases would be reduced by 39% if all participants defecated in latrines. Incidence of S. stercoralis infections did not show a strong tendency toward spatial clustering in this province. The risk of infection significantly decreased with increasing rainfall and soil organic carbon content, and increased in areas with rice fields. Conclusions/Significance Prevalence of S. stercoralis in rural Cambodia is very high and school-aged children and adults over 45 years were the most at risk for infection. Lack of access to adequate treatment for chronic uncomplicated strongyloidiasis is an urgent issue in Cambodia. We would expect to see similar prevalence rates elsewhere in Southeast Asia and other tropical resource poor countries.

Khieu, Virak; Schar, Fabian; Forrer, Armelle; Hattendorf, Jan; Marti, Hanspeter; Duong, Socheat; Vounatsou, Penelope; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

2014-01-01

173

Cardiologist in the shadow of Angkor Wat: A medical mission to Cambodia  

PubMed Central

In a medical mission to Cambodia, our team of doctors, dentists, and nurses saw over 1000 patients during 4 days of clinics. The most common cardiovascular problems were hypertension (11%) and heart murmurs (3%). Obesity and a history of diabetes were very rare. Unlike the cardiac patients I typically see in my Atlanta office, the Cambodians were trim and muscular from their predominantly farming and, less often, construction jobs. They are a gentle, seemingly happy people, appreciative of whatever limited medical help we could offer. Tuberculosis was the most prevalent serious illness noted.

2014-01-01

174

Student Achievement and Education Policy in a Period of Rapid Expansion: Assessment Data Evidence From Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article analyses student achievement and school quality in large samples of schools in Cambodia. Descriptive summaries of student proficiency levels in language and mathematics reveal large gaps between average performance in grades three and six. Given the near universal completion rates for grade three - and lower access to grade six - these differences highlight the inherent challenges of maintaining quality while expanding participation. We also model student achievement variation using hierarchical linear models (HLM), and identify significant predictors that are infrequently available to researchers. These include content taught by teachers, their specialised knowledge of teaching mathematics, and indicators of pedagogical processes. The results reinforce the importance of teachers' impact on student learning outcomes.

Marshall, Jeffery H.; Chinna, Ung; Nessay, Puth; Hok, Ung Ngo; Savoeun, Va; Tinon, Soeur; Veasna, Meung

2009-07-01

175

Reconciliation in Cambodia: thirty years after the terror of the Khmer Rouge regime.  

PubMed

During the Khmer Rouge regime one quarter of the Cambodian population was killed as a result of malnutrition, overwork and mass killings. Although the regime ended 30 years ago, its legacy continues to affect Cambodians. Mental health problems as well as feelings of anger and revenge resulting from traumatic events experienced during the Khmer Rouge regime are still common in Cambodia. These conditions continue to impede social coexistence and the peace-building process in society. Thirty years after the Khmer Rouge regime this article gives an overview on the status of the country's current reconciliation process and recommends potential future steps. PMID:21715956

Bockers, Estelle; Stammel, Nadine; Knaevelsrud, Christine

2011-01-01

176

Plasmodium falciparum Founder Populations in Western Cambodia Have Reduced Artemisinin Sensitivity In Vitro.  

PubMed

Reduced Plasmodium falciparum sensitivity to short-course artemisinin (ART) monotherapy manifests as a long parasite clearance half-life. We recently defined three parasite founder populations with long half-lives in Pursat, western Cambodia, where reduced ART sensitivity is prevalent. Using the ring-stage survival assay, we show that these founder populations have reduced ART sensitivity in vitro at the early ring stage of parasite development and that a genetically admixed population contains subsets of parasites with normal or reduced ART sensitivity. PMID:24867977

Amaratunga, Chanaki; Witkowski, Benoit; Dek, Dalin; Try, Vorleak; Khim, Nimol; Miotto, Olivo; Ménard, Didier; Fairhurst, Rick M

2014-08-01

177

Characteristics and genesis of nodules and concretions occurring in soils of the R. Chinit area, Kompong Thom Province, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological, chemical and mineralogical studies were made on different types of nodules and concretions occurring in Gleysols, Ferralsols and Vertisols of the R. Chinit area, Kompong Thorn Province, Cambodia.The examinations indicated that nodules have developed through impregnation of soil matrix with iron and\\/or manganese oxides, whilceoncretions have formed through periodical precipitation of iron oxide around ferruginous or manganiferous nuclei to

Masanori Mitsuchi

1976-01-01

178

How can social enterprise really tackle social exclusion? A comparative study of children's welfare in the United Kingdom and Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social enterprise is being increasingly encouraged as a solution to social problems concerning social exclusion, child development and family welfare within both developed and developing countries. This article considers these policy contexts and two case studies of social enterprises that provide children's services in the United Kingdom and Cambodia. It aims through this comparison to contribute insights as to the

Isaac Lyne

2008-01-01

179

Improving access for the poorest to public sector health services: insights from Kirivong Operational Health District in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents research findings into the effectiveness of an innovative equity fund approach to improving access to public sector health services for the poor in Kirivong Operational Health District in Cambodia. The operational health district is the lowest organizational level in the Cambodian health system, providing services through health centres and a single referral hospital. An equity fund involves

BART JACOBS; NEIL PRICE

2005-01-01

180

Arsenic in hair and nails of individuals exposed to arsenic-rich groundwaters in Kandal province, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health implications of the consumption of high arsenic groundwater in Bangladesh and West Bengal are well-documented, however, little is known about the level of arsenic exposure elsewhere in Southeast Asia, where widespread exploitation of groundwater resources is less well established. We measured the arsenic concentrations of nail and hair samples collected from residents of Kandal province, Cambodia, an area

Andrew G. Gault; Helen. A. L. Rowland; John M. Charnock; Roy A. Wogelius; Inma Gomez-Morilla; Sovathana Vong; Moniphea Leng; Sopheap Samreth; Mickey L. Sampson; David A. Polya

2008-01-01

181

The six thinking hat model — a tool for participation in community development, the experience of an NGO in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents the experience of a Non Governmental Organisation Christian Outreach, working in Cambodia on a programme of community development. The programme is focused on awareness change, and works with a number of participatory techniques to animate change.The paper draws attention to some of the difficulties of a truly open-ended conversation. It picks up on a simple model for

S. Batchelor

1996-01-01

182

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Outbreak in Captive Wild Birds and Cats, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

From December 2003 through January 2004, the Phnom Tamao Wildlife Rescue Centre, Cambodia, was affected by the highly pathogenic influenza virus (H5N1). Birds from 26 species died. Influenza virus subtype H5N1 was detected in 6 of 7 species tested. Cats from 5 of 7 species were probably infected; none died.

Marx, Nick; Ong, Sivuth; Gaidet, Nicolas; Hunt, Matt; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Sorn, San; Peiris, Malik; Van der Werf, Sylvie; Reynes, Jean-Marc

2009-01-01

183

Essay Review of "Education and the Politics of Language: Hegemony and Pragmatism in Cambodia, 1979-1989," by Thomas Clayton.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews a book that reports on educational objectives and operations during the 10-year Vietnamese occupation of Cambodia, drawing on current developments in the theory of hegemonic relations. Suggests that the book's focus on linguistic policy in education has implications for the role of language in client-donor international-aid relationships.…

McNamara, Vincent

2001-01-01

184

Infections with gastrointestinal nematodes, Fasciola and Paramphistomum in cattle in Cambodia and their association with morbidity parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence and seasonal variations of helminth infections and their association with morbidity parameters were studied in traditionally reared Cambodian cattle. Four villages in two provinces of West Cambodia were visited on monthly intervals over a period of 11 months, during which 2391 animals were faecal and blood sampled for parasitological and haematological examinations. The body condition score (BCS), faecal consistency

Pierre Dorny; Valérie Stoliaroff; Johannes Charlier; Sothy Meas; San Sorn; Bunthon Chea; Davun Holl; Dirk Van Aken; Jozef Vercruysse

2011-01-01

185

The Killing Fields on TV: A Critical Analysis of Network Coverage of Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to determine the nature of American network television news coverage of the Khmer Rouge rule in Cambodia, a study examined the television evening news from April 16, 1975, the date on which the Lon Nol government first offered to capitulate to the Khmer Rouge, through January 8, 1979, when news of the fall of Phnom Penh to the…

Smith, Ted J., III; Grassmick, David E.

186

Cluster randomized controlled trial of the plastic BioSand Water filter in Cambodia.  

PubMed

About half of the rural population of Cambodia lacks access to improved water; an even higher percentage lacks access to latrines. More than 35,000 concrete BioSand Water filters (BSF) have been installed in the country. However, the concrete BSF takes time to produce and weighs hundreds of pounds. A plastic BSF has been developed but may not perform to the same benchmarks established by its predecessor. To evaluate plastic BSF performance and health impact, we performed a cluster randomized controlled trial in 13 communities including 189 households and 1147 participants in the Angk Snoul district of Kandal Province from May to December 2008. The results suggest that villages with plastic BSFs had significantly lower concentrations of E. coli in drinking water and lower diarrheal disease (incidence rate ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval: 0.24-0.69) compared to control villages. As one of the first studies on the plastic BSF in Cambodia, these are important findings, especially in a setting where the concrete BSF has seen high rates of continued use years after installation. The study suggests the plastic BSF may play an important role in scaling up the distribution/implementation of the BSF, potentially improving water quality and health in the region. PMID:22129231

Stauber, C E; Printy, E R; McCarty, F A; Liang, K R; Sobsey, M D

2012-01-17

187

Parents and Family Members in the Era of ART: Evidence from Cambodia and Thailand  

PubMed Central

Ensuring treatment adherence is critical for the success of ART programs in developing countries. Enlisting NGOs or PLHA group members as treatment supporters is one common strategy. Less attention is given to family members and especially older-age parents. Yet ART patients often live with other family members who are highly motivated to ensure treatment success. This study examines the role of family members and especially parents in assisting adherence in Cambodia and Thailand among adult ART patients. Most have a living parent and many live with or near a parent. Family members including parents commonly remind patients to take medications, particularly if coresident in the same household. Parents also remind patients to get resupplies and accompany them to appointments. Some contrasts between Cambodia and Thailand emerged. Fewer Cambodian than Thai patients had a living parent. However, among those who did, equal shares lived with parents. Cambodian parents more commonly reminded patients to take medications and get resupplies and accompanied them when doing so. In both countries correct knowledge of ART among parents was associated with the amount of advice from program personnel. The results underscore both the need to more explicitly incorporate close family members, including parents, into efforts to promote adherence and need for PLHA peers and home based care teams to provide them with adequate information, training and resources to increase their effectiveness.

Knodel, John; Hak, Sochanny; Khuon, Chandore; So, Dane; McAndrew, John

2011-01-01

188

Health seeking and access to care for children with suspected dengue in Cambodia: An ethnographic study  

PubMed Central

Background The continuing contribution of dengue fever to the hospitalization and deaths in hospital of infants and small children in Cambodia is associated with delays in presentation for medical attention, diagnosis and appropriate care. It is important to identify the reasons that influence these delays, in order to develop appropriate interventions to redress the impact of dengue. Methods Data on health seeking were collected during an ethnographic study conducted in two villages in the eastern province of Kampong Cham, Cambodia in 2004. Interviews were conducted with mothers whose children had been infected with suspected dengue fever, or who had been sick for other reasons, in 2003 and 2004. Results Women selected a therapeutic option based on perceptions of the severity of the child's condition, confidence in the particular modality, service or practitioner, and affordability of the therapy. While they knew what type of health care was required, poverty in combination with limited availability and perceptions of the poor quality of care at village health centers and public referral hospitals deterred them from doing so. Women initially used home remedies, then sought advice from public and private providers, shifting from one sector to another in a pragmatic response to the child's illness. Conclusion The lack of availability of financial resources for poor people and their continuing lack of confidence in the care provided by government centres combine to delay help seeking and inappropriate treatment of children sick with dengue.

Khun, Sokrin; Manderson, Lenore

2007-01-01

189

Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in humans and fish in Kratie Province, Cambodia.  

PubMed

Opisthorchis viverrini is a medically important foodborne parasite in the Indochina Peninsula. In Cambodia, the prevalence of this trematode has been reported in Takeo Province, but not in other areas. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of O. viverrini infection among people in seven riparian villages along the Mekong River, Kratie Province. We also examined the status of metacercarial infection in fish hosts. Fecal specimens were collected from 2101 residents and schoolchildren, and were examined by the Kato-Katz technique. The average O. viverrini egg positive rate was 4.6%, with the highest prevalence found in Roka Kandal A village (10.4%) followed by Talous village (5.9%). In these villages, adult residents showed higher prevalences (19.4% and 9.0%, respectively) than schoolchildren (6.4% and 1.4%, respectively). O. viverrini adult worms were recovered from 2 egg-positive cases (18 and 4 specimens) after praziquantel treatment and purgation. In addition, three of seven freshwater fish species caught near the villages were positive for O. viverrini metacercariae. A total of 367 metacercariae were harvested from 19 infected fish (metacercarial density; 19 per fish). The species of the metacercariae was confirmed through adult worm recovery by experimental infection to hamsters. The results provide evidence that the surveyed areas of Kratie Province, Cambodia, are endemic for O. viverrini infection. PMID:22935318

Sohn, Woon-Mok; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Pyo, Kyoung-Ho; Lee, Mi Youn; Lim, Hyemi; Choe, Seongjun; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong; Chai, Jong-Yil

2012-12-01

190

Nitrification, denitrification and ammonification in point-of-use biosand filters in rural Cambodia.  

PubMed

In order to address the United Nations Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target #7 for water and sanitation, the World Health Organization (WHO) has identified point-of-use (POU) water treatment technologies as an option for providing safe water to households. The BioSand filter (BSF) is a commonly used POU system that has been implemented in Cambodia and over 20 countries worldwide. While the health benefits of using a BSF in terms of reduction of diarrheal disease have been fairly well documented, little research has focused on the ability of this technology to treat for other contaminants that could pose health concerns. To address these concerns, a study was developed to evaluate this technology in rural Cambodia in terms of microbiological and chemical quality of the treated water. The study revealed that simultaneous nitrification and denitrification is occurring inside the BioSand filters. Nitrite concentrations in treated water consistently exceeded WHO guidelines. Seventeen of 20 filters on average did not meet the 3.0 mg l(-1) NO2- guideline and the combined nitrate-nitrite guideline ratio of 1. Denitrification seemed to predominate when BSFs were fed surface water. In addition, nitrate-ammonification occurred in some filters fed surface water, causing increases in ammonia in treated water. PMID:20705990

Murphy, Heather M; McBean, Edward A; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

2010-12-01

191

Subsurface Imaging by UWB Radar: Application to Humanitarian Demining in Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been widely used applications which include detection of subsurface facilities, concrete inspection and archaeology. Among these applications, humanitarian demining is still difficult task. Since 2002, we have developed a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor ALIS. ALIS is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR, and it has a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. ALIS can process the data and is used for image re-construction by migration processing. ALIS is the only one mine detection system in the world which can visualize the GPR image by hand scanning. We found that the migration processing can reduce the clutter and gives us clear images of buried mines. After several tests of ALIS in mine affected courtiers, operation of ALIS in mine fields in Cambodia started in summer 2009. Two sets of ALIS have been operated in Cambodia and more than 77 antipersonnel mines have been detected and 137,000m2 farmland was cleaned.

Sato, Motoyuki

192

Zoonotic trematode metacercariae in fish from Phnom Penh and Pursat, Cambodia.  

PubMed

A survey was performed to investigate the infection status of freshwater fish with zoonotic trematode metacercariae in Phnom Penh and Pursat Province, Cambodia. All collected fish with ice were transferred to our laboratory and examined using the artificial digestion method. In fish from Phnom Penh, 2 kinds of metacercariae (Opisthorchis viverrini and Haplorchis yokogawai) were detected. O. viverrini metacercariae were positive in 37 (50.0%) of 74 fish in 11 species (average no. metacercariae/fish, 18.6). H. yokogawai metacercariae were detected in 23 (57.5%) of 40 fish in 5 species (average no. metacercariae/fish, 21.0). In fish from Pursat Province, 5 kinds of metacercariae (O. viverrini, H. yokogawai, Haplorchis pumilio, Centrocestus formosanus, and Procerovum sp.) were detected; O. viverrini metacercariae (n=3) in 2 fish species (Henicorhynchus lineatus and Puntioplites falcifer), H. yokogawai metacercariae (n=51) in 1 species (P. falcifer), H. pumilio metacercariae (n=476) in 2 species (H. lineatus and Pristolepis fasciata), C. formosanus metacercariae (n=1) in 1 species (H. lineatus), and Procerovum sp. metacercariae (n=63) in 1 species (Anabas testudineus). From the above results, it has been confirmed that various freshwater fish play the role of a second intermediate host for zoonotic trematodes (O. viverrini, H. yokogawai, H. pumilio, C. formosanus, and Procerovum sp.) in Cambodia. PMID:24623879

Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Socheat, Duong

2014-02-01

193

Deployment of dual-sensor ALIS for humanitarian demining in Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are in the process of developing a high-resolution landmine scanning system "ALIS" which produces horizontal slices of the shallow subsurface for visualization of buried explosives and inert clutter. As many AP mines contain minimum amounts of metal, metal detectors need to be combined with a complimentary subsurface imaging sensor. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is widely accepted for subsurface sensing in the fields of geology, archaeology and utility detection. The demining application requires real-time imaging results with centimetre resolution in a highly portable package. The key requirement for sharp images of the subsurface is the precise tracking of the geophysical sensor(s) during data collection. We should also notice that GPR system is a very wide band radar system, and equivalent to UWB radar, which has recently been developed for short-range high-accuracy radar. We are testing simplified but effective signal processing for imaging mines. We are currently testing a dual sensor ALIS which is a realtime sensor tracking system based on a CCD camera and image processing. In this paper we introduce the GPR systems which we have developed for detection of buried antipersonnel mines and small size explosives. ALIS has been deployed in Cambodia since 2009 and detected more than 70 mines in mine fields, and returned more than 13ha cleaned fields to local farmers. We also report the current status of ALIS in Cambodia.

Sato, M.; Takahashi, K.

2013-06-01

194

Can Human Movements Explain Heterogeneous Propagation of Dengue Fever in Cambodia?  

PubMed Central

Background Determining the factors underlying the long-range spatial spread of infectious diseases is a key issue regarding their control. Dengue is the most important arboviral disease worldwide and a major public health problem in tropical areas. However the determinants shaping its dynamics at a national scale remain poorly understood. Here we describe the spatial-temporal pattern of propagation of annual epidemics in Cambodia and discuss the role that human movements play in the observed pattern. Methods and Findings We used wavelet phase analysis to analyse time-series data of 105,598 hospitalized cases reported between 2002 and 2008 in the 135 (/180) most populous districts in Cambodia. We reveal spatial heterogeneity in the propagation of the annual epidemic. Each year, epidemics are highly synchronous over a large geographic area along the busiest national road of the country whereas travelling waves emanate from a few rural areas and move slowly along the Mekong River at a speed of ?11 km per week (95% confidence interval 3–18 km per week) towards the capital, Phnom Penh. Conclusions We suggest human movements – using roads as a surrogate – play a major role in the spread of dengue fever at a national scale. These findings constitute a new starting point in the understanding of the processes driving dengue spread.

Teurlai, Magali; Huy, Rekol; Cazelles, Bernard; Duboz, Raphael; Baehr, Christophe; Vong, Sirenda

2012-01-01

195

Strongyloides stercoralis is a cause of abdominal pain, diarrhea and urticaria in rural Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background We document clinical manifestations of 21 patients heavily infected with S. stercoralis (more than 250 larvae in a single Baermann test) from a community in rural Cambodia, both before and three weeks after ivermectin (200 ?g/kg BW, single oral dose) treatment. Findings Out of 21 patients, 20 (95.2%), 18 (85.7%) and 14 (66.7%) reported frequent abdominal pain, diarrhea and periods of sensation of itching, respectively, during the previous six months; epigastric (11, 55.0%) and peri-umbilical (13, 65.0%) pains were most frequent. Five patients (23.8%) reported having experienced urticaria the week preceding the examination. One patient suffered from extended urticaria. Three weeks after treatment, most symptoms had been almost entirely resolved. Conclusions In rural communities of Cambodia, strongyloidiasis with high parasite load is endemic. It is associated with substantial symptoms and clinical signs, particularly abdominal pain, diarrhea and urticaria. Access to adequate diagnosis and treatment is a pressing issue that needs attention.

2013-01-01

196

Discovery of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae in freshwater fish in southern Cambodia.  

PubMed

Small liver flukes, Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverini, are fish-borne trematodes (FBTs) causing significant public health problems in Asia. While C. sinensis is distributing mainly in far east Asia, O. viverini is distributing in Indochina peninsula. Recently, however, the geographical distributions of those small liver flukes were proven to be far wider than expected. Nevertheless, little is known about the epidemiology of small liver flukes in Cambodia. The present study is, therefore, aimed at clarifying the status of small liver fluke infections in various species of freshwater fish in southern Cambodia. A total of 1479 freshwater fish, 1316 (89%) comprised of 20 different species of the cyprinoid family and 163 (11%) belonging to 8 families of non-cyprinoids, were collected during May 2007 and February 2008, and the presence of small liver fluke metacercariae was examined by the compression method. Small liver fluke metacercariae were found in 10 species of cyprinoids with the infection rate ranging 2.1-66.7% and the mean intensity of infection of 1.0-15.0 (range: 1-65). For the speciation, adult worms were obtained by experimental infection in hamsters. The small liver fluke found in this study were identified as Opisthorchis viverrini by the morphological features of adult worms, and this identification was confirmed by partial COI sequencing of the metacercariae. PMID:19524077

Touch, Sarun; Komalamisra, Chalit; Radomyos, Prayong; Waikagul, Jitra

2009-08-01

197

Efficacy of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in Cambodia, 2008 to 2010.  

PubMed

We describe here the results of antimalarial therapeutic efficacy studies conducted in Cambodia from 2008 to 2010. A total of 15 studies in four sentinel sites were conducted using dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum infection and chloroquine (CQ) and DP for the treatment of P. vivax infection. All studies were performed according to the standard World Health Organization protocol for the assessment of antimalarial treatment efficacy. Among the studies of DP for the treatment of P. falciparum, an increase in treatment failure was observed in the western provinces. In 2010, the PCR-corrected treatment failure rates for DP on day 42 were 25% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 10 to 51%) in Pailin and 10.7% (95% CI = 4 to 23%) in Pursat, while the therapeutic efficacy of DP remained high (100%) in Ratanakiri and Preah Vihear provinces, located in northern and eastern Cambodia. For the studies of P. vivax, the day 28 uncorrected treatment failure rate among patients treated with CQ ranged from 4.4 to 17.4%; DP remained 100% effective in all sites. Further study is required to investigate suspected P. falciparum resistance to piperaquine in western Cambodia; the results of in vitro and molecular studies were not found to support the therapeutic efficacy findings. The emergence of artemisinin resistance in this region has likely put additional pressure on piperaquine. Although DP appears to be an appropriate new first-line treatment for P. vivax in Cambodia, alternative treatments are urgently needed for P. falciparum-infected patients in western Cambodia. PMID:23208711

Leang, Rithea; Barrette, Amy; Bouth, Denis Mey; Menard, Didier; Abdur, Rashid; Duong, Socheat; Ringwald, Pascal

2013-02-01

198

Access to artemisinin combination therapy for malaria in remote areas of Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria-endemic countries are switching antimalarial drug policy to artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) and the global community are considering the setting up of a global subsidy mechanism in order to make them accessible and affordable. However, specific interventions may be needed to reach remote at-risk communities and to ensure that they are used appropriately. This analysis documents the coverage with ACTs versus artemisinin monotherapies, and the effectiveness of malaria outreach teams (MOTs) and Village Malaria Workers (VMWs) in increasing access to appropriate diagnosis and treatment with ACTs in Cambodia, the first country to switch national antimalarial drug policy to an ACT of artesunate and mefloquine (A+M) in 2000. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in three different types of intervention area: with VMWs, MOTs and no specific interventions. Individuals with a history of fever in the last three weeks were included in the study and completed a questionnaire on their treatment seeking and drug usage behaviour. Blood was taken for a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and data on the household socio-economic status were also obtained. Results In areas without specific interventions, only 17% (42/251) of respondents received a biological diagnosis, 8% (17/206) of respondents who received modern drug did so from a public health facility, and only 8% of them (17/210) received A+M. Worryingly, 78% (102/131) of all artemisinin use in these areas was as a monotherapy. However, both the VMW scheme and MOT scheme significantly increased the likelihood of being seen by a trained provider (Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR) of 148 and 4 respectively) and of receiving A+M (AORs of 2.7 and 7.7 respectively). Conclusion The coverage rates of appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria were disappointingly low and the use of artemisinin monotherapy alarmingly high. This reflects the fragmented nature of Cambodia's health system in remote areas and the reliance placed by these communities on informal vendors from whom artemisinin monotherapies are widely available. However VMWs in particular are an effective means of improving access to malaria diagnosis and treatment. The VMW scheme and the social marketing of RDTS and blister-packaged artesunate and mefloquine have both been scaled up nationally. Case management in the public sector has also reportedly improved. Given recent concerns regarding the development of artemisinin drug resistance on the Thai-Cambodia border, the effectiveness of these measures in reducing the use of artemisinin monotherapy needs to be urgently re-evaluated.

Yeung, Shunmay; Van Damme, Wim; Socheat, Doung; White, Nicholas J; Mills, Anne

2008-01-01

199

Working With Small Companies in Cambodia to Teach Lean Manufacturing Principles to Undergraduate Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching lean manufacturing in the university environment is becoming more common, with many schools in the United States offering "lean" undergraduate courses in various technology and engineering programs. This trend is driven by companies who have implemented or are trying to implement lean as a manufacturing strategy, and who prefer graduates with some level of practical lean knowledge. Our approach to teaching lean has used experiential learning as a method of improving student understanding, as many others have done in various disciplines. To this end we have augmented university classroom lectures with industry-based projects, recognizing that lab exercises are useful, but can have limited utility in demonstrating lean principles. We have used this approach for a number of years in two graduate courses. And more recently we used this method in the context of an international internship in Cambodia, during the summer of 2004. The experience gained in that internship is the focus of this paper. Five junior and senior level students and two professors were involved in a five week project, where the first three weeks were spent gathering information about the challenges and opportunities of running a manufacturing company in Cambodia. A total of 37 companies were surveyed on a variety of topics, including the practical details of operating their businesses, of which most were small, family-run concerns. After completion of the initial three-week phase of studying the practical, social, and historical difficulties they face in this developing country, two small firms were chosen for a more in-depth study of manufacturing performance. The exercises that were carried out at these firms, and the results of evaluations conducted by 5 undergraduate students, will be discussed as a method for teaching lean manufacturing principles. Some background on the companies with whom we worked and a discussion of the business environment in Cambodia will also be provided. The entrepreneurial spirit and determination we found in these companies was a great lesson for us and our students, demonstrating that hard work and creativity can produce good results, even in difficult circumstances.

Hawks, Val D.; Miles, Michael

2010-03-16

200

Climate as a contributing factor in the demise of Angkor, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

The “hydraulic city” of Angkor, the capitol of the Khmer Empire in Cambodia, experienced decades-long drought interspersed with intense monsoons in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries that, in combination with other factors, contributed to its eventual demise. The climatic evidence comes from a seven-and-a-half century robust hydroclimate reconstruction from tropical southern Vietnamese tree rings. The Angkor droughts were of a duration and severity that would have impacted the sprawling city’s water supply and agricultural productivity, while high-magnitude monsoon years damaged its water control infrastructure. Hydroclimate variability for this region is strongly and inversely correlated with tropical Pacific sea surface temperature, indicating that a warm Pacific and El Niño events induce drought at interannual and interdecadal time scales, and that low-frequency variations of tropical Pacific climate can exert significant influence over Southeast Asian climate and society.

Buckley, Brendan M.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Penny, Daniel; Fletcher, Roland; Cook, Edward R.; Sano, Masaki; Nam, Le Canh; Wichienkeeo, Aroonrut; Minh, Ton That; Hong, Truong Mai

2010-01-01

201

The tyranny of taste: the case of organic rice in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Fair-trade and organic products are often sold at price premiums justified by smaller production volumes that are associated with greater social and environmental responsibility. The consumption of these products confers on the consumer a greater sense of morality – and usually a claim to better taste. This paper tells the story of attempts to promote organic/fair-trade rice production by de facto organic Cambodian farmers for export to North American and European markets in order to assist poor farmers to trade their way out of poverty. It demonstrates that instead of promoting sustainable agriculture and fair trade between developed and developing markets, organic/fair-trade projects may impose First World consumer ideals and tastes that are out of step with the larger realities of agrarian transition in Cambodia and the wider region of developing Southeast Asia. PMID:22216476

Thavat, Maylee

2011-01-01

202

Tobacco use among adults in Cambodia: evidence for a tobacco epidemic among women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To identify the demographic characteristics of current tobacco users in Cambodia, particularly women, and to explore the reasons for current tobacco use in demographic subgroups of the Cambodian population. Methods We used a stratified three-stage cluster sample of 13 988 adults aged 18 years and older from all provinces in 2005–2006. Participants completed an interviewer-administered survey that contained items on all forms of tobacco use and on health and lifestyle variables. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to identify demographic predictors of tobacco use. Findings Cigarette smoking occurred among 48.0% of men and 3.6% of women. We estimated that 560 482 women (95% confidence interval, CI: 504 783 to 616 180) currently chewed tobacco (typically as a component of betel quid) and that the prevalence more than doubles with each decade of adulthood up to the point that about half of all older women chew tobacco. Both men and women cited the influence of older relatives as their primary reason for starting to use tobacco. About one out of five rural women who used chewing tobacco started their habit for relief from morning sickness. The highest prevalence of chewing tobacco among women was seen among midwives (67.9%) and traditional healers (47.2%). High rates (66.8%) of cigarette and pipe tobacco use occurred among ethnic minorities who represent hill tribes found throughout south-east Asia. Conclusion The tobacco epidemic in Cambodia extends far beyond cigarette smoking in men. Tobacco control that focuses only on cigarettes will not address the health burden from smokeless tobacco use in women that may be an integral part of cultural, familial, and traditional medicine practices.

Yel, Daravuth; Sin, Sovann; Khieng, Sothy; Lopez, Jaime; Job, Jayakaran; Ferry, Linda; Knutsen, Synnove

2009-01-01

203

Betel quid use in relation to infectious disease outcomes in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Summary Objectives The habitual chewing of betel quid (areca nut, betel leaf, tobacco) is estimated to occur among 600 million persons in Asia and the Asia-Pacific Region. Emerging data from rural Asia indicate that the betel quid is part of traditional medicine practices that promote its use for a wide range of ailments, including infectious disease. In the present study, we examined the association between betel quid, traditional medicine, and infectious disease outcomes. Methods For the purpose of a nationwide, interviewer-administered, cross-sectional survey of tobacco use (including betel quid), we conducted a stratified three-stage cluster sampling of 13 988 adults aged 18 years and older from all provinces of Cambodia. Results We found an association between the intensity of betel quid use and HIV/AIDS (odds ratio (OR) 2.06, 95% CI 1.09–3.89), dengue fever (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.55–2.72), tuberculosis (OR 1.50, 95% CI 0.96–2.36), and typhoid (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.95–2.30). These associations were even stronger in women – the primary users of betel quid in Cambodia. Multivariable analyses that controlled for age, gender, income, education, urban versus rural dwelling, receiving care from traditional medicine practitioners, and cigarette smoking did not alter the betel quid–infectious disease association. Conclusions Our findings raise the possibility of a role of betel quid use in the transmission of infectious disease through pathways such as immunosuppression, oral route of entry for a pathogen (i.e., through injury to the oral mucosa), and contamination (i.e., fecal–oral) of the betel quid ingredients.

Singh, Pramil N.; Natto, Zuhair; Yel, Daravuth; Job, Jayakaran; Knutsen, Synnove

2012-01-01

204

Tropical tree water use under seasonal waterlogging and drought in central Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In central Cambodia, rapid growing non-endemic species are planted for future timber production. However, less is understood about the impact of the introduction of non-endemic species on the transpiration characteristics of the forest, which has been composed of native species that adapted to the highly seasonal environments. Sap flux of two native and one non-endemic tree species in central Cambodia was measured to reveal its seasonal trends and variability in the Monsoon Asia region. Measurements were carried out in a 10- to 15-year-old forest in the dry and rainy seasons that were defined by differing rainfall patterns. The seasonal trend in depth to water table differed from that of rainfall; groundwater table depth reached zero late in the rainy season and increased gradually after the onset of the dry season. The ratio of sap flux to an equilibrium evaporation condition of the native species, Popel (Shorea roxburghii), showed a sharp decline at the end of the dry season, whereas that of a non-endemic species, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), decreased in the mid rainy season while Tbeng (Dipterocarpus obtusifolius) did not show a clear trend. The ratio of sap flux to an equilibrium evaporation was negatively correlated with the depth to water table in Popel, but was positively correlated in eucalyptus, possibly because of the negative effects of flooding. In addition to the large seasonal variation, intra-species variation in sap flux was also large and was a major controlling factor for tree-level water uptake at this young forest site in both dry and rainy seasons. In conclusion, the transpiration characteristics of this forest were species-specific and were controlled more by the fluctuating depths to groundwater rather than the onset of the rainy/dry seasons defined by rainfall events.

Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Tateishi, Makiko; Komatsu, Hikaru; Ma, Vuthy; Kajisa, Tsuyoshi; Sokh, Heng; Mizoue, Nobuya; Kumagai, Tomo'omi

2014-07-01

205

Development of a participatory tool for the evaluation of Village Animal Health Workers in Cambodia.  

PubMed

In countries with a lack of primary care systems, health workers are of crucial importance to improving the delivery of health and animal health services at community level. But somehow they are rarely evaluated and usually with a top-down approach. This is the case in Cambodia, where thousands of Village Animal Health Workers (VAHWs) have been trained by the government, and where no standardized evaluation tool is available to accurately assess the situation. Based on methodology developed by the French NGO Agronomes et Vétérinaires Sans Frontières (AVSF) in Madagascar for farmers' association evaluation, we developed our own participatory methods to collect information about the VAHW context and build a criteria grid for their evaluation. In this framework, several participatory approaches were used such as problem trees, semi-structured interviews, pair-wise ranking and focus groups. The grid was built with the help of relevant stakeholders involved in the animal health system in Cambodia in order to (i) identify VAHW functions; (ii) set up criteria and associated questionnaires, and (iii) score the grid with all the stakeholders. The tool was divided into five categories of evaluation criteria: sustainability, treatment, production, vaccination and disease reporting. Our approach looked at local indicators of success developed and used by VAHWs themselves, which should lead to better acceptability of evaluation. This method gave priority to dialog aiming to engage decision makers and other stakeholders in a mutual learning process and could be applied in other countries to develop trust between health workers and official service representatives as well as to foster corrective action after evaluation. PMID:24583141

Calba, Clementine; Ponsich, Aurelia; Nam, Sophorn; Collineau, Lucie; Min, Sophoan; Thonnat, Jerome; Goutard, Flavie Luce

2014-06-01

206

A Novel Experimental Apparatus (PDL) and Its Application in Higher Education in Japan and Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low cost and attractive equipment for use in experimental higher physics education has been desired by teachers, especially those in developing world. A system of novel experimental apparatus named Personal Desk Lab (PDL) was developed [1]. Each apparatus is miniaturized to one-fifth of the conventional one or less, and built on a steel plate; therefore, it is portable and can be used on a classroom desk. Each set is constructed by some parts divided according to their functions, and some of the parts are used in a number of experiments; which saves material, cost, and storage space. All parts are designed to be easy to make, maintain and repair. Almost all apparatus are battery driven [2]. After ICPE 2006, we have improved the system continuously; consequently, the experimental themes cover the field of mechanics, electromagnetism and optics. The number of these themes in use exceeds ten. The performance of PDL has been tested at Chiba University, Japan and Royal University of Phnom Penh (RUPP), Cambodia. In Chiba University, physics education with PDL is currently conducted individually to 80(max.) students in a classroom at the same time, and to more than 900 students per year. Experiment class using PDL in Cambodia started on October 2008 with 120 students of physics department, RUPP. They were divided into three classes, and conducted four experimental themes in pairs. The advantages confirmed from the practices at two universities are as follows: (1) the use of PDL arouses learner's interest, promotes their deep understanding extensively, and inspires to learn further; and (2) costs for introduction and running of PDL system are fairly small compared to the traditional one. Furthermore, the instruction for distant learners having PDL on each hand was conducted successfully through internet.

Sou, K.; Kato, T.; Oto, K.; Sakurai, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Omosa, E.; Tozaki, K.

2010-07-01

207

Women's nutrient intakes and food-related knowledge in rural Kandal province, Cambodia.  

PubMed

In Cambodia, both anaemia and vitamin A deficiency are serious health problems. Despite this, few comprehensive nutritional surveys have been completed to date. This study evaluates the adequacy of iron and vitamin A intakes, as well as women's nutritional knowledge in rural Kandal province. Twenty-four hour recalls, pile sort activities, socioeconomic surveys, focus groups, and market surveys were carried out with 67 women from 5 villages in rural Kandal Province. Ninety seven percent of women did not meet their daily-recommended intake of iron, while 70% did not meet their daily-recommended intake of vitamin A. Although many women consume vitamin A-rich and iron rich-foods daily, they do not consume large enough quantities of these foods. Results suggest that both the cost of foods as well as the extent of health knowledge is linked to nutritional practice. Most animal-source iron and vitamin A-rich foods are considered expensive; however, small fish, and several plant-source vitamin A-rich foods are inexpensive and easy to access. Despite health education, food restrictions lead some healthy foods to be considered to be harmful to women. Ultimately, this study demonstrates the importance of developing comprehensive nutritional interventions in Cambodia. Health programming must provide women with not only suggestions to include low-cost nutrient-rich foods, but also advise them about the quantities that are likely to have an impact on nutritional status. Programs should take a community-based, inter-sectoral approach that simultaneously combines culturally informed health education with initiatives that combat poverty and increase access to nutrient rich foods. PMID:24901096

Wallace, Lauren J; Summerlee, Alastair Js; Dewey, Cate E; Hak, Chantharith; Hall, Ann; Charles, Christopher V

2014-06-01

208

Prevalence and risk factors of Strongyloides stercoralis in Takeo Province, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background The threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis, the most neglected helminth, affects an estimated 30-100 million people worldwide. Information on S. stercoralis infection is scarce in tropical and sub-tropical resource poor countries, including Cambodia. We determined S. stercoralis infection prevalence and risk factors for infection in the general population in Southern Cambodia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and April 2011 among 2,861 participants living in 60 villages of Takeo province, using Koga-agar plate culture, the Baermann technique and the Kato-Katz technique on a single stool sample. Results Eight intestinal helminth species were diagnosed. Hookworm (31.4%) and S. stercoralis (21.0%) occurred most frequently. Prevalence of S. stercoralis infection increased with age. In all age groups a higher prevalence was found among males than among females (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4 – 2.0; P

2014-01-01

209

A new species of wolf snake (Colubridae: Lycodon Fitzinger, 1826) from Phnom Samkos Wildlife Sanctuary, Cardamom Mountains, southwest Cambodia.  

PubMed

A new species of the genus Lycodon Fitzinger, 1826 is described from the Cardamom Mountains of southwest Cambodia. Lycodon zoosvictoriae distinctly differs from all other species of Lycodon in Southeast Asia by a combination of its morphometric characters and unique coloration. The new species has 17 dorsal scales at midbody; 2+2 temporals; 8 supralabials; 10 infralabials; loreal separated from internasal and orbit; 213 ventrals; 85 subcaudals; pale tan brown ground color; irregular dark brown blotches on anterior part, 31 transverse blotches on posterior part of body and 26 blotches on tail. Given its submontane type locality, the new species could prove to be endemic to the Cardamom Mountains of southwest Cambodia and probably Southeast Thailand. PMID:24943413

Neang, Thy; Hartmann, Timo; Hun, Seiha; Souter, Nicholas J; Furey, Neil M

2014-01-01

210

The village/commune safety policy and HIV prevention efforts among key affected populations in Cambodia: finding a balance.  

PubMed

The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on "cleaning the streets", has created difficulties for HIV prevention programs attempting to implement programs that work with key affected populations including female sex workers and people who inject drugs. The implementation of the policy has forced HIV program implementers, the UN and various government counterparts to explore and develop collaborative ways of delivering HIV prevention services within this difficult environment. The following case study explores some of these efforts and highlights the promising development of a Police Community Partnership Initiative that it is hoped will find a meaningful balance between the Village/Commune Safety Policy and HIV prevention efforts with key affected populations in Cambodia. PMID:22770267

Thomson, Nick; Leang, Supheap; Chheng, Kannarath; Weissman, Amy; Shaw, Graham; Crofts, Nick

2012-01-01

211

Increase in Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A infections in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, January 2011 to August 2013.  

PubMed

We report an increased number of Salmonella enterica Paratyphi A infections in adults in Cambodia. Between January 2011 and August 2013, 71 S. Paratyphi A isolates were recovered from blood cultures, representing a 44-fold increase compared to July 2007 to December 2010, while monthly numbers of cultures did not change. Infections with S. Typhi increased two-fold in the same period. Most cases came from the capital Phnom Penh. These findings warrant epidemiological investigation to support public health measures. PMID:24094060

Vlieghe, E; Phe, T; De Smet, B; Veng, C H; Kham, C; Sar, D; van Griensven, J; Lim, K; Thai, S; Jacobs, J

2013-01-01

212

Experiential Learning and Filming 'Floating Lives' in Cambodia: A Report on a CDTL Teaching Enhancement Grant Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the recess week of Semester 1, Academic Year 2007\\/2008, Dr Carl Grundy-Warr conducted a 'learning journey' to Cambodia with a primary aim to expose students to an intensive learning experience whereby they would visit a variety of field-sites and meet with various people as a quick way to learn about real world problems in the country. Part of the

Carl Grundy-Warr

213

The design of a photovoltaic\\/biomass hybrid electrical energy system for a rural village in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid renewable energy system, consisting of a 1.27 kWp solar photovoltaic generator, a 15 kWe biomass gasification system and a 7.28 kWh battery backup, has been designed for the electrification of a representative village, namely Chhouk Ksach in Cambodia, which is not currently connected to the electrical power grid and where car batteries are used for electrification. The hybrid

S. Sou; W. Siemers; R. H. B. Exell

2010-01-01

214

Dengue in Thailand and Cambodia: An Assessment of the Degree of Underrecognized Disease Burden Based on Reported Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDisease incidence data are needed to guide decision-making for public health interventions. Although dengue is a reportable disease in Thailand and Cambodia, the degree that reported incidence underrecognizes true disease burden is unknown. We utilized dengue incidence calculated from laboratory-confirmed outpatient and inpatient cases in prospective cohort studies to estimate the magnitude of dengue underrecognition and to establish more accurate

Ole Wichmann; In-Kyu Yoon; Sirenda Vong; Kriengsak Limkittikul; Robert V. Gibbons; Mammen P. Mammen; Sowath Ly; Philippe Buchy; Chukiat Sirivichayakul; Rome Buathong; Rekol Huy; G. William Letson; Arunee Sabchareon

2011-01-01

215

Cytogenetic, hybridization and molecular evidence of four cytological forms of Anopheles nigerrimus (Hyrcanus Group) in Thailand and Cambodia.  

PubMed

Thirteen isoline colonies of Anopheles nigerrimus were established from individual wild-caught females collected from cow-baited traps at locations in Thailand and Cambodia. Three types of X (X1 , X2 , X3 ) and 4 types of Y (Y1 , Y2 , Y3 , Y4 ) chromosomes were recovered, according to differing amounts of extra heterochromatin. Four karyotypic forms were designed depending upon apparently distinct figures of X and Y chromosomes, i.e., Form A (X1 , X2 , X3 , Y1 ), B (X2 , X3 , Y2 ), C (X1 , Y3 ), and D (X3 , Y4 ). Forms C and D were new metaphase karyotypes discovered in this study. Form A appeared to be common in both Thailand and Cambodia. Forms B and D were found to be rather specific to southern and northeastern Thailand, respectively, whereas Form C was confined to Cambodia. Hybridization experiments among the eight isoline colonies, which were representative of four karyotypic forms of An. nigerrimus, demonstrated genetic compatibility in giving viable progenies and synaptic salivary gland polytene chromosomes through F2 -generations. These results elucidated the conspecific relationship, comprising four cytological forms within this taxon. Supportive evidence was confirmed further by very low intraspecific sequence variations (average genetic distance = 0.002-0.007) of the nucleotide sequences in ribosomal DNA [second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2)] and mitochondrial DNA [cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and subunit II (COII)]. PMID:24581355

Songsawatkiat, Siripan; Baimai, Visut; Saeung, Atiporn; Thongsahuan, Sorawat; Otsuka, Yasushi; Srisuka, Wichai; Choochote, Wej

2013-12-01

216

Injections, Cocktails and Diviners: Therapeutic Flexibility in the Context of Malaria Elimination and Drug Resistance in Northeast Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Adherence to effective malaria medication is extremely important in the context of Cambodia’s elimination targets and drug resistance containment. Although the public sector health facilities are accessible to the local ethnic minorities of Ratanakiri province (Northeast Cambodia), their illness itineraries often lead them to private pharmacies selling “cocktails” and artemether injections, or to local diviners prescribing animal sacrifices to appease the spirits. Methods The research design consisted of a mixed methods study, combining qualitative (in-depth interviews and participant observation) and quantitative methods (household and cross-sectional survey). Results Three broad options for malaria treatment were identified: i) the public sector; ii) the private sector; iii) traditional treatment based on divination and ceremonial sacrifice. Treatment choice was influenced by the availability of treatment and provider, perceived side effects and efficacy of treatments, perceived etiology of symptoms, and patient-health provider encounters. Moreover, treatment paths proved to be highly flexible, changing mostly in relation to the perceived efficacy of a chosen treatment. Conclusions Despite good availability of anti-malarial treatment in the public health sector, attendance remained low due to both structural and human behavioral factors. The common use and under-dosage of anti-malaria monotherapy in the private sector (single-dose injections, single-day drug cocktails) represents a threat not only for individual case management, but also for the regional plan of drug resistance containment and malaria elimination.

Gryseels, Charlotte; Uk, Sambunny; Erhart, Annette; Gerrets, Rene; Sluydts, Vincent; Durnez, Lies; Muela Ribera, Joan; Hausmann Muela, Susanna; Menard, Didier; Heng, Somony; Sochantha, Tho; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Coosemans, Marc; Peeters Grietens, Koen

2013-01-01

217

Although only recently reopened, Angkor Wat already facing growing pains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tourism official proposes elephant ban at Angkorhttp://english.people.com.cn/200609/20/eng20060920_304606.htmlAPSARA [Macromedia Flash Player]http://www.autoriteapsara.org/Is Angkor Wat too touristy?http://travel.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,18409-2363554,00.htmlGreat Buildings Online: Angkor Wathttp://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Angkor_Wat.htmlInteractive Map of World Heritage Properties [Macromedia Flash Player]http://whc.unesco.org/en/mapCambodia Posthttp://www.cambodiajournal.com/Rulers have long sought to create lasting landmarks through grand buildings and public works projects, and Angkor Wat is certainly one of the most well known places in South East Asia, if not the entire world. Initially built in the early 12th century, the temple and its surrounding grounds have long been popular tourist destinations, and they have survived a number of potential threats, including the long civil war in Cambodia that engulfed the entire country and the region for several decades. However, another threat is looming that could have even more dire consequences, namely the arrival of millions of tourists. Tourism officials recently reported that close to two million tourists will visit the temples this year, and almost 500,000 of them will arrive in November and December. In the town of Siem Reap, which serves as the gateway to the Angkor complex, the bureau chief of the townâÂÂs tourism department remarked that âÂÂThere are too many people, and itâÂÂs difficult to supply and feed them.â The situation is also rather complex due to the fact that Cambodia as a whole is heavily reliant on tourism, and a number of government officials are hard pressed to reign in this booming sector of the nationâÂÂs economy. In the meantime, there are plans in place to improve the local infrastructure problems around Siem Reap, but it remains to be seen what sustainable measures might need to be taken to ensure the integrity of these important elements of the historical and cultural landscape.The first link will take users to piece on the issues raised by increased tourism around Angkor Wat from the Christian Science MonitorâÂÂs Adam Piore. The second link leads to a news story from the PeopleâÂÂs Daily Online that talks about the proposal offered by one tourism official which would ban elephants from the grounds. The third link leads to the website of the APSARA agency, which is responsible for providing stewardship of the buildings and the grounds. Here, visitor can learn about the areaâÂÂs history and art, and see maps of each monument. The fourth link whisks users away to a piece in the Sunday Times that offers some expert advice (along with the observations of other tourists) about whether or not Angkor Wat has become âÂÂtoo touristyâÂÂ. The fifth link leads to the entry from Great Buildings Online on Angkor Wat, which includes some basic history of the complex, along with a number of aerial photographs. The sixth link leads to the interactive map of World Heritage properties. Finally, the last link leads to a nice site that culls news stories about Cambodia and the region into one nice package for visitors who would like to stay abreast of ongoing events in the area.

Grinnell, Max

2006-01-01

218

Health risk assessment of inorganic arsenic intake of Cambodia residents through groundwater drinking pathway.  

PubMed

In order to compare the magnitudes and health impacts of arsenic and other toxic trace elements in well water, groundwater and hair samples were collected from three areas with different arsenic exposure scenarios in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. Ampil commune in Kampong Cham province was selected as an uncontaminated area, Khsarch Andaet commune in Kratie province was selected as a moderately contaminated area, and Kampong Kong commune in Kandal Province was selected as an extremely contaminated area. Results of ICP-MS analyses of the groundwater samples revealed that As, Mn, Fe and Ba concentrations were significantly different among the three study areas (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001). Out of 46 observed wells in the Kandal province study area, 100% detected As > 50 ?g L(-1) and Fe > 300 ?g L(-1); 52.17% had Mn > 400 ?g L(-1) and 73.91% found Ba > 700 ?g L(-1). In the Kratie province study area (n = 12), 25% of wells showed elevated arsenic levels above 10 ?g L(-1) and 25% had Mn > 400 ?g L(-1), whereas samples from Kampong Cham province study area (n = 18) were relatively clean, with As < 10 ?g L(-1). A health risk assessment model derived from the USEPA was applied to calculate individual risks resulting from drinking groundwater. Computational results indicated that residents from Kandal Province study area (n = 297) confronted significantly higher non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks than those in Kratie (n = 89) and Kampong Cham (n = 184) province study areas (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001). 98.65% of respondents from the Kandal province study area were at risk for the potential non-cancer effect and an average cancer risk index was found to be 5 in 1000 exposure. The calculations also indicated that, in the Kratie province study area, 13.48% of respondents were affected by non-cancer health risks and 33.71% were threatened by cancer, whereas none of respondents in the Kampong Cham province study area appeared to have non-carcinogenic effect. Positively significant correlations of the arsenic content in scalp hair (As(h)) with both arsenic levels in groundwater (As(w)) (r(s) (304) = 0.757, p < 0.0001) and individual average daily doses (ADD) of arsenic (r(s) (304) = 0.763, p < 0.0001) undoubtedly indicated that arsenic accumulation in the bodies of Cambodia residents in the Mekong River basin was mainly through a groundwater drinking pathway. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report comparing individual health risk assessments of arsenic exposure through a groundwater drinking pathway to enriched arsenic levels from groundwater in the Mekong River basin, Cambodia. This study indicates that elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater may lead to thousands of cases of arsenicosis in the near future if mitigating actions are not taken. PMID:20598732

Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Wong, Ming Hung; Sao, Vibol; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Mohamed Yasin, Mohamed Salleh; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

2010-11-01

219

Social cost of land mines in four countries: Afghanistan, Bosnia, Cambodia, and Mozambique.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To document the effects of land mines on the health and social conditions of communities in four affected countries. DESIGN--A cross design of cluster survey and rapid appraisal methods including a household questionnaire and qualitative data from key informants, institutional reviews, and focus groups of survivors of land mines from the same communities. SETTING--206 communities, 37 in Afghanistan, 66 in Bosnia, 38 in Cambodia, and 65 in Mozambique. SUBJECTS--174,489 people living in 32,904 households in the selected communities. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Effects of land mines on food security, residence, livestock, and land use; risk factors: extent of individual land mine injuries; physical, psychological, social, and economic costs of injuries during medical care and rehabilitation. RESULTS--Between 25% and 87% of households had daily activities affected by land mines. Based on expected production without the mines, agricultural production could increase by 88-200% in different regions of Afghanistan, 11% in Bosnia, 135% in Cambodia, and 3.6% in Mozambique. A total of 54,554 animals was lost because of land mines, with a minimum cash value of $6.5m, or nearly $200 per household. Overall, 6% of households (1964) reported a land mine victim; a third of victims died in the blast. One in 10 of the victims was a child. The most frequent activities associated with land mine incidents were agricultural or pastoral, except in Bosnia where more than half resulted from military activities, usually during patrols. Incidences have more than doubled between 1980-3 and 1990-3, excluding the incidents in Bosnia. Some 22% of victims (455/2100) were from households reporting attempts to remove land mines; in these households there was a greatly increased risk of injury (odds ratio 4.2 and risk difference 19% across the four countries). Lethality of the mines varied; in Bosnia each blast killed an average of 0.54 people and injured 1.4, whereas in Mozambique each blast killed 1.45 people and wounded 1.27. Households with a land mine victim were 40% more likely to experience difficulty in providing food for the family. Family relationships were affected for around one in every four victims and relationships with colleagues in 40%. CONCLUSIONS--Land mines seriously undermine the economy and food security in affected countries; they kill and maim civilians at an increasing rate. The expense of medical care and rehabilitation add economic disability to the physical burden. Awareness of land mines can be targeted at high risk attitudes, such as those associated with tampering with mines.

Andersson, N.; da Sousa, C. P.; Paredes, S.

1995-01-01

220

Selling sex in unsafe spaces: sex work risk environments in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background The risk environment framework provides a valuable but under-utilised heuristic for understanding environmental vulnerability to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers. Brothels have been shown to be safer than street-based sex work, with higher rates of consistent condom use and lower HIV prevalence. While entertainment venues are also assumed to be safer than street-based sex work, few studies have examined environmental influences on vulnerability to HIV in this context. Methods As part of the Young Women's Health Study, a prospective observational study of young women (15-29 years) engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, we conducted in-depth interviews (n = 33) to explore vulnerability to HIV/STI and related harms. Interviews were conducted in Khmer by trained interviewers, transcribed and translated into English and analysed for thematic content. Results The intensification of anti-prostitution and anti-trafficking efforts in Cambodia has increased the number of women working in entertainment venues and on the street. Our results confirm that street-based sex work places women at risk of HIV/STI infection and identify significant environmental risks related to entertainment-based sex work, including limited access to condoms and alcohol-related intoxication. Our data also indicate that exposure to violence and interactions with the police are mediated by the settings in which sex is sold. In particular, transacting sex in environments such as guest houses where there is little or no oversight in the form of peer or managerial support or protection, may increase vulnerability to HIV/STI. Conclusions Entertainment venues may also provide a high risk environment for sex work. Our results indicate that strategies designed to address HIV prevention among brothel-based FSWs in Cambodia have not translated well to street and entertainment-based sex work venues in which increasing numbers of women are working. There is an urgent need for targeted interventions, supported by legal and policy reforms, designed to reduce the environmental risks of sex work in these settings. Future research should seek to investigate sex work venues as risk environments, explore the role of different business models in mediating these environments, and identify and quantify exposure to risk in different occupational settings.

2011-01-01

221

Estimation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice field with rice straw management in Cambodia.  

PubMed

To estimate the greenhouse gas emissions from paddy fields of Cambodia, the methodology of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines, IPCC coefficients, and emission factors from the experiment in Thailand and another country were used. Total area under rice cultivation during the years 2005-2006 was 2,048,360 ha in the first crop season and 298,529 ha in the second crop season. The emission of methane from stubble incorporation with manure plus fertilizer application areas in the first crop season was estimated to be 192,783.74 ton higher than stubble with manure, stubble with fertilizer, and stubble without fertilizer areas. The fields with stubble burning emitted the highest emission of methane (75,771.29 ton) followed by stubble burning with manure (22,251.08 ton), stubble burning with fertilizer (13,213.27 ton), and stubble burning with fertilizer application areas (3,222.22 ton). The total emission of methane from rice field in Cambodia for the years 2005-2006 was approximately 342,649.26 ton (342.65 Gg) in the first crop season and 36,838.88 ton (36.84 Gg) in the second crop season. During the first crop season in the years 2005-2006, Battambang province emitted the highest amount of CH(4) (38,764.48 ton) and, in the second crop season during the years 2005-2006, the highest emission (8,262.34 ton) was found in Takeo province (8,262.34 ton). Nitrous oxide emission was between 2.70 and 1,047.92 ton in the first crop season and it ranged from 0 to 244.90 ton in the second crop season. Total nitrous oxide emission from paddy rice field was estimated to be 9,026.28 ton in the first crop season and 1,091.93 ton in the second crop season. Larger area under cultivation is responsible for higher emission of methane and nitrous oxide. Total emission of nitrous oxide by using IPCC default emission coefficient was approximately 2,328.85 ton. The total global warming potential of Cambodian paddy rice soil is 11,723,217.03 ton (11,723 Gg) equivalents of CO(2). PMID:19259777

Vibol, S; Towprayoon, S

2010-02-01

222

Removing arsenic from groundwater in Cambodia using high performance iron adsorbent.  

PubMed

In Cambodia, groundwater has been contaminated with arsenic, and purification of the water is an urgent issue. From 2010 to 2012, an international collaborative project between Japan and Cambodia for developing arsenic-removing technology from well water was conducted and supported by the foundation of New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Japan. Quality of well water was surveyed in Kandal, Prey Veng, and Kampong Cham Provinces, and a monitoring trial of the arsenic removal equipment using our patented amorphous iron (hydr)oxide adsorbent was performed. Of the 37 wells surveyed, arsenic concentration of 24 exceeded the Cambodian guideline value (50 ?g L(-1)), and those of 27 exceeded the WHO guideline for drinking water (10 ?g L(-1)). Levels of arsenic were extremely high in some wells (>1,000-6,000 ?g L(-1)), suggesting that arsenic pollution of groundwater is serious in these areas. Based on the survey results, 16 arsenic removal equipments were installed in six schools, three temples, two health centers, four private houses, and one commune office. Over 10 months of monitoring, the average arsenic concentrations of the treated water were between 0 and 10 ?g L(-1) at four locations, 10-50 ?g L(-1) at eight locations, and >50 ?g L(-1) at four locations. The arsenic removal rate ranged in 83.1-99.7 %, with an average of 93.8 %, indicating that the arsenic removal equipment greatly lower the risk of arsenic exposure to the residents. Results of the field trial showed that As concentration of the treated water could be reduced to <10 µg L(-1) by managing the As removal equipment properly, suggesting that the amorphous iron (hydr)oxide adsorbent has high adsorbing capacity for As not only in the laboratory environment but also in the field condition. This is one of the succeeding As removal techniques that could reduce As concentration of water below the WHO guideline value for As in situ. PMID:24894910

Kang, Y; Takeda, R; Nada, A; Thavarith, L; Tang, S; Nuki, K; Sakurai, K

2014-09-01

223

Characteristics of bedrock-alluvial anastomosed rivers: the Mekong River in Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mekong River is the 12th largest river in the world in terms of its length and mean annual discharge and yet it is poorly investigated. In the north eastern regions of Cambodia the Mekong River develops a multichannel pattern. It is characterised by a complex of intersecting bedrock channels, well vegetated alluvial and seasonally inundated islands, various types of sand bars, numerous bedrock exposures, rapids, waterfalls and deep bedrock pools which can be classified as a large mixed bedrock-alluvial anastomosed river of a tropical monsoonal climate zone. In order to complete a portrait of the river at the high level of details new data on morphology, geology and sediments were obtained during field surveys of a 120 km river section in Cambodia and combined with information from published literature and interpretation of available remote sensing images. This process has enabled to update and clarify knowledge on morphology of observed islands and floodplain, comprehensive geology and tectonic structures, hydrological regime and land cover. Complex analyses of the collected data have distinguished several geomorphological zones accordingly to frequency of morphological elements, the planview configuration of channels and vertical profile characteristics. The occurrence of each zone is a subject of variable controlling factors such as local topography, channel gradient, structural and tectonic elements and intercalating geological units. Evolution of the channel pattern has been considered at both short- and long term time scales. Historical cartographic and remote sensing materials were applied to determine planform channel changes over the last 50 years revealing the channels stability and cases of occasional, local erosion and deposition. The channel network was extracted from vector layers to examine channels and islands width and length parameters, bifurcation angles at the upstream end of islands and to obtain main channel network indices such as braiding intensity and channel sinuosity. In addition, luminescence dating of the sediments from a palaeochannel and the sediments constituting the surfaces of alluvial islands and an adjacent plain elucidate paleo-the development of the Mekong in this region. Finally, the description of the channel planform and the network metrics provide a quantitative means to describe the distinctive character of the Mekong in comparison with other well known large alluvial anastomosed river systems in similar environmental settings.

Meshkova, Liubov. V.; Carling, Paul. A.

2010-05-01

224

Sustained use of a household-scale water filtration device in rural Cambodia.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of point-of-use water treatment may be limited by declining use over time, particularly when water treatment is introduced via targeted intervention programmes. In order to evaluate the long-term uptake and use of locally produced ceramic water filters in rural Cambodia, we visited households that had received filters as part of NGO-subsidized distribution programmes over a 4 year period from 2002 to 2006. Of the more than 2,000 filters distributed, we visited 506 randomly selected households in 13 villages spanning three provinces to assess filter time in use and to collect data on factors potentially correlated with long-term use. Results indicate that filter use declined at the rate of approximately 2% per month after implementation, largely owing to breakages, and that, controlling for time since implementation, continued filter use over time was most closely positively associated with: related water, sanitation and hygiene practices in the home; cash investment in the technology by the household; and use of surface water as a primary drinking water source. PMID:19491492

Brown, Joe; Proum, S; Sobsey, M D

2009-09-01

225

Boiling as Household Water Treatment in Cambodia: A Longitudinal Study of Boiling Practice and Microbiological Effectiveness  

PubMed Central

This paper focuses on the consistency of use and microbiological effectiveness of boiling as it is practiced in one study site in peri-urban Cambodia. We followed 60 randomly selected households in Kandal Province over 6 months to collect longitudinal data on water boiling practices and effectiveness in reducing Escherichia coli in household drinking water. Despite > 90% of households reporting that they used boiling as a means of drinking water treatment, an average of only 31% of households had boiled water on hand at follow-up visits, suggesting that actual use may be lower than self-reported use. We collected 369 matched untreated and boiled water samples. Mean reduction of E. coli was 98.5%; 162 samples (44%) of boiled samples were free of E. coli (< 1 colony-forming unit [cfu]/100 mL), and 270 samples (73%) had < 10 cfu/100 mL. Storing boiled water in a covered container was associated with safer product water than storage in an uncovered container.

Brown, Joseph; Sobsey, Mark D.

2012-01-01

226

Microbiological effectiveness of locally produced ceramic filters for drinking water treatment in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Low-cost options for the treatment of drinking water at the household level are being explored by the Cambodian government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in Cambodia, where many lack access to improved drinking water sources and diarrhoeal diseases are the most prevalent cause of death in children under 5 years of age. The ceramic water purifier (CWP), a locally produced, low-cost ceramic filter, is now being implemented by several NGOs, and an estimated 100,000+households in the country now use them for drinking water treatment. Two candidate filters were tested for the reduction of bacterial and viral surrogates for waterborne pathogens using representative Cambodian drinking water sources (rainwater and surface water) spiked with Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Results indicate that filters were capable of reducing key microbes in the laboratory with mean reductions of E. coli of approximately 99% and mean reduction of bacteriophages of 90-99% over >600 litres throughput. Increased effectiveness was not observed in filters with an AgNO3 amendment. At under US$10 per filter, locally produced ceramic filters may be a promising option for drinking water treatment and safe storage at the household level. PMID:20009242

Brown, Joe; Sobsey, Mark D

2010-03-01

227

Strongyloides stercoralis infection and re-infection in a cohort of children in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Information on Strongyloides stercoralis re-infection after ivermectin treatment is scarce in S. stercoralis endemic countries. In semi-rural Cambodia, we determined S. stercoralis infection and re-infection rates among schoolchildren, two years after ivermectin treatment (2×100?g/kg PO, 24h apart). The study was conducted among 484 children from four primary schools in semi-rural villages in Kandal province from 2009 to 2011, using Koga agar plate culture and the Baermann method on two stool samples per child. Complete data were available for 302 participants. We observed infections in 24.2% and 22.5% of the children at baseline and at follow-up, respectively. At baseline, 73 children were treated for S. stercoralis infection. At follow-up, one-third of those treated for S. stercoralis infection had been reinfected, while 19.6% of the 229 healthy children (at baseline) had been newly infected with S. stercoralis. Possession of shoes and defecation in toilet were negatively associated with S. stercoralis infection at follow-up. Infection and re-infection rates of S. stercoralis among schoolchildren are considerably high. However, 68.5% of infected children remained free of infection for at least two years. A large-scale cohort study is required to understand age-specific infection and re-infection dynamics in endemic countries. PMID:24970767

Khieu, Virak; Hattendorf, Jan; Schär, Fabian; Marti, Hanspeter; Char, Meng Chuor; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

2014-10-01

228

The epidemiology of pediatric bone and joint infections in Cambodia, 2007-11.  

PubMed

There are limited data on osteoarticular infections from resource-limited settings in Asia. A retrospective study of patients presenting to the Angkor Hospital for Children, Cambodia, January 2007-July 2011, identified 81 cases (28% monoarticular septic arthritis, 51% single-limb osteomyelitis and 15% multisite infections). The incidence was 13.8/100 000 hospital attendances. The median age was 7.3 years, with a male/female ratio of 1.9:1; 35% presented within 5 days of symptom onset (median 7 days). Staphylococcus aureus was cultured in 29 (36%) cases (52% of culture-positive cases); one isolate was methicillin-resistant (MRSA). Median duration of antimicrobial treatment was 29 days (interquartile range 21-43); rates of surgical intervention were 96%, and 46% of children had sequelae, with one fatality. In this setting osteoarticular infections are relatively common with high rates of surgical intervention and sequelae. Staphylococcus aureus is the commonest culturable cause, but methicillin-resistant S. aureus is not a major problem, unlike in other Asian centers. PMID:22977206

Stoesser, Nicole; Pocock, Joanna; Moore, Catrin E; Soeng, Sona; Hor, PutChhat; Sar, Poda; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Day, Nicholas; Kumar, Varun; Khan, Sophy; Sar, Vuthy; Parry, Christopher M

2013-02-01

229

Characterisation of the water quality from open and rope-pump shallow wells in rural Cambodia.  

PubMed

An 8 month investigation into the quality of water from open and rope-pump shallow wells in rural Cambodia was conducted. Wells were analysed for indicators of the health (arsenic, fluoride, manganese, nitrate, total coliforms, E. coli, male-specific coliphage) and aesthetic (iron, chloride, conductivity, total dissolved solids, hardnesss, turbidity, pH) quality of the water, and referenced to the Cambodian Drinking Water Standard when available. The shallow aquifer was chemically less of a health risk than the deep aquifer; however, microbial contamination was considerable for both shallow well types with mean E. coli loads of 10(3) CFU/100 mL and male-specific coliphage contamination of 10(2) PFU/eluate. Temporal variation in microbial contamination was significant (p<0.05), with overall loads decreasing during the dry season. The aesthetic quality of the water was poor for all samples, but worsened during the dry season. No significant difference was observed in the quality of water from open and rope-pump wells, despite their classification as unimproved and improved respectively by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme. Contaminants present in both well types may readily be removed by simple water treatment, suggesting that household treatment may be more beneficial to rural Cambodian households than shallow aquifer source improvements. PMID:20107274

Bennett, H B; Shantz, A; Shin, G; Sampson, M L; Meschke, J S

2010-01-01

230

Parental styles in the intergenerational transmission of trauma stemming from the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia.  

PubMed

The impact of parental styles in intergenerational transmission of trauma among mothers who survived the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia, in power from 1975 to 1979, and their teenaged children was examined in 2 studies. In Study 1, 46 Cambodian female high school students and their mothers were recruited. Each daughter completed anxiety and depression measures as well as assessment of her mother's role-reversing, overprotective, and rejecting parental styles, whereas the mothers completed measures of their trauma exposure during the Khmer Rouge regime and PTSD symptoms. In support of trauma transmission, the mother's PTSD symptoms were predictive of her daughter's anxiety. Moreover, the mother's role-reversing parental style was shown to mediate the relationship between her own and her daughter's symptoms. In support of their generalizability, the results were replicated in Study 2 in a Cambodian-American refugee sample comparing 15 mental health treatment-seeking mothers and their teenaged children with 17 nontreatment-seeking mother-child pairs. The implications of the findings within the larger literature on intergenerational trauma transmission stemming from genocide are discussed. PMID:24164520

Field, Nigel P; Muong, Sophear; Sochanvimean, Vannavuth

2013-10-01

231

Biodiversity Monitoring at the Tonle Sap Lake of Cambodia: A Comparative Assessment of Local Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper assesses local biodiversity monitoring methods practiced in the Tonle Sap Lake of Cambodia. For the assessment we used the following criteria: methodological rigor, perceived cost, ease of use (user friendliness), compatibility with existing activities, and effectiveness of intervention. Constraints and opportunities for execution of the methods were also considered. Information was collected by use of: (1) key informant interview, (2) focus group discussion, and (3) researcher's observation. The monitoring methods for fish, birds, reptiles, mammals and vegetation practiced in the research area have their unique characteristics of generating data on biodiversity and biological resources. Most of the methods, however, serve the purpose of monitoring biological resources rather than biodiversity. There is potential that the information gained through local monitoring methods can provide input for long-term management and strategic planning. In order to realize this potential, the local monitoring methods should be better integrated with each other, adjusted to existing norms and regulations, and institutionalized within community-based organization structures.

Seak, Sophat; Schmidt-Vogt, Dietrich; Thapa, Gopal B.

2012-10-01

232

Municipal solid waste management in Phnom Penh, capital city of Cambodia.  

PubMed

This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) for both technical and regulatory arrangements in the municipality of Phnom Penh (MPP), Cambodia. Problems with the current MSWM are identified, and challenges and recommendations for future improvement are also given in this paper. MPP is a small city with a total area of approximately 374 km(2) and an urban population of about 1.3 million in 2008. For the last 14 years, average annual municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in MPP has increased rapidly from 0.136 million tons in 1995 to 0.361 million tons in 2008. The gross generation rate of MSW per capita was 0.74 kg day(-1). However, the per capita household waste generation was 0.487 kg day(- 1). At 63.3%, food waste is the predominant portion of generated waste, followed by plastics (15.5%), grass and wood (6.8%), and paper and cardboard (6.4%). The remaining waste, including metals, glass, rubber/leather, textiles, and ceramic/ stone, accounted for less than 3%. Waste recycling through informal sectors is very active; recycled waste accounted for about 9.3% of all waste generated in 2003. Currently, the overall technical arrangement, including storage and discharge, collection and transport, and disposal, is still in poor condition, which leads to environmental and health risks. These problems should be solved by improving legislation, environmental education, solid waste management facilities, and management of the waste scavengers. PMID:20813763

Seng, Bunrith; Kaneko, Hidehiro; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko

2011-05-01

233

DEVELOPMENT OF MULTI POLARIZATION SAR ALGORITHM FOR SOIL MOISTURE IN PADDY FIELD, CAMBODIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Cambodia, agriculture is the important industry which engages many people. However, the water supplied only during rainy season is the source of water for agriculture. To use the limited water resources effectively, it is necessary to apply the water-resource management based on the meteorological prediction and the river runoff prediction. As the factor of these predictions, the soil moisture plays a key role in water and thermal transportation to the atmosphere, and the contribution of river runoff property. On the other hand, the soil moisture distribution with the paddy field scale is helpful in the agricultural activity and management. Therefore, Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR) is expected to observe soil moisture with high spatial resolution in large area. Recently, some multi-polarization SAR have been in operation. The purpose of this study is to develop the algorithm to estimate soil moisture by using multi-polarization data acquired with the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS).

Aida, Kentaro; Koike, Toshio; Shi, Jiancheng

234

Boiling as household water treatment in Cambodia: a longitudinal study of boiling practice and microbiological effectiveness.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the consistency of use and microbiological effectiveness of boiling as it is practiced in one study site in peri-urban Cambodia. We followed 60 randomly selected households in Kandal Province over 6 months to collect longitudinal data on water boiling practices and effectiveness in reducing Escherichia coli in household drinking water. Despite > 90% of households reporting that they used boiling as a means of drinking water treatment, an average of only 31% of households had boiled water on hand at follow-up visits, suggesting that actual use may be lower than self-reported use. We collected 369 matched untreated and boiled water samples. Mean reduction of E. coli was 98.5%; 162 samples (44%) of boiled samples were free of E. coli (< 1 colony-forming unit [cfu]/100 mL), and 270 samples (73%) had < 10 cfu/100 mL. Storing boiled water in a covered container was associated with safer product water than storage in an uncovered container. PMID:22826487

Brown, Joseph; Sobsey, Mark D

2012-09-01

235

Reaching out and reaching up - developing a low cost drug treatment system in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Cambodia, confronted by the spread of drug misuse among young people, requested support from international agencies to develop a drug treatment programme in 2000. The initial plan developed by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime was to set up a number of conventional drug treatment centres in urban areas. During the planning phase, however, the project was redesigned as a community based outreach programme. Ten Community Counselling Teams have been formed and trained in pilot areas, and within the first year of operation 462 drug and alcohol users contacted. Comprising former drug users, family members affected by drug use and health care staff, they have drug scene credibility, local knowledge and connectivity, and a rudimentary level of medical competence. Crucially, they enjoy the support of village elders, who are involved in the planning and reporting stages. While the Community Counselling Teams with their basic training in addiction counselling are in no position as yet to either provide or refer clients to treatment, they can provide brief interventions, organise self help groups, and most importantly provide an alternative to law enforcement. By taking a development centred approach, with emphasis on community, empowerment and inclusion, it provides a constructive and inclusive alternative to medical approaches and the compulsory drug treatment centres. The paper is based on an evaluation involving interviews with a range of stakeholders and a review of project documents.

2012-01-01

236

Higher microsatellite diversity in Plasmodium vivax than in sympatric Plasmodium falciparum populations in Pursat, Western Cambodia.  

PubMed

Previous microsatellite analyses of sympatric populations of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Brazil revealed higher diversity in the former species. However, it remains unclear whether regional species-specific differences in prevalence and transmission levels might account for these findings. Here, we examine sympatric populations of P. vivax (n=87) and P. falciparum (n=164) parasites from Pursat province, Western Cambodia, where both species are similarly prevalent. Using 10 genome-wide microsatellites for P. falciparum and 13 for P. vivax, we found that the P. vivax population was more diverse than the sympatric P. falciparum population (average virtual heterozygosity [HE], 0.87 vs. 0.66, P=0.003), with more multiple-clone infections (89.6% vs. 47.6%) and larger mean number of alleles per marker (16.2 vs. 11.1, P=0.07). Both populations showed significant multi-locus linkage disequilibrium suggestive of a predominantly clonal mode of parasite reproduction. The higher microsatellite diversity found in P. vivax isolates, compared to sympatric P. falciparum isolates, does not necessarily result from local differences in transmission level and may reflect differences in population history between species or increased mutation rates in P. vivax. PMID:23562882

Orjuela-Sánchez, Pamela; Sá, Juliana M; Brandi, Michelle C C; Rodrigues, Priscila T; Bastos, Melissa S; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Duong, Socheat; Fairhurst, Rick M; Ferreira, Marcelo U

2013-07-01

237

Spatial epidemiology and climatic predictors of paediatric dengue infections captured via sentinel site surveillance, Phnom Penh Cambodia 2011-2012  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue is a major contributor to morbidity in children aged twelve and below throughout Cambodia; the 2012 epidemic season was the most severe in the country since 2007, with more than 42,000 reported (suspect or confirmed) cases. Methods We report basic epidemiological characteristics in a series of 701 patients at the National Paediatric Hospital in Cambodia, recruited during a prospective clinical study (2011–2012). To more fully explore this cohort, we examined climatic factors using multivariate negative binomial models and spatial clustering of cases using spatial scan statistics to place the clinical study within a larger epidemiological framework. Results We identify statistically significant spatial clusters at the urban village scale, and find that the key climatic predictors of increasing cases are weekly minimum temperature, median relative humidity, but find a negative association with rainfall maximum, all at lag times of 1–6 weeks, with significant effects extending to 10 weeks. Conclusions Our results identify clustering of infections at the neighbourhood scale, suggesting points for targeted interventions, and we find that the complex interactions of vectors and climatic conditions in this setting may be best captured by rising minimum temperature, and median (as opposed to mean) relative humidity, with complex and limited effects from rainfall. These results suggest that real-time cluster detection during epidemics should be considered in Cambodia, and that improvements in weather data reporting could benefit national control programs by allow greater prioritization of limited health resources to both vulnerable populations and time periods of greatest risk. Finally, these results add to the increasing body of knowledge suggesting complex interactions between climate and dengue cases that require further targeted research.

2014-01-01

238

"Bad Boys", Big Trouble: Subcultural Formation and Resistance in a Cambodian Village  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the experiences of adolescent males in Cambodia who, simultaneous to their maltreatment and marginalization within the family and community, have reduced opportunities to produce identities of sociomoral value through access to cultural capital. It draws on ethnographic data gathered from adolescents boys aged 9 to 16 in Siem

Czymoniewicz-Klippel, Melina T.

2013-01-01

239

Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Pursat province, western Cambodia: a parasite clearance rate study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been reported in Pailin, western Cambodia, detected as a slow parasite clearance rate in vivo. Emergence of this phenotype in western Thailand and possibly elsewhere threatens to compromise the effectiveness of all artemisinin-based combination therapies. Parasite genetics is associated with parasite clearance rate but does not account for all variation. We investigated contributions of both parasite genetics and host factors to the artemisinin-resistance phenotype in Pursat, western Cambodia. Methods Between June 19 and Nov 28, 2009, and June 26 and Dec 6, 2010, we enrolled patients aged 10 years or older with uncomplicated falciparum malaria, a density of asexual parasites of at least 10 000 per ?L of whole blood, no symptoms or signs of severe malaria, no other cause of febrile illness, and no chronic illness. We gave participants 4 mg/kg artesunate at 0, 24, and 48 h, 15 mg/kg mefloquine at 72 h, and 10 mg/kg mefloquine at 96 h. We assessed parasite density on thick blood films every 6 h until undetectable. The parasite clearance half-life was calculated from the parasite clearance curve. We genotyped parasites with 18 microsatellite markers and patients for haemoglobin E, ?-thalassaemia, and a mutation of G6PD, which encodes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. To account for the possible effects of acquired immunity on half-life, we used three surrogates for increased likelihood of exposure to P falciparum: age, sex, and place of residence. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00341003. Findings We assessed 3504 individuals from all six districts of Pursat province seeking treatment for malaria symptoms. We enrolled 168 patients with falciparum malaria who met inclusion criteria. The geometric mean half-life was 5.85 h (95% CI 5.54–6.18) in Pursat, similar to that reported in Pailin (p=0.109). We identified two genetically different parasite clone groups: parasite group 1 (PG1) and parasite group 2 (PG2). Non-significant increases in parasite clearance half-life were seen in patients with haemoglobin E (0.55 h; p=0.078), those of male sex (0.96 h; p=0.064), and in 2010 (0.68 h; p=0.068); PG1 was associated with a significant increase (0.79 h; p=0.033). The mean parasite heritability of half-life was 0.40 (SD 0.17). Interpretation Heritable artemisinin resistance is established in a second Cambodian province. To accurately identify parasites that are intrinsically susceptible or resistant to artemisinins, future studies should explore the effect of erythrocyte polymorphisms and specific immune responses on half-life variation. Funding Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health.

Amaratunga, Chanaki; Sreng, Sokunthea; Suon, Seila; Phelps, Erika S; Stepniewska, Kasia; Lim, Pharath; Zhou, Chongjun; Mao, Sivanna; Anderson, Jennifer M; Lindegardh, Niklas; Jiang, Hongying; Song, Jianping; Su, Xin-zhuan; White, Nicholas J; Dondorp, Arjen M; Anderson, Tim J C; Fay, Michael P; Mu, Jianbing; Duong, Socheat; Fairhurst, Rick M

2013-01-01

240

Consumption of animal source foods and dietary diversity reduce stunting in children in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Malnutrition in children is a major public health concern. This study aimed to determine the association between dietary diversity and stunting, underweight, wasting, and diarrhea and that between consumption of each specific food group and these nutritional and health outcomes among children. Methods A nationally representative household survey of 6209 children aged 12 to 59 months was conducted in Cambodia. We examined the consumption of food in the 24 hours before the survey and stunting, underweight, wasting, and diarrhea that had occurred in the preceding 2 weeks. A food variety score (ranging from 0 to 9) was calculated to represent dietary diversity. Results Stunting was negatively associated with dietary diversity (adjusted odd ratios [ORadj] 0.95, 95% confident interval [CI] 0.91-0.99, P?=?0.01) after adjusting for socioeconomic and geographical factors. Consumption of animal source foods was associated with reduced risk of stunting (ORadj 0.69, 95% CI 0.54-0.89, P?

2013-01-01

241

Can vouchers deliver? An evaluation of subsidies for maternal health care in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of vouchers for maternity care in public health-care facilities on the utilization of maternal health-care services in Cambodia. Methods The study involved data from the 2010 Cambodian Demographic and Health Survey, which covered births between 2005 and 2010. The effect of voucher schemes, first implemented in 2007, on the utilization of maternal health-care services was quantified using a difference-in-differences method that compared changes in utilization in districts with voucher schemes with changes in districts without them. Findings Overall, voucher schemes were associated with an increase of 10.1 percentage points (pp) in the probability of delivery in a public health-care facility; among women from the poorest 40% of households, the increase was 15.6 pp. Vouchers were responsible for about one fifth of the increase observed in institutional deliveries in districts with schemes. Universal voucher schemes had a larger effect on the probability of delivery in a public facility than schemes targeting the poorest women. Both types of schemes increased the probability of receiving postnatal care, but the increase was significant only for non-poor women. Universal, but not targeted, voucher schemes significantly increased the probability of receiving antenatal care. Conclusion Voucher schemes increased deliveries in health centres and, to a lesser extent, improved antenatal and postnatal care. However, schemes that targeted poorer women did not appear to be efficient since these women were more likely than less poor women to be encouraged to give birth in a public health-care facility, even with universal voucher schemes.

Flores, Gabriela; Ir, Por; O'Donnell, Owen; Van Doorslaer, Eddy

2014-01-01

242

Late Quaternary floodplain development along the Stung Sen River in the Lower Mekong Basin, Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Stung Sen River, the biggest tributary to Lake Tonle Sap in the Lower Mekong Basin in Cambodia, is characterized by large seasonal changes of water discharge under the Asian monsoon climate and seasonal changes in water level that reach at least 7 m and are controlled by the water level of the lake. The Stung Sen River floodplain consists of two geomorphic units: meander belt along the river channel and backmarsh. Coupled observations of outcrops along the river channel and arrays of sediment cores across the floodplain north of Kampong Chheuteal village and Kampong Thom City, c. 150 km and c. 70 km, respectively, reveal that floodplain environmental changes at c. 11 ka were possibly associated with the Holocene onset of the southeast Asian monsoon and probably with the emergence of Lake Tonle Sap. These observations also show that the present backmarsh-meander belt system was established about 5.5 ka along with the unique Mekong-Tonle Sap connection, characterized by a reversal in flow direction during the monsoon season. The meander belt materials are replaced as the river channel shifts on a decadal to centennial timescale. Backmarsh sediments at sites Kampong Chheuteal and Kampong Thom had a constant accumulation rate of about 0.5 mm/y during the Holocene, contrasting with rates of 0.1 mm/y during the late Pleistocene. At around 11 ka, a sand layer was deposited over all of the valley around Kampong Chheuteal, while wetlands enlarged around Kampong Thom, probably because of increased rainfall triggered by an enhancement of the Asian summer monsoon. This 11 ka horizon has since been covered by clayey sediments keeping pace with the accumulation of lacustrine sediments in Lake Tonle Sap.

Nagumo, Naoko; Sugai, Toshihiko; Kubo, Sumiko

2013-09-01

243

Reconstruction of the past flow channels in the early Holocene at Lake Tonle Sap, Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Tonle Sap is located at the central part of Cambodia, South-East Asia. In rainy season, the water body swells with the water depth accordingly increasing from 1 up to 10 meters due to a pulsive intrusion from the Mekong River. The lake is therefore a vital reservoir that protects the region from flooding. It is paleolimnologically important to better understand how the lake has gained the function controlling water balance of this region. We undertook an extensive echo-sounding exploration at the lake in order to clarify the subsurface structure of Lake Tonle Sap. The survey was conducted in rainy seasons from 2009 to 2012. Sediment cores were collected at three sites at the middle part of the lake. Echo sounding was undertaken over the whole part of the lake using a single-channel sub-bottom profiling system (Stratabox, SyQwest Inc.). A prominent sound frequency of 10 KHz was selected in order to observe structure of reflectance planes up to the 40-m depth. In consequence, we discovered deposited valleys forming a complex network of past flow channels. The subsurface structure of the lake bed was mostly complacent showing a strongly reflecting plane observed at the depth of 1-2 meters; the sediments mainly consisted of mud. A number of valley-shaped reflecting planes were observed at the depth of 10-14 meters. Radiocarbon dates of carbonaceous materials collected at the vally bottom were around 10 ka calBP. A 3-D reconstruction presented a complex network of deposited flow channels.

Haraguchi, T.; Yonenobu, H.; Tokunaga, T.; Shimoda, I.

2013-05-01

244

Prediction of contamination potential of groundwater arsenic in Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand using artificial neural network.  

PubMed

The arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater has increasingly been recognized as a major global issue of concern. As groundwater resources are one of most important freshwater sources for water supplies in Southeast Asian countries, it is important to investigate the spatial distribution of As contamination and evaluate the health risk of As for these countries. The detection of As contamination in groundwater resources, however, can create a substantial labor and cost burden for Southeast Asian countries. Therefore, modeling approaches for As concentration using conventional on-site measurement data can be an alternative to quantify the As contamination. The objective of this study is to evaluate the predictive performance of four different models; specifically, multiple linear regression (MLR), principal component regression (PCR), artificial neural network (ANN), and the combination of principal components and an artificial neural network (PC-ANN) in the prediction of As concentration, and to provide assessment tools for Southeast Asian countries including Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand. The modeling results show that the prediction accuracy of PC-ANN (Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients: 0.98 (traning step) and 0.71 (validation step)) is superior among the four different models. This finding can be explained by the fact that the PC-ANN not only solves the problem of collinearity of input variables, but also reflects the presence of high variability in observed As concentrations. We expect that the model developed in this work can be used to predict As concentrations using conventional water quality data obtained from on-site measurements, and can further provide reliable and predictive information for public health management policies. PMID:21917287

Cho, Kyung Hwa; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Kim, Joon Ha

2011-11-01

245

Scenario analysis of the benefit of municipal organic-waste composting over landfill, Cambodia.  

PubMed

This paper presents insight into the benefits of organic waste recycling through composting over landfill, in terms of landfill life extension, compost product, and mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Future waste generation from 2003 to 2020 was forecast, and five scenarios of organic waste recycling in the municipality of Phnom Penh (MPP), Cambodia, were carried out. Organic waste-specifically food and garden waste-was used for composting, and the remaining waste was landfilled. The recycling scenarios were set based on organic waste generated from difference sources: households, restaurants, shops, markets, schools, hotels, offices, and street sweeping. Through the five scenarios, the minimum volume reductions of waste disposal were about 56, 123, and 219 m(3) d(-1) in 2003, 2012, and 2020, respectively, whereas the maximum volume reductions in these years were about 325, 643, and 1025 m(3) d(-1). These volume reductions reflect a landfill life extension of a minimum of half a year and a maximum of about four years. Compost product could be produced at a minimum of 14, 30, and 54 tons d(-1) in 2003, 2012, and 2020, respectively, and at a maximum in those years of about 80, 158, and 252 tons d(-1). At the same time benefit is gained in compost product, GHG emissions could be reduced by a minimum of 12.8% and a maximum of 65.0% from 2003 to 2020. This means about 3.23 (minimum) and 5.79 million tons CO(2)eq (maximum) contributed to GHG mitigation. In this regard, it is strongly recommended that MPP should try to initiate an organic-waste recycling strategy in a best fit scenario. PMID:23168253

Seng, Bunrith; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko; Ochiai, Satoru; Kaneko, Hidehiro

2013-01-15

246

Where mother knows best. In Cambodia's highlands, women play a key role.  

PubMed

Phnom Penh businessmen wanted to convert a hillside near Ban Lung, the provincial capital of Ratanakiri in northeast Cambodia, into a resort for senior government officials and businessmen. The resort was to lead treks into the hills so the men could stare at the topless women of the Khmer Loeu tribes. The tribes' views on marriage, sex, birth control, abortion, and courtship are quite progressive. Until just recently, unmarried daughters lived in small houses connected to the family house so they could have sexual relationships with prospective mates. The custom stopped because many of the women conceived before marriage and many of the fathers were married men. Nevertheless, young women still have as much sexual freedom as do young men. Neither punishment nor disgrace befall unmarried pregnant women. If a married man impregnates a woman, he pays her family with 4 buffalo, some pigs, a few chickens, and rice wine. If the man is single and does not want to marry the pregnant woman, he reimburses her and attends to her throughout the pregnancy. Childbirth ends his obligation. Women may divorce an abusive husband. Any man that abuses a woman, married or not, is severely punished. Only women can make decisions about childbirth. They often induce abortion after having 4-5 children, generally using herbs. Women are spiritual healers. Priestesses are the only medium through which ancestral spirits impart blessings and messages to tribe members. these powers affect male and female relations greatly. Women rise at 4 am to do chores. They usually make breakfast and clean the house before boys awake. Women and the tribe value men, largely because few survived the Khmer Rouge massacres. Khmer Loeu women are beginning to want to be like other women, such as wearing shirts. These modern attitudes are more likely to change the tribe's culture than did the widespread killing by the Khmer Rouge in the 1970s. PMID:12286977

1993-09-22

247

Water-supply options in arsenic-affected regions in Cambodia: Targeting the bottom income quintiles.  

PubMed

In arsenic-affected regions of Cambodia, rural water committees and planners can choose to promote various arsenic-avoidance and/or arsenic-removal water supply systems. Each of these has different costs of providing water, subsequently born by the consumer in order to be sustainable. On a volumetric basis ($/m3-yr) and of the arsenic-avoidance options considered, small-scale public water supply - e.g., treated water provided to a central tap stand - is the most expensive option on a life-cycle cost basis. Rainwater harvesting, protected hand dug wells, and vendor-supplied water are the cheapest with a normalized present worth value, ranging from $2 to $10 per cubic meter per year of water delivered. Subsidization of capital costs is needed to make even these options affordable to the lowest (Q5) quintile. The range of arsenic-removal systems considered here, using adsorptive media, is competitive with large-scale public water supply and deep tube well systems. Both community level and household-scale systems are in a range that is affordable to the Q4 quintile, though more research and field trials are needed. At a target cost of $5.00/m3, arsenic removal systems will compete with the OpEx costs for most of the arsenic-safe water systems that are currently available. The life-cycle cost approach is a valuable method for comparing alternatives and for assessing current water supply practices as these relate to equity and the ability to pay. PMID:24457133

Chamberlain, Jim F; Sabatini, David A

2014-08-01

248

Element concentrations in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.), fish and sediment from a wetland production system that receives wastewater from Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cheung Ek Lake, which is located south of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, receives most of the industrial and domestic wastewater that is produced in the city. The lake is used for fishing and production of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk). Concentrations of 35 elements were determined in water spinach and sediment that were collected along transects of two wastewater inlets

Helle Marcussen; Anders Dalsgaard; Peter E. Holm

2009-01-01

249

Use of Appropriate and Affordable Technology for Water Quality Improvement in a Community Managed Water Supply Demonstration Project in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water supply is a major problem that local authorities find difficult to handle. Communities in peri-urban areas are often not served by the municipal systems due to limited capacities of local authorities. This paper presents the experience and lessons gained in implementing a community-built and managed water quality improvement demonstration project in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The project attempted to demonstrate

Ranjith Perera

250

Situation Report--Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua & New Guinea, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti, Tonga.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data relating to population and family planning in fourteen foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua and New Guines, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti (French Polynesia), and Tonga. Information is provided under two…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

251

ORAL HEALTH STATUS AMONG 12YEAROLD CHILDREN IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS PARTICIPATING IN AN ORAL HEALTH PREVENTIVE SCHOOL PROGRAM IN PHNOM PENH CITY, CAMBODIA, 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess dental caries status, knowledge, attitude and practice in oral health among 12-year-old primary schoolchildren participating in the Oral Health Preventive School Program (OHPSP) conducted since 1998 in Phnom Penh City, Cambodia. Schools were stratified into 3 groups by levels of cooperation (good, partial, and poor ) with the OHPS pro- gram and samples

O Teng; K Narksawat; J Podang

252

Exposure, metabolism, and health effects of arsenic in residents from arsenic-contaminated groundwater areas of Vietnam and Cambodia: a review.  

PubMed

In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on exposure, metabolism, and health effects of arsenic (As) in residents from As-contaminated groundwater areas of Vietnam and Cambodia based on our findings from 2000 and other studies. The health effects of As in humans include severe gastrointestinal disorders, hepatic and renal failure, cardiovascular disturbances, skin pigmentation, hyperkeratosis, and cancers in the lung, bladder, liver, kidney, and skin. Arsenic contamination in groundwater is widely present at Vietnam and Cambodia and the highest As levels are frequently found in groundwater from Cambodia. Sand filter system can reduce As concentration in raw groundwater. The results of hair and urine analyses indicate that residents from these As-contaminated areas are exposed to As. In general, sex, age, body mass index, and As exposure level are significantly associated with As metabolism. Genetic polymorphisms in arsenic (+III) methyltransferase and glutathione-S-transferase isoforms may be influenced As metabolism and accumulation in a Vietnamese population. It is suggested oxidative DNA damage is caused by exposure to As in groundwater from residents in Cambodia. An epidemiologic study on an association of As exposure with human health effects is required in these areas. PMID:21038756

Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Kubota, Reiji; Inoue, Suguru; Fujihara, Junko; Minh, Tu Binh; Ha, Nguyen Ngoc; Tu, Nguyen Phuc Cam; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Chamnan, Chhoun; Takeshita, Haruo; Iwata, Hisato; Tuyen, Bui Cach; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Touch Seang; Tanabe, Shinsuke

2010-01-01

253

Whose Education Policies in Aid-Receiving Countries? A Critical Discourse Analysis of Quality and Normative Transfer through Cambodia and Laos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical discourse analysis of policy contexts and documents has been employed in this research to analyze the role of language in promoting normative positions affecting the quality of education in Cambodia and Laos. The article examines the ways institutional normative influences at multiple levels within the Education for All (EFA) program have…

McCormick, Alexandra

2012-01-01

254

PALSAR 50 m mosaic data based national level biomass estimation in Cambodia for implementation of REDD+ mechanism.  

PubMed

Tropical countries like Cambodia require information about forest biomass for successful implementation of climate change mitigation mechanism related to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). This study investigated the potential of Phased Array-type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar Fine Beam Dual (PALSAR FBD) 50 m mosaic data to estimate Above Ground Biomass (AGB) in Cambodia. AGB was estimated using a bottom-up approach based on field measured biomass and backscattering (?(o)) properties of PALSAR data. The relationship between the PALSAR ?(o) HV and HH/HV with field measured biomass was strong with R(2)?=?0.67 and 0.56, respectively. PALSAR estimated AGB show good results in deciduous forests because of less saturation as compared to dense evergreen forests. The validation results showed a high coefficient of determination R(2)?=?0.61 with RMSE ?=?21 Mg/ha using values up to 200 Mg/ha biomass. There were some uncertainties because of the uncertainty in the field based measurement and saturation of PALSAR data. AGB map of Cambodian forests could be useful for the implementation of forest management practices for REDD+ assessment and policies implementation at the national level. PMID:24116012

Avtar, Ram; Suzuki, Rikie; Takeuchi, Wataru; Sawada, Haruo

2013-01-01

255

Breastfeeding Trends in Cambodia, and the Increased Use of Breast-Milk Substitute--Why Is It a Danger?  

PubMed Central

A cross-sectional analysis of the Cambodia Demographic Health Surveys from 2000, 2005 and 2010 was conducted to observe the national trends in infant and young child feeding practices. The results showed that rates of exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged 0–5.9 months have increased substantially since 2000, concurrent with an increase in the rates of early initiation of breastfeeding and a reduction in the giving of pre-lacteal feeds. However, the proportion of infants being fed with breast-milk substitutes (BMS) during 0–5.9 months doubled in 5 years (3.4% to 7.0%) from 2000 to 2005, but then did not increase from 2005, likely due to extensive public health campaigns on exclusive breastfeeding. BMS use increased among children aged 6–23.9 months from 2000 to 2010 (4.8% to 9.3%). 26.1% of women delivering in a private clinic provided their child with breast-milk substitute at 0–5.9 months, which is five times more than women delivering in the public sector (5.1%), and the greatest increase in bottle use happened among the urban poor (5.8% to 21.7%). These findings are discussed with reference to the increased supply and marketing of BMS that is occurring in Cambodia.

Prak, Sophonneary; Iuell Dahl, Miriam; Oeurn, Sam; Conkle, Joel; Wise, Aaron; Laillou, Arnaud

2014-01-01

256

Testimony ceremonies in Asia: Integrating spirituality in testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines  

PubMed Central

This study explores the therapeutic implications of including culturally adapted spiritual ceremonies in the process of testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Data were collected through an action research process with Asian mental health and human rights organizations, during which the testimonial method was reconceptualized and modified to include four sessions. In the first two sessions, community workers assist survivors in the writing of their testimony, which is their narrative about the human rights violations they have suffered. In the third session, survivors participate in an honour ceremony in which they are presented with their testimony documents. In the fourth session, the community workers meet with the survivors for a reevaluation of their well-being. The honour ceremonies developed during the action research process came to employ different kinds of symbolic language at each site: human rights (India), religious/Catholic (Sri Lanka), religious/Buddhist (Cambodia), and religious/Moslem (Philippines). They all used embodied spirituality in various forms, incorporating singing, dancing, and religious purification rituals in a collective gathering. We suggest that these types of ceremonies may facilitate an individual’s capacity to contain and integrate traumatic memories, promote restorative self-awareness, and engage community support. Additional research is needed to determine the method’s applicability in other sociopolitical contexts governed by more Western-oriented medical traditions.

Agger, Inger; Igreja, Victor; Kiehle, Rachel; Polatin, Peter

2012-01-01

257

PALSAR 50 m Mosaic Data Based National Level Biomass Estimation in Cambodia for Implementation of REDD+ Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Tropical countries like Cambodia require information about forest biomass for successful implementation of climate change mitigation mechanism related to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). This study investigated the potential of Phased Array-type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar Fine Beam Dual (PALSAR FBD) 50 m mosaic data to estimate Above Ground Biomass (AGB) in Cambodia. AGB was estimated using a bottom-up approach based on field measured biomass and backscattering (?o) properties of PALSAR data. The relationship between the PALSAR ?o HV and HH/HV with field measured biomass was strong with R2?=?0.67 and 0.56, respectively. PALSAR estimated AGB show good results in deciduous forests because of less saturation as compared to dense evergreen forests. The validation results showed a high coefficient of determination R2?=?0.61 with RMSE ?=?21 Mg/ha using values up to 200 Mg/ha biomass. There were some uncertainties because of the uncertainty in the field based measurement and saturation of PALSAR data. AGB map of Cambodian forests could be useful for the implementation of forest management practices for REDD+ assessment and policies implementation at the national level.

Avtar, Ram; Suzuki, Rikie; Takeuchi, Wataru; Sawada, Haruo

2013-01-01

258

Breastfeeding trends in cambodia, and the increased use of breast-milk substitute-why is it a danger?  

PubMed

A cross-sectional analysis of the Cambodia Demographic Health Surveys from 2000, 2005 and 2010 was conducted to observe the national trends in infant and young child feeding practices. The results showed that rates of exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged 0-5.9 months have increased substantially since 2000, concurrent with an increase in the rates of early initiation of breastfeeding and a reduction in the giving of pre-lacteal feeds. However, the proportion of infants being fed with breast-milk substitutes (BMS) during 0-5.9 months doubled in 5 years (3.4% to 7.0%) from 2000 to 2005, but then did not increase from 2005, likely due to extensive public health campaigns on exclusive breastfeeding. BMS use increased among children aged 6-23.9 months from 2000 to 2010 (4.8% to 9.3%). 26.1% of women delivering in a private clinic provided their child with breast-milk substitute at 0-5.9 months, which is five times more than women delivering in the public sector (5.1%), and the greatest increase in bottle use happened among the urban poor (5.8% to 21.7%). These findings are discussed with reference to the increased supply and marketing of BMS that is occurring in Cambodia. PMID:25054552

Prak, Sophonneary; Dahl, Miriam Iuell; Oeurn, Sam; Conkle, Joel; Wise, Aaron; Laillou, Arnaud

2014-01-01

259

Arsenic concentrations in paddy soil and rice and health implications for major rice-growing regions of Cambodia.  

PubMed

Despite the global importance of As in rice, research has primarily focused on Bangladesh, India, China, and the United States with limited attention given to other countries. Owing to both indigenous As within the soil and the possible increases arising from the onset of irrigation with groundwater, an assessment of As in rice within Cambodia is needed, which offers a "base-case" comparison against sediments of similar origin that comprise rice paddy soils where As-contaminated water is used for irrigation (e.g., Bangladesh). Here, we evaluated the As content of rice from five provinces (Kandal, Prey Veng, Battambang, Banteay Meanchey, and Kampong Thom) in the rice-growing regions of Cambodia and coupled that data to soil-chemical factors based on extractions of paddy soil collected and processed under anoxic conditions. At total soil As concentrations ranging 0.8 to 18 ?g g(-1), total grain As concentrations averaged 0.2 ?g g(-1) and ranged from 0.1 to 0.37 with Banteay Meanchey rice having significantly higher values than Prey Veng rice. Overall, soil-extractable concentrations of As, Fe, P, and Si and total As were poor predictors of grain As concentrations. While biogeochemical factors leading to reduction of As(V)-bearing Fe(III) oxides are likely most important for predicting plant-available As, husk and straw As concentrations were the most significant predictors of grain-As levels among our measured parameters. PMID:24712677

Seyfferth, Angelia L; McCurdy, Sarah; Schaefer, Michael V; Fendorf, Scott

2014-05-01

260

Molecular epidemiology of Blastocystis in pigs and their in-contact humans in Southeast Queensland, Australia, and Cambodia.  

PubMed

Blastocystis, an intestinal protist commonly found in humans and animals worldwide, has been implicated by some as a causative agent in irritable bowel syndrome in humans. In pigs, infection with Blastocystis is commonly reported, with most pigs shown to harbour subtypes (ST) 1 or 5, suggesting that these animals are potentially natural hosts for Blastocystis. Although ST5 is considered rare in humans, it has been reported to be a potential zoonosis from pigs in rural China. To test these hypotheses, we conducted molecular analysis of faecal samples from pigs and in-contact humans from commercial intensive piggeries in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia, and a village in rural Cambodia. The prevalence of Blastocystis in SEQ and Cambodian pigs was 76.7% and 45.2%, respectively, with all positive pigs harbouring ST5. It appears likely that pigs are natural hosts of Blastocystis with a high prevalence of ST5 that is presumably the pig-adapted ST in these regions. Amongst the SEQ piggery staff, 83.3% were Blastocystis carriers in contrast to only 55.2% of Cambodian villagers. The predominant STs found in humans were STs 1, 2 (Cambodia only) and 3. Interestingly, ST5 which is usually rare in humans was present in the SEQ piggery staff but not in the Cambodian villagers. We conclude that in intensive piggeries, close contact between pigs and their handlers may increase the risks of zoonotic transmission of Blastocystis. PMID:24785292

Wang, Wenqi; Owen, Helen; Traub, Rebecca J; Cuttell, Leigh; Inpankaew, Tawin; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

2014-07-14

261

Ex vivo susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to antimalarial drugs in western, northern, and eastern Cambodia, 2011-2012: association with molecular markers.  

PubMed

In 2008, dihydroartemisinin (DHA)-piperaquine (PPQ) became the first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in western Cambodia. Recent reports of increased treatment failure rates after DHA-PPQ therapy in this region suggest that parasite resistance to DHA, PPQ, or both is now adversely affecting treatment. While artemisinin (ART) resistance is established in western Cambodia, there is no evidence of PPQ resistance. To monitor for resistance to PPQ and other antimalarials, we measured drug susceptibilities for parasites collected in 2011 and 2012 from Pursat, Preah Vihear, and Ratanakiri, in western, northern, and eastern Cambodia, respectively. Using a SYBR green I fluorescence assay, we calculated the ex vivo 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of 310 parasites to six antimalarials: chloroquine (CQ), mefloquine (MQ), quinine (QN), PPQ, artesunate (ATS), and DHA. Geometric mean IC50s (GMIC50s) for all drugs (except PPQ) were significantly higher in Pursat and Preah Vihear than in Ratanakiri (P ? 0.001). An increased copy number of P. falciparum mdr1 (pfmdr1), an MQ resistance marker, was more prevalent in Pursat and Preah Vihear than in Ratanakiri and was associated with higher GMIC50s for MQ, QN, ATS, and DHA. An increased copy number of a chromosome 5 region (X5r), a candidate PPQ resistance marker, was detected in Pursat but was not associated with reduced susceptibility to PPQ. The ex vivo IC50 and pfmdr1 copy number are important tools in the surveillance of multidrug-resistant (MDR) parasites in Cambodia. While MDR P. falciparum is prevalent in western and northern Cambodia, there is no evidence for PPQ resistance, suggesting that DHA-PPQ treatment failures result mainly from ART resistance. PMID:23939897

Lim, Pharath; Dek, Dalin; Try, Vorleak; Eastman, Richard T; Chy, Sophy; Sreng, Sokunthea; Suon, Seila; Mao, Sivanna; Sopha, Chantha; Sam, Baramey; Ashley, Elizabeth A; Miotto, Olivo; Dondorp, Arjen M; White, Nicholas J; Su, Xin-zhuan; Char, Meng Chuor; Anderson, Jennifer M; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Menard, Didier; Fairhurst, Rick M

2013-11-01

262

Ex Vivo Susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to Antimalarial Drugs in Western, Northern, and Eastern Cambodia, 2011-2012: Association with Molecular Markers  

PubMed Central

In 2008, dihydroartemisinin (DHA)-piperaquine (PPQ) became the first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in western Cambodia. Recent reports of increased treatment failure rates after DHA-PPQ therapy in this region suggest that parasite resistance to DHA, PPQ, or both is now adversely affecting treatment. While artemisinin (ART) resistance is established in western Cambodia, there is no evidence of PPQ resistance. To monitor for resistance to PPQ and other antimalarials, we measured drug susceptibilities for parasites collected in 2011 and 2012 from Pursat, Preah Vihear, and Ratanakiri, in western, northern, and eastern Cambodia, respectively. Using a SYBR green I fluorescence assay, we calculated the ex vivo 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of 310 parasites to six antimalarials: chloroquine (CQ), mefloquine (MQ), quinine (QN), PPQ, artesunate (ATS), and DHA. Geometric mean IC50s (GMIC50s) for all drugs (except PPQ) were significantly higher in Pursat and Preah Vihear than in Ratanakiri (P ? 0.001). An increased copy number of P. falciparum mdr1 (pfmdr1), an MQ resistance marker, was more prevalent in Pursat and Preah Vihear than in Ratanakiri and was associated with higher GMIC50s for MQ, QN, ATS, and DHA. An increased copy number of a chromosome 5 region (X5r), a candidate PPQ resistance marker, was detected in Pursat but was not associated with reduced susceptibility to PPQ. The ex vivo IC50 and pfmdr1 copy number are important tools in the surveillance of multidrug-resistant (MDR) parasites in Cambodia. While MDR P. falciparum is prevalent in western and northern Cambodia, there is no evidence for PPQ resistance, suggesting that DHA-PPQ treatment failures result mainly from ART resistance.

Lim, Pharath; Dek, Dalin; Try, Vorleak; Eastman, Richard T.; Chy, Sophy; Sreng, Sokunthea; Suon, Seila; Mao, Sivanna; Sopha, Chantha; Sam, Baramey; Ashley, Elizabeth A.; Miotto, Olivo; Dondorp, Arjen M.; White, Nicholas J.; Su, Xin-zhuan; Char, Meng Chuor; Anderson, Jennifer M.; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Menard, Didier

2013-01-01

263

Escherichia coli in household drinking water and diarrheal disease risk: evidence from Cambodia.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli counts in household drinking water may or may not reliably indicate the presence of diarrheogenic pathogens originating in feces. The extent to which a bacterial indicator like E. coli predicts risks from all classes of pathogens (viruses and parasites as well as bacteria), especially in tropical waters, is uncertain. To investigate the association between E. coli in household drinking water and diarrheal diseases in Cambodia, we conducted a 22 week cohort study in a rural village in Kandal Province. Episodes of diarrhea (all) and bloody diarrhea (dysentery), water quality, water sources, and other covariates were monitored biweekly in 180 households. Households used a variety of water treatment, storage, and handling practices.Results suggest a weak but positive association between E. coli counts in household drinking water and diarrhea and for diarrhea with blood (dysentery), after adjusting for clustering within households and within individuals over time. Compared to households with <1 E. coli/100 ml in drinking water, there was no observed increased risk for having 1-10 E. coli/100 ml (LPR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.81-1.2 for diarrheal disease; LPR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.36-1.6 for dysentery). Households with measured E. coli of 11-100/100 ml did report increased diarrhea (LPR = 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3 for diarrheal disease; LPR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.8 for dysentery), as did those with 101-1,000 E. coli/100 ml (LPR = 1.2, 95% CI 1.2-1.3 for diarrheal disease; LPR = 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.4 for dysentery) and those with >1,000 E. coli per 100 ml sample (LPR = 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.2 for diarrheal disease; LPR = 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.3 for dysentery). Unlike the results of some previous studies, diarrheal disease risks did not increase progressively in magnitude with increasing concentration of E. coli in drinking water. PMID:18776609

Brown, J M; Proum, S; Sobsey, M D

2008-01-01

264

Cost-Effectiveness of Primary Prophylaxis of AIDS Associated Cryptococcosis in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Cryptococcal infection is a frequent cause of mortality in Cambodian HIV-infected patients with CD4+ count ?100 cells/µl. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of three strategies for cryptococcosis prevention in HIV-infected patients. Methods A Markov decision tree was used to compare the following strategies at the time of HIV diagnosis: no intervention, one time systematic serum cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) screening and treatment of positive patients, and systematic primary prophylaxis with fluconazole. The trajectory of a hypothetical cohort of HIV-infected patients with CD4+ count ?100 cells/µl initiating care was simulated over a 1-year period (cotrimoxazole initiation at enrollment; antiretroviral therapy within 3 months). Natural history and cost data (US$ 2009) were from Cambodia. Efficacy data were from international literature. Results In a population in which 81% of patients had a CD4+ count ?50 cells/ µl and 19% a CD4+ count between 51–100 cells/µl, the proportion alive 1 year after enrolment was 61% (cost $ 472) with no intervention, 70% (cost $ 483) with screening, and 72% (cost $ 492) with prophylaxis. After one year of follow-up, the cost-effectiveness of screening vs. no intervention was US$ 180/life year gained (LYG). The cost-effectiveness of prophylaxis vs. screening was $ 511/LYG. The cost-effectiveness of prophylaxis vs. screening was estimated at $1538/LYG if the proportion of patients with CD4+ count ?50 cells/µl decreased by 75%. Conclusion In a high endemic area of cryptococcosis and HIV infection, serum CRAG screening and prophylaxis are two cost effective strategies to prevent AIDS associated cryptococcosis in patients with CD4+ count ?100 cells/µl, at a short-term horizon, screening being more cost-effective but less effective than prophylaxis. Systematic primary prophylaxis may be preferred in patients with CD4+ below 50 cells/µl while systematic serum CRAG screening for early targeted treatment may be preferred in patients with CD4+ between 51–100 cells/µl.

Micol, Romain; Tajahmady, Ayden; Lortholary, Olivier; Balkan, Suna; Quillet, Catherine; Dousset, Jean-Philippe; Chanroeun, Hak; Madec, Yoann; Fontanet, Arnaud; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan

2010-01-01

265

Patterns of Ecosystem Metabolism in the Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia with Links to Capture Fisheries  

PubMed Central

The Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia is a dynamic flood-pulsed ecosystem that annually increases its surface area from roughly 2,500 km2 to over 12,500 km2 driven by seasonal flooding from the Mekong River. This flooding is thought to structure many of the critical ecological processes, including aquatic primary and secondary productivity. The lake also has a large fishery that supports the livelihoods of nearly 2 million people. We used a state-space oxygen mass balance model and continuous dissolved oxygen measurements from four locations to provide the first estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) for the Tonle Sap. GPP averaged 4.1±2.3 g O2 m?3 d?1 with minimal differences among sites. There was a negative correlation between monthly GPP and lake level (r?=?0.45) and positive correlation with turbidity (r?=?0.65). ER averaged 24.9±20.0 g O2 m?3 d?1 but had greater than six-fold variation among sites and minimal seasonal change. Repeated hypoxia was observed at most sampling sites along with persistent net heterotrophy (GPP

Holtgrieve, Gordon W.; Arias, Mauricio E.; Irvine, Kim N.; Lamberts, Dirk; Ward, Eric J.; Kummu, Matti; Koponen, Jorma; Sarkkula, Juha; Richey, Jeffrey E.

2013-01-01

266

Epilepsy in Cambodia-Treatment Aspects and Policy Implications: A Population-Based Representative Survey  

PubMed Central

Introduction We tested two treatment strategies to determine: treatment (a) prognosis (seizure frequency, mortality, suicide, and complications), (b) safety and adherence of treatment, (c) self-reported satisfaction with treatment and self-reported productivity, and policy aspects (a) number of required tablets for universal treatment (NRT), (b) cost of management, (c) manpower-gap and requirements for scaling-up of epilepsy care. Methods We performed a random-cluster survey (N?=?16510) and identified 96 cases (?1 year of age) in 24 villages. They were screened by using a validated instrument and diagnosed by the neurologists. International guidelines were used for defining and classifying epilepsy. All were given phenobarbital or valproate (cost-free) in two manners patient’s door-steps (March 2009-March 2010, primary-treatment-period, PTP) and treatment through health-centers (March 2010-June 2011, treatment-continuation-period, TCP). The emphasis was to start on a minimum dosage and regime, without any polytherapy, according to the age of the recipients. No titration was done. Seizure-frequency was monthly and self-reported. Results The number of seizures reduced from 12.6 (pre-treatment) to 1.2 (end of PTP), following which there was an increase to 3.4 (end of TCP). Between start of PTP and end of TCP, >60.0% became and remained seizure-free. During TCP, ?26.0% went to health centers to collect their treatment. Complications reduced from 12.5% to 4.2% between start and end of PTP and increased to 17.2% between start and end of TCP. Adverse events reduced from 46.8% to 16.6% between start and end of PTP. Nearly 33 million phenobarbital 100 mg tablets are needed in Cambodia. Conclusions Epilepsy responded sufficiently well to the conventional treatment, even when taken at a minimal dosage and a simple daily regimen, without any polytherapy. This is yet another confirmation that it is possible to substantially reduce direct burden of epilepsy through means that are currently available to us.

Bhalla, Devender; Chea, Kimly; Hun, Chamroeun; Chan, Vichea; Huc, Pierre; Chan, Samleng; Sebbag, Robert; Gerard, Daniel; Dumas, Michel; Oum, Sophal; Druet-Cabanac, Michel; Preux, Pierre-Marie

2013-01-01

267

[Evaluation of a training program for nurses specializing in anesthesia and resuscitation in Cambodia].  

PubMed

Following the signing of a treaty drafted between the Cambodian Ministry of Health, Médecins Sans Frontières, and the universities of Paris Nord and Bordeaux-II, the first class of sixteen nurses completed the training in anesthesia and resuscitation, between September 1991 and June 1993. The training course took into account the special context in which the course was planned and organized. By bringing together the specific skills of non-government organizations and universities, the students obtained high quality professional skills which have become extremely rare in Cambodia, where almost all competent health-care professionals have disappeared. The results of the program were evaluated several months after the graduation. Using quantitative and qualitative methods, evaluators tried to assess if the nurses were able to apply what they had learned, if the course material was relevant, and how well the nurses adapted in terms of actual work, and professional recognition and development. Eight months after graduation, the nurse anesthetists' activities represented approximately 24% of the total activity of the departments in which they worked. Thirteen of the sixteen nurses received significant professional recognition for their responsibilities in the departments, and for their independence in administering anesthesia. The working conditions were satisfactory, and the nurses were able to correctly apply what they had learned and solve many problems. However, because the anesthesia and resuscitation departments were being set up at the time of their arrival, the nurses were not able to fully care for the patients during the pre- and post-operation periods. Objectives for improving the training courses were defined, following a detailed analysis of the results of the study. However, proper supervision of the newly trained nurses remains an essential element in maintaining their competencies and motivation. By 1997, fifty-four people (fourty-five nurses and nine doctors) should be trained in anesthesia and resuscitation. The continuation of the school depends on the possibility of the Cambodians to take charge of the program. For this purpose, two of the graduate nurses began training as teachers in November 1993. PMID:7780665

Marchand, C; Gagnayre, R; d'Ivernois, J F; Mancheron, P; Rathat, C

1995-01-01

268

Patterns of ecosystem metabolism in the Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia with links to capture fisheries.  

PubMed

The Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia is a dynamic flood-pulsed ecosystem that annually increases its surface area from roughly 2,500 km(2) to over 12,500 km(2) driven by seasonal flooding from the Mekong River. This flooding is thought to structure many of the critical ecological processes, including aquatic primary and secondary productivity. The lake also has a large fishery that supports the livelihoods of nearly 2 million people. We used a state-space oxygen mass balance model and continuous dissolved oxygen measurements from four locations to provide the first estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) for the Tonle Sap. GPP averaged 4.1±2.3 g O2 m(-3) d(-1) with minimal differences among sites. There was a negative correlation between monthly GPP and lake level (r?=?0.45) and positive correlation with turbidity (r?=?0.65). ER averaged 24.9±20.0 g O2 m(-3) d(-1) but had greater than six-fold variation among sites and minimal seasonal change. Repeated hypoxia was observed at most sampling sites along with persistent net heterotrophy (GPP

Holtgrieve, Gordon W; Arias, Mauricio E; Irvine, Kim N; Lamberts, Dirk; Ward, Eric J; Kummu, Matti; Koponen, Jorma; Sarkkula, Juha; Richey, Jeffrey E

2013-01-01

269

Little Evidence of Subclinical Avian Influenza Virus Infections among Rural Villagers in Cambodia.  

PubMed

In 2008, 800 adults living within rural Kampong Cham Province, Cambodia were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. After enrollment, participants were contacted weekly for 24 months to identify acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI). Follow-up sera were collected at 12 and 24 months. A transmission substudy was also conducted among the family contacts of cohort members reporting ILI who were influenza A positive. Samples were assessed using serological or molecular techniques looking for evidence of infection with human and avian influenza viruses. Over 24 months, 438 ILI investigations among 284 cohort members were conducted. One cohort member was hospitalized with a H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus infection and withdrew from the study. Ninety-seven ILI cases (22.1%) were identified as influenza A virus infections by real-time RT-PCR; none yielded evidence for AIV. During the 2 years of follow-up, 21 participants (3.0%) had detectable antibody titers (?1?10) against the studied AIVs: 1 against an avian-like A/Migratory duck/Hong Kong/MPS180/2003(H4N6), 3 against an avian-like A/Teal/Hong Kong/w312/97(H6N1), 9 (3 of which had detectible antibody titers at both 12- and 24-month follow-up) against an avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), 6 (1 detected at both 12- and 24-month follow-up) against an avian-like A/Duck/Memphis/546/74(H11N9), and 2 against an avian-like A/Duck/Alberta/60/76(H12N5). With the exception of the one hospitalized cohort member with H5N1 infection, no other symptomatic avian influenza infections were detected among the cohort. Serological evidence for subclinical infections was sparse with only one subject showing a 4-fold rise in microneutralization titer over time against AvH12N5. In summary, despite conducting this closely monitored cohort study in a region enzootic for H5N1 HPAI, we were unable to detect subclinical avian influenza infections, suggesting either that these infections are rare or that our assays are insensitive at detecting them. PMID:24819948

Gray, Gregory C; Krueger, Whitney S; Chum, Channimol; Putnam, Shannon D; Wierzba, Thomas F; Heil, Gary L; Anderson, Benjamin D; Yasuda, Chadwick Y; Williams, Maya; Kasper, Matthew R; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Blair, Patrick J

2014-01-01

270

Little Evidence of Subclinical Avian Influenza Virus Infections among Rural Villagers in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

In 2008, 800 adults living within rural Kampong Cham Province, Cambodia were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. After enrollment, participants were contacted weekly for 24 months to identify acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI). Follow-up sera were collected at 12 and 24 months. A transmission substudy was also conducted among the family contacts of cohort members reporting ILI who were influenza A positive. Samples were assessed using serological or molecular techniques looking for evidence of infection with human and avian influenza viruses. Over 24 months, 438 ILI investigations among 284 cohort members were conducted. One cohort member was hospitalized with a H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus infection and withdrew from the study. Ninety-seven ILI cases (22.1%) were identified as influenza A virus infections by real-time RT-PCR; none yielded evidence for AIV. During the 2 years of follow-up, 21 participants (3.0%) had detectable antibody titers (?1?10) against the studied AIVs: 1 against an avian-like A/Migratory duck/Hong Kong/MPS180/2003(H4N6), 3 against an avian-like A/Teal/Hong Kong/w312/97(H6N1), 9 (3 of which had detectible antibody titers at both 12- and 24-month follow-up) against an avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), 6 (1 detected at both 12- and 24-month follow-up) against an avian-like A/Duck/Memphis/546/74(H11N9), and 2 against an avian-like A/Duck/Alberta/60/76(H12N5). With the exception of the one hospitalized cohort member with H5N1 infection, no other symptomatic avian influenza infections were detected among the cohort. Serological evidence for subclinical infections was sparse with only one subject showing a 4-fold rise in microneutralization titer over time against AvH12N5. In summary, despite conducting this closely monitored cohort study in a region enzootic for H5N1 HPAI, we were unable to detect subclinical avian influenza infections, suggesting either that these infections are rare or that our assays are insensitive at detecting them.

Gray, Gregory C.; Krueger, Whitney S.; Chum, Channimol; Putnam, Shannon D.; Wierzba, Thomas F.; Heil, Gary L.; Anderson, Benjamin D.; Yasuda, Chadwick Y.; Williams, Maya; Kasper, Matthew R.; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Blair, Patrick J.

2014-01-01

271

Role of risk and protective factors in risky sexual behavior among high school students in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background In many developing countries, adolescents have become increasingly prone to engage in habitual risky sexual behavior such as early sexual initiation and unprotected sex. The objective of this study was to identify the operation of risk and protective factors in individual, family, peer, school, and community domains in predicting risky sexual behavior among male and female adolescents in Cambodia. Methods From October 2007 to January 2008, we collected data from 1,049 students aged 14 to 20 years. Risky sexual behavior was measured using a scale consisting of four items: sexual intercourse during the past three months, number of sex partners during the past three months, age at first experience of sexual intercourse, and use of condom in last sexual intercourse. The risk factors examined included substance use, depression, peer delinquency, family violence, and community violence. Studied protective factors included family support function, frequency of family dinner, and school attachment. Results Of the 1,049 students surveyed, 12.7% reported sexual intercourse during the past three months. Out of those sexually active students, 34.6% reported having two or more sex partners over the same period, and 52.6% did not use a condom during their last sexual intercourse. After controlling for other covariates, a higher likelihood of risky sexual behavior remained significantly associated among male participants with higher levels of substance use, higher levels of peer delinquency, and higher family income. In contrast, risky sexual behavior did not retain its associations with any of the measured protective factors among male participants. Among female participants, a higher likelihood of risky sexual behavior remained significantly associated with higher levels of substance use, higher levels of community-violence witnessing, and lower levels of family support. Conclusions The findings suggest the importance of considering gender-related differences in the effects of risk and protective factors when designing and implementing prevention programs. In interventions for both male and female adolescents, prevention of substance use and risky sexual behavior should be integrated. For boys, efforts should focus on the reduction of peer delinquency, while, for girls, improvement of family support should be emphasized.

2010-01-01

272

A decade of improvements in equity of access to reproductive and maternal health services in Cambodia, 2000-2010  

PubMed Central

Introduction Despite encouraging reductions in global maternal mortality rates, Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 on reducing maternal mortality and achieving universal access to reproductive health remains the most off-track of all MDGs. Furthermore a preoccupation with aggregate coverage statistics masks extensive disparities in health improvements between societal groups. Recent national health indicators for Cambodia highlight impressive improvements, for example, in maternal, infant and child mortality, whilst substantial government commitments have been made since 2000 to address health inequities. It is therefore timely to explore the extent of equity in access to key reproductive and maternal health services in Cambodia and how this has changed over time. Methods Analysis was conducted on three rounds of Demographic and Health Survey data from 2000, 2005 and 2010. Outcome variables comprised utilisation of six reproductive and maternal health services – antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, facility-based delivery, postnatal care, met need for family planning and abortion by skilled provider. Four equity measures were calculated – equity gaps, equity ratios, concentration curves and concentration indices. Household assets were used to create the social-stratification variable, using principal components analysis. Results Coverage levels of all six services improved over the decade. Coverage improvements were greatest amongst wealthier quintiles of the population, although poorer quintiles also increased use of services. Critically, inequity in service use of all services dramatically reduced over time, except for postnatal care where inequity increased slightly. However, in 2010 inequity in service use remained favouring wealthier quintiles, greatest in use of skilled birth attendance and facility-based delivery, though the magnitude of inequity was substantially reduced compared to 2000. Met need for family planning was almost perfectly equitable in 2010. Conclusions Cambodia has made impressive improvements in overall coverage of reproductive and maternal health services over the last decade, and also in the distribution of their use across wealth quintiles. A range of pro-poor health financing and supply-side policies as well as non-health factors may have contributed to these achievements. Further research will explore specific schemes qualitatively and quantitatively to assess their impact on equity and service use.

2013-01-01

273

Improvement in smallholder farmer knowledge of cattle production, health and biosecurity in Southern Cambodia between 2008 and 2010.  

PubMed

Farmer knowledge surveys were conducted in 2008 and 2010 in Cambodia to evaluate the impact of a research project studying interventions that can improve cattle production and health, including biosecurity and practices relating to risks of transmission of transboundary diseases. The project hypothesis is that by increasing the value of smallholder-owned large ruminants through nutritional interventions and improved marketing, knowledge-based interventions including risk management for infectious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) can be implemented into a more sustainable pathway for rural development. Between 2008 and 2010, significant improvements in farmer knowledge and attitudes were recorded in three villages in three provinces of southern Cambodia. This was achieved through participatory 'applied field research', 'on the job' training plus 'formal' training programmes. No cases of FMD were recorded during the study period in the 'high-intervention' (HI) villages despite the common occurrence of the disease in a nearby 'low-intervention' and many other villages in the three provinces. Whilst it is likely that protection of these villages from FMD infection was from increasing the herd immunity by vaccination, it could also have been partly because of a decrease in risk behaviours by farmers as a result of their increasing knowledge of biosecurity. The research indicates that smallholder farmers are motivated by nutritional interventions that improve the value of their cattle 'bank' and offer better marketing opportunities. This provides a more receptive environment for introduction of disease risk management for infectious and other production limiting diseases, best implemented for smallholder farmers in Cambodia by intensive training programmes. In lieu of a widespread public awareness programme to deliver mass education of smallholder farmers in disease prevention and biosecurity, livestock development projects in South-East Asia should be encouraged to include training in disease risk management as an important intervention if the current momentum for trade in large ruminant livestock and large ruminant meat is to continue to progress and contribute to addressing global food security concerns. PMID:21791034

Nampanya, S; Suon, S; Rast, L; Windsor, P A

2012-04-01

274

Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance  

PubMed Central

This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR) malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world's most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders.

Bhumiratana, Adisak; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Maneekan, Pannamas; Koyadun, Surachart

2013-01-01

275

Simulation of a rubber plantation productivity in central Cambodia using the individual-based dynamic vegetation model SEIB-DGVM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To provide a useful tool for building strategy of forest plantation management, we developed the Spatially Explicit Individual-Based (SEIB) Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) applicable to simulate productivity of tree plantations (SEIB-PP). Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers that are being replaced. Describing both primary and latex productivities in rubber plantations via SEIB-PP is, therefore, important to understanding the climatic impacts on productive processes. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia, and here, we show some examples of projections: the rubber plantation production under future climate change conditions.

Kumagai, T.; SATO, H.; Shinjiro, Ph. D., F.

2013-12-01

276

Assessing mixed trace elements in groundwater and their health risk of residents living in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia.  

PubMed

We investigated the potential contamination of trace elements in shallow Cambodian groundwater. Groundwater and hair samples were collected from three provinces in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia and analyzed by ICP-MS. Groundwater from Kandal (n = 46) and Kraite (n = 12) were enriched in As, Mn, Ba and Fe whereas none of tube wells in Kampong Cham (n = 18) had trace elements higher than Cambodian permissible limits. Risk computations indicated that 98.7% and 12.4% of residents in the study areas of Kandal (n = 297) and Kratie (n = 89) were at risk of non-carcinogenic effects from exposure to multiple elements, yet none were at risk in Kampong Cham (n = 184). Arsenic contributed 99.5%, 60.3% and 84.2% of the aggregate risk in Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham, respectively. Sustainable and appropriate treatment technologies must therefore be implemented in order for Cambodian groundwater to be used as potable water. PMID:23906558

Phan, Kongkea; Phan, Samrach; Huoy, Laingshun; Suy, Bunseang; Wong, Ming Hung; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Mohamed Yasin, Mohamed Salleh; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

2013-11-01

277

Migrant Beer Promoters' Experiences Accessing Reproductive Health Care in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam: Lessons for Planners and Providers  

PubMed Central

Migrant beer promoters in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam were surveyed to determine their experiences in accessing reproductive health care services in the cities of Phnom Penh, Vientiane, Bangkok, and Hanoi. A total of 7 health care institutions were chosen as popular with migrant beer promoters. Staff at these institutions provided information on the institution, and 390 beer promoters were surveyed about their experiences while accessing services. There were discrepancies between findings from the staff interviews and the experiences of the beer promoters. In general, the migrant women were satisfied with the cost, location, friendliness of the health care providers, and knowledge and skills of the providers. They were less positive about confidentiality and waiting times, though many still agreed that these were not an issue. Health care planners and providers should take note of the issues affecting access to reproductive health care services for migrant women when they design and implement services.

Webber, Gail C.; Spitzer, Denise L.; Somrongthong, Ratana; Dat, Truong Cong; Kounnavongsa, Somphone

2014-01-01

278

Molecular demonstration of Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma lewisi DNA in wild rodents from Cambodia, Lao PDR and Thailand.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the molecular evidence of Trypanosoma evansi in wild rodents from Cambodia, Lao PDR and Thailand. Between November 2007 and June 2009, 1664 rodents were trapped at eight sites representative of various ecological habitats. Of those animals, 94 were tested by direct microscopic blood examination, 633 using the Card Agglutination Test for Trypanosomes (CATT/T. evansi) and 145 by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with two sets of primers: TRYP1 (amplifying ITS1 of ribosomal DNA of all trypanosomes) and TBR (amplifying satellite genomic DNA of Trypanozoon parasites). Using TRYP1, based on the size of the PCR products, 15 samples from the three countries were positive for Trypanosoma lewisi (two were confirmed by sequencing), and three were positive for Trypanozoon (one was confirmed by sequencing and three by TBR primers); the specificity of the primers failed as rodent DNA was amplified in some cases. Using TBR, six samples were positive for Trypanozoon (one was confirmed by sequencing); as T. evansi is the only species of the Trypanozoon sub-genus possibly present in Asian rodents, these results confirmed its presence in rodents from Thailand (Rattus tanezumi) and Cambodia (R. tanezumi, Niviventer fulvescens & Maxomys surifer). Further investigations are necessary to establish the situation in Lao PDR. None of the 16 samples most strongly positive to the CATT proved to be positive for Trypanozoon by PCR. The merits of the CATT for such studies were not confirmed. Studying the urban and rural circulation of these parasites in rodents will enable an evaluation of human exposure and infection risk, as human infections by T. evansi were recently described in India and by T. lewisi in India and Thailand. As sequencing PCR products is expensive, the development of new molecular and serological tools for rodents would be very useful. PMID:22321449

Milocco, C; Kamyingkird, K; Desquesnes, M; Jittapalapong, S; Herbreteau, V; Chaval, Y; Douangboupha, B; Morand, S

2013-02-01

279

Arsenic contamination in the food chain and its risk assessment of populations residing in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the potential arsenic exposure of Cambodian residents from their daily food consumption. Environmental and ecological samples such as paddy soils, paddy rice (unhusked), staple rice (uncooked and cooked), fish and vegetables were collected from Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham provinces in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. After acid-digestion, digestates were chemically analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results revealed that the means of total arsenic concentration ([As]tot) in paddy soils and paddy rice from Kandal were significantly higher than those from Kampong Cham province (t-test, p<0.05). Moreover, a significant positive correlation between the [As]tot in paddy soils and paddy rice was found (r(14) = 0.826, p<0.01). Calculations of arsenic intake from food consumption indicated that the upper end of the range of the daily dose of inorganic arsenic for Kandal residents (0.089-8.386 ?g d(-1) kg(-1) body wt.) was greater than the lower limits on the benchmark dose for a 0.5% increased incidence of lung cancer (BMDL0.5 is equal to 3.0 ?g d(-1) kg(-1) body wt.). The present study suggests that the residents in Kandal are at risk of arsenic intake from their daily food consumption. However, the residents in Kratie and Kampong Cham provinces are less likely to be exposed to arsenic through their daily dietary intake. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report estimating the daily intake and daily dose of inorganic arsenic from food consumption in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. PMID:22818591

Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Heng, Savoeun; Phan, Samrach; Huoy, Laingshun; Wong, Ming Hung; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

2013-11-15

280

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral artesunate monotherapy in patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in western Cambodia.  

PubMed

Artemisinin-resistant malaria along the Thailand-Cambodian border is an important public health concern, yet mechanisms of drug action and their contributions to the development of resistance are poorly understood. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral artesunate monotherapy were explored in a dose-ranging trial in an area of emerging artesunate resistance in western Cambodia. We enrolled 143 evaluable subjects with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in an open label study of directly observed artesunate monotherapy at 3 dose levels (2, 4, and 6 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 7 days at Tasanh Health Center, Tasanh, Cambodia. Clinical outcomes were similar among the 3 groups. Wide variability in artesunate and dihydroartemisinin concentrations in plasma was observed. No significant dose-effect or concentration-effect relationships between pharmacokinetic (PK) and parasite clearance parameters were observed, though baseline parasitemia was modestly correlated with increased parasite clearance times. The overall parasite clearance times were prolonged compared with the clearance times in a previous study at this site in 2006 to 2007, but this did not persist when the evaluation was limited to subjects with a comparable artesunate dose (4 mg/kg/day) and baseline parasitemia from the two studies. Reduced plasma drug levels with higher presentation parasitemias, previously hypothesized to result from partitioning into infected red blood cells, was not observed in this population with uncomplicated malaria. Neither in vitro parasite susceptibility nor plasma drug concentrations appeared to have a direct relationship with the pharmacodynamic (PD) effects of oral artesunate on malaria parasites. While direct concentration-effect relationships were not found, it remains possible that a population PK modeling approach that allows modeling of greater dose separation might discern more-subtle relationships. PMID:22869581

Saunders, David; Khemawoot, Phisit; Vanachayangkul, Pattaraporn; Siripokasupkul, Raveewan; Bethell, Delia; Tyner, Stuart; Se, Youry; Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Chanthap, Lon; Lin, Jessica; Timmermans, Ans; Socheat, Doung; Ringwald, Pascal; Noedl, Harald; Smith, Bryan; Fukuda, Mark; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya

2012-11-01

281

Identifying Conservation Successes, Failures and Future Opportunities; Assessing Recovery Potential of Wild Ungulates and Tigers in Eastern Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Conservation investment, particularly for charismatic and wide-ranging large mammal species, needs to be evidence-based. Despite the prevalence of this theme within the literature, examples of robust data being generated to guide conservation policy and funding decisions are rare. We present the first published case-study of tiger conservation in Indochina, from a site where an evidence-based approach has been implemented for this iconic predator and its prey. Despite the persistence of extensive areas of habitat, Indochina's tiger and ungulate prey populations are widely supposed to have precipitously declined in recent decades. The Seima Protection Forest (SPF), and broader Eastern Plains Landscape, was identified in 2000 as representing Cambodia's best hope for tiger recovery; reflected in its designation as a Global Priority Tiger Conservation Landscape. Since 2005 distance sampling, camera-trapping and detection-dog surveys have been employed to assess the recovery potential of ungulate and tiger populations in SPF. Our results show that while conservation efforts have ensured that small but regionally significant populations of larger ungulates persist, and density trends in smaller ungulates are stable, overall ungulate populations remain well below theoretical carrying capacity. Extensive field surveys failed to yield any evidence of tiger, and we contend that there is no longer a resident population within the SPF. This local extirpation is believed to be primarily attributable to two decades of intensive hunting; but importantly, prey densities are also currently below the level necessary to support a viable tiger population. Based on these results and similar findings from neighbouring sites, Eastern Cambodia does not currently constitute a Tiger Source Site nor meet the criteria of a Global Priority Tiger Landscape. However, SPF retains global importance for many other elements of biodiversity. It retains high regional importance for ungulate populations and potentially in the future for Indochinese tigers, given adequate prey and protection.

O'Kelly, Hannah J.; Evans, Tom D.; Stokes, Emma J.; Clements, Tom J.; Dara, An; Gately, Mark; Menghor, Nut; Pollard, Edward H. B.; Soriyun, Men; Walston, Joe

2012-01-01

282

Unsafe abortion as a birth control method: maternal mortality risks among unmarried cambodian migrant women on the Thai-Cambodia border.  

PubMed

Reproductive health research and policies in Cambodia focus on safe motherhood programs particularly for married women, ignoring comprehensive fertility regulation programs for unmarried migrant women of reproductive age. Maternal mortality risks arising due to unsafe abortion methods practiced by unmarried Cambodian women, across the Thai-Cambodia border, can be considered as a public health emergency. Since Thailand has restrictive abortion laws, Cambodian migrant women who have irregular migration status in Thailand experimented with unsafe abortion methods that allowed them to terminate their pregnancies surreptitiously. Unmarried migrant women choose abortion as a preferred birth control method seeking repeat "unsafe" abortions instead of preventing conception. Drawing on the data collected through surveys, in-depth interviews, and document analysis in Chup Commune (pseudonym), Phnom Penh, and Bangkok, the authors describe the public health dimensions of maternal mortality risks faced by unmarried Cambodian migrant women due to various unsafe abortion methods employed as birth control methods. PMID:21551135

Hegde, Shalika; Hoban, Elizabeth; Nevill, Annemarie

2012-11-01

283

Development of a Capillary Electrophoresis-Based Heteroduplex Tracking Assay To Measure In-Host Genetic Diversity of Initial and Recurrent Plasmodium vivax Infections in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

A heteroduplex tracking assay used to genotype Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 was adapted to a capillary electrophoresis format, obviating the need for radiolabeled probes and allowing its use in settings where malaria is endemic. This new assay achieved good allelic discrimination and detected high multiplicities of infection in 63 P. vivax infections in Cambodia. More than half of the recurrent parasitemias sampled displayed identical or highly related genotypes compared to the initial genotype, suggesting that they represented relapses.

Givens, Matthew B.; Lon, Chanthap; Gosi, Panita; Char, Meng Chuor; Lanteri, Charlotte A.; Saunders, David L.; Juliano, Jonathan J.

2014-01-01

284

Can health systems be enhanced for optimal health services through disease-specific programs? Results of field studies in Viet Nam and Cambodia.  

PubMed

Developing better health systems is the key to delivering optimal health services, although more evidence of effective strategies to do so is needed. Field surveys were conducted in Viet Nam and Cambodia to identify best practices in addressing health system bottlenecks to scale up disease control programs. The two countries were compared over time using a framework for analysis developed by the authors. In Viet Nam, a health system was in place for decades at the central to municipal levels, although it was fragile until the 1990s, when the government started taking measures. In Cambodia, the previous health system had been destroyed during previous internal conflict. In the post-conflict period, the health system was rebuilt with support for programs followed by centralization of health services. In different settings, different measures were taken to deal with similar bottlenecks. In Cambodia, vertical programs were dominant, so the government sought to centralize drug management to deal with shortages of essential drugs, while Viet Nam sought to mobilize resources to ensure drug distribution at all levels. This study shows there is no single successful approach to health systems, and a systemic approach needs to be taken because elimination of one bottleneck may reveal another. Efforts to enhance disease-specific programs may not always contribute to overall enhancement of the health system, and the best possible approach may not be the same in different countries. Further study is needed to explore common issues and principles for effective strategies to enhance health systems in different contexts. PMID:22426096

Egami, Y; Fujita, N; Akashi, H; Matsumoto, Y; Ohara, H; Takeuchi, M

2012-02-01

285

Local drinking water filters reduce diarrheal disease in Cambodia: a randomized, controlled trial of the ceramic water purifier.  

PubMed

A randomized, controlled intervention trial of two household-scale drinking water filters was conducted in a rural village in Cambodia. After collecting four weeks of baseline data on household water quality, diarrheal disease, and other data related to water use and handling practices, households were randomly assigned to one of three groups of 60 households: those receiving a ceramic water purifier (CWP), those receiving a second filter employing an iron-rich ceramic (CWP-Fe), and a control group receiving no intervention. Households were followed for 18 weeks post-baseline with biweekly follow-up. Households using either filter reported significantly less diarrheal disease during the study compared with a control group of households without filters as indicated by longitudinal prevalence ratios CWP: 0.51 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.41-0.63); CWP-Fe: 0.58 (95% CI: 0.47-0.71), an effect that was observed in all age groups and both sexes after controlling for clustering within households and within individuals over time. PMID:18784232

Brown, Joe; Sobsey, Mark D; Loomis, Dana

2008-09-01

286

Condom negotiation across different relationship types by young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Cambodia's 100% Condom Use Programme is credited with an increase in consistent condom use in commercial sexual interactions and a decrease in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). There has been little improvement in condom use between FSWs and non-commercial partners, prompting calls for more innovative approaches to increasing condom use in these relationships. To understand why condoms are used or not used in sexual interactions involving FSWs, we examined condom negotiation across different types of relationships. We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with young (15 to 29 years) women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh. There was an important interplay between the meanings of condom use and the meanings of women's relationships. Commercial relationships were characterised as inherently risky and necessitated condom use. Despite a similar lack of sexual fidelity, sweetheart relationships were rarely construed as risky and typically did not involve condom use. Husbands and wives constructed their sexual interactions with each other differently, making agreement on condom use difficult. The lack of improvement in condom use in FSWs' non-commercial sexual relationships needs to be understood in relation to both sex work and the broader Cambodian sexual culture within which these relationships are embedded.

Maher, Lisa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Couture, Marie-Claude; Kien, Serey Phal; Stein, Ellen; Bates, Anna Juong; Sansothy, Neth; Page, Kimberly

2013-01-01

287

'Plue plun' male, 'kath klei' female: gender differences in suicidal behavior as expressed by young people in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Few studies from low- and middle-income countries use qualitative methodology to explore suicidal behavior among young people. In Cambodia, young people face the challenge of rapidly changing times and are vulnerable for suicidal behavior as revealed by research in transitional economies. This study seeks to gain a deeper understanding of the suicidal phenomena from a gender, psychosocial and cultural perspective. Six focus-group discussions were conducted among boys and girls, aged 15–19 years, in two secondary schools in a suburban area close to Phnom Penh, the capital city. The data was analyzed using thematic analysis approach. The participants highlighted the gender difference in suicidal behavior by describing the suicide-prone, acting-out male as ‘plue plun’, while suicide-prone females were described as caught in constricted, tunneled-thinking behavior, expressed as ‘kath klei’. Parental attitude and family environment were also pointed out as the chief causes of discontent and there was a strong wish on the part of young people to find space for modern values within the traditional family. The young people's awareness of their challenges in everyday life suggests that school-based programs to prevent suicidal behavior ought to be gender-sensitive and peer-focused.

Jegannathan, Bhoomikumar; Dahlblom, Kjerstin; Kullgren, Gunnar

2013-01-01

288

Cost-effectiveness of a tuberculosis active case finding program targeting household and neighborhood contacts in Cambodia.  

PubMed

In many high-risk populations, access to tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment is limited and pockets of high prevalence persist. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of an extensive active case finding program in areas of Cambodia where TB notifications and household poverty rates are highest and access to care is restricted. Thirty operational health districts with high TB incidence and household poverty were randomized into intervention and control groups. In intervention operational health districts, all household and symptomatic neighborhood contacts of registered TB patients of the past two years were encouraged to attend screening at mobile centers. In control districts, routine passive case finding activities continued. The program screened more than 35,000 household and neighborhood contacts and identified 810 bacteriologically confirmed cases. The cost-effectiveness analysis estimated that in these cases the reduction in mortality from 14% to 2% would result in a cost per daily adjusted life year averted of $330, suggesting that active case finding was highly cost-effective. PMID:24615134

Yadav, Rajendra P; Nishikiori, Nobuyuki; Satha, Peou; Eang, Mao T; Lubell, Yoel

2014-05-01

289

Probing the biogeochemistry of arsenic: response of two contrasting aquifer sediments from Cambodia to stimulation by arsenate and ferric iron.  

PubMed

Many millions of people worldwide are at risk of severe poisoning through exposure to groundwater contaminated with sediment-derived arsenic. An ever-increasing body of work is reinforcing the link between microbially-mediated redox cycling in aquifer sediments and the mobilisation of sorbed As(V) into groundwaters as the potentially more mobile and toxic As(III) anion. However, to date, few studies have examined the biogeochemical cycling of Fe and As species by microbes indigenous to Cambodian sediments. In this study two contrasting sediments, taken from a shallow As-rich reducing aquifer in the Kien Svay district of Cambodia, were used in a laboratory microcosm study. We present evidence to show that microbes present in these sediments are able to reduce Fe(III) and As(V) when provided with an electron donor, and that the two sediments respond differently to stimulation with Fe(III) and As(V). Shifts in the community composition of the two sediments after stimulation with As(V) suggest a potential role for members of the beta-Proteobacteria in As(V) reduction, a phylogenetic grouping known to contain microorganisms capable of As(III) oxidation, but not previously implicated in As(V) reduction. PCR-based analysis of the sediment microbial DNA using primers specific to the arrA gene, (a gene essential for microbial As(V) respiration), indicates the presence of microorganisms capable of dissimilatory As(V) reduction. PMID:17952777

Pederick, R L; Gault, A G; Charnock, J M; Polya, D A; Lloyd, J R

2007-10-01

290

Mid-Holocene mangrove succession and its response to sea-level change in the upper Mekong River delta, Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Middle Holocene vegetation and mangrove successions are clearly evident in the palynological records of two cores from the upper Mekong River delta in Cambodia. Spanning from ~ 9.4 to 6.3 cal ka BP, the cores mainly record a transgressive sequence from floodplain freshwater marsh to tidal flat, which was overlain by mangrove. Corresponding to the decelerated sea-level rise at ~ 8.3 cal ka BP, pioneer mangrove species Sonneratia alba and Sonneratia caseolaris appeared in the sediments, and then was replaced by regressive mangrove succession containing upward-increasing abundances of Rhizophora apiculata and Bruguiera spp. High salinity- and flooding-tolerant community S. alba was developed at the western core site PSG at ~ 8.2 cal ka BP, and the eastern core site PK at ~ 7.5 cal ka BP. The time difference of S. alba appearance between the two sites might be resulted from the complexity of sedimentary environment, where a higher sediment supply was provided to the western floodplain than to the eastern floodplain. After 7.5 cal ka BP, aggradational stacking of intertidal sediments, of which the thickness is larger than the present maximum tidal range, may have resulted from continuous sea-level rise during 7.5-7.0 cal ka BP.

Li, Zhen; Saito, Yoshiki; Mao, Limi; Tamura, Toru; Li, Zhen; Song, Bing; Zhang, Yulan; Lu, Anqing; Sieng, Sotham; Li, Jie

2012-09-01

291

Bacterial Communities in Pigmented Biofilms Formed on the Sandstone Bas-Relief Walls of the Bayon Temple, Angkor Thom, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

The Bayon temple in Angkor Thom, Cambodia has shown serious deterioration and is subject to the formation of various pigmented biofilms. Because biofilms are damaging the bas-reliefs, low reliefs engraved on the surface of sandstone, information about the microbial community within them is indispensable to control biofilm colonization. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of biofilm samples from the pigmented sandstone surfaces showed that the bacterial community members in the biofilms differed clearly from those in the air and had low sequence similarity to database sequences. Non-destructive sampling of biofilm revealed novel bacterial groups of predominantly Rubrobacter in salmon pink biofilm, Cyanobacteria in chrome green biofilm, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi in signal violet biofilm, Chloroflexi in black gray biofilm, and Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria, and Rubrobacter in blue green biofilm. Serial peeling-off of a thick biofilm by layers with adhesive sheets revealed a stratified structure: the blue–green biofilm, around which there was serious deterioration, was very rich in Cyanobacteria near the surface and Chloroflexi in deep layer below. Nitrate ion concentrations were high in the blue–green biofilm. The characteristic distribution of bacteria at different biofilm depths provides valuable information on not only the biofilm formation process but also the sandstone weathering process in the tropics.

Kusumi, Asako; Li, Xianshu; Osuga, Yu; Kawashima, Arata; Gu, Ji-Dong; Nasu, Masao; Katayama, Yoko

2013-01-01

292

Microbial community analysis of fresh and old microbial biofilms on Bayon temple sandstone of Angkor Thom, Cambodia.  

PubMed

The temples of Angkor monuments including Angkor Thom and Bayon in Cambodia and surrounding countries were exclusively constructed using sandstone. They are severely threatened by biodeterioration caused by active growth of different microorganisms on the sandstone surfaces, but knowledge on the microbial community and composition of the biofilms on the sandstone is not available from this region. This study investigated the microbial community diversity by examining the fresh and old biofilms of the biodeteriorated bas-relief wall surfaces of the Bayon Temple by analysis of 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequences. The results showed that the retrieved sequences were clustered in 11 bacterial, 11 eukaryotic and two archaeal divisions with disparate communities (Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria; Alveolata, Fungi, Metazoa, Viridiplantae; Crenarchaeote, and Euyarchaeota). A comparison of the microbial communities between the fresh and old biofilms revealed that the bacterial community of old biofilm was very similar to the newly formed fresh biofilm in terms of bacterial composition, but the eukaryotic communities were distinctly different between these two. This information has important implications for understanding the formation process and development of the microbial diversity on the sandstone surfaces, and furthermore to the relationship between the extent of biodeterioration and succession of microbial communities on sandstone in tropic region. PMID:20593173

Lan, Wensheng; Li, Hui; Wang, Wei-Dong; Katayama, Yoko; Gu, Ji-Dong

2010-07-01

293

Linking Organic Matter Deposition And Iron Mineral Transformations to Groundwater Arsenic Levels in the Mekong Delta, Cambodia  

SciTech Connect

Enriched As in drinking water wells in south and Southeast Asia has increased the risk of cancer for nearly 100 million people. This enrichment is generally attributed to the reductive dissolution of Fe oxides; however, the complex expression of As enrichment in these areas is not yet well understood. Here, the coupled sedimentological and geochemical factors that contribute to the extent and spatial distribution of groundwater As concentrations in the Mekong River delta, Cambodia in an avulsed scroll bar sequence are examined. X-Ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to determine Fe and As speciation in redox preserved sediment collected from drilled cores. Dissolved As, Fe and S solution concentrations in existing and newly drilled wells (cores) differed considerably depending on their source sedimentology. The rapid burial of organic matter in the scroll bar sequence facilitated the development of extensive Fe-reducing conditions, and As release into the aquifer. In older features organic C levels are high enough to sustain extensive Fe reduction and provide ample SO{sub 4} which is reduced to sulfide. This S reduction impacts As levels; As is sequestered in sulfide minerals outside of the scrollbar sequence, decreasing pore water concentrations. In contrast, As is depleted in sediments from the scroll sequence, and associated with elevated pore water aqueous concentrations. The concentration and form of organic C in the scrollbar sequence is related to depositional environment, and can facilitate Fe and S mineral transformations, distinct sedimentary environments explain a portion of the inherent heterogeneity of aquifer As concentrations.

Quicksall, A.N.; Bostick, B.C.; Sampson, M.L.

2009-05-21

294

Infections with gastrointestinal nematodes, Fasciola and Paramphistomum in cattle in Cambodia and their association with morbidity parameters.  

PubMed

Prevalence and seasonal variations of helminth infections and their association with morbidity parameters were studied in traditionally reared Cambodian cattle. Four villages in two provinces of West Cambodia were visited on monthly intervals over a period of 11 months, during which 2391 animals were faecal and blood sampled for parasitological and haematological examinations. The body condition score (BCS), faecal consistency (diarrhoea score, DS), colour of the ocular conjunctivae (FAMACHA(©)) and packed cell volume were determined for each individual animal. The overall proportion of samples that was positive for gastrointestinal nematodes was 52%, 44% and 37% in calves (from 1 to 6 months), young animals (6 to 24 months) and adults (over 24 months), respectively, while geometric mean faecal egg counts (FECs) for each of these age categories were 125, 66 and 15 eggs per gram, respectively. Six genera of strongyles were found in the faecal cultures, i.e. in descending order of occurrence, Cooperia, Oesophagostomum, Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Mecistocirrus and Bunostomum. The prevalences of Fasciola and Paramphistomum, estimated by coprological examination, varied between 5-20% and 45-95%, respectively. Logistic mixed models were used to investigate associations of morbidity markers with the presence of parasite infection. A low BCS was associated with gastrointestinal nematode and liver fluke infections, and soft faecal consistency with Paramphistomum infections. However, other factors such as nutritional deficiencies and intercurrent diseases are likely to enhance the effects of parasites and should therefore be considered when using these morbidity parameters as indicators of parasitism. PMID:21071148

Dorny, Pierre; Stoliaroff, Valérie; Charlier, Johannes; Meas, Sothy; Sorn, San; Chea, Bunthon; Holl, Davun; Van Aken, Dirk; Vercruysse, Jozef

2011-02-10

295

Technology, Culture and the Manufacturing Engineer: How Studying SME's in Cambodia Can Teach Manufacturing Students About Global Enterprise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In his book The World is Flat, Thomas Friedman describes what he calls "the quiet crisis" as the "erosion of Americas science and engineering base, which has always been the source of Americas innovation and our standard of living." The crisis is the increasing penetration of global competition on the economic output of the United States, now an issue to which engineering education is paying serious attention. However, it is not a crisis of just technical issues. What is needed with respect to global learning and experience is more than just technical competence and expertise. Bill Wulf said "engineering is now practiced in a global, holistic business context, and engineers must design under constraints that reflect that context. In the future, understanding other cultures, speaking other languages, and communicating with people from marketing and finance will be just as fundamental to the practice of engineering as physics and calculus." For faculty and students and BYU, a recent project of studying manufacturing in Cambodia also became a study of Cambodian history, government, and culture. As a result it became, for both students and faculty, a learning experience in the broader, more holistic context of manufacturing, engineering, technology, and global issues.

Hawks, Val D.; Miles, Michael

2011-11-21

296

Microbial Community Analysis of Fresh and Old Microbial Biofilms on Bayon Temple Sandstone of Angkor Thom, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

The temples of Angkor monuments including Angkor Thom and Bayon in Cambodia and surrounding countries were exclusively constructed using sandstone. They are severely threatened by biodeterioration caused by active growth of different microorganisms on the sandstone surfaces, but knowledge on the microbial community and composition of the biofilms on the sandstone is not available from this region. This study investigated the microbial community diversity by examining the fresh and old biofilms of the biodeteriorated bas-relief wall surfaces of the Bayon Temple by analysis of 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequences. The results showed that the retrieved sequences were clustered in 11 bacterial, 11 eukaryotic and two archaeal divisions with disparate communities (Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria; Alveolata, Fungi, Metazoa, Viridiplantae; Crenarchaeote, and Euyarchaeota). A comparison of the microbial communities between the fresh and old biofilms revealed that the bacterial community of old biofilm was very similar to the newly formed fresh biofilm in terms of bacterial composition, but the eukaryotic communities were distinctly different between these two. This information has important implications for understanding the formation process and development of the microbial diversity on the sandstone surfaces, and furthermore to the relationship between the extent of biodeterioration and succession of microbial communities on sandstone in tropic region. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00248-010-9707-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Lan, Wensheng; Li, Hui; Wang, Wei-Dong; Katayama, Yoko

2010-01-01

297

Cost-Effectiveness of a Tuberculosis Active Case Finding Program Targeting Household and Neighborhood Contacts in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

In many high-risk populations, access to tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment is limited and pockets of high prevalence persist. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of an extensive active case finding program in areas of Cambodia where TB notifications and household poverty rates are highest and access to care is restricted. Thirty operational health districts with high TB incidence and household poverty were randomized into intervention and control groups. In intervention operational health districts, all household and symptomatic neighborhood contacts of registered TB patients of the past two years were encouraged to attend screening at mobile centers. In control districts, routine passive case finding activities continued. The program screened more than 35,000 household and neighborhood contacts and identified 810 bacteriologically confirmed cases. The cost-effectiveness analysis estimated that in these cases the reduction in mortality from 14% to 2% would result in a cost per daily adjusted life year averted of $330, suggesting that active case finding was highly cost-effective.

Yadav, Rajendra P.; Nishikiori, Nobuyuki; Satha, Peou; Eang, Mao T.; Lubell, Yoel

2014-01-01

298

Hydrogen Reaction Experiment Reaps a Surprise  

NSF Publications Database

... and a neutron bonded together. One of the products resulting from the collision, HD, traveled in an ... In this experiment, however, the resulting product moved forward, in the same direction the single ...

299

Reaping the Systemic Benefits of Lesson Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most readers of the Kappan will know that lesson study is a Japanese approach to teacher professional development that has recently become popular in the U.S. Indeed, lesson study activity has been spreading rapidly for several years and continues to proliferate today. However, to date, most of the discussion and research about U.S.-based lesson…

Chokshi, Sonal; Fernandez, Clea

2005-01-01

300

Pressure instrument calibration reaps SPC benefits  

SciTech Connect

Calibration laboratories are faced with the need to become accredited or registered to one or more quality standards. One requirement common to all of these standards is the need to have in place a measurement assurance program. What is a measurement assurance program? Brian Belanger, in Measurement Assurance Programs: Part 1, describes it as a {open_quotes}quality assurance program for a measurement process that quantifies the total uncertainty of the measurements (both random and systematic components of error) with respect to national or designated standards and demonstrates that the total uncertainty is sufficiently small to meet the user`s requirements.{close_quotes} Rolf Schumacher is more specific in Measurement Assurance in Your Own Laboratory. He states, {open_quotes}Measurement assurance is the application of broad quality control principles to measurements of calibrations.{close_quotes} Here, the focus is on one important part of any measurement assurance program: implementation of statistical process control (SPC). Paraphrasing Juran`s Quality Control Handbook, a process is in statistical control if the only observed variations are those that can be attributed to random causes. Conversely, a process that exhibits variations due to assignable causes is not in a state of statistical control. Finally, Carrol Croarkin states, {open_quotes}In the measurement assurance context the measurement algorithm including instrumentation, reference standards and operator interactions is the process that is to be controlled, and its direct product is the measurement per se. The measurements are assumed to be valid if the measurement algorithm is operating in a state of control.{close_quotes} Implicit in this statement is the important fact that an out-of-control process cannot produce valid measurements. 7 figs.

Kegel, T.M. [Colorado Engineering Experiment Station, Nunn, CO (United States)

1995-12-01

301

Focus: who reaps the benefits of biodiversity?  

PubMed Central

The search for wild plant and animal products of potential value to medicine, agriculture, and other uses has been going on for hundreds, possibly thousands, of years. Many commonly prescribed medicines in the United States include ingredients derived from natural products, and roughly 80% of the world's people rely on natural products for their primary medical needs. Until the past decade, all of these natural products were collected without compensating the source countries. But the rules of collecting changed in 1992 with the establishment of the Convention on Biological Diversity, which offers financial compensation for natural products and seeks to conserve biological diversity, use natural products sustainably, and fairly share products made from gene stocks. Questions remain, however, as to how to share the benefits of biodiversity equitably, as well as whether the lack of both U.S. support for the agreement and enforceability render the convention impotent.

Karasov, C

2001-01-01

302

REAP Economic Demographic Model: Technical Description.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the structure and data base of a computerized model for projecting localized economic, demographic, and fiscal impacts of new energy developments. The model provides baseline and single or multiple-project impact projections for a 15-...

T. Hertsgaard, S. Murdock, N. Toman, M. Henry, R. Ludtke

1978-01-01

303

The geomorphological characteristics of the Mekong River in northern Cambodia: A mixed bedrock-alluvial multi-channel network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The controls on the development of channel morphology of bedrock-constrained rivers are poorly known. The relative importance of lithological and structural control on channel alignment and character in comparison with the role of hydraulic erosion of the substratum is unclear. In addition, bedrock rivers often have a variable sediment fill and can be described as mixed bedrock-alluvial systems. The Mekong River in northern Cambodia is an anastomosed mixed bedrock-alluvial channel, but little and poorly researched. In this paper information has been gathered from diverse literature sources; digital data sets showing topography, hydrology, geology and land cover; past aerial photographs; and maps. Such data, together with field survey, provide a clear picture of the Mekong River in this region. The channels may be classified into three types: primary, secondary, cross channels. The varying characteristics of these three help towards understanding the evolution of the modern Mekong. Similarly the two-fold classification of the islands reveals the relationship between island inundation characteristics and the annual monsoon flood cycle. The associated riparian vegetation ecotones include a rare and unusual seasonally-inundated forest. Spatial variations in lithology and structure, when combined with maps of river networks, reveals that the channel alignments locally reflect the geological factors that cause the regional topographical gradient. Fault-line constraints on the local slopes of the channel may induce backwater effects and consequent sedimentation patterns (alluvial overprints) or alternatively, steepening of the channels with concomitant reduction in sedimentation. These structural constraints, taken together, lead to the identification of a mixed bedrock-alluvial five-fold geomorphological zonation within the study area. The general absence of paleochannels, and terraces close to the modern river, indicates that the Mekong is laterally stable with a dominating channel that downcuts. Consequently, a flood surface of limited lateral extent constrains entire floods.

Meshkova, Liubov V.; Carling, Paul A.

2012-04-01

304

Molecular epidemiology of Orientia tsutsugamushi in Cambodia and Central Vietnam reveals a broad region-wide genetic diversity.  

PubMed

Scrub typhus is an acute infectious disease caused by an obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi following the bite of infected trombiculid mites of the genus Leptotrombidium. This zoonotic disease is a major cause of febrile illness in the Asia-Pacific region, with a large spectrum of clinical manifestations from unapparent or mild disease to fatal disease. O. tsutsugamushi is characterized by a very high genomic plasticity and a large number of antigenic variants amongst strains. The 56-kDa type specific antigen (TSA) gene, encoding the major antigenic protein, was used as reference to investigate the genetic relationships between the strains and to genotype O. tsutsugamushi isolates. The open reading frame of the 56-kDa TSA gene of 41 sequences (28 Cambodian and 13 Vietnamese strains) from patient samples were sequenced and used for genotyping. The 28 Cambodian isolates clustered into 5 major groups, including Karp (43.5%), JG-v (25%), Kato/TA716 (21.5%), TA763 (3.5%) and Gilliam (3.5%). Karp (77%), TA763 (15.5%) and JG-v (7.5%) strains were identified amongst the 13 Vietnamese isolates. This is the first countrywide genotyping description in Cambodia and in Central Vietnam. These results demonstrate the considerable diversity of genotypes in co-circulation in both countries. The genotyping result might raise awareness amongst Cambodian and Vietnamese clinicians of the high genetic diversity of circulating O. tsutsugamushi strains and provides unique and beneficial data for serological and molecular diagnosis of scrub typhus infections as well as raw materials for future studies and vaccine development. PMID:21241829

Duong, Veasna; Mai, Trinh Thi Xuan; Blasdell, Kim; Lo, Le Viet; Morvan, Claire; Lay, Sreyrath; Anukool, Wichittra; Wongprompitak, Patimaporn; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Laurent, Denis; Richner, Beat; Ra, Chheang; Chien, Bui Trong; Frutos, Roger; Buchy, Philippe

2013-04-01

305

Inter- and intra-annual variations of transpiration at a rubber stand in lowland of central Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Southeast Asia, rubber plantation is rapidly expanding, and thus understanding the level of water consumption and tree physiology is a matter of importance to know the impacts on the local hydrology. Intra- and inter-annual variations in transpiration rate (Et) at a rubber stand, growing in lowland of central Cambodia, were examined during two years based on sap flow measurements. As for seasonality, Et was generally large in the rainy season and small in the dry season, showing sharp short-time drop in synchronization with the shedding in late January. Daily stand Et was ~ 2.0 mm day-1 in 2010 and ~ 2.4 mm day-1 in 2011 at the maximum. An analysis of non-linear multiple regression for the canopy conductance (gc) in the two years showed that the stomatal response of rubber trees was well explained by the changes in solar radiation, vapour pressure deficit, soil moisture availability, leaf area, and tree diameter. Sensitivity of gc to the atmospheric drought indicates isohydric behavior of rubber trees, while the same analysis for each year showed possibility of change in leaf characteristics due to tree maturity and/or initiation of latex tapping. The best fit model also predicted relatively small sensitivity of gc to the soil moisture deficit and rapid decrease in gc under extreme drought conditions. Annual stand Et estimated with the gc obtained in the present analysis was 469 mm yr-1 in 2010, while it increased up to 658 mm yr-1 in 2011. To find out the most important environmental variables, we examined the effect of each variable by keeping the others unchanged. This hypothesis analysis showed that in the young rubber stand which were growing very rapidly, inter-annual change of stand Et was determined mainly by the tree growth rate, not by the change of surrounding environments in the air and the soil.

Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Tateishi, Makiko; Tiva, Lim Khan; Mudd, Ryan; Giambelluca, Thomas; Song, Yin

2013-04-01

306

Potential Use of School Absenteeism Record for Disease Surveillance in Developing Countries, Case Study in Rural Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Disease surveillance allows prospective monitoring of patterns in disease incidence in the general community, specific institutions (e.g. hospitals, elderly care homes), and other important population subgroups. Surveillance activities are now routinely conducted in many developed countries and in certain easy-to-reach areas of the developing ones. However due to limited health resources, population in rural area that consisted of the most the vulnerable groups are not under surveillance. Cheaper alternative ways for disease surveillance were needed in resource-limited settings. Methods and Findings In this study, a syndromic surveillance system using disease specific absenteeism rates was established in 47 pre-schools with 1,417 students 3–6 y of age in a rural area of Kampot province, Cambodia. School absenteeism data were collected via short message service. Data collected between 1st January and 31st December 2012 was used for system evaluation for future potential use in larger scale. The system appeared to be feasible and acceptable in the rural study setting. Moderate correlation was found between rates of school absenteeism due to illness and the reference data on rates of attendance at health centers in persons <16 y (maximum cross-correlation coefficient?=?0.231 at lag?=??1 week). Conclusions School absenteeism data is pre-existing, easily accessible and requires minimum time and resources after initial development, and our results suggest that this system may be able to provide complementary data for disease surveillance, especially in resource limited settings where there is very little information on illnesses in the community and traditional surveillance systems are difficult to implement. An important next step is to validate the syndromic data with other forms of surveillance including laboratory data.

Cheng, Calvin K. Y.; Channarith, Hing; Cowling, Benjamin J.

2013-01-01

307

Vibrio parahaemolyticus enteritis outbreak following a wedding banquet in a rural village - Kampong Speu, Cambodia, April 2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction Foodborne outbreaks are common in Cambodia, but only a few investigations documenting the etiology and source have been conducted. In April, we learnt of 49 acute diarrhoea cases in a village following a wedding banquet. We undertook an investigation to identify the pathogen, source and mode of transmission. Methods We interviewed banquet hosts and food handlers to obtain the menu and guest list. Guests were asked about signs and symptoms and onset of illness, time of meal and food or drinks consumed. Rectal swabs were taken from 13 cases for culture. A case-control study was undertaken; cases were guests who had acute diarrhoea within three days after the wedding and controls were guests who remained well during the same time period. Results There were 256 guests. Of 69 interviewees, 52 got sick (attack rate 75%). Aside from diarrhoea, cases had abdominal pain (94%), vomiting (48%), nausea (42%) and fever (25%). Incubation periods ranged from seven to 51 hours (median 16.5). Rectal swabs from three cases grew Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Among the food and drinks served, vegetable salad with raw octopus was the only one associated with illness (odds ratio: 6.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.3–36.1, P = 0.01). Discussion Vegetable salad with raw octopus was the suspected vehicle for transmission of this Vibrio parahaemolyticus enteritis outbreak. Messages regarding the risks from eating raw seafood were disseminated, and food handlers were advised to cook seafood to high temperatures. Efforts to improve foodborne disease surveillance and food safety are being undertaken.

Vandy, Som; Leakhann, Som; Phalmony, Has; Denny, Justin

2012-01-01

308

Evaluation of community-based systems for the surveillance of day three-positive Plasmodium falciparum cases in Western Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites is used as an operational indicator of potential artemisinin resistance. Effective community-based systems to detect P. falciparum cases remaining positive 72 hours after initiating treatment would be valuable for guiding case follow-up in areas of known resistance risk and for detecting areas of emerging resistance. Methods Systems incorporating existing networks of village malaria workers (VMWs) to monitor day three-positive P. falciparum cases were piloted in three provinces in western Cambodia. Quantitative and qualitative data were used to evaluate the wider feasibility and sustainability of community-based surveillance of day three-positive P. falciparum cases. Results Of 294 day-3 blood slides obtained across all sites (from 297 day-0 positives), 63 were positive for P. falciparum, an overall day-3 positivity rate of 21%. There were significant variations in the systems implemented by different partners. Full engagement of VMWs and health centre staff is critical. VMWs are responsible for a range of individual tasks including preparing blood slides on day-0, completing forms, administering directly observed therapy (DOT) on days 0–2, obtaining follow-up slides on day-3 and transporting slides and paperwork to their supervising health centre. When suitably motivated, unsalaried VMWs are willing and able to produce good quality blood smears and achieve very high rates of DOT and day-3 follow-up. Conclusions Community-based surveillance of day-3 P. falciparum cases is feasible, but highly intensive, and as such needs strong and continuous support, particularly supervision and training. The purpose and role of community-based day-3 surveillance should be assessed in the light of resource requirements; scaling-up would need to be systematic and targeted, based on clearly defined epidemiological criteria. To be truly comprehensive, the system would need to be extended beyond VMWs to other public and private health providers.

2014-01-01

309

How well do antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees represent the general population? A comparison of HIV prevalence from ANC sentinel surveillance sites with a population-based survey of women aged 15-49 in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether HIV-1 prevalence among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees in Cambodia provided a reasonable estimate of HIV-1 prevalence among all women 15-49 years. Methods Antenatal clinic attendees in five HIV sentinel surveillance sites (five provinces) were selected by consecutive sampling (n = 1695). The population survey of females by household was carried

Vonthanak Saphonn; Leng Bun Hor; Sun Penh Ly; Samrith Chhuon; Tobi Saidelb; Roger Detelsc

310

Plasmodium vivax isolates from Cambodia and Thailand show high genetic complexity and distinct patterns of P. vivax multidrug resistance gene 1 (pvmdr1) polymorphisms.  

PubMed

Plasmodium vivax accounts for an increasing fraction of malaria infections in Thailand and Cambodia. We compared P. vivax genetic complexity and antimalarial resistance patterns in the two countries. Use of a heteroduplex tracking assay targeting the merozoite surface protein 1 gene revealed that vivax infections in both countries are frequently polyclonal (84%), with parasites that are highly diverse (HE = 0.86) but closely related (GST = 0.18). Following a history of different drug policies in Thailand and Cambodia, distinct patterns of antimalarial resistance have emerged: most Cambodian isolates harbor the P. vivax multidrug resistance gene 1 (pvmdr1) 976F mutation associated with chloroquine resistance (89% versus 8%, P < 0.001), whereas Thai isolates more often display increased pvmdr1 copy number (39% versus 4%, P < 0.001). Finally, genotyping of paired isolates from individuals suspected of suffering relapse supports a complex scheme of relapse whereby recurrence of multiple identical variants is sometimes accompanied by the appearance of novel variants. PMID:23509126

Lin, Jessica T; Patel, Jaymin C; Kharabora, Oksana; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Muth, Sinuon; Ubalee, Ratawan; Schuster, Anthony L; Rogers, William O; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda; Juliano, Jonathan J

2013-06-01

311

Plasmodium vivax Isolates from Cambodia and Thailand Show High Genetic Complexity and Distinct Patterns of P. vivax Multidrug Resistance Gene 1 (pvmdr1) Polymorphisms  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium vivax accounts for an increasing fraction of malaria infections in Thailand and Cambodia. We compared P. vivax genetic complexity and antimalarial resistance patterns in the two countries. Use of a heteroduplex tracking assay targeting the merozoite surface protein 1 gene revealed that vivax infections in both countries are frequently polyclonal (84%), with parasites that are highly diverse (HE = 0.86) but closely related (GST = 0.18). Following a history of different drug policies in Thailand and Cambodia, distinct patterns of antimalarial resistance have emerged: most Cambodian isolates harbor the P. vivax multidrug resistance gene 1 (pvmdr1) 976F mutation associated with chloroquine resistance (89% versus 8%, P < 0.001), whereas Thai isolates more often display increased pvmdr1 copy number (39% versus 4%, P < 0.001). Finally, genotyping of paired isolates from individuals suspected of suffering relapse supports a complex scheme of relapse whereby recurrence of multiple identical variants is sometimes accompanied by the appearance of novel variants.

Lin, Jessica T.; Patel, Jaymin C.; Kharabora, Oksana; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Muth, Sinuon; Ubalee, Ratawan; Schuster, Anthony L.; Rogers, William O.; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda; Juliano, Jonathan J.

2013-01-01

312

Evaluation of an influenza-like illness case definition in the diagnosis of influenza among patients with acute febrile illness in cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Influenza-like illness (ILI) is often defined as fever (>38.0°C) with cough or sore throat. In this study, we tested the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of this case definition in a Cambodia patient population. Methods Passive clinic-based surveillance was established at nine healthcare centers to identify the causes of acute undifferentiated fever in patients aged two years and older seeking treatment. Fever was defined as tympanic membrane temperature >38°C lasting more than 24 hours and less than 10 days. Influenza virus infections were identified by polymerase chain reaction. Results From July 2008 to December 2008, 2,639 patients were enrolled. From 884 (33%) patients positive for influenza, 652 presented with ILI and 232 acute fever patients presented without ILI. Analysis by age group identified no significant differences between influenza positive patients from the two groups. Positive predictive values (PPVs) varied during the course of the influenza season and among age groups. Conclusion The ILI case definition can be used to identify a significant percentage of patients with influenza infection during the influenza season in Cambodia, assisting healthcare providers in its diagnosis and treatment. However, testing samples based on the criteria of fever alone increased our case detection by 34%.

2010-01-01

313

Toward a typology of health-related informal credit: an exploration of borrowing practices for paying for health care by the poor in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Borrowing money is a common strategy to cope with health care costs. The impact of borrowing on households can be severe, leading to indebtedness and further impoverishment. However, the available literature on borrowing practices for health is limited. We explore borrowing practices for paying for health care by the poor in Cambodia and provide a typology, associated conditions, and the extent of the phenomenon. Methods In addition to a semi-structured literature review, in-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of 47 households with health-related debt and 19 managers of formal or informal credit schemes. Results A large proportion of Cambodians, especially the poor, resort to borrowing to meet the cost of health care. Because of limited cash flow and access to formal creditors, the majority take out loans with high interest rates from informal money lenders. The most common type of informal credit is locally known as Changkar and consists of five kinds of loans: short-term loans, medium-term loans, seasonal loans, loans for an unspecified period, and loans with repayment in labour, each with different lending and repayment conditions and interest rates. Conclusion This study suggests the importance of informal credit for coping with the cost of treatment and its potentially negative impact on the livelihood of Cambodian people. We provide directions for further studies on financial protection interventions to mitigate harmful borrowing practices to pay for health care in Cambodia.

2012-01-01

314

[Do reproductive health care practices create a risk of HIV, HVB, and HVC transmission? Case studies in Cambodia].  

PubMed

The processes involved in nosocomial transmission of HIV, HBV, and HCV nosocomial transmission have not been studied at a global level; little is known about them or about the underlying social and cultural logic that contributes to this transmission. Hospital hygiene has mainly been studied from a biological perspective until now. However, hospital hygiene is shaped by norms and sociocultural representations, and the increase or limitation of disease transmission always takes place within social relations. We need to analyse the practices related to hygiene from a cultural perspective, especially since norms are interpreted at the local level according to social and symbolic logic. Our paper aims to investigate these issues in the context of reproductive health care practices in Cambodia. We describe various perceptions, attitudes and roles of both medical and non-medical caregivers and show how they determine practices, as well as how sanitary, social and institutional contexts shape practices. Since 1995, public health institutions have provided contraceptive methods (condoms, oral or injectable contraceptives, contraceptive implants, intrauterine devices, and emergency contraception). Except for the free distribution of condoms, particularly by NGOs as part of HIV prevention programs, access to contraception is not free. Private clinics and local and international NGOs provide many of these services. Many women in both urban and rural areas seek reproductive health care in the informal sector, from caregivers who may or may not be trained. We thus wonder if these practices, as implemented in the formal and informal care sectors, create a risk for the transmission of HIV, HVB, and HVC. We analyse those issues in considering especially the injection of Depo-Provera, insertion of intrauterine devices, vaginal cleaning practices, and surgical abortion. This investigation of the sociocultural dimension of hygiene in the field of reproductive health care underlines how and to what extent these practices may present a risk of nosocomial transmission of HIV, HBV, or HCV when they are performed by trained or untrained caregivers practising outside the formal health care setting. We also wonder if in some circumstances, reproductive health practices may be at risk when they are performed "informally", particularly at night and on weekends by caregivers in the public sector of care. Finally, because of the high cost of abortions in the institutions allowed to provide this service, many women have recourse to informal care sector, where the materials and techniques, as well as the lack of training for practitioners, appear to be the source of haemorrhagic risks and subsequent infection. PMID:20368136

Petitet, Pascale Hancart

2010-01-01

315

Cervical human papillomavirus infection among young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia: prevalence, genotypes, risk factors and association with HIV infection  

PubMed Central

Background Although cervical cancer is the leading cancer in Cambodia, most women receive no routine screening for cervical cancer and few treatment options exist. Moreover, nothing is known regarding the prevalence of cervical HPV or the genotypes present among women in the country. Young sexually active women, especially those with multiple sex partners are at highest risk of HPV infection. We examine the prevalence and genotypes of cervical HPV, as well as the associated risk factors among young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among 220 young women (15–29?years) engaged in sex work in different venues including brothels or entertainment establishments, and on a freelance basis in streets, parks and private apartments. Cervical specimens were collected using standard cytobrush technique. HPV DNA was tested for by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyping using type-specific probes for 29 individual HPV types, as well as for a mixture of 10 less common HPV types. All participants were also screened for HIV status using blood samples. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess risk factors for any or multiple HPV infection. Results The prevalence of cervical HPV 41.1%. HPV 51 and 70 were the most common (5.0%), followed by 16 (4.6%), 71 (4.1%) and 81 (3.7%). Thirty-six women (16.4%) were infected with multiple genotypes and 23.3% were infected with at least one oncogenic HPV type. In multivariate analyses, having HIV infection and a higher number of sexual partners were associated with cervical HPV infection. Risk factors for infection with multiple genotypes included working as freelance female sex workers (FSW) or in brothels, recent binge use of drugs, high number of sexual partners, and HIV infection. Conclusions This is the first Cambodian study on cervical HPV prevalence and genotypes. We found that HPV infection was common among young FSW, especially among women infected with HIV. These results underscore the urgent need for accessible cervical cancer screening and treatment, as well as for a prophylactic vaccine that covers the HPV subtypes present in Cambodia.

2012-01-01

316

Correlates of amphetamine-type stimulants use and associations with HIV-related risks among young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) use has increased in Cambodia and emerged as a significant problem among female sex workers (FSWs), potentially contributing to increased risk of HIV. We examined the prevalence of ATS use and its effect on sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STI) among FSWs in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods A one-year prospective study among young women engaged in sex work in brothels, entertainment establishments and on a freelance basis. Socio-demographics, sexual risks, and recent ATS use were assessed by self-report. Blood and urine samples were collected to detect HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC). Bivariate and multivariate longitudinal analyses were conducted to assess the effects of ATS use on number of sex partners, inconsistent condom use with paying partners and incident STI. Results ATS use was higher among women working freelance (35.6%) and in brothels (34.8%) compared to women working in entertainment establishments (17.7%) or in multiple venues (14.8%). ATS users reported more sex partners and days drunk in the previous month. In multivariate longitudinal analysis, ATS use was associated with having a higher number of sex partners (Adjusted Risk Ratio 1.49; 95% CI: 1.00–2.21) and incident STI (Adjusted Odds Ratio 5.41; 95% CI: 1.15–25.48), but not inconsistent condom use with paying partner. Conclusion ATS users had more sex partners, high level of alcohol use, and were at increased risk of STI. Our findings underscore ATS use as an important emerging risk exposure that should be integrated into HIV prevention interventions targeting this population.

Couture, Marie-Claude; Evans, Jennifer L.; Sothy, Neth San; Stein, Ellen S.; Sichan, Keo; Maher, Lisa; Page, Kimberly

2011-01-01

317

Increased Risk of Q151M and K65R Mutations in Patients Failing Stavudine-Containing First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Multi-nucleos(t)ide resistance (MNR) mutations including Q151M, K65R mutations, and insertion at codon 69 of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase coding region may confer resistance to all molecules of nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). The presence of these mutations is an emerging problem compromising non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors-based therapies. Furthermore, factors associated with selection of these mutations are still not well defined. The current study aimed to evaluate the frequency and to characterize factors associated with the occurrence of multi-nucleos(t)ide resistance mutations among HIV-1 infected patients failing recommended first-line antiretroviral regimens in Cambodia. Methodology/Principal Finding This is a retrospective analysis of HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping of 520 HIV-1 infected patients in virological failure (viral load > 250 copies/mL) while on first-line antiretroviral therapy in Cambodia with at least one reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance associated mutation. Among these 520 patients, a total of 66 subjects (66/520, 12.7%) presented ?1 MNR mutation, including Q151M, K65R, and Insert69 for 59 (11.3%), 29 (5.6%), and 2 (0.4%) patients, respectively. In multivariate analysis, both Q151M (p?=?0.039) and K65R (p?=?0.029) mutations were independently associated with current stavudine- compared to zidovudine-use. Conclusion Such selection of mutations by stavudine drastically limits the choice of antiretroviral molecules available for second-line therapy in resource-limited settings. This finding supports the World Health Organization’s recommendation for stavudine phase-out.

Nouhin, Janin; Madec, Yoann; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Ferradini, Laurent; Nerrienet, Eric

2013-01-01

318

Focused Screening and Treatment (FSAT): A PCR-Based Strategy to Detect Malaria Parasite Carriers and Contain Drug Resistant P. falciparum, Pailin, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown that Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in Pailin province, along the border between Thailand and Cambodia, have become resistant to artemisinin derivatives. To better define the epidemiology of P. falciparum populations and to assess the risk of the possible spread of these parasites outside Pailin, a new epidemiological tool named “Focused Screening and Treatment” (FSAT), based on active molecular detection of asymptomatic parasite carriers was introduced in 2010. Cross-sectional malariometric surveys using PCR were carried out in 20 out of 109 villages in Pailin province. Individuals detected as P. falciparum carriers were treated with atovaquone-proguanil combination plus a single dose of primaquine if the patient was non-G6PD deficient. Interviews were conducted to elicit history of cross-border travel that might contribute to the spread of artemisinin-resistant parasites. After directly observed treatment, patients were followed up and re-examined on day 7 and day 28. Among 6931 individuals screened, prevalence of P. falciparum carriers was less than 1%, of whom 96% were asymptomatic. Only 1.6% of the individuals had a travel history or plans to go outside Cambodia, with none of those tested being positive for P. falciparum. Retrospective analysis, using 2010 routine surveillance data, showed significant differences in the prevalence of asymptomatic carriers discovered by FSAT between villages classified as “high risk” and “low risk” based on malaria incidence data. All positive individuals treated and followed-up until day 28 were cured. No mutant-type allele related to atovaquone resistance was found. FSAT is a potentially useful tool to detect, treat and track clusters of asymptomatic carriers of P. falciparum along with providing valuable epidemiological information regarding cross-border movements of potential malaria parasite carriers and parasite gene flow.

Hoyer, Stefan; Nguon, Sokomar; Kim, Saorin; Habib, Najibullah; Khim, Nimol; Sum, Sarorn; Christophel, Eva-Maria; Bjorge, Steven; Thomson, Andrew; Kheng, Sim; Chea, Nguon; Yok, Sovann; Top, Samphornarann; Ros, Seyha; Sophal, Uth; Thompson, Michelle M.; Mellor, Steve; Ariey, Frederic; Witkowski, Benoit; Yeang, Chhiang; Yeung, Shunmay; Duong, Socheat; Newman, Robert D.; Menard, Didier

2012-01-01

319

Development of the Khao Khwang Fold and Thrust Belt: Implications for the geodynamic setting of Thailand and Cambodia during the Indosinian Orogeny  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indosinian Orogeny in Thailand is often viewed as having developed between strongly linear terranes, which today trend approximately N-S. The terranes were subsequently disrupted by later tectonics, particularly NW-SE trending Cenozoic strike-slip faults. The ENE-WSW to NE-SW striking thrusts and folds in the Khao Khwang Platform area of the Saraburi Group on the SW margin of the Indochina Terrane are not easily explained in the context of this traditional view. Reversal of the clockwise rotation shown to have affected the block north of the Mae Ping Fault zone only enhances the E-W orientation of structures in the fold and thrust belt, and moves the belt further east towards Cambodia. One solution for the trend that fits better with regional understanding from hydrocarbon exploration of the Khorat Plateau is that the Indochina Terrane was actually a series of continental blocks, separated by Permian rifting. During the Early Triassic the early stages of collision (South China-Cathaysian Terrane collision with Vietnam Indochina) resulted in the amalgamation of disparate blocks that now form the Indochina Terrane by closure along the rifts. At the same time or following on from the collision there was closure of the back-arc area between Indochina and the Sukhothai zone. The rift basins, were thrusted and inverted during the early stages of the Indosinian orogeny, and only underwent minor reactivated when later Sibumasu collided with Sukhothai Zone-Indochina Terrane margin during the Late Triassic. The scenario described above requires the presence of a (minor) E-W trending suture in NW Cambodia. Evidence for this suture is suggested by the presence of Permo-Triassic calc-alkaline volcanism.

Morley, C. K.; Ampaiwan, P.; Thanudamrong, S.; Kuenphan, N.; Warren, J.

2013-01-01

320

Population-Based Study of Epilepsy in Cambodia Associated Factors, Measures of Impact, Stigma, Quality of Life, Knowledge-Attitude-Practice, and Treatment Gap  

PubMed Central

Purpose Identify epilepsy-associated factors and calculate measures of impact, stigma, quality of life (QOL), knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) and treatment gap in Prey Veng, Cambodia. Methods This first Cambodian population-based case-control study had 96 epileptologist-confirmed epilepsy cases and 192 randomly selected matched healthy controls. Standard questionnaires, which have been used in similar settings, were used for collecting data on various parameters. Univariate and multivariate regression was done to determine odds ratios. Jacoby stigma, 31-item QOL, KAP etc were determined and so were the factors associated with them using STATA software. Treatment gap was measured using direct method. Key findings Multivariate analyses yielded family history of epilepsy, difficult or long delivery, other problems beside seizures (mainly mental retardation, hyperthermia), and eventful pregnancy of the subject's mother as factors associated with epilepsy. There was high frequency of seizure precipitants esp. those related to sleep. Population attributable risk (%) was: family history (15.0), eventful pregnancy of subject's mother (14.5), long/difficult birth (6.5), and other problem beside seizures (20.0). Mean stigma (1.9±1.1, on a scale of 3) was mainly related to treatment efficacy. Mean QOL (5.0±1.4 on a scale of 10) was mainly related to treatment regularity. Cause or risk factor could be determined in 56% of cases. Treatment gap was 65.8%. Significance Factors in pre- and perinatal period were found to be most crucial for epilepsy risk in Cambodia which inturn provides major prevention opportunities. A global action plan for treatment, stigma reduction and improvement of QOL should be set-up in this country.

Bhalla, Devender; Chea, Kimly; Hun, Chamroeun; Vannareth, Mey; Huc, Pierre; Chan, Samleng; Sebbag, Robert; Gerard, Daniel; Dumas, Michel; Oum, Sophal; Druet-Cabanac, Michel; Preux, Pierre-Marie

2012-01-01

321

Depositional facies and radiocarbon ages of a drill core from the Mekong River lowland near Phnom Penh, Cambodia: Evidence for tidal sedimentation at the time of Holocene maximum flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The depositional facies and radiocarbon ages of a long Holocene sediment core (KS) from Cambodia are reported here to clarify the sedimentary environments of the Mekong River delta system at the time of Holocene maximum flooding by the sea. The 30.7-m-long KS core, from the upper Mekong River lowland about 20 km southeast of Phnom Penh, penetrated five depositional facies,

Toru Tamura; Yoshiki Saito; Sotham Sieng; Bunnarin Ben; Meng Kong; Sokuntheara Choup; Shinji Tsukawaki

2007-01-01

322

William shawcross, declining Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is not often that an entire group of people change their minds on a foreign policy issue, at least within a short space of time. On Kampuchea, this did occur around 1978, when most of those who had previously sympathized with the Khmer Rouge declared their disillusionment. I It meant admitting that there was much truth to the militant

Ben Kiernan

1986-01-01

323

Integrating child health services into malaria control services of village malaria workers in remote Cambodia: service utilization and knowledge of malaria management of caregivers  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria and other communicable diseases remain major threats in developing countries. In Cambodia, village malaria workers (VMWs) have been providing malaria control services in remote villages to cope with the disease threats. In 2009, the VMW project integrated child health services into the original malaria control services. However, little has been studied about the utilization of VMWs’ child health services. This study aimed to identify determinants of caregivers’ VMW service utilization for childhood illness and caregivers’ knowledge of malaria management. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 36 VMW villages of Kampot and Kampong Thom provinces in July-September 2012. An equal number of VMW villages with malaria control services only (M) and those with malaria control plus child health services (M+C) were selected from each province. Using structured questionnaires, 800 caregivers of children under five and 36 VMWs, one of the two VMWs who was providing VMW services in each study village were interviewed. Results Among the caregivers, 23% in M villages and 52% in M+C villages utilized VMW services for childhood illnesses. Determinants of caregivers’ utilization of VMWs in M villages included their VMWs’ length of experience (AOR = 11.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.46-31.19) and VMWs’ service quality (AOR = 2.04, CI = 1.01-4.11). In M+C villages, VMWs’ length of experience (AOR = 2.44, CI = 1.52-3.94) and caregivers’ wealth index (AOR = 0.35, CI = 0.18-0.68) were associated with VMW service utilization. Meanwhile, better service quality of VMWs (AOR = 3.21, CI = 1.34-7.66) and caregivers’ literacy (AOR = 9.91, CI = 4.66-21.05) were positively associated with caregivers’ knowledge of malaria management. Conclusions VMWs’ service quality and length of experience are important determinants of caregivers’ utilization of VMWs’ child health services and their knowledge of malaria management. Caregivers are seeking VMWs’ support for childhood illnesses even if they are providing only malaria control services. This underlines the importance of scaling-up VMWs’ capacity by adding child health services of good quality, which will result in improving child health status in remote Cambodia.

2013-01-01

324

Poverty Does Not Limit Tobacco Consumption in Cambodia: Quantitative Estimate of Tobacco Use Under Conditions of No Income and Adult Malnutrition  

PubMed Central

Current data indicate that under conditions of poverty, tobacco is consumed at the expense of basic needs. In a large national sample from Cambodia, we sought to determine whether tobacco consumption declines under extreme conditions of no income and malnutrition. Our major findings are as follows: (1) Among men, there was no significant difference in the number of cigarettes smoked for no income (425, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 395-456) versus >US$2 per day (442, 95% CI = 407-477); (2) among women, there was no significant difference in the amount of loose tobacco (ie, betel quid) consumed for no income (539 g, 95% CI = 441-637) versus >US$2 per day (558 g, 95% CI = 143-973); (3) for the contrast of no income + malnutrition versus >US$2 per day + no malnutrition in a linear model, there was no significant difference for men who smoked (462 vs 517 cigarettes/month, P = .82) or women who chewed (316 vs 404 g tobacco/month, P = .34), adjusting for confounders. Among the poorest and malnourished Cambodian adults, lack of resources did not appear to prevent them from obtaining smoked or smokeless tobacco.

Singh, Pramil N.; Washburn, Dawn; Yel, Daravuth; Kheam, They; Job, Jayakaran S.

2014-01-01

325

Efficacy of Two versus Three-Day Regimens of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for Uncomplicated Malaria in Military Personnel in Northern Cambodia: An Open-Label Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Emerging antimalarial drug resistance in mobile populations remains a significant public health concern. We compared two regimens of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in military and civilians on the Thai-Cambodian border to evaluate national treatment policy. Methods Efficacy and safety of two and three-day regimens of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine were compared as a nested open-label evaluation within a malaria cohort study in 222 otherwise healthy volunteers (18% malaria-infected at baseline). The first 80 volunteers with slide-confirmed Plasmodium falciparum or vivax malaria were randomized 1:1 to receive either regimen (total dose 360mg dihydroartemisinin and 2880mg piperaquine) and followed weekly for up to 6 months. The primary endpoint was malaria recurrence by day 42. Volunteers with vivax infection received primaquine at study discharge with six months follow-up. Results Eighty patients (60 vivax, 15 falciparum, and 5 mixed) were randomized to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. Intention-to-treat all-species efficacy at Day 42 was 85% for the two-day regimen (95% CI 69–94) and 90% for the three-day regimen (95% CI 75–97). PCR-adjusted falciparum efficacy was 75% in both groups with nearly half (45%) still parasitemic at Day 3. Plasma piperaquine levels were comparable to prior published reports, but on the day of recrudescence were below measurable in vitro piperaquine IC50 levels in all falciparum treatment failures. Conclusions In the brief period since introduction of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, there is early evidence suggesting declining efficacy relative to previous reports. Parasite IC50 levels in excess of plasma piperaquine levels seen only in treatment failures raises concern for clinically significant piperaquine resistance in Cambodia. These findings warrant improved monitoring of clinical outcomes and follow-up, given few available alternative drugs. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01280162

Vanachayangkul, Pattaraporn; So, Mary; Sea, Darapiseth; Se, Youry; Gosi, Panita; Lanteri, Charlotte; Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Chann, Soklyda; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; Buathong, Nillawan; Nou, Samon; Walsh, Douglas S.; Tyner, Stuart D.; Juliano, Jonathan J.; Lin, Jessica; Spring, Michele; Bethell, Delia; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Tang, Douglas; Chuor, Char Meng; Satharath, Prom; Saunders, David

2014-01-01

326

Acute lower respiratory infections in >=5 year -old hospitalized patients in Cambodia, a low-income tropical country: clinical characteristics and pathogenic etiology  

PubMed Central

Background Few data exist on viral and bacterial etiology of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in ?5 year –old persons in the tropics. Methods We conducted active surveillance of community-acquired ALRI in two hospitals in Cambodia, a low-income tropical country. Patients were tested for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) by direct sputum examination, other bacteria by blood and/or sputum cultures, and respiratory viruses using molecular techniques on nasopharyngeal/throat swabs. Pulmonologists reviewed clinical/laboratory data and interpreted chest X-rays (CXR) to confirm ALRI. Results Between April 2007 - December 2009, 1,904 patients aged ?5 years were admitted with acute pneumonia (50.4%), lung sequelae-associated ALRI (24.3%), isolated pleural effusions (8.9%) or normal CXR-related ALRI (17.1%); 61 (3.2%) died during hospitalization. The two former diagnoses were predominantly due to bacterial etiologies while viral detection was more frequent in the two latter diagnoses. AFB-positive accounted for 25.6% of acute pneumonia. Of the positive cultures (16.8%), abscess-prone Gram-negative bacteria (39.6%) and Haemophilus influenzae (38.0%) were most frequent, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (17.7%). Of the identified viruses, the three most common viruses included rhinoviruses (49.5%), respiratory syncytial virus (17.7%) and influenza viruses (12.1%) regardless of the diagnostic groups. Wheezing was associated with viral identification (31.9% vs. 13.8%, p?

2013-01-01

327

The social determinants of health and health service access: an in depth study in four poor communities in Phnom Penh Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing urbanization and population density, and persisting inequities in health outcomes across socioeconomic groupings have raised concerns internationally regarding the health of the urban poor. These concerns are also evident in Cambodia, which prompted the design of a study to identify and describe the main barriers to access to health services by the poor in the capital city, Phnom Penh. Sources and Methods Main sources of data were through a household survey, followed by in-depth qualitative interviews with mothers, local authorities and health centre workers in four very poor communities in Phnom Penh. Main findings Despite low incomes and education levels, the study communities have moderate levels of access to services for curative and preventive care. However, qualitative findings demonstrate that households contextualize poor health and health access in terms of their daily living conditions, particularly in relation to environmental conditions and social insecurity. The interactions of low education, poor living conditions and high food costs in the context of low and irregular incomes reinforce a pattern of “living from moment to moment” and results in a cycle of disadvantage and ill health in these communities. There were three main factors that put poor communities at a health disadvantage; these are the everyday living conditions of communities, social and economic inequality and the extent to which a society assesses and acts on inequities in their health care access. Conclusions In order to improve access to health and health services for the urban poor, expansion of public health functions and capacities will be required, including building partnerships between health providers, municipal authorities and civil society.

2012-01-01

328

Strengthening institutional and organizational capacity for social health protection of the informal sector in lesser-developed countries: a study of policy barriers and opportunities in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Reaching out to the poor and the informal sector is a major challenge for achieving universal coverage in lesser-developed countries. In Cambodia, extensive coverage by health equity funds for the poor has created the opportunity to consolidate various non-government health financing schemes under the government's proposed social health protection structure. This paper identifies the main policy and operational challenges to strengthening existing arrangements for the poor and the informal sector, and considers policy options to address these barriers. Conducted in conjunction with the Cambodian Ministry of Health in 2011-12, the study reviewed policy documents and collected qualitative data through 18 semi-structured key informant interviews with government, non-government and donor officials. Data were analysed using the Organizational Assessment for Improving and Strengthening Health Financing conceptual framework. We found that a significant shortfall related to institutional, organisational and health financing issues resulted in fragmentation and constrained the implementation of social health protection schemes, including health equity funds, community-based health insurance, vouchers and others. Key documents proposed the establishment of a national structure for the unification of the informal-sector schemes but left unresolved issues related to structure, institutional capacity and the third-party status of the national agency. This study adds to the evidence base on appropriate and effective institutional and organizational arrangements for social health protection in the informal sector in developing countries. Among the key lessons are: the need to expand the fiscal space for health care; a commitment to equity; specific measures to protect the poor; building national capacity for administration of universal coverage; and working within the specific national context. PMID:23466261

Annear, Peter Leslie; Ahmed, Shakil; Ros, Chhun Eang; Ir, Por

2013-11-01

329

Using targeted vouchers and health equity funds to improve access to skilled birth attendants for poor women: a case study in three rural health districts in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background In many developing countries, the maternal mortality ratio remains high with huge poor-rich inequalities. Programmes aimed at improving maternal health and preventing maternal mortality often fail to reach poor women. Vouchers in health and Health Equity Funds (HEFs) constitute a financial mechanism to improve access to priority health services for the poor. We assess their effectiveness in improving access to skilled birth attendants for poor women in three rural health districts in Cambodia and draw lessons for further improvement and scaling-up. Methods Data on utilisation of voucher and HEF schemes and on deliveries in public health facilities between 2006 and 2008 were extracted from the available database, reports and the routine health information system. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions and key informant interviews. We examined the trend of facility deliveries between 2006 and 2008 in the three health districts and compared this with the situation in other rural districts without voucher and HEF schemes. An operational analysis of the voucher scheme was carried out to assess its effectiveness at different stages of operation. Results Facility deliveries increased sharply from 16.3% of the expected number of births in 2006 to 44.9% in 2008 after the introduction of voucher and HEF schemes, not only for voucher and HEF beneficiaries, but also for self-paid deliveries. The increase was much more substantial than in comparable districts lacking voucher and HEF schemes. In 2008, voucher and HEF beneficiaries accounted for 40.6% of the expected number of births among the poor. We also outline several limitations of the voucher scheme. Conclusions Vouchers plus HEFs, if carefully designed and implemented, have a strong potential for reducing financial barriers and hence improving access to skilled birth attendants for poor women. To achieve their full potential, vouchers and HEFs require other interventions to ensure the supply of sufficient quality maternity services and to address other non-financial barriers to demand. If these conditions are met, voucher and HEF schemes can be further scaled up under close monitoring and evaluation.

2010-01-01

330

Biomarker validation of recent unprotected sexual intercourse in a prospective study of young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Summary A study of female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia found self-reported condom use to be of questionable validity, particularly among amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) users and those with multiple partners. Background Accurate measurement of unprotected sex is essential in HIV prevention research. Since 2001, the 100% Condom Use Program targeting female sex workers (FSW) has been a central element of the Cambodian National HIV/AIDS Strategy. We sought to assess the validity of self-reported condom use using the rapid prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test among Cambodian FSW. Methods From 2009 to 2010 we enrolled 183 FSW in Phnom Penh in a prospective study of HIV risk behavior. PSA test results from the OneStep ABAcard® were compared to self-reported condom use in the past 48 hours at quarterly follow-up visits. Results Among women positive for seminal fluid at the first follow-up visit, 42% reported only protected sex or no sex in the detection period. Discordant results were more likely among brothel and street-based FSW vs. entertainment (56% vs. 17%), recent (last 3 months) ATS users (53% vs. 20%), and those with >5 partners in the past month (58% vs. 13%). In multivariable regression models, positive PSA results were associated with recent ATS use (Adjusted Risk Ratio (ARR) = 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.1 – 2.2), having a non-paying last sex partner (ARR=1.7; CI:1.2 – 2.5), and sex work venue (ARR=3.0; CI:1.4 – 6.5). Correspondingly, women with a non-paying last sex partner were more likely to report unprotected sex (ARR=1.5; CI:1.1 – 2.2), but no associations were found with sex work venue or ATS use. Conclusions Results confirm the questionable validity of self-reported condom use among FSW. The PSA biomarker assay is an important monitoring tool in HIV/STI research including prevention trials.

Evans, Jennifer L.; Couture, Marie-Claude; Stein, Ellen S.; Sansothy, Neth; Maher, Lisa; Page, Kimberly

2014-01-01

331

Facilitators and barriers to accessing reproductive health care for migrant beer promoters in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam: A mixed methods study  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of the research was to assess access to sexual and reproductive health services for migrant women who work as beer promoters. This mixed methods research was conducted in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Bangkok, Thailand, Vientiane, Laos, and Hanoi, Vietnam during 2010 to 2011. Methods Focus groups were held with beer promoters and separate focus groups or interviews with key informants to explore the factors affecting beer promoters’ access to health care institutions for reproductive health care. The findings of the focus groups were used to develop a survey for beer promoters. This survey was conducted in popular health institutions for these women in each of the four Asian cities. Results Several common themes were evident. Work demands prevented beer promoters from accessing health care. Institutional factors affecting care included cost, location, environmental factors (e.g. waiting times, cleanliness and confidentiality) and service factors (e.g. staff attitudes, clinic hours, and availability of medications). Personal factors affecting access were shyness and fear, lack of knowledge, and support from family and friends. The survey of the beer promoters confirmed that cost, location and both environmental and service factors impact on access to health care services for beer promoters. Many beer promoters are sexually active, and a significant proportion of those surveyed rely on sex work to supplement their income. Many also drink with their clients. Despite a few differences amongst the surveyed population, the findings were remarkably similar across the four research sites. Conclusions Recommendations from the research include the provision of evening and weekend clinic hours to facilitate access, free or low cost clinics, and health insurance through employer or government plans which are easy to access for migrants. Other improvements that would facilitate the access of beer promoters to these services include increased funding to hire more staff (reducing waiting times) and to stock more needed medications, mobile clinics to come to the workplace or free transportation for beer promoters to the clinics, improved training to reduce health care provider stigma against beer promoters, and public education about the importance of reproductive health care, including preventative services.

2012-01-01

332

Quantifying changes in flooding and habitats in the Tonle Sap Lake (Cambodia) caused by water infrastructure development and climate change in the Mekong Basin.  

PubMed

The economic value of the Tonle Sap Lake Floodplain to Cambodia is arguably among the highest provided to a nation by a single ecosystem around the world. Nonetheless, the Mekong River Basin is changing rapidly due to accelerating water infrastructure development (hydropower, irrigation, flood control, and water supply) and climate change, bringing considerable modifications to the flood pulse of the Tonle Sap Lake in the foreseeable future. This paper presents research conducted to determine how the historical flooding regime, together with human action, influenced landscape patterns of habitats in the Tonle Sap Lake, and how these habitats might shift as a result of hydrological changes. Maps of water depth, annual flood duration, and flood frequency were created for recent historical hydrological conditions and for simulated future scenarios of water infrastructure development and climate change. Relationships were then established between the historical flood maps and land cover, and these were subsequently applied to assess potential changes to habitat cover in future decades. Five habitat groups were clearly distinguishable based on flood regime, physiognomic patterns, and human activity: (1) Open water, flooded for 12 months in an average hydrological year; (2) Gallery forest, with flood duration of 9 months annually; (3) Seasonally flooded habitats, flooded 5-8 months and dominated by shrublands and grasslands; (4) transitional habitats, flooded 1-5 months and dominated by abandoned agricultural fields, receding rice/floating rice, and lowland grasslands; and (5) Rainfed habitats, flooded up to 1 month and consisting mainly of wet season rice fields and village crops. It was found that water infrastructure development could increase the area of open water (+18 to +21%) and the area of rainfed habitats (+10 to +14%), while reducing the area covered with seasonally flooded habitats (-13 to -22%) and gallery forest (-75 to -83%). Habitat cover shifts as a result of climate change include a net increase of open water (2-21%), as well as a reduction of rainfed habitats by 2-5% and seasonally flooded habitats by 5-11%. Findings from this study will help guide on-going and future conservation and restoration efforts throughout this unique and critical ecosystem. PMID:22877742

Arias, Mauricio E; Cochrane, Thomas A; Piman, Thanapon; Kummu, Matti; Caruso, Brian S; Killeen, Timothy J

2012-12-15

333

Simplified Clinical Prediction Scores to Target Viral Load Testing in Adults with Suspected First Line Treatment Failure in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background For settings with limited laboratory capacity, 2013 World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend targeted HIV-1 viral load (VL) testing to identify virological failure. We previously developed and validated a clinical prediction score (CPS) for targeted VL testing, relying on clinical, adherence and laboratory data. While outperforming the WHO failure criteria, it required substantial calculation and review of all previous laboratory tests. In response, we developed four simplified, less error-prone and broadly applicable CPS versions that can be done ‘on the spot’. Methodology/Principal Findings From May 2010 to June 2011, we validated the original CPS in a non-governmental hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia applying the CPS to adults on first-line treatment >1 year. Virological failure was defined as a single VL >1000 copies/ml. The four CPSs included CPS1 with ‘current CD4 count’ instead of %-decline-from-peak CD4; CPS2 with hemoglobin measurements removed; CPS3 having ‘decrease in CD4 count below baseline value’ removed; CPS4 was purely clinical. Score development relied on the Spiegelhalter/Knill-Jones method. Variables independently associated with virological failure with a likelihood ratio ?1.5 or ?0.67 were retained. CPS performance was evaluated based on the area-under-the-ROC-curve (AUROC) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The CPSs were validated in an independent dataset. A total of 1490 individuals (56.6% female, median age: 38 years (interquartile range (IQR 33–44)); median baseline CD4 count: 94 cells/µL (IQR 28–205), median time on antiretroviral therapy 3.6 years (IQR 2.1–5.1)), were included. Forty-five 45 (3.0%) individuals had virological failure. CPS1 yielded an AUROC of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.62–0.75) in validation, CPS2 an AUROC of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.62–0.74), and CPS3, an AUROC of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.61–0.73). The purely clinical CPS4 performed poorly (AUROC-0.59; 95% CI: 0.53–0.65). Conclusions Simplified CPSs retained acceptable accuracy as long as current CD4 count testing was included. Ease of field application and field accuracy remains to be defined.

van Griensven, Johan; Phan, Vichet; Thai, Sopheak; Koole, Olivier; Lynen, Lutgarde

2014-01-01

334

The effectiveness of text messages support for diabetes self-management: protocol of the TEXT4DSM study in the democratic Republic of Congo, Cambodia and the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Background People with diabetes find it difficult to sustain adequate self-management behaviour. Self-Management Support strategies, including the use of mobile technology, have shown potential benefit. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a mobile phone support intervention on top of an existing strategy in three countries, DR Congo, Cambodia and the Philippines to improve health outcomes, access to care and enablement of people with diabetes, with 480 people with diabetes in each country who are randomised to either standard support or to the intervention. Design/methods The study consists of three sub-studies with a similar design in three countries to be independently implemented and analysed. The design is a two-arm Randomised Controlled Trial, in which a total of 480 adults with diabetes participating in an existing DSME programme will be randomly allocated to either usual care in the existing programme or to usual care plus a mobile phone self-management support intervention. Participants in both arms complete assessments at baseline, one year and two years after inclusion. Glycosylated haemoglobin blood pressure, height, weight, waist circumference will be measured. Individual interviews will be conducted to determine the patients’ assessment of chronic illness care, degree of self-enablement, and access to care before implementation of the intervention, at intermediate moments and at the end of the study. Analyses of quantitative data including assessment of differences in changes in outcomes between the intervention and usual care group will be done. A probability of <0.05 is considered statistically significant. Outcome indicators will be plotted over time. All data are analysed for confounding and interaction in multivariate regression analyses taking potential clustering effects into account. Differences in outcome measures will be analysed per country and realistic evaluation to assess processes and context factors that influence implementation in order to understand why it works, for whom, under which circumstances. A costing study will be performed. Discussion The intervention addresses the problem that the greater part of diabetes management takes place without external support and that many challenges, unforeseen problems and questions occur at moments in between scheduled contacts with the support system, by exploiting communication technology. Trial registration ISRCTN86247213

2013-01-01

335

Sowing a School Garden: Reaping an Environmental Ethic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the idea that, to create a long-lasting, deeply held environmental ethic, environmental education must address human alienation from the natural world, this article examines gardening as a means to help students connect with nature in a very profound way. (LZ)

Pivnick, Janet

1994-01-01

336

Reap what you sow: harvesting the deep Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the growth of the invisible Web, and efforts underway to make its contents more accessible. Dynamic Web publishing is described. The Open Archives Metadata Harvesting Protocol is reviewed, as are projects related to OCLC’s implementation of the Open Archives Initiative. Recent Dublin Core activities are reported.

Norm Medeiros

2002-01-01

337

Hydrological change: reaping prosperity and pain in Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adage: “There is no such thing as a free lunch”, is relevant to land-use hydrology in Australia. Changes in land use to achieve greater productivity of food and fibre may have an adverse effect on the water balance and hence on the natural resource capital of a catchment. An altered regime of catchment outflow accompanies those land-use changes which, together with land degradation, impairs available water resources in quantity and quality and threatens enterprise sustainability, notwithstanding the initial improvement in productivity. Central to any hydrological change is an altered pattern of seasonal and annual water use by vegetation that has become modified in function with an amended transpiration fraction of daily evapotranspiration. In Australia, since measurement of evapotranspiration became feasible, the hydrological consequences of changes in land use have been determined, allowing the benefits in terms of plant productivity achieved through enhanced water use efficiency to be weighed against changed catchment outflows, diminished in either quantity or quality. Four case studies are presented as examples of ecological and hydrological changes: two deal with the upland forest environment and two with arable lowlands. In an upland eucalypt forest, following wildfire with subsequent regeneration from natural seedling establishment, substantial reduction in water yield occurred throughout a 50-year period of succession in the even-aged stand. In comparison, the effect of converting eucalypt forest to pine plantations was less detrimental to the yield of water from the catchments, with substantial growth increases over 30 years. In the lowlands, agricultural productivity, both as annual pasture and as crop, far exceeds that of natural perennial grassland and woodland. This increase in productivity comes not so much from any change to the yield of total water outflow but at the expense of water quality, compromised with increased material transport in suspension and solution resulting from accelerated erosion in association with outbreaks of soil salinity and acidity. The present study is aimed at optimising management to give plant production outcomes that ensure environmental protection through resource conservation. In the uplands, harvesting of water is the dominant consideration so that conservative management with limited plant productivity is sought. In the lowlands, the objective is to devise novel ecosystems with profitable plant production that exercises due control on outflow in maintaining the chemical and physical integrity of the edaphic environment.

Dunin, F. X.; Smith, C. J.; Denmead, O. T.

2007-01-01

338

Asthma investigators begin to reap the fruits of genomics  

PubMed Central

Microarray experiments have identified novel candidate genes in animal models of asthma. In the near future, genomics may have a profound impact on the way we think about this common and complex disease.

Erle, David J; Yang, Yee Hwa

2003-01-01

339

Influenza vaccination: do the aged reap the benefit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An audit of 100 elderly in-patients with appropriate medical conditions revealed that 63% had not been vaccinated this winter. 74% would have accepted vaccination if offered. A general practitioner questionnaire found that 42% relied on elderly patients coming forward and requesting vaccination. Unfortunately, many elderly patients are still missing out on influenza vaccination.

R. Morgan; D. King; C. J. Turnbull

1995-01-01

340

Boys, Masculinity and School Violence: Reaping What We Sow  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper the author explores the relationship between masculinity and violence. She begins by pointing out that although all of the recent school shootings in the US have been perpetrated by boys, very few are associating the acts with the gender of the offenders. Perhaps this connection is not made because society is so conditioned to the…

Watson, Sandy White

2007-01-01

341

Cambodia: Getting Away with Authoritarianism?  

Microsoft Academic Search

What if a country holds an election but it proves not to matter? Cambodians voted nationwide in July 2003, only to see their polity’s three main political parties take almost a year to form a new administration. The long-ruling Cambodian People’s Party (CPP) of Prime Minister Hun Sen won 47.4 percent of the popular vote but gained 59.3 percent of

Duncan McCargo

2005-01-01

342

Young Women Engaged in Sex Work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Have High Incidence of HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Amphetamine-Type Stimulant Use: New Challenges to HIV Prevention and Risk  

PubMed Central

Objectives To estimate prevalence and incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) and associated risk factors among young women working as sex workers (SWs) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods A prospective study of young (<29 years) women working as SWs in brothels, entertainment establishments, and freelance. Sociodemographics, sexual risk, and use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) (“yama” and “crystal”) were assessed by self-report. HIV and STI (Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) testing were conducted on blood and urine specimens, respectively. Results Baseline prevalences of HIV, C. trachomatis, and N. gonorrhoeae were 23%, 11.5%, and 7.8%, respectively. HIV incidence was 3.6 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2%– 11.1%); STI incidence was 21.2 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 12.6%– 35.8%). At baseline, 26.5% reported recent ATS use. HIV infection was associated with freelance SW (adjusted odds ratio, 5.85; 95% CI, 1.59–21.58) and younger age of first sex (?15 years; adjusted odds ratio, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.01–8.46). Incident STI was associated with duration (per year) of SW (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.1–1.2) and recent yama use (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.5–10.3). Conclusions HIV and STI infection rates were high among SWs working in various settings; freelancers had highest risk. ATS use was associated with incident STI. Venue of sex work and drug prevention should be considered in prevention programs.

Couture, Marie-Claude; Sansothy, Neth; Sapphon, Vonthanak; Phal, Serey; Sichan, Keo; Stein, Ellen; Evans, Jennifer; Maher, Lisa; Kaldor, John; Vun, Mean Chhi; Page, Kimberly

2013-01-01

343

[Clinical aspects of AIDS at the Calmette hospital in Phnom Penh, Kingdom of Cambodia A report on 356 patients hospitalized in the Medicine "B" Department of the Calmette Hospital].  

PubMed

A study on AIDS subjects carried out at the Calmette Hospital in Phnom-Penh between the 1st January 97 and the 30th December 98. The objective of this study was to describe the most frequent clinical manifestations as well as the opportunistic infections according to the 1993 CDC classification (purely clinical classification). Three hundred and fifty six AIDS patients hospitalized in medicine B were included in our study. A complete file was prepared for each subject, specifying his/her social and family situation, profession, sexual behavior and history. The clinical condition was specified and the paraclinical examinations were recorded. The average age was 35 years with 250 men and 106 women, i.e. a M/F sex ratio of 2.4. The majority of male contaminations were due to sexual relationships with multiple partners, 82%, and women with a single partner was of 78%. The use of condoms was of 60% (versus 40% occasional); the extent of drug-addiction was 1.12% (4 cases). A history of STD was found in 56% of cases. The presenting symptoms most frequently found were asthenia, anorexia, fever and weight-loss. In decreasing order, the clinical manifestations often associated were: weight-loss > 10% or a catechetic condition 58.70% (209/356), fever > 38 degrees C >1 month 53% (189/356), diarrhea (> one month) 41.60% (148/356). The most frequent opportunistic infections were: oral candidiasis 51.40% (183/356) and 40% are oro-oesophageal (oral candidiasis + dysphagia or odynphagia), pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculoses (TB) 43.50% (155/356) (pulmonary TB in 65.16%, TB of the lymph nodes 23.22% and disseminated TB and cerebral TB 11.61%), cryptococcal meningitis 11.80% (42/356) and pneumocystosis 6.50% (23/356), CMV retinitis 1.12% (4/356). The other opportunistic manifestations such as toxoplasmosis and Kaposis sarcoma are much more rarely encountered due to the difficulties of the paraclinical diagnosis. The mortality in the department was of 17.40% (62/356). In conclusions, tuberculosis is the most frequent of the opportunistic infections in Cambodia. Cryptococcal meningitis is in 3rd place for opportunistic infections. It is the first diagnosis that should be evoked in a meningeal irritation. PMID:11313228

Pichith, K; Chanroeun, H; Bunna, P; Nyvanny, N; Thavary, S; Kosal, S; Crepin, P

2001-01-01

344

Mercury Contamination Along the Mekong River, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of ten dolphins that died in the Mekong River had a high concentration of mercury (67 µg\\/g) in its liver. The mercury content of fish at Kratie was on average 103 ng\\/g (n=153) but in some species it was up to six fold higher. People located in the drainage basin with gold mines (Ratanakirri) had significantly more mercury in

T. P. Murphy; M. Sampson; J. Guo; T. Parr; M. Gilbert; K. Irvine

345

Domestic Violence against Married Women in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluate the effects of marital resources and early-life experiences on recent domestic violence and attitudes about wife abuse among 2,074 married Cambodian women. Household standard of living was negatively associated with physical domestic violence. Women with 8-13 fewer years of schooling than their husbands more often experienced physical…

Yount, Kathryn M.; Carrera, Jennifer S.

2006-01-01

346

Education Reforms in Cambodia: Issues and Concerns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the key issues and concerns in the Cambodian government's efforts to implement three priority education policies for 2006-2010: ensure equitable access to education; increase quality and efficiency of the education services; and promote institutional development and capacity building for decentralisation. This paper identifies…

Tan, Charlene

2007-01-01

347

You reap what you sow: the ethical discourse of professional accounting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this essay I argue that some of the responsibility for the recent accounting scandals (e.g., Enron, Andersen) lies with scholars and teachers of accounting. Utilizing the theory of shared professional responsibility developed by Larry May (1992), I argue that the accounting academy’s search for scientific respectability has had the consequence of destroying our ability as a discipline to have

Paul F Williams

2004-01-01

348

Reaping the wind: How mechanical wizards, visionaries, and profiteers helped shape our energy future  

SciTech Connect

In the book, journalist Peter Asmus tells the fascinating and convoluted history of commercial wind power in the United States. He introduces readers to maverick scientists and technologists who labored in obscurity, to entrepreneurs and visionary capitalists who believed that a centuries-old idea could be made feasible in the modern world, and to enterprising financial advisers and investors who sought to exploit the last great tax shelter in federal history. Beginning with the early pioneers, from William Heronemus, a former US Navy captain who dreamt of huge floating wind farms off the coast of New England, to the $40 million success story of Jim Dehlsen of Zond, he offers an animated narrative that profiles the colorful cast of characters involved with the development of the American wind power industry.

Asmus, P.

1999-01-01

349

Digging a Vegetarian Diet: Plant-Based Eating Can Reap Rewards  

MedlinePLUS

... and fish,” says NIH nutritionist Dr. Susan Krebs-Smith, who monitors trends in cancer risk factors. Most ... are many different types of vegetarian diets,” Krebs-Smith explains. “Some are more restrictive than others.” Strict ...

350

Weed 'Em and Reap: The Art of Weeding to Avoid Criticism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today media centers provide students the opportunity to learn and explore subjects of their interest in depth. The media center is the largest classroom in the school providing service to every student and every teacher in all curricular areas. The library should be a place to encourage students' interests and a place to broaden their horizons by…

Allen, Melissa

2010-01-01

351

We Cannot Blindly Reap the Benefits of a Globalized ICT Supply Chain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM) seeks to manage and mitigate cyber and supply chain risk throughout an acquisition and sustainment lifecycle for an element or a system. It is a multi-disciplinary challeng...

D. Davidson S. Shankles

2013-01-01

352

Reaping the Whirlwind: "The Wind that Shakes the Barley", Liberation and after in the Movies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Popular culture includes stories that define and justify the existence of groups and nations. Among those stories are creation accounts, especially stories of the forming of nations through struggles for liberation from oppression. The useful liberation myths are exemplified by two recent films: "V for Vendetta" and "Children of Men." Another…

Beck, Bernard

2008-01-01

353

Plants meet challenges, reap benefits of on-site waste firing  

SciTech Connect

The author says several companies use hazardous-waste-derived fuels. He describes the Tennessee Eastman Corporation plant in Kingsport, Tennessee, which involves a variety of hazardous and non-hazardous waste streams, co-firing in existing pulverized coal and spreader-stoker-fired boilers, and a central incinerator with a heat-recovery steam generator. Other company programs that are discussed are those at the 3M Company and General Motors Corporation. This activity involves some of the most sophisticated engineering and equipment applications in the area of combustion/steam generation today.

Makansi, J.

1987-12-01

354

Plants meet challenges, reap benefits of on-site waste firing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author says several companies use hazardous-waste-derived fuels. He describes the Tennessee Eastman Corporation plant in Kingsport, Tennessee, which involves a variety of hazardous and non-hazardous waste streams, co-firing in existing pulverized coal and spreader-stoker-fired boilers, and a central incinerator with a heat-recovery steam generator. Other company programs that are discussed are those at the 3M Company and General Motors

Makansi

1987-01-01

355

The Weatherby Processing plant reaps big benefits from state-of-the-art technologies  

SciTech Connect

In the fall of 2003, the Weatherby Processing plant in Kanawha County, WV, USA launched a program to evaluate the overall operation and efficiency of its two heavy-medium cyclones circuits processing 2-inch x 0 raw coal with the intention of reducing coal losses misplaced to refuse. A plant sampling program was developed and conducted that provided the basis for the plant upgrade, which included the installation of a raw coal sizing screen, the establishment of coarse and fine heavy-medium cyclones circuits, a compound spirals circuit, and a column flotation circuit. The upgraded flowsheet resulted in a major improvement in separation efficiency as well as a significant reduction in magnetite consumption. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Bratton, R.C.; Raines, J. [Virginia Tech (United States). Dept. of Mining and Mineral Engineering

2006-10-15

356

(Almost) Word for Word: As Voice Recognition Programs Improve, Students Reap the Benefits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Voice recognition software is hardly new--attempts at capturing spoken words and turning them into written text have been available to consumers for about two decades. But what was once an expensive and highly unreliable tool has made great strides in recent years, perhaps most recognized in programs such as Nuance's Dragon NaturallySpeaking…

Smith, Mark

2006-01-01

357

Reaping the potentials of nonlinear energy harvesting with tunable damping and modulation of the forcing functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental features of nonlinear dynamical systems are investigated in the context of vibration-based energy harvesting. A generalized, global, multi-frequency resonance condition is shown to exist in nonlinear systems where the energy harvesting efficiency has been maximized. Results show that damping and modulation of the excitation play critical roles in facilitating the frequency match required for resonance by tuning the frequencies of the system and modifying the frequency content of the excitation.

Ma, T.; Zhang, H.

2014-05-01

358

Reaping the space investment. [Shuttle era geosynchronous satellite based technological trends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By 1999 operational space systems will be implemented routinely on a worldwide scale in many areas vital to human survival and life quality. Geosynchronous-based monitoring and observation will be extensively used. The Shuttle era will bring in the capability to allow monitoring and identifying pollution sources which fail to stay within required limits. Remotely sensed data over land masses will provide needed facts on renewable and nonrenewable earth resources. New instruments and techniques will have been developed to provide geologists with clues to the declining number of deposits of fuels and minerals. Also, practical methods for predicting earthquakes will have been elaborated by 1999. Communications will see implementation of many of the technological goals of 1978.

Calio, A. J.

1979-01-01

359

Worlds apart 1: Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh. Reaping rewards of social development.  

PubMed

Tamil Nadu had a 1991 annual growth rate of 1.1% compared to a rate of over 2% in the northern states of Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. The lower fertility and mortality in Tamil Nadu was achieved through a sustained, multifaceted social and economic effort and through promotion, reach, and quality of family planning in a short time period. Political leadership and media efforts since the 1960s have strengthened support for the small family norm, later marriage, and improved status of women. Infrastructure development includes roads and water supplies in every village, rural electrification, and a government center in every village. Tamil Nadu devotes over 33% of its total budget to health and education. Special emphasis was placed on a program initiated in 1982 to provide a nutritious midday meal in school to every child living in poverty. In 1994, this program cost Rs. 3350. The result has been increasing school enrollment, greater retention of female children, reductions in malnutrition, and opportunities for local part-time employment and increased social status in the community. In some locations, the meal program includes day care centers and meals for the aged. Another social program provides cash loans of Rs. 5000 to couples at first marriage who are over the age of 18 years with a completed high school degree. Rs. 300 are provided for nutritional support for the first two pregnancies. Rs. 10,000 are also given to girls whose family income is under Rs. 12,000 a year. Financial assistance is available for widows who remarry and for intercaste marriages. A new program provides a gold ring, educational expenses, and Rs. 20 for families with an only girl child or two girl children and which accept a permanent method of family planning. A negligible 20,000 couples joined the program, although about 15% of the total population was eligible. 50-55% of women receive state subsidies and loans. Collectives exist in 12,000 women's groups. Tamil Nadu's chief administrator prepared a 10-point program for the advancement of women. Some feminist groups have challenged the official presentation of government successes because of their concern that demographic successes would be achieved at the expense of care and respect for human aspects of population. PMID:12345833

Chhabra, R

1994-01-01

360

Restoring coastal plants to improve global carbon storage: reaping what we sow.  

PubMed

Long-term carbon capture and storage (CCS) is currently considered a viable strategy for mitigating rising levels of atmospheric CO(2) and associated impacts of global climate change. Until recently, the significant below-ground CCS capacity of coastal vegetation such as seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangroves has largely gone unrecognized in models of global carbon transfer. However, this reservoir of natural, free, and sustainable carbon storage potential is increasingly jeopardized by alarming trends in coastal habitat loss, totalling 30-50% of global abundance over the last century alone. Human intervention to restore lost habitats is a potentially powerful solution to improve natural rates of global CCS, but data suggest this approach is unlikely to substantially improve long-term CCS unless current restoration efforts are increased to an industrial scale. Failure to do so raises the question of whether resources currently used for expensive and time-consuming restoration projects would be more wisely invested in arresting further habitat loss and encouraging natural recovery. PMID:21479244

Irving, Andrew D; Connell, Sean D; Russell, Bayden D

2011-01-01

361

VentureStar(trademark) Reaping the Benefits of the X-33 Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major X-33 flight hardware has been delivered, and assembly of the vehicle is well underway in anticipation of its flight test program commencing in the summer of 1999. Attention has now turned to the operational VentureStar(trademark), the first single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) reusable launch vehicle. Activities are grouped under two broad categories: (1) vehicle development and (2) market/business planning, each of which is discussed. The mission concept is presented for direct payload delivery to the International Space Station and to low Earth orbit, as well as payload delivery with an upper stage to Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) and other high energy orbits. System requirements include flight segment and ground segment. Vehicle system sizing and design status is provided including the application of X-33 traceability and lessons learned. Technology applications to the VentureStar(trademark) are described including the structure, propellant tanks, thermal protection system, aerodynamics, subsystems, payload bay and propulsion. Developing a market driven low cost launch services system for the 21 st Century requires traditional and non-traditional ways of being able to forecast the evolution of the potential market. The challenge is balancing both the technical and financial assumptions of the market. This involves the need to provide a capability to meet market segments that in some cases are very speculative, while at the same time providing the financial community with a credible revenue stream.

Sumrall, J.; Lane, C.

1998-01-01

362

The Phoenix population: demographic crisis and rebound in Cambodia.  

PubMed

The study of mortality crises provides an unusual and valuable perspective on the relationship between mortality and fertility changes, a relationship that has puzzled demographers for decades. In this article, we combine nationally representative survey and demographic-surveillance system data to study fertility trends around the time of the Khmer Rouge (KR) regime, under which 25% of the Cambodian population died. We present the first quantitative evidence to date that attests to a one-third decline of fertility during this regime, followed by a substantial "baby boom" after the fall of the KR. Further analyses reveal that the fertility rebound was produced not only by a two-year marriage bubble but also by a surge in marital fertility that remained for nearly a decade above its precrisis level. Our results illustrate the potential influence of mortality on fertility, which may be more difficult to identify for more gradual mortality declines. To the extent that until recently, Cambodian fertility appears to fit natural fertility patterns, our findings also reinforce recent qualifications about the meaning of this core paradigm of demographic analysis. PMID:17583312

Heuveline, Patrick; Poch, Bunnak

2007-05-01

363

Building peace through participatory health training: a case from Cambodia.  

PubMed

This qualitative study examines the significance and effectiveness of participatory health training as a tool for peace building. It does so by analysing a case of training for 'health promoters' run by a Cambodian government health agency. The authors observed participants during the training and interviewed those involved in the courses. A developing capacity for coexistence and reconciliation between individuals who had been on opposite sides during the years of Khmer Rouge terror and continuous internal war was observed among both participants and trainers. Factors embodied in the training that facilitated favourable changes in self and in relations with others were identified as: (1) 'space for dialogue' was created by concrete common public health interests and urgent needs; (2) training took place 'live-in' style in a rural setting; (3) course contents and methods were consistent with peace education; (4) trainers had a conscious function as role models; and (5) there was continuity of effort and consequent accumulation of experience. To build peace, as well as conducting training directly on a technical topic, these essential factors need to be incorporated in the training programmes. PMID:19283628

Ui, S; Leng, K; Aoyama, A

2007-01-01

364

Education, Teacher Training and Prospects for Economic Recovery in Cambodia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the history of Cambodian education, 1945-95, including heavy investment in urban secondary and higher education after independence, Khmer Rouge destruction of the educational system, rapid educational expansion in the 1980s despite the lack of qualified teachers, and present international aid programs to train teachers. Discusses…

Duggan, Stephen J.

1996-01-01

365

Scholastic Achievement of Adolescent Refugees from Cambodia and Central America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Central American and Cambodian students in six Canadian high schools and their parents were interviewed to assess the students' emotional problems and pre- and postmigration family environment. Findings indicate that the relationship between the emotional problems and scholastic achievement of teenaged refugees was tenuous. (Author/MKA)

Rousseau, Cecile; Drapeau, Aline

2000-01-01

366

USAID/CAMBODIA: Results Review and Resource Request, April 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the early 1990s USAID has been assisting the Cambodian people to rebuild their society. Development and strengthening of indigenous non-governmental organizations (NGOs) has been a cornerstone of this effort, with Cambodian NGOs increasingly steppin...

2000-01-01

367

Child Labour, Education Policy and Governance in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers how the issue of child labour is located in Cambodian education policy debates and how it is affected by the major constraints surrounding the Cambodian education sector. In particular, it asks why Cambodian policy makers have not sought to address the issue explicitly despite its considerable, and adverse, impact on…

Kim, Chae-Young

2011-01-01

368

Sowing and Reaping a Revolution: Economic Change and Growth in the People's Republic of China, 1949-1981.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit, intended for use with secondary students, presents background information on the Chinese economy. The subject warrants serious consideration because Sino-American trade has grown remarkable in the last decade and economic events occurring in China have the capacity to affect events in this country. The unit contains a six part narrative…

Taylor, Jeffrey R.

369

Areawide suppression of European corn borer with Bt maize reaps savings to non-Bt maize growers.  

PubMed

Transgenic maize engineered to express insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has become widely adopted in U.S. agriculture. In 2009, Bt maize was planted on more than 22.2 million hectares, constituting 63% of the U.S. crop. Using statistical analysis of per capita growth rate estimates, we found that areawide suppression of the primary pest Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer) is associated with Bt maize use. Cumulative benefits over 14 years are an estimated $3.2 billion for maize growers in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, with more than $2.4 billion of this total accruing to non-Bt maize growers. Comparable estimates for Iowa and Nebraska are $3.6 billion in total, with $1.9 billion for non-Bt maize growers. These results affirm theoretical predictions of pest population suppression and highlight economic incentives for growers to maintain non-Bt maize refugia for sustainable insect resistance management. PMID:20929774

Hutchison, W D; Burkness, E C; Mitchell, P D; Moon, R D; Leslie, T W; Fleischer, S J; Abrahamson, M; Hamilton, K L; Steffey, K L; Gray, M E; Hellmich, R L; Kaster, L V; Hunt, T E; Wright, R J; Pecinovsky, K; Rabaey, T L; Flood, B R; Raun, E S

2010-10-01

370

As you reap, so shall you sow: coupling of harvesting and inoculating stabilizes the mutualism between termites and fungi.  

PubMed

At present there is no consensus theory explaining the evolutionary stability of mutualistic interactions. However, the question is whether there are general 'rules', or whether each particular mutualism needs a unique explanation. Here, I address the ultimate evolutionary stability of the 'agricultural' mutualism between fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces fungi, and provide a proximate mechanism for how stability is achieved. The key to the proposed mechanism is the within-nest propagation mode of fungal symbionts by termites. The termites suppress horizontal fungal transmission by consuming modified unripe mushrooms (nodules) for food. However, these nodules provide asexual gut-resistant spores that form the inoculum of new substrate. This within-nest propagation has two important consequences: (i) the mutualistic fungi undergo severe, recurrent bottlenecks, so that the fungus is likely to be in monoculture and (ii) the termites 'artificially' select for high nodule production, because their fungal food source also provides the inoculum for the next harvest. I also provide a brief comparison of the termite-fungus mutualism with the analogous agricultural mutualism between attine ants and fungi. This comparison shows that--although common factors for the ultimate evolutionary stability of mutualisms can be identified--the proximate mechanisms can be fundamentally different between different mutualisms. PMID:17148364

Aanen, Duur K

2006-06-22

371

As you reap, so shall you sow: coupling of harvesting and inoculating stabilizes the mutualism between termites and fungi  

PubMed Central

At present there is no consensus theory explaining the evolutionary stability of mutualistic interactions. However, the question is whether there are general ‘rules’, or whether each particular mutualism needs a unique explanation. Here, I address the ultimate evolutionary stability of the ‘agricultural’ mutualism between fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces fungi, and provide a proximate mechanism for how stability is achieved. The key to the proposed mechanism is the within-nest propagation mode of fungal symbionts by termites. The termites suppress horizontal fungal transmission by consuming modified unripe mushrooms (nodules) for food. However, these nodules provide asexual gut-resistant spores that form the inoculum of new substrate. This within-nest propagation has two important consequences: (i) the mutualistic fungi undergo severe, recurrent bottlenecks, so that the fungus is likely to be in monoculture and (ii) the termites ‘artificially’ select for high nodule production, because their fungal food source also provides the inoculum for the next harvest. I also provide a brief comparison of the termite–fungus mutualism with the analogous agricultural mutualism between attine ants and fungi. This comparison shows that—although common factors for the ultimate evolutionary stability of mutualisms can be identified—the proximate mechanisms can be fundamentally different between different mutualisms.

Aanen, Duur K

2006-01-01

372

Digitization and the Creation of Virtual Libraries: The Princeton University Image Card Catalog--Reaping the Benefits of Imaging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project at the Princeton University libraries that converted the pre-1981 public card catalog, using digital imaging and optical character recognition technology, to fully tagged and indexed records of text in MARC format that are available on an online database and will be added to the online catalog. (LRW)

Henthorne, Eileen

1995-01-01

373

The improvement of human-centred processes-facing the challenge and reaping the benefit of ISO 13407  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human-centred design processes for interactive systems are defined in ISO 13407 and the associated ISO TR 18529. The publication of these standards represents a maturing of the discipline of user-centred design. The systems development community see that (at last) Human Factors has processes which can be managed and integrated with existing project processes. This internationally agreed set of human-centred design

Jonathan Earthy; Brian Sherwood Jones; Nigel Bevan

2001-01-01

374

Embarking on large-scale qualitative research: reaping the benefits of mixed methods in studying youth, clubs and drugs.  

PubMed

Qualitative research is often conceptualized as inherently small-scale research, primarily conducted by a lone researcher enmeshed in extensive and long-term fieldwork or involving in-depth interviews with a small sample of 20 to 30 participants. In the study of illicit drugs, traditionally this has often been in the form of ethnographies of drug-using subcultures. Such small-scale projects have produced important interpretive scholarship that focuses on the culture and meaning of drug use in situated, embodied contexts. Larger-scale projects are often assumed to be solely the domain of quantitative researchers, using formalistic survey methods and descriptive or explanatory models.In this paper, however, we will discuss qualitative research done on a comparatively larger scale-with in-depth qualitative interviews with hundreds of young drug users. Although this work incorporates some quantitative elements into the design, data collection, and analysis, the qualitative dimension and approach has nevertheless remained central. Larger-scale qualitative research shares some of the challenges and promises of smaller-scale qualitative work including understanding drug consumption from an emic perspective, locating hard-to-reach populations, developing rapport with respondents, generating thick descriptions and a rich analysis, and examining the wider socio-cultural context as a central feature. However, there are additional challenges specific to the scale of qualitative research, which include data management, data overload and problems of handling large-scale data sets, time constraints in coding and analyzing data, and personnel issues including training, organizing and mentoring large research teams. Yet large samples can prove to be essential for enabling researchers to conduct comparative research, whether that be cross-national research within a wider European perspective undertaken by different teams or cross-cultural research looking at internal divisions and differences within diverse communities and cultures. PMID:22308079

Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Fazio, Adam

2011-12-21

375

Peer Editing in the 21st Century College Classroom: Do Beginning Composition Students Truly Reap the Benefits?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since its emergence in the 1960s, critics and instructors alike have lauded the benefits of peer collaboration in the college composition classroom, and more specifically, the value of peer editing. However, the benefits of peer editing are not necessarily realized in traditional entry level writing classes. A consultation of both quantitative and…

Jesnek, Lindsey M.

2011-01-01

376

Empowering Fourth-Grade Researchers: Reaping the Rewards of Web 2.0 Student-Centered Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

NCTE's Framework for 21st Century Literacies (2008) prompted collaboration between a university professor and classroom teacher resulting in a professional inquiry project utilizing a Web 2.0 tool, Scrapblog, with fourth-grade students. This article describes implementation of this project, including both challenges and positive outcomes. The…

Atkinson, Terry S.; Swaggerty, Elizabeth A.

2011-01-01

377

Embarking on large-scale qualitative research: reaping the benefits of mixed methods in studying youth, clubs and drugs  

PubMed Central

Qualitative research is often conceptualized as inherently small-scale research, primarily conducted by a lone researcher enmeshed in extensive and long-term fieldwork or involving in-depth interviews with a small sample of 20 to 30 participants. In the study of illicit drugs, traditionally this has often been in the form of ethnographies of drug-using subcultures. Such small-scale projects have produced important interpretive scholarship that focuses on the culture and meaning of drug use in situated, embodied contexts. Larger-scale projects are often assumed to be solely the domain of quantitative researchers, using formalistic survey methods and descriptive or explanatory models. In this paper, however, we will discuss qualitative research done on a comparatively larger scale—with in-depth qualitative interviews with hundreds of young drug users. Although this work incorporates some quantitative elements into the design, data collection, and analysis, the qualitative dimension and approach has nevertheless remained central. Larger-scale qualitative research shares some of the challenges and promises of smaller-scale qualitative work including understanding drug consumption from an emic perspective, locating hard-to-reach populations, developing rapport with respondents, generating thick descriptions and a rich analysis, and examining the wider socio-cultural context as a central feature. However, there are additional challenges specific to the scale of qualitative research, which include data management, data overload and problems of handling large-scale data sets, time constraints in coding and analyzing data, and personnel issues including training, organizing and mentoring large research teams. Yet large samples can prove to be essential for enabling researchers to conduct comparative research, whether that be cross-national research within a wider European perspective undertaken by different teams or cross-cultural research looking at internal divisions and differences within diverse communities and cultures.

Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Fazio, Adam

2012-01-01

378

National Shipbuilding Research Program. Proceedings of the REAPS Technical Sympsoium. Paper No. 14: Generating New Ship Lines From a Parent Hull.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Section area curve variation may be used to obtain a new set of fair ship lines from a parent hull by varying any or all of the following parameters: prismatic coefficient, longitudinal center of buoyancy, extent of parallel midbody, or slopes at entrance...

R. McNaull

1980-01-01

379

National Shipbuilding Research Program. Proceedings of the REAPS Technical Symposium. Paper No. 10: A National Coalition for the Shipbuilding Technology Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation of an approach to a U.S. Navy sponsored shipbuilding technology program is discussed. An approach is recommended, and a detailed project plan for a shipbuilding technology program is proposed.The U.S. Navy has announced its intention to i...

I. F. Helming

1981-01-01

380

Reaping the Benefits: Defining the Public and Private Value of Going to College. The New Millennium Project on Higher Education Costs, Pricing, and Productivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the individual and societal benefits of attending college, providing a broad overview of the range of benefits that accrue from college education. It includes a brief historical discussion of the benefits of higher education and the role of state and federal governments in encouraging college attendance. The report then…

Institute for Higher Education Policy, Washington, DC.

381

Houston-Area Community Colleges Reap Rewards of Cooperative Television Campaign. Presentation to the National Council of Community Relations National Conference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to a statewide economic crisis resulting in a 9% funding cut for Texas community colleges, the presidents of nine Houston area community colleges formed a consortium to pool their resources and aggressively market the colleges. Since 1986, the Gulf Coast Consortium has mounted late-summer television and radio advertising campaigns to…

Boatright, Joyce; Lestarjette, Steve

382

Exercise augmentation compared to usual care for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomised Controlled Trial (The REAP study: R andomised E xercise A ugmentation for P TSD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The physical wellbeing of people with mental health conditions can often be overlooked in order to treat the primary mental\\u000a health condition as a priority. Exercise however, can potentially improve both the primary psychiatric condition as well as\\u000a physical measures that indicate risk of other conditions such as diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Evidence supports\\u000a the role of exercise as

Simon Rosenbaum; Dang Nguyen; Tom Lenehan; Anne Tiedemann; Hidde P van der Ploeg; Catherine Sherrington

2011-01-01

383

Investments reap dividends for many universities, but access and quality of higher education across the United States continues to lag behind  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of noteworthy items related to the landscape of higher education found their way into major newspapers this week, including the announcement that Harvard University's endowment reported a 21.1 percent gain on its investments for the fiscal year 2004. This was the best performing year for Harvard's university fund since 2000, although the school also announced that the projected returns during the coming decade will be significantly lower than the past 10 years. Across the wide world of higher education throughout the United States, the news was not nearly as optimistic, at least in terms of access and affordability for those seeking higher education opportunities. A report issued this week from the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education on the state of higher education across the country noted that only three states (California, Utah, and Minnesota) scored higher than a "D" in terms of providing affordable options for attending college. The report essentially grades affordability by comparing net college costs with the average family income in each state, and by this measure, the Center has concluded that college is becoming less affordable in most states. Commenting on the report, David Breneman (dean of the Curry School of Education at the University of Virginia) remarked that "For at least another five to eight years we're looking at a real denial of opportunity." In conclusion, it should also be noted that the report also notes that the nation's high schools have improved over the past decade.The first link leads to an article on the spectacular performance by Harvard's endowment from this Wednesday's Boston Globe. The second link leads to a like-minded piece written by Alvin Powell of the Harvard News Office. The third link leads to a well-written piece in The Salt Lake Tribune that discusses the national affordable education report's comments on the state of Utah's higher education system. Visitors to the fourth link will find an article from The Sacramento Bee that discusses the generally fine performance of California's higher education system, but still offering the potential specter of increased tuition costs that may hinder efforts to increase accessibility and maintain affordability. The fifth link whisks visitors away to a piece from The Capital Times of Madison, Wisconsin, which discusses the ramifications of this national report throughout the state of Wisconsin, a place long lauded for its extensive and much-studied system of higher education. Finally, the last link leads to the homepage of the recently released National Report Card on Higher Education. Here visitors can view individual state reports, peruse a broad overview of national trends, and also compare states in terms of their overall performance during the past few years.

384

Setting up a CFO Trust Fund: Forging a Bond with Your Director of Finance Will Reap Rewards for Your Institution--And Your Department  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While it would be naive to think that every CIO can achieve a rapport with his CFO, understanding the importance of a solid relationship with the head of finance is critical to success, both for the IT department and the institution as a whole. Never has this been truer than in today's bleak economy, as CFOs become increasingly cautious about…

Schaffhauser, Dian

2011-01-01

385

National Shipbuilding Research Program. Proceedings of the REAPS Technical Symposium. Paper No. 21: Computer Aided Ship Design and Construction in the Navy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses a number of facets of Computer-Aided Ship Design and Construction (CASDAC) in which the writer has been involved. A brief history of computers in the Navy is given, some notes on the CASDAC project, the flavor of two recent programs, N...

T. Corin

1977-01-01

386

Oral manifestations in HIV-infected individuals from Thailand and Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral manifestations were studied in 87 HIV-positive Thai adults (study 1), 45 HIV-positive children (study 2) and 101 HIV-positive (study 3). In study 1, 48% of patients had oral lesions; 23% had one and 13.8% two oral manifestations. Oral pseudomembranous candidiasis was found in 10.3%, erythematous candidiasis in 6.9%, and hairy leukoplakia (HL) in 11.5% of the patients. In study

P. A. Reichart; P. Khongkhunthian; C. Bendick

2003-01-01

387

Paradigm and Paradox: Education for All and the Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In keeping with international guidelines and to meet the target of Education for All (EFA) by 2015, the Cambodian government, with assistance from non-government and aid organisations, has instituted several initiatives towards including children with disabilities in the educational mainstream. This paper examines these efforts within the context…

Kalyanpur, Maya

2011-01-01

388

Starting from Nowhere? Popular Music in Cambodia after the Khmer Rouge  

Microsoft Academic Search

illuminates the power of culture. By “culture,” I denote a traditional way of life, a rubric of familiar phenomena that include indigenous ritual, ideology, belief systems, and the spatial and temporal rhythms to which these systems move and integrate. Yet, also revealed in such a study is the power of cultural change—change fueled by a growing market economy, tourism, and

Stephen Mamula

2008-01-01

389

Saving, Kidnapping, or Something of Both? Canada and the Vietnam\\/Cambodia Babylift, Spring 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the spring of 1975 Canada supplied one chapter in the Vietnam “Babylift.” Canadians disagreed about the Babylift's meaning for themselves and their nation. For some, it offered the opportunity to rescue child casualties of war and to confirm a multicultural country; for others, it constituted kidnapping and evidence of Western imperialism. This dual response is explored in four parts

Veronica Strong-Boag; Rupa Bagga

2009-01-01

390

Social cost of land mines in four countries: Afghanistan, Bosnia, Cambodia, and Mozambique  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstractObjectives:To document the effects of land mines on the health and social conditions of communities in four affected countries.Design:A cross design of cluster survey and rapid appraisal methods including a household questionnaire and qualitative data from key informants, institutional reviews, and focus groups of survivors of landmines from the same communities.Setting:206 communities, 37 in Afghanistan, 66 in Bosnia, 38 in

Neil Andersson; Cesar Palha da Sousa; Sergio Paredes

1995-01-01

391

Implementing AIDS Prevention and Care (IMPACT) Project in Cambodia. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our mission is to strengthen the capacity of the country to prevent HIV/AIDS; provide care, support and treatment; and mitigate the impact of the epidemic. From 1998 onward, FHI--with generous assistance from USAID under the IMPACT project--has supported ...

2007-01-01

392

e-Learning in Higher Education Makes Its Debut in Cambodia: The Provincial Business Education Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing countries face a number of challenges in their efforts to compete successfully in the new global economy. Perhaps the most critical resource needed to achieve these goals is trained human capital. While many developing countries are trying to address this need through traditional means, this may not be the most effective or efficient…

Abdon, Buenafe R.; Ninomiya, Seishi; Raab, Robert T.

2007-01-01

393

Baksbat (broken courage): a trauma-based cultural syndrome in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) sufficiently explains and encompasses the symptoms experienced by people from non-Western cultures is debatable. The etymological, social, and historical contexts of idioms of distress experienced by Khmer, known as baksbat, were studied through interviews with 53 Cambodian experts. Phey-khlach (double fear), bor-veas-cheas-chgnay (wishing that the trauma would go away), dam-doeum-kor (planting a kapok tree-remaining mute), chos-nhorm (submissive, easily giving in), kob yobal (ideas are buried), and loss of togetherness, were all identified as specific symptoms of baksbat. Similarities and differences between symptoms of baksbat, PTSD, anxiety, and depression indicate that baksbat is a Cambodian idiom of distress with sufficient characteristics to be recognized as a formal cultural trauma syndrome distinct from PTSD. Increased awareness of its criteria and phenomenology may help clinicians provide appropriate support for traumatized Cambodians. PMID:23406066

Chhim, Sotheara

2013-01-01

394

High Prevalence of Ancylostoma ceylanicum Hookworm Infections in Humans, Cambodia, 2012  

PubMed Central

Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a hookworm of canids and felids in Asia, is becoming the second most common hookworm infecting humans. In 2012, we investigated the prevalence and infection dynamics of and risk factors for hookworm infections in humans and dogs in a rural Cambodian village. Over 57% of the population was infected with hookworms; of those, 52% harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. The greatest intensities of A. ceylanicum eggs were in persons 21-30 years of age. Over 90% of dogs also harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. Characterization of the cytochrome oxidase-1 gene divided isolates of A. ceylanicum hookworms into 2 groups, 1 containing isolates from humans only and the other a mix of isolates from humans and animals. We hypothesize that preventative chemotherapy in the absence of concurrent hygiene and animal health programs may be a factor leading to emergence of A. ceylanicum infections; thus, we advocate for a One Health approach to control this zoonosis.

Schar, Fabian; Dalsgaard, Anders; Khieu, Virak; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Chhoun, Chamnan; Sok, Daream; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter; Traub, Rebecca J.

2014-01-01

395

Land-lake breezes at low latitudes: The case of Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tonle Sap Lake is the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia. During the postmonsoon season, a small linear cloud system has been observed over this lake in early morning, while the sky above the surrounding land is clear. Although this cloud system is apparently generated by land breezes, previous studies on land-lake (sea) circulation have suggested that environmental factors at low latitudes inhibit development of nocturnal land breezes. In this study, we investigate the mechanism of these early morning clouds through numerical simulation. The simulations show a linear updraft system over the lake, forming along the southwest lakeshore around 22:00 and moving northeast to the middle of the lake. The heavier air mass from the land meets the extraordinarily warm and humid air mass over the lake, triggering updrafts under the conditionally convective instability. The characteristic high surface water temperature was favorable for generation of the land breeze and updraft systems. That high surface water temperature of the lake is produced by the tropical climate along with efficient energy absorption because of the shallowness of the water body. This unique feature can generate a clear nocturnal land breeze circulation accompanying a migrating updraft system over the lake despite its low latitude.

Tsujimoto, Kumiko; Koike, Toshio

2013-07-01

396

The Distribution of Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Cambodia: Gaps and Thresholds in Math Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing teacher quality is a major objective of recent Cambodian education policy. In mathematics education literature, pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has emerged as a critical component of teacher quality that is strongly linked to student achievement. In this study I use data from a large survey of Cambodian schools to investigate the…

Ngo, Federick J.

2013-01-01

397

Diversity of Orientia tsutsugamushi clinical isolates in Cambodia reveals active selection and recombination process.  

PubMed

Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of scrub typhus in South East Asia and Pacific, is an obligate intracellular bacterium closely related to the Rickettsia. The pathogen is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected larvae of trombiculid mites of the genus Leptotrombidium in which is maintained trough vertical transmission mechanism. The infection in rodents has been described in over 20 species. Scrub typhus is commonly confused with other tropical fevers and late diagnosis and treatment can lead to severe organ failures and a strain-dependent mortality rate of up to 50%. A MLST scheme associating seven core function genes: adk, lepB, lipA, lipB, secY, sodB and sucA was developed and validated on seven Cambodian strains detected in patients and two complete reference genomes from Korea and Japan. Sequence data were analyzed both with respect to sequence type (ST) diversity and DNA polymorphism. Differing trends were revealed. DNA polymorphism and phylogeny of individual gene loci indicated a significant level of recombination and genetic diversity. However, the ST distribution is clearly clonal and the clinical situation can be summarized by the formula: one patient, one strain, one ST. This contradiction is only apparent and is most likely the consequence of the unique life cycle of O. tsutsugamushi. The quasi exclusive vertical transmission mode in mites generates repeated bottlenecks and small-size populations and strongly limits genetic diversity. O. tsutsugamushi has developed specific mechanisms for generating genetic diversity which include recombination, duplication and conjugation. Recombination and other mechanisms for increasing genetic diversity are likely to occur in rodents which can act as maintenance hosts, although occurrence in mites cannot be excluded. Consequences for the epidemiology of scrub typhus are discussed. PMID:20854933

Duong, Veasna; Blassdell, Kim; May, Thinh Thi Xuan; Sreyrath, Lay; Gavotte, Laurent; Morand, Serge; Frutos, Roger; Buchy, Philippe

2013-04-01

398

Improving Adult Learning and Professional Development in a Post-Conflict Area: The Case of Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All over the world, international development organizations try to increase professional capacity of local staff. These attempts are thought to fail because of financial constraints, but this is just part of the story. Professional development and adult learning theories approach learning from a western perspective, while many developing societies…

Berkvens, Jan B. Y.; Kalyanpur, Maya; Kuiper, Wilmad; Van den Akker, Jan

2012-01-01

399

Cost-Effectiveness of Primary Prophylaxis of AIDS Associated Cryptococcosis in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCryptococcal infection is a frequent cause of mortality in Cambodian HIV-infected patients with CD4+ count ?100 cells\\/µl. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of three strategies for cryptococcosis prevention in HIV-infected patients.MethodsA Markov decision tree was used to compare the following strategies at the time of HIV diagnosis: no intervention, one time systematic serum cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) screening and treatment of

Romain Micol; Ayden Tajahmady; Olivier Lortholary; Suna Balkan; Catherine Quillet; Jean-Philippe Dousset; Hak Chanroeun; Yoann Madec; Arnaud Fontanet; Yazdan Yazdanpanah; Landon Myer

2010-01-01

400

Chemical analysis of black crust on the Angkor sandstone at the Bayon temple, Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Angkor complex is the one of the greatest cultural heritages in the world. It is constructed in the early 12th century, designated as a world cultural heritage by UNESCO in 1992. The temples at the Angkor complex are mainly made of sandstone and laterite. However, due to the tropical climate, plants, lichens and various microorganisms are growing well on the rock surface. Black crusts are also easily found on the stone surface. The 21st technical session of the International Coordinating Committee for the Safeguarding and Development of the Historic Site of Angkor (ICC-Angkor) held in 2012 recommended that to preserve both the biofilms and the forest cover and to prohibit the biocides (chlorine-based) and organic biocides. However, there are many reports that lichens and microorganisms accelerate rock weathering. It is important to clarify that how the biofilm on the Angkor temples affect Angkor sandstones. We sampled Angkor sandstone covered by black crust at the Bayon temple, Angkor complex, and observed the section and the surface of the rock sample by using SEM. Surfaces of the samples are not polished in order to observe the original condition. The samples are coated with gold for 180 seconds. The depth of the black crust is up to 1 mm. Many filamentous materials were found on the black crust. Average energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data of the five areas of ca. 20 ?m ×15 ?m in the black crusts shows that over 80 % of the filamentous materials are compounds of carbon. It seems that these materials are hyphae. The shape of the hypha is like a thread and its size is few ?m in diameter and up to several centimeters in length. Black crusts are consisted of elements and compounds of carbon, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, and Fe. Further research has to be done to find out the better and proper way of conservation for the Angkor complex.

Song, Wonsuh; Oguchi, Chiaki; Waragai, Tetsuya

2014-05-01

401

Utilization of Tum Nub (Embankment) for Expanding Double Rice Cropping Area in the Mekong Delta, Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to examine the effect of embankments for expanding double rice cropping area in the Cambodian Mekong Delta, where many traditional embankments called Tum Nub. For realizing double rice cropping in the flood plain, securing the cropping period and irrigation water during non-submerged days is essential, for which utilization of Tum Nub is considered to be effective. The field investigation revealed that some villages are practicing double rice cropping by introducing early rainy season rice. Hence, for introducing early rainy season rice, the effect of combination of two types of embankments was simulated for a target area selected: Type 1 embankment is making a reservoir for storing water, but single rice cropping is allowed in the inside of the reservoir after consuming stored water; and Type 2 is that for delaying the start of inundation. The result of the simulation showed that the combination of the embankments can increase rice production of the target area by 24-30% from the current level.

Saito, Miho; Goto, Akira; Mizutani, Masakazu; Khem, Sothea

402

High Prevalence of Ancylostoma ceylanicum Hookworm Infections in Humans, Cambodia, 2012.  

PubMed

Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a hookworm of canids and felids in Asia, is becoming the second most common hookworm infecting humans. In 2012, we investigated the prevalence and infection dynamics of and risk factors for hookworm infections in humans and dogs in a rural Cambodian village. Over 57% of the population was infected with hookworms; of those, 52% harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. The greatest intensities of A. ceylanicum eggs were in persons 21-30 years of age. Over 90% of dogs also harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. Characterization of the cytochrome oxidase-1 gene divided isolates of A. ceylanicum hookworms into 2 groups, 1 containing isolates from humans only and the other a mix of isolates from humans and animals. We hypothesize that preventative chemotherapy in the absence of concurrent hygiene and animal health programs may be a factor leading to emergence of A. ceylanicum infections; thus, we advocate for a One Health approach to control this zoonosis. PMID:24865815

Inpankaew, Tawin; Schär, Fabian; Dalsgaard, Anders; Khieu, Virak; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Chhoun, Chamnan; Sok, Daream; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter; Traub, Rebecca J

2014-06-01

403

Fusion of ALOS PALSAR and ASTER data for landcover classification at Tonle Sap floodplain, Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The landcover of the northern floodplain around the Tonle Sap Lake involves the various vegetations, lacustrine lands, as well as settlements. In order to understand the contribution of landcover in this area for agricultural, piscicultural activity, and environmental protection, landcover classes should be classified by using remote sensing data. The aim of this study is to increase distinction between landcover classes for classification purpose. To improve the feature texture for pre-classification data, the ALOS PALSAR is fused with ASTER data. Both data are acquired in dry season in which the vegetation is little influenced by flooding. The fused data is created by injecting the feature texture of ALOS PALSAR into ASTER data. However, spectral character is distorted due to mixed spectrum. This is reduced by choosing optimal fused algorithm. The ten landcover classes are selected as signatures to classify and calculate confusion matrixes. Those confusion matrixes reveal that the distinction between the landcover classes in fused data is better than that in ASTER data.

Trung, Nguyen Van; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Won, Joong-Sun

2010-10-01

404

GENOCIDE PREVENTION: GENOCIDE EDUCATION PROJECT NATIONAL TEACHER TRAINING FOR LOWER AND UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOL OF CAMBODIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piaget has been identified as a constructivist as well as an interactionist. His interest in cognitive development came from his interest in the origin of knowledge and his training in the natural sciences. Piaget was very interested in how children come to know and understand their world. He developed his cognitive theory by actually observing and studying children (some of

JEAN PIAGET

405

Discovery of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae in freshwater fish in southern Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small liver flukes, Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverini, are fish-borne trematodes (FBTs) causing significant public health problems in Asia. While C. sinensis is distributing mainly in far east Asia, O. viverini is distributing in Indochina peninsula. Recently, however, the geographical distributions of those small liver flukes were proven to be far wider than expected. Nevertheless, little is known about the

Sarun Touch; Chalit Komalamisra; Prayong Radomyos; Jitra Waikagul

2009-01-01

406

Contemporary Immigration: First-Person Fiction from Cuba, Haiti, Korea, and Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topic of immigration is frequently taught in middle school classrooms as part of the history of America, for this country is indeed a "land of immigrants." Special emphasis is usually given to immigration that occurred a century or more ago, but contemporary immigration may prove to be a more compelling way to view this concept. Middle school…

Sandmann, Alexa

2004-01-01

407

[Caustic burns. Clinical study of 24 patients with sulfuric acid burns in Cambodia].  

PubMed

Over a period of 12 years, 24 burns have been treated by a Cambodgian and French team (Doctors of the World). This experience has revealed some characteristics of this population: (1) a majority of young women (2/3), (2) victims of assault (20 cases). These notions are found in the medical literature particularly South East Asia. All cases are of a third degree. Every surgeon, every anesthetist should apply emergency measures which are recalled here. The aims is to close all the burns surface through a skin graft within a month. However the patients are treated 6 months to 2 years after the burn and have, at this stage, terrible sequella (22 patients). Treating them requires the coordinated efforts of a multidisciplinary specialized team. The challenge is to save the eyes, the mouth, the nose and give back a "human" face to these young burns who are often rejected because of their handicap. Enabling them to smile again is a strong commitment from the surgeon and from the patient who has to undergo multiple operations and a long treatment over the years. PMID:15276254

Micheau, P; Lauwers, F; Vath, Say Bon; Seilha, Thoeurng chan; Dumurgier, C; Joly, B

2004-06-01

408

Professional Education Programme for Land Management and Land Administration in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Land management and land administration are defined as a system of planning, management and administration methods and techniques that aims to integrate ecological with social, economic and legal principles in the management of land for urban and rural development purposes. The main objective is to meet changing and developing human needs, while…

Setha, Vung; Mund, Jan-Peter

2008-01-01

409

pfcrt Polymorphism and Chloroquine Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum Strains Isolated in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

remains high and stable in this region in the absence of chloroquine pressure. Characterization of codons 72 to 78 and 218 to 220 of pfcrt revealed six distinct haplotypes, four of which had never been described. The frequency of each haplotype depended on the geographical origin of the samples. The CVIETIF\\/\\/ISS haplotype was detected in 92% of western Cambodian isolates

Pharath Lim; Sophy Chy; Frederic Ariey; Sandra Incardona; Pektra Chim; Rithy Sem; Mey Bouth Denis; Sean Hewitt; Stefan Hoyer; Doung Socheat; O. Merecreau-Puijalon; T. Fandeur

2003-01-01

410

What International Aid Organizations Can Learn from International Adult Learning: Experiences from Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Many countries receive international support to strengthen professional capacity. The effect of these professional development activities (PDAs), however, is often negligible. This article provides useful insights on how international aid organizations could improve their PDAs, by describing an intervention developed and applied in…

Berkvens, Jan

2012-01-01

411

The environmental impact of Cambodia's ancient city of Mahendraparvata (Phnom Kulen).  

PubMed

The Khmer kingdom, whose capital was at Angkor from the 9(th) to the 14(th)-15(th) century, was founded in 802 by king Jayavarman II in a city called Mahandraparvata, on Phnom Kulen. Virtually nothing more is known of Mahandraparvata from the epigraphic sources, but systematic archaeological survey and excavation have identified an array of cultural features that point to a more extensive and enduring settlement than the historical record indicates. Recent remote sensing data have revolutionized our view, revealing the remains of a city with a complex and spatially extensive network of urban infrastructure. Here, we present a record of vegetation change and soil erosion from within that urban network, dating from the 8(th) century CE. Our findings indicate approximately 400 years of intensive land use, punctuated by discrete periods of intense erosion beginning in the mid 9(th) century and ending in the late 11(th) century. A marked change in water management practices is apparent from the 12(th) century CE, with implications for water supply to Angkor itself. This is the first indication that settlement on Mahendraparvata was not only extensive, but also intensive and enduring, with a marked environmental impact. PMID:24416206

Penny, Dan; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Tang, David; De Greef, Stéphane

2014-01-01

412

Implementing Quality Assurance at Royal University of Phnom Penh, Cambodia: Perceptions, Practices and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quality Assurance in higher education has been an ongoing international issue for discussion. As higher education institutions move toward an era of accountability and accreditation, groups of stakeholders require proof of high-quality academic programs and services from higher education providers. Since the mid-1990s, most providers have strived…

Ros, Soveacha

2010-01-01

413

78 FR 977 - Notice of Proposal To Extend the Memorandum of Understanding Between the Government of the United...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Government of the Kingdom of Cambodia Concerning the Imposition of Import...on Archaeological Material From Cambodia From the Bronze Age Through the...The Government of the Kingdom of Cambodia has informed the Government of...

2013-01-07

414

8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2) Was paroled into the United States from Vietnam under the auspices of the Orderly Departure Program (ODP), a refugee camp in East Asia, or a displaced person camp administered by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees...

2010-01-01

415

8 CFR 245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2) Was paroled into the United States from Vietnam under the auspices of the Orderly Departure Program (ODP), a refugee camp in East Asia, or a displaced person camp administered by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees...

2010-01-01

416

8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2) Was paroled into the United States from Vietnam under the auspices of the Orderly Departure Program (ODP), a refugee camp in East Asia, or a displaced person camp administered by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees...

2009-01-01

417

8 CFR 245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2) Was paroled into the United States from Vietnam under the auspices of the Orderly Departure Program (ODP), a refugee camp in East Asia, or a displaced person camp administered by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees...

2009-01-01

418

Moo U and the Cambodia Invasion: Anti-Vietnam War Protest at Iowa State University, May 1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A detailed examination of the Vietnam war demonstrations on the Iowa State University campus and in Ames (Iowa) in May 1970, utilizing local and student newspaper accounts and interviews contained in an oral history archive, show how words of protest along with critically reasoned behavior led to purposeful student contributions. Through the…

Brown, Clyde; Brown, Gayle K. Pluta

419

8 CFR 245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...b)(1) and in accordance with the form instructions. Applicants who are 14 through 79 years of age must also submit the biometrics service fee described in 8 CFR 103.17. (c) Applications from aliens in immigration proceedings. An...

2014-01-01

420

e-Learning in Higher Education Makes Its Debut in Cambodia: Implications of the Provincial Business Education Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing countries face a number of challenges in their efforts to compete successfully in the new global economy. Perhaps the most critical resource needed to achieve these goals is trained human capital. While many developing countries are trying to address this need through traditional means, this may not be the most effective or efficient…

Abdon, Buenafe R.; Ninomiya, Seishi; Raab, Robert T.

2007-01-01

421

Probing the biogeochemistry of arsenic: Response of two contrasting aquifer sediments from Cambodia to stimulation by arsenate and ferric iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many millions of people worldwide are at risk of severe poisoning through exposure to groundwater contaminated with sediment-derived arsenic. An ever-increasing body of work is reinforcing the link between microbially-mediated redox cycling in aquifer sediments and the mobilisation of sorbed As(V) into groundwaters as the potentially more mobile and toxic As(III) anion. However, to date, few studies have examined the

R. L. Pederick; A. G. Gault; J. M. Charnock; D. A. Polya; J. R. Lloyd

2007-01-01

422

Water source and diarrhoeal disease risk in children under 5 years old in Cambodia: a prospective diary based study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite claims that the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) targets on access to safe drinking water have been met, many 100 s of millions of people still have no access. The challenge remains how to provide these people and especially young children with safe drinking water. Method We report a longitudinal study designed to assess the effectiveness of an intervention based on provided treated drinking water in containers on self-reported diarrhoea in children. The intervention was “1001 fontaines pour demain” (1001 F) is a non-governmental not for profit organization (created in 2004 and based in Caluire, France) that helps local entrepreneurs treat package, and sell safe drinking water. Cases and controls were chosen at village and household level by propensity score matching Participants were visited twice a month over six months and asked to complete a diarrhoea health diary. Results In total 4275 follow-up visits were completed on 376 participants from 309 homes. Diarrhoea was reported in 20.4% of children on each visit, equating to an incidence rate estimate of 5.32 episodes per child per year (95% confidence interval =?4.97 to 5.69). Compared to those drinking 1001 F water, children drinking surface water were 33% (95% CI -1 to 17%), those drinking protected ground water were 62% (95% CI 19 to 120%) and those drinking other bottled water 57% (95% CI 15 to 114%) more likely to report diarrhoea. Children drinking harvested rainwater had similar rates of diarrhoea to Children drinking 1001 F water. Conclusion Our study suggests that 1001 F water provides a safer alternative to groundwater or surface water. Furthermore, our study raises serious concerns about the validity of assuming protected groundwater to be safe water for the purposes of assessing the MDG targets. By contrast our study provides addition evidence of the relative safety of rainwater harvesting.

2013-01-01

423

Conditions for collective action: understanding factors supporting and constraining community-based fish culture in Bangladesh, Cambodia and Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2005, the WorldFish Center embarked on a project to pilot test approaches to community-based fish culture (CBFC) in five countries. A previous study conducted between 1997-2000 demonstrated the potential of the approach in Bangladesh and Vietnam, although a greater understanding was needed regarding the social and institutional factors that would permit the development of CBFC in larger waterbodies to

O. Joffre; N. Sheriff

424

Addressing the human resources crisis: a case study of Cambodia's efforts to reduce maternal mortality (1980-2012)  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify factors that have contributed to the systematic development of the Cambodian human resources for health (HRH) system with a focus on midwifery services in response to high maternal mortality in fragile resource-constrained countries. Design Qualitative case study. Review of the published and grey literature and in-depth interviews with key informants and stakeholders using an HRH system conceptual framework developed by the authors (‘House Model’; Fujita et al, 2011). Interviews focused on the perceptions of respondents regarding their contributions to strengthening midwifery services and the other external influences which may have influenced the HRH system and reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR). Setting Three rounds of interviews were conducted with senior and mid-level managers of the Ministries of Health (MoH) and Education, educational institutes and development partners. Participants A total of 49 interviewees, who were identified through a snowball sampling technique. Main outcome measures Scaling up the availability of 24?h maternal health services at all health centres contributing to MMR reduction. Results The incremental development of the Cambodian HRH system since 2005 focused on the production, deployment and retention of midwives in rural areas as part of a systematic strategy to reduce maternal mortality. The improved availability and access to midwifery services contributed to significant MMR reduction. Other contributing factors included improved mechanisms for decision-making and implementation; political commitment backed up with necessary resources; leadership from the top along with a growing capacity of mid-level managers; increased MoH capacity to plan and coordinate; and supportive development partners in the context of a conducive external environment. Conclusions Lessons from this case study point to the importance of a systemic and comprehensive approach to health and HRH system strengthening and of ongoing capacity enhancement and leadership development to ensure effective planning, implementation and monitoring of HRH policies and strategies.

Fujita, Noriko; Abe, Kimiko; Rotem, Arie; Tung, Rathavy; Keat, Phuong; Robins, Ann; Zwi, Anthony B

2013-01-01

425

Case Studies of Integrated Pedagogy in Vocational Education: A Three-Tier Approach to Empowering Vulnerable Youth in Urban Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper starts with the real-life issues pertaining to the educational, economic and socio-cultural vulnerability of young Cambodians; and the latter in turn has called for greater integrated stance in vocational education. A multiple-case study of nine educational NGOs located in four cities was conducted, whereby what constitutes an…

Cheng, I-Hsuan

2010-01-01

426

UN Peacekeeper in Cambodia, 1991-1992: An Interview with Major George Steuber. Combat Studies Institute Report No. 15.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the wake of the cold war, peacekeeping or, more appropriately, peace enforcing is becoming an increasingly important role for military forces around the world. Because of the many other missions it has been responsible for, the U.S. Army has not partic...

J. E. Brown

1999-01-01

427

How Can Social Enterprise Really Tackle Social Exclusion? A Comparative Study of Children's Welfare in the United Kingdom and Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social enterprise is being increasingly encouraged as a solution to social problems concerning social exclusion, child development and family welfare within both developed and developing countries. This article considers these policy contexts and two case studies of social enterprises that provide children's services in the United Kingdom and…

Lyne, Isaac

2008-01-01

428

Effects of political and military traumas on children: the Palestinian case.  

PubMed

Social scientists have long recognized that individuals subjected to traumatic events associated with military and political conflict experience dire psychological consequences. The systematic study of this phenomenon, however, could be considered a nascent event. Research on the psychological sequel of traumatic events (traumatology) is well-rooted in the recognition and development of posttraumatic stress disorder as a separate psychological disorder category. The early studies in this field focused mainly on adult populations. With the recent advent of involvement of children in military conflicts such as in Africa (e.g., Mozambique), the Middle East (e.g., Palestine, Lebanon), and Southeast Asia (e.g., Cambodia), psychologists have taken a keen interest in examining the psychological effects such conflicts reap on children. Hence, a growing but modest body of literature has been amassed within the past 20 years on the subject. This article is an attempt to synthesize this literature in order to examine the universal and culture-specific correlates of political and military trauma. Specifically, the article will focus on the psychological symptoms children display following their exposure to such traumatic events. Special emphasis will be placed on anxiety, phobic, psychosomatic, and depressive symptoms. More importantly, however, an examination will be made to ascertain which factors (e.g., psychosocial, cultural, and political) serve to shield (protect) or predispose (vulnerability) children to psychological dysfunction. Furthermore, the analyses presented will be gender specific. The article will attempt to delineate a paradigm that explains the relationship between trauma, culture, and personality. Although the article will examine studies from various regions, specific emphasis will be placed on the Palestinian experience. PMID:10547711

Baker, A; Shalhoub-Kevorkian, N

1999-12-01

429

Generalized Path Analysis and Generalized Simultaneous Equations Model for Recursive Systems with Responses of Mixed Types  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article generalizes linear path analysis (PA) and simultaneous equations models (SiEM) to deal with mixed responses of different types in a recursive or triangular system. An efficient instrumental variable (IV) method for estimating the structural coefficients of a 2-equation partially recursive generalized path analysis (GPA) model and…

Tsai, Tien-Lung; Shau, Wen-Yi; Hu, Fu-Chang

2006-01-01

430

78 FR 52535 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...below concerns Impact of Japanese Encephalitis Vaccination in Cambodia, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) CK14-001, initial...response to ``Impact of Japanese Encephalitis Vaccination in Cambodia, FOA CK14- 001''. Contact Person for More...

2013-08-23