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Sample records for siem reap cambodia

  1. Intestinal Parasite Infections in Symptomatic Children Attending Hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Catrin E.; Nget, Phot; Saroeun, Mao; Kuong, Suy; Chanthou, Seng; Kumar, Varun; Bousfield, Rachel; Nader, Johanna; Bailey, J. Wendi; Beeching, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P.; Parry, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia. Methods In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected. Principal Findings We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range) age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2) years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3%) children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6%) and Giardia lamblia (11.2%). Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia. Conclusions/Significance This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation. PMID:25951607

  2. MEKONG RIVER CRUISE From Siem Reap to Saigon

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Siem Reap Please contact Worldwide Quest for personalized flight arrangements. Upon arrival in Siem Navigator and enjoy a Welcome Reception on the Sun Deck as we begin our journey. Following the informative entertain guests on our Sun Deck with a cultural performance including Apsara, Cambodia's national dance

  3. Soil carbon and soil respiration in conservation agriculture with vegetables in Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A balance between food production and environmental protection is required to sustainably feed a growing population. The resource saving concept of conservation agriculture aims to achieve this balance through implementing simultaneously three conservation practices; no-till, continuous soil cover, ...

  4. The value of intermittent point-prevalence surveys of healthcare-associated infections for evaluating infection control interventions at Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Stoesser, N; Emary, K; Soklin, S; Peng An, K; Sophal, S; Chhomrath, S; Day, NPJ; Limmathurotsakul, D; Nget, P; Pangnarith, Y; Sona, S; Kumar, V; Moore, CE; Chanpheaktra, N; Parry, CM

    2013-01-01

    Background There are limited data on the epidemiology of paediatric healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) and infection control in low-income countries. We describe the value of intermittent point-prevalence surveys for monitoring HCAI and evaluating infection control interventions in a Cambodian paediatric hospital. Methods Hospital-wide, point-prevalence surveys were performed monthly in 2011. Infection control interventions introduced during this period included a hand hygiene programme and a ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) care bundle. Results Overall HCAI prevalence was 13.8/100 patients at-risk, with a significant decline over time. The highest HCAI rates (50%) were observed in critical care; the majority of HCAIs were respiratory (61%). Klebsiella pneumoniae was most commonly isolated and antimicrobial resistance was widespread. Hand hygiene compliance doubled to 51.6%, and total VAP cases/1000 patient-ventilator days fell from 30 to 10. Conclusion Rates of HCAI were substantial in our institution, and antimicrobial resistance a major concern. Point-prevalence surveys are effective for HCAI surveillance, and in monitoring trends in response to infection control interventions. PMID:23418156

  5. Angkor, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This is an image of the area around the city of Angkor, Cambodia. The city houses an ancient complex of more than 60 temples dating back to the 9th century. The principal complex, Angkor Wat, is the bright square just left of the center of the image. It is surrounded by a reservoir that appears in this image as a thick black line. The larger bright square above Angkor Wat is another temple complex called Angkor Thom. Archeologists studying this image believe the blue-purple area slightly north of Angkor Thom may be previously undiscovered structures. In the lower right is a bright rectangle surrounded by a dark reservoir, which houses the temple complex Chau Srei Vibol. In its heyday, Angkor had a population of 1 million residents and was the spiritual center for the Khmer people until it was abandoned in the 15th century. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on the 15th orbit of the space shuttle Endeavour on September 30, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 55 kilometers by 85 kilometers (34 miles by 53 miles) that is centered at 13.43 degrees north latitude and 103.9 degrees east longitude. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). The body of water in the south-southwest corner is Tonle Sap, Cambodia's great central lake. The urban area at the lower left of the image is the present-day town of Siem Reap. The adjoining lines are both modern and ancient roads and the remains of Angkor's vast canal system that was used for both irrigation and transportation. The large black rectangles are ancient reservoirs. Today the Angkor complex is hidden beneath a dense rainforest canopy, making it difficult for researchers on the ground to study the ancient city. The SIR-C/X-SAR data are being used by archaeologists at the World Monuments Fund and the Royal Angkor Foundation to understand how the city grew, flourished and later fell into disuse over an 800-year period. The data are also being used to help reconstruct the vast system of hydrological works, canals and reservoirs, which have gone out of use over time. Research teams from more than 11 countries will be using this data to study the Angkor complex.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

  6. Hepatitis E Virus in Cambodia: Prevalence among the General Population and Complete Genome Sequence of Genotype 4.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroko; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Lim, Olline; Svay, Somana; Chuon, Channarena; Hok, Sirany; Do, Son Huy; Fujimoto, Mayumi; Akita, Tomoyuki; Goto, Noboru; Katayama, Keiko; Arai, Masahiro; Tanaka, Junko

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a growing public health problem in many countries. In this study, we investigated HEV seroprevalence among the general population in the Siem Reap province, Cambodia, and performed HEV genetic analysis with the aim to develop an HEV prevention strategy. This seroepidemiological cross-sectional study conducted from 2010 to 2014 included 868 participants from four different locations in Siem Reap province, Cambodia. They answered questionnaires and provided blood samples for the analysis of hepatitis virus infections. Among the participants (360 men and 508 women; age range, 7-90 years), the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was 18.4% (95% confidence interval: 15.9-21.0); HEV RNA was detected in two participants (0.23%) and was classified as genotype 3 and 4. Full-length genome of the genotype 4 isolate, CVS-Sie10, was sequenced; it contained 7,222 nucleotides and three ORFs and demonstrated high sequence identity with the swine China isolates swGX40 (95.57%), SS19 (94.37%), and swDQ (91.94%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that men, elderly people, and house workers were risk groups significantly associated with the positivity for anti-HEV IgG. This is the first report on the detection of HEV genotype 4 in humans in Cambodia and on the complete genome sequence of HEV genotype 4 from this country. Our study demonstrates that new HEV infection cases occur frequently among the general population in Cambodia, and effective preventive measures are required. PMID:26317620

  7. Hepatitis E Virus in Cambodia: Prevalence among the General Population and Complete Genome Sequence of Genotype 4

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Hiroko; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Lim, Olline; Svay, Somana; Chuon, Channarena; Hok, Sirany; Do, Son Huy; Fujimoto, Mayumi; Akita, Tomoyuki; Goto, Noboru; Katayama, Keiko; Arai, Masahiro; Tanaka, Junko

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a growing public health problem in many countries. In this study, we investigated HEV seroprevalence among the general population in the Siem Reap province, Cambodia, and performed HEV genetic analysis with the aim to develop an HEV prevention strategy. This seroepidemiological cross-sectional study conducted from 2010 to 2014 included 868 participants from four different locations in Siem Reap province, Cambodia. They answered questionnaires and provided blood samples for the analysis of hepatitis virus infections. Among the participants (360 men and 508 women; age range, 7–90 years), the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was 18.4% (95% confidence interval: 15.9–21.0); HEV RNA was detected in two participants (0.23%) and was classified as genotype 3 and 4. Full-length genome of the genotype 4 isolate, CVS-Sie10, was sequenced; it contained 7,222 nucleotides and three ORFs and demonstrated high sequence identity with the swine China isolates swGX40 (95.57%), SS19 (94.37%), and swDQ (91.94%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that men, elderly people, and house workers were risk groups significantly associated with the positivity for anti-HEV IgG. This is the first report on the detection of HEV genotype 4 in humans in Cambodia and on the complete genome sequence of HEV genotype 4 from this country. Our study demonstrates that new HEV infection cases occur frequently among the general population in Cambodia, and effective preventive measures are required. PMID:26317620

  8. Prevalence of Intestinal Helminths among Inhabitants of Cambodia (2006-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S.; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia. PMID:25548418

  9. A Prospective Study of the Causes of Febrile Illness Requiring Hospitalization in Children in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Chheng, Kheng; Carter, Michael J.; Emary, Kate; Chanpheaktra, Ngoun; Moore, Catrin E.; Stoesser, Nicole; Putchhat, Hor; Sona, Soeng; Reaksmey, Sin; Kitsutani, Paul; Sar, Borann; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Uyen, Nguyen Hanh; Van Tan, Le; Paris, Daniel; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Amornchai, Premjit; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Parry, Christopher M.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Kumar, Varun

    2013-01-01

    Background Febrile illnesses are pre-eminent contributors to morbidity and mortality among children in South-East Asia but the causes are poorly understood. We determined the causes of fever in children hospitalised in Siem Reap province, Cambodia. Methods and Findings A one-year prospective study of febrile children admitted to Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and outcome data were comprehensively analysed. Between October 12th 2009 and October 12th 2010 there were 1225 episodes of febrile illness in 1180 children. Median (IQR) age was 2.0 (0.8–6.4) years, with 850 (69%) episodes in children <5 years. Common microbiological diagnoses were dengue virus (16.2%), scrub typhus (7.8%), and Japanese encephalitis virus (5.8%). 76 (6.3%) episodes had culture-proven bloodstream infection, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (22 isolates, 1.8%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (13, 1.1%), Escherichia coli (8, 0.7%), Haemophilus influenzae (7, 0.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (6, 0.5%) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (6, 0.5%). There were 69 deaths (5.6%), including those due to clinically diagnosed pneumonia (19), dengue virus (5), and melioidosis (4). 10 of 69 (14.5%) deaths were associated with culture-proven bloodstream infection in logistic regression analyses (odds ratio for mortality 3.4, 95% CI 1.6–6.9). Antimicrobial resistance was prevalent, particularly in S. enterica Typhi, (where 90% of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and 86% were multi-drug resistant). Comorbid undernutrition was present in 44% of episodes and a major risk factor for acute mortality (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1–4.2), as were HIV infection and cardiac disease. Conclusion We identified a microbiological cause of fever in almost 50% of episodes in this large study of community-acquired febrile illness in hospitalized children in Cambodia. The range of pathogens, antimicrobial susceptibility, and co-morbidities associated with mortality described will be of use in the development of rational guidelines for infectious disease treatment and control in Cambodia and South-East Asia. PMID:23593267

  10. Comprehensive Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Beta-lactam Resistance

    E-print Network

    Kaski, Samuel

    , Massachusetts, United States of America, 3 Helsinki Institute for Information Technology HIIT, Department Cambodia-Oxford Medical Research Unit, Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, 9 Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom Abstract Traditional

  11. Factors associated with induced abortion among female entertainment workers: a cross-sectional study in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Siyan; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Pal, Khuondyla; Tith, Khimuy; Brody, Carinne

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore risk factors associated with induced abortion among sexually active female entertainment workers (FEWs) in Cambodia. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Phnom Penh and Siem Reap, Cambodia. Participants This study included 556 FEWs aged 18–47?years randomly selected from entertainment establishments in the two cities in 2014 using a two-stage cluster sampling method. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Primary outcome measure History of induced abortion during the time working as a FEW. Results Of the total sample, 45.6% reported currently using a contraceptive method with condom (42.4%) being the most common method, followed by pills (25.6%). One-fourth (25%) of the respondents reported having been pregnant at least once, and 21.4% reported having at least one induced abortion during the time working as a FEW. After controlling for other covariates in a multivariate logistic regression model, FEWs with a history of induced abortion remained significantly more likely to be currently working in a karaoke bar (AOR=1.75, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.78), to have worked longer as a FEW (AOR=1.42, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.43), to have had a greater number of sexual partners in the past 12?months (AOR=1.86, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.54), to be currently using a contraceptive method (AOR=1.52, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.29), to be able to find condoms when they needed them (AOR=2.03, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.82), and to report inconsistent condom use with non-commercial partners in the past 3?months (AOR=1.62, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.44). Conclusions This study highlights the high rates of unwanted pregnancies that ended in induced abortions among FEWs in Cambodia. Access of FEWs to quality sexual and reproductive healthcare services is deemed a high priority. Integrated interventions to improve sexual and reproductive health among these vulnerable women should be tailored to reach the most-at-risk groups. PMID:26231754

  12. Factors Associated with Inconsistent Condom Use among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Siyan; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Pal, Khuondyla; Tith, Khimuy; Brody, Carinne

    2015-01-01

    Background Compared to the general population, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at greater risk for HIV and less understood due to their more hidden and stigmatized nature. Moreover, the discrepancy in findings in the literature merits further investigations in MSM populations from different cultures and settings. We therefore conducted this study to explore factors associated with inconsistent condom use among high-risk MSM in Cambodia. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 among 367 MSM randomly selected from Battembang and Siem Reap using a two-stage cluster sampling method. A structured questionnaire was used for face-to-face interviews to collect information on characteristics of respondents, HIV testing history, self-perception of HIV risk, substance use, sexual behaviors, mental disorders, and HIV knowledge. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors independently associated with inconsistent condom use. Results On average, 62.3% of respondents reported that they always used condoms over the past three months. The rates varied with types of sexual partners; the proportion of respondents who reported always using condoms was 55.1%, 64.2%, 75.9%, 73.0%, 78.1%, and 70.3%, for sexual partners who were girlfriends, boyfriends, female sex workers, male sex workers, female clients, or male clients, respectively. After adjustment, inconsistent condom use was significantly associated with age of ?25 (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.09–2.86), self-rated quality of life as good or very good (AOR = 4.37, 95% CI = 1.79–5.67), self-perception of higher HIV risk compared to the general population (AOR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.35–4.17), illicit drug use in the past three months (AOR = 5.76, 95% CI = 1.65–10.09), and reported consistent lubricant use when selling anal sex to men in the past three months (AOR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.07–8.12). Conclusions We found risky sexual behaviors to be considerably high among MSM in this study, especially among those who used illicit drugs or were older than 25. HIV education and social marketing should be expanded and specifically designed for MSM to better educate on the increased risk of HIV with unprotected anal sex and illicit drug use as risk factors, and the importance of the use of both condoms and lubricant during anal intercourse. PMID:26287731

  13. An exclusive charter for the Canadian University Alumni Community From Siem Reap to Ho Chi Minh City

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    'll discover the jungle temple of Ta Prohm, the subtle beauty of temple of Banteay Srei. We'll spend eight Records -- Attn.: no travel mailings", 21 King's College Circle, Toronto, ON M5S 3J3. Mekong Delta #12;OUR as it was found; overgrown by jungle trees and vines, with many parts of the temple crumbling to the ground

  14. MECHANICAL TESTING OF EPON SU-8 WITH SIEM

    SciTech Connect

    CHANG,S.; WARREN,J.; CHIANG,F.P.

    2000-06-08

    High aspect ratio structures are often present in MEMS devices and EPON SU-8 is often used to produce such structures because of its low cost. It is essential to know the mechanical properties of SU-8 for producing reliable MEMS products. However, the mechanical properties of SU-8 may depend on the manufacturing process and the size of the structure, which is in the micron domain. Hence, one needs to test specimens that are similar in size to MEMS structures to determine if the mechanical properties change with processing protocol. In this work, the authors applied the newly developed technique SIEM (Speckle Interferometry with Electron Microscopy) to the determination of SU-8's mechanical properties.

  15. Echoes of Ancient Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Nancy Click

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article chose Cambodia's Angkor temples as a jumping-off point for her students' exploration of printmaking. This article describes a lesson in which students used subjects, themes, and symbols that demonstrate knowledge of contexts, values, and aesthetics that communicate intended meaning in artworks.

  16. Leslie Kean, MD, PhD Associate Director Ben Town Center for Childhood Cancer Research

    E-print Network

    Brent, Roger

    for Childhood Cancer Research at the Seattle Children's Research Institute. She is a Joint Associate Member was a faculty member for the Georgia Farm Worker Health Project for 10 years, focused on the health of migrant of Hematology's project at the Angkor Hospital for Children in Siem Reap, Cambodia for the past 5 years

  17. Fires in Thailand and Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Many fires (red pixels) were seen burning across Thailand and Southern Cambodia on January 8, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. Almost the entire countries of Thailand (center) and Cambodia (lower right) were remarkably cloud-free in this true-color scene. Thailand is bordered by the countries of Myanmar to the west, Laos to the north and east, and Cambodia to the southeast. Thailand's capital city of Bangkok sits on its southern shore, where the Chao Phraya River flows into the large bay in the northern Gulf of Thailand. Moving eastward from Bangkok, one can see the Tonle Sap-Cambodia's largest inland body of water. Waters from the Tonle Sap flow southeastward and converge with the mighty Mekong River, just east of Phnom Penh, Cambodia's capital. The Mekong River defines much of the border between Thailand and Laos. The captal of Laos-Viangchan-is situated just across the Mekong from Thailand's northern border. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  18. Continuous CS Analysis of Using the SIEM to Introduction to Computer Programming Education in the School of Engineering Evening Division at the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohi, Shinichi; Miyakawa, Osamu; Konno, Noriko

    In order to improve students’ motivation, the SIEM (School of Information Environment Method) which is the education method for the introduction of the computer programming education was developed. We focus on students’ motivation, and we have measured students’ motivation as the educational effects. After the SIEM was developed in the School of Information Environment, it applied to introduction to the computer programming education in the School of Engineering Evening Division at the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. It is effective for the improvement of students’ motivation. By adding the Customer Satisfaction Analysis to the SIEM Analysis, it was able to clarify the priority level of the SIEM assessment item. In this paper, we describe results of the Customer Satisfaction Analysis.

  19. Critical Literacy in Elementary Education in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    In, Vichea

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on a quest for insights into the introduction and negotiation of critical literacy in elementary education in Cambodia, whose recent past was scarred by devastating conflicts and wars. In this study, critical education is seen as a key to avoiding the reproduction of an unwanted past and minimizing social injustice in Cambodia.…

  20. Revisiting Primary School Dropout in Rural Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    No, Fata; Sam, Chanphirun; Hirakawa, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on school dropout in Cambodia often used data from subjects after they already dropped out or statistics from education-related institutions. Using data from children in two rural provinces before they dropped out, this study examines four main factors in order to identify their influence on primary school dropout in Cambodia.…

  1. Reaping the benefits Science and the sustainable intensification

    E-print Network

    Spoel, Steven

    intensification 6 1.5 Agricultural sustainability 7 1.6 Agriculture and sustainable economic development 7 1 that the rise in human populations would outrun the growth in food supplies. But despite devastating regionalReaping the benefits Science and the sustainable intensification of global agriculture October 2009

  2. Migrant Interactions with Elderly Parents in Rural Cambodia and Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Zachary; Korinek, Kim; Knodel, John; Chayovan, Napaporn

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines interactions between older adults living in rural areas of Thailand and Cambodia and their adult children. Thai data come from the Survey of the Welfare of the Elderly (N = 3,202 older adults and 17,517 adult children). Cambodia data are from the Survey of the Elderly in Cambodia (N = 777 older adults and 3,751 adult children).…

  3. 31 CFR 500.565 - Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. 500.565 Section 500.565 ...remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. (a) The remittances specified...relative is a national of Vietnam or Cambodia, is a resident of Vietnam,...

  4. English in Cambodia: Changes and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Stephen H.; Bounchan, Suksiri

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports research undertaken at a prestigious university in Phnom Penh in late 2007. The views of lecturers who teach the BEd (TEFL) degree and their students were canvassed in relation to the status of English in Cambodia. The students completed a questionnaire probing their views on the notion of a Cambodian English, as well as their…

  5. The Arts of Cambodia and Its Neighbors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, CA.

    This teacher's packet accompanies a slide presentation on the arts of Cambodia and those nations on the Indochina peninsula. The packet contains: (1) a slide list describing the art depicted on each slide with time period and dimensions of the piece; (2) an introductory essay describing the geography, people, religion, art and history of the area;…

  6. ASCO 2013: Extended Education Session: Reaping the Rewards of The Cancer Genome Atlas Project

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Events ASCO 2013: Reaping the Rewards of TCGA ASCO 2013: Extended Education Session: Reaping the Rewards of The Cancer Genome Atlas Project Friday, May 31, 2013, 3:45 PM - 6:00 PMMcCormick Place, Chicago, Ill.Chairperson: Andrea

  7. UNTAC, CEAT, other international actions and the restoration of Cambodia`s forestry policy

    SciTech Connect

    Mareth, M.; Vanderstighelen, D.; Bann, C.; Ngongi, M.I.; Aertgeerts, R.; Eav, B.B.

    1995-03-01

    Although no verifiable hard data regarding the rate of nation-wide deforestation in Cambodia exists, it is understood that on account of increasing logging activities, uncontrolled forest fires, increased demand for agricultural land and fuel wood for charcoal production and other domestic usage, the rates of deforestation and the degradation of existing forests will continue to be on the rise if no effective policy and management plans are established soon. There now seems to be international recognition and acceptance of the fact that unless the impact of human activities are incorporated into forestry management plans, the problems of deforestation in the world`s poorest regions will continue unabated. The depletion of this natural resource brings about complex changes in the environment which results in such phenomenon as global warming. Sound forest policies and management practices are central to the global warming solution. Without these, human survival remains, potentially, threatened. An essential key to the development of such policies and management practices lies in the identification of the problems related to the forests. In this process of identification and subsequent concrete actions in restoring Cambodia`s forest policies and management practices, the Royal government of Cambodia has been assisted and supported by the international community through organizations and agencies. The examine and appraisal of such assistance and the strategies and efforts of the Royal Government of Cambodia, is the main theme of this paper.

  8. Decomposition of childhood malnutrition in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Sunil, Thankam S; Sagna, Marguerite

    2015-10-01

    Childhood malnutrition is a major problem in developing countries, and in Cambodia, it is estimated that approximately 42% of the children are stunted, which is considered to be very high. In the present study, we examined the effects of proximate and socio-economic determinants on childhood malnutrition in Cambodia. In addition, we examined the effects of the changes in these proximate determinants on childhood malnutrition between 2000 and 2005. Our analytical approach included descriptive, logistic regression and decomposition analyses. Separate analyses are estimated for 2000 and 2005 survey. The primary component of the difference in stunting is attributable to the rates component, indicating that the decrease of stunting is due mainly to the decrease in stunting rates between 2000 and 2005. While majority of the differences in childhood malnutrition between 2000 and 2005 can be attributed to differences in the distribution of malnutrition determinants between 2000 and 2005, differences in their effects also showed some significance. PMID:23316784

  9. A Multimedia Approach to ODL for Agricultural Training in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunfeld, Helena; Ng, Maria Lee Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Open distance learning (ODL) has long been an important option for formal and non-formal education (NFE) in most developed and developing countries, but less so in post-conflict countries, including Cambodia. However, in Cambodia there is now greater awareness that ODL can complement traditional face-to-face educational approaches, particularly as…

  10. Introduction of ICT and Multimedia into Cambodia's Teacher Training Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dionys, David

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the integration of ICT in the teacher training centres of Cambodia. It focuses on the collaboration between the Teacher Training Department of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MoEYS) of Cambodia and VVOB (Flemish Association for Development Cooperation and Technical Assistance), which is aimed at improving ICT…

  11. 75 FR 11620 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Cambodia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ...Public Notice 6918] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Cambodia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State...7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Cambodia, and I hereby waive such restriction. This...

  12. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    Cambodia (now the Khmer Republic), in tropical, humid southeast Asia, has an area of 175,630 km and a population of about 5 million. The Mekong River, one of the world's largest rivers, flows through Cambodia. Also, the Tonle Sap (Grand Lac), a highly productive fresh-water lake, functions as a huge off-channel storage reservoir for flood flow of the Mekong River. Surfacewater discharge in streams and rivers of Cambodia is abundant during the wet season, mid-May through mid-November, when 85 percent of the precipitation falls, but is frequently deficient during the remainder of the year. Annual rainfall ranges from 1,370 mm in the central lowlands to more than 5,000 mm in the mountainous highlands. The mean annual temperature for the country is 27.5?C and the evaporation rate is high. During 1960-63, 1,103 holes were drilled in 16 of the 18 khets (provinces), of which 795 or approximately 72 percent, were productive wells at rates ranging from 1.1 to 2,967 l/min. The productive wells ranged in depth from 2 to 209.4 m and were 23.2 m deep on the average. Mr. Rasmussen ' studied the subsurface geology of Cambodia in considerable detail by examining drillers' logs and constructing nine geologic cross sections. The principal aquifer tapped by drilled wells in Cambodia is the Old Alluvium. In many places, however, dug wells and a few shallow drilled wells obtain water from the Young Alluvium. Sandstone of the Indosinias Formation yields moderate to small quantities of water to wells in a number of places. Also, wells tapping water-bearing basalt have a small to moderate yield. The quality of water is recorded in only a few analyses. The dissolved solids concentrations appear to be generally low so that the water is usable for most purposes without treatment. Some well waters, however, are high in iron and would have to be aerated and filtered before use. In this report, well records are tabulated, and the geology and hydrology is discussed by khets. The bulk of the available information is on the central lowlands and contiguous low plateaus, as the mountainous areas on the west and the high plateaus on the east are relatively unexplored with respect to their ground-water availability. No persistent artesian aquifer has been identified nor have any large potential ground-water sources been found .although much of the country yet remains to be explored by test drilling. Well irrigation for garden produce is feasible on a modest scale in many localities throughout Cambodia. It does not seem likely, however, that large-scale irrigation from wells will come about in the future. Ground water may be regarded as a widely available supplemental source to surface water for domestic, small-scale industrial, and irrigation use.

  13. Analysis of Radar Images of Angkor, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Anthony; Hensley, Scott; Moore, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    During the 1996 AIRSAR Pacific Rim Deployment, data were collected over Angkor in Cambodia. The temples of Angkor date the succession of cities to the 9th-13th century AD, but little is known of its prehistoric habitation. A related area of archaeological debate has been the origin, spiritual meaning and use of the hydraulic constructions in the urban zone. The high resolution, multi-channel capability of AIRSAR, together with the unprecedentedly accurate topography provided by TOPSAR, offer identification and delineation of these features. Examples include previously unrecorded circular earthworks around circular village sites, detection of unrecorded earthwork dykes, reservoirs and canal features, and of temple sites located some distance from the main temple complex at Angkor.

  14. Collaborative Development of Anatomy Workshops for Medical and Dental Students in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Jennifer A.; Ivanusic, Jason J.; le Roux, Cara M.; Hatzopoulos, Kate; Gonsalvez, David; Hong, Someth; Durward, Callum

    2011-01-01

    After Phnom Penh was liberated from the Khmer Rouge in 1979, health science education in Cambodia had to be completely rebuilt. In this article, the authors report the results of a teaching collaboration between the University of Melbourne (Australia), the International University (Cambodia), and the University of Health Sciences (Cambodia). The…

  15. Reserve Educational Assistance Program (REAP), Chapter 1607 Title 10, U.S. Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Veterans Affairs, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Reserve Education Assistance Program, or REAP (Chapter 1607 of title 10, U.S. Code), is a new benefit providing educational assistance to members of the reserve components--Selected Reserve (Sel Res) and Individual Ready Reserve (IRR)--who are called or ordered to active service in response to a war or national emergency, as declared by the…

  16. 18 Reaping the benefits of plant research Advancing food security in an insecure era

    E-print Network

    FALL 2015 No. 8 18 Reaping the benefits of plant research Advancing food security in an insecure pride. The cover story for this issue is about food security-- the supply of food, its quality in this area which are indeed contributing to making our food supply more secure. As always, you'll read about

  17. Avian influenza: the political economy of disease control in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Ear, Sophal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the wake of avian flu outbreaks in 2004, Cambodia received $45 million in commitments from international donors to help combat the spread of animal and human influenza, particularly avian influenza (H5N1). How countries leverage foreign aid to address the specific needs of donors and the endemic needs of the nation is a complex and nuanced issue throughout the developing world. Cambodia is a particularly compelling study in pandemic preparedness and the management of avian influenza because of its multilayered network of competing local, national, and global needs, and because the level of aid in Cambodia represents approximately $2.65 million per human case-a disproportionately high number when compared with neighbors Vietnam and Indonesia. This paper examines how the Cambodian government has made use of animal and human influenza funds to protect (or fail to protect) its citizens and the global community. It asks how effective donor and government responses were to combating avian influenza in Cambodia, and what improvements could be made at the local and international level to help prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. Based on original interviews, a field survey of policy stakeholders, and detailed examination of Cambodia's health infrastructure and policies, the findings illustrate that while pandemic preparedness has shown improvements since 2004, new outbreaks and human fatalities accelerated in 2011, and more work needs to be done to align the specific goals of funders with the endemic needs of developing nations. PMID:22702421

  18. A checklist of the millipedes (Diplopoda) of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Likhitrakarn, Natdanai; Golovatch, Sergei I; Panha, Somsak

    2015-01-01

    At the present, the millipede fauna of Cambodia comprises only 19 species from 15 genera, 12 families and 8 orders. These counts certainly represent but a minor fraction of the country's real diversity of Diplopoda even at the ordinal level, let alone at lower ones. Based on the available information from the adjacent parts of China, Thailand, Myanmar, Vietnam and/or Laos, the orders Glomerida, Platydesmida, Polyzoniida, Callipodida and Chordeumatida must occur in Cambodia, maybe also Stemmiulida and Siphonocryptida, but none has been recorded there yet. This shows that a lot more collecting effort is required to amass a representative material of Diplopoda of Cambodia to make it available for study. PMID:26249718

  19. The dilemmas of aid: Cambodia 1992-2002.

    PubMed

    Gollogly, L

    2002-09-01

    Cambodia is a small, poor, and sparsely-populated country between Vietnam and Thailand, which is making a slow recovery from a long history of conflict. 80% of its 11.4 million people live by subsistence farming; rice is their main crop. Infant mortality is 89.4/1000, and 12% of children die before the age of 5 years. Life expectancy is around 50 years, and about 45,000 Khmers (Cambodians) are missing at least one limb from a 30 year deposit of landmines and dumping unexploded ordinance. Despite a decade of concerted effort by the international community to improve Cambodia's prospects, disease and poverty still define life for most of the population. In April, 2002, I visited Cambodia for the fourth time in 10 years, to see how medical aid projects were faring in particular, and to assess whether the past decade of international aid and intervention has improved the provision of health care for Khmers. PMID:12241843

  20. The Nature of the Genocide in Cambodia (Kampuchea).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Ben

    1991-01-01

    Gives an historical overview of Cambodia during the Pol Pot regime. Describes the genocide that attempted to eradicate Buddhist monks, Vietnamese, Chinese, and Muslim Chams between 1975 and 1979. Argues the regime should still be held accountable and that the case should be tried in the World Court. (NL)

  1. Strategies and Policies for Basic Education in Cambodia: Historical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dy, Sideth S.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the process of development and change in the state of education in Cambodia over four decades preceding the 1990 Jomtien World Conference on Education for All. The author argues that during the 1950s and 1960s, efforts to enhance basic education opportunities for all Cambodians were largely unsuccessful due to the lack of…

  2. The Teaching of Foreign Languages in Cambodia: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neau, Vira

    2003-01-01

    The teaching of foreign languages in Cambodia is examined in the light of its recent history. The paper describes the French colonial period, beginning in 1863, the emergence of the independent state under King Sihanouk (1953-70), the Khmer Republic (1970-75) and Democratic Kampuchea (1975-79), during which the infamous mass killings took place,…

  3. Seroepidemiology of Human Enterovirus 71 Infection among Children, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Paul F; Andronico, Alessio; Tarantola, Arnaud; Salje, Henrik; Duong, Veasna; Mey, Channa; Ly, Sovann; Dussart, Philippe; Cauchemez, Simon; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 is reported to have emerged in Cambodia in 2012; at least 54 children with severe encephalitis died during that outbreak. We used serum samples collected during 2000-2011 to show that the virus had been widespread in the country for at least a decade before the 2012 outbreak. PMID:26690000

  4. Plasmodium knowlesi Infection in Humans, Cambodia, 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Khim, Nimol; Siv, Sovannaroth; Kim, Saorin; Mueller, Tara; Fleischmann, Erna; Singh, Balbir; Divis, Paul Cliff Simon; Steenkeste, Nicolas; Duval, Linda; Bouchier, Christiane; Duong, Socheat; Ariey, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    Two cases of Plasmodium knowlesi infection in humans were identified in Cambodia by 3 molecular detection assays and sequencing. This finding confirms the widespread distribution of P. knowlesi malaria in humans in Southeast Asia. Further wide-scale studies are required to assess the public health relevance of this zoonotic malaria parasite. PMID:22000366

  5. Re-Orientations in Moral Education in Cambodia Since 1975

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, Cambodia has transitioned from a communist state to a liberal democracy following market economic practices. Transition in the political economy has, in turn, influenced education and, more specifically, moral education. In this article, I define moral education more broadly than many, as additionally dedicated to the preparation…

  6. Academic Achievement among Adolescents in Cambodia: Does Caregiver Trauma Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eng, Sothy; Mulsow, Miriam; Cleveland, Harrington; Hart, Sybil L.

    2009-01-01

    How will hostilities occurring around today's world influence future generations in affected areas? Cambodia may be one place where this question can be answered, and academic achievement is one way to measure these effects. Cambodian adolescent/caregiver dyads (n=288) were examined for links between caregiver trauma history and adolescent…

  7. Seroepidemiology of Human Enterovirus 71 Infection among Children, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, Paul F.; Andronico, Alessio; Tarantola, Arnaud; Salje, Henrik; Duong, Veasna; Mey, Channa; Ly, Sovann; Dussart, Philippe; Cauchemez, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 is reported to have emerged in Cambodia in 2012; at least 54 children with severe encephalitis died during that outbreak. We used serum samples collected during 2000–2011 to show that the virus had been widespread in the country for at least a decade before the 2012 outbreak. PMID:26690000

  8. Community participation in externally funded health projects: lessons from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Bart; Price, Neil

    2003-12-01

    This article provides lessons learned on establishing effective community participation in two externally funded, NGO-implemented health projects working at district level in Cambodia. The first project was implemented in accordance with the Cambodian national guidelines on community participation. The second - using lessons and experiences gained as a result of the first project - worked with Buddhist pagoda volunteers. Primary research was conducted in both settings to assess the effectiveness of the two participation strategies. The article concludes that the success of community participation in externally funded health projects with relatively short implementation timeframes requires engagement with existing community-based organizations and agencies. In Cambodia, where Theravada Buddhism is the dominant religion, pagodas and associated volunteers appear to represent such an organization. Community participation structured around pagoda volunteers - who are held in high esteem within their local communities - is more effective and sustainable than newly (and externally) established community structures with formally elected representatives. Pagodas and associated volunteers in rural Cambodia offer the advantages of effective leadership, local organization, resource mobilization and management. It is recommended that programmes and agencies wishing to adopt community participation strategies in health utilize participatory research to identify the most appropriate local organization to lead such initiatives. PMID:14654516

  9. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination for the Kingdom of Cambodia Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Presidential Determination for the Kingdom of Cambodia Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import...Presidential Determination for the Kingdom of Cambodia Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import...hereby determine that the Kingdom of Cambodia has ceased to be a...

  10. 78 FR 56832 - Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological Material From Cambodia From the Bronze...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ...From Cambodia From the Bronze Age Through the Khmer Era AGENCIES...from Cambodia from the Bronze Age through the Khmer era. The restrictions...import restrictions on Khmer stone archaeological material (T...archaeological material from the Bronze Age through the Khmer Era....

  11. Educational Cooperation between Thailand and Cambodia: Outcomes on Human Development, International Understanding and Future Prospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kijtorntham, Wichuda; Ruangdej, Phumjit; Saisuwan, Chatchanog

    2015-01-01

    Thailand and Cambodia set up educational cooperation since 1996, before signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in the Promotion of Education in 2003. This research aimed to investigate outcomes of educational cooperation projects on Cambodia human development and international understanding, process of participatory learning and…

  12. "A Frog in a Well": The Exclusion of Disabled People from Work in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartrell, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Based on ethnographic research conducted in north-west Cambodia in 2000-2001, this paper examines why disabled people experience systematic marginalisation in the labour market. Although there are no official data on the relationship between disability and employment status in Cambodia, this research suggests that disabled people are more likely…

  13. Two Views of Education: Promoting Civic and Moral Values in Cambodia Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the Cambodian government's attempt to promote civic and moral values in Cambodia schools through the subject "Civics and Morals". The paper argues that the tensions and challenges associated with civic and moral education are linked to a fundamental difference between the traditional view of education in Cambodia, and the…

  14. Enhancing Aid Effectiveness in Education through a Sector-Wide Approach in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattori, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Since 2001 the government of Cambodia has striven to advance policy-led education reform based on a sector-wide approach. This paper critically reviews the status and progress of Cambodia's education reform from the perspective of the aid's effectiveness. The paper looks at the performance of the sector reform in the three priority areas…

  15. Is Something Better than Nothing? An Evaluation of Early Childhood Programs in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Nirmala; Sun, Jin; Pearson, Veronica; Pearson, Emma; Liu, Hongyun; Constas, Mark A.; Engle, Patrice L.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the relative effectiveness of home-based, community-based, and state-run early childhood programs across Cambodia. A total of 880 five-year-olds (55% girls) from 6 rural provinces in Cambodia attending State Preschools, Community Preschools, Home-Based Programs, or no programs were assessed twice using the Cambodian…

  16. 78 FR 17745 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cambodia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cambodia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State...requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Cambodia and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination...

  17. Ensuring Gender Equity in Education for All: Is Cambodia on Track?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velasco, Esther

    2004-01-01

    Gender-equity goals in Cambodia are intimately linked with socio-economic and cultural biases that are embedded in the very system of education and in the society as a whole. There are, however, strong indicators that the vicious cycle in Cambodia's education system could be broken, and here the commitment of key stakeholders and partnership modes…

  18. The Problem of "Choice" and the Construction of the Demand for English in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses Cambodia as a case study to problematise the notion of choice in the spread of English. I explore specific historical contexts which were central to the construction of the demand for English and English language teaching (ELT) in Cambodia. The actions of a range of external agencies resulted in the close discursive articulation of…

  19. Educational Policy Trajectories in an Era of Globalization: Singapore and Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    This paper critically discusses the educational policy trajectories of Singapore and Cambodia in an era of globalization. Drawing upon David Johnson's five metaphors to describe the historical and political forces that shape educational policy trajectories, the paper argues that Cambodia's current educational policy trajectory is characterized by…

  20. 76 FR 33019 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Royal Government of Cambodia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Royal Government of Cambodia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State...1) of the Act with respect to the Royal Government of Cambodia and I hereby waive such restriction. This determination...

  1. Unsystematic Technology Adoption in Cambodia: Students' Perceptions of Computer and Internet Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jayson W.; Nash, John B.; Flora, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to understand how upper secondary school students in Cambodia perceive the use of computers and the Internet. Data were collected from students in three urban upper secondary schools (n = 1,137) in Cambodia using questionnaires. The data indicate that the more exposure a Cambodian student had to computers and the Internet…

  2. Iodized Salt in Cambodia: Trends from 2008 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Laillou, Arnaud; Mam, Borath; Oeurn, Sam; Chea, Chantum

    2015-01-01

    Though the consequences of nutritional iodine deficiency have been known for a long time, in Cambodia its elimination has only become a priority in the last 18 years. The Royal Government of Cambodia initiated the National Sub-Committee for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in 1996 to fight this problem. Using three different surveys providing information across all provinces, we examined the compliance of salt iodization in Cambodia over the last 6 years. Salt samples from the 24 provinces were collect at the household level in 2008 (n = 566) and 2011 (n = 1275) and at the market level in 2014 (n = 1862) and analysed through a wavelength spectrophotometer for iodine content. According to the samples collected, the median iodine content significantly dropped from 22 mg/kg (25th/75th percentile: 2/37 mg/kg) in 2011 to 0 mg/kg in 2014 (25th/75th percentile: 0/8.9 mg/kg) (p < 0.001). The proportion of non-iodized salt within our collected salt drastically increased from 22% in 2011 to 62% in 2014 (p < 0.001). Since the international organizations ceased to support the procurement of iodine, the prevalence of salt compliant with the Cambodian declined within our samples. To date, the current levels of iodine added to tested salt are unsatisfactory as 92% of those salts do not meet the government requirements (99.6% of the coarse salt and 82.4% of the fine salt). This inappropriate iodization could illustrate the lack of periodic monitoring and enforcement from government entities. Therefore, government quality inspection should be reinforced to reduce the quantity of salt not meeting the national requirement. PMID:26035245

  3. Calming the mind: Healing after mass atrocity in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    After catastrophic events in which people’s survival has been threatened, as happened during the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia 1975–1979, some continue to suffer from painful mental symptoms. Surveys carried out in Cambodia based on Western diagnostic categories have found a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms in the population. This study explored Cambodian approaches to healing trauma, examining the ways in which Cambodians appeal to elements of Buddhism in their efforts to calm their minds, situating this mode of coping in the context of broader Khmer Buddhist practice and understandings. Western psychology may have much to learn from local, contextualised methods of dealing with the aftermath of trauma, including Khmer understandings of distress and approaches to relief. Methods of assessment and treatment of distress cannot be transposed wholesale from one cultural setting to another but require considerable cultural adaptation. This kind of cultural interchange may give rise to innovative, hybrid discourses and methods that may have much to offer in the support of victims of organised violence. PMID:25653141

  4. Calming the mind: Healing after mass atrocity in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Agger, Inger

    2015-08-01

    After catastrophic events in which people's survival has been threatened, as happened during the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia 1975-1979, some continue to suffer from painful mental symptoms. Surveys carried out in Cambodia based on Western diagnostic categories have found a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms in the population. This study explored Cambodian approaches to healing trauma, examining the ways in which Cambodians appeal to elements of Buddhism in their efforts to calm their minds, situating this mode of coping in the context of broader Khmer Buddhist practice and understandings. Western psychology may have much to learn from local, contextualised methods of dealing with the aftermath of trauma, including Khmer understandings of distress and approaches to relief. Methods of assessment and treatment of distress cannot be transposed wholesale from one cultural setting to another but require considerable cultural adaptation. This kind of cultural interchange may give rise to innovative, hybrid discourses and methods that may have much to offer in the support of victims of organised violence. PMID:25653141

  5. Echinostoma ilocanum Infection in Oddar Meanchey Province, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S.; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Kang, A-Reum; Kim, Mok-Ryun; Park, Jung-Mi; Ji, Soo-Hyeon; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2011-01-01

    Fecal examinations using the Kato Katz technique were performed on a total of 1,287 villagers (945 students and 342 general inhabitants) of Oddar Meanchey Province, Cambodia in May 2007 and November 2009. The overall intestinal helminth egg positive rate was 23.9%, and the most prevalent helminth species was hookworms (21.6%). Other helminth eggs detected included echinostomes (1.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.8%), small trematode eggs (0.7%), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini and Haplorchis spp., and Hymenolepis nana (0.4%). In order to recover adult echinostomes, we treated 2 patients with 10-15 mg/kg praziquantel and purged. Total 14 adult echinostomes, 1 and 13 worms from each patient, were collected. The echinostomes characteristically had 49-51 collar spines and 2 round or slightly lobated testes. They were identified as Echinostoma ilocanum (Garrison, 1908) Odhner, 1911. So far as literature are concerned, this is the first record on the discovery of human E. ilocanum infection in Cambodia. PMID:21738278

  6. Epilepsy: some controversies, some knowledge and some experience from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Hun, Chamroeun; Hok, Tola; Ros, Sina; Chan, Samleng; Bhalla, Devender

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy-related health outcomes remain unacceptably low in much of the developing world. According to us, it is because of the failure since long to see, and address, epilepsy beyond its preset conventional image. The objective of this paper was to highlight the presence, and influence, of these conventional practices and also to demonstrate what happened when a bold unconventional approach to address epilepsy was taken in Cambodia. Data are taken from existing published literature on epilepsy as well as our field experience during several population-based surveys conducted in Cambodia. We complimented this with our knowledge gained over this long period. It is demonstrated that epilepsy is far more important in Asia that it is currently considered to be, and also vis-à-vis other geographic regions. Pregnancy and birth-related factors carry far higher odds for epilepsy than several "highly vocal" infections. A refocus in epilepsy is required to help move from its traditional negative image to an image where epilepsy is considered a "positive-looking" disorder that is full of "opportunities;" such as availability of safe effective inexpensive treatment, etc. Stigma is a two-side entity (i.e., it is present, and it is influential), and diligence should be therefore practiced before using the stigma label. Nevertheless, psychosocial aspects shouldn't be limited to stigma or Jacoby stigma scale alone. Quality of life is a subjective phenomenon, and patients should determine directly what affects them. It is highly desirable that if we want to find newer answers to old problems in epilepsy, we need to shed our conventional approach and preset conclusions. We should choose to move toward "opportunities" visibly present in epilepsy. Our Cambodian experience demonstrates more intimately that opportunities do get identified when preset conclusions are questioned, and an approach that goes beyond expected and by default is taken. PMID:25591671

  7. Radar Image with Color as Height, Ancharn Kuy, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Ancharn Kuy, Cambodia, was taken by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR). The image depicts an area northwest of Angkor Wat. The radar has highlighted a number of circular village mounds in this region, many of which have a circular pattern of rice fields surrounding the slightly elevated site. Most of them have evidence of what seems to be pre-Angkor occupation, such as stone tools and potsherds. Most of them also have a group of five spirit posts, a pattern not found in other parts of Cambodia. The shape of the mound, the location in the midst of a ring of rice fields, the stone tools and the current practice of spirit veneration have revealed themselves through a unique 'marriage' of radar imaging, archaeological investigation, and anthropology.

    Ancharn Kuy is a small village adjacent to the road, with just this combination of features. The region gets slowly higher in elevation, something seen in the shift of color from yellow to blue as you move to the top of the image.

    The small dark rectangles are typical of the smaller water control devices employed in this area. While many of these in the center of Angkor are linked to temples of the 9th to 14th Century A.D., we cannot be sure of the construction date of these small village tanks. They may pre-date the temple complex, or they may have just been dug ten years ago!

    The image dimensions are approximately 4.75 by 4.3 kilometers (3 by 2.7 miles) with a pixel spacing of 5 meters (16.4 feet). North is at top. Image brightness is from the C-band (5.6 centimeters, or 2.2 inches) wavelength radar backscatter, which is a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color; that is going from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again; corresponds to 10 meters (32.8 feet) of elevation change.

    AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR mode, AIRSAR collects radar interferometry data from two spatially separated antennas (2.6 meters, or 8.5 feet). Information from the two antennas is used to form radar backscatter imagery and to generate highly accurate elevation data. Built, operated and managed by JPL, AIRSAR is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise program. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Evaluation of genetic variation among wild rice populations in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Orn, Chhourn; Shishido, Rieko; Akimoto, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Ryo; Htun, Than Myint; Nonomura, Ken-Ichi; Koide, Yohei; Sarom, Men; Vang, Seng; Sophany, Sakhan; Makara, Ouk; Ishii, Takashige

    2015-01-01

    A total of 448 samples in five natural populations of wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) were collected in Cambodia. They were examined using 12 SSR and two chloroplast markers to evaluate the degree of variation among populations and the genetic structure within populations. In the two annual populations, the number of plants with homozygous alleles at all 12 SSR loci were high (66.3% and 79.5%), suggesting that these plants propagate mainly through self-pollination. In the three perennial populations, no individuals had all homozygous genotypes, but redundant genotypes resulted from clonal propagation were observed. Percentages of the redundant genotypes were highly varied (3.6%, 29.2% and 86.0%). This may be due to the different stable levels of environmental conditions. As for chloroplast genome, most of the wild plants showed the same chloroplast types as most Indica-type cultivars have. However, plants with different chloroplast types were maintained, even in the same population. In tropical Asian countries, many wild rice populations were observed under similar ecological conditions examined in this study. Therefore, the present results concerning population structure will be important to further elucidate genetic features of wild rice, and will also give strong clues to utilize and conserve wild natural genetic resources. PMID:26719746

  9. Microbiological effectiveness of mineral pot filters in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joe; Chai, Ratana; Wang, Alice; Sobsey, Mark D

    2012-11-01

    Mineral pot filters (MPFs) are household water treatment (HWT) devices that are manufactured and distributed by the private sector, with millions of users in Southeast Asia. Their effectiveness in reducing waterborne microbes has not been previously investigated. We purchased three types of MPFs available on the Cambodian market for systematic evaluation of bacteria, virus, and protozoan surrogate microbial reduction in laboratory challenge experiments following WHO recommended performance testing protocols. Results over the total 1500 L testing period per filter indicate that the devices tested were highly effective in reducing Esherichia coli (99.99%+), moderately effective in reducing bacteriophage MS2 (99%+), and somewhat effective against Bacillus atrophaeus, a spore-forming bacterium we used as a surrogate for protozoa (88%+). Treatment mechanisms for all filters included porous ceramic and activated carbon filtration. Our results suggest that these commercially available filters may be at least as effective against waterborne pathogens as other, locally available treatment options such as ceramic pot filters or boiling. More research is needed on the role these devices may play as interim solutions to the problem of unsafe drinking water in Cambodia and globally. PMID:23030639

  10. Paleoenvironmental history of the West Baray, Angkor (Cambodia)

    PubMed Central

    Day, Mary Beth; Hodell, David A.; Brenner, Mark; Chapman, Hazel J.; Curtis, Jason H.; Kenney, William F.; Kolata, Alan L.; Peterson, Larry C.

    2012-01-01

    Angkor (Cambodia) was the seat of the Khmer Empire from the 9th to 15th century AD. The site is noted for its monumental architecture and complex hydro-engineering systems, comprised of canals, moats, embankments, and large reservoirs, known as barays. We infer a 1,000-y, 14C-dated paleoenvironmental record from study of an approximately 2-m sediment core taken in the largest Khmer reservoir, the West Baray. The baray was utilized and managed from the time of construction in the early 11th century, through the 13th century. During that time, the West Baray received relatively high rates of detrital input. In the 14th century, linear sedimentation rates diminished by an order of magnitude, yielding a condensed section that correlates temporally with episodes of regional monsoon failure during the late 14th and early 15th century, recorded in tree ring records from Vietnam. Our results demonstrate that changes in the water management system were associated with the decline of the Angkorian kingdom during that period. By the 17th century, the West Baray again functioned as a limnetic system. Ecologic and sedimentologic changes over the last millennium, detected in the baray deposits, are attributed to shifts in regional-scale Khmer water management, evolving land use practices in the catchment, and regional climate change. PMID:22215582

  11. Douching practices among female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Tran, Ly T H; Ross, Michael W; Markham, Christine M

    2015-03-01

    Several studies indicate that douching has few benefits but numerous adverse health outcomes, including increased risk for sexually transmitted infections and HIV. No published study explores douching practices among Cambodian female sex workers. This report provides preliminary data about the prevalence and frequency of douching among female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Survey data were obtained from 81 female sex workers who were taken into custody due to engagement in commercial sex from March to June 2011. Results showed that 91% of participants douched. The mean numbers of times douched before sex and after sex per 10 sex episodes were 4.43 (SD?=?3.87) and 4.63 (SD?=?3.94), respectively. Half of the participants thought that douching could help to prevent sexually transmitted infections including HIV; 24% were unsure about this. Usually, douching after sex was associated with ever obtaining an HIV test (p?=?.012) and was marginally associated (although not statistically significant) with a higher average number of clients per week (p?=.?063) and consistent condom use with clients (p?=?.053). This suggests that these practices may be related to individual perceptions of sexually transmitted infections/HIV risk or susceptibility. Given the commonness of douching and related misperceptions among Cambodian female sex workers, future studies and interventions are needed to prevent adverse health problems. PMID:24810219

  12. Evaluation of alternative strategies to prevent Newcastle disease in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Sen, S; Shane, S M; Scholl, D T; Hugh-Jones, M E; Gillespie, J M

    1998-06-30

    Velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease (vvNCD), which is endemic in Cambodia, can be prevented in theory by a combination of biosecurity and immunization of broiler flocks. The relative contribution of appropriate biosecurity and effective vaccination was quantified at the farm level, applying realistic projections for capital investment, fixed and variable production costs and losses following infection. Non-protected broiler flocks generate a loss when the probability of vvNCD infection exceeds 0.4. Applying both biosecurity and effective vaccination would sustain profitability up to a probability of exposure of 1.0. The benefit to cost ratios for alternative strategies were evaluated for a range of probabilities of exposure to vvNCD extending from 0.1 to 1.0. The benefit-to-cost ratio for biosecurity exceeded unity at a risk of exposure exceeding 0.1, and 0.2 for vaccination and the combination of vaccination and biosecurity respectively. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the efficiency of protection, feed cost, and financial consequences of infection markedly affected the projected benefit-to-cost ratios associated with alternative methods of prevention. PMID:9689660

  13. High prevalence of large trematode eggs in schoolchildren in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Bless, Philipp J; Schär, Fabian; Khieu, Virak; Kramme, Stefanie; Muth, Sinuon; Marti, Hanspeter; Odermatt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Large trematode eggs (LTE) resembling Fasciola spp. eggs were reportedly found in the stools of schoolchildren in Kandal province, Cambodia. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of LTE in the stools of children attending the affected school, identify potential risk factors for infection and ascertain the trematode species. We performed a cross-sectional study involving an in-depth questionnaire administered to schoolchildren at the affected school, and examined cattle droppings in the surrounding area and the livers of slaughtered cattle. Three stool samples were examined per child, using Kato-Katz and formalin-ether concentration techniques. In addition, blood serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and coprological polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted for species clarification. Cattle droppings were examined by cup sedimentation and coprological ELISA. LTE were observed in the stools of 106 schoolchildren (46.5%). Two blood serum samples from schoolchildren were positive for Fasciola hepatica in a first ELISA but were negative in a confirmation immunofluorescence antibody test. Out of 221 PCR samples, only one tested positive for Fasciola spp. and none for Fasciolopsis buski. The consumption of raw aquatic plants (odds ratio (OR)=3.3) and fermented fish sauce (OR=2.1) were significantly associated with LTE in the stool. Fasciola spp. flukes were observed in 18.3% of 191 cattle livers. The prevalence of fascioliasis in cattle droppings was 88.8%. The low prevalence of schoolchildren that tested positive for Fasciola spp. with specific molecular diagnostics and who had no diagnostic evidence of F. buski strongly indicates that the majority of microscopically observed LTE are from Echinostoma spp. Fasciola spp. transmission from cattle to human is possible and public health services need to be alerted accordingly. PMID:25250828

  14. An observational study of adults seeking emergency care in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lily D; Mahadevan, Swaminatha V; Yore, Mackensie; Pirrotta, Elizabeth A; Woods, Joan; Somontha, Koy; Sovannra, Yim; Raman, Maya; Cornell, Erika; Grundmann, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe the characteristics and chief complaints of adults seeking emergency care at two Cambodian provincial referral hospitals. Methods Adults aged 18 years or older who presented without an appointment at two public referral hospitals were enrolled in an observational study. Clinical and demographic data were collected and factors associated with hospital admission were identified. Patients were followed up 48 hours and 14 days after presentation. Findings In total, 1295 hospital presentations were documented. We were able to follow up 85% (1098) of patients at 48 hours and 77% (993) at 14 days. The patients’ mean age was 42 years and 64% (823) were females. Most arrived by motorbike (722) or taxi or tuk-tuk (312). Most common chief complaints were abdominal pain (36%; 468), respiratory problems (15%; 196) and headache (13%; 174). Of the 1050 patients with recorded vital signs, 280 had abnormal values, excluding temperature, on arrival. Performed diagnostic tests were recorded for 539 patients: 1.2% (15) of patients had electrocardiography and 14% (175) had diagnostic imaging. Subsequently, 783 (60%) patients were admitted and 166 of these underwent surgery. Significant predictors of admission included symptom onset within 3 days before presentation, abnormal vital signs and fever. By 14-day follow-up, 3.9% (39/993) of patients had died and 19% (192/993) remained functionally impaired. Conclusion In emergency admissions in two public hospitals in Cambodia, there is high admission-to-death ratio and limited application of diagnostic techniques. We identified ways to improve procedures, including better documentation of vital signs and increased use of diagnostic techniques. PMID:25883401

  15. Educational Financing and Budgeting in Cambodia. Financial Management of Education Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pheng, Duy; Sovonn, Hang; Soly, Yos

    This book contains a detailed description of the challenges faced by educational finance and budgeting in Cambodia. Until recently, educational financing took the form of emergency budgets and was limited to government planning for teacher salaries and costs of examinations. There has been a general lack of coordination between provinces and the…

  16. Challenges of Adopting the Use of Technology in Less Developed Countries: The Case of Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jayson W.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on Everett Rogers's theory of the diffusion of innovations, this article identifies the barriers, challenges, and successes in the adoption of technology training by teacher trainers in Cambodia. The analysis was based on data collected from an open-ended survey, face-to-face interviews, and document analysis. Findings reveal that the…

  17. Situation Reports--Brasil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in six foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Brazil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background…

  18. Forest Degradation Sub-National Assessments: Monitoring Options for Cambodia, Lao PDR, and

    E-print Network

    39 Forest Degradation Sub-National Assessments: Monitoring Options for Cambodia, Lao PDR for monitoring deforestation and associated changes to forest carbon stocks are widespread and well published. In contrast, techniques for monitoring forest degradation are relatively untested in developing countries

  19. Height, Zinc and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Schoolchildren: A Study in Cuba and Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D.; D’Haese, Patrick C.; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E.; Junco Díaz, Raquel; Angel Núñez, Fidel; Rojas Rivero, Lázara; Bonet Gorbea, Mariano; Doak, Colleen M.; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Wieringa, Frank T.; Polman, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:25903454

  20. Development of Indicators for Educational Planning: Brazil, Cambodia, Estonia, Gambia, Lithuania, Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). International Inst. for Educational Planning.

    This publication presents the outcomes of a distance education course on development and dissemination of indicators used for educational planning. The course took place from November 2000 to February 2001 and was attended by representatives from the ministries of education of Brazil, Cambodia, Estonia, Gambia, Lithuania, and Thailand. The overall…

  1. Disability and Democracy in Cambodia: An Integrative Approach to Community Building and Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zook, Darren C.

    2010-01-01

    The political framework through which the various communities of disabled persons in Cambodia advocate for and claim their rights is complex and confusing. Both governmental and non-governmental actors engage this political framework through the mobilization of persons from the various disabled communities, competing in the civic sphere through…

  2. Pneumococcal Infection among Children before Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Turner, Paul; Turner, Claudia; Suy, Kuong; Soeng, Sona; Ly, Sokeng; Miliya, Thyl; Goldblatt, David; Day, Nicholas P J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccination of children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was initiated in Cambodia in 2015. To determine baseline data, we collected samples from children in 2013 and 2014. PCV13 serotypes accounted for 62.7% of colonizing organisms in outpatients and 88.4% of invasive pneumococci overall; multidrug resistance was common. Thus, effectiveness of vaccination should be high. PMID:26488597

  3. Pneumococcal Infection among Children before Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Claudia; Suy, Kuong; Soeng, Sona; Ly, Sokeng; Miliya, Thyl; Goldblatt, David; Day, Nicholas P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination of children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was initiated in Cambodia in 2015. To determine baseline data, we collected samples from children in 2013 and 2014. PCV13 serotypes accounted for 62.7% of colonizing organisms in outpatients and 88.4% of invasive pneumococci overall; multidrug resistance was common. Thus, effectiveness of vaccination should be high. PMID:26488597

  4. Cambodia: Summary Report. The Impact of Informal School Fees. Asia-South Pacific Education Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Sylvia

    2007-01-01

    A prior study of costs of education in Cambodia was undertaken by Mark Bray in 1999. In his study he suggests that: "... the scale of dropout from Cambodian primary schools has been demonstrated to be high. Costs appear to be an important factor for many households when making decisions to withdraw their children from school." In that study,…

  5. Vernaculars in Literacy and Basic Education in Cambodia, Laos and Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosonen, Kimmo

    2005-01-01

    Three Southeast Asian polities, Cambodia, Laos and Thailand share much of their geography, history, culture, religion and language. Not all speakers of more than 100 languages spoken in the area have a sufficient knowledge of the respective national languages, Khmer, Lao and Thai. Yet, for the most part, the national languages are the only…

  6. Student Transition from Primary to Lower Secondary School in Cambodia: Narrative Insights into Complex Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Zimmermann, Thomas; Sitha, Chhinh; Williams, James H.; Kitamura, Yuto

    2014-01-01

    This article has three purposes. First, it presents findings from a study of student retention and dropout in Cambodia, as pupils transition from primary to lower secondary school. Second, it aims to understand from an in-depth, emic perspective the dynamics of this process and the challenges that individual families and their students face around…

  7. Student Achievement and Education Policy in a Period of Rapid Expansion: Assessment Data Evidence from Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jeffery H.; Chinna, Ung; Nessay, Puth; Hok, Ung Ngo; Savoeun, Va; Tinon, Soeur; Veasna, Meung

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses student achievement and school quality in large samples of schools in Cambodia. Descriptive summaries of student proficiency levels in language and mathematics reveal large gaps between average performance in grades three and six. Given the near universal completion rates for grade three--and lower access to grade six--these…

  8. Reviewing the Role of Teachers in Achieving Education for All in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chae-Young; Rouse, Martyn

    2011-01-01

    Over the last 20 years education policies in Cambodia have been driven by the global Education for All (EFA) campaign and have resulted in a rapid increase in the rates of primary education enrolment. However, the increasing number of children enrolling in schools has not always translated into high rates of primary education completion. Against…

  9. Impact of School Readiness Program Interventions on Children's Learning in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Bredenberg, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the high repetition rates in early years of primary school, the government of Cambodia piloted a school readiness program (SRP) in the first two months of Grade 1 of primary school. This study examines whether such intervention has effects on students' immediate acquisition of school readiness skills as well as students' longer term…

  10. Learning to Read in Ratanakiri: A Case Study from Northeastern Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregerson, Marilyn J.

    2009-01-01

    In Ratanakiri province, northeastern Cambodia, the majority of the local people are native speakers of ethnic minority languages. Primarily subsistence farmers, they use their own language to communicate with others in their villages, and as they work in their rice fields. A baseline survey taken between 1996 and 1998 in five such villages showed…

  11. Analysis of WWW Traffic in Cambodia and Ghana Computer Science Division

    E-print Network

    Sanders, Seth

    Analysis of WWW Traffic in Cambodia and Ghana Bowei Du Computer Science Division University and Ghana. This paper has two main contributions. The first contribution is a anal- ysis, Dynamic content, Ghana, Hyper- text Transfer Protocol, HTTP, Measurement, Performance analysis, Proxy

  12. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren: a study in Cuba and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D; D'Haese, Patrick C; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E; Díaz, Raquel Junco; Núñez, Fidel Angel; Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Gorbea, Mariano Bonet; Doak, Colleen M; Ponce, Maiza Campos; Wieringa, Frank T; Polman, Katja

    2015-04-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:25903454

  13. Agency for International Development Cambodia Countering Trafficking-in-Persons (CTIP) Program

    E-print Network

    Azevedo, Ricardo

    Agency for International Development Cambodia Countering Trafficking-in-Persons (CTIP) Program URL, 2015 · Application deadline: April 17, 2015 Nuclear Regulatory Commission Faculty Development Grant URL NICHD Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units (MFMU) Network (UG1) URL: http://grants1.nih

  14. Distance Education Policy and Public Awareness in Cambodia, Laos, and Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuth, Doung; Than, Chhuon Chan; Phanousith, Somphone; Phissamay, Phonpasit; Tai, Tran Thi

    2007-01-01

    The current project brings together academic and governmental specialists from Cambodia, Laos, and Viet Nam (CLV), in a collaborative study of the prospects for distance education (DE) in those countries. The study's overall objectives are to: (1) survey and take stock of existing educational scenarios and problems in CLV; (2) document the…

  15. "Almost a role model of what we would like to do everywhere": British American Tobacco in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie, R; Collin, J; Sopharo, C; Sopheap, Y

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To examine British American Tobacco's (BAT's) renewed interest in Cambodia from the early 1990s, reviewing negotiations to establish a joint venture and the subsequent conduct of BAT Cambodia (BATC). Methods: Analysis of previously confidential BAT documents relevant to the Cambodian market. Results: With the advent of comparative political stability in the early 1990s, BAT was quick to explore the possibilities for investment. The Cambodian government urgently required foreign investment, offering inducements and assistance to investors. In developing a joint venture, BAT saw a cost effective opportunity to dominate the local market and to defend its regional interests, Cambodia being viewed as strategically located to support smuggling. Given minimal advertising regulation, BATC have undertaken wide ranging promotions and sought to prevent advances in tobacco control. Conclusions: BATC is presented as a contribution to Cambodia's regeneration, but the documents highlight its exploitation of state incapacity and an escalating threat to public health. PMID:15564213

  16. Farm-level bureaucrats in action (and inaction) : the distribution of veterinary services in Laos and Cambodia

    E-print Network

    Ballard, Brett M

    2005-01-01

    In this study, I analyze several dimensions of the institutional environment that govern contractual exchange between veterinary service providers and farmers in Laos and Cambodia. I hypothesize that the negotiation, ...

  17. Radar Image with Color as Height, Sman Teng, Temple, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Cambodia's Angkor region, taken by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), reveals a temple (upper-right) not depicted on early 19th Century French archeological survey maps and American topographic maps. The temple, known as 'Sman Teng,' was known to the local Khmer people, but had remained unknown to historians due to the remoteness of its location. The temple is thought to date to the 11th Century: the heyday of Angkor. It is an important indicator of the strategic and natural resource contributions of the area northwest of the capitol, to the urban center of Angkor. Sman Teng, the name designating one of the many types of rice enjoyed by the Khmer, was 'discovered' by a scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., working in collaboration with an archaeological expert on the Angkor region. Analysis of this remote area was a true collaboration of archaeology and technology. Locating the temple of Sman Teng required the skills of scientists trained to spot the types of topographic anomalies that only radar can reveal.

    This image, with a pixel spacing of 5 meters (16.4 feet), depicts an area of approximately 5 by 4.7 kilometers (3.1 by 2.9 miles). North is at top. Image brightness is from the P-band (68 centimeters, or 26.8 inches) wavelength radar backscatter, a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color represents 25 meters (82 feet) of elevation change, so going from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again corresponds to 25 meters (82 feet) of elevation change.

    AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR mode, AIRSAR collects radar interferometry data from two spatially separated antennas (2.6 meters, or 8.5 feet). Information from the two antennas is used to form radar backscatter imagery and to generate highly accurate elevation data. Built, operated and managed by JPL, AIRSAR is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise program. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. Radar Image with Color as Height, Old Khmer Road, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows the Old Khmer Road (Inrdratataka-Bakheng causeway) in Cambodia extending from the 9th Century A.D. capitol city of Hariharalaya in the lower right portion of the image to the later 10th Century AD capital of Yasodharapura. This was located in the vicinity of Phnom Bakheng (not shown in image). The Old Road is believed to be more than 1000 years old. Its precise role and destination within the 'new' city at Angkor is still being studied by archeologists. But wherever it ended, it not only offered an immense processional way for the King to move between old and new capitols, it also linked the two areas, widening the territorial base of the Khmer King. Finally, in the past and today, the Old Road managed the waters of the floodplain. It acted as a long barrage or dam for not only the natural streams of the area but also for the changes brought to the local hydrology by Khmer population growth.

    The image was acquired by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR). Image brightness is from the P-band (68 cm wavelength) radar backscatter, which is a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back towards the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color represents 20 m of elevation change, that is going from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again corresponds to 20 m of elevation change. Image dimensions are approximately 3.4 km by 3.5 km with a pixel spacing of 5 m. North is at top.

    AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR mode, AIRSAR collects radar interferometry data from two spatially separated antennas (2.6 meters, or 8.5 feet). Information from the two antennas is used to form radar backscatter imagery and to generate highly accurate elevation data. Built, operated and managed by JPL, AIRSAR is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise program. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Description of a new species and new country distribution records of Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Luc; Jose, Michael San; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera (Bactrocera) kohkongiae Leblanc (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae), from the Koh Kong Province of Cambodia, is described as new. This species belongs to the Oriental fruit fly (B. dorsalis) complex. Genetic sequences (mitochondrial COI and nuclear EF1? and Period) are deposited in GenBank. A haplotype network, based on the COI sequences for 21 specimens, shows high genetic diversity. New country records from Cambodia are included for 22 species. PMID:26623878

  20. Unusual increase in reported cases of paratyphoid A fever among travellers returning from Cambodia, January to September 2013.

    PubMed

    Tourdjman, M; Le Hello, S; Gossner, C; Delmas, G; Tubiana, S; Fabre, L; Kerléguer, A; Tarantola, A; Fruth, A; Friesema, I; Thorstensen Brandal, L; Lawrence, J; Fisher, I; Dufour, M; Weill, F X; de Valk, H

    2013-01-01

    From January to September 2013, a marked increase in notifications of Salmonella Paratyphi A infections among travellers returning from Cambodia occurred in France. An investigation revealed 35 cases without a common source: 21 in France, five in Germany, three in the Netherlands, one in Norway, one in the United Kingdom, four in New-Zealand. Data suggest an ongoing event that should trigger further investigation. Travellers to Cambodia should observe preventive measures including good personal hygiene and food handling practices. PMID:24094059

  1. Water-borne diseases and extreme weather events in Cambodia: review of impacts and implications of climate change.

    PubMed

    Davies, Grace I; McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Yoonhee; Hashizume, Masahiro; Iddings, Steven; Chan, Vibol

    2015-01-01

    Cambodia is prone to extreme weather events, especially floods, droughts and typhoons. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of such events. The Cambodian population is highly vulnerable to the impacts of these events due to poverty; malnutrition; agricultural dependence; settlements in flood-prone areas, and public health, governance and technological limitations. Yet little is known about the health impacts of extreme weather events in Cambodia. Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap. A literature review of the health impacts of floods, droughts and typhoons in Cambodia was conducted, with regional and global information reviewed where Cambodia-specific literature was lacking. Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. A time-series analysis under quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the association between floods and diarrhoeal disease incidence in Cambodian children between 2001 and 2012 in 16 Cambodian provinces. Floods were significantly associated with increased diarrhoeal disease in two provinces, while the analysis conducted suggested a possible protective effect from toilets and piped water. Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia. PMID:25546280

  2. Water-Borne Diseases and Extreme Weather Events in Cambodia: Review of Impacts and Implications of Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Grace I.; McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Yoonhee; Hashizume, Masahiro; Iddings, Steven; Chan, Vibol

    2014-01-01

    Cambodia is prone to extreme weather events, especially floods, droughts and typhoons. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of such events. The Cambodian population is highly vulnerable to the impacts of these events due to poverty; malnutrition; agricultural dependence; settlements in flood-prone areas, and public health, governance and technological limitations. Yet little is known about the health impacts of extreme weather events in Cambodia. Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap. A literature review of the health impacts of floods, droughts and typhoons in Cambodia was conducted, with regional and global information reviewed where Cambodia-specific literature was lacking. Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. A time-series analysis under quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the association between floods and diarrhoeal disease incidence in Cambodian children between 2001 and 2012 in 16 Cambodian provinces. Floods were significantly associated with increased diarrhoeal disease in two provinces, while the analysis conducted suggested a possible protective effect from toilets and piped water. Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia. PMID:25546280

  3. Radar Image with Color as Height, Hariharalaya, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hariharalaya, the ancient 9th Century A.D. capitol of the Khmer in Cambodia, is shown in the upper center portion of this NASA Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) image. The image was acquired during the 1996 PACRIM mission with AIRSAR operating in the TOPSAR mode. At the center of the image is the terraced sandstone temple mountain of the King Indravarman, the Bakong. The smaller enclosed rectangular feature just to the north is Preah Ko. Further to the south are more rectangular features, temples and water reservoirs attributed to other kings in the earlier part of the 9th Century A.D. and maybe even earlier. Just visible at the top on the image is a long linear feature that forms the southern border of the immense water reservoir, at the center of which is the Lolei temple. The city was the first capitol of the Khmer after the 802 A.D. ceremony consecrating the king as 'Devaraja'. This usually translated as 'god who was king' or 'king who was god'. In the next century, the center of power shifted to the northwest, to the area known today as Angkor.

    Thus this early capital is unique both in being the first after the historical 'founding' of the Khmer Empire, and for being inhabited for a relatively short time. Although kings returned from Angkor in the 11th and 12th Centuries A.D. to build the temple known as the Lolei and to construct the tower in the center of Bakong, the city of Hariharalaya remained on the perimeter of royal power. It was revered, however, as part of a longstanding and important custom of ancestral veneration. This manifested itself in a complex set of rituals honoring one's forebears--also ensuring legitimacy for one's claim to the throne. So behind this seemingly simple patterning of rectangles on the radar image lies many layers of history, ritual and meaning for the Khmer people, past and present.

    Image dimensions are approximately 6 by 4.8 kilometers (3.7 by 3 miles) with a pixel spacing of 5 meters (16.4 feet). North is at top. Image brightness is from the C-band (5.6 centimeters, or 2.2 inches wavelength) radar backscatter, which is a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color--from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again--represents 10 meters (32.8 feet) of elevation change.

    AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR mode, AIRSAR collects radar interferometry data from two spatially separated antennas (2.6 meters, or 8.5 feet). Information from the two antennas is used to form radar backscatter imagery and to generate highly accurate elevation data. Built, operated and managed by JPL, AIRSAR is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise program. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. Effects of individual and neighborhood factors on maternal care in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Sagna, Marguerite L; Sunil, T S

    2012-03-01

    This study analyzed data from the 2005 Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey to examine the effects of individual- and community-level factors on the receipt of four or more antenatal care visits, receipt of antenatal care within the first trimester of pregnancy, delivery in a health facility and delivery by trained medical professional. The findings demonstrate that age at birth, parity level, educational attainment, household wealth, occupation, media exposure and counseling about pregnancy complications are significant determinants of pregnancy care. There is also a strong evidence of the impact of community-level factors on the utilization of maternal health services. Programs to improve maternal health outcomes must take into account covariates at multiple levels of influence to better address the needs of women of reproductive age in Cambodia. PMID:22265205

  5. Burden of injury from explosive remnants of conflict in Lao PDR and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Durham, Jo; Hoy, Damian

    2013-03-01

    In postconflict settings, a substantial number of injuries and related disabilities are caused by land mines and explosive remnants of war. This article reviews the literature on the prevalence of these injuries and subsequent disabilities in Cambodia and Lao PDR. Three major electronic databases were systematically for publications on the prevalence of these injuries. Six studies met the inclusion criteria. Five of these were in Cambodia and 1 in Lao PDR. None of these studies could estimate national prevalence rates of these injuries; only 2 considered the broader impact of related disabilities. The different methodological approaches and limitations of the studies prevented statistical synthesis. The studies reviewed suggested accurate estimates of the prevalence of war injuries and consequent disabilities are missing. There is a need for a comprehensive epidemiological research to quantify the burden that results from such injuries. PMID:23460585

  6. Molecular characterization of sympatrically distributed Neotricula aperta-like snails in the Mekong River, Kratie, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chennan; Saijuntha, Weerachai; Kirinoki, Masashi; Hayashi, Naoko; Chigusa, Yuichi; Muth, Sinuon; Meng, Chuor Char; Ai, Yingchun; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2016-03-01

    Fifty-six samples of Neotricula aperta-like snails were collected from six locations in Cambodia. Their mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) sequences were examined using haplotype network and neighbor-joining (NJ) tree analysis. Twenty-seven haplotypes (H1-H27) were observed and were divided into two different groups/lineages. Of 27, 17 haplotypes (H11-H27) were clustered with the reference samples of the ?-race N. aperta. The remaining 10 haplotypes (H1-H10) were clustered in a separate group/lineage, differing from the reference samples of the ?-, ?-, and ?-race N. aperta, suggesting a new lineage belonging the genus Neotricula. Our results show that both the ?-race and a new lineage were sympatrically present approximately 60?km upstream of the Mekong River near the Kratie port, Cambodia. Further morphological and molecular studies are required to confirm the taxonomic status of this new, unidentified lineage. PMID:24938095

  7. Resistance, rupture and repetition: Civil society strategies against intimate partner violence in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Lilja, Mona; Baaz, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a new interpretation of the 'resistance' carried out by local civil society organisations in Cambodia against intimate partner violence (IPV). In this, the paper explores the nexus between 'rupture', 'resistance' and 'repetition' and concludes that different 'repetitions' can contribute to acts of violence while simultaneously creating possibilities for resisting IPV. In regard to the latter, the concept of 'rupture' is investigated as a performative politics through which organisations try to disrupt the 'repetitions' of violent masculinities. Furthermore, it is argued that the importance of 'repetitions' and the concept of time should be acknowledged. The French criminal defence lawyer Jacques Vergès' understanding of 'rupture' and the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze's notions of 'repetition' inform the analysis. To exemplify our discussion and findings, the paper embraces stories of a number of civil society workers who facilitate various men's groups in Cambodia in order to negotiate the practice of IPV. PMID:25599422

  8. Toward modeling regionally specific human security using GIS: case study Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Owen, Taylor; Slaymaker, Olav

    2005-08-01

    A new methodology for measuring human security is presented. The three stages of the methodology are: i) threat assessment, ii) data collection and organization, and iii) data visualization and analysis, using Geographic Information Systems. Results from a Cambodia case study are highlighted. The United Nations Development Program's notion of human security, which gives equal weight to economic, health, food, political, personal, and environmental factors, is used. Country-specific threats in each category are determined, and local, spatially referenced data are collected. In this paper, poverty, dengue fever, and tuberculosis are used as examples of the analytic process. Regions of Cambodia exposed to all three of these threats ("hot spots") are located, and spatial correlation between poverty, dengue fever, and tuberculosis is calculated. The methodology i) advances a broad concept of human security, ii) will potentially assist policy and decision makers, and iii) identifies research questions that cannot be resolved using single-sector analysis. PMID:16201215

  9. Community and School-Based Health Education for Dengue Control in Rural Cambodia: A Process Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Khun, Sokrin; Manderson, Lenore

    2007-01-01

    Dengue fever continues to be a major public health problem in Cambodia, with significant impact on children. Health education is a major means for prevention and control of the National Dengue Control Program (NDCP), and is delivered to communities and in schools. Drawing on data collected in 2003–2004 as part of an ethnographic study conducted in eastern Cambodia, we explore the approaches used in health education and their effectiveness to control dengue. Community health education is provided through health centre outreach activities and campaigns of the NDCP, but is not systematically evaluated, is under-funded and delivered irregularly; school-based education is restricted in terms of time and lacks follow-up in terms of practical activities for prevention and control. As a result, adherence is partial. We suggest the need for sustained routine education for dengue prevention and control, and the need for approaches to ensure the translation of knowledge into practice. PMID:18160981

  10. Correlates of household food insecurity and low dietary diversity in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Christine M; McLean, Judy; Kroeun, Hou; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Lynd, Larry D; Green, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify correlates of household food insecurity and poor dietary diversity in rural Cambodia. Trained interviewers administered a survey to 900 households in four rural districts of Prey Veng Province, Cambodia. The Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) and Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) were used to assess household food insecurity and dietary diversity. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to identify independent correlates of household food insecurity and poor dietary diversity (HDDS<=3). The mean±SD HFIAS and HDDS scores were 5.3±3.9 and 4.7±1.6, respectively. The respective prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe food insecurity were 33%, 37%, and 12%; and 23% of households had an HDDS<=3. In multivariate analyses, several indicators of socioeconomic status, and ownership of agricultural land were associated with household food security status, although the latter association lost its significance in models that adjusted for household income. Similarly, although ownership of agricultural and homestead land was initially associated with poorer dietary diversity, income mitigated these associations. The presence of electricity and vegetable production were the only other variables that were significantly associated with both outcomes. In this rural area of Cambodia, the prevalence of any degree of household food insecurity was very high and dietary diversity was generally low. Interventions to improve food security and dietary diversity should encompass income-generating activities and be targeted toward the poorest households. PMID:26693758

  11. [Mental health and cultural issues: the return of Khmers from France to Cambodia for healing purposes].

    PubMed

    Bertrand, D

    1997-01-01

    There are many kinds of traditional healers in Cambodia, mostly in the rural areas. People often seek advice from monks at the pagoda, traditional doctors (kru khmer) or mediums when they are ill, and consult medical practitioners only as a last resort. Each of these healers provides a different solution and form of care. Traditional healers are difficult to find in France and they often work in secret. Monks teach meditation rather than magic, brahmanism and superstition. There are now Khmer in Cambodia who have returned after long and complex treatments in general and psychiatric hospitals in France, seeking a release from suffering in their motherland. They seek an alternative understanding of their problems and a different kind of care, based largely on witchcraft and spiritual possession, which is not available in France. Returning to Cambodia is important because they are allowed to live according to their beliefs without being seen as insane. However, this return also involves confrontation with the lost country and the past, with war and the Killing Fields, in the same place as the trauma itself occurred. Several cases illustrate the healing nature of the return and emphasize the importance of a culturally sensitive interpretation of the patient's symptoms, which may express cultural bereavement and do not fit easily into international psychiatric categories. This requires much careful attention and listening to the patient. PMID:9480040

  12. Towards safe abortion access: an exploratory study of medical abortion in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Petitet, Pascale Hancart; Ith, Leakhena; Cockroft, Melissa; Delvaux, Thérèse

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, following its approval by the Ministry of Health, the medical abortion combination pack Medabon (containing mifepristone and misoprostol) was made available at pharmacies and in a restricted number of health facilities in Cambodia. The qualitative study presented in this paper was conducted in 2012 as a follow-up to longer-term ethnographical research related to reproductive health and fertility regulation between 2008 and 2012. Observations were carried out at several clinic and pharmacy sites and in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 20 women who attended two MSI Cambodia centres and 10 women identified through social networks; six men (women's male partners); eight health care providers at the two MSI centres and four pill sellers at private or informal pharmacies (who also provided health care services in private clinics). Although the level of training among the drug sellers and providers varied, their knowledge about medical abortion regimens, correct usage and common side effects was good. Overall, women were satisfied with the services provided. Medical abortion was not always a women-only process in this study as some male partners were also involved in the care process. The study illustrates positive steps forward being taken in making abortion safe and preventing and reducing unsafe abortion practices in Cambodia. PMID:25702068

  13. Identification of multidrug resistance in previously treated tuberculosis patients: a mixed methods study in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Royce, S; Khann, S; Yadav, RP; Mao, ET; Cattamanchi, A; Sam, S; Handley, MA

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Setting Previously treated tuberculosis (TB) patients are a priority for drug susceptibility testing (DST) to identify cases with multidrug resistance (MDR). In Cambodia, a recent study found that only one-third of smear-positive previously treated patients had DST results. Objective To quantify the gaps in detecting MDR in previously treated TB patients in Cambodia, and describe health workers’ perspectives on barriers, facilitators and potential interventions. Design We analyzed case notifications in Cambodia (2004–2012) and conducted semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders Results The proportion of previously treated notifications varied significantly across provinces 2010–12, in the context of longer term trends of decreasing relapse and increasing “other” retreatment notifications. Correct classification of patients’ TB treatment history and ensuring specimens from previously-treated patients are collected and reach the laboratory could nearly double the number of detected MDR-TB cases. Identified barriers include patients’ reluctance to disclose and staff difficulty eliciting treatment history, partly due to availability of streptomycin only in hospitals. Facilitators include trained health workers, collection of sputum for DST even if previously treated patients are not taking streptomycin, streamlining sputum transportation and promptly reporting results. Conclusion Improved monitoring, supportive supervision, and correctly classifying previously treated patients are essential for improving detection of MDR-TB. PMID:25299861

  14. A survey for potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites of dogs and pigs in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Murrell, K Darwin; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch; Chhoun, Chamnan; Khov, Kuong; Sem, Tharin; Sorn, San; Muth, Sinuon; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-12-01

    There is little information available on parasites of zoonotic significance in Cambodia. In 2011, in an effort to obtain data on potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites in domestic animals, 50 dogs and 30 pigs residing in 38 households located in Ang Svay Check village, Takeo province, Cambodia were examined for parasites from faecal samples. The samples were processed using the formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique (FECT). Hookworms were the most common zoonotic parasite found in dogs (80.0%) followed by Echinostomes (18.0%). While, in pigs, Fasciolopsis buski was the most common zoonotic parasite (30.0%) followed by Ascaris suum (13.3%). This study provides baseline data on gastrointestinal parasites in dogs and pigs from Cambodia and underscores the importance of domestic animals as reservoir hosts for human parasites for Cambodian veterinary and public health agencies. Follow-up studies are required to further taxonomically characterize these dog and pig parasites and to determine their role in human parasites in this community. PMID:26408577

  15. Achieving universal access and moving towards elimination of new HIV infections in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Vun, Mean Chhi; Fujita, Masami; Rathavy, Tung; Eang, Mao Tang; Sopheap, Seng; Sovannarith, Samreth; Chhorvann, Chhea; Vanthy, Ly; Sopheap, Oum; Welle, Emily; Ferradini, Laurent; Sedtha, Chin; Bunna, Sok; Verbruggen, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the mid-1990s, Cambodia faced one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in Asia. For its achievement in reversing this trend, and achieving universal access to HIV treatment, the country received a United Nations millennium development goal award in 2010. This article reviews Cambodia’s response to HIV over the past two decades and discusses its current efforts towards elimination of new HIV infections. Methods A literature review of published and unpublished documents, including programme data and presentations, was conducted. Results and discussion Cambodia classifies its response to one of the most serious HIV epidemics in Asia into three phases. In Phase I (1991–2000), when adult HIV prevalence peaked at 1.7% and incidence exceeded 20,000 cases, a nationwide HIV prevention programme targeted brothel-based sex work. Voluntary confidential counselling and testing and home-based care were introduced, and peer support groups of people living with HIV emerged. Phase II (2001–2011) observed a steady decline in adult prevalence to 0.8% and incidence to 1600 cases by 2011, and was characterized by: expanding antiretroviral treatment (coverage reaching more than 80%) and continuum of care; linking with tuberculosis and maternal and child health services; accelerated prevention among key populations, including entertainment establishment-based sex workers, men having sex with men, transgender persons, and people who inject drugs; engagement of health workers to deliver quality services; and strengthening health service delivery systems. The third phase (2012–2020) aims to attain zero new infections by 2020 through: sharpening responses to key populations at higher risk; maximizing access to community and facility-based testing and retention in prevention and care; and accelerating the transition from vertical approaches to linked/integrated approaches. Conclusions Cambodia has tailored its prevention strategy to its own epidemic, established systematic linkages across different services and communities, and achieved nearly universal coverage of HIV services nationwide. Still, the programme must continually (re)prioritize the most effective and efficient interventions, strengthen synergies between programmes, contribute to health system strengthening, and increase domestic funding so that the gains of the previous two decades are sustained, and the goal of zero new infections is reached. PMID:24950749

  16. What Are Effective Components of In-Service Teacher Training? A Study Examining Teacher Trainers' Perceptions of the Components of a Training Programme in Mathematics Education in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Jane

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses an in-service education project, financed by the Belgium Technical Cooperation, to improve the quality of mathematics teaching in 138 primary and lower secondary schools in Cambodia. The project design drew on recent research in developing countries and prior experience of training programmes in Cambodia. The…

  17. Sex work and HIV in Cambodia: trajectories of risk and disease in two cohorts of high-risk young women in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Page, Kimberly; Stein, Ellen; Sansothy, Neth; Evans, Jennifer; Couture, Marie-Claude; Sichan, Keo; Cockroft, Melissa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Kaldor, John; Maher, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives HIV prevalence among Cambodian female sex workers (FSW) is among the highest in Southeast Asia. We describe HIV prevalence and associated risk exposures in FSW sampled serially in Phnom Penh, Cambodia (Young Women's Health Study (YWHS)), before and after the implementation of a new law designed to combat human trafficking and sexual exploitation. Design Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from two prospective cohorts. Setting Community-based study in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Participants Women aged 15–29?years, reporting ?2 sexual partners in the last month and/or engaged in transactional sex in the last 3?months, were enrolled in the studies in 2007 (N=161; YWHS-1), and 2009 (N=220; YWHS-2) following information sessions where 285 and 345 women attended. Primary outcomes HIV prevalence, sexual risk behaviour, amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) and alcohol use, and work-related factors were compared in the two groups, enrolled before and after implementation of the new law. Results Participants in the two cohorts were similar in age (median 25?years), but YWHS-2 women reported fewer sex partners, more alcohol use and less ATS use. A higher proportion of YWHS-2 compared with YWHS-1 women worked in entertainment-based venues (68% vs 31%, respectively). HIV prevalence was significantly lower in the more recently sampled women: 9.2% (95% CI 4.5% to 13.8%) vs 23% (95% CI 16.5% to 29.7%). Conclusions Sex work context and risk have shifted among young FSW in Phnom Penh, following implementation of anti-prostitution and anti-trafficking laws. While both cohorts were recruited using the same eligibility criteria, more recently sampled women had lower prevalence of sexual risk and HIV infection. Women engaging more directly in transactional sex have become harder to sample and access. Future prevention research and programmes need to consider how new policies and demographic changes in FSW impact HIV transmission. PMID:24022389

  18. Acute Undifferentiated Febrile Illness in Rural Cambodia: A 3-Year Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Tara C.; Siv, Sovannaroth; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Fleischmann, Erna; Ariey, Frédéric; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; González, Iveth J.; Christophel, Eva-Maria; Abdur, Rashid; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Bell, David; Menard, Didier

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, malaria control has been successfully implemented in Cambodia, leading to a substantial decrease in reported cases. Wide-spread use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has revealed a large burden of malaria-negative fever cases, for which no clinical management guidelines exist at peripheral level health facilities. As a first step towards developing such guidelines, a 3-year cross-sectional prospective observational study was designed to investigate the causes of acute malaria-negative febrile illness in Cambodia. From January 2008 to December 2010, 1193 febrile patients and 282 non-febrile individuals were recruited from three health centers in eastern and western Cambodia. Malaria RDTs and routine clinical examination were performed on site by health center staff. Venous samples and nasopharyngeal throat swabs were collected and analysed by molecular diagnostic tests. Blood cultures and blood smears were also taken from all febrile individuals. Molecular testing was applied for malaria parasites, Leptospira, Rickettsia, O. tsutsugamushi, Dengue- and Influenza virus. At least one pathogen was identified in 73.3% (874/1193) of febrile patient samples. Most frequent pathogens detected were P. vivax (33.4%), P. falciparum (26.5%), pathogenic Leptospira (9.4%), Influenza viruses (8.9%), Dengue viruses (6.3%), O. tsutsugamushi (3.9%), Rickettsia (0.2%), and P. knowlesi (0.1%). In the control group, a potential pathogen was identified in 40.4%, most commonly malaria parasites and Leptospira. Clinic-based diagnosis of malaria RDT-negative cases was poorly predictive for pathogen and appropriate treatment. Additional investigations are needed to understand their impact on clinical disease and epidemiology, and the possible role of therapies such as doxycycline, since many of these pathogens were seen in non-febrile subjects. PMID:24755844

  19. High Prevalence and Spatial Distribution of Strongyloides stercoralis in Rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Forrer, Armelle; Hattendorf, Jan; Marti, Hanspeter; Duong, Socheat; Vounatsou, Penelope; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background The threadworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, endemic in tropical and temperate climates, is a neglected tropical disease. Its diagnosis requires specific methods, and accurate information on its geographic distribution and global burden are lacking. We predicted prevalence, using Bayesian geostatistical modeling, and determined risk factors in northern Cambodia. Methods From February to June 2010, we performed a cross-sectional study among 2,396 participants from 60 villages in Preah Vihear Province, northern Cambodia. Two stool specimens per participant were examined using Koga agar plate culture and the Baermann method for detecting S. stercoralis infection. Environmental data was linked to parasitological and questionnaire data by location. Bayesian mixed logistic models were used to explore the spatial correlation of S. stercoralis infection risk. Bayesian Kriging was employed to predict risk at non-surveyed locations. Principal Findings Of the 2,396 participants, 44.7% were infected with S. stercoralis. Of 1,071 strongyloidiasis cases, 339 (31.6%) were among schoolchildren and 425 (39.7%) were found in individuals under 16 years. The incidence of S. stercoralis infection statistically increased with age. Infection among male participants was significantly higher than among females (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4–2.0; P<0.001). Participants who defecated in latrines were infected significantly less than those who did not (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4–0.8; P?=?0.001). Strongyloidiasis cases would be reduced by 39% if all participants defecated in latrines. Incidence of S. stercoralis infections did not show a strong tendency toward spatial clustering in this province. The risk of infection significantly decreased with increasing rainfall and soil organic carbon content, and increased in areas with rice fields. Conclusions/Significance Prevalence of S. stercoralis in rural Cambodia is very high and school-aged children and adults over 45 years were the most at risk for infection. Lack of access to adequate treatment for chronic uncomplicated strongyloidiasis is an urgent issue in Cambodia. We would expect to see similar prevalence rates elsewhere in Southeast Asia and other tropical resource poor countries. PMID:24921627

  20. Cardiologist in the shadow of Angkor Wat: A medical mission to Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, John Davis

    2014-04-01

    In a medical mission to Cambodia, our team of doctors, dentists, and nurses saw over 1000 patients during 4 days of clinics. The most common cardiovascular problems were hypertension (11%) and heart murmurs (3%). Obesity and a history of diabetes were very rare. Unlike the cardiac patients I typically see in my Atlanta office, the Cambodians were trim and muscular from their predominantly farming and, less often, construction jobs. They are a gentle, seemingly happy people, appreciative of whatever limited medical help we could offer. Tuberculosis was the most prevalent serious illness noted. PMID:24688208

  1. Do marriages forget their past? Marital stability in post-Khmer Rouge Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Heuveline, Patrick; Poch, Bunnak

    2006-02-01

    This paper assesses the impact of three main destabilizing factors on marital stability in Cambodia: the radical reformation of marriage under the Khmers Rouges (KR); the imbalanced gender ratio among marriageable adults resulting from gendered mortality during the KR regime; and, after decades of isolation from the West, a period of rapid social change. Although there is evidence of declining marital stability in the most recent period, marriages contracted under the KR appear as stable as adjacent marriage cohorts. Thesefindings suggest that the conditions under which spouses were initially paired matter less for marital stability than does their contemporaneous environment. PMID:16579210

  2. Termitotrox venus sp. n. (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae), a new blind, flightless termitophilous scarab from Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Kakizoe, Showtaro; Maruyama, Munetoshi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Termitotrox venus sp. n. is described from Cambodia and represents the second discovery of Termitotrox Reichensperger, 1915 from the Indo-Chinese subregion of the Indomalayan region. Most of the type series was collected from refuse dumps in fungus garden cells of Macrotermes cf. gilvus (Hagen, 1858). Macrotermes Holmgren, 1910 was previously an unknown host of Termitotrox species. The new species is easily distinguished from all known congeners by having wing-shaped trichomes on the elytra and the larger body size, at 2.5 mm in length. We also describe the mouthparts to complement the description of the genus Termitotrox. PMID:26257566

  3. Gendered Motivations, Sociocultural Constraints, and Psychobehavioral Consequences of Transnational Partnerships in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Hoefinger, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Global flows of people, information and capital have created transnational spaces in Cambodia. Within those spaces exists the formation of complex and multilayered interpersonal relationships between people attempting to capitalize on the opportunities created by these flows. The purpose of this article is to describe these transnational relationships, namely between young women employed in the entertainment sectors in Phnom Penh, and their western male partners, while highlighting the racialized and gendered motivations of the global actors, the inevitable sociocultural conflicts/constraints/ misunderstandings that arise within the partnerships, and the resulting challenges and psychobehavioral consequences experienced by the mobile and differentiated individuals involved in these postcolonial relational formations. PMID:25221438

  4. Emerging infectious diseases and public health policy: insights from Cambodia, Hong Kong and Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Burgos, S; Ear, S

    2015-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases affect the health of animal and human populations, but the impact goes beyond health as it extends to political, economic, social and environmental domains, as well as inter-state relations. Deeper understanding of these impacts aids public health authorities in their duties of protection and improvement of the health of their communities, promotion of healthy practices and research on disease, injury and threat prevention and mitigation. This empirical essay gathers insights from Cambodia, Hong Kong and Indonesia as they attempt to design and implement control and surveillance systems against avian influenza - an infectious disease. PMID:23551938

  5. Trauma and Poor Mental Health in Relation to Economic Status: The Case of Cambodia 35 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Jarl, Johan; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Chak, Thida; Sunbaunat, Ka; Larsson, Charlotte A

    2015-01-01

    Background Cambodia is one of the poorest countries in south-east Asia and is still emerging from the events of the Khmer Rouge reign. It has been suggested that the atrocities experienced by the Cambodian population can explain why Cambodia continues to lag behind its neighbours in economic outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is an association between exposure to past trauma and/or current poor mental health and current economic status in Cambodia. Method A newly conducted survey performed in two regions (north-west and south-east Cambodia) collected information on trauma exposure, psychiatric symptoms, self-rated health outcomes and socio-economic information for 3200 persons aged 18–60. Economic outcomes were measured as household debt and poverty status and whether the respondent was economically inactive. All models were analysed using logistic regression. Results No association was found between high exposure to conflict-related or civilian trauma and any economic outcomes save for a negative association between civilian trauma and poverty in the south-east. Current post-traumatic stress was related solely to poverty status. All other measures of current mental health status, however, were found to be strongly negatively associated with all measures of economic status. Thus, mental health interventions could potentially be utilised in poverty reduction strategies, but greater efficacy is likely to be achieved by targeting current mental health status rather than previous trauma exposure. PMID:26301591

  6. The Killing Fields on TV: A Critical Analysis of Network Coverage of Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ted J., III; Grassmick, David E.

    In an effort to determine the nature of American network television news coverage of the Khmer Rouge rule in Cambodia, a study examined the television evening news from April 16, 1975, the date on which the Lon Nol government first offered to capitulate to the Khmer Rouge, through January 8, 1979, when news of the fall of Phnom Penh to the…

  7. Effectiveness of Bilingual Education in Cambodia: A Longitudinal Comparative Case Study of Ethnic Minority Children in Bilingual and Monolingual Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Scott; Watt, Ron; Frawley, Jack

    2015-01-01

    There is little research in the developing countries of South East Asia on the effectiveness of bilingual education programmes that use first language instruction for ethnic minority children. This study investigated the effectiveness of a bilingual education programme involving ethnic minority children in Cambodia by comparing their performance…

  8. ARSENIC REMOVAL AND ECOLOGICALLY SAFE CONTAINMENT OF ARSENIC-WASTE: A SUSTAINABLE SOLUTION FOR ARSENIC CRISIS IN CAMBODIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    An appalling degree of arsenic contamination in groundwater has affected more than a million people in wide region of Mekong delta flood plain in Cambodia. Arsenic is by far the most toxic species of all naturally occurring groundwater contaminants and disposal of removed arse...

  9. Reevaluating the Relationship between Education and Child Labour Using the Capabilities Approach: Policy and Implications for Inequality in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluttz, Jenalee

    2015-01-01

    Cambodia has experienced rapid economic growth in the last two decades, improving living standards and diminishing poverty. Unfortunately, it has failed to do so evenly. Growth within the country has widened the gap between rich and poor and exacerbated the rural/urban divide. This inequality is mirrored in the school system. Inequality within the…

  10. Distortions and Dichotomies in Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities in Cambodia in the Context of Globalisation and International Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyanpur, Maya

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the consequences of transferring technical information on disability and inclusive education from the North to the South within the context of international development. Based on data from the author's experiences as a US-trained Indian international consultant in Cambodia, it analyses how problems with translation and…

  11. What Makes the Difference? An Analysis of a Reading Intervention Programme Implemented in Rural Schools in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Jane; Gravelle, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    This article compares the existing single-strategy approach towards the teaching of early literacy in schools in rural Cambodia with a multiple-strategy approach introduced as part of a reading intervention programme. Classroom observations, questionnaires and in-depth interviews with teachers were used to explore teachers' practices and…

  12. Issues and Techniques in Translating Scientific Terms from English to Khmer for a University-Level Text in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Cassie; Oliviera, Alandeom W.; Curry, Alastair; Buck, Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Teachers and students spend much time interacting with written resources such as textbooks, tests, or worksheets during classroom instruction. What if no text is available, however, in the language of the learners? This case study describes the processes and techniques adopted by two university lecturers in Cambodia, as they translated an L1…

  13. Accelerated deforestation driven by large-scale land acquisitions in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Kyle Frankel; Yu, Kailiang; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Pichdara, Lonn; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2015-10-01

    Investment in agricultural land in the developing world has rapidly increased in the past two decades. In Cambodia, there has been a surge in economic land concessions, in which long-term leases are provided to foreign and domestic investors for economic development. More than two million hectares have been leased so far, sparking debate over the consequences for local communities and the environment. Here we combined official records of concession locations with a high-resolution data set of changes in forest cover to quantify the contribution of land concessions to deforestation between 2000 and 2012. We used covariate matching to control for variables other than classification as a concession that may influence forest loss. Nearly half of the area where concessions were granted between 2000 and 2012 was forested in 2000; this area then represented 12.4% of forest land cover in Cambodia. Within concessions, the annual rate of forest loss was between 29% and 105% higher than in comparable land areas outside concessions. Most of the deforestation within concessions occurred after the contract date, and whether an investor was domestic or foreign had no effect on deforestation rates. We conclude that land acquisitions can act as powerful drivers of deforestation.

  14. Improving immunization equity through a public-private partnership in Cambodia.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, J. Brad; Bhushan, Indu

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects on immunization equity of the large-scale contracting of primary health-care services in rural areas of Cambodia. METHODS: Data were obtained pre-intervention and post-intervention from a large-scale quasi-experiment in contracting with nongovernmental organizations to provide primary health care in nine rural districts of Cambodia between 1999 and mid-2001. Coverage targets and equity targets for all primary health-care services, including immunization of children, were explicitly included in the contracts awarded in five of nine rural districts which together have a population of over 1.25 million people. The remaining four districts used the traditional government model for providing services and were given identical targets. FINDINGS: After the 2.5 years of the trial, bivariate and multivariate analyses of the results suggested that although there was a substantial increase in the proportion of children who were fully immunized in all districts, children in the poorest 50% of households in the districts served by contractors were more likely to be fully immunized than poor children living in similar circumstances in districts using the government's model, all other things being equal. CONCLUSION: The contracting approach described in this paper suggests a means of moving towards a more equitable distribution of immunization services in developing countries. PMID:15628203

  15. A new species of Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from Vietnam and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Stuart, Bryan L; Neang, Thy; Hoang, Huy D; Dau, Vinh Q; Nguyen, Tao T; Emmett, David A

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new, medium-sized Leptolalax species from the Kon Tum Plateau of Vietnam and adjacent Cambodia. Leptolalax isos sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of an absence of distinct dark brown/black dorsolateral markings; toes with rudimentary webbing, wide lateral dermal fringes in males and weak or absent lateral dermal fringes in females; most males with wide lateral dermal fringes on Finger II, a body size of 23.7-27.9 mm in 38 adult males and 28.6-31.5 mm in 9 adult females, near immaculate white chest and belly; absence of white speckling on the dorsum; and a call consisting of 2-3 notes with a dominant frequency of 5.9-6.2 kHz (at 22.4-22.8º C). Uncorrected sequence divergences between L. isos sp. nov. and all homologous 16S rRNA sequences available are >10%. At present, the new species is known from montane evergreen forest between ~650-1100 m elevation in northeastern Cambodia and central Vietnam. Habitat within the range of the new species is threatened by deforestation and upstream hydroelectric dams. PMID:26624626

  16. Reduced Artemisinin Susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Ring Stages in Western Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Khim, Nimol; Chim, Pheaktra; Kim, Saorin; Ke, Sopheakvatey; Kloeung, Nimol; Chy, Sophy; Duong, Socheat; Leang, Rithea; Ringwald, Pascal; Dondorp, Arjen M.; Tripura, Rupam; Benoit-Vical, Françoise; Berry, Antoine; Gorgette, Olivier; Ariey, Frédéric; Barale, Jean-Christophe; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2013-01-01

    The declining efficacy of artemisinin derivatives against Plasmodium falciparum in western Cambodia is a major concern. The knowledge gap in the understanding of the mechanisms involved hampers designing monitoring tools. Here, we culture-adapted 20 isolates from Pailin and Ratanakiri (areas of artemisinin resistance and susceptibility in western and eastern Cambodia, respectively) and studied their in vitro response to dihydroartemisinin. No significant difference between the two sets of isolates was observed in the classical isotopic test. However, a 6-h pulse exposure to 700 nM dihydroartemisinin (ring-stage survival assay -RSA]) revealed a clear-cut geographic dichotomy. The survival rate of exposed ring-stage parasites (ring stages) was 17-fold higher in isolates from Pailin (median, 13.5%) than in those from Ratanakiri (median, 0.8%), while exposed mature stages were equally and highly susceptible (0.6% and 0.7%, respectively). Ring stages survived drug exposure by cell cycle arrest and resumed growth upon drug withdrawal. The reduced susceptibility to artemisinin in Pailin appears to be associated with an altered in vitro phenotype of ring stages from Pailin in the RSA. PMID:23208708

  17. Zoonotic Trematode Metacercariae in Fish from Phnom Penh and Pursat, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S.; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Socheat, Duong

    2014-01-01

    A survey was performed to investigate the infection status of freshwater fish with zoonotic trematode metacercariae in Phnom Penh and Pursat Province, Cambodia. All collected fish with ice were transferred to our laboratory and examined using the artificial digestion method. In fish from Phnom Penh, 2 kinds of metacercariae (Opisthorchis viverrini and Haplorchis yokogawai) were detected. O. viverrini metacercariae were positive in 37 (50.0%) of 74 fish in 11 species (average no. metacercariae/fish, 18.6). H. yokogawai metacercariae were detected in 23 (57.5%) of 40 fish in 5 species (average no. metacercariae/fish, 21.0). In fish from Pursat Province, 5 kinds of metacercariae (O. viverrini, H. yokogawai, Haplorchis pumilio, Centrocestus formosanus, and Procerovum sp.) were detected; O. viverrini metacercariae (n=3) in 2 fish species (Henicorhynchus lineatus and Puntioplites falcifer), H. yokogawai metacercariae (n=51) in 1 species (P. falcifer), H. pumilio metacercariae (n=476) in 2 species (H. lineatus and Pristolepis fasciata), C. formosanus metacercariae (n=1) in 1 species (H. lineatus), and Procerovum sp. metacercariae (n=63) in 1 species (Anabas testudineus). From the above results, it has been confirmed that various freshwater fish play the role of a second intermediate host for zoonotic trematodes (O. viverrini, H. yokogawai, H. pumilio, C. formosanus, and Procerovum sp.) in Cambodia. PMID:24623879

  18. Complex dynamic of dengue virus serotypes 2 and 3 in Cambodia following series of climate disasters.

    PubMed

    Duong, Veasna; Henn, Matthew R; Simmons, Cameron; Ngan, Chantha; Y, Bunthin; Gavotte, Laurent; Viari, Alain; Ong, Sivuth; Huy, Rekol; Lennon, Niall J; Ly, Sowath; Vong, Sirenda; Birren, Bruce W; Farrar, Jeremy J; Deubel, Vincent; Frutos, Roger; Buchy, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    The Dengue National Control Program was established in Cambodia in 2000 and has reported between 10,000 and 40,000 dengue cases per year with a case fatality rate ranging from 0.7 to 1.7. In this study 39 DENV-2 and 57 DENV-3 viruses isolated from patients between 2000 and 2008 were fully sequenced. Five DENV2 and four DENV3 distinct lineages with different dynamics were identified. Each lineage was characterized by the presence of specific mutations with no evidence of recombination. In both DENV-2 and DENV-3 the lineages present prior to 2003 were replaced after that date by unrelated lineages. After 2003, DENV-2 lineages D2-3 and D2-4 cocirculated until 2007 when they were almost completely replaced by a lineage D2-5 which emerged from D2-3 Conversely, all DENV-3 lineages remained, diversified and cocirculated with novel lineages emerging. Years 2006 and 2007 were marked by a high prevalence of DENV-3 and 2007 with a large dengue outbreak and a high proportion of patients with severe disease. Selective sweeps in DENV-1 and DENV-2 were linked to immunological escape to a predominately DENV-3-driven immunological response. The complex dynamic of dengue in Cambodia in the last ten years has been associated with a combination of stochastic climatic events, cocirculation, coevolution, adaptation to different vector populations, and with the human population immunological landscape. PMID:22677620

  19. Geostatistical modelling of soil-transmitted helminth infection in Cambodia: do socioeconomic factors improve predictions?

    PubMed

    Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Odermatt, Peter; Biedermann, Patricia; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Muth, Sinuon; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections are intimately connected with poverty. Yet, there is a paucity of using socioeconomic proxies in spatially explicit risk profiling. We compiled household-level socioeconomic data pertaining to sanitation, drinking-water, education and nutrition from readily available Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and World Health Surveys for Cambodia and aggregated the data at village level. We conducted a systematic review to identify parasitological surveys and made every effort possible to extract, georeference and upload the data in the open source Global Neglected Tropical Diseases database. Bayesian geostatistical models were employed to spatially align the village-aggregated socioeconomic predictors with the soil-transmitted helminth infection data. The risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection was predicted at a grid of 1×1km covering Cambodia. Additionally, two separate individual-level spatial analyses were carried out, for Takeo and Preah Vihear provinces, to assess and quantify the association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and socioeconomic indicators at an individual level. Overall, we obtained socioeconomic proxies from 1624 locations across the country. Surveys focussing on soil-transmitted helminth infections were extracted from 16 sources reporting data from 238 unique locations. We found that the risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection from 2000 onwards was considerably lower than in surveys conducted earlier. Population-adjusted prevalences for school-aged children from 2000 onwards were 28.7% for hookworm, 1.5% for Ascaris lumbricoides and 0.9% for Trichuris trichiura. Surprisingly, at the country-wide analyses, we did not find any significant association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and village-aggregated socioeconomic proxies. Based also on the individual-level analyses we conclude that socioeconomic proxies might not be good predictors at an aggregated large-scale analysis due to their large between- and within-village heterogeneity. Specific information of both the infection risk and potential predictors might be needed to obtain any existing association. The presented soil-transmitted helminth infection risk estimates for Cambodia can be used for guiding and evaluating control and elimination efforts. PMID:25205492

  20. Epidemiological and Virological Characteristics of Influenza Viruses Circulating in Cambodia from 2009 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Sovann; Heng, Seng; Vong, Sirenda; Kitsutani, Paul; Ieng, Vannra; Tarantola, Arnaud; Ly, Sowath; Sar, Borann; Chea, Nora; Sokhal, Buth; Barr, Ian; Kelso, Anne; Horwood, Paul F.; Timmermans, Ans; Hurt, Aeron; Lon, Chanthap; Saunders, David; Ung, Sam An; Asgari, Nima; Roces, Maria Concepcion; Touch, Sok; Komadina, Naomi; Buchy, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Background The Cambodian National Influenza Center (NIC) monitored and characterized circulating influenza strains from 2009 to 2011. Methodology/Principal Findings Sentinel and study sites collected nasopharyngeal specimens for diagnostic detection, virus isolation, antigenic characterization, sequencing and antiviral susceptibility analysis from patients who fulfilled case definitions for influenza-like illness, acute lower respiratory infections and event-based surveillance. Each year in Cambodia, influenza viruses were detected mainly from June to November, during the rainy season. Antigenic analysis show that A/H1N1pdm09 isolates belonged to the A/California/7/2009-like group. Circulating A/H3N2 strains were A/Brisbane/10/2007-like in 2009 before drifting to A/Perth/16/2009-like in 2010 and 2011. The Cambodian influenza B isolates from 2009 to 2011 all belonged to the B/Victoria lineage represented by the vaccine strains B/Brisbane/60/2008 and B/Malaysia/2506/2004. Sequences of the M2 gene obtained from representative 2009–2011 A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm09 strains all contained the S31N mutation associated with adamantanes resistance except for one A/H1N1pdm09 strain isolated in 2011 that lacked this mutation. No reduction in the susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibitors was observed among the influenza viruses circulating from 2009 to 2011. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that A/H3N2 strains clustered each year to a distinct group while most A/H1N1pdm09 isolates belonged to the S203T clade. Conclusions/Significance In Cambodia, from 2009 to 2011, influenza activity occurred throughout the year with peak seasonality during the rainy season from June to November. Seasonal influenza epidemics were due to multiple genetically distinct viruses, even though all of the isolates were antigenically similar to the reference vaccine strains. The drug susceptibility profile of Cambodian influenza strains revealed that neuraminidase inhibitors would be the drug of choice for influenza treatment and chemoprophylaxis in Cambodia, as adamantanes are no longer expected to be effective. PMID:25340711

  1. Dengue in Thailand and Cambodia: An Assessment of the Degree of Underrecognized Disease Burden Based on Reported Cases

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Ole; Yoon, In-Kyu; Vong, Sirenda; Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Gibbons, Robert V.; Mammen, Mammen P.; Ly, Sowath; Buchy, Philippe; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat; Buathong, Rome; Huy, Rekol; Letson, G. William; Sabchareon, Arunee

    2011-01-01

    Background Disease incidence data are needed to guide decision-making for public health interventions. Although dengue is a reportable disease in Thailand and Cambodia, the degree that reported incidence underrecognizes true disease burden is unknown. We utilized dengue incidence calculated from laboratory-confirmed outpatient and inpatient cases in prospective cohort studies to estimate the magnitude of dengue underrecognition and to establish more accurate disease burden estimates for these countries. Methods and Findings Cohort studies were conducted among children aged <15 years by members of a dengue field site consortium over at least 2 dengue seasons. Age-group specific multiplication factors (MFs) were computed by comparing data from three cohort studies to national surveillance data in the same province and year. In Thailand, 14,627 person-years of prospective cohort data were obtained in two provinces and 14,493 person-years from one province in Cambodia. Average annual incidence of laboratory-confirmed dengue was 23/1,000 and 25/1,000 in Thailand, and 41/1,000 in Cambodia. Calculated MFs in these provinces varied by age-group and year (range 0.4–29). Average age-group specific MFs were then applied to country-level reporting data and indicated that in Thailand a median 229,886 (range 210,612–331,236) dengue cases occurred annually during 2003–2007 and a median 111,178 (range 80,452–357,135) cases occurred in Cambodia in children <15 years of age. Average underrecognition of total and inpatient dengue cases was 8.7 and 2.6-fold in Thailand, and 9.1 and 1.4-fold in Cambodia, respectively. During the high-incidence year 2007, >95,000 children in Thailand and >58,000 children in Cambodia were estimated to be hospitalized due to dengue. Conclusion Calculating MFs by comparing prospective cohort study data to locally-reported national surveillance data is one approach to more accurately assess disease burden. These data indicate that although dengue is regularly reported in many countries, national surveillance data significantly underrecognize the true burden of disease. PMID:21468308

  2. Climate as a contributing factor in the demise of Angkor, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Brendan M; Anchukaitis, Kevin J; Penny, Daniel; Fletcher, Roland; Cook, Edward R; Sano, Masaki; Nam, Le Canh; Wichienkeeo, Aroonrut; Minh, Ton That; Hong, Truong Mai

    2010-04-13

    The "hydraulic city" of Angkor, the capitol of the Khmer Empire in Cambodia, experienced decades-long drought interspersed with intense monsoons in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries that, in combination with other factors, contributed to its eventual demise. The climatic evidence comes from a seven-and-a-half century robust hydroclimate reconstruction from tropical southern Vietnamese tree rings. The Angkor droughts were of a duration and severity that would have impacted the sprawling city's water supply and agricultural productivity, while high-magnitude monsoon years damaged its water control infrastructure. Hydroclimate variability for this region is strongly and inversely correlated with tropical Pacific sea surface temperature, indicating that a warm Pacific and El Niño events induce drought at interannual and interdecadal time scales, and that low-frequency variations of tropical Pacific climate can exert significant influence over Southeast Asian climate and society. PMID:20351244

  3. [Marine envenomation by box-jellyfish in a tourist in Cambodia].

    PubMed

    Bellaud, G; Epelboin, L; Henn, A; Perignon, A; Bricaire, F; Caumes, E

    2013-10-01

    We report a case of box-jellyfish related envenomation in a 40 year old tourist that occurred in Sihanoukville, Cambodia, in the Gulf of Thailand. Symptoms that appeared within a few minutes associated intense pain, hand edema and large edematous and erythematous flagellations in the stung skin areas. Antibiotics and corticosteroids were delivered. Inflammatory signs and skin lesions disappeared within 15 days followed by crusts then scars. Jellyfish at risk for humans are generally found in tropical seas and their geographic distribution seems to spread. As it is difficult to prevent this kind of accident, travelers should be aware of the first acts to perform, such as appropriate cleaning of the wound, the interest of vinegar usage, the administration of analgesics and corticosteroids in case of significant inflammatory signs. PMID:24072422

  4. Climate as a contributing factor in the demise of Angkor, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Brendan M.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Penny, Daniel; Fletcher, Roland; Cook, Edward R.; Sano, Masaki; Nam, Le Canh; Wichienkeeo, Aroonrut; Minh, Ton That; Hong, Truong Mai

    2010-01-01

    The “hydraulic city” of Angkor, the capitol of the Khmer Empire in Cambodia, experienced decades-long drought interspersed with intense monsoons in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries that, in combination with other factors, contributed to its eventual demise. The climatic evidence comes from a seven-and-a-half century robust hydroclimate reconstruction from tropical southern Vietnamese tree rings. The Angkor droughts were of a duration and severity that would have impacted the sprawling city’s water supply and agricultural productivity, while high-magnitude monsoon years damaged its water control infrastructure. Hydroclimate variability for this region is strongly and inversely correlated with tropical Pacific sea surface temperature, indicating that a warm Pacific and El Niño events induce drought at interannual and interdecadal time scales, and that low-frequency variations of tropical Pacific climate can exert significant influence over Southeast Asian climate and society. PMID:20351244

  5. Characterizing HIV epidemiology in stable couples in Cambodia, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and India.

    PubMed

    Chemaitelly, H; Abu-Raddad, L J

    2016-01-01

    Using a set of statistical methods and HIV mathematical models applied on nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey data, we characterized HIV serodiscordancy patterns and HIV transmission dynamics in stable couples (SCs) in four countries: Cambodia, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and India. The majority of SCs affected by HIV were serodiscordant, and about a third of HIV-infected persons had uninfected partners. Overall, nearly two-thirds of HIV infections occurred in individuals in SCs, but only about half of these infections were due to transmissions within serodiscordant couples. The majority of HIV incidence in the population occurred through extra-partner encounters in SCs. There is similarity in HIV epidemiology in SCs between these countries and countries in sub-Saharan Africa, despite the difference in scale of epidemics. It appears that HIV epidemiology in SCs may share similar patterns globally, possibly because it is a natural 'spillover' effect of HIV dynamics in high-risk populations. PMID:25916602

  6. Original study of the biochemical and oil composition of the Cambodia nut Irvingia malayana.

    PubMed

    Bandelier, J; Chunhieng, T; Olle, M; Montet, D

    2002-03-13

    Analysis of the biochemical composition of Irvingia malayana was carried out. This Cambodian nut contains 7.5% water and 70% oil. Most of the fatty acids are saturated and include 42% C12:0 and 41.8% C14:0; the sterol composition is similar to that of other vegetable oils. This oil is less rich in alpha-tocopherol than in gamma-tocopherol. Analysis of the solid content of the oil with respect to the temperature by NMR shows a fast fall of solid content around its fusion range at 38-39 degrees C. The main differences in the properties of the indigenous Cambodia nut from other known oleaginous seeds are in its selenium content, fatty acid composition, fusion temperature profile, and content of antioxidants. These important characteristics can soon make possible its application in pharmacology, cosmetics, the margarine industry, etc. PMID:11879024

  7. Stakeholder perceptions of a pharmacy-initiated tuberculosis referral program in Cambodia, 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Bell, Carolyn Anne; Duncan, Gregory J; Eang, Rothmony; Saini, Bandana

    2015-03-01

    Intensifying detection of tuberculosis (TB) symptomatic patients is a priority for Cambodia's National Tuberculosis Program, in a country where two-thirds of the population has latent TB infection. In 2005, the National Tuberculosis Program initiated a public-private mix (PPM) collaborative program with external and local stakeholders to identify and refer persons with TB symptoms from private sector pharmacies to public sector clinics for diagnosis and treatment. This qualitative study conducted in-depth interviews with organizational stakeholders to assess their perceptions of PPM program collaboration and its sustainability in the long term. Results showed that stakeholders perceived that collaboration and efficient management had contributed to positive program performance. However, stakeholders expressed anxiety over program sustainability should external resources be reduced. Recent developments in pharmacy undergraduate education and recognition of pharmacy providers' contribution to public health interventions may challenge PPM stakeholders to shift the paradigm from dependence on external agencies to confidence in local expertise and infrastructure. PMID:24097929

  8. Middle Permian brachiopods from central Peninsular Malaysia — faunal affinities between Malaysia and west Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sone, Masatoshi; Leman, Mohd Shafeea; Shi, Guang R.

    2001-02-01

    A moderately diverse Permian brachiopod fauna is described from a new rock unit, the Bera Formation, in the Bera District, central Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. The fauna consists of 19 taxa, including 14 genera and 17 (both identified and unidentified) typically Tethyan species. The fauna appears to be correlative on the basis of brachiopods with the Neoschwagerina-Yabeina fusulinid Zones in Indochina and South China. In particular, it has strong linkage to Member C ( Yabeina beds) of the Sisophon Limestone, west Cambodia. This is indicated by three of the Bera species — Urushtenoidea chaoi (Ching), Spyridiophora gubleri Termier and Termier, and Transennatia termierorum sp. nov., being shared with the Cambodian fauna. A possible early Capitanian (Middle Permian) age is proposed for the Bera brachiopod fauna.

  9. Prevention of lymphatic filariasis with insecticide-treated bednets in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Odermatt, P; Leang, R; Bin, B; Bunkea, T; Socheat, D

    2008-03-01

    Potential risk factors for lymphatic filariasis (LF), including the failure to use insecticide-treated bednets (ITN), were studied in four north-eastern provinces of Cambodia, using 43 cases of LF and 248 apparently healthy controls who were matched with the cases in terms of age (+/-5 years), gender and village. The results of a univariate matched analysis indicated that lack of ITN [odds ratio (OR)=20.1; 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.2-182.4; P=0.008] and frequent overnight stays in forests or paddy fields outside the village (OR=3.6; CI=1.3-10.0; P=0.012) were the most important risk factors. In a multivariate matched analysis, frequent overnight stays outside the village combined with bednet use showed a clear dose-response relationship, with untreated nets offering significant protection during such stays but ITN offering significantly better protection. Even if villagers used ITN during such stays, they were significantly more likely to develop LF than villagers who did not travel (OR=5.0; CI=1.5-16.3; P=0.008), and if they used untreated or no nets while away they were even more likely than the non-travellers to develop the disease (OR=1413; CI=28.0-71,189; P<0.001). Taken together, these results provide further evidence for the importance of bednet use and their impregnation in the prevention of LF. At least in north-eastern Cambodia, the use of bednets and, preferably, ITN is particularly important during overnight stays outside the home village. In areas where LF is endemic, the sustained distribution of insecticide-treated bednets or hammock nets appears to be a very good idea. PMID:18318935

  10. A Novel Experimental Apparatus (PDL) and Its Application in Higher Education in Japan and Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sou, K.; Kato, T.; Oto, K.; Sakurai, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Omosa, E.; Tozaki, K.

    2010-07-01

    Low cost and attractive equipment for use in experimental higher physics education has been desired by teachers, especially those in developing world. A system of novel experimental apparatus named Personal Desk Lab (PDL) was developed [1]. Each apparatus is miniaturized to one-fifth of the conventional one or less, and built on a steel plate; therefore, it is portable and can be used on a classroom desk. Each set is constructed by some parts divided according to their functions, and some of the parts are used in a number of experiments; which saves material, cost, and storage space. All parts are designed to be easy to make, maintain and repair. Almost all apparatus are battery driven [2]. After ICPE 2006, we have improved the system continuously; consequently, the experimental themes cover the field of mechanics, electromagnetism and optics. The number of these themes in use exceeds ten. The performance of PDL has been tested at Chiba University, Japan and Royal University of Phnom Penh (RUPP), Cambodia. In Chiba University, physics education with PDL is currently conducted individually to 80(max.) students in a classroom at the same time, and to more than 900 students per year. Experiment class using PDL in Cambodia started on October 2008 with 120 students of physics department, RUPP. They were divided into three classes, and conducted four experimental themes in pairs. The advantages confirmed from the practices at two universities are as follows: (1) the use of PDL arouses learner's interest, promotes their deep understanding extensively, and inspires to learn further; and (2) costs for introduction and running of PDL system are fairly small compared to the traditional one. Furthermore, the instruction for distant learners having PDL on each hand was conducted successfully through internet.

  11. Betel quid use in relation to infectious disease outcomes in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pramil N.; Natto, Zuhair; Yel, Daravuth; Job, Jayakaran; Knutsen, Synnove

    2012-01-01

    Summary Objectives The habitual chewing of betel quid (areca nut, betel leaf, tobacco) is estimated to occur among 600 million persons in Asia and the Asia-Pacific Region. Emerging data from rural Asia indicate that the betel quid is part of traditional medicine practices that promote its use for a wide range of ailments, including infectious disease. In the present study, we examined the association between betel quid, traditional medicine, and infectious disease outcomes. Methods For the purpose of a nationwide, interviewer-administered, cross-sectional survey of tobacco use (including betel quid), we conducted a stratified three-stage cluster sampling of 13 988 adults aged 18 years and older from all provinces of Cambodia. Results We found an association between the intensity of betel quid use and HIV/AIDS (odds ratio (OR) 2.06, 95% CI 1.09–3.89), dengue fever (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.55–2.72), tuberculosis (OR 1.50, 95% CI 0.96–2.36), and typhoid (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.95–2.30). These associations were even stronger in women – the primary users of betel quid in Cambodia. Multivariable analyses that controlled for age, gender, income, education, urban versus rural dwelling, receiving care from traditional medicine practitioners, and cigarette smoking did not alter the betel quid–infectious disease association. Conclusions Our findings raise the possibility of a role of betel quid use in the transmission of infectious disease through pathways such as immunosuppression, oral route of entry for a pathogen (i.e., through injury to the oral mucosa), and contamination (i.e., fecal–oral) of the betel quid ingredients. PMID:22296863

  12. Tropical tree water use under seasonal waterlogging and drought in central Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Tateishi, Makiko; Komatsu, Hikaru; Ma, Vuthy; Kajisa, Tsuyoshi; Sokh, Heng; Mizoue, Nobuya; Kumagai, Tomo'omi

    2014-07-01

    In central Cambodia, rapid growing non-endemic species are planted for future timber production. However, less is understood about the impact of the introduction of non-endemic species on the transpiration characteristics of the forest, which has been composed of native species that adapted to the highly seasonal environments. Sap flux of two native and one non-endemic tree species in central Cambodia was measured to reveal its seasonal trends and variability in the Monsoon Asia region. Measurements were carried out in a 10- to 15-year-old forest in the dry and rainy seasons that were defined by differing rainfall patterns. The seasonal trend in depth to water table differed from that of rainfall; groundwater table depth reached zero late in the rainy season and increased gradually after the onset of the dry season. The ratio of sap flux to an equilibrium evaporation condition of the native species, Popel (Shorea roxburghii), showed a sharp decline at the end of the dry season, whereas that of a non-endemic species, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), decreased in the mid rainy season while Tbeng (Dipterocarpus obtusifolius) did not show a clear trend. The ratio of sap flux to an equilibrium evaporation was negatively correlated with the depth to water table in Popel, but was positively correlated in eucalyptus, possibly because of the negative effects of flooding. In addition to the large seasonal variation, intra-species variation in sap flux was also large and was a major controlling factor for tree-level water uptake at this young forest site in both dry and rainy seasons. In conclusion, the transpiration characteristics of this forest were species-specific and were controlled more by the fluctuating depths to groundwater rather than the onset of the rainy/dry seasons defined by rainfall events.

  13. Survey of smallholder beef cattle production systems in different agro-ecological zones of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Samkol, Pok; Sath, Keo; Patel, Mikaela; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Holtenius, Kjell

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cambodia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 360 households in the four AEZs: I, the Great Lake Floodplain; II, the Mekong Floodplain; III, the Coastal and IV, the Plateau/Mountainous. In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3.7 (SD?=?2.4), but the majority of households raised 1-3 animals. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and 'cut-and-carry' natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs. The body condition score of all cattle types was 3.2 (SD?=?0.8), except for cows in lactation that were 1.8. Major constraints to cattle production in AEZs I, II and III were lack of quality feed resources, capital for cattle production and concerns on breed quality, whereas in AEZ IV, diseases were identified as the main constraint. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia. PMID:26055891

  14. The village/commune safety policy and HIV prevention efforts among key affected populations in Cambodia: finding a balance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on “cleaning the streets”, has created difficulties for HIV prevention programs attempting to implement programs that work with key affected populations including female sex workers and people who inject drugs. The implementation of the policy has forced HIV program implementers, the UN and various government counterparts to explore and develop collaborative ways of delivering HIV prevention services within this difficult environment. The following case study explores some of these efforts and highlights the promising development of a Police Community Partnership Initiative that it is hoped will find a meaningful balance between the Village/Commune Safety Policy and HIV prevention efforts with key affected populations in Cambodia. PMID:22770267

  15. A new species of wolf snake (Colubridae: Lycodon Fitzinger, 1826) from Phnom Samkos Wildlife Sanctuary, Cardamom Mountains, southwest Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Neang, Thy; Hartmann, Timo; Hun, Seiha; Souter, Nicholas J; Furey, Neil M

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the genus Lycodon Fitzinger, 1826 is described from the Cardamom Mountains of southwest Cambodia. Lycodon zoosvictoriae distinctly differs from all other species of Lycodon in Southeast Asia by a combination of its morphometric characters and unique coloration. The new species has 17 dorsal scales at midbody; 2+2 temporals; 8 supralabials; 10 infralabials; loreal separated from internasal and orbit; 213 ventrals; 85 subcaudals; pale tan brown ground color; irregular dark brown blotches on anterior part, 31 transverse blotches on posterior part of body and 26 blotches on tail. Given its submontane type locality, the new species could prove to be endemic to the Cardamom Mountains of southwest Cambodia and probably Southeast Thailand. PMID:24943413

  16. Volunteering in the developing world: The 2003-2004 Sterling Bunnell Traveling Fellowship to Honduras and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kevin C

    2004-11-01

    One of the goals of my Sterling Bunnell Traveling Fellowship, sponsored by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand and the American Foundation for Surgery of the Hand, was to serve the poor in developing countries. I had the unique opportunities to work in Honduras and Cambodia, 2 countries with rich cultural heritage residing at opposite ends of the world. This report describes my observations and my experiences in these 2 countries. PMID:15576206

  17. Is importing second-hand products a good thing? The cases of computers and tires in Cambodia

    SciTech Connect

    Chanthy, Lay Nitivattananon, Vilas

    2011-04-15

    Is importing second-hand products (SHPs) good for Cambodia? To answer this question, one must seriously consider environmental and social effects. The main objective of this study is to identify and assess the economic, social, and environmental impacts of imported SHPs to determine whether or not Cambodia benefits. Imported second-hand computers (SHPCs) and second-hand tires (SHTs) were selected as cases for the study. The study used a scaling checklist to identify significant impacts of these two imported items. Significant impacts were ranked and rated into a single value (score) for integration. Integrated impact assessment showed that imported SHPCs create a very small positive impact (+ 0.1 of + 5) and imported SHTs generate a large negative impact (- 2.83 of - 5). These scores are mainly the result of environmental impact, predominantly waste issues. Thus, current imports of SHPCs and SHTs do not really benefit Cambodia, but instead cause serious environmental problems from their waste issues. The import serves as a channel to transfer waste into developing countries.

  18. High Mobility and Low Use of Malaria Preventive Measures Among the Jarai Male Youth Along the Cambodia-Vietnam Border.

    PubMed

    Gryseels, Charlotte; Peeters Grietens, Koen; Dierickx, Susan; Xuan, Xa Nguyen; Uk, Sambunny; Bannister-Tyrrell, Melanie; Trienekens, Suzan; Ribera, Joan Muela; Hausmann-Muela, Susanna; Gerrets, René; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Erhart, Annette

    2015-10-01

    Malaria control along the Vietnam-Cambodia border presents a challenge for both countries' malaria elimination targets as the region is forested, inhabited by ethnic minority populations, and potentially characterized by early and outdoor malaria transmission. A mixed methods study assessed the vulnerability to malaria among the Jarai population living on both sides of the border in the provinces of Ratanakiri (Cambodia) and Gia Lai (Vietnam). A qualitative study generated preliminary hypotheses that were quantified in two surveys, one targeting youth (N = 498) and the other household leaders (N = 449). Jarai male youth, especially in Cambodia, had lower uptake of preventive measures (57.4%) and more often stayed overnight in the deep forest (35.8%) compared with the female youth and the adult population. Among male youth, a high-risk subgroup was identified that regularly slept at friends' homes or outdoors, who had fewer bed nets (32.5%) that were torn more often (77.8%). The vulnerability of Jarai youth to malaria could be attributed to the transitional character of youth itself, implying less fixed sleeping arrangements in nonpermanent spaces or non-bed sites. Additional tools such as long-lasting hammock nets could be suitable as they are in line with current practices. PMID:26283747

  19. High Mobility and Low Use of Malaria Preventive Measures among the Jarai Male Youth along the Cambodia–Vietnam Border

    PubMed Central

    Gryseels, Charlotte; Peeters Grietens, Koen; Dierickx, Susan; Xuan, Xa Nguyen; Uk, Sambunny; Bannister-Tyrrell, Melanie; Trienekens, Suzan; Ribera, Joan Muela; Hausmann-Muela, Susanna; Gerrets, René; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Erhart, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Malaria control along the Vietnam–Cambodia border presents a challenge for both countries' malaria elimination targets as the region is forested, inhabited by ethnic minority populations, and potentially characterized by early and outdoor malaria transmission. A mixed methods study assessed the vulnerability to malaria among the Jarai population living on both sides of the border in the provinces of Ratanakiri (Cambodia) and Gia Lai (Vietnam). A qualitative study generated preliminary hypotheses that were quantified in two surveys, one targeting youth (N = 498) and the other household leaders (N = 449). Jarai male youth, especially in Cambodia, had lower uptake of preventive measures (57.4%) and more often stayed overnight in the deep forest (35.8%) compared with the female youth and the adult population. Among male youth, a high-risk subgroup was identified that regularly slept at friends' homes or outdoors, who had fewer bed nets (32.5%) that were torn more often (77.8%). The vulnerability of Jarai youth to malaria could be attributed to the transitional character of youth itself, implying less fixed sleeping arrangements in nonpermanent spaces or non-bed sites. Additional tools such as long-lasting hammock nets could be suitable as they are in line with current practices. PMID:26283747

  20. Injections, Cocktails and Diviners: Therapeutic Flexibility in the Context of Malaria Elimination and Drug Resistance in Northeast Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Gryseels, Charlotte; Uk, Sambunny; Erhart, Annette; Gerrets, René; Sluydts, Vincent; Durnez, Lies; Muela Ribera, Joan; Hausmann Muela, Susanna; Menard, Didier; Heng, Somony; Sochantha, Tho; D’Alessandro, Umberto; Coosemans, Marc; Peeters Grietens, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Background Adherence to effective malaria medication is extremely important in the context of Cambodia’s elimination targets and drug resistance containment. Although the public sector health facilities are accessible to the local ethnic minorities of Ratanakiri province (Northeast Cambodia), their illness itineraries often lead them to private pharmacies selling “cocktails” and artemether injections, or to local diviners prescribing animal sacrifices to appease the spirits. Methods The research design consisted of a mixed methods study, combining qualitative (in-depth interviews and participant observation) and quantitative methods (household and cross-sectional survey). Results Three broad options for malaria treatment were identified: i) the public sector; ii) the private sector; iii) traditional treatment based on divination and ceremonial sacrifice. Treatment choice was influenced by the availability of treatment and provider, perceived side effects and efficacy of treatments, perceived etiology of symptoms, and patient-health provider encounters. Moreover, treatment paths proved to be highly flexible, changing mostly in relation to the perceived efficacy of a chosen treatment. Conclusions Despite good availability of anti-malarial treatment in the public health sector, attendance remained low due to both structural and human behavioral factors. The common use and under-dosage of anti-malaria monotherapy in the private sector (single-dose injections, single-day drug cocktails) represents a threat not only for individual case management, but also for the regional plan of drug resistance containment and malaria elimination. PMID:24244678

  1. Selling sex in unsafe spaces: sex work risk environments in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The risk environment framework provides a valuable but under-utilised heuristic for understanding environmental vulnerability to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers. Brothels have been shown to be safer than street-based sex work, with higher rates of consistent condom use and lower HIV prevalence. While entertainment venues are also assumed to be safer than street-based sex work, few studies have examined environmental influences on vulnerability to HIV in this context. Methods As part of the Young Women's Health Study, a prospective observational study of young women (15-29 years) engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, we conducted in-depth interviews (n = 33) to explore vulnerability to HIV/STI and related harms. Interviews were conducted in Khmer by trained interviewers, transcribed and translated into English and analysed for thematic content. Results The intensification of anti-prostitution and anti-trafficking efforts in Cambodia has increased the number of women working in entertainment venues and on the street. Our results confirm that street-based sex work places women at risk of HIV/STI infection and identify significant environmental risks related to entertainment-based sex work, including limited access to condoms and alcohol-related intoxication. Our data also indicate that exposure to violence and interactions with the police are mediated by the settings in which sex is sold. In particular, transacting sex in environments such as guest houses where there is little or no oversight in the form of peer or managerial support or protection, may increase vulnerability to HIV/STI. Conclusions Entertainment venues may also provide a high risk environment for sex work. Our results indicate that strategies designed to address HIV prevention among brothel-based FSWs in Cambodia have not translated well to street and entertainment-based sex work venues in which increasing numbers of women are working. There is an urgent need for targeted interventions, supported by legal and policy reforms, designed to reduce the environmental risks of sex work in these settings. Future research should seek to investigate sex work venues as risk environments, explore the role of different business models in mediating these environments, and identify and quantify exposure to risk in different occupational settings. PMID:22099449

  2. Indiscriminate Fisheries: Understanding the Foodweb of the Great Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, L.; Kaufman, L.

    2014-12-01

    Indiscriminate fisheries target multiple species with multiple gear types. In contrast to well-studied, industrialized single-species, single-gear fisheries, little theory and little but growing literature on practice exists for indiscriminate fisheries. Indiscriminate fisheries are disproportionately important in low-income countries, providing most of the animal protein intake in countries such as Cambodia and Bangladesh. Indiscriminate fisheries may be either freshwater or marine, but here we focus on what may be the largest freshwater indiscriminate fishery in the world. Cambodia's freshwater fishery stands out because it provides the majority of animal protein to over 3 million people living in poverty. The fishery of the Tonle Sap lake is one of the largest, if not the largest contributor to this freshwater fish take, and is perhaps the largest freshwater fishery in the world. In contrast to its importance, very little is known about the foodweb ecology of this system, or how community management which now governs the entire fishery, interacts with biological and physical factors such as climate change.The foodweb of the Tonle Sap has changed dramatically due to high fishing pressure. A system that once harbored giant catfish, barbs and stingrays is now dominated by fish under 20cm in length. The simplification of the system may not have reduced its productivity. Theory of indiscriminate fisheries suggests that r-selected species may be favored and that biomass available for harvest may be maximized, while being more sensitive to environmental fluctuations such as climate change due to food web simplification. The r-selection and size predictions of theory have been confirmed by observations of the Tonle Sap. Early model results suggest sensitivity to environmental stochasticity. The interaction of these ecological changes with social systems will be tested in the Tonle Sap. Fisheries management across the lake has been transferred to community management units. The capacity of the community management units to control illegal activities or set economically beneficial management objectives is unknown. Our social survey suggests that strengthening community management units could have strong benefits for incomes and biodiversity on the lake.

  3. Klebsiella pneumoniae related community-acquired acute lower respiratory infections in Cambodia: Clinical characteristics and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In many Asian countries, Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is the second pathogen responsible for community-acquired pneumonia. Yet, very little is known about KP etiology in ALRI in Cambodia, a country that has one of the weakest medical infrastructures in the region. We present here the first clinico-radiological description of KP community-acquired ALRI in hospitalized Cambodian patients. Methods Through ALRI surveillance in two provincial hospitals, KP was isolated from sputum and blood cultures, and identified by API20E gallery from patients ? 5 years-old with fever and respiratory symptoms onset ?14 days. Antibiotics susceptibility testing was provided systematically to clinicians when bacteria were isolated. We collected patients' clinical, radiological and microbiological data and their outcome 3 months after discharge. We also compared KP-related with other bacteria-related ALRI to determine risk factors for KP infection. Results From April 2007 to December 2009, 2315 ALRI patients ? 5 years-old were enrolled including 587 whose bacterial etiology could be assigned. Of these, 47 (8.0%) had KP infection; their median age was 55 years and 68.1% were females. Reported prior medication was high (42.5%). Patients' chest radiographs showed pneumonia (61.3% including 39% that were necrotizing), preexisting parenchyma lesions (29.5%) and pleural effusions alone (4.5%) and normal parenchyma (4.5%). Five patients had severe conditions on admission and one patient died during hospitalization. Of the 39 patients that were hospital discharged, 14 died including 12 within 1 month after discharge. Only 13 patients (28%) received an appropriate antibiotherapy. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) - producing strains were found in 8 (17.0%) patients. Female gender (Odds ratio (OR) 2.1; p = 0.04) and diabetes mellitus (OR 3.1; p = 0.03) were independent risk factors for KP-related ALRI. Conclusions KP ALRI in Cambodia has high fatality rate, are more frequently found in women, and should be considered in diabetic patients. The extremely high frequency of ESBL-producing strains in the study is alarming in the context of uncontrolled antibiotic consumption and in absence of microbiology capacity in most public-sector hospitals. PMID:22233322

  4. Characteristics of bedrock-alluvial anastomosed rivers: the Mekong River in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkova, Liubov. V.; Carling, Paul. A.

    2010-05-01

    The Mekong River is the 12th largest river in the world in terms of its length and mean annual discharge and yet it is poorly investigated. In the north eastern regions of Cambodia the Mekong River develops a multichannel pattern. It is characterised by a complex of intersecting bedrock channels, well vegetated alluvial and seasonally inundated islands, various types of sand bars, numerous bedrock exposures, rapids, waterfalls and deep bedrock pools which can be classified as a large mixed bedrock-alluvial anastomosed river of a tropical monsoonal climate zone. In order to complete a portrait of the river at the high level of details new data on morphology, geology and sediments were obtained during field surveys of a 120 km river section in Cambodia and combined with information from published literature and interpretation of available remote sensing images. This process has enabled to update and clarify knowledge on morphology of observed islands and floodplain, comprehensive geology and tectonic structures, hydrological regime and land cover. Complex analyses of the collected data have distinguished several geomorphological zones accordingly to frequency of morphological elements, the planview configuration of channels and vertical profile characteristics. The occurrence of each zone is a subject of variable controlling factors such as local topography, channel gradient, structural and tectonic elements and intercalating geological units. Evolution of the channel pattern has been considered at both short- and long term time scales. Historical cartographic and remote sensing materials were applied to determine planform channel changes over the last 50 years revealing the channels stability and cases of occasional, local erosion and deposition. The channel network was extracted from vector layers to examine channels and islands width and length parameters, bifurcation angles at the upstream end of islands and to obtain main channel network indices such as braiding intensity and channel sinuosity. In addition, luminescence dating of the sediments from a palaeochannel and the sediments constituting the surfaces of alluvial islands and an adjacent plain elucidate paleo-the development of the Mekong in this region. Finally, the description of the channel planform and the network metrics provide a quantitative means to describe the distinctive character of the Mekong in comparison with other well known large alluvial anastomosed river systems in similar environmental settings.

  5. Reaching out and reaching up - developing a low cost drug treatment system in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cambodia, confronted by the spread of drug misuse among young people, requested support from international agencies to develop a drug treatment programme in 2000. The initial plan developed by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime was to set up a number of conventional drug treatment centres in urban areas. During the planning phase, however, the project was redesigned as a community based outreach programme. Ten Community Counselling Teams have been formed and trained in pilot areas, and within the first year of operation 462 drug and alcohol users contacted. Comprising former drug users, family members affected by drug use and health care staff, they have drug scene credibility, local knowledge and connectivity, and a rudimentary level of medical competence. Crucially, they enjoy the support of village elders, who are involved in the planning and reporting stages. While the Community Counselling Teams with their basic training in addiction counselling are in no position as yet to either provide or refer clients to treatment, they can provide brief interventions, organise self help groups, and most importantly provide an alternative to law enforcement. By taking a development centred approach, with emphasis on community, empowerment and inclusion, it provides a constructive and inclusive alternative to medical approaches and the compulsory drug treatment centres. The paper is based on an evaluation involving interviews with a range of stakeholders and a review of project documents. PMID:22410105

  6. Using social network analysis to evaluate health-related adaptation decision-making in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Kathryn J; Alexander, Damon; Miller, Fiona; Dany, Va

    2014-02-01

    Climate change adaptation in the health sector requires decisions across sectors, levels of government, and organisations. The networks that link these different institutions, and the relationships among people within these networks, are therefore critical influences on the nature of adaptive responses to climate change in the health sector. This study uses social network research to identify key organisational players engaged in developing health-related adaptation activities in Cambodia. It finds that strong partnerships are reported as developing across sectors and different types of organisations in relation to the health risks from climate change. Government ministries are influential organisations, whereas donors, development banks and non-government organisations do not appear to be as influential in the development of adaptation policy in the health sector. Finally, the study highlights the importance of informal partnerships (or 'shadow networks') in the context of climate change adaptation policy and activities. The health governance 'map' in relation to health and climate change adaptation that is developed in this paper is a novel way of identifying organisations that are perceived as key agents in the decision-making process, and it holds substantial benefits for both understanding and intervening in a broad range of climate change-related policy problems where collaboration is paramount for successful outcomes. PMID:24487452

  7. Pygidiopsis cambodiensis n. sp. (Digenea: Heterophyidae) from experimental hamsters infected with metacercariae in mullets from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Cho, Jaeeun; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-01-01

    Pygidiopsis cambodiensis n. sp. is described based on adult flukes recovered from Syrian golden hamsters experimentally infected with metacercariae from mullets (Liza macrolepis) purchased at a local fish market in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The specimens were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Among the 13 species so far assigned to Pygidiopsis, the new species belongs to the summa-type (including Pygidiopsis pelecani, Pygidiopsis phalacrocoracis, Pygidiopsis piclaumoreli, Pygidiopsis plana, and Pygidiopsis summa) which lack circumoral spines and have vitelline follicles extending posteriorly from the level of the ovary some distance into the post-testicular space and the uterus not exceeding the acetabulum anteriorly. The new species differs from the other five species of the summa-type particularly in the morphology of the ventrogenital complex, including the genital sac, gonotyl, and gonotyl spines (= rodlets). The genital sac is well developed, sucker-like, slightly larger than the ventral sucker, muscular, and equipped with two gonotyls on the ventral side of the sac. Gonotyls are protruding pad-like, and the number of rodlets on the left gonotyl is four to five and that on the right gonotyl is 10-11 in two rows. This is the fifth Pygidiopsis species reported in Asia, following P. summa (Japan, Korea, and Vietnam), P. phalacrocorasis (Japan), P. pelecani (China), and Pygidiopsis marivillai (Philippines). PMID:26362645

  8. Arsenic Concentrations in Rice and Associated Health Risks Along the Upper Mekong Delta, Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barragan, L.; Seyfferth, A.; Fendorf, S.

    2011-12-01

    The consumption of arsenic contaminated food, such as rice, can be a significant portion of daily arsenic exposure, even for populations already exposed through drinking water. While arsenic contamination of rice grains has been documented in parts of Southern Asia, (e.g. Bangladesh), little research has been conducted on arsenic contamination of Cambodian-grown rice. We collected rice plant samples at various locations within the upper Mekong River Delta near Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and we analyzed total arsenic concentrations in plant digests of grains, husk, and straw. In addition, we used CaCl2-, DTPA-, and oxalate-extractable arsenic to define plant-available soil pools. We found variability of arsenic concentration in the plants, with grain arsenic ranging from 0.046 to 0.214 ?g g-1; other researchers have shown that concentrations higher than 0.1 ?g g-1 could be a concern for human health. Although more extensive sampling is needed to assess the risk of arsenic exposure from rice consumption on a country-wide basis, our work clearly illustrates the risk within regions of the Mekong Delta.

  9. The Linked Response: Lessons Emerging from Integration of HIV and Reproductive Health Services in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    White, Joanna; Delvaux, Thérèse; Chhea, Chhorvann; Saramony, Sarun; Ouk, Vichea; Saphonn, Vonthanak

    2013-01-01

    A qualitative assessment was made of service provider and user perceptions of the quality of integrated reproductive health services established through a pilot intervention in Cambodia. The intervention aimed to promote pregnant women's HIV testing and general utilization of reproductive health facilities as well as improve the follow-up of HIV-positive women and exposed infants through strengthened referral and operational linkages amongst health facilities/services and community-based support interventions for PLHIV. The study was conducted in one operational district where the intervention was piloted and for comparative purposes in a district where integrated services had yet to be implemented. Service providers in the pilot district reported improved collaboration and coordination of services, more effective referral, and the positive impact of improved proximity of HIV testing through integrated local level facilities. Community-based support teams for PLHIV embraced their expanded role, were valued by families receiving their assistance, and were understood to have had an important role in referral, PMTCT follow-up and countering PLHIV stigmatization; findings which underscore the potential role of community support in integrated service provision. Challenges identified included stigmatization of PLHIV by health staff at district hospital level and a lack of confidence amongst non-specialized health staff when managing deliveries by HIV-positive women, partly due to fear of HIV transmission. PMID:23424679

  10. The Linked Response: Lessons Emerging from Integration of HIV and Reproductive Health Services in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    White, Joanna; Delvaux, Thérèse; Chhea, Chhorvann; Saramony, Sarun; Ouk, Vichea; Saphonn, Vonthanak

    2013-01-01

    A qualitative assessment was made of service provider and user perceptions of the quality of integrated reproductive health services established through a pilot intervention in Cambodia. The intervention aimed to promote pregnant women's HIV testing and general utilization of reproductive health facilities as well as improve the follow-up of HIV-positive women and exposed infants through strengthened referral and operational linkages amongst health facilities/services and community-based support interventions for PLHIV. The study was conducted in one operational district where the intervention was piloted and for comparative purposes in a district where integrated services had yet to be implemented. Service providers in the pilot district reported improved collaboration and coordination of services, more effective referral, and the positive impact of improved proximity of HIV testing through integrated local level facilities. Community-based support teams for PLHIV embraced their expanded role, were valued by families receiving their assistance, and were understood to have had an important role in referral, PMTCT follow-up and countering PLHIV stigmatization; findings which underscore the potential role of community support in integrated service provision. Challenges identified included stigmatization of PLHIV by health staff at district hospital level and a lack of confidence amongst non-specialized health staff when managing deliveries by HIV-positive women, partly due to fear of HIV transmission. PMID:23424679

  11. Reaching out and reaching up - developing a low cost drug treatment system in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Klein, Axel; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Reid, Savanna

    2012-01-01

    Cambodia, confronted by the spread of drug misuse among young people, requested support from international agencies to develop a drug treatment programme in 2000. The initial plan developed by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime was to set up a number of conventional drug treatment centres in urban areas. During the planning phase, however, the project was redesigned as a community based outreach programme. Ten Community Counselling Teams have been formed and trained in pilot areas, and within the first year of operation 462 drug and alcohol users contacted. Comprising former drug users, family members affected by drug use and health care staff, they have drug scene credibility, local knowledge and connectivity, and a rudimentary level of medical competence. Crucially, they enjoy the support of village elders, who are involved in the planning and reporting stages. While the Community Counselling Teams with their basic training in addiction counselling are in no position as yet to either provide or refer clients to treatment, they can provide brief interventions, organise self help groups, and most importantly provide an alternative to law enforcement. By taking a development centred approach, with emphasis on community, empowerment and inclusion, it provides a constructive and inclusive alternative to medical approaches and the compulsory drug treatment centres. The paper is based on an evaluation involving interviews with a range of stakeholders and a review of project documents. PMID:22410105

  12. Using Social Network Analysis to Evaluate Health-Related Adaptation Decision-Making in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Kathryn J.; Alexander, Damon; Miller, Fiona; Dany, Va

    2014-01-01

    Climate change adaptation in the health sector requires decisions across sectors, levels of government, and organisations. The networks that link these different institutions, and the relationships among people within these networks, are therefore critical influences on the nature of adaptive responses to climate change in the health sector. This study uses social network research to identify key organisational players engaged in developing health-related adaptation activities in Cambodia. It finds that strong partnerships are reported as developing across sectors and different types of organisations in relation to the health risks from climate change. Government ministries are influential organisations, whereas donors, development banks and non-government organisations do not appear to be as influential in the development of adaptation policy in the health sector. Finally, the study highlights the importance of informal partnerships (or ‘shadow networks’) in the context of climate change adaptation policy and activities. The health governance ‘map’ in relation to health and climate change adaptation that is developed in this paper is a novel way of identifying organisations that are perceived as key agents in the decision-making process, and it holds substantial benefits for both understanding and intervening in a broad range of climate change-related policy problems where collaboration is paramount for successful outcomes. PMID:24487452

  13. Characterizing Types of Human Mobility to Inform Differential and Targeted Malaria Elimination Strategies in Northeast Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Peeters Grietens, Koen; Gryseels, Charlotte; Dierickx, Susan; Bannister-Tyrrell, Melanie; Trienekens, Suzan; Uk, Sambunny; Phoeuk, Pisen; Suon, Sokha; Set, Srun; Gerrets, René; Hoibak, Sarah; Muela Ribera, Joan; Hausmann-Muela, Susanna; Tho, Sochantha; Durnez, Lies; Sluydts, Vincent; d’Alessandro, Umberto; Coosemans, Marc; Erhart, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Human population movements currently challenge malaria elimination in low transmission foci in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Using a mixed-methods design, combining ethnography (n?=?410 interviews), malariometric data (n?=?4996) and population surveys (n?=?824 indigenous populations; n?=?704 Khmer migrants) malaria vulnerability among different types of mobile populations was researched in the remote province of Ratanakiri, Cambodia. Different structural types of human mobility were identified, showing differential risk and vulnerability. Among local indigenous populations, access to malaria testing and treatment through the VMW-system and LLIN coverage was high but control strategies failed to account for forest farmers’ prolonged stays at forest farms/fields (61% during rainy season), increasing their exposure (p?=?0.002). The Khmer migrants, with low acquired immunity, active on plantations and mines, represented a fundamentally different group not reached by LLIN-distribution campaigns since they were largely unregistered (79%) and unaware of the local VMW-system (95%) due to poor social integration. Khmer migrants therefore require control strategies including active detection, registration and immediate access to malaria prevention and control tools from which they are currently excluded. In conclusion, different types of mobility require different malaria elimination strategies. Targeting mobility without an in-depth understanding of malaria risk in each group challenges further progress towards elimination. PMID:26593245

  14. Parental styles in the intergenerational transmission of trauma stemming from the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Field, Nigel P; Muong, Sophear; Sochanvimean, Vannavuth

    2013-10-01

    The impact of parental styles in intergenerational transmission of trauma among mothers who survived the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia, in power from 1975 to 1979, and their teenaged children was examined in 2 studies. In Study 1, 46 Cambodian female high school students and their mothers were recruited. Each daughter completed anxiety and depression measures as well as assessment of her mother's role-reversing, overprotective, and rejecting parental styles, whereas the mothers completed measures of their trauma exposure during the Khmer Rouge regime and PTSD symptoms. In support of trauma transmission, the mother's PTSD symptoms were predictive of her daughter's anxiety. Moreover, the mother's role-reversing parental style was shown to mediate the relationship between her own and her daughter's symptoms. In support of their generalizability, the results were replicated in Study 2 in a Cambodian-American refugee sample comparing 15 mental health treatment-seeking mothers and their teenaged children with 17 nontreatment-seeking mother-child pairs. The implications of the findings within the larger literature on intergenerational trauma transmission stemming from genocide are discussed. PMID:24164520

  15. Microbiological effectiveness of locally produced ceramic filters for drinking water treatment in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joe; Sobsey, Mark D

    2010-03-01

    Low-cost options for the treatment of drinking water at the household level are being explored by the Cambodian government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in Cambodia, where many lack access to improved drinking water sources and diarrhoeal diseases are the most prevalent cause of death in children under 5 years of age. The ceramic water purifier (CWP), a locally produced, low-cost ceramic filter, is now being implemented by several NGOs, and an estimated 100,000+households in the country now use them for drinking water treatment. Two candidate filters were tested for the reduction of bacterial and viral surrogates for waterborne pathogens using representative Cambodian drinking water sources (rainwater and surface water) spiked with Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Results indicate that filters were capable of reducing key microbes in the laboratory with mean reductions of E. coli of approximately 99% and mean reduction of bacteriophages of 90-99% over >600 litres throughput. Increased effectiveness was not observed in filters with an AgNO3 amendment. At under US$10 per filter, locally produced ceramic filters may be a promising option for drinking water treatment and safe storage at the household level. PMID:20009242

  16. Characterizing Types of Human Mobility to Inform Differential and Targeted Malaria Elimination Strategies in Northeast Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Peeters Grietens, Koen; Gryseels, Charlotte; Dierickx, Susan; Bannister-Tyrrell, Melanie; Trienekens, Suzan; Uk, Sambunny; Phoeuk, Pisen; Suon, Sokha; Set, Srun; Gerrets, René; Hoibak, Sarah; Muela Ribera, Joan; Hausmann-Muela, Susanna; Tho, Sochantha; Durnez, Lies; Sluydts, Vincent; d'Alessandro, Umberto; Coosemans, Marc; Erhart, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Human population movements currently challenge malaria elimination in low transmission foci in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Using a mixed-methods design, combining ethnography (n?=?410 interviews), malariometric data (n?=?4996) and population surveys (n?=?824 indigenous populations; n?=?704 Khmer migrants) malaria vulnerability among different types of mobile populations was researched in the remote province of Ratanakiri, Cambodia. Different structural types of human mobility were identified, showing differential risk and vulnerability. Among local indigenous populations, access to malaria testing and treatment through the VMW-system and LLIN coverage was high but control strategies failed to account for forest farmers' prolonged stays at forest farms/fields (61% during rainy season), increasing their exposure (p?=?0.002). The Khmer migrants, with low acquired immunity, active on plantations and mines, represented a fundamentally different group not reached by LLIN-distribution campaigns since they were largely unregistered (79%) and unaware of the local VMW-system (95%) due to poor social integration. Khmer migrants therefore require control strategies including active detection, registration and immediate access to malaria prevention and control tools from which they are currently excluded. In conclusion, different types of mobility require different malaria elimination strategies. Targeting mobility without an in-depth understanding of malaria risk in each group challenges further progress towards elimination. PMID:26593245

  17. Municipal solid waste management in Phnom Penh, capital city of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Seng, Bunrith; Kaneko, Hidehiro; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) for both technical and regulatory arrangements in the municipality of Phnom Penh (MPP), Cambodia. Problems with the current MSWM are identified, and challenges and recommendations for future improvement are also given in this paper. MPP is a small city with a total area of approximately 374 km(2) and an urban population of about 1.3 million in 2008. For the last 14 years, average annual municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in MPP has increased rapidly from 0.136 million tons in 1995 to 0.361 million tons in 2008. The gross generation rate of MSW per capita was 0.74 kg day(-1). However, the per capita household waste generation was 0.487 kg day(- 1). At 63.3%, food waste is the predominant portion of generated waste, followed by plastics (15.5%), grass and wood (6.8%), and paper and cardboard (6.4%). The remaining waste, including metals, glass, rubber/leather, textiles, and ceramic/ stone, accounted for less than 3%. Waste recycling through informal sectors is very active; recycled waste accounted for about 9.3% of all waste generated in 2003. Currently, the overall technical arrangement, including storage and discharge, collection and transport, and disposal, is still in poor condition, which leads to environmental and health risks. These problems should be solved by improving legislation, environmental education, solid waste management facilities, and management of the waste scavengers. PMID:20813763

  18. Boiling as Household Water Treatment in Cambodia: A Longitudinal Study of Boiling Practice and Microbiological Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joseph; Sobsey, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the consistency of use and microbiological effectiveness of boiling as it is practiced in one study site in peri-urban Cambodia. We followed 60 randomly selected households in Kandal Province over 6 months to collect longitudinal data on water boiling practices and effectiveness in reducing Escherichia coli in household drinking water. Despite > 90% of households reporting that they used boiling as a means of drinking water treatment, an average of only 31% of households had boiled water on hand at follow-up visits, suggesting that actual use may be lower than self-reported use. We collected 369 matched untreated and boiled water samples. Mean reduction of E. coli was 98.5%; 162 samples (44%) of boiled samples were free of E. coli (< 1 colony-forming unit [cfu]/100 mL), and 270 samples (73%) had < 10 cfu/100 mL. Storing boiled water in a covered container was associated with safer product water than storage in an uncovered container. PMID:22826487

  19. Biodiversity Monitoring at the Tonle Sap Lake of Cambodia: A Comparative Assessment of Local Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seak, Sophat; Schmidt-Vogt, Dietrich; Thapa, Gopal B.

    2012-10-01

    This paper assesses local biodiversity monitoring methods practiced in the Tonle Sap Lake of Cambodia. For the assessment we used the following criteria: methodological rigor, perceived cost, ease of use (user friendliness), compatibility with existing activities, and effectiveness of intervention. Constraints and opportunities for execution of the methods were also considered. Information was collected by use of: (1) key informant interview, (2) focus group discussion, and (3) researcher's observation. The monitoring methods for fish, birds, reptiles, mammals and vegetation practiced in the research area have their unique characteristics of generating data on biodiversity and biological resources. Most of the methods, however, serve the purpose of monitoring biological resources rather than biodiversity. There is potential that the information gained through local monitoring methods can provide input for long-term management and strategic planning. In order to realize this potential, the local monitoring methods should be better integrated with each other, adjusted to existing norms and regulations, and institutionalized within community-based organization structures.

  20. Sustained use of a household-scale water filtration device in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joe; Proum, S; Sobsey, M D

    2009-09-01

    The effectiveness of point-of-use water treatment may be limited by declining use over time, particularly when water treatment is introduced via targeted intervention programmes. In order to evaluate the long-term uptake and use of locally produced ceramic water filters in rural Cambodia, we visited households that had received filters as part of NGO-subsidized distribution programmes over a 4 year period from 2002 to 2006. Of the more than 2,000 filters distributed, we visited 506 randomly selected households in 13 villages spanning three provinces to assess filter time in use and to collect data on factors potentially correlated with long-term use. Results indicate that filter use declined at the rate of approximately 2% per month after implementation, largely owing to breakages, and that, controlling for time since implementation, continued filter use over time was most closely positively associated with: related water, sanitation and hygiene practices in the home; cash investment in the technology by the household; and use of surface water as a primary drinking water source. PMID:19491492

  1. A comprehensive archaeological map of the world's largest preindustrial settlement complex at Angkor, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Damian; Pottier, Christophe; Fletcher, Roland; Hensley, Scott; Tapley, Ian; Milne, Anthony; Barbetti, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The great medieval settlement of Angkor in Cambodia [9th–16th centuries Common Era (CE)] has for many years been understood as a “hydraulic city,” an urban complex defined, sustained, and ultimately overwhelmed by a complex water management network. Since the 1980s that view has been disputed, but the debate has remained unresolved because of insufficient data on the landscape beyond the great temples: the broader context of the monumental remains was only partially understood and had not been adequately mapped. Since the 1990s, French, Australian, and Cambodian teams have sought to address this empirical deficit through archaeological mapping projects by using traditional methods such as ground survey in conjunction with advanced radar remote-sensing applications in partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Here we present a major outcome of that research: a comprehensive archaeological map of greater Angkor, covering nearly 3,000 km2, prepared by the Greater Angkor Project (GAP). The map reveals a vast, low-density settlement landscape integrated by an elaborate water management network covering >1,000 km2, the most extensive urban complex of the preindustrial world. It is now clear that anthropogenic changes to the landscape were both extensive and substantial enough to have created grave challenges to the long-term viability of the settlement. PMID:17717084

  2. Drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in a national referral hospital, Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Genevieve; Bulifon, Sophie; Breysse, Serge; Daneth, Thol; Bonnet, Maryline; Hurtado, Northan; Molfino, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective There are no recent data on the prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR TB) in Cambodia. We aim to describe TB drug resistance amongst adults with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection in a national referral hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Design Between 22 November 2007 and 30 November 2009, clinical specimens from HIV-infected patients suspected of having TB underwent routine microscopy, Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture, and drug susceptibility testing. Laboratory and clinical data were collected for patients with positive M. tuberculosis cultures. Results M. tuberculosis was cultured from 236 HIV-infected patients. Resistance to any first-line TB drug occurred in 34.7% of patients; 8.1% had multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB). The proportion of MDR TB amongst new patients and previously treated patients was 3.7 and 28.9%, respectively (p<0.001). The diagnosis of MDR TB was made after death in 15.8% of patients; in total 26.3% of patients with MDR TB died. The diagnosis of TB was established by culture of extra-pulmonary specimens in 23.6% of cases. Conclusions There is significant resistance to first-line TB drugs amongst new and previously treated TB–HIV co-infected patients in Phnom Penh. These data suggest that the prevalence of DR TB in Cambodia may be higher than previously recognised, particularly amongst HIV-infected patients. Additional prevalence studies are needed. This study also illustrates the feasibility and utility of analysis of non-respiratory specimens in the diagnosis of TB, even in low-resource settings, and suggests that extra-pulmonary specimens should be included in TB diagnostic algorithms. PMID:25623609

  3. Effect of a mobile phone-based intervention on post-abortion contraception: a randomized controlled trial in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Thoai D; Gold, Judy; Edwards, Phil; Vannak, Uk; Sokhey, Ly; Machiyama, Kazuyo; Slaymaker, Emma; Warnock, Ruby; McCarthy, Ona; Free, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effect of a mobile phone-based intervention (mHealth) on post-abortion contraception use by women in Cambodia. Methods The Mobile Technology for Improved Family Planning (MOTIF) study involved women who sought safe abortion services at four Marie Stopes International clinics in Cambodia. We randomly allocated 249 women to a mobile phone-based intervention, which comprised six automated, interactive voice messages with counsellor phone support, as required, whereas 251 women were allocated to a control group receiving standard care. The primary outcome was the self-reported use of an effective contraceptive method, 4 and 12 months after an abortion. Findings Data on effective contraceptive use were available for 431 (86%) participants at 4 months and 328 (66%) at 12 months. Significantly more women in the intervention than the control group reported effective contraception use at 4 months (64% versus 46%, respectively; relative risk, RR: 1.39; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.17–1.66) but not at 12 months (50% versus 43%, respectively; RR: 1.16; 95% CI: 0.92–1.47). However, significantly more women in the intervention group reported using a long-acting contraceptive method at both follow-up times. There was no significant difference between the groups in repeat pregnancies or abortions at 4 or 12 months. Conclusion Adding a mobile phone-based intervention to abortion care services in Cambodia had a short-term effect on the overall use of any effective contraception, while the use of long-acting contraceptive methods lasted throughout the study period. PMID:26668436

  4. Mapping and Characterizing Selected Canopy Tree Species at the Angkor World Heritage Site in Cambodia Using Aerial Data

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Minerva; Evans, Damian; Tan, Boun Suy; Nin, Chan Samean

    2015-01-01

    At present, there is very limited information on the ecology, distribution, and structure of Cambodia’s tree species to warrant suitable conservation measures. The aim of this study was to assess various methods of analysis of aerial imagery for characterization of the forest mensuration variables (i.e., tree height and crown width) of selected tree species found in the forested region around the temples of Angkor Thom, Cambodia. Object-based image analysis (OBIA) was used (using multiresolution segmentation) to delineate individual tree crowns from very-high-resolution (VHR) aerial imagery and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Crown width and tree height values that were extracted using multiresolution segmentation showed a high level of congruence with field-measured values of the trees (Spearman’s rho 0.782 and 0.589, respectively). Individual tree crowns that were delineated from aerial imagery using multiresolution segmentation had a high level of segmentation accuracy (69.22%), whereas tree crowns delineated using watershed segmentation underestimated the field-measured tree crown widths. Both spectral angle mapper (SAM) and maximum likelihood (ML) classifications were applied to the aerial imagery for mapping of selected tree species. The latter was found to be more suitable for tree species classification. Individual tree species were identified with high accuracy. Inclusion of textural information further improved species identification, albeit marginally. Our findings suggest that VHR aerial imagery, in conjunction with OBIA-based segmentation methods (such as multiresolution segmentation) and supervised classification techniques are useful for tree species mapping and for studies of the forest mensuration variables. PMID:25902148

  5. The Cambodia Research Consortium: expediting research for malaria elimination with the emergency response to artemisinin resistance framework.

    PubMed

    Canavati, Sara E; Lawford, Harriet L S; Fatunmbi, Bayo S; Lek, Dysoley; Leang, Rithea; Top Samphor, Narann; Dondorp, Arjen M; Huy, Rekol; Kazadi, Walter M

    2016-01-01

    This commentary offers insight into how to best address barriers that may hinder the translation of malaria research findings into policy. It also proposes viable methods of implementing these policies in Cambodia. Currently, a wide range of malaria research is being conducted by in-country stakeholders, including Cambodia's National Programme for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control's (CNM), non-governmental organizations, and academic institutions. Coordinating research amongst these partners, as well as within the Ministry of Health, is a challenge. Results are rarely disseminated widely and seldom inform programme and policy decisions. CNM and its research partners have severely limited access to each other's databases. This lack of accessibility, timeliness, engagement and cooperation between CNM and its partners greatly impacts overall research efficiency in this field, and is stifling innovation both within and beyond CNM. Cambodia has set a goal to eradicate all forms of malaria by 2030. As countries approach the elimination phase, there is a greater need for sharing research-generated evidence amongst partners, in order to ensure that appropriate and impactful activities are conducted. The Cambodian Research Consortium was established to serve as a framework for partners, stakeholders and researchers to share research projects, information and results, and to promote the goals of CNM. The sharing of malaria research results will help to inform prevention, control and elimination activities in the country. It will also determine and address the country's operational research needs, and could potentially become a framework model to be used in other countries aiming to transition from malaria control to elimination. PMID:26727996

  6. Scenario analysis of the benefit of municipal organic-waste composting over landfill, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Seng, Bunrith; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko; Ochiai, Satoru; Kaneko, Hidehiro

    2013-01-15

    This paper presents insight into the benefits of organic waste recycling through composting over landfill, in terms of landfill life extension, compost product, and mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Future waste generation from 2003 to 2020 was forecast, and five scenarios of organic waste recycling in the municipality of Phnom Penh (MPP), Cambodia, were carried out. Organic waste-specifically food and garden waste-was used for composting, and the remaining waste was landfilled. The recycling scenarios were set based on organic waste generated from difference sources: households, restaurants, shops, markets, schools, hotels, offices, and street sweeping. Through the five scenarios, the minimum volume reductions of waste disposal were about 56, 123, and 219 m(3) d(-1) in 2003, 2012, and 2020, respectively, whereas the maximum volume reductions in these years were about 325, 643, and 1025 m(3) d(-1). These volume reductions reflect a landfill life extension of a minimum of half a year and a maximum of about four years. Compost product could be produced at a minimum of 14, 30, and 54 tons d(-1) in 2003, 2012, and 2020, respectively, and at a maximum in those years of about 80, 158, and 252 tons d(-1). At the same time benefit is gained in compost product, GHG emissions could be reduced by a minimum of 12.8% and a maximum of 65.0% from 2003 to 2020. This means about 3.23 (minimum) and 5.79 million tons CO(2)eq (maximum) contributed to GHG mitigation. In this regard, it is strongly recommended that MPP should try to initiate an organic-waste recycling strategy in a best fit scenario. PMID:23168253

  7. Preventing highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) at the rural community level: a case study from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Dilip P; Wollen, Terry S; Lohani, Mahendra N

    2011-08-01

    Poultry is an integral part of the rural livelihoods in Cambodia, with more than half of the households keeping poultry in their small-scale, traditional, and extensive backyards. More than 20 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks have been reported since 2004 with deaths of over 21,000 birds. During the HPAI outbreaks, some of the flocks in the rural areas were culled without compensation and producers were not allowed to sell outside of the community. Heifer International worked with 2,000 rural families through local project partners in the target communities to develop an effective intervention mechanism to mitigate the impact of the HPAI crisis. Heifer International provided training, public education, and networking as well as promoting model farms based on improved scavenging poultry management. Each community selected one farm family to serve as a model farm. They were trained in Heifer's working approach and committed to practicing integrated farming systems based on scavenging poultry management. One Village Animal Health Worker (VAHW) in each community participated during the project implementation, playing a key role in the information exchange and the interaction between the communities and the avian influenza experts. Formal and informal trainings were conducted for all project partners and project recipients through experts and VAHWs, respectively. There have been no outbreaks reported in the communities in the project areas. Farmers have started using appropriate techniques to maintain biosecurity. They are passing on the knowledge and the skills to the surrounding communities. This participatory approach in educating rural farmers can serve as a model to mitigate HPAI in the developing countries around the world. PMID:21442155

  8. First Direct Dating for the Construction and Modification of the Baphuon Temple Mountain in Angkor, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Stéphanie; Hendrickson, Mitch; Delqué-Kolic, Emmanuelle; Vega, Enrique; Dillmann, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Architecture represents key evidence of dynastic practice and change in the archaeological world. Chronologies for many important buildings and sequences, including the iconic temples of medieval Angkor in Cambodia, are based solely on indirect associations from inscriptions and architectural styles. The Baphuon temple, one of the last major buildings in Angkor without textual or scientifically-derived chronological evidence, is crucial both for the context and date of its construction and the period when its western façade was modified into a unique, gigantic Reclining Buddha. Its construction was part of a major dynastic change and florescence of the Hindu-Mahayana Buddhist state and the modification is the key evidence of Theravada Buddhist power after Angkor's decline in the 15th century. Using a newly-developed approach based on AMS radiocarbon dating to directly date four iron crampons integrated into the structure we present the first direct evidence for the history of the Baphuon. Comprehensive study of ferrous elements shows that both construction and modification were critically earlier than expected. The Baphuon can now be considered as the major temple associated with the imperial reformations and territorial consolidation of Suryavarman I (1010-1050 AD) for whom no previous building to legitimize his reign could be identified. The Theravada Buddhist modification is a hundred years prior to the conventional 16th century estimation and is not associated with renewed use of Angkor. Instead it relates to the enigmatic Ayutthayan occupation of Angkor in the 1430s and 40s during a major period of climatic instability. Accurately dating iron with relatively low carbon content is a decisive step to test long-standing assumptions about architectural histories and political processes for states that incorporated iron into buildings (e.g., Ancient Greece, medieval India). Furthermore, this new approach has the potential to revise chronologies related to iron consumption practices since the origins of ferrous metallurgy three millennia ago. PMID:26535895

  9. First Direct Dating for the Construction and Modification of the Baphuon Temple Mountain in Angkor, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, Stéphanie; Hendrickson, Mitch; Delqué-Kolic, Emmanuelle; Vega, Enrique; Dillmann, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Architecture represents key evidence of dynastic practice and change in the archaeological world. Chronologies for many important buildings and sequences, including the iconic temples of medieval Angkor in Cambodia, are based solely on indirect associations from inscriptions and architectural styles. The Baphuon temple, one of the last major buildings in Angkor without textual or scientifically-derived chronological evidence, is crucial both for the context and date of its construction and the period when its western façade was modified into a unique, gigantic Reclining Buddha. Its construction was part of a major dynastic change and florescence of the Hindu-Mahayana Buddhist state and the modification is the key evidence of Theravada Buddhist power after Angkor's decline in the 15th century. Using a newly-developed approach based on AMS radiocarbon dating to directly date four iron crampons integrated into the structure we present the first direct evidence for the history of the Baphuon. Comprehensive study of ferrous elements shows that both construction and modification were critically earlier than expected. The Baphuon can now be considered as the major temple associated with the imperial reformations and territorial consolidation of Suryavarman I (1010–1050 AD) for whom no previous building to legitimize his reign could be identified. The Theravada Buddhist modification is a hundred years prior to the conventional 16th century estimation and is not associated with renewed use of Angkor. Instead it relates to the enigmatic Ayutthayan occupation of Angkor in the 1430s and 40s during a major period of climatic instability. Accurately dating iron with relatively low carbon content is a decisive step to test long-standing assumptions about architectural histories and political processes for states that incorporated iron into buildings (e.g., Ancient Greece, medieval India). Furthermore, this new approach has the potential to revise chronologies related to iron consumption practices since the origins of ferrous metallurgy three millennia ago. PMID:26535895

  10. Pathways of Thriving and Resilience: Growth Responses to Adversity and Trauma in Two Cambodian Communities: A Comparative Study between Lowell, Massachusetts and Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Cheryl D.

    This qualitative study investigated individual, contextual, and cultural factors that promote trauma-related resilience and positive growth among Cambodian survivors of the Pol Pot regime who reside in Phnom Penh, Cambodia and Lowell, Massachusetts. A thriving paradigm framed semi-structured interviews that were conducted with 21 Cambodians in…

  11. Sample Scholarship Essay: Family/Hope My family and I immigrated to the United States from Cambodia to flee the ravages of the

    E-print Network

    Dhamala, Mukesh

    Sample Scholarship Essay: Family/Hope My family and I immigrated to the United States from Cambodia college. Throughout my elementary and high school years, I oftentimes had difficulty with my schoolwork. I the discrimination toward illiteracy. #12;In addition, I strive to succeed in school because I want to be a role

  12. Whose Education Policies in Aid-Receiving Countries? A Critical Discourse Analysis of Quality and Normative Transfer through Cambodia and Laos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Critical discourse analysis of policy contexts and documents has been employed in this research to analyze the role of language in promoting normative positions affecting the quality of education in Cambodia and Laos. The article examines the ways institutional normative influences at multiple levels within the Education for All (EFA) program have…

  13. Rebirth of the Learning Tradition: A Case Study on the Achievements of Education for All in Cambodia. Mid-Decade Review of Progress towards Education for All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasertsri, Supote

    This report describes and analyzes the efforts and achievements made in Cambodia during the past 16 years with a special focus on developments after the United Nations organized election in 1993. During this process UNESCO played a small but important part in the reconstruction of education, freedom of expression (through the training of…

  14. Exposure, metabolism, and health effects of arsenic in residents from arsenic-contaminated groundwater areas of Vietnam and Cambodia: a review.

    PubMed

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Kubota, Reiji; Inoue, Suguru; Fujihara, Junko; Minh, Tu Binh; Ha, Nguyen Ngoc; Tu, Nguyen Phuc Cam; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Chamnan, Chhoun; Takeshita, Haruo; Iwata, Hisato; Tuyen, Bui Cach; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Touch Seang; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on exposure, metabolism, and health effects of arsenic (As) in residents from As-contaminated groundwater areas of Vietnam and Cambodia based on our findings from 2000 and other studies. The health effects of As in humans include severe gastrointestinal disorders, hepatic and renal failure, cardiovascular disturbances, skin pigmentation, hyperkeratosis, and cancers in the lung, bladder, liver, kidney, and skin. Arsenic contamination in groundwater is widely present at Vietnam and Cambodia and the highest As levels are frequently found in groundwater from Cambodia. Sand filter system can reduce As concentration in raw groundwater. The results of hair and urine analyses indicate that residents from these As-contaminated areas are exposed to As. In general, sex, age, body mass index, and As exposure level are significantly associated with As metabolism. Genetic polymorphisms in arsenic (+III) methyltransferase and glutathione-S-transferase isoforms may be influenced As metabolism and accumulation in a Vietnamese population. It is suggested oxidative DNA damage is caused by exposure to As in groundwater from residents in Cambodia. An epidemiologic study on an association of As exposure with human health effects is required in these areas. PMID:21038756

  15. Testimony ceremonies in Asia: Integrating spirituality in testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Agger, Inger; Igreja, Victor; Kiehle, Rachel; Polatin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the therapeutic implications of including culturally adapted spiritual ceremonies in the process of testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Data were collected through an action research process with Asian mental health and human rights organizations, during which the testimonial method was reconceptualized and modified to include four sessions. In the first two sessions, community workers assist survivors in the writing of their testimony, which is their narrative about the human rights violations they have suffered. In the third session, survivors participate in an honour ceremony in which they are presented with their testimony documents. In the fourth session, the community workers meet with the survivors for a reevaluation of their well-being. The honour ceremonies developed during the action research process came to employ different kinds of symbolic language at each site: human rights (India), religious/Catholic (Sri Lanka), religious/Buddhist (Cambodia), and religious/Moslem (Philippines). They all used embodied spirituality in various forms, incorporating singing, dancing, and religious purification rituals in a collective gathering. We suggest that these types of ceremonies may facilitate an individual’s capacity to contain and integrate traumatic memories, promote restorative self-awareness, and engage community support. Additional research is needed to determine the method’s applicability in other sociopolitical contexts governed by more Western-oriented medical traditions. PMID:22637721

  16. PALSAR 50 m Mosaic Data Based National Level Biomass Estimation in Cambodia for Implementation of REDD+ Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Avtar, Ram; Suzuki, Rikie; Takeuchi, Wataru; Sawada, Haruo

    2013-01-01

    Tropical countries like Cambodia require information about forest biomass for successful implementation of climate change mitigation mechanism related to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). This study investigated the potential of Phased Array-type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar Fine Beam Dual (PALSAR FBD) 50 m mosaic data to estimate Above Ground Biomass (AGB) in Cambodia. AGB was estimated using a bottom-up approach based on field measured biomass and backscattering (?o) properties of PALSAR data. The relationship between the PALSAR ?o HV and HH/HV with field measured biomass was strong with R2?=?0.67 and 0.56, respectively. PALSAR estimated AGB show good results in deciduous forests because of less saturation as compared to dense evergreen forests. The validation results showed a high coefficient of determination R2?=?0.61 with RMSE ?=?21 Mg/ha using values up to 200 Mg/ha biomass. There were some uncertainties because of the uncertainty in the field based measurement and saturation of PALSAR data. AGB map of Cambodian forests could be useful for the implementation of forest management practices for REDD+ assessment and policies implementation at the national level. PMID:24116012

  17. Effects of logging and recruitment on community phylogenetic structure in 32 permanent forest plots of Kampong Thom, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Hironori; Kajisa, Tsuyoshi; Tagane, Shuichiro; Mase, Keiko; Chhang, Phourin; Samreth, Vanna; Ma, Vuthy; Sokh, Heng; Ichihashi, Ryuji; Onoda, Yusuke; Mizoue, Nobuya; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2015-02-19

    Ecological communities including tropical rainforest are rapidly changing under various disturbances caused by increasing human activities. Recently in Cambodia, illegal logging and clear-felling for agriculture have been increasing. Here, we study the effects of logging, mortality and recruitment of plot trees on phylogenetic community structure in 32 plots in Kampong Thom, Cambodia. Each plot was 0.25 ha; 28 plots were established in primary evergreen forests and four were established in secondary dry deciduous forests. Measurements were made in 1998, 2000, 2004 and 2010, and logging, recruitment and mortality of each tree were recorded. We estimated phylogeny using rbcL and matK gene sequences and quantified phylogenetic ? and ? diversity. Within communities, logging decreased phylogenetic diversity, and increased overall phylogenetic clustering and terminal phylogenetic evenness. Between communities, logging increased phylogenetic similarity between evergreen and deciduous plots. On the other hand, recruitment had opposite effects both within and between communities. The observed patterns can be explained by environmental homogenization under logging. Logging is biased to particular species and larger diameter at breast height, and forest patrol has been effective in decreasing logging. PMID:25561669

  18. PALSAR 50 m mosaic data based national level biomass estimation in Cambodia for implementation of REDD+ mechanism.

    PubMed

    Avtar, Ram; Suzuki, Rikie; Takeuchi, Wataru; Sawada, Haruo

    2013-01-01

    Tropical countries like Cambodia require information about forest biomass for successful implementation of climate change mitigation mechanism related to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). This study investigated the potential of Phased Array-type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar Fine Beam Dual (PALSAR FBD) 50 m mosaic data to estimate Above Ground Biomass (AGB) in Cambodia. AGB was estimated using a bottom-up approach based on field measured biomass and backscattering (?(o)) properties of PALSAR data. The relationship between the PALSAR ?(o) HV and HH/HV with field measured biomass was strong with R(2)?=?0.67 and 0.56, respectively. PALSAR estimated AGB show good results in deciduous forests because of less saturation as compared to dense evergreen forests. The validation results showed a high coefficient of determination R(2)?=?0.61 with RMSE ?=?21 Mg/ha using values up to 200 Mg/ha biomass. There were some uncertainties because of the uncertainty in the field based measurement and saturation of PALSAR data. AGB map of Cambodian forests could be useful for the implementation of forest management practices for REDD+ assessment and policies implementation at the national level. PMID:24116012

  19. How Do Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) Plantations Cope with Seasonal Drought in Northern Thailand and Central Cambodia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, T.; Giambelluca, T. W.

    2014-12-01

    Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantaitons are rapidly expanding throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially changing the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with the traditional land covers they are replacing. We have conducted eddy flux measurements in two rubber plantation sites: Som Sanuk (SS), located northern Thailand; and Cambodian Rubber Research Institute (CRRI), central Cambodia. We used combination of actual evapotranspiration (ET) flux measurements and an inversed version of a simple 2-layer ET model for estimating the mean canopy stomatal conductances (gs), which is among the most effective measures for describing the exchange characteristics. It is demonstrated how each studied rubber plantation copes with each strong seasonal drought via tree water use strategies. Potential tree water use deficit (precipitation (P) - potential evaporation (ET_POT)) for each season (i.e., December-February: DJF, March-May: MAM, June-August: JJA, and September-November: SON) revealed in which season and how the water use should be controlled. We found that in the season when actual tree water use deficit (P - ET) was negative (DJF and MAM), the deficit was compensated with soil water from the previous season at a depth of 0-2 m at the Thailand site, and from a depth of 0-3 m at CRRI. Two ecophysiological parameters, the reference value of gs (gsref) and the sensitivity of gs to atmospheric demand (m), as well as their proportionality (m/gsref), were derived from the logarithmic response curve of gs to vapor pressure deficit (D) for each season and each site. In both sites, gsref and m appeared to be less in DJF and MAM than each in the other three month periods (seasons). On average in a whole year, m/gsref was less than 0.6 at SS and almost 0.6 at the CRRI site, suggesting that there was less sufficient stomatal regulation at SS, where there might be little risk of water stress-induced hydraulic failure because of much annual rainfall amount. In comparison, at CRRI where annual P - ET_POT was negative, there was stricter stomatal regulation, preventing excessive xylem cavitation. These tendencies imply that in the drier season, i.e., DJF and MAM, the rubber trees in SS and CRRI adopt the stomatal control strategy of changing gsref with reluctance and positive to change m, respectively.

  20. Transpiration by trees under seasonal water logging and drought in monsoon central Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazawa, Y.; Tateishi, M.; Kajisa, T.; Ma, V.; Heng, S.; Kumagai, T.; Mizoue, N.

    2012-04-01

    Cambodia is situated in the center of Indochina Peninsula and experiences severe drought for 5 months of dry season and subsequent rainy season. Around the Tonlesap Lake where both natural and secondary forests exist without intensive destruction by human activity, forest hydrology is characterized by seasonal water logging in mid rainy season. Tree- and stand-scale transpiration is thought to be influenced by the changing soil water conditions and trees' site-specific adaptation to the environment, but less is measured about transpiration and leaf ecophysiological traits in this region. The objectives of this study is to reveal the ecophysiology of the two native (Dipterocarpus obtusifolius and Shorea roxburghii) and two exotic species (Acacia auriculiformis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis) and to detect the effects of soil water conditions on day to week scale transpiration in mid rainy and dry season. Seasonal leaf-level photosynthesis measurements suggested that photosynthetic capacity (Vcmax25) showed no clear seasonal change in each species without clear interspecific variation. Two native species had stomatal control in response to the environment different from previous studies and showed stomatal conductance higher than most woody species in other seasonal tropical forests, suggesting the species- and site-specific adaptation to the easy access to the ground water. Sap flow rate per leaf area was expressed in two parameters: measured transpiration rate based on the continuous sap flow measurements (Esap) and modeled transpiration rate (Emod) using a multilayer model based on the measured data of atmospheric environments, radiation and the leaf ecophysiological traits. Esap was lower in rainy season than those in dry season, with short but pronounced drop near the end of the dry season, although Emod was higher in rainy season than in dry season. In dry season, Emod well fit the diurnal and day to day trend of Esap, suggesting that soil drought did not limit transpiration. On the other hand, in rainy season, Emod overestimated Esap under high light intensities but not at low Emod conditions, suggesting that leaf water demand exceeded the water supply capacity, possibly due to the water logging effects on root activity. This study provided us new insights into the site specific transpiration patterns in this region, and the usefulness of the comparison between modeled and measured transpiration rate to detect the environmental and biological influence on transpiration for successful model prediction of forest transpiration at large time and spatial scales.

  1. Hydrogeologic reconnaissance of the Mekong Delta in South Vietnam and Cambodia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Henry R.

    1978-01-01

    The present report describes the results of a hydrogeologic reconnaissance in the Mekong Delta region by the writer, a hydrogeologist of the U.S. Geological Survey, while on assignment as an adviser to the Vietnamese Directorate of Water Supply from October 1968 to April 1970 under the auspices of the U.s. Agency for International Development. The delta of the Mekong River, comprising an area of about 70,000 square kilometres in South Vietnam and Cambodia, is an almost featureless plain rising gradually from sea level to about 5 metres above sea level at its apex 300 kilometres inland. Most of the shallow ground water in the Holocene Alluvium of the delta in Vietnam is brackish or saline down to depths of 50 to 100 metres. Moreover, in the Dong Thap Mu?oi (Plain of Reeds) the shallow ground water is alum-bearing. Locally, however, perched bodies of fresh ground water occur in ancient beach and dune ridges and are tapped by shallow dug wells or pits for village and domestic water supply. The Old Alluvium beneath the lower delta contains freshwater in some areas, notably in the Ca Mau Peninsula and adjacent areas, in the viciniy of Bau Xau near Saigon, and in the Tinh Long An area. Elsewhere in the lower delta both the Holocene and Old Alluvium may contain brackish or saline water from the land surface to depths of as much as 568 metres, as for example in Tinh Vinh Binh. Ground water in the outcrop area of Old Alluvium northwest of Saigon is generally fresh and potable, but high iron and low pH are locally troublesome. Although considerable exploratory drilling for ground water down to depths of as much as 568 metres has already been completed, large areas of the delta remain yet to be explored before full development of the ground-water potential can be realized. With careful development and controlled management to avoid saltwater contamination, however, it is estimated that freshwater aquifers could provide approximately 80 percent of existing needs for village and small municipal supplies in the delta.

  2. Sero-epidemiological evaluation of changes in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax transmission patterns over the rainy season in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Cambodia, malaria transmission is low and most cases occur in forested areas. Sero-epidemiological techniques can be used to identify both areas of ongoing transmission and high-risk groups to be targeted by control interventions. This study utilizes repeated cross-sectional data to assess the risk of being malaria sero-positive at two consecutive time points during the rainy season and investigates who is most likely to sero-convert over the transmission season. Methods In 2005, two cross-sectional surveys, one in the middle and the other at the end of the malaria transmission season, were carried out in two ecologically distinct regions in Cambodia. Parasitological and serological data were collected in four districts. Antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum Glutamate Rich Protein (GLURP) and Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein-119 (MSP-119) were detected using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The force of infection was estimated using a simple catalytic model fitted using maximum likelihood methods. Risks for sero-converting during the rainy season were analysed using the Classification and Regression Tree (CART) method. Results A total of 804 individuals participating in both surveys were analysed. The overall parasite prevalence was low (4.6% and 2.0% for P. falciparum and 7.9% and 6.0% for P. vivax in August and November respectively). P. falciparum force of infection was higher in the eastern region and increased between August and November, whilst P. vivax force of infection was higher in the western region and remained similar in both surveys. In the western region, malaria transmission changed very little across the season (for both species). CART analysis for P. falciparum in the east highlighted age, ethnicity, village of residence and forest work as important predictors for malaria exposure during the rainy season. Adults were more likely to increase their antibody responses to P. falciparum during the transmission season than children, whilst members of the Charay ethnic group demonstrated the largest increases. Discussion In areas of low transmission intensity, such as in Cambodia, the analysis of longitudinal serological data enables a sensitive evaluation of transmission dynamics. Consecutive serological surveys allow an insight into spatio-temporal patterns of malaria transmission. The use of CART enabled multiple interactions to be accounted for simultaneously and permitted risk factors for exposure to be clearly identified. PMID:22443375

  3. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Bhumiratana, Adisak; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Maneekan, Pannamas; Koyadun, Surachart

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR) malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world's most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders. PMID:23865048

  4. Quality of Antimalarials at the Epicenter of Antimalarial Drug Resistance: Results from an Overt and Mystery Client Survey in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Shunmay; Lawford, Harriet L. S.; Tabernero, Patricia; Nguon, Chea; van Wyk, Albert; Malik, Naiela; DeSousa, Mikhael; Rada, Ouk; Boravann, Mam; Dwivedi, Prabha; Hostetler, Dana M.; Swamidoss, Isabel; Green, Michael D.; Fernandez, Facundo M.; Kaur, Harparkash

    2015-01-01

    Widespread availability of monotherapies and falsified antimalarials is thought to have contributed to the historical development of multidrug-resistant malaria in Cambodia. This study aimed to document the quality of artemisinin-containing antimalarials (ACAs) and to compare two methods of collecting antimalarials from drug outlets: through open surveyors and mystery clients (MCs). Few oral artemisinin-based monotherapies and no suspected falsified medicines were found. All 291 samples contained the stated active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of which 69% were considered good quality by chemical analysis. Overall, medicine quality did not differ by collection method, although open surveyors were less likely to obtain oral artemisinin-based monotherapies than MCs. The results are an encouraging indication of the positive impact of the country's efforts to tackle falsified antimalarials and artemisinin-based monotherapies. However, poor-quality medicines remain an ongoing challenge that demands sustained political will and investment of human and financial resources. PMID:25897063

  5. Migrant Beer Promoters’ Experiences Accessing Reproductive Health Care in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam: Lessons for Planners and Providers

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Gail C.; Spitzer, Denise L.; Somrongthong, Ratana; Dat, Truong Cong; Kounnavongsa, Somphone

    2014-01-01

    Migrant beer promoters in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam were surveyed to determine their experiences in accessing reproductive health care services in the cities of Phnom Penh, Vientiane, Bangkok, and Hanoi. A total of 7 health care institutions were chosen as popular with migrant beer promoters. Staff at these institutions provided information on the institution, and 390 beer promoters were surveyed about their experiences while accessing services. There were discrepancies between findings from the staff interviews and the experiences of the beer promoters. In general, the migrant women were satisfied with the cost, location, friendliness of the health care providers, and knowledge and skills of the providers. They were less positive about confidentiality and waiting times, though many still agreed that these were not an issue. Health care planners and providers should take note of the issues affecting access to reproductive health care services for migrant women when they design and implement services. PMID:22743859

  6. The prevalence and psychological costs of household violence by family members against women with disabilities in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Astbury, Jill; Walji, Fareen

    2014-11-01

    Women with disabilities (WWDs) are at triple jeopardy due to the combined risks associated with gender, disability, and violence. Not only are WWDs marginalized socially but the violence against them in their own homes is largely neglected in domestic violence research. Evidence from developing countries is particularly sparse. A cross-sectional survey conducted in Cambodia found rates of violence by household members besides intimate partners were significantly higher among WWDs than non-disabled women. This violence engendered increased levels of psychological distress and higher rates of physical injury but low rates of disclosure to health workers and other formal sources of potential support. Community-based strategies are recommended to radically change social and cultural attitudes, beliefs, and responses to WWDs who are victims of household violence to reduce negative social reactions toward them and to make it safer for them to disclose and receive psychosocial, legal, and other necessary support for this underreported type of violence. PMID:24879651

  7. Alcohol Use Disorder and Heavy Episodic Drinking in Rural Communities in Cambodia: Risk Factors and Community-Perceived Strategies.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Wesley; Leong, Wei-Yee; Khoun, Kimsong; Ong, Warren; Sambi, Sundesh; Lim, Su-Min; Bieber, Bill; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2015-11-01

    Alcohol misuse is increasing in Southeast Asia. We investigated the extent of and risk factors for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and heavy episodic drinking (HED) in a rural community in Cambodia. We also attempted to explore the communities' perception of alcohol misuse and elicited potential community-based strategies to address the alcohol problem. A mixed-methods study design was used, combining a cross-sectional questionnaire survey with qualitative interviews (focus group discussions and key informant interviews). AUD and HED were measured using the AUDs Identification Test Alcohol Consumption questionnaire. The prevalence of AUD and HED was high: 25% and 31%, respectively. Male sex, younger age, and increasing income were significant risk factors. The communities were well aware of the harmful effects of alcohol, expressed the importance of implementing community-based measures, and proposed various community-led solutions. Evidence-based strategies that are culturally appropriate, accepted, and driven by communities are urgently needed. PMID:26419634

  8. Quality of antimalarials at the epicenter of antimalarial drug resistance: results from an overt and mystery client survey in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Shunmay; Lawford, Harriet L S; Tabernero, Patricia; Nguon, Chea; van Wyk, Albert; Malik, Naiela; DeSousa, Mikhael; Rada, Ouk; Boravann, Mam; Dwivedi, Prabha; Hostetler, Dana M; Swamidoss, Isabel; Green, Michael D; Fernandez, Facundo M; Kaur, Harparkash

    2015-06-01

    Widespread availability of monotherapies and falsified antimalarials is thought to have contributed to the historical development of multidrug-resistant malaria in Cambodia. This study aimed to document the quality of artemisinin-containing antimalarials (ACAs) and to compare two methods of collecting antimalarials from drug outlets: through open surveyors and mystery clients (MCs). Few oral artemisinin-based monotherapies and no suspected falsified medicines were found. All 291 samples contained the stated active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of which 69% were considered good quality by chemical analysis. Overall, medicine quality did not differ by collection method, although open surveyors were less likely to obtain oral artemisinin-based monotherapies than MCs. The results are an encouraging indication of the positive impact of the country's efforts to tackle falsified antimalarials and artemisinin-based monotherapies. However, poor-quality medicines remain an ongoing challenge that demands sustained political will and investment of human and financial resources. PMID:25897063

  9. Advanced HIV Disease at Enrolment in HIV Care: Trends and Associated Factors over a Ten Year Period in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Pe, Reaksmey; Chim, Bopha; Thai, Sopheak; Lynen, Lutgarde; van Griensven, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Background Early HIV diagnosis and enrolment in care is needed to achieve early antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation. Studies on HIV disease stage at enrolment in care from Asian countries are limited. We evaluated trends in and factors associated with late HIV disease presentation over a ten-year period in the largest ART center in Cambodia. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of program data including all ARV-naïve adults (> 18 years old) enrolling into HIV care from March 2003-December 2013 in a non-governmental hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. We calculated the proportion presenting with advanced stage HIV disease (WHO clinical stage IV or CD4 cell count <100 cells/?L) and the probability of ART initiation by six months after enrolment. Factors associated with late presentation were determined using multivariate logistic regression. Results From 2003–2013, a total of 5642 HIV-infected patients enrolled in HIV care. The proportion of late presenters decreased from 67% in 2003 to 44% in 2009 and 41% in 2013; a temporary increase to 52% occurred in 2011 coinciding with logistical/budgetary constraints at the national program level. Median CD4 counts increased from 32 cells/?L (IQR 11–127) in 2003 to 239 cells/?L (IQR 63–291) in 2013. Older age and male sex were associated with late presentation across the ten-year period. The probability of ART initiation by six months after enrolment increased from 22.6% in 2003–2006 to 79.9% in 2011–2013. Conclusion Although a gradual improvement was observed over time, a large proportion of patients still enroll late, particularly older or male patients. Interventions to achieve early HIV testing and efficient linkage to care are warranted. PMID:26606057

  10. Identifying Conservation Successes, Failures and Future Opportunities; Assessing Recovery Potential of Wild Ungulates and Tigers in Eastern Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    O'Kelly, Hannah J.; Evans, Tom D.; Stokes, Emma J.; Clements, Tom J.; Dara, An; Gately, Mark; Menghor, Nut; Pollard, Edward H. B.; Soriyun, Men; Walston, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Conservation investment, particularly for charismatic and wide-ranging large mammal species, needs to be evidence-based. Despite the prevalence of this theme within the literature, examples of robust data being generated to guide conservation policy and funding decisions are rare. We present the first published case-study of tiger conservation in Indochina, from a site where an evidence-based approach has been implemented for this iconic predator and its prey. Despite the persistence of extensive areas of habitat, Indochina's tiger and ungulate prey populations are widely supposed to have precipitously declined in recent decades. The Seima Protection Forest (SPF), and broader Eastern Plains Landscape, was identified in 2000 as representing Cambodia's best hope for tiger recovery; reflected in its designation as a Global Priority Tiger Conservation Landscape. Since 2005 distance sampling, camera-trapping and detection-dog surveys have been employed to assess the recovery potential of ungulate and tiger populations in SPF. Our results show that while conservation efforts have ensured that small but regionally significant populations of larger ungulates persist, and density trends in smaller ungulates are stable, overall ungulate populations remain well below theoretical carrying capacity. Extensive field surveys failed to yield any evidence of tiger, and we contend that there is no longer a resident population within the SPF. This local extirpation is believed to be primarily attributable to two decades of intensive hunting; but importantly, prey densities are also currently below the level necessary to support a viable tiger population. Based on these results and similar findings from neighbouring sites, Eastern Cambodia does not currently constitute a Tiger Source Site nor meet the criteria of a Global Priority Tiger Landscape. However, SPF retains global importance for many other elements of biodiversity. It retains high regional importance for ungulate populations and potentially in the future for Indochinese tigers, given adequate prey and protection. PMID:23077476

  11. Unsafe abortion as a birth control method: maternal mortality risks among unmarried cambodian migrant women on the Thai-Cambodia border.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Shalika; Hoban, Elizabeth; Nevill, Annemarie

    2012-11-01

    Reproductive health research and policies in Cambodia focus on safe motherhood programs particularly for married women, ignoring comprehensive fertility regulation programs for unmarried migrant women of reproductive age. Maternal mortality risks arising due to unsafe abortion methods practiced by unmarried Cambodian women, across the Thai-Cambodia border, can be considered as a public health emergency. Since Thailand has restrictive abortion laws, Cambodian migrant women who have irregular migration status in Thailand experimented with unsafe abortion methods that allowed them to terminate their pregnancies surreptitiously. Unmarried migrant women choose abortion as a preferred birth control method seeking repeat "unsafe" abortions instead of preventing conception. Drawing on the data collected through surveys, in-depth interviews, and document analysis in Chup Commune (pseudonym), Phnom Penh, and Bangkok, the authors describe the public health dimensions of maternal mortality risks faced by unmarried Cambodian migrant women due to various unsafe abortion methods employed as birth control methods. PMID:21551135

  12. Therapeutic efficacy of fixed dose artesunate-mefloquine for the treatment of acute, uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Kampong Speu, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cambodia stopped using co-blistered, non-fixed, artesunate-mefloquine (ASMQ) in 2008 when treatment failure rates approximated 20%. Fixed dose combination (FDC) ASMQ is efficacious against acute uncomplicated, drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Southeast Asia but has not been tested in Cambodia. Methods A 42-day WHO therapeutic efficacy study (TES) was conducted in 2010 in Oral, Kampong Speu province, south-west Cambodia, in patients with acute uncomplicated P. falciparum. Daily administered FDC ASMQ for three days was dosed by age. Genotyping of isolates at day 0 and day of recrudescence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) classified post-treatment recurrent falciparum parasitaemia. Ex vivo drug sensitivity testing ([3H] hypoxanthine method) was performed on baseline parasites and reported as the drug concentration inhibiting 50% parasite growth vs no drug (IC50). Results Recruited patients numbered 45; five aged <15 years. On day 3, five of 45 [11.1 (3.7-24.05)] % patients were still parasite-positive; one of whom later failed treatment on day 21. There were 5/45 (11.1%) late treatment failures on day 21, 28 and 35; all were PCR diagnosed recrudescent infections. The day 0 MQ IC50s ranged from 11.5-238.9 (median 58.6) nM. Conclusions This TES demonstrated reasonable efficacy in an area of possible reduced artemisinin sensitivity and high MQ IC50s. Efficacy testing of FDC ASMQ should continue in Cambodia and be considered for reintroduction if efficacy returns. PMID:24060207

  13. "Bad Boys", Big Trouble: Subcultural Formation and Resistance in a Cambodian Village

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czymoniewicz-Klippel, Melina T.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of adolescent males in Cambodia who, simultaneous to their maltreatment and marginalization within the family and community, have reduced opportunities to produce identities of sociomoral value through access to cultural capital. It draws on ethnographic data gathered from adolescents boys aged 9 to 16 in Siem

  14. AIDS-Related Stigma and Mental Disorders among People Living with HIV: A Cross-Sectional Study in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Siyan; Chhoun, Pheak; Suong, Samedy; Thin, Kouland; Brody, Carinne; Tuot, Sovannary

    2015-01-01

    Background AIDS-related stigma and mental disorders are the most common conditions in people living with HIV (PLHIV). We therefore conducted this study to examine the association of AIDS-related stigma and discrimination with mental disorders among PLHIV in Cambodia. Methods A two-stage cluster sampling method was used to select 1,003 adult PLHIV from six provinces. The People Living with HIV Stigma Index was used to measure stigma and discrimination, and a short version of general health questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to measure mental disorders. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results The reported experiences of discrimination in communities in the past 12 months ranged from 0.8% for reports of being denied health services to 42.3% for being aware of being gossiped about. Internal stigma was also common ranging from 2.8% for avoiding going to a local clinic and/or hospital to 59.6% for deciding not to have (more) children. The proportions of PLHIV who reported fear of stigma and discrimination ranged from 13.9% for fear of being physically assaulted to 34.5% for fear of being gossiped about. The mean score of GHQ-12 was 3.2 (SD = 2.4). After controlling for several potential confounders, higher levels of mental disorders (GHQ-12? 4) remained significantly associated with higher levels of experiences of stigma and discrimination in family and communities (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.4–2.6), higher levels of internal stigma (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2–2.3), and higher levels of fear of stigma and discrimination in family and communities (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1–2.2). Conclusions AIDS-related stigma and discrimination among PLHIV in Cambodia are common and may have potential impacts on their mental health conditions. These findings indicate a need for community-based interventions to reduce stigma and discrimination in the general public and to help PLHIV to cope with this situation. PMID:25806534

  15. Evaluation of the impact of the voucher and accreditation approach on improving reproductive behaviors and status in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cost of delivering reproductive health services to low income populations will always require total or partial subsidization by government and/or development partners. Broadly termed "demand-side financing" or "output-based aid", these strategies include a range of interventions that channel government or donor subsidies to the user rather than the service provider. Initial pilot assessments of reproductive health voucher programs suggest that they can increase access, reduce inequities, and enhance program efficiency and service quality. However, there is a paucity of evidence describing how these programs function in different settings for various reproductive health services. Methods/Design Population Council, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, intends to generate evidence around the "voucher and accreditation" approaches to improving the reproductive health of low-income women in Cambodia. The study comprises of four populations: facilities, providers, women of reproductive age using facilities, and women and men who have been pregnant and/or used family planning within the previous 12 months. The study will be carried out in a sample of 20 health facilities that are accredited to provide maternal and newborn health and family planning services to women holding vouchers from operational districts in three provinces: Kampong Thom, Kampot and Prey Veng and a matched sample of non-accredited facilities in three other provinces. Health facility assessments will be conducted at baseline and endline to track temporal changes in quality-of-care, client out-of-pocket costs, and utilization. Facility inventories, structured observations, and client exit interviews will be used to collect comparable data across facilities. Health providers will also be interviewed and observed providing care. A population survey of about 3000 respondents will also be conducted in areas where vouchers are distributed and similar non-voucher locations. Discussion A quasi-experimental study will investigate the impact of the voucher approach on improving reproductive health behaviors, reproductive health status and reducing inequities at the population level and assess effects on access, equity and quality of care at the facility level. If the voucher scheme in Cambodia is found effective, it may help other countries adopt this approach for improving utilization and access to reproductive health and family planning services. PMID:21864405

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of a Tuberculosis Active Case Finding Program Targeting Household and Neighborhood Contacts in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Rajendra P.; Nishikiori, Nobuyuki; Satha, Peou; Eang, Mao T.; Lubell, Yoel

    2014-01-01

    In many high-risk populations, access to tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment is limited and pockets of high prevalence persist. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of an extensive active case finding program in areas of Cambodia where TB notifications and household poverty rates are highest and access to care is restricted. Thirty operational health districts with high TB incidence and household poverty were randomized into intervention and control groups. In intervention operational health districts, all household and symptomatic neighborhood contacts of registered TB patients of the past two years were encouraged to attend screening at mobile centers. In control districts, routine passive case finding activities continued. The program screened more than 35,000 household and neighborhood contacts and identified 810 bacteriologically confirmed cases. The cost-effectiveness analysis estimated that in these cases the reduction in mortality from 14% to 2% would result in a cost per daily adjusted life year averted of $330, suggesting that active case finding was highly cost-effective. PMID:24615134

  17. Socio-economic improvements and health system strengthening of maternity care are contributing to maternal mortality reduction in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Liljestrand, Jerker; Sambath, Mean Reatanak

    2012-06-01

    Maternal mortality has been falling significantly in Cambodia since 2005 though it had been stagnant for at least 15 years before that. This paper analyzes the evolution of some major societal and health system factors based on recent national and international reports. The maternal mortality ratio fell from 472 per 100,000 live births in 2000-2005 to 206 in 2006-2010. Background factors have included peace and stability, economic growth and poverty reduction, improved primary education, especially for girls, improved roads, improved access to information on health and health services via TV, radio and cellphones, and increased ability to communicate with and within the health system. Specific health system improvements include a rapid increase in facility-based births and skilled birth attendance, notably investment in midwifery training and numbers of midwives providing antenatal care and deliveries within an expanding primary health care network, a monetary incentive for facility-based midwives for every live birth conducted, and an expanding system of health equity funds, making health care free of cost for poor people. Several major challenges remain, including post-partum care, family planning, prevention and treatment of breast and cervical cancer, and addressing sexual violence against women, which need the same priority attention as maternity care. PMID:22789083

  18. Microbial Community Analysis of Fresh and Old Microbial Biofilms on Bayon Temple Sandstone of Angkor Thom, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Wensheng; Li, Hui; Wang, Wei-Dong; Katayama, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    The temples of Angkor monuments including Angkor Thom and Bayon in Cambodia and surrounding countries were exclusively constructed using sandstone. They are severely threatened by biodeterioration caused by active growth of different microorganisms on the sandstone surfaces, but knowledge on the microbial community and composition of the biofilms on the sandstone is not available from this region. This study investigated the microbial community diversity by examining the fresh and old biofilms of the biodeteriorated bas-relief wall surfaces of the Bayon Temple by analysis of 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequences. The results showed that the retrieved sequences were clustered in 11 bacterial, 11 eukaryotic and two archaeal divisions with disparate communities (Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria; Alveolata, Fungi, Metazoa, Viridiplantae; Crenarchaeote, and Euyarchaeota). A comparison of the microbial communities between the fresh and old biofilms revealed that the bacterial community of old biofilm was very similar to the newly formed fresh biofilm in terms of bacterial composition, but the eukaryotic communities were distinctly different between these two. This information has important implications for understanding the formation process and development of the microbial diversity on the sandstone surfaces, and furthermore to the relationship between the extent of biodeterioration and succession of microbial communities on sandstone in tropic region. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00248-010-9707-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20593173

  19. Bacterial Communities in Pigmented Biofilms Formed on the Sandstone Bas-Relief Walls of the Bayon Temple, Angkor Thom, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Kusumi, Asako; Li, Xianshu; Osuga, Yu; Kawashima, Arata; Gu, Ji-Dong; Nasu, Masao; Katayama, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    The Bayon temple in Angkor Thom, Cambodia has shown serious deterioration and is subject to the formation of various pigmented biofilms. Because biofilms are damaging the bas-reliefs, low reliefs engraved on the surface of sandstone, information about the microbial community within them is indispensable to control biofilm colonization. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of biofilm samples from the pigmented sandstone surfaces showed that the bacterial community members in the biofilms differed clearly from those in the air and had low sequence similarity to database sequences. Non-destructive sampling of biofilm revealed novel bacterial groups of predominantly Rubrobacter in salmon pink biofilm, Cyanobacteria in chrome green biofilm, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi in signal violet biofilm, Chloroflexi in black gray biofilm, and Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria, and Rubrobacter in blue green biofilm. Serial peeling-off of a thick biofilm by layers with adhesive sheets revealed a stratified structure: the blue–green biofilm, around which there was serious deterioration, was very rich in Cyanobacteria near the surface and Chloroflexi in deep layer below. Nitrate ion concentrations were high in the blue–green biofilm. The characteristic distribution of bacteria at different biofilm depths provides valuable information on not only the biofilm formation process but also the sandstone weathering process in the tropics. PMID:24334526

  20. ‘Plue plun’ male, ‘kath klei’ female: gender differences in suicidal behavior as expressed by young people in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Jegannathan, Bhoomikumar; Dahlblom, Kjerstin; Kullgren, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Few studies from low- and middle-income countries use qualitative methodology to explore suicidal behavior among young people. In Cambodia, young people face the challenge of rapidly changing times and are vulnerable for suicidal behavior as revealed by research in transitional economies. This study seeks to gain a deeper understanding of the suicidal phenomena from a gender, psychosocial and cultural perspective. Six focus-group discussions were conducted among boys and girls, aged 15–19 years, in two secondary schools in a suburban area close to Phnom Penh, the capital city. The data was analyzed using thematic analysis approach. The participants highlighted the gender difference in suicidal behavior by describing the suicide-prone, acting-out male as ‘plue plun’, while suicide-prone females were described as caught in constricted, tunneled-thinking behavior, expressed as ‘kath klei’. Parental attitude and family environment were also pointed out as the chief causes of discontent and there was a strong wish on the part of young people to find space for modern values within the traditional family. The young people's awareness of their challenges in everyday life suggests that school-based programs to prevent suicidal behavior ought to be gender-sensitive and peer-focused. PMID:24999370

  1. Amphetamine-type stimulant use and HIV/STI risk behaviour among young female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Maher, L; Phlong, P; Mooney-Somers, J; Keo, S; Stein, E; Page, K

    2011-01-01

    Background Use of amphetamine-type substances (ATS) has been linked to increased risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) worldwide. In Cambodia, recent ATS use is independently associated with incident STI infection among young female sex workers (FSW). Methods We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with women (15–29 years old) engaged in sex work to explore ATS use and vulnerability to HIV/STI. Results Participants reported that ATS, primarily methamphetamine in pill and crystalline forms (yama), were cheap, widely available and commonly used. Yama was described as a “power drug” (thnam kamlang) which enabled women to work long hours and serve more customers. Use of ATS by clients was also common, with some providing drugs for women and/or encouraging their use, often resulting in prolonged sexual activity. Requests for unprotected sex were also more common among intoxicated clients and strategies typically employed to negotiate condom use were less effective. Conclusion ATS use was highly functional for young women engaged in sex work, facilitating a sense of power and agency and highlighting the occupational significance and normalization of ATS in this setting. This highly gendered dynamic supports the limited but emerging literature on women’s use of ATS, which to date has been heavily focused on men. Results indicate an urgent need to increase awareness of the risks associated with ATS use, to provide women with alternative and sustainable options for income generation, to better regulate the conditions of sex work, and to work with FSWs and their clients to develop and promote culturally appropriate harm reduction interventions. PMID:21316935

  2. How to reach the poor? Surveillance in low-income countries, lessons from experiences in Cambodia and Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Goutard, F L; Binot, A; Duboz, R; Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Pedrono, M; Holl, D; Peyre, M I; Cappelle, J; Chevalier, V; Figuié, M; Molia, S; Roger, F L

    2015-06-01

    Surveillance of animal diseases in developing countries faces many constraints. Innovative tools and methods to enhance surveillance in remote and neglected areas should be defined, assessed and applied in close connection with local farmers, national stakeholders and international agencies. The authors performed a narrative synthesis of their own publications about surveillance in Madagascar and Cambodia. They analysed the data in light of their fieldwork experiences in the two countries' very challenging environments. The burden of animal and zoonotic diseases (e.g. avian influenza, African swine fever, Newcastle disease, Rift Valley fever) is huge in both countries which are among the poorest in the world. Being poor countries implies a lack of human and financial means to ensure effective surveillance of emerging and endemic diseases. Several recent projects have shown that new approaches can be proposed and tested in the field. Several advanced participatory approaches are promising and could be part of an innovative method for improving the dialogue among different actors in a surveillance system. Thus, participatory modelling, developed for natural resources management involving local stakeholders, could be applied to health management, including surveillance. Data transmission could benefit from the large mobile-phone coverage in these countries. Ecological studies and advances in the field of livestock surveillance should guide methods for enhancing wildlife monitoring and surveillance. Under the umbrella of the One Health paradigm, and in the framework of a risk-based surveillance concept, a combination of participatory methods and modern technologies could help to overcome the constraints present in low-income countries. These unconventional approaches should be merged in order to optimise surveillance of emerging and endemic diseases in challenging environments. PMID:25842000

  3. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-02-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households' ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. PMID:25492724

  4. Impacts on rural livelihoods in Cambodia following adoption of best practice health and husbandry interventions by smallholder cattle farmers.

    PubMed

    Young, J R; O'Reilly, R A; Ashley, K; Suon, S; Leoung, I V; Windsor, P A; Bush, R D

    2014-08-01

    To better understand how smallholder farmers whom own the majority of Cambodian cattle can contribute to efforts to address food security needs in the Mekong region, a five-year research project investigating methods to improve cattle health and husbandry practices was conducted. Cattle production in Cambodia is constrained by transboundary animal diseases (TADs) including foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) plus poor nutrition, reproduction and marketing knowledge. The project worked in six villages in Kandal, Takeo and Kampong Cham province during 2007-12. Farmers from three 'high intervention' (HI) villages incrementally received a participatory extension programme that included FMD and HS vaccination, forage development and husbandry training. Evaluation of project impacts on livelihoods was facilitated by comparison with three 'low intervention' (LI) villages where farmers received vaccinations only. Results of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) and socio-economic surveys conducted in 2012 of 120 participating farmers identified that farmer knowledge in the HI project sites exceeded LI sites on the topics of biosecurity, internal parasites, nutrition and reproduction. HI farmers adopted biosecurity practices including a willingness to vaccinate for FMD and HS at their own cost, separate sick from healthy cattle, grow and feed forages and displayed awareness of the benefits of building fattening pens. HI farmers that grew forages observed time savings exceeding two hours per day each for men, women and children, enabling expansion of farm enterprises, secondary employment and children's schooling. Logistic regression analysis revealed that farmers in the HI group significantly increased annual household income (P < 0.001), with 53% reporting an increase of 100% or more. We conclude that improving smallholder KAP of cattle health and production can lead to improved livelihoods. This strategy should be of interest to policymakers, donors, researchers and extension workers interested in addressing TAD control, food insecurity and rural poverty in Southeast Asia. PMID:24393407

  5. Evaluation of community-based systems for the surveillance of day three-positive Plasmodium falciparum cases in Western Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites is used as an operational indicator of potential artemisinin resistance. Effective community-based systems to detect P. falciparum cases remaining positive 72 hours after initiating treatment would be valuable for guiding case follow-up in areas of known resistance risk and for detecting areas of emerging resistance. Methods Systems incorporating existing networks of village malaria workers (VMWs) to monitor day three-positive P. falciparum cases were piloted in three provinces in western Cambodia. Quantitative and qualitative data were used to evaluate the wider feasibility and sustainability of community-based surveillance of day three-positive P. falciparum cases. Results Of 294 day-3 blood slides obtained across all sites (from 297 day-0 positives), 63 were positive for P. falciparum, an overall day-3 positivity rate of 21%. There were significant variations in the systems implemented by different partners. Full engagement of VMWs and health centre staff is critical. VMWs are responsible for a range of individual tasks including preparing blood slides on day-0, completing forms, administering directly observed therapy (DOT) on days 0–2, obtaining follow-up slides on day-3 and transporting slides and paperwork to their supervising health centre. When suitably motivated, unsalaried VMWs are willing and able to produce good quality blood smears and achieve very high rates of DOT and day-3 follow-up. Conclusions Community-based surveillance of day-3 P. falciparum cases is feasible, but highly intensive, and as such needs strong and continuous support, particularly supervision and training. The purpose and role of community-based day-3 surveillance should be assessed in the light of resource requirements; scaling-up would need to be systematic and targeted, based on clearly defined epidemiological criteria. To be truly comprehensive, the system would need to be extended beyond VMWs to other public and private health providers. PMID:25052222

  6. Arsenic in hair and nails of individuals exposed to arsenic-rich groundwaters in Kandal province, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Gault, Andrew G; Rowland, Helen A L; Charnock, John M; Wogelius, Roy A; Gomez-Morilla, Inma; Vong, Sovathana; Leng, Moniphea; Samreth, Sopheap; Sampson, Mickey L; Polya, David A

    2008-04-01

    The health implications of the consumption of high arsenic groundwater in Bangladesh and West Bengal are well-documented, however, little is known about the level of arsenic exposure elsewhere in Southeast Asia, where widespread exploitation of groundwater resources is less well established. We measured the arsenic concentrations of nail and hair samples collected from residents of Kandal province, Cambodia, an area recently identified to host arsenic-rich groundwaters, in order to evaluate the extent of arsenic exposure. Nail and hair arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.20 to 6.50 microg g(-1) (n=70) and 0.10 to 7.95 microg g(-1) (n=40), respectively, in many cases exceeding typical baseline levels. The arsenic content of the groundwater used for drinking water purposes (0.21-943 microg L(-1) (n=31)) was positively correlated with both nail (r=0.74, p<0.0001) and hair (r=0.86, p<0.0001) arsenic concentrations. In addition, the nail and hair samples collected from inhabitants using groundwater that exceeded the Cambodian drinking water legal limit of 50 microg L(-1) arsenic contained significantly more arsenic than those of individuals using groundwater containing <50 microg L(-1) arsenic. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy suggested that sulfur-coordinated arsenic was the dominant species in the bulk of the samples analysed, with additional varying degrees of As(III)-O character. Tentative linear least squares fitting of the XANES data pointed towards differences in the pattern of arsenic speciation between the nail and hair samples analysed, however, mismatches in sample and standard absorption peak intensity prevented us from unambiguously determining the arsenic species distribution. The good correlation with the groundwater arsenic concentration, allied with the relative ease of sampling such tissues, indicate that the arsenic content of hair and nail samples may be used as an effective biomarker of arsenic intake in this relatively recently exposed population. PMID:18234288

  7. Operational and economic evaluation of an NGO-led sexually transmitted infections intervention: north-western Cambodia.

    PubMed Central

    Carrara, Verena; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Kumaranayake, Lilani; Mayaud, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Sexually transmitted infection (STI) services were offered by the nongovernmental organization Médecins Sans Frontières-Holland in Banteay Meanchey province, Cambodia, between 1997 and 1999. These services targeted female sex workers but were available to the general population. We conducted an evaluation of the operational performance and costs of this real-life project. METHODS: Effectiveness outcomes (syndromic cure rates of STIs) were obtained by retrospectively analysing patients' records. Annual financial and economic costs were estimated from the provider's perspective. Unit costs for the cost-effectiveness analysis included the cost per visit, per partner treated, and per syndrome treated and cured. FINDINGS: Over 30 months, 11,330 patients attended the clinics; of these, 7776 (69%) were STI index patients and only 1012 (13%) were female sex workers. A total of 15 269 disease episodes and 30 488 visits were recorded. Syndromic cure rates ranged from 39% among female sex workers with genital ulcers to 74% among men with genital discharge; there were variations over time. Combined rates of syndromes classified as cured or improved were around 84-95% for all syndromes. The total economic costs of the project were US 766,046 dollars. The average cost per visit over 30 months was US 25.12 dollars and the cost per partner treated for an STI was US 50.79 dollars. The average cost per STI syndrome treated was US 48.43 dollars, of which US 4.92 dollars was for drug treatment. The costs per syndrome cured or improved ranged from US 46.95-153.00 dollars for men with genital ulcers to US 57.85-251.98 dollars for female sex workers with genital discharge. CONCLUSION: This programme was only partly successful in reaching its intended target population of sex workers and their male partners. Decreasing cure rates among sex workers led to relatively poor cost-effectiveness outcomes overall despite decreasing unit costs. PMID:15976894

  8. Inter- and intra-annual variations of transpiration at a rubber stand in lowland of central Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Tateishi, Makiko; Tiva, Lim Khan; Mudd, Ryan; Giambelluca, Thomas; Song, Yin

    2013-04-01

    In Southeast Asia, rubber plantation is rapidly expanding, and thus understanding the level of water consumption and tree physiology is a matter of importance to know the impacts on the local hydrology. Intra- and inter-annual variations in transpiration rate (Et) at a rubber stand, growing in lowland of central Cambodia, were examined during two years based on sap flow measurements. As for seasonality, Et was generally large in the rainy season and small in the dry season, showing sharp short-time drop in synchronization with the shedding in late January. Daily stand Et was ~ 2.0 mm day-1 in 2010 and ~ 2.4 mm day-1 in 2011 at the maximum. An analysis of non-linear multiple regression for the canopy conductance (gc) in the two years showed that the stomatal response of rubber trees was well explained by the changes in solar radiation, vapour pressure deficit, soil moisture availability, leaf area, and tree diameter. Sensitivity of gc to the atmospheric drought indicates isohydric behavior of rubber trees, while the same analysis for each year showed possibility of change in leaf characteristics due to tree maturity and/or initiation of latex tapping. The best fit model also predicted relatively small sensitivity of gc to the soil moisture deficit and rapid decrease in gc under extreme drought conditions. Annual stand Et estimated with the gc obtained in the present analysis was 469 mm yr-1 in 2010, while it increased up to 658 mm yr-1 in 2011. To find out the most important environmental variables, we examined the effect of each variable by keeping the others unchanged. This hypothesis analysis showed that in the young rubber stand which were growing very rapidly, inter-annual change of stand Et was determined mainly by the tree growth rate, not by the change of surrounding environments in the air and the soil.

  9. Promoting community knowledge and action for malaria control in rural Cambodia: potential contributions of Village Malaria Workers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cambodia has been investing in Village Malaria Workers (VMWs) to improve malaria case management in rural areas. This study assessed the quality of the VMWs’ services compared to those by a government-run health center from the perspective of community members. We focused on VMWs’ contribution to promote their action to control malaria. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Kampot province in 2009. Interviews were conducted at every accessible household in a village with VMWs (n?=?153) and a village with a health center (n?=?159), using interviewer administered questionnaire. Preference of the interview was given to female household head. Multiple regression analyses were run to compare knowledge about malaria, preventive measures taken, and time before first malaria treatment between the two villages. Findings The villagers perceived the VMWs’ services equally as good as those provided by the health center. After controlling for confounding factors, the following indicators did not show any statistical significance between two villages: community members’ knowledge about malaria transmission (AOR?=?0.60, 95% CI?=?0.30-1.22) and government-recommended antimalarial (AOR?=?0.55, 95% CI?=?0.25-1.23), preventive measures taken (Beta?=??0.191, p?=?0.315), and time before the first treatment (Beta?=?0.053, p?=?0.721). However, knowledge about malaria symptoms was significantly lower in the village with VMWs than the village with a health center (AOR?=?0.40, 95% CI?=?0.19-0.83). Conclusions VMWs played an equivalent role as the health center in promoting malaria knowledge, action, and effective case management. Although VMWs need to enhance community knowledge about malaria symptoms, the current government policy on VMWs is reasonable and should be expanded to other malaria endemic villages. PMID:22863397

  10. Immunity to polio, measles and rubella in women of child-bearing age and estimated congenital rubella syndrome incidence, Cambodia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Mao, B; Chheng, K; Wannemuehler, K; Vynnycky, E; Buth, S; Soeung, S C; Reef, S; Weldon, W; Quick, L; Gregory, C J

    2015-07-01

    Significant gaps in immunity to polio, measles, and rubella may exist in adults in Cambodia and threaten vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) elimination and control goals, despite high childhood vaccination coverage. We conducted a nationwide serological survey during November-December 2012 of 2154 women aged 15-39 years to assess immunity to polio, measles, and rubella and to estimate congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) incidence. Measles and rubella antibodies were detected by IgG ELISA and polio antibodies by microneutralization testing. Age-structured catalytic models were fitted to rubella serological data to predict CRS cases. Overall, 29.8% of women lacked immunity to at least one poliovirus (PV); seroprevalence to PV1, PV2 and PV3 was 85.9%, 93.4% and 83.3%, respectively. Rubella and measles antibody seroprevalence was 73.3% and 95.9%, respectively. In the 15-19 years age group, 48.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 42.4-54.1] were susceptible to either PV1 or PV3, and 40.3% (95% CI 33.0-47.5) to rubella virus. Based on rubella antibody seroprevalence, we estimate that >600 infants are born with CRS in Cambodia annually. Significant numbers of Cambodian women are still susceptible to polio and rubella, especially those aged 15-19 years, emphasizing the need to include adults in VPD surveillance and a potential role for vaccination strategies targeted at adults. PMID:25373419

  11. Toward a typology of health-related informal credit: an exploration of borrowing practices for paying for health care by the poor in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Borrowing money is a common strategy to cope with health care costs. The impact of borrowing on households can be severe, leading to indebtedness and further impoverishment. However, the available literature on borrowing practices for health is limited. We explore borrowing practices for paying for health care by the poor in Cambodia and provide a typology, associated conditions, and the extent of the phenomenon. Methods In addition to a semi-structured literature review, in-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of 47 households with health-related debt and 19 managers of formal or informal credit schemes. Results A large proportion of Cambodians, especially the poor, resort to borrowing to meet the cost of health care. Because of limited cash flow and access to formal creditors, the majority take out loans with high interest rates from informal money lenders. The most common type of informal credit is locally known as Changkar and consists of five kinds of loans: short-term loans, medium-term loans, seasonal loans, loans for an unspecified period, and loans with repayment in labour, each with different lending and repayment conditions and interest rates. Conclusion This study suggests the importance of informal credit for coping with the cost of treatment and its potentially negative impact on the livelihood of Cambodian people. We provide directions for further studies on financial protection interventions to mitigate harmful borrowing practices to pay for health care in Cambodia. PMID:23134845

  12. Conflicting Rights: How the Prohibition of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation Infringes the Right to Health of Female Sex Workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Maher, Lisa; Dixon, Thomas; Phlong, Pisith; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Stein, Ellen; Page, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    While repressive laws and policies in relation to sex work have the potential to undermine HIV prevention efforts, empirical research on their interface has been lacking. In 2008, Cambodia introduced antitrafficking legislation ostensibly designed to suppress human trafficking and sexual exploitation. Based on empirical research with female sex workers, this article examines the impact of the new law on vulnerability to HIV and other adverse health outcomes. Following the introduction of the law, sex workers reported being displaced to streets and guesthouses, impacting their ability to negotiate safe sex and increasing exposure to violence. Disruption of peer networks and associated mobility also reduced access to outreach, condoms, and health care. Our results are consistent with a growing body of research which associates the violation of sex workers' human rights with adverse public health outcomes. Despite the successes of the last decade, Cambodia's AIDS epidemic remains volatile and the current legal environment has the potential to undermine prevention efforts by promoting stigma and discrimination, impeding prevention uptake and coverage, and increasing infections. Legal and policy responses which seek to protect the rights of the sexually exploited should not infringe the right to health of sex workers. PMID:26204575

  13. Gamma-rays attenuation of zircons from Cambodia and South Africa at different energies: A new technique for identifying the origin of gemstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limkitjaroenporn, P.; Kaewkhao, J.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, the gamma-rays interaction properties of zircons from Cambodia and South Africa have been studied. The densities of Cambodian and South African's zircons are 4.6716±0.0040 g/cm3 and 4.5505±0.0018 g/cm3, respectively. The mass attenuation coefficient and the effective atomic number of gemstones were measured with the gamma-ray in energies range 223-662 keV using the Compton scattering technique. The mass attenuation coefficients of both zircons decreased with the increasing of gamma-rays energies. The different mass attenuation coefficients between the two zircons observed at gamma-ray energies below 400 keV are attributed to the differences in the photoelectric interaction. The effective atomic number of zircons was decreased with the increasing of gamma-ray energies and showed totally different values between the Cambodia and South Africa sources. The origins of the two zircons could be successfully identified by the method based on gamma-rays interaction with matter with advantage of being a non-destructive testing.

  14. Community-Based Active Tuberculosis Case Finding in Poor Urban Settlements of Phnom Penh, Cambodia: A Feasible and Effective Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Lorent, Natalie; Choun, Kimcheng; Thai, Sopheak; Kim, Tharin; Huy, Sopheaktra; Pe, Reaksmey; van Griensven, Johan; Buyze, Jozefien; Colebunders, Robert; Rigouts, Leen; Lynen, Lutgarde

    2014-01-01

    Background In light of the limitations of the current case finding strategies and the global urgency to improve tuberculosis (TB) case-detection, a renewed interest in active case finding (ACF) has risen. The WHO calls for more evidence on innovative ways of TB screening, especially from low-income countries, to inform global guideline development. We aimed to assess the feasibility of community-based ACF for TB among the urban poor in Cambodia and determine its impact on case detection, treatment uptake and outcome. Methods Between 9/2/2012-31/3/2013 the Sihanouk Hospital Center of HOPE conducted a door-to-door survey for TB in deprived communities of Phnom Penh. TB workers and community health volunteers performed symptom screening, collected sputum and facilitated specimen transport to the laboratories. Fluorescence microscopy was introduced at three referral hospitals. The GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert) was performed at tertiary level for individuals at increased risk of HIV-associated, drug-resistant or smear-negative TB. Mobile phone/short message system (SMS) was used for same-day issuing of positive results. TB workers contacted diagnosed patients and referred them for care at their local health centre. Results In 14 months, we screened 315.874 individuals; we identified 12.201 aged ?15 years with symptoms suggestive of TB; 84% provided sputum. We diagnosed 783, including 737 bacteriologically confirmed, TB cases. Xpert testing yielded 41% and 48% additional diagnoses among presumptive HIV-associated and multidrug-resistant TB cases, respectively. The median time from sputum collection to notification (by SMS) of the first positive (microscopy or Xpert) result was 3 days (IQR 2–6). Over 94% commenced TB treatment and 81% successfully completed it. Conclusion Our findings suggest that among the urban poor ACF for TB, using a sensitive symptom screen followed by smear-microscopy and targeted Xpert, contributed to improved case detection of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB, shortening the diagnostic delay, and successfully bringing patients into care. PMID:24675985

  15. Cervical human papillomavirus infection among young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia: prevalence, genotypes, risk factors and association with HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although cervical cancer is the leading cancer in Cambodia, most women receive no routine screening for cervical cancer and few treatment options exist. Moreover, nothing is known regarding the prevalence of cervical HPV or the genotypes present among women in the country. Young sexually active women, especially those with multiple sex partners are at highest risk of HPV infection. We examine the prevalence and genotypes of cervical HPV, as well as the associated risk factors among young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among 220 young women (15–29?years) engaged in sex work in different venues including brothels or entertainment establishments, and on a freelance basis in streets, parks and private apartments. Cervical specimens were collected using standard cytobrush technique. HPV DNA was tested for by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyping using type-specific probes for 29 individual HPV types, as well as for a mixture of 10 less common HPV types. All participants were also screened for HIV status using blood samples. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess risk factors for any or multiple HPV infection. Results The prevalence of cervical HPV 41.1%. HPV 51 and 70 were the most common (5.0%), followed by 16 (4.6%), 71 (4.1%) and 81 (3.7%). Thirty-six women (16.4%) were infected with multiple genotypes and 23.3% were infected with at least one oncogenic HPV type. In multivariate analyses, having HIV infection and a higher number of sexual partners were associated with cervical HPV infection. Risk factors for infection with multiple genotypes included working as freelance female sex workers (FSW) or in brothels, recent binge use of drugs, high number of sexual partners, and HIV infection. Conclusions This is the first Cambodian study on cervical HPV prevalence and genotypes. We found that HPV infection was common among young FSW, especially among women infected with HIV. These results underscore the urgent need for accessible cervical cancer screening and treatment, as well as for a prophylactic vaccine that covers the HPV subtypes present in Cambodia. PMID:22839728

  16. Development of the Khao Khwang Fold and Thrust Belt: Implications for the geodynamic setting of Thailand and Cambodia during the Indosinian Orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, C. K.; Ampaiwan, P.; Thanudamrong, S.; Kuenphan, N.; Warren, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Indosinian Orogeny in Thailand is often viewed as having developed between strongly linear terranes, which today trend approximately N-S. The terranes were subsequently disrupted by later tectonics, particularly NW-SE trending Cenozoic strike-slip faults. The ENE-WSW to NE-SW striking thrusts and folds in the Khao Khwang Platform area of the Saraburi Group on the SW margin of the Indochina Terrane are not easily explained in the context of this traditional view. Reversal of the clockwise rotation shown to have affected the block north of the Mae Ping Fault zone only enhances the E-W orientation of structures in the fold and thrust belt, and moves the belt further east towards Cambodia. One solution for the trend that fits better with regional understanding from hydrocarbon exploration of the Khorat Plateau is that the Indochina Terrane was actually a series of continental blocks, separated by Permian rifting. During the Early Triassic the early stages of collision (South China-Cathaysian Terrane collision with Vietnam Indochina) resulted in the amalgamation of disparate blocks that now form the Indochina Terrane by closure along the rifts. At the same time or following on from the collision there was closure of the back-arc area between Indochina and the Sukhothai zone. The rift basins, were thrusted and inverted during the early stages of the Indosinian orogeny, and only underwent minor reactivated when later Sibumasu collided with Sukhothai Zone-Indochina Terrane margin during the Late Triassic. The scenario described above requires the presence of a (minor) E-W trending suture in NW Cambodia. Evidence for this suture is suggested by the presence of Permo-Triassic calc-alkaline volcanism.

  17. Focused Screening and Treatment (FSAT): A PCR-Based Strategy to Detect Malaria Parasite Carriers and Contain Drug Resistant P. falciparum, Pailin, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Hoyer, Stefan; Nguon, Sokomar; Kim, Saorin; Habib, Najibullah; Khim, Nimol; Sum, Sarorn; Christophel, Eva-Maria; Bjorge, Steven; Thomson, Andrew; Kheng, Sim; Chea, Nguon; Yok, Sovann; Top, Samphornarann; Ros, Seyha; Sophal, Uth; Thompson, Michelle M.; Mellor, Steve; Ariey, Frédéric; Witkowski, Benoit; Yeang, Chhiang; Yeung, Shunmay; Duong, Socheat; Newman, Robert D.; Menard, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in Pailin province, along the border between Thailand and Cambodia, have become resistant to artemisinin derivatives. To better define the epidemiology of P. falciparum populations and to assess the risk of the possible spread of these parasites outside Pailin, a new epidemiological tool named “Focused Screening and Treatment” (FSAT), based on active molecular detection of asymptomatic parasite carriers was introduced in 2010. Cross-sectional malariometric surveys using PCR were carried out in 20 out of 109 villages in Pailin province. Individuals detected as P. falciparum carriers were treated with atovaquone-proguanil combination plus a single dose of primaquine if the patient was non-G6PD deficient. Interviews were conducted to elicit history of cross-border travel that might contribute to the spread of artemisinin-resistant parasites. After directly observed treatment, patients were followed up and re-examined on day 7 and day 28. Among 6931 individuals screened, prevalence of P. falciparum carriers was less than 1%, of whom 96% were asymptomatic. Only 1.6% of the individuals had a travel history or plans to go outside Cambodia, with none of those tested being positive for P. falciparum. Retrospective analysis, using 2010 routine surveillance data, showed significant differences in the prevalence of asymptomatic carriers discovered by FSAT between villages classified as “high risk” and “low risk” based on malaria incidence data. All positive individuals treated and followed-up until day 28 were cured. No mutant-type allele related to atovaquone resistance was found. FSAT is a potentially useful tool to detect, treat and track clusters of asymptomatic carriers of P. falciparum along with providing valuable epidemiological information regarding cross-border movements of potential malaria parasite carriers and parasite gene flow. PMID:23049687

  18. High efficacy of lopinavir/r-based second-line antiretroviral treatment after 24 months of follow up at ESTHER/Calmette Hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The number of patients on second-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens is increasing in resource-limited settings. We describe the outcomes after 24 months for patients on LPV/r-based second-line regimens followed up by the ESTHER programme in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods Seventy patients who initiated second-line HAART regimens more than 24 months earlier were included, and immuno-virological data analyzed. HIV RNA viral load was determined by real-time RT-PCR. HIV-1 drug resistance was interpreted according to the ANRS algorithm. Results Of the 70 patients, two were lost to follow up, three died and 65 (92.8%) remained on second-line treatment after 24 months of follow up (median duration of treatment: 27.4 months). At switch to second-line, the median CD4 T cell count was 106 cells/mm3 and the median viral load was 4.7 Log10. Second-line regimens prescribed were ddI/3TC/LPV/r (65.7%), ddI/TDF/LPV/r (10.0%), ddI/AZT/LPV/r (8.6%) and TDF/3TC/LPV/r (7.1%). The median CD4 T cell gain was +258 cells/mm3 at 24 months (n = 63). After 24 months of follow up, 92.3% (60/65) of the patients presented undetectable viral loads, giving an overall treatment success rate of 85.7% (CI: 75.6- 92.0) in intent-to-treat analysis. Conclusions These data suggest that a LPV/r-based second-line regimen is associated with a high rate of virological suppression and immune reconstitution after 24 months of follow up in Cambodia. PMID:21439074

  19. Correlates of amphetamine-type stimulants use and associations with HIV-related risks among young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Couture, Marie-Claude; Evans, Jennifer L.; Sothy, Neth San; Stein, Ellen S.; Sichan, Keo; Maher, Lisa; Page, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Background Amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) use has increased in Cambodia and emerged as a significant problem among female sex workers (FSWs), potentially contributing to increased risk of HIV. We examined the prevalence of ATS use and its effect on sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STI) among FSWs in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods A one-year prospective study among young women engaged in sex work in brothels, entertainment establishments and on a freelance basis. Socio-demographics, sexual risks, and recent ATS use were assessed by self-report. Blood and urine samples were collected to detect HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC). Bivariate and multivariate longitudinal analyses were conducted to assess the effects of ATS use on number of sex partners, inconsistent condom use with paying partners and incident STI. Results ATS use was higher among women working freelance (35.6%) and in brothels (34.8%) compared to women working in entertainment establishments (17.7%) or in multiple venues (14.8%). ATS users reported more sex partners and days drunk in the previous month. In multivariate longitudinal analysis, ATS use was associated with having a higher number of sex partners (Adjusted Risk Ratio 1.49; 95% CI: 1.00–2.21) and incident STI (Adjusted Odds Ratio 5.41; 95% CI: 1.15–25.48), but not inconsistent condom use with paying partner. Conclusion ATS users had more sex partners, high level of alcohol use, and were at increased risk of STI. Our findings underscore ATS use as an important emerging risk exposure that should be integrated into HIV prevention interventions targeting this population. PMID:21820251

  20. Prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection after implementation of a hepatitis B vaccination program among children in three provinces in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Bunsoth, Mao; Patel, Minal K.; Hennessey, Karen; Duncan, Richard J. W.; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Soeung, Sann Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is highly endemic in Cambodia with an estimated pre-vaccine hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence of 9%. By 2005, a hepatitis B vaccination program was implemented to decrease infection rates in children. We conducted a serosurvey to evaluate the impact of the vaccination program in 2011. Methods A cross-sectional two-stage cluster survey was conducted to estimate HBsAg prevalence among children born from 2006 to 2007 in three provinces: Phnom Penh (urban), Kratie (rural), and Ratanakiri (remote). Demographic data, as well as written or oral vaccination history were collected. Children were tested for HBsAg. Factors associated with undervaccination and HBsAg positivity were modeled. Results Coverage of timely hepatitis B vaccine birth dose (administered at ?24 hours) was 55% in Phnom Penh, 36% in Kratie, and 22% in Ratanakiri. Coverage with ?3 hepatitis B vaccine doses (HepB3) was 91% in Phnom Penh, 82% in Kratie, and 64% in Ratanakiri. When compared with children who were born in health facilities with a skilled birth attendant (SBA), children born at home without a SBA were more likely not to have received a timely BD (adjusted relative risk [aRR]=1.94; 95% CI=1.75–2.15) as were children born at home with an SBA (aRR=1.54; 95% CI=1.32–1.80). The proportion of children who tested positive for HBsAg was 0.33% in Phnom Penh, 1.41% in Kratie, and 3.45% in Ratanakiri. In all three provinces, children who received their first dose after seven days of life and children who never received hepatitis B vaccine had the highest HBsAg prevalence. Conclusions Progress has been made in Cambodia in decreasing the burden of chronic HBV infection among children. Improvements in vaccination coverage will further decrease the burden disease. PMID:23684825

  1. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-01-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households’ ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. El Impacto de los Pagos por Servicios Ambientales y Áreas Protegidas sobre la Subsistencia Local y la Conservación del Bosque en el Norte de Camboya Resumen Los impactos potenciales de los pagos por servicios ambientales (PSA) y áreas protegidas (APs) sobre los resultados ambientales y las subsistencias locales en los países en desarrollo son polémicos y se han debatido ampliamente. La evidencia disponible es escasa; ha habido pocas evaluaciones rigurosas de los impactos ambientales y sociales de las APs y particularmente los PSA. Medimos el impacto sobre los bosques y el bienestar humano en tres diferentes programas de PSA que se llevan a cabo dentro de dos APs en el norte de Camboya usando un panel de aldeas de intervención y controles emparejados. Tanto los PSA como las APs brindaron resultados ambientales adicionales en relación a los contrafácticos, esto quiere decir que redujeron las tasas de deforestación significativamente en relación a los controles. Las áreas protegidas incrementaron el acceso seguro a los recursos del suelo y el bosque para las viviendas locales, beneficiando a los usuarios de los recursos del bosque pero restringiendo la habilidad de las viviendas para expandirse y diversificar su agricultura. Los impactos de los pagos por servicios ambientales sobre el bienestar de las viviendas estuvieron relacionados con la magnitud de los pagos proporcionados. Los dos programas de PSA de mayor paga y con conexión al mercado tuvieron impactos positivos significativos, mientras que un programa de menor paga con el objetivo de proteger a la biodiversidad no tuvo un efecto detectable sobre las viviendas, a pesar de sus resultados ambientales positivos. Las viviendas que se inscribieron a los programas de PSA con mayor paga, sin embargo, necesitaban típicamente más bienes capitales, por lo que eran menos pobres y tenían mayor seguridad alimentaria que otros aldeanos. Por esto, mientras los impactos de las APs sobre el bienestar de las viviendas fueron limitados en general y variaron dependiendo de las estrategias de subsistencia, los programas de PSA tuvieron impactos positivos significativos sobre las viviendas para aquellos que podían co

  2. Cambodia Humanitarian Design Summit

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    community partner staff and develop cross- cultural communication skills such as active listening the design process and develop their humanitarian engineering skills. In preparation for the community visits, and provide participants with work, community development and design skills. The program has been specifically

  3. Nonhuman primate retroviruses from Cambodia: high simian foamy virus prevalence, identification of divergent STLV-1 strains and no evidence of SIV infection.

    PubMed

    Ayouba, Ahidjo; Duval, Linda; Liégeois, Florian; Ngin, Sopheak; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Switzer, William M; Delaporte, Eric; Ariey, Frédéric; Peeters, Martine; Nerrienet, Eric

    2013-08-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHPs) carry retroviruses such as simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV), simian T-cell lymphotropic viruses (STLV) and simian foamy viruses (SFV). Here, we revisited NHPs from Cambodia to assess the prevalence and diversity of these retroviruses using updated viral detection tools. We screened blood from 118 NHPs consisting of six species (Macaca fascicularis (n=91), Macaca leonine (n=8), Presbytis cristata (n=3), Nycticebus coucang (n=1), Hylobates pileatus (n=14), and Pongo pygmaeus) (n=1) by using a Luminex-based multiplex serology assay that allows the detection of all known SIV/HIV and SFV lineages. We also used highly sensitive PCR assays to detect each simian retrovirus group. Positive PCR products were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed to infer evolutionary histories. Fifty-three of 118 (44.9%) NHPs tested positive for SFV by serology and 8/52 (15.4%), all from M. fascicularis, were PCR-confirmed. The 8 novel SFV sequences formed a highly supported distinct lineage within a clade composed of other macaque SFV. We observed no serological or molecular evidence of SIV infection among the 118 NHP samples tested. Four of 118 (3.3%) NHPs were PCR-positive for STLV, including one M. fascicularis, one P. cristata, and two H. pileatus. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the four novel STLV belonged to the PTLV-1 lineage, outside the African radiation of PTLV-1, like all Asian PTLV identified so far. Sequence analysis of the whole STLV-1 genome from a H. pileatus (C578_Hp) revealed a genetic structure characteristic of PTLV. Similarity analysis comparing the STLV-1 (C578_Hp) sequence with prototype PTLVs showed that C578_Hp is closer to PTLV-1s than to all other types across the entire genome. In conclusion, we showed a high frequency of SFV infection but found no evidence of SIV infection in NHPs from Cambodia. We identified for the first time STLV-1 in a P. cristata and in two H. pileatus. PMID:23612320

  4. Virological Failure and HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations among Naive and Antiretroviral Pre-Treated Patients Entering the ESTHER Program of Calmette Hospital in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Limsreng, Setha; Him, Sovanvatey; Nouhin, Janin; Hak, Chanroeurn; Srun, Chanvatey; Viretto, Gerald; Ouk, Vara; Delfraissy, Jean Francois; Ségéral, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In resource limited settings, patients entering an antiretroviral therapy (ART) program comprise ART naive and ART pre-treated patients who may show differential virological outcomes. Methods This retrospective study, conducted in 2010–2012 in the HIV clinic of Calmette Hospital located in Phnom Penh (Cambodia) assessed virological failure (VF) rates and patterns of drug resistance of naive and pre-treated patients. Naive and ART pre-treated patients were included when a Viral Load (VL) was performed during the first year of ART for naive subjects or at the first consultation for pre-treated individuals. Patients showing Virological failure (VF) (>1,000 copies/ml) underwent HIV DR genotyping testing. Interpretation of drug resistance mutations was done according to 2013 version 23 ANRS algorithms. Results On a total of 209 patients, 164 (78.4%) were naive and 45 (21.5%) were ART pre-treated. Their median initial CD4 counts were 74 cells/mm3 (IQR: 30–194) and 279 cells/mm3 (IQR: 103–455) (p<0.001), respectively. Twenty seven patients (12.9%) exhibited VF (95% CI: 8.6–18.2%), including 10 naive (10/164, 6.0%) and 17 pre-treated (17/45, 37.8%) patients (p<0.001). Among these viremic patients, twenty-two (81.4%) were sequenced in reverse transcriptase and protease coding regions. Overall, 19 (86.3%) harbored ?1 drug resistance mutations (DRMs) whereas 3 (all belonging to pre-treated patients) harbored wild-types viruses. The most frequent DRMs were M184V (86.3%), K103N (45.5%) and thymidine analog mutations (TAMs) (40.9%). Two (13.3%) pre-treated patients harbored viruses that showed a multi-nucleos(t)ide resistance including Q151M, K65R, E33A/D, E44A/D mutations. Conclusion In Cambodia, VF rates were low for naive patients but the emergence of DRMs to NNRTI and 3TC occurred relatively quickly in this subgroup. In pre-treated patients, VF rates were much higher and TAMs were relatively common. HIV genotypic assays before ART initiation and for ART pre-treated patients infection should be considered as well. PMID:25166019

  5. Reaping Energy Savings from Petroleum Refining 

    E-print Network

    Deng, A.; Cascone, R.

    2006-01-01

    PETROLEUM REFINING Alan Deng, Project Manager, San Francisco, CA, Ron Cascone, Project Manager, White Plains, NY, Nexant, Inc. ABSTRACT The refining industry is one of the largest energy users in Pacific Gas and Electric Company’s (PG... development of an information library and at least three case studies of successful EE projects. These activities are intended to educate and raise industry awareness for future outreach activities. Nexant will present case studies to industry trade shows...

  6. Simulation of Canopy CO2/H2O Fluxes for a Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) Plantation in Central Cambodia: The Effect of the Regular Spacing of Planted Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Mudd, Ryan; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Liu, Wen; Giambelluca, Thomas; Kobayashi, N.; Lim, Tiva Khan; Jomura, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Huang, Maoyi; Chen, Qi; Ziegler, Alan; Yin, Song

    2013-09-10

    We developed a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model applicable to simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes from the canopies of rubber plantations, which are characterized by distinct canopy clumping produced by regular spacing of plantation trees. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers it is replacing. Describing the biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations via SVAT modeling is therefore essential to understanding the impacts on environmental processes. The regular spacing of plantation trees creates a peculiar canopy structure that is not well represented in most SVAT models, which generally assumes a non-uniform spacing of vegetation. Herein we develop a SVAT model applicable to rubber plantation and an evaluation method for its canopy structure, and examine how the peculiar canopy structure of rubber plantations affects canopy CO2 and H2O exchanges. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to account for intensive canopy clumping in order to reproduce observed rubber plantation fluxes. These results suggest a potentially optimal spacing of rubber trees to produce high productivity and water use efficiency.

  7. Validity of measures of pain and symptoms in HIV/AIDS infected households in resources poor settings: results from the Dominican Republic and Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Gregory; Wolf, R Cameron; Morineau, Guy; Harding, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Background HIV/AIDS treatment programs are currently being mounted in many developing nations that include palliative care services. While measures of palliative care have been developed and validated for resource rich settings, very little work exists to support an understanding of measurement for Africa, Latin America or Asia. Methods This study investigates the construct validity of measures of reported pain, pain control, symptoms and symptom control in areas with high HIV-infected prevalence in Dominican Republic and Cambodia Measures were adapted from the POS (Palliative Outcome Scale). Households were selected through purposive sampling from networks of people living with HIV/AIDS. Consistencies in patterns in the data were tested used Chi Square and Mantel Haenszel tests. Results The sample persons who reported chronic illness were much more likely to report pain and symptoms compared to those not chronically ill. When controlling for the degrees of pain, pain control did not differ between the chronically ill and non-chronically ill using a Mantel Haenszel test in both countries. Similar results were found for reported symptoms and symptom control for the Dominican Republic. These findings broadly support the construct validity of an adapted version of the POS in these two less developed countries. Conclusion The results of the study suggest that the selected measures can usefully be incorporated into population-based surveys and evaluation tools needed to monitor palliative care and used in settings with high HIV/AIDS prevalence. PMID:16549003

  8. Elevated levels of iron in groundwater in Prey Veng province in Cambodia: a possible factor contributing to high iron stores in women.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Murphy, Heather M; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; Vercauteren, Suzanne M; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Porter, Keith; Kroeun, Hou; Eath, Many; McLean, Judy; Green, Timothy J

    2015-06-01

    Iron is a natural element found in food, water and soil and is essential for human health. Our aim was to determine the levels of iron and 25 other metals and trace elements in groundwater from 22 households in Prey Veng, Cambodia. Water analyses were conducted using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and optical emission spectrometry. Compared to the 2011 World Health Organization guidelines for drinking water quality, aluminum, iron and manganese exceeded maximum levels (in 4.5, 72.7 and 40.9% of samples, respectively). Compared to the 2004 Cambodian drinking water quality standards, iron and manganese exceeded maximum levels (in 59.1 and 36.4% of samples, respectively). We found no evidence of arsenic contamination. Guidelines for iron were established primarily for esthetic reasons (e.g. taste), whereas other metals and elements have adverse effects associated with toxicity. Iron in groundwater ranged from 134 to 5,200 ?g/L (mean ?1,422 ?g/L). Based on a daily consumption of 3 L groundwater, this equates to ?0.4-15.6 mg iron (mean ?4.3 mg/day), which may be contributing to high iron stores and the low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in Prey Veng women. Elevated levels of manganese in groundwater are a concern and warrant further investigation. PMID:26042988

  9. Eight new species, a new record, and redescription of the genus Discoxenus Wasmann, 1904: The first record of termitophilous rove beetles in Cambodia (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae).

    PubMed

    Kanao, Taisuke; Maruyama, Munetoshi

    2015-01-01

    As the first record of the Cambodian termitophilous rove beetles, eight new species of the genus Discoxenus Wasmann, 1904 (Aleocharini: Compactopediina) are described, along with a redescription of the genus. Discoxenus katayamai Kanao & Maruyama, 2010, which was originally known from Thailand, is newly recorded from Cambodia and redescribed. Discoxenus species are morphologically divided into two species groups, namely the latiabdominalis and the assmuthi. The latiabdominalis species group includes D. latiabdominalis n. sp. and D. cambodiensis n. sp., and both species are associated with Odontotermes maesodensis Ahmad, 1965. The assmuthi species group comprises 11 species: D. assmuthi Wasmann, 1904, D. lepisma Wasmann, 1904, D. indicus Kistner, 1982, D. malaysiensis Kistner, 1982, D. phourini n. sp., D. kohkongensis n. sp., D. hirsutus n. sp., D. minutus n. sp., D. lucidus n. sp., D. kakizoei n. sp., and D. katayamai. The members in the assmuthi species group are associated with Odontotermes or Hypotermes termites. One of the unique morphological features of the assmuthi species group is the strongly developed distal crest of the male aedeagal median lobe while that observed in the latiabdominalis species group is not produced, which is general character state in the tribe Aleocharini. The character state of distal crest and several other morphological features such as mouthparts are considered to support the monophyly of respective species groups in Discoxenus. PMID:26624709

  10. Identification of molecular markers associated with alteration of receptor-binding specificity in a novel genotype of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses detected in Cambodia in 2013.

    PubMed

    Rith, Sareth; Davis, C Todd; Duong, Veasna; Sar, Borann; Horm, Srey Viseth; Chin, Savuth; Ly, Sovann; Laurent, Denis; Richner, Beat; Oboho, Ikwo; Jang, Yunho; Davis, William; Thor, Sharmi; Balish, Amanda; Iuliano, A Danielle; Sorn, San; Holl, Davun; Sok, Touch; Seng, Heng; Tarantola, Arnaud; Tsuyuoka, Reiko; Parry, Amy; Chea, Nora; Allal, Lotfi; Kitsutani, Paul; Warren, Dora; Prouty, Michael; Horwood, Paul; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Lindstrom, Stephen; Villanueva, Julie; Donis, Ruben; Cox, Nancy; Buchy, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    Human infections with influenza A(H5N1) virus in Cambodia increased sharply during 2013. Molecular characterization of viruses detected in clinical specimens from human cases revealed the presence of mutations associated with the alteration of receptor-binding specificity (K189R, Q222L) and respiratory droplet transmission in ferrets (N220K with Q222L). Discovery of quasispecies at position 222 (Q/L), in addition to the absence of the mutations in poultry/environmental samples, suggested that the mutations occurred during human infection and did not transmit further. PMID:25210193

  11. Identification of Molecular Markers Associated with Alteration of Receptor-Binding Specificity in a Novel Genotype of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses Detected in Cambodia in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Rith, Sareth; Davis, C. Todd; Duong, Veasna; Sar, Borann; Horm, Srey Viseth; Chin, Savuth; Ly, Sovann; Laurent, Denis; Richner, Beat; Oboho, Ikwo; Jang, Yunho; Davis, William; Thor, Sharmi; Balish, Amanda; Iuliano, A. Danielle; Sorn, San; Holl, Davun; Sok, Touch; Seng, Heng; Tarantola, Arnaud; Tsuyuoka, Reiko; Parry, Amy; Chea, Nora; Allal, Lotfi; Kitsutani, Paul; Warren, Dora; Prouty, Michael; Horwood, Paul; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Lindstrom, Stephen; Villanueva, Julie; Donis, Ruben; Cox, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Human infections with influenza A(H5N1) virus in Cambodia increased sharply during 2013. Molecular characterization of viruses detected in clinical specimens from human cases revealed the presence of mutations associated with the alteration of receptor-binding specificity (K189R, Q222L) and respiratory droplet transmission in ferrets (N220K with Q222L). Discovery of quasispecies at position 222 (Q/L), in addition to the absence of the mutations in poultry/environmental samples, suggested that the mutations occurred during human infection and did not transmit further. PMID:25210193

  12. Paleomagnetism of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous red beds from the Cardamom Mountains, southwestern Cambodia: Tectonic deformation of the Indochina Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiyama, Yukiho; Zaman, Haider; Sotham, Sieng; Samuth, Yos; Sato, Eiichi; Ahn, Hyeon-Seon; Uno, Koji; Tsumura, Kosuke; Miki, Masako; Otofuji, Yo-ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous red beds of the Phuquoc Formation were sampled at 33 sites from the Sihanoukville and Koah Kong areas of the Phuquoc-Kampot Som Basin, southwestern Cambodia. Two high-temperature remanent components with unblocking temperature ranging 650°-670 °C and 670-690 °C were identified. The magnetization direction for the former component (D = 5.2 °, I = 18.5 ° with ?95 = 3.1 ° in situ) reveals a negative fold test that indicates a post-folding secondary nature. However, the latter component, carried by specular hematite, is recognized as a primary remanent magnetization. A tilt-corrected mean direction of D = 43.4 °, I = 31.9 ° (?95 = 3.6 °) was calculated for the primary component at 11 sites, corresponding to a paleopole of 47.7°N, 178.9°E (A95 = 3.6 °). When compared with the 130 Ma East Asian pole, a southward displacement of 6.0 ° ± 3.5 ° and a clockwise rotation of 33.1 ° ± 4.0 ° of the Phuquoc-Kampot Som Basin (as a part of the Indochina Block) with respect to East Asia were estimated. This estimate of the clockwise rotation is ?15° larger than that of the Khorat Basin, which we attribute to dextral motion along the Wang Chao Fault since the mid-Oligocene. The comparison of the herein estimated clockwise rotation with the counter-clockwise rotation reported from the Da Lat area in Vietnam suggests the occurrence of a differential tectonic rotation in the southern tip of the Indochina Block. During the southward displacement of the Indochina Block, the non-rigid lithosphere under its southern tip moved heterogeneously, while the rigid lithosphere under the Khorat Basin moved homogeneously.

  13. The social determinants of health and health service access: an in depth study in four poor communities in Phnom Penh Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing urbanization and population density, and persisting inequities in health outcomes across socioeconomic groupings have raised concerns internationally regarding the health of the urban poor. These concerns are also evident in Cambodia, which prompted the design of a study to identify and describe the main barriers to access to health services by the poor in the capital city, Phnom Penh. Sources and Methods Main sources of data were through a household survey, followed by in-depth qualitative interviews with mothers, local authorities and health centre workers in four very poor communities in Phnom Penh. Main findings Despite low incomes and education levels, the study communities have moderate levels of access to services for curative and preventive care. However, qualitative findings demonstrate that households contextualize poor health and health access in terms of their daily living conditions, particularly in relation to environmental conditions and social insecurity. The interactions of low education, poor living conditions and high food costs in the context of low and irregular incomes reinforce a pattern of “living from moment to moment” and results in a cycle of disadvantage and ill health in these communities. There were three main factors that put poor communities at a health disadvantage; these are the everyday living conditions of communities, social and economic inequality and the extent to which a society assesses and acts on inequities in their health care access. Conclusions In order to improve access to health and health services for the urban poor, expansion of public health functions and capacities will be required, including building partnerships between health providers, municipal authorities and civil society. PMID:22900888

  14. A child feeding index is superior to WHO IYCF indicators in explaining length-for-age Z-scores of young children in rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Reinbott, Anika; Kuchenbecker, Judith; Herrmann, Johannes; Jordan, Irmgard; Muehlhoff, Ellen; Kevanna, Ou; Krawinkel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate young child feeding practices are influenced by a multitude of factors which affect growth and development. A combination of indicators is needed to explain the role of complementary feeding practices in growth retardation. Methods: A cross-sectional nutrition baseline survey was conducted in rural Cambodia in September 2012. Villages in pre-selected communes were randomly selected using stunting as a primary indicator. Data were collected from 803 randomly selected households with children aged 6–23 months, based on a standardised questionnaire and on length/height and weight measurements of mother and child. WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators [minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF), minimum acceptable diet (MAD)] and a child feeding index (CFI) were created. The latter consisted of five components: breastfeeding, use of bottle, dietary diversity, food frequency and meal frequency which were adjusted for three age groups: 6–8, 9–11 and 12–23 months. The highest possible score was 10. Associations between length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ) and WHO indicators or CFI were explored. Results: Mean (SD) LAZ was ?1.25 (1.14) (n ?=? 801). Mean (range) CFI was 6.7 (1–10) (n ?=? 797). Mean CFI was highest in the 9–11-months age group (7.93) and lowest for those aged 12–23 months (5.96). None of the WHO IYCF indicators was associated with LAZ, whereas CFI showed significant association with LAZ (P < 0.01). The association between higher CFI scores and LAZ became weaker as age increased. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to include a wide range of information in the analysis in order to understand the association between appropriate infant feeding practices and child growth. PMID:25226288

  15. Challenges from Tuberculosis Diagnosis to Care in Community-Based Active Case Finding among the Urban Poor in Cambodia: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Shelly; Koeut, Pichenda; Thai, Sopheak; Khun, Kim Eam; Colebunders, Robert; Lynen, Lut

    2015-01-01

    Background While community-based active case finding (ACF) for tuberculosis (TB) holds promise for increasing early case detection among hard-to-reach populations, limited data exist on the acceptability of active screening. We aimed to identify barriers and explore facilitators on the pathway from diagnosis to care among TB patients and health providers. Methods Mixed-methods study. We administered a survey questionnaire to, and performed in-depth interviews with, TB patients identified through ACF from poor urban settlements in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Additionally, we conducted focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with community and public health providers involved in ACF, respectively. Results Acceptance of home TB screening was strong among key stakeholders due to perceived reductions in access barriers and in direct and indirect patient costs. Privacy and stigma were not an issue. To build trust and facilitate communication, the participation of community representatives alongside health workers was preferred. Most health providers saw ACF as complementary to existing TB services; however, additional workload as a result of ACF was perceived as straining operating capacity at public sector sites. Proximity to a health facility and disease severity were the strongest determinants of prompt care-seeking. The main reasons reported for delays in treatment-seeking were non-acceptance of diagnosis, high indirect costs related to lost income/productivity and transportation expenses, and anticipated side-effects from TB drugs. Conclusions TB patients and health providers considered home-based ACF complementary to facility-based TB screening. Strong engagement with community representatives was believed critical in gaining access to high risk communities. The main barriers to prompt treatment uptake in ACF were refusal of diagnosis, high indirect costs, and anticipated treatment side-effects. A patient-centred approach and community involvement were essential in mitigating barriers to care in marginalised communities. PMID:26222545

  16. Biomarker validation of recent unprotected sexual intercourse in a prospective study of young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Jennifer L.; Couture, Marie-Claude; Stein, Ellen S.; Sansothy, Neth; Maher, Lisa; Page, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Summary A study of female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia found self-reported condom use to be of questionable validity, particularly among amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) users and those with multiple partners. Background Accurate measurement of unprotected sex is essential in HIV prevention research. Since 2001, the 100% Condom Use Program targeting female sex workers (FSW) has been a central element of the Cambodian National HIV/AIDS Strategy. We sought to assess the validity of self-reported condom use using the rapid prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test among Cambodian FSW. Methods From 2009 to 2010 we enrolled 183 FSW in Phnom Penh in a prospective study of HIV risk behavior. PSA test results from the OneStep ABAcard® were compared to self-reported condom use in the past 48 hours at quarterly follow-up visits. Results Among women positive for seminal fluid at the first follow-up visit, 42% reported only protected sex or no sex in the detection period. Discordant results were more likely among brothel and street-based FSW vs. entertainment (56% vs. 17%), recent (last 3 months) ATS users (53% vs. 20%), and those with >5 partners in the past month (58% vs. 13%). In multivariable regression models, positive PSA results were associated with recent ATS use (Adjusted Risk Ratio (ARR) = 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.1 – 2.2), having a non-paying last sex partner (ARR=1.7; CI:1.2 – 2.5), and sex work venue (ARR=3.0; CI:1.4 – 6.5). Correspondingly, women with a non-paying last sex partner were more likely to report unprotected sex (ARR=1.5; CI:1.1 – 2.2), but no associations were found with sex work venue or ATS use. Conclusions Results confirm the questionable validity of self-reported condom use among FSW. The PSA biomarker assay is an important monitoring tool in HIV/STI research including prevention trials. PMID:23680902

  17. Development of a real-time hydrological cycle - rice growth coupled simulation system as a tool for farmers' decision making in an ungauged basin in Cambodia for the better agricultural water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, K.; Ohta, T.; Yasukawa, M.; Koike, T.; Kitsuregawa, M.; Homma, K.

    2013-12-01

    The entire country of Cambodia depends on agriculture for its economy. Rice is the staple food, making it the major agricultural product (roughly 80% of total national production). The target area of this study is western Cambodia, where rice production is the greatest in the country and most land is rainfed. Since most farmers rely only on their (non-science-based) experience, they would not adjust to changing rainfall and degraded water resources under climate change, so food security in the region would be seriously threatened (Monichoth et al., 2013). Under this condition, irrigation master plans are being considered by several ODA projects. This study aims to contribute to the design of such irrigation plans through the development of a real-time hydrological cycle - rice growth coupled simulation system. The purpose of the development of this system is to support decision making 1) for determining the necessary agricultural water resources and 2) for allocating limited water resources to various sectors. Rice growing condition as affected by water stress due to the water shortage is supposed to be shown for both of the cases with and without irrigation for several rainfall patterns. A dynamically coupled model of a distributed hydrological model (WEB-DHM., Wang et al., 2009) and a rice growth model (SIMRIW-rainfed, Homma et al., 2009) has been developed with a simple irrigation model. The target basin, a small basin in western Cambodia, is basically an ungauged basin and the model was validated by soil moisture, LAI, dry matter production of the rice crop, and rice yield, using both intensive field observation and satellite observations. Calibrating hourly satellite precipitation dataset (GSMaP/NRT) using ground rain gauges, hydrological cycle (soil moisture at three layers, river discharge, irrigatable water amount, water level of each paddy field, water demand of each paddy field, etc.) and rice growth (LAI, developmental index of the rice crop, dry matter production of the rice crop, etc.) are being calculated on near real time basis and opened to the Cambodian governmental staff by a website with only 5-hour delay. This system enables the Cambodian local government to virtually experience the effectiveness of irrigation and to get qualitative information for the examination on whether or how much they will investigate for irrigation.

  18. How do rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations behave under seasonal water stress in northeastern Thailand and central Cambodia?

    SciTech Connect

    Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Mudd, Ryan G.; Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Kobayashi, Nakako; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Lim, Tiva Khan; Liu, Wen; Huang, Maoyi; Fox, Jefferson M.; Ziegler, Alan D.; Yin, Song; Mak, Sophea Veasna; Kasemsap, Poonpipope

    2015-11-01

    Plantation rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) is a viable economic resource for Southeast Asian countries. Consequently, rubber plantations are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially changing the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with the traditional land covers they are replacing. Delineating the characteristics of biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations is therefore important to understanding the impacts of such land use change on environmental processes. We have conducted eddy flux measurements in two rubber plantation sites: (1) Som Sanuk (SS), located northern Thailand; and (2) Cambodian Rubber Research Institute (CRRI), central Cambodia. Both sites have a distinct dry season. Measurements were made over a 3-year period. We used combination of actual evapotranspiration (ET) flux measurements and an inversed version of a simple 2-layer ET model for estimating the mean canopy stomatal conductances (gs), which is among the most effective measures for describing water and energy exchanges and tree water use characteristics. A main novelty in this analysis is that the rubber canopy conductance can be extracted from total surface conductance (including the canopy and the vegetation floor effects) and hence environmental and biological controls on rubber tree gs are explicitly compared at each site in different seasons and years. It is demonstrated how each studied rubber plantation copes with each strong seasonal drought via tree water use strategies. Potential tree water use deficit (precipitation (P) – potential evaporation (ET_POT)) for each season (i.e., December-February: DJF, March-May: MAM, June-August: JJA, and September-November: SON) revealed in which season and how the water use should be controlled. We found that in seasons when actual tree water use deficit (P – ET) was negative (i.e., DJF and MAM), the deficit was compensated by soil water from the previous season stored within the soil layer at depths of 0-2 m at the Thailand site, and at depths of 0-3 m at CRRI. Two ecophysiological parameters, the reference value of gs (gsref) and the sensitivity of gs to atmospheric demand (m), as well as their proportionality (m/gsref), were derived from the logarithmic response curve of gs to vapor pressure deficit (D) for each season and each site. At both sites, gsref and m appeared to be smaller in DJF and MAM than those in the other seasons (i.e., JJA and SON). On average in a whole year, m/gsref was less than 0.6 at SS and almost 0.6 at the CRRI site, suggesting that there was less sufficient stomatal regulation at SS, where the risk of water stress-induced hydraulic failure is low because of its high annual rainfall amount. In comparison, at CRRI where annual P – ET_POT was negative, there was stricter stomatal regulation that prevents excessive xylem cavitation. These tendencies imply that in the drier season, i.e., DJF and MAM, the rubber trees in SS and CRRI adopt the stomatal control strategy of changing gsref with reluctance and positive to change m, respectively.

  19. Direct comparison of the histidine-rich protein-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests in Plasmodium falciparum reference clones and fresh ex vivo field isolates from Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Performance of the histidine-rich protein-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR Green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests were directly compared using Plasmodium falciparum reference strains and fresh ex vivo isolates from Cambodia against a panel of standard anti-malarials. The objective was to determine which of these two common assays is more appropriate for studying drug susceptibility of “immediate ex vivo” (IEV) isolates, analysed without culture adaption, in a region of relatively low malaria transmission. Methods Using the HRP-2 and MSF methods, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against a panel of malaria drugs were determined for P. falciparum reference clones (W2, D6, 3D7 and K1) and 41 IEV clinical isolates from an area of multidrug resistance in Cambodia. Comparison of the IC50 values from the two methods was made using Wilcoxon matched pair tests and Pearson’s correlation. The lower limit of parasitaemia detection for both methods was determined for reference clones and IEV isolates. Since human white blood cell (WBC) DNA in clinical samples is known to reduce MSF assay sensitivity, SYBR Green I fluorescence linearity of P. falciparum samples spiked with WBCs was evaluated to assess the relative degree to which MSF sensitivity is reduced in clinical samples. Results IC50 values correlated well between the HRP-2 and MSF methods when testing either P. falciparum reference clones or IEV isolates against 4-aminoquinolines (chloroquine, piperaquine and quinine) and the quinoline methanol mefloquine (Pearson r?=?0.85-0.99 for reference clones and 0.56-0.84 for IEV isolates), whereas a weaker IC50 value correlation between methods was noted when testing artemisinins against reference clones and lack of correlation when testing IEV isolates. The HRP-2 ELISA produced a higher overall success rate (90% for producing IC50 best-fit sigmoidal curves), relative to only a 40% success rate for the MSF assay, when evaluating ex vivo Cambodian isolates. Reduced sensitivity of the MSF assay is likely due to an interference of WBCs in clinical samples. Conclusions For clinical samples not depleted of WBCs, HRP-2 ELISA is superior to the MSF assay at evaluating fresh P. falciparum field isolates with low parasitaemia (<0.2%) generally observed in Southeast Asia. PMID:23849006

  20. universidad SIEM Seminario Interdisciplinar de Estudios de las Mujeres de la Universidad de Len

    E-print Network

    Fernández Pascual, Ricardo

    envío de artículos para la edición número 9 de la Revista Cuestiones de Género: de la igualdad y la diferencia. Cuestiones de género: de la igualdad y la diferencia es una revista de carácter anual creada por Leoz Secretaria de la Revista Cuestiones de Género: de la Igualdad y la diferencia. dleoz

  1. Young Women Engaged in Sex Work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Have High Incidence of HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Amphetamine-Type Stimulant Use: New Challenges to HIV Prevention and Risk

    PubMed Central

    Couture, Marie-Claude; Sansothy, Neth; Sapphon, Vonthanak; Phal, Serey; Sichan, Keo; Stein, Ellen; Evans, Jennifer; Maher, Lisa; Kaldor, John; Vun, Mean Chhi; Page, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate prevalence and incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) and associated risk factors among young women working as sex workers (SWs) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods A prospective study of young (<29 years) women working as SWs in brothels, entertainment establishments, and freelance. Sociodemographics, sexual risk, and use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) (“yama” and “crystal”) were assessed by self-report. HIV and STI (Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) testing were conducted on blood and urine specimens, respectively. Results Baseline prevalences of HIV, C. trachomatis, and N. gonorrhoeae were 23%, 11.5%, and 7.8%, respectively. HIV incidence was 3.6 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2%– 11.1%); STI incidence was 21.2 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 12.6%– 35.8%). At baseline, 26.5% reported recent ATS use. HIV infection was associated with freelance SW (adjusted odds ratio, 5.85; 95% CI, 1.59–21.58) and younger age of first sex (?15 years; adjusted odds ratio, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.01–8.46). Incident STI was associated with duration (per year) of SW (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.1–1.2) and recent yama use (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.5–10.3). Conclusions HIV and STI infection rates were high among SWs working in various settings; freelancers had highest risk. ATS use was associated with incident STI. Venue of sex work and drug prevention should be considered in prevention programs. PMID:21085056

  2. Hydrological change: reaping prosperity and pain in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunin, F. X.; Smith, C. J.; Denmead, O. T.

    2007-01-01

    The adage: “There is no such thing as a free lunch”, is relevant to land-use hydrology in Australia. Changes in land use to achieve greater productivity of food and fibre may have an adverse effect on the water balance and hence on the natural resource capital of a catchment. An altered regime of catchment outflow accompanies those land-use changes which, together with land degradation, impairs available water resources in quantity and quality and threatens enterprise sustainability, notwithstanding the initial improvement in productivity. Central to any hydrological change is an altered pattern of seasonal and annual water use by vegetation that has become modified in function with an amended transpiration fraction of daily evapotranspiration. In Australia, since measurement of evapotranspiration became feasible, the hydrological consequences of changes in land use have been determined, allowing the benefits in terms of plant productivity achieved through enhanced water use efficiency to be weighed against changed catchment outflows, diminished in either quantity or quality. Four case studies are presented as examples of ecological and hydrological changes: two deal with the upland forest environment and two with arable lowlands. In an upland eucalypt forest, following wildfire with subsequent regeneration from natural seedling establishment, substantial reduction in water yield occurred throughout a 50-year period of succession in the even-aged stand. In comparison, the effect of converting eucalypt forest to pine plantations was less detrimental to the yield of water from the catchments, with substantial growth increases over 30 years. In the lowlands, agricultural productivity, both as annual pasture and as crop, far exceeds that of natural perennial grassland and woodland. This increase in productivity comes not so much from any change to the yield of total water outflow but at the expense of water quality, compromised with increased material transport in suspension and solution resulting from accelerated erosion in association with outbreaks of soil salinity and acidity. The present study is aimed at optimising management to give plant production outcomes that ensure environmental protection through resource conservation. In the uplands, harvesting of water is the dominant consideration so that conservative management with limited plant productivity is sought. In the lowlands, the objective is to devise novel ecosystems with profitable plant production that exercises due control on outflow in maintaining the chemical and physical integrity of the edaphic environment.

  3. School Yard Gardening Reaps Harvest of Learning and Lettuce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasgalla, June

    1989-01-01

    Describes the experiences of a kindergarten class that conducted an extensive outdoor vegetable gardening project with the help of parent volunteers. The article presents seven steps to assist PTAs in establishing such a project and notes the value of school gardens in developing student skills. (SM)

  4. Drug packaging in 2013: small changes would reap big benefits.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Drug packaging is important both in protecting and informing patients. Some improvements were made in 2013, but many of the products examined by Prescrire still had poor-quality or even dangerous packaging. Problem packaging is a major concern for patients who are more vulnerable to adverse effects, particularly children and pregnant women. Several problems were noted with products intended for self-medication (umbrella brands), oral solutions sold with dosing devices, and injectable drugs. Looking back at 20 years of Red Cards that Prescrire has issued to products with dangerous packaging reveals several improvements, but too many dangers persist. Urgent action needs to be taken by regulatory agencies and drug companies: patient leaflets must be more explicit with regard to adverse effects, especially those of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs during pregnancy; accidental ingestion by children must be prevented; and companies must design safer dosing devices. Healthcare professionals and patients must remain vigilant and report all packaging issues to the relevant authorities. PMID:24926522

  5. Students Reap Benefits from Faculty-Employer Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuss, Patricia B.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the Faculty-Employer Connection program at Montana State University-Billings, which is designed as a faculty field trip to employer work sites. The program's objective is to increase faculty awareness of the internship and job opportunities available to students through area employers. Proposes that the program raises faculty's career…

  6. Are Universities Reaping the Available Benefits Internship Programs Offer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weible, Rick

    2010-01-01

    Many research studies have examined the benefits student internships offer students and employers, but few looked at the benefits internships might lend to educational institutions. A survey instrument was developed and sent to 619 deans of all U.S. business programs. In all, 29% replied. The results indicate some institutions are gaining the…

  7. Domestic Violence against Married Women in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Carrera, Jennifer S.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of marital resources and early-life experiences on recent domestic violence and attitudes about wife abuse among 2,074 married Cambodian women. Household standard of living was negatively associated with physical domestic violence. Women with 8-13 fewer years of schooling than their husbands more often experienced physical…

  8. REAPING THE MOST NUTRIENTS: WORKING WITH STARCH AND NONFIBER CARBOHYDRATE DIGESTIBILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cows survive, grow, produce milk, reproduce, and store energy reserves based on the amount of digestible nutrients they obtain from their diets. There is consensus that cows do not have a starch requirement, but starch has been a staple source of digestible nutrients in dairy cattle diets. With conc...

  9. Reaping the Whirlwind: "The Wind that Shakes the Barley", Liberation and after in the Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Popular culture includes stories that define and justify the existence of groups and nations. Among those stories are creation accounts, especially stories of the forming of nations through struggles for liberation from oppression. The useful liberation myths are exemplified by two recent films: "V for Vendetta" and "Children of Men." Another…

  10. Restoring coastal plants to improve global carbon storage: reaping what we sow.

    PubMed

    Irving, Andrew D; Connell, Sean D; Russell, Bayden D

    2011-01-01

    Long-term carbon capture and storage (CCS) is currently considered a viable strategy for mitigating rising levels of atmospheric CO(2) and associated impacts of global climate change. Until recently, the significant below-ground CCS capacity of coastal vegetation such as seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangroves has largely gone unrecognized in models of global carbon transfer. However, this reservoir of natural, free, and sustainable carbon storage potential is increasingly jeopardized by alarming trends in coastal habitat loss, totalling 30-50% of global abundance over the last century alone. Human intervention to restore lost habitats is a potentially powerful solution to improve natural rates of global CCS, but data suggest this approach is unlikely to substantially improve long-term CCS unless current restoration efforts are increased to an industrial scale. Failure to do so raises the question of whether resources currently used for expensive and time-consuming restoration projects would be more wisely invested in arresting further habitat loss and encouraging natural recovery. PMID:21479244

  11. Weed 'Em and Reap: The Art of Weeding to Avoid Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Today media centers provide students the opportunity to learn and explore subjects of their interest in depth. The media center is the largest classroom in the school providing service to every student and every teacher in all curricular areas. The library should be a place to encourage students' interests and a place to broaden their horizons by…

  12. Digging a Vegetarian Diet: Plant-Based Eating Can Reap Rewards

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and fish,” says NIH nutritionist Dr. Susan Krebs-Smith, who monitors trends in cancer risk factors. Most ... are many different types of vegetarian diets,” Krebs-Smith explains. “Some are more restrictive than others.” Strict ...

  13. VentureStar(trademark) Reaping the Benefits of the X-33 Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, J.; Lane, C.

    1998-01-01

    Major X-33 flight hardware has been delivered, and assembly of the vehicle is well underway in anticipation of its flight test program commencing in the summer of 1999. Attention has now turned to the operational VentureStar(trademark), the first single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) reusable launch vehicle. Activities are grouped under two broad categories: (1) vehicle development and (2) market/business planning, each of which is discussed. The mission concept is presented for direct payload delivery to the International Space Station and to low Earth orbit, as well as payload delivery with an upper stage to Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) and other high energy orbits. System requirements include flight segment and ground segment. Vehicle system sizing and design status is provided including the application of X-33 traceability and lessons learned. Technology applications to the VentureStar(trademark) are described including the structure, propellant tanks, thermal protection system, aerodynamics, subsystems, payload bay and propulsion. Developing a market driven low cost launch services system for the 21 st Century requires traditional and non-traditional ways of being able to forecast the evolution of the potential market. The challenge is balancing both the technical and financial assumptions of the market. This involves the need to provide a capability to meet market segments that in some cases are very speculative, while at the same time providing the financial community with a credible revenue stream.

  14. Restoring Coastal Plants to Improve Global Carbon Storage: Reaping What We Sow

    PubMed Central

    Irving, Andrew D.; Connell, Sean D.; Russell, Bayden D.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term carbon capture and storage (CCS) is currently considered a viable strategy for mitigating rising levels of atmospheric CO2 and associated impacts of global climate change. Until recently, the significant below-ground CCS capacity of coastal vegetation such as seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangroves has largely gone unrecognized in models of global carbon transfer. However, this reservoir of natural, free, and sustainable carbon storage potential is increasingly jeopardized by alarming trends in coastal habitat loss, totalling 30–50% of global abundance over the last century alone. Human intervention to restore lost habitats is a potentially powerful solution to improve natural rates of global CCS, but data suggest this approach is unlikely to substantially improve long-term CCS unless current restoration efforts are increased to an industrial scale. Failure to do so raises the question of whether resources currently used for expensive and time-consuming restoration projects would be more wisely invested in arresting further habitat loss and encouraging natural recovery. PMID:21479244

  15. Reaping the Benefits of Task Conflict in Teams: The Critical Role of Team Psychological Safety Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Bret H.; Postlethwaite, Bennett E.; Klotz, Anthony C.; Hamdani, Maria R.; Brown, Kenneth G.

    2012-01-01

    Past research suggests that task conflict may improve team performance under certain conditions; however, we know little about these specific conditions. On the basis of prior theory and research on conflict in teams, we argue that a climate of psychological safety is one specific context under which task conflict will improve team performance.…

  16. Introducing the GRACEnet/REAP data contribution, discovery and retrieval system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Difficulties in accessing high quality data on trace gas fluxes and performance of bioenergy/bio-product feedstocks limit the ability of researchers and others to address environmental impacts of agriculture and the potential to produce feedstocks. To address those needs, the GRACEnet (Greenhouse ga...

  17. (Almost) Word for Word: As Voice Recognition Programs Improve, Students Reap the Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Voice recognition software is hardly new--attempts at capturing spoken words and turning them into written text have been available to consumers for about two decades. But what was once an expensive and highly unreliable tool has made great strides in recent years, perhaps most recognized in programs such as Nuance's Dragon NaturallySpeaking…

  18. Overcoming ash deposition: A case study. Part 2: Application of model reaps benefits -- The utility perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Backman, B.C.; Gunderson, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    The Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU) Company Coyote Station is a 425-MW Babcock and Wilcox cyclone-fired unit commissioned in 1981. The plant was designed to fire a high-ash-, high-sodium-content lignite from the adjacent Knife River Coal Mining Company (KRCMC) Beulah Mine. In recent years, the Coyote Station had been experiencing increasingly severe fouling and slagging, resulting in more frequent and often unscheduled outages. A joint project with the Energy and Environmental Research Center to address this problem was instituted by MDU and KRCMC. Plant operating parameters were reviewed and compared with historical coal data and PCQUEST modeling to identify fuel and operating effects on convective pass ash fouling. Results indicated separate and combined effects of fuel quality and operating parameters leading to troublesome ash-fouling tendencies. Historically, Coyote Station was down for cleaning between three and four times per year as a result of problematic boiler tube ash fouling and has been down as many as five times per year. Outages represent a considerable expense to the utility in both cleaning costs and lost generating revenue. Application of the model at the mine to deliver a consistent product, using the model at the plant to track incoming coal quality, and setting reasonable operating limits based on incoming coal quality have resulted in improved operation of the plant. Current operations suggest that between two and three outages per year on average will be required to maintain the unit.

  19. Panopticon: Reaping the Benefits of Partial SDN Deployment in Enterprise Networks

    E-print Network

    Schmid, Stefan

    >@net.t-labs.tu-berlin.de ABSTRACT The operational challenges posed in enterprise networks, present an appealing opportunity of the resulting up- date. In personal correspondence, a network operator remarked that "for the fear of breaking

  20. USDA Biochar Research: Land Application Advances to Reap Its Multifunctional Abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ippolito, J.; Spokas, K.; Novak, J.; Lentz, R. D.; Stromberger, M.; Ducey, T.; Johnson, M.

    2014-12-01

    Biochar is the solid byproduct from the pyrolysis of agricultural crop residues, manures, green wastes and wood-based materials. Pyrolyzing biomass causes inorganic and organic compounds to be concentrated within the carbonized remains of the original lignin and cellulose structure. It is through this complex mixture of organic aromatic structures and inorganic elements that potentially imparts biochars with special multi-functional capabilities. Our current research has focused on developing biochar to simultaneously sequester soil carbon and remediate degraded soils. This is accomplished by directly improving soil nutrient and moisture contents, sorbing pollutants, as well as altering microbial signaling. Maintaining these improvements needs to account for biochar physical degradation, which may be overcome by biochar-mineral associations. Additional research is focused on biochar use that minimizes soil microorganism population shifts in order to maintain current ecosystem services. Future USDA research involves more evaluations to understand the multifunctional role of biochar in the agricultural and environmental sectors (e.g., USEPA superfund locations). This presentation will provide highlights of current and future coordinated biochar research efforts from several key laboratory locations across the US.

  1. Beyond reaping the first harvest: management objectives for timber production in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Zarin, Daniel J; Schulze, Mark D; Vidal, Edson; Lentini, Marco

    2007-08-01

    Millions of hectares of future timber concessions are slated to be implemented within large public forests under the forest law passed in 2006 by the Brazilian Congress. Additional millions of hectares of large, privately owned forests and smaller areas of community forests are certified as well managed by the Forest Stewardship Council, based on certification standards that will be reviewed in 2007. Forest size and ownership are two key factors that influence management objectives and the capacity of forest managers to achieve them. Current best ecological practices for timber production from Brazil's native Amazon forests are limited to reduced-impact logging (RIL) systems that minimize the environmental impacts of harvest operations and that obey legal restrictions regarding minimum diameters, rare species, retention of seed trees, maximum logging intensity, preservation of riparian buffers, fire protection, and wildlife conservation. Compared with conventional, predatory harvesting that constitutes >90% of the region's timber production, RIL dramatically reduces logging damage and helps maintain forest cover and the presence of rare tree species, but current RIL guidelines do not assure that the volume of timber removed can be sustained in future harvests. We believe it is counterproductive to expect smallholders to subscribe to additional harvest limitations beyond RIL, that larger private forested landholdings managed for timber production should be sustainable with respect to the total volume of timber harvested per unit area per cutting cycle, and that large public forests should sustain volume production of individual harvested species. These additional requirements would improve the ecological sustainability of forest management and help create a stable forest-based sector of the region's economy, but would involve costs associated with lengthened cutting cycles, reduced harvest intensities, and/or postharvest silviculture to promote adequate growth and regeneration. PMID:17650242

  2. Sustainable Production of Crop Residue as a Cellulosic Ethanol Feedstock: REAP – Renewable Energy Assessment Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic ethanol production is a strategy for reducing dependence on imported energy and release of greenhouse gases from use of fossil-energy-derived motor vehicle fuel. Federal and state governments are encouraging the use of ethanol. Initially energy crops, such as switchgrass, willow, and poplar...

  3. The Outsider: Advancement Staffs Can Reap the Benefits When Campuses Hire a President from Outside Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnellogue, Ken

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that colleges and universities may gain financially when an outsider, i.e., not an academic, is hired as college president. Examples of presidents from fields such as law, business, and politics are offered to show that a business-minded approach attracts business-minded donors, that broad experience lends credibility with alumni, and…

  4. The Weatherby Processing plant reaps big benefits from state-of-the-art technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bratton, R.C.; Raines, J.

    2006-10-15

    In the fall of 2003, the Weatherby Processing plant in Kanawha County, WV, USA launched a program to evaluate the overall operation and efficiency of its two heavy-medium cyclones circuits processing 2-inch x 0 raw coal with the intention of reducing coal losses misplaced to refuse. A plant sampling program was developed and conducted that provided the basis for the plant upgrade, which included the installation of a raw coal sizing screen, the establishment of coarse and fine heavy-medium cyclones circuits, a compound spirals circuit, and a column flotation circuit. The upgraded flowsheet resulted in a major improvement in separation efficiency as well as a significant reduction in magnetite consumption. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Precision Agriculture. Reaping the Benefits of Technological Growth. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Joel F.

    1998-01-01

    Technological innovations have revolutionized farming. Using precision farming techniques, farmers get an accurate picture of a field's attributes, such as soil properties, yield rates, and crop characteristics through the use of Differential Global Positioning Satellite hardware. (JOW)

  6. Target productions in forward and backward hemispheres in the interactions of 28Si-EM at 14.6A GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelsalam, A.; El-Nagdy, M. S.; Abdalla, A. M.; Saber, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper search for the results and properties of slow particle productions, appear as a gray and black tracks in nuclear emulsions, producing secondary charged particles which are emitted from 28Si interactions with emulsion nuclei at 14.6A GeV. The forward particles emission of interactions, (?lab<90?) as well as the backward ones (?lab?90?), have been investigated. It includes the effect of both projectile mass number and energy on the production and multiplicities of these particles. The results compared with other experiments for the same target but with different projectiles and energies. The experimental data show that there are two different mechanisms responsible for the production of gray particles for the chosen channels of emission angles and each are energy dependence. This dependence is weakly on the projectile mass number. The same investigations are applied for black tracks producing particles. The experimental results show the production of these particles is purely target fragments independent on both projectile mass number and its energy. The anisotropy ratio of angular distribution (F/B) is applied for both kinds of particles which are found the value for gray particle production depends on the direction of emissions while it is unchanged for black particles.

  7. THE PHOENIX POPULATION: DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS AND REBOUND IN CAMBODIA*

    PubMed Central

    HEUVELINE, PATRICK; POCH, BUNNAK

    2014-01-01

    The study of mortality crises provides an unusual and valuable perspective on the relationship between mortality and fertility changes, a relationship that has puzzled demographers for decades. In this article, we combine nationally representative survey and demographic-surveillance system data to study fertility trends around the time of the Khmer Rouge (KR) regime, under which 25% of the Cambodian population died. We present the first quantitative evidence to date that attests to a one-third decline of fertility during this regime, followed by a substantial “baby boom” after the fall of the KR. Further analyses reveal that the fertility rebound was produced not only by a two-year marriage bubble but also by a surge in marital fertility that remained for nearly a decade above its precrisis level. Our results illustrate the potential influence of mortality on fertility, which may be more difficult to identify for more gradual mortality declines. To the extent that until recently, Cambodian fertility appears to fit natural fertility patterns, our findings also reinforce meaning of this core paradigm of demographic analysis. In July 1978, a youth named Korb, bound hand and foot, arrived at a Pol Pot regime extermination camp. The local security chief, “Comrade Uncle An,” was handed the following note: Formerly this person was normal in character. Then, over about ten days, he went crazy. […] If many people come in, first he begins to whistle, and then he sings the following rhyme out loud: O! Khmers with black blood Now the eight-year Buddhist prophecy is being fulfilled. Vietnam is the elder brother Kampuchea is the younger. If we do not follow the Vietnamese as our elder brothers There will be nothing left of the Khmer this time but ashes.(Kiernan and Boua 1982:363) PMID:17583312

  8. Addressing the human resources crisis: a case study of Cambodia’s efforts to reduce maternal mortality (1980–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Noriko; Abe, Kimiko; Rotem, Arie; Tung, Rathavy; Keat, Phuong; Robins, Ann; Zwi, Anthony B

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify factors that have contributed to the systematic development of the Cambodian human resources for health (HRH) system with a focus on midwifery services in response to high maternal mortality in fragile resource-constrained countries. Design Qualitative case study. Review of the published and grey literature and in-depth interviews with key informants and stakeholders using an HRH system conceptual framework developed by the authors (‘House Model’; Fujita et al, 2011). Interviews focused on the perceptions of respondents regarding their contributions to strengthening midwifery services and the other external influences which may have influenced the HRH system and reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR). Setting Three rounds of interviews were conducted with senior and mid-level managers of the Ministries of Health (MoH) and Education, educational institutes and development partners. Participants A total of 49 interviewees, who were identified through a snowball sampling technique. Main outcome measures Scaling up the availability of 24?h maternal health services at all health centres contributing to MMR reduction. Results The incremental development of the Cambodian HRH system since 2005 focused on the production, deployment and retention of midwives in rural areas as part of a systematic strategy to reduce maternal mortality. The improved availability and access to midwifery services contributed to significant MMR reduction. Other contributing factors included improved mechanisms for decision-making and implementation; political commitment backed up with necessary resources; leadership from the top along with a growing capacity of mid-level managers; increased MoH capacity to plan and coordinate; and supportive development partners in the context of a conducive external environment. Conclusions Lessons from this case study point to the importance of a systemic and comprehensive approach to health and HRH system strengthening and of ongoing capacity enhancement and leadership development to ensure effective planning, implementation and monitoring of HRH policies and strategies. PMID:23674446

  9. Sowing and Reaping a Revolution: Economic Change and Growth in the People's Republic of China, 1949-1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jeffrey R.

    This unit, intended for use with secondary students, presents background information on the Chinese economy. The subject warrants serious consideration because Sino-American trade has grown remarkable in the last decade and economic events occurring in China have the capacity to affect events in this country. The unit contains a six part narrative…

  10. Embarking on large-scale qualitative research: reaping the benefits of mixed methods in studying youth, clubs and drugs

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Fazio, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research is often conceptualized as inherently small-scale research, primarily conducted by a lone researcher enmeshed in extensive and long-term fieldwork or involving in-depth interviews with a small sample of 20 to 30 participants. In the study of illicit drugs, traditionally this has often been in the form of ethnographies of drug-using subcultures. Such small-scale projects have produced important interpretive scholarship that focuses on the culture and meaning of drug use in situated, embodied contexts. Larger-scale projects are often assumed to be solely the domain of quantitative researchers, using formalistic survey methods and descriptive or explanatory models. In this paper, however, we will discuss qualitative research done on a comparatively larger scale—with in-depth qualitative interviews with hundreds of young drug users. Although this work incorporates some quantitative elements into the design, data collection, and analysis, the qualitative dimension and approach has nevertheless remained central. Larger-scale qualitative research shares some of the challenges and promises of smaller-scale qualitative work including understanding drug consumption from an emic perspective, locating hard-to-reach populations, developing rapport with respondents, generating thick descriptions and a rich analysis, and examining the wider socio-cultural context as a central feature. However, there are additional challenges specific to the scale of qualitative research, which include data management, data overload and problems of handling large-scale data sets, time constraints in coding and analyzing data, and personnel issues including training, organizing and mentoring large research teams. Yet large samples can prove to be essential for enabling researchers to conduct comparative research, whether that be cross-national research within a wider European perspective undertaken by different teams or cross-cultural research looking at internal divisions and differences within diverse communities and cultures. PMID:22308079

  11. Empowering Fourth-Grade Researchers: Reaping the Rewards of Web 2.0 Student-Centered Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Terry S.; Swaggerty, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    NCTE's Framework for 21st Century Literacies (2008) prompted collaboration between a university professor and classroom teacher resulting in a professional inquiry project utilizing a Web 2.0 tool, Scrapblog, with fourth-grade students. This article describes implementation of this project, including both challenges and positive outcomes. The…

  12. Areawide suppression of European corn borer with Bt maize reaps savings to non-Bt maize growers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic maize, engineered to express insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has become one of the most widely adopted pest management technologies in U.S. agriculture. In 2009, Bt maize was planted on more than 22.2 million ha, comprising 63% of the U.S. crop. The te...

  13. Bilingual Toddlers Reap the Language They Sow: Ethnic Minority Toddlers' Childcare Attendance Increases Maternal Host Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevoo, Marielle J. L.; Mesman, Judi; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Pieper, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the development and correlates of language use in bilingual Turkish-Dutch immigrant mothers and their toddlers. In this short-term longitudinal study 87 mothers completed questionnaires on their Dutch and Turkish language use, ethnic identity and use of childcare. Observational data were obtained for maternal supportive…

  14. Embarking on large-scale qualitative research: reaping the benefits of mixed methods in studying youth, clubs and drugs.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Fazio, Adam

    2011-12-21

    Qualitative research is often conceptualized as inherently small-scale research, primarily conducted by a lone researcher enmeshed in extensive and long-term fieldwork or involving in-depth interviews with a small sample of 20 to 30 participants. In the study of illicit drugs, traditionally this has often been in the form of ethnographies of drug-using subcultures. Such small-scale projects have produced important interpretive scholarship that focuses on the culture and meaning of drug use in situated, embodied contexts. Larger-scale projects are often assumed to be solely the domain of quantitative researchers, using formalistic survey methods and descriptive or explanatory models.In this paper, however, we will discuss qualitative research done on a comparatively larger scale-with in-depth qualitative interviews with hundreds of young drug users. Although this work incorporates some quantitative elements into the design, data collection, and analysis, the qualitative dimension and approach has nevertheless remained central. Larger-scale qualitative research shares some of the challenges and promises of smaller-scale qualitative work including understanding drug consumption from an emic perspective, locating hard-to-reach populations, developing rapport with respondents, generating thick descriptions and a rich analysis, and examining the wider socio-cultural context as a central feature. However, there are additional challenges specific to the scale of qualitative research, which include data management, data overload and problems of handling large-scale data sets, time constraints in coding and analyzing data, and personnel issues including training, organizing and mentoring large research teams. Yet large samples can prove to be essential for enabling researchers to conduct comparative research, whether that be cross-national research within a wider European perspective undertaken by different teams or cross-cultural research looking at internal divisions and differences within diverse communities and cultures. PMID:22308079

  15. Just Doing What They Gotta Do: Single Black Custodial Fathers Coping with the Stresses and Reaping the Rewards of Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Roberta L.

    2009-01-01

    For single African American custodial fathers, parenting stress is exacerbated by the cultural expectation that Black fathers are "normally" absent and by the clustering of stresses that Black men are more likely to encounter. This sample of African American fathers have used a repertoire of problem-focused and cognitive coping strategies,…

  16. They Can Hear You Now: Increasing Clarity in Speech and Instructional Media Reaps Big Dividends for Both Students and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few decades, school teachers have been embracing a number of electronic technologies for use in the classroom. Computers are now prevalent; overhead projectors are being replaced with dynamic teaching tools such as data projection, electronic whiteboards, and video media. One key technology is just beginning to catch up to the…

  17. Cultural Orientation for Vietnamese Montagnard Refugees: A Special Project of IOM Cambodia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timko, Leslie

    In 2002, the International Organization for Migration provided pre-arrival cultural orientation training to 905 Vietnamese Montagnard refugees living in a transit processing facility on the outskirts of Phnom Penh. The training was specifically designed to prepare the refugees for third country resettlement to the United States. It provided tools…

  18. Improving Adult Learning and Professional Development in a Post-Conflict Area: The Case of Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkvens, Jan B. Y.; Kalyanpur, Maya; Kuiper, Wilmad; Van den Akker, Jan

    2012-01-01

    All over the world, international development organizations try to increase professional capacity of local staff. These attempts are thought to fail because of financial constraints, but this is just part of the story. Professional development and adult learning theories approach learning from a western perspective, while many developing societies…

  19. Chemical analysis of black crust on the Angkor sandstone at the Bayon temple, Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wonsuh; Oguchi, Chiaki; Waragai, Tetsuya

    2014-05-01

    The Angkor complex is the one of the greatest cultural heritages in the world. It is constructed in the early 12th century, designated as a world cultural heritage by UNESCO in 1992. The temples at the Angkor complex are mainly made of sandstone and laterite. However, due to the tropical climate, plants, lichens and various microorganisms are growing well on the rock surface. Black crusts are also easily found on the stone surface. The 21st technical session of the International Coordinating Committee for the Safeguarding and Development of the Historic Site of Angkor (ICC-Angkor) held in 2012 recommended that to preserve both the biofilms and the forest cover and to prohibit the biocides (chlorine-based) and organic biocides. However, there are many reports that lichens and microorganisms accelerate rock weathering. It is important to clarify that how the biofilm on the Angkor temples affect Angkor sandstones. We sampled Angkor sandstone covered by black crust at the Bayon temple, Angkor complex, and observed the section and the surface of the rock sample by using SEM. Surfaces of the samples are not polished in order to observe the original condition. The samples are coated with gold for 180 seconds. The depth of the black crust is up to 1 mm. Many filamentous materials were found on the black crust. Average energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data of the five areas of ca. 20 ?m ×15 ?m in the black crusts shows that over 80 % of the filamentous materials are compounds of carbon. It seems that these materials are hyphae. The shape of the hypha is like a thread and its size is few ?m in diameter and up to several centimeters in length. Black crusts are consisted of elements and compounds of carbon, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, and Fe. Further research has to be done to find out the better and proper way of conservation for the Angkor complex.

  20. The Distribution of Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Cambodia: Gaps and Thresholds in Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngo, Federick J.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing teacher quality is a major objective of recent Cambodian education policy. In mathematics education literature, pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has emerged as a critical component of teacher quality that is strongly linked to student achievement. In this study I use data from a large survey of Cambodian schools to investigate the…

  1. The Environmental Impact of Cambodia's Ancient City of Mahendraparvata (Phnom Kulen)

    PubMed Central

    Penny, Dan; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Tang, David; De Greef, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    The Khmer kingdom, whose capital was at Angkor from the 9th to the 14th-15th century, was founded in 802 by king Jayavarman II in a city called Mahandraparvata, on Phnom Kulen. Virtually nothing more is known of Mahandraparvata from the epigraphic sources, but systematic archaeological survey and excavation have identified an array of cultural features that point to a more extensive and enduring settlement than the historical record indicates. Recent remote sensing data have revolutionized our view, revealing the remains of a city with a complex and spatially extensive network of urban infrastructure. Here, we present a record of vegetation change and soil erosion from within that urban network, dating from the 8th century CE. Our findings indicate approximately 400 years of intensive land use, punctuated by discrete periods of intense erosion beginning in the mid 9th century and ending in the late 11th century. A marked change in water management practices is apparent from the 12th century CE, with implications for water supply to Angkor itself. This is the first indication that settlement on Mahendraparvata was not only extensive, but also intensive and enduring, with a marked environmental impact. PMID:24416206

  2. Professional Education Programme for Land Management and Land Administration in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setha, Vung; Mund, Jan-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Land management and land administration are defined as a system of planning, management and administration methods and techniques that aims to integrate ecological with social, economic and legal principles in the management of land for urban and rural development purposes. The main objective is to meet changing and developing human needs, while…

  3. [Caustic burns. Clinical study of 24 patients with sulfuric acid burns in Cambodia].

    PubMed

    Micheau, P; Lauwers, F; Vath, Say Bon; Seilha, Thoeurng chan; Dumurgier, C; Joly, B

    2004-06-01

    Over a period of 12 years, 24 burns have been treated by a Cambodgian and French team (Doctors of the World). This experience has revealed some characteristics of this population: (1) a majority of young women (2/3), (2) victims of assault (20 cases). These notions are found in the medical literature particularly South East Asia. All cases are of a third degree. Every surgeon, every anesthetist should apply emergency measures which are recalled here. The aims is to close all the burns surface through a skin graft within a month. However the patients are treated 6 months to 2 years after the burn and have, at this stage, terrible sequella (22 patients). Treating them requires the coordinated efforts of a multidisciplinary specialized team. The challenge is to save the eyes, the mouth, the nose and give back a "human" face to these young burns who are often rejected because of their handicap. Enabling them to smile again is a strong commitment from the surgeon and from the patient who has to undergo multiple operations and a long treatment over the years. PMID:15276254

  4. Money for something? Investigating the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation interventions in the Northern Plains of Cambodia

    E-print Network

    Clements, Thomas

    2013-04-16

    &most&effective&way&to&slow&deforestation?&How&can&we&reduce&poaching&of&protected&species&in&low&income&nations?&Do&conservation&[interventions]&lead&to&changes&in&behaviours&that&affect&biodiversity?&For&far&too&long,&conservation&scientists&and...

  5. Snake prices and crocodile appetites: Aquatic wildlife supply and demand on Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, John D.

    Snake prices and crocodile appetites: Aquatic wildlife supply and demand on Tonle Sap Lake trade Conservation Trade regulation Exploitation Crocodile farming Consumer preferences Substitutability is the domestic trade in snakes as crocodile food. We estimate that farmed crocodiles consume between 2.7 and 12

  6. High Prevalence of Ancylostoma ceylanicum Hookworm Infections in Humans, Cambodia, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Schär, Fabian; Dalsgaard, Anders; Khieu, Virak; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Chhoun, Chamnan; Sok, Daream; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter; Traub, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a hookworm of canids and felids in Asia, is becoming the second most common hookworm infecting humans. In 2012, we investigated the prevalence and infection dynamics of and risk factors for hookworm infections in humans and dogs in a rural Cambodian village. Over 57% of the population was infected with hookworms; of those, 52% harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. The greatest intensities of A. ceylanicum eggs were in persons 21-30 years of age. Over 90% of dogs also harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. Characterization of the cytochrome oxidase-1 gene divided isolates of A. ceylanicum hookworms into 2 groups, 1 containing isolates from humans only and the other a mix of isolates from humans and animals. We hypothesize that preventative chemotherapy in the absence of concurrent hygiene and animal health programs may be a factor leading to emergence of A. ceylanicum infections; thus, we advocate for a One Health approach to control this zoonosis. PMID:24865815

  7. Utilization of Tum Nub (Embankment) for Expanding Double Rice Cropping Area in the Mekong Delta, Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Miho; Goto, Akira; Mizutani, Masakazu; Khem, Sothea

    This study aims to examine the effect of embankments for expanding double rice cropping area in the Cambodian Mekong Delta, where many traditional embankments called Tum Nub. For realizing double rice cropping in the flood plain, securing the cropping period and irrigation water during non-submerged days is essential, for which utilization of Tum Nub is considered to be effective. The field investigation revealed that some villages are practicing double rice cropping by introducing early rainy season rice. Hence, for introducing early rainy season rice, the effect of combination of two types of embankments was simulated for a target area selected: Type 1 embankment is making a reservoir for storing water, but single rice cropping is allowed in the inside of the reservoir after consuming stored water; and Type 2 is that for delaying the start of inundation. The result of the simulation showed that the combination of the embankments can increase rice production of the target area by 24-30% from the current level.

  8. The challenge of assessing social dimensions of avoided deforestation: Examples from Cambodia

    SciTech Connect

    Pasgaard, M.

    2013-01-15

    Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD +) has moved to the central stage of the climate change debate by being promoted as a significant, cheap, and quick win-win strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and thereby mitigate climate change. In order to be successful in reducing emissions while providing the projected social and environmental co-benefits, REDD + needs to overcome key challenges of insecure forest tenure and inequity in the distribution of benefits. Such challenges threaten to affect the livelihoods and well-being in the local communities and in turn the effectiveness of REDD+. While REDD + programs will affect the participating communities, there is limited knowledge as to what social impacts these projects may bring to the local population. Similarly, assessment of these social dimensions has received little attention until recently, and is consequently out of sync with the realities of REDD + projects. The present paper aims to shed light on the methodological and contextual challenges in the assessment of the social dimensions of REDD+. Some of the main social concerns of REDD + are outlined with an emphasis on the uniqueness and complexity of REDD + interventions. Recently proposed approaches to assess social impacts in REDD + are critically assessed in terms of the diversity of frameworks proposed, choice of social indicators, and data collection requirements. Specifically, these methodological implications are further discussed in the light of the social dimensions and the prescribed regulations of REDD + in a Cambodian context. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insecure tenure and inequitable benefit sharing are main social concerns in REDD +. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two guides to social assessments in REDD + are critically reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mismatch between social assessment requirements and the reality of REDD + is analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete, topical examples from Cambodian REDD + are used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Support the claim to add qualitative assessment of social dimensions in REDD +.

  9. Environmental Factors and WASH Practices in the Perinatal Period in Cambodia: Implications for Newborn Health

    PubMed Central

    Bazzano, Alessandra N.; Oberhelman, Richard A.; Potts, Kaitlin Storck; Gordon, Anastasia; Var, Chivorn

    2015-01-01

    Infection contributes to a significant proportion of neonatal death and disability worldwide, with the major burden occurring in the first week of life. Environmental conditions and gaps in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices may contribute to the risk of infection, particularly in settings where health centers are expanding to meet the growing demand for skilled care at birth and homes do not have adequate access to water and sanitation. A qualitative approach was used to understand the environmental context for infection prevention and control (IPC) and WASH associated behaviors in health centers where women give birth, and in homes of newborns, in a rural Cambodian province. Structured observations and focus group discussions revealed important gaps in optimal practices, and both structural and social barriers to maintaining IPC during delivery and post-partum. Solutions are available to address the issues identified, and tackling these could result in marked environmental improvement for quality of care and neonatal outcomes. Water, sanitation and hygiene in home and health center environments are likely to be important contributors to health and should be addressed in strategies to improve neonatal survival. PMID:25711360

  10. Paradigm and Paradox: Education for All and the Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyanpur, Maya

    2011-01-01

    In keeping with international guidelines and to meet the target of Education for All (EFA) by 2015, the Cambodian government, with assistance from non-government and aid organisations, has instituted several initiatives towards including children with disabilities in the educational mainstream. This paper examines these efforts within the context…

  11. e-Learning in Higher Education Makes Its Debut in Cambodia: The Provincial Business Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdon, Buenafe R.; Ninomiya, Seishi; Raab, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    Developing countries face a number of challenges in their efforts to compete successfully in the new global economy. Perhaps the most critical resource needed to achieve these goals is trained human capital. While many developing countries are trying to address this need through traditional means, this may not be the most effective or efficient…

  12. What International Aid Organizations Can Learn from International Adult Learning: Experiences from Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkvens, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many countries receive international support to strengthen professional capacity. The effect of these professional development activities (PDAs), however, is often negligible. This article provides useful insights on how international aid organizations could improve their PDAs, by describing an intervention developed and applied in…

  13. Threads of a Common Cloth: Access to Safe Abortion and Human Rights in Cambodia

    E-print Network

    Lester, Felicia C

    2003-01-01

    with unsafe abortion. Both the Cairo Programme and theCairo Platfonn and the Beijing Programme call on governments to recognize unsafe abortion andCairo Platform and the Beijing Programme call on governments to recognize unsafe abortion and

  14. Khyâl attacks: a key idiom of distress among traumatized cambodia refugees.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Devon E; Pich, Vuth; Marques, Luana; Nickerson, Angela; Pollack, Mark H

    2010-06-01

    Traumatized Cambodian refugees with PTSD often complain of khyâl attacks. The current study investigates khyâl attacks from multiple perspectives and examines the validity of a model of how khyâl attacks are generated. The study found that khyâl attacks had commonly been experienced in the previous 4 weeks and that their severity was strongly correlated with the severity of PTSD (PTSD Checklist). It was found that khyâl attacks were triggered by various processes--such as worry, trauma recall, standing up, going to a mall--and that khyâl attacks almost always met panic attack criteria. It was also found that during a khyâl attack there was great fear that death might occur from bodily dysfunction. It was likewise found that a complex nosology of khyâl attacks exists that rates the attacks on a scale of severity, that the severity determines how the khyâl attacks should be treated and that those treatments are often complex. As illustrated by the article, khyâl attacks constitute a key aspect of trauma ontology in this group, a culturally specific experiencing of anxiety and trauma-related disorder. The article also contributes to the study of trauma somatics, that is, to the study of how trauma results in specific symptoms in a specific cultural context, showing that a key part of the trauma-somatic reticulum is often a cultural syndrome. PMID:20407813

  15. 78 FR 56832 - Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological Material From Cambodia From the Bronze...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... Register (68 FR 55000), which amended 19 CFR 12.104g(a) to reflect the imposition of these restrictions... Federal Register (73 FR 54309), which amended 19 CFR 12.104g(a) to reflect the extension of these import... Federal Register (78 FR 977) to extend the Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S and...

  16. Prediction of contamination potential of groundwater arsenic in Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand using artificial neural network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater has increasingly been recognized as a major global issue of concern. As groundwater resources are one of most important freshwater sources for water supplies in Southeast Asian countries, it is important to investigate the spatial distribution of As cont...

  17. Active prospective surveillance study with post-discharge surveillance of surgical site infections in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Guerra, José; Guichon, Céline; Isnard, Margaux; So, Saphy; Chan, Sophors; Couraud, Sébastien; Duong, Bunn

    2015-01-01

    Barriers to the implementation of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance have been described in resource-limited settings. This study aimed to estimate the SSI incidence rate in a Cambodian hospital and to compare different modalities of SSI surveillance. We performed an active prospective study with post-discharge surveillance. During the hospital stay, trained surveyors collected the CDC criteria to identify SSI by direct examination of the surgical site. After discharge, a card was given to each included patient to be presented to all practitioners examining the surgical site. Among 167 patients, direct examination of the surgical site identified a cumulative incidence rate of 14 infections per 100 patients. An independent review of medical charts presented a sensitivity of 16%. The sensitivity of the purulent drainage criterion to detect SSIs was 83%. After hospital discharge, 87% of the patients provided follow-up data, and nine purulent drainages were reported by a practitioner (cumulative incidence rate: 20%). Overall, the incidence rate was dependent on the surveillance modalities. The review of medical charts to identify SSIs during hospitalization was not effective; the use of a follow-up card with phone calls for post-discharge surveillance was effective. PMID:25466596

  18. A Comparison of the Menstruation and Education Experiences of Girls in Tanzania, Ghana, Cambodia and Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Marni; Ackatia-Armah, Nana; Connolly, Susan; Smiles, Dana

    2015-01-01

    The barriers to menstrual hygiene management faced by adolescent schoolgirls in low-income countries are gaining interest at practice and policy levels. The challenges include inadequate water, sanitation and disposal facilities for the management of menses with privacy and dignity, and insufficient guidance to help girls feel confident in…

  19. Implementing Quality Assurance at Royal University of Phnom Penh, Cambodia: Perceptions, Practices and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ros, Soveacha

    2010-01-01

    Quality Assurance in higher education has been an ongoing international issue for discussion. As higher education institutions move toward an era of accountability and accreditation, groups of stakeholders require proof of high-quality academic programs and services from higher education providers. Since the mid-1990s, most providers have strived…

  20. The environmental impact of Cambodia's ancient city of Mahendraparvata (Phnom Kulen).

    PubMed

    Penny, Dan; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Tang, David; De Greef, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    The Khmer kingdom, whose capital was at Angkor from the 9(th) to the 14(th)-15(th) century, was founded in 802 by king Jayavarman II in a city called Mahandraparvata, on Phnom Kulen. Virtually nothing more is known of Mahandraparvata from the epigraphic sources, but systematic archaeological survey and excavation have identified an array of cultural features that point to a more extensive and enduring settlement than the historical record indicates. Recent remote sensing data have revolutionized our view, revealing the remains of a city with a complex and spatially extensive network of urban infrastructure. Here, we present a record of vegetation change and soil erosion from within that urban network, dating from the 8(th) century CE. Our findings indicate approximately 400 years of intensive land use, punctuated by discrete periods of intense erosion beginning in the mid 9(th) century and ending in the late 11(th) century. A marked change in water management practices is apparent from the 12(th) century CE, with implications for water supply to Angkor itself. This is the first indication that settlement on Mahendraparvata was not only extensive, but also intensive and enduring, with a marked environmental impact. PMID:24416206

  1. Educating the Next Generation: Improving Teacher Quality in Cambodia. Directions in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Prateek; Fukao, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    This book diagnoses Cambodian teaching quality and presents policy options for reform. Through classroom observation, assessments of mathematics and pedagogical content knowledge, and surveys of teachers and school directors, it sheds light on content and instruction, interactions with school directors, instructional support systems, and the…

  2. 77 FR 42310 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ..., and delete obsolete language. Agreement No.: 012161-001. Title: Siem Car Carrier Pacific AS/Hyundai Glovis Co., Ltd. Space Charter Agreement. Parties: Siem Car Carrier Pacific AS; Hyundai Glovis Co., Ltd... parties. Agreement No.: 012180. Title: Maersk/MSC Vessel Sharing Agreement. Parties: A.P. Moller Maersk...

  3. 76 FR 64944 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    .... Title: MSC/CSAV Group Vessel Sharing Agreement. Parties: MSC Mediterranean Shipping Company SA; Compa ia.../Siem Turkey Space Charter Agreement. Parties: Compania Sud Americana de Vapores, S.A. and Siem Car... WHL Transpacific Vessel Sharing and Slot Allocation Agreement. Parties: COSCO Container Lines...

  4. 77 FR 16838 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... Agreement. Agreement No.: 012160. Title: Grand Alliance/Hanjin Vessel Sharing Agreement. Parties: Hapag... No.: 012161. Title: Siem Car Carrier Pacific AS/Hyundai Glovis Co., Ltd. Space Charter Agreement. Parties: Siem Car Carrier Pacific AS; Hyundai Glovis Co., Ltd. Filing Party: Ashley W. Craig; Venable...

  5. Strong performance. Healthcare executives reaped big rewards in 2010, with returning hospital CEOs seeing a 58.2% gain in compensation.

    PubMed

    Galloro, Vince

    2011-08-15

    Healthcare CEOs saw their compensation slip relative to other industries but still earned big paydays last year. "2010 was a great year for corporate earnings and stock performance," says Steve Kaplan, left, a professor of finance and entrepreneurship. "Part of the reason for the increase in pay is that the CEOs delivered in 2010." PMID:21882381

  6. Setting up a CFO Trust Fund: Forging a Bond with Your Director of Finance Will Reap Rewards for Your Institution--And Your Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2011-01-01

    While it would be naive to think that every CIO can achieve a rapport with his CFO, understanding the importance of a solid relationship with the head of finance is critical to success, both for the IT department and the institution as a whole. Never has this been truer than in today's bleak economy, as CFOs become increasingly cautious about…

  7. Dismantling the Justice Silos: avoiding the pitfalls and reaping the benefits of information-sharing between forensic science, medicine and law.

    PubMed

    Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Ross, Alastair

    2013-07-10

    Forensic science is increasingly relied on by police and the courts to exonerate the innocent and to establish links to crime. With this increased reliance the potential for unjust outcomes increases, especially in serious matters for two reasons. The more serious the matter, the more likely that evidence mishandling can lead to wrongful imprisonment, and the more likely the personnel involved will be multi-disciplinary (police, medicine, law, forensic science), and multi-organisational (Health, Justice, private legal/medical, police). The importance of identifying effective multi-organisational interactions was highlighted in the recent wrongful imprisonment of an Australian male for a sexual assault he did not commit. One factor that led to this unjust outcome was the justice silo effect: where forensic practitioners from different agencies operate in isolation (rarely communicating or sharing information/knowledge). In this paper we discuss findings from the Interfaces Project designed to assess the extent of the justice silos within Australia. We interviewed 103 police, forensic scientists, lawyers, judges, coroners, pathologists and forensic physicians Australian-wide. Five main themes were identified in the data: the silo effect was only partial and in each jurisdiction some form of inter-agency communication was actively occurring; inter-agency meetings were more common in homicide than sexual assault cases; forensic physicians were semi-invisible; there had been considerable momentum over the past ten years for practice improvement groups, and; practitioners gain more benefits than pitfalls from inter-agency information-sharing. Based on these findings, five recommendations are made for improving practice. PMID:23159340

  8. Gambling on change. Five big systems buy into a venture capital fund to try to reap profits from the transformation of healthcare.

    PubMed

    Evans, Melanie

    2011-01-31

    Five healthcare systems have financed a venture-capital fund with hopes for a financial and operational return. Executives say the investment is a way to influence technological developments and evaluate products and software. James Bosscher, chief investment officer at Trinity Health, left, said Heritage fund investments will target health information technology. PMID:21370624

  9. Beating the Odds: Parents Choose to Expand Their Family--Despite the Risks--And Reap The Rewards of Their Strength in The Face of Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    In the fall of 1995, Cindy Cook and her husband were anxiously awaiting the arrival of their first child. They were thrilled, excited and a little nervous about this new person that would be changing their lives. During a routine ultrasound around the fourth month of pregnancy, doctors noticed the walls of the baby's heart appeared thickened.…

  10. 78 FR 977 - Notice of Proposal To Extend the Memorandum of Understanding Between the Government of the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ...the Government of the Kingdom of Cambodia Concerning the Imposition of Import...on Archaeological Material From Cambodia From the Bronze Age Through the...The Government of the Kingdom of Cambodia has informed the Government of...

  11. 8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CFR 241.6. (2) The Service in general will exercise its discretion not to grant a stay of removal... application fee listed in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1). If the Service approves the application for employment... Document, along with the application fee listed in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1). If the Service approves Form...

  12. 8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR 241.6. (2) The Service in general will exercise its discretion not to grant a stay of removal... application fee listed in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1). If the Service approves the application for employment... Document, along with the application fee listed in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1). If the Service approves Form...

  13. 8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR 241.6. (2) The Service in general will exercise its discretion not to grant a stay of removal... application fee listed in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1). If the Service approves the application for employment... Document, along with the application fee listed in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1). If the Service approves Form...

  14. 8 CFR 245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the application. The regulations governing such a request are found at 8 CFR 241.6. (2) The Service in... listed in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1). If the Service approves the application for employment authorization, the... with the application fee listed in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1). If the Service approves Form I-131, the...

  15. 8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR 241.6. (2) The Service in general will exercise its discretion not to grant a stay of removal... application fee listed in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1). If the Service approves the application for employment... Document, along with the application fee listed in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1). If the Service approves Form...

  16. 8 CFR 245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... biometrics service fee described in 8 CFR 103.17. (c) Applications from aliens in immigration proceedings. An... submit an application on the form designated by USCIS with the fee specified in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1) and in... found at 8 CFR 241.6. (2) DHS will exercise its discretion not to grant a stay of removal,...

  17. 8 CFR 245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... biometrics service fee described in 8 CFR 103.17. (c) Applications from aliens in immigration proceedings. An... submit an application on the form designated by USCIS with the fee specified in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1) and in... found at 8 CFR 241.6. (2) DHS will exercise its discretion not to grant a stay of removal,...

  18. 8 CFR 245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... biometrics service fee described in 8 CFR 103.17. (c) Applications from aliens in immigration proceedings. An... submit an application on the form designated by USCIS with the fee specified in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1) and in... found at 8 CFR 241.6. (2) DHS will exercise its discretion not to grant a stay of removal,...

  19. Factors influencing poisoning symptoms: a case study of vegetable farmers exposed to mixed insecticides in Prek Balatchheng Village, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Suybros, Nhean; Daniell, William; Meepradit, Parvena; Jaidee, Wanlop

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors influencing poisoning symptoms among 153 mixed insecticide-exposed vegetable farmers in one Cambodian village, where 153 factory workers were selected as a comparative nonexposed group. The research instruments were questionnaires and reactive-paper test kits. The majority of vegetable farmers were male, with approximately 87% of the total participants with an average age of 34 years. The personal hygiene scores of most vegetable farmers (108; 70.8%) were moderate, and knowledge scores were at poor level (131; 85.6%). Abnormally low cholinesterase (ChE) levels were detected among 119 (77.8%) farmers. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with possible poisoning symptoms. This study found that mixing an average of four to six types of insecticides (odds ratio [OR] = 4.6; P = .03) and abnormal ChE level (OR = 4.09; P = .004) was associated with central nervous system (CNS) symptoms. Age group >45 years (OR = 2.8; P = .04) and type of vegetable "other" (OR = 2.73; P = .02) were associated with gastrointestinal symptoms. Type of insecticide, organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates (CMs) (OR = 3.2; P = .04), was associated with respiratory symptoms. It is recommended that farmers should reduce insecticide spraying times, increase their use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and undergo training on insecticide use. These combined measures should improve the insecticide-related health status of vegetable farmers in this area. PMID:25275399

  20. 8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Form G-325A) if the applicant is between 14 and 79 years of age; a report of medical examination (Form I-693 and vaccination supplement) specified in § 1245.5; and, if needed, an application for waiver of inadmissibility. Under Part 2,...

  1. 8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Form G-325A) if the applicant is between 14 and 79 years of age; a report of medical examination (Form I-693 and vaccination supplement) specified in § 1245.5; and, if needed, an application for waiver of inadmissibility. Under Part 2,...

  2. 8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Form G-325A) if the applicant is between 14 and 79 years of age; a report of medical examination (Form I-693 and vaccination supplement) specified in § 1245.5; and, if needed, an application for waiver of inadmissibility. Under Part 2,...

  3. Dams on Mekong tributaries as significant contributors of hydrological alterations to the Tonle Sap Floodplain in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, M. E.; Piman, T.; Lauri, H.; Cochrane, T. A.; Kummu, M.

    2014-02-01

    River tributaries have a key role in the biophysical functioning of the Mekong Basin. Of particular attention are the Sesan, Srepok, and Sekong (3S) rivers, which contribute nearly a quarter of the total Mekong discharge. Forty two dams are proposed in the 3S, and once completed they will exceed the active storage of China's large dam cascade in the upper Mekong. Given their proximity to the lower Mekong floodplains, the 3S dams could alter the flood-pulse hydrology driving the productivity of downstream ecosystems. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to quantify how hydropower development in the 3S would alter the hydrology of the Tonle Sap floodplain, the largest wetland in the Mekong and home to one of the most productive inland fisheries in the world. We coupled results from four numerical models representing the basin's surface hydrology, water resources development, and floodplain hydrodynamics. The scale of alterations caused by hydropower in the 3S was compared with the basin's definite future development scenario (DF) driven by the upper Mekong dam cascade. The DF or the 3S development scenarios could independently increase Tonle Sap's 30 day minimum water levels by 30 ± 5 cm and decrease annual water level fall rates by 0.30 ± 0.05 cm d-2. When analyzed together (DF + 3S), these scenarios are likely to eliminate all baseline conditions (1986-2000) of extreme low water levels, a particularly important component of Tonle Sap's environmental flows. Given the ongoing trends and large economic incentives in the hydropower business in the region, there is a high possibility that most of the 3S hydropower potential will actually be exploited and that dams would be built even in locations where there is a high risk of ecological disruptions. Hence, retrofitting current designs and operations to promote sustainable hydropower practices that optimize multiple river services - rather than just maximize hydropower generation - appear to be the most feasible alternative to mitigate hydropower-related disruptions in the Mekong.

  4. Can groundwater secure drinking-water supply and supplementary irrigation in new settlements of North-West Cambodia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vouillamoz, Jean Michel; Valois, Rémi; Lun, Sambo; Caron, Delphine; Arnout, Ludovic

    2015-10-01

    Since the end of the Cambodian Civil War in 1998, the population of the Oddar Meanchey province has drastically increased despite the lack of adequate infrastructure, including basic amenities such as drinking-water supply. To improve the access to drinking water, governmental and aid agencies have focussed on drilling shallow boreholes. The use of groundwater for irrigation is also a growing concern to cope with the occasional late arrival of the rainy season or to produce food during the dry season. Since the groundwater resource in the province has not been documented, a 4-year study was undertaken (2011-2014), aiming to estimate the capability of groundwater to supply domestic needs and supplementary irrigation for rice production. Aquifer properties were estimated by combined use of hydrogeological techniques with the geophysical magnetic resonance sounding method. Groundwater storage and recharge were estimated based on new developments in the application of the geophysical method for quantifying specific yield. The median groundwater storage of the targeted sandstone aquifer is 173 mm, the recharge is diffuse and annually ranges from 10 to 70 mm, and the transmissivity is low to medium. Simulations of pumping indicate that the aquifer can easily supply 100 L of drinking water per capita daily, even considering the estimated population in 2030. However, the shallow aquifer can generally not deliver enough water to irrigate paddy fields of several hectares during a 2-month delay in the onset of the monsoon.

  5. 8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR 241.6. (2) The Service in general will exercise its discretion not to grant a stay of removal... application fee listed in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1). If the Service approves the application for employment... Document, along with the application fee listed in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1). If the Service approves Form...

  6. 8 CFR 245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the application. The regulations governing such a request are found at 8 CFR 241.6. (2) The Service in... listed in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1). If the Service approves the application for employment authorization, the... with the application fee listed in 8 CFR 103.7(b)(1). If the Service approves Form I-131, the...

  7. Simplified Assessment of Antiretroviral Adherence and Prediction of Virological Efficacy in HIV-Infected Patients in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Segeral, Olivier; Madec, Yoann; Ban, Boroath; Ouk, Vara; Hak, Chan Roeurn; Le Tiec, Clotilde; Nerrienet, Eric; Goujard, Cécile; Taburet, Anne Marie; Delfraissy, Jean Francois; Fontanet, Arnaud

    2010-01-01

    Background. Adherence to antiviral therapy is important for HIV-infected people living in low- and middle-income countries, because of poor access to alternative regimens. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of adherence in Cambodian patients enrolled in the ESTHER program and treated with WHO first-line regimen for at least 6 months. The survey was based on a self-report questionnaire, drug assay, MCV measurement, visual analog scale, and viral load HIV RNA. Results. Two hundred fifty-nine patients treated for a median of 16 months participated in the survey. At inclusion in the program, 158 patients (61%) were ARV-naïve. The virological success rate was 71% overall and 81% in previously ARV-naive patients. Considered individually, the measures suggested perfect adherence in 71% to 93% of patients. In multivariate analysis adjusted for sex and therapeutic status before HAART initiation, only the biological markers were associated with virological efficacy. Self-funded treatment before entry to the program was highly predictive of virological failure. Conclusion. Adherence was excellent in these Cambodian patients. Biological markers were predictive of virological efficacy. MCV might thus serve as a simple alternative for assessing adherence and predicting virological efficacy among patients receiving AZT- or d4T-based regimens. PMID:21490902

  8. 8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Form G-325A) if the applicant is between 14 and 79 years of age; a report of medical examination (Form I-693 and vaccination supplement) specified in § 1245.5; and, if needed, an application for waiver of inadmissibility. Under Part 2,...

  9. 8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Form G-325A) if the applicant is between 14 and 79 years of age; a report of medical examination (Form I-693 and vaccination supplement) specified in § 1245.5; and, if needed, an application for waiver of inadmissibility. Under Part 2,...

  10. 8 CFR 245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Form G-325A) if the applicant is between 14 and 79 years of age; a report of medical examination (Form I-693 and vaccination supplement) specified in § 245.5; and, if needed, an application for waiver of inadmissibility. Under Part 2,...

  11. 8 CFR 245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Form G-325A) if the applicant is between 14 and 79 years of age; a report of medical examination (Form I-693 and vaccination supplement) specified in § 245.5; and, if needed, an application for waiver of inadmissibility. Under Part 2,...

  12. Dams on Mekong tributaries as significant contributors of hydrological alterations to the Tonle Sap Floodplain in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, M. E.; Piman, T.; Lauri, H.; Cochrane, T. A.; Kummu, M.

    2014-12-01

    River tributaries have a key role in the biophysical functioning of the Mekong Basin. Of particular interest are the Sesan, Srepok, and Sekong (3S) rivers, which contribute nearly a quarter of the total Mekong discharge. Forty two dams are proposed in the 3S, and once completed they will exceed the active storage of China's large dam cascade in the Upper Mekong. Given their proximity to the Lower Mekong floodplains, the 3S dams could alter the flood-pulse hydrology driving the productivity of downstream ecosystems. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to quantify how hydropower development in the 3S, together with definite future (DF) plans for infrastructure development through the basin, would alter the hydrology of the Tonle Sap's Floodplain, the largest wetland in the Mekong and home to one of the most productive inland fisheries in the world. We coupled results from four numerical models representing the basin's surface hydrology, water resources development, and floodplain hydrodynamics. The scale of alterations caused by hydropower in the 3S was compared with the basin's DF scenario driven by the Upper Mekong dam cascade. The DF or the 3S development scenarios could independently increase Tonle Sap's 30-day minimum water levels by 30 ± 5 cm and decrease annual water level fall rates by 0.30 ± 0.05 cm day-1. When analyzed together (DF + 3S), these scenarios are likely to eliminate all baseline conditions (1986-2000) of extreme low water levels, a particularly important component of Tonle Sap's environmental flows. Given the ongoing trends and large economic incentives in the hydropower business in the region, there is a high possibility that most of the 3S hydropower potential will be exploited and that dams will be built even in locations where there is a high risk of ecological disruption. Hence, retrofitting current designs and operations to promote sustainable hydropower practices that optimize multiple river services - rather than just maximize hydropower generation - appear to be the most feasible alternative to mitigate hydropower-related disruptions in the Mekong.

  13. Reproductive and Trophic Ecology of an Assemblage of Aquatic and Semi-Aquatic Snakes in Tonle Sap, Cambodia

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, John D.

    Reproductive and Trophic Ecology of an Assemblage of Aquatic and Semi-Aquatic Snakes in Tonle Sap tentaculatus, Xenochrophis piscator, and Cylindrophis ruffus--all inhabit Tonle Sap Lake, the largest lake help provide a basis for assessing conservation options for these heavily exploited species. T ONLE Sap

  14. Hydrographic survey of Chaktomuk, the confluence of the Mekong, Tonlé Sap, and Bassac Rivers near Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Densmore, Brenda K.; Wilson, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed hydrographic maps of Mekong, Tonlé Sap, and Bassac Rivers showing the riverbed elevations surveyed April 21–May 2, 2012, referenced to Ha Tien 1960 were produced. The surveyed area included a 2-km stretch of the Mekong River between the confluence with the Tonlé Sap and Bassac Rivers, and extended 4 km upstream and 3.6 km downstream from the 2,000-m confluence stretch of the Mekong River. In addition, 0.7 km of the Bassac River downstream and 3.5 km of the Tonlé Sap River (from the confluence to Chroy Changvar Bridge) upstream from their confluence with the Mekong River were surveyed. Riverbed features (such as dunes, shoals, and the effects of sediment mining, which were observed during data collection) are visible on the hydrographic maps. All surveys were completed at low annual water levels as referenced to nearby Mekong River Commission streamflow-gaging stations. Riverbed elevations surveyed ranged from 24.08 m below to 1.54 m above Ha Tien 1960.

  15. Case Studies of Integrated Pedagogy in Vocational Education: A Three-Tier Approach to Empowering Vulnerable Youth in Urban Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, I-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    This paper starts with the real-life issues pertaining to the educational, economic and socio-cultural vulnerability of young Cambodians; and the latter in turn has called for greater integrated stance in vocational education. A multiple-case study of nine educational NGOs located in four cities was conducted, whereby what constitutes an…

  16. Philosophy with Children as an Exercise in "Parrhesia": An Account of a Philosophical Experiment with Children in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansieleghem, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The last few decades have seen a steady growth of interest in doing philosophy with children and young people in educational settings. Philosophy with children is increasingly offered as a solution to the problems associated with what is seen by many as a disoriented, cynical, indifferent and individualistic society. It represents for its…

  17. e-Learning in Higher Education Makes Its Debut in Cambodia: Implications of the Provincial Business Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdon, Buenafe R.; Ninomiya, Seishi; Raab, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    Developing countries face a number of challenges in their efforts to compete successfully in the new global economy. Perhaps the most critical resource needed to achieve these goals is trained human capital. While many developing countries are trying to address this need through traditional means, this may not be the most effective or efficient…

  18. 8 CFR 245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...camp in East Asia, or a displaced person camp administered by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in Thailand; (3) Was physically present in the United States prior to and on October 1, 1997; and (4) Is otherwise...

  19. 8 CFR 245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...camp in East Asia, or a displaced person camp administered by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in Thailand; (3) Was physically present in the United States prior to and on October 1, 1997; and (4) Is otherwise...

  20. 8 CFR 245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...camp in East Asia, or a displaced person camp administered by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in Thailand; (3) Was physically present in the United States prior to and on October 1, 1997; and (4) Is otherwise...

  1. Moo U and the Cambodia Invasion: Anti-Vietnam War Protest at Iowa State University, May 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Clyde; Brown, Gayle K. Pluta

    A detailed examination of the Vietnam war demonstrations on the Iowa State University campus and in Ames (Iowa) in May 1970, utilizing local and student newspaper accounts and interviews contained in an oral history archive, show how words of protest along with critically reasoned behavior led to purposeful student contributions. Through the…

  2. Using an ounce of prevention: does it reduce health care expenditures and reap pounds of profits? A study of the financial impact of wellness and health risk screening programs.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Janet F

    2009-01-01

    As we are all well aware, health care expenditures in the United States are out of control and growing at epic proportions. Since private industry shoulders a significant burden of paying these rising health care costs, the huge and ever increasing sum paid by these corporations continues to impact the US economy translating into higher prices of services and manufactured goods and reduced job opportunities when companies outsource jobs or locate manufacturing facilities to avoid paying health care benefits for workers. As a result, health care expenditures have become a centerpiece of an enormous public policy debate as Congress is currently working on several versions of a bill to completely revise health care from the ground up. This research project was accomplished to examine the effectiveness of one approach to control rising health care costs and contain corporate financial responsibility--the establishment of wellness and health risk screening programs to improve the health of employees. Total health care cost per insured individual was gathered through an online survey directly from health care benefit administrators. The survey also asked information about wellness and health risk screening programs and the related responses were used to determine if there were a relationship between health care costs and health prevention programs. While statistical analysis was hampered in the current study because of the small sample size, some valid conclusions were reached. The study was successful in identifying a benchmark of Average Total Health Care Cost per Individual from $5,100 to $5,800 for 2005 through 2007. This is especially interesting in light of the fact that an average of $7,026 was spent on health care per person in 2006 in the United States. The study was also able to contribute an estimate of the increase realized in these expenditures of 6 percent in 2007 over 2006, and 4 percent in 2006 over 2005, which were in fact similar to the national average. The final contribution of the study is to suggest an explanation for the costs which appear to be holding their own in terms of the national average. While this cannot be statistically verified, it does seem that the active participation of these companies in wellness programs could be a factor. Wellness programs were very popular in this sample of companies as 82 percent of the respondents answered "YES" when asked if the company funds their own employee wellness program. This is an impressive number of companies that have recognized wellness programs as a potential means to reduce employee health care costs. In regards to specific programs, at least 50 percent of respondents answered that they have smoking cessation, employee fitness, counseling, health risk screening, and bio-metric screening programs. The existence of health screening variables show an impressive 73 percent of respondents do practice some sort of health care screening, 50 percent offer biometric screening while 18 percent have onsite clinics and 23 percent run annual employee fairs. PMID:20499716

  3. 75 FR 9423 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Impact of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ...Emphasis Panel (SEP): Impact of Japanese Encephalitis Vaccination in Cambodia, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) CK10-003...received in response to ``Impact of Japanese Encephalitis Vaccination in Cambodia, FOA CK10-003.'' Contact Person for...

  4. Mobile Money Financial Literacy via Television Comedy

    E-print Network

    Chen, Zhongping

    with Mobile Money in Cambodia Advertising promotes brand well But lack of mobile money education Many population? #12;Sample Group: Garment Factory Workers Huge employer in Cambodia (400,000+ workers) Low

  5. 76 FR 50808 - Certification Related to the Khmer Rouge Tribunal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ...I hereby certify that the United Nations and Government of Cambodia are taking credible steps to address allegations of corruption...mismanagement within the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (also known as the ``Khmer Rouge Tribunal''). This...

  6. 77 FR 58606 - Notice of Closed Meeting of the Cultural Property Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ...the United States of America and the Government of the Kingdom of Cambodia Concerning the Imposition of Import Restrictions of Archaeological Material from the Kingdom of Cambodia from the Bronze Age through the Khmer Era, and the Memorandum...

  7. 75 FR 15764 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Gods of Angkor: Bronzes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ...Gods of Angkor: Bronzes From the National Museum of Cambodia'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations...exhibition ``Gods of Angkor: Bronzes from the National Museum of Cambodia,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition...

  8. 78 FR 52535 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ...below concerns Impact of Japanese Encephalitis Vaccination in Cambodia, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) CK14-001, initial...response to ``Impact of Japanese Encephalitis Vaccination in Cambodia, FOA CK14- 001''. Contact Person for More...

  9. Effect of a maternal and child health handbook on maternal knowledge and behaviour: a community-based controlled trial in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Satoko; Soyano, Ayako; Igarashi, Hisato; Ura, Midori; Nakamura, Yasuhide

    2015-11-01

    Maternal and child health (MCH) handbooks are comprehensive home-based booklets designed to integrate MCH records. Although empirical evidence suggests the handbooks are more effective than current card-type records, this has not been scientifically demonstrated. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of the MCH handbook on maternal knowledge and behaviour as measured by antenatal care (ANC) attendance, delivery with skilled birth attendants (SBAs) and delivery at a health facility. The Cambodian version of the MCH handbook was developed and introduced in two health centres, and two other health centres served as controls. Pre-intervention and post-intervention surveys were conducted with 320 women from the intervention areas and 320 women from the control areas who had given birth within 1 year before the survey. We evaluated the impact of the handbook by using difference-in-differences (DID) analysis and calculated adjusted odds ratios for pre-post changes in key indicators by using logistic regression. In addition, we interviewed multiparous women, health staff and health volunteers to assess the acceptance and cultural appropriateness of the handbook. Content analysis was performed with the English-translated transcriptions. The DID analyses revealed that all key indicators increased in the intervention group against counterfactual assumptions. The intervention also increased maternal knowledge of all topics addressed except for the risk of severe bleeding after delivery; this may be attributable to the influence of cultural belief. Logistic regression showed that the intervention increased ANC attendance, delivery with SBAs and delivery at a health facility, even after adjusting for maternal age, education and economic conditions. The qualitative data indicated that the handbook was well received and culturally appropriate. Thus, the MCH handbook is a reasonable and superior alternative to current card-type maternal records. PMID:25595142

  10. Prolonged grief following the recent death of a daughter among mothers who experienced distal losses during the Khmer Rouge era: Validity of the prolonged grief construct in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Field, Nigel P; Strasser, Judith; Taing, Sopheap; Horiuchi, Shoko; Chhim, Sotheara; Packman, Wendy

    2014-09-30

    This study addressed the validity of the prolonged grief (PG) construct in a Cambodian context. Eighty mothers who lost a young adult daughter stemming from a crowd stampede incident during the annual water festival were interviewed at the six-month post-loss point along with a control group of similarly aged women who were not recently bereaved. Both groups were assessed for PG, PTSD, anxiety, and depression symptoms and well as for the number of distal losses experienced during the Khmer Rouge (KR) regime - knowing that all the women were old enough to have lived through the KR regime. Support for the discriminant validity of PG was shown in a factor analysis in which its core symptoms were distinguished from anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms. Also, support was found for its incremental validity as shown in the unique sensitivity of PG in distinguishing the two groups when controlling for the other symptoms. Lastly, a positive relationship was found between the number of distal deaths experienced during the KR regime and PG symptom severity among the group of recently bereaved mothers, providing support for the predictive validity of PG. Implications as well as study limitations are discussed. PMID:24863868

  11. Human papillomavirus knowledge, vaccine acceptance, and vaccine series completion among female entertainment and sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia: the Young Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Wadhera, Priya; Evans, Jennifer L; Stein, Ellen; Gandhi, Monica; Couture, Marie-Claude; Sansothy, Neth; Sichan, Keo; Maher, Lisa; Kaldor, John; Page, Kimberly; Kaldor, John; Kien, Serey Phal; Page, Kimberly; Palefsky, Joel M; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Vun, Mean Chhi

    2015-10-01

    SummaryHuman papillomavirus is a common sexually transmitted infection and the causative agent for cervical cancer, a frequently occurring malignant disease among women in developing countries. We assessed human papillomavirus awareness prior to the delivery of a brief information and education intervention, and human papillomavirus vaccine provision to female entertainment and sex workers (N?=?220). At baseline, only 23.6% of women had heard of human papillomavirus. Following the educational intervention, 90% answered all the human papillomavirus knowledge questions correctly. Of 192 participants attending the first quarterly cohort visit where vaccine was offered, 149 (78%) were eligible for vaccination; HIV-positive (n?=?32) and pregnant (n?=?11) women were excluded. Acceptance of vaccine among eligible women was universal, and 79.2% completed the three-dose vaccination series. Women who reported use of amphetamine-type stimulants had significantly and independently lower odds of vaccine completion (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.24; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08, 0.69). New pregnancies also had an impact on vaccine completion: 5.4% (8/149 5.4%) who started the series had to stop due to new pregnancy. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of a simple education intervention designed to increase human papillomavirus knowledge and the feasibility of successful human papillomavirus vaccine in a population that is often difficult to engage in preventive health care. PMID:25505042

  12. Sustainable gasificationbiochar systems? A case-study of rice-husk gasification in Cambodia, Part II: Field trial results, carbon abatement,

    E-print Network

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    of the criteria of sustainability, but requires better waste water management and more field trials to demonstrate, pollution and contamination issues that require further investigation but which appear to be resolvable, in particular, that RHC should not be mixed with the waste water from the process but should be discharged

  13. Biotransformation of arsenite and bacterial aox activity in drinking water produced from surface water of floating houses: Arsenic contamination in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jin-Soo

    2015-11-01

    The potential arsenite bioteansformation activity of arsenic was investigated by examining bacterial arsenic arsenite-oxidizing gene such as aoxS, aoxR, aoxA, aoxB, aoxC, and aoxD in high arsenic-contaminated drinking water produced from the surface water of floating houses. There is a biogeochemical cycle of activity involving arsenite oxidase aox system and the ars (arsenic resistance system) gene operon and aoxR leader gene activity in Alcaligenes faecalis SRR-11 and aoxS leader gene activity in Achromobacter xylosoxidans TSL-66. Batch experiments showed that SRR-11 and TSL-66 completely oxidized 1 mM of As (III) to As (V) within 35-40 h. The leaders of aoxS and aoxR are important for gene activity, and their effects in arsenic bioremediation and mobility in natural water has a significant ecological role because it allows arsenite oxidase in bacteria to control the biogeochemical cycle of arsenic-contaminated drinking water produced from surface water of floating houses. PMID:26219073

  14. Effect of a maternal and child health handbook on maternal knowledge and behaviour: a community-based controlled trial in rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Yanagisawa, Satoko; Soyano, Ayako; Igarashi, Hisato; Ura, Midori; Nakamura, Yasuhide

    2015-01-01

    Maternal and child health (MCH) handbooks are comprehensive home-based booklets designed to integrate MCH records. Although empirical evidence suggests the handbooks are more effective than current card-type records, this has not been scientifically demonstrated. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of the MCH handbook on maternal knowledge and behaviour as measured by antenatal care (ANC) attendance, delivery with skilled birth attendants (SBAs) and delivery at a health facility. The Cambodian version of the MCH handbook was developed and introduced in two health centres, and two other health centres served as controls. Pre-intervention and post-intervention surveys were conducted with 320 women from the intervention areas and 320 women from the control areas who had given birth within 1 year before the survey. We evaluated the impact of the handbook by using difference-in-differences (DID) analysis and calculated adjusted odds ratios for pre–post changes in key indicators by using logistic regression. In addition, we interviewed multiparous women, health staff and health volunteers to assess the acceptance and cultural appropriateness of the handbook. Content analysis was performed with the English-translated transcriptions. The DID analyses revealed that all key indicators increased in the intervention group against counterfactual assumptions. The intervention also increased maternal knowledge of all topics addressed except for the risk of severe bleeding after delivery; this may be attributable to the influence of cultural belief. Logistic regression showed that the intervention increased ANC attendance, delivery with SBAs and delivery at a health facility, even after adjusting for maternal age, education and economic conditions. The qualitative data indicated that the handbook was well received and culturally appropriate. Thus, the MCH handbook is a reasonable and superior alternative to current card-type maternal records. PMID:25595142

  15. HPV knowledge, vaccine acceptance, and vaccine series completion among female entertainment and sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia: the Young Women's Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Wadhera, Priya; Evans, Jennifer L; Stein, Ellen; Gandhi, Monica; Couture, Marie-Claude; Sansothy, Neth; Sichan, Keo; Maher, Lisa; Kaldor, John; Page, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) and the causative agent for cervical cancer, a frequently occurring malignant disease among women in developing countries. We assessed HPV awareness prior to the delivery of a brief information and education intervention, and HPV vaccine provision to female entertainment and sex workers (N=220). At baseline, only 23.6% of women had heard of HPV. Following the educational intervention, 90% answered all the HPV knowledge questions correctly. Of 192 participants attending the first quarterly cohort visit where vaccine was offered, 149 (78%) were eligible for vaccination; HIV-positive (n=32) and pregnant (n=11) women were excluded. Acceptance of vaccine among eligible women was universal, and 79.2% completed the three-dose vaccination series. Women who reported use of amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) had significantly and independently lower odds of vaccine completion (Adjusted OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.08, 0.69). New pregnancies also had an impact on vaccine completion: 5.4% (8/149 5.4%) who started the series had to stop due to new pregnancy. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of a simple education intervention designed to increase HPV knowledge and the feasibility of successful HPV vaccine in a population that is often difficult to engage in preventive health care. PMID:25505042

  16. The use of AMS 14C dating to explore issues of occupation and demise at the medieval city of Angkor, Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Dan; Hua, Quan; Pottier, Christophe; Fletcher, Roland; Barbetti, Mike

    2007-06-01

    Angkorian temples are characterised by one or more encircling moats that are excavated into the alluvial substrate. As a key part of the overall design of the temple, the moats are important symbolically and are presumed to be contemporaneous with the associated temple. They also represent important depositional basins for sediment and other materials and can therefore yield vertical profiles of sediment that has accumulated since the moat was originally excavated. Unconformities in these moat profiles can be dated absolutely using small-sample, high-precision AMS radiocarbon techniques. These unconformities are likely to represent periodic re-excavation or maintenance of the moat and therefore indicate the presence of large, presumably centrally organised workforces. In some instances, presumed anthropogenic unconformities occur centuries after Angkor was supposedly abandoned. In this way, radiocarbon dates themselves are being used as a proxy indicator of cultural activity and are being used to challenge the historiography of Angkor's famous demise.

  17. Evaluation of rainfall-runoff performance using the stochastic integral equation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hromadka, T. V.; McCuen, R. H.

    1989-09-01

    The stochastic integral equation method (S.I.E.M.) is used to evaluate the relative performance of a set of both calibrated and uncalibrated rainfall-runoff models with respect to prediction errors. The S.I.E.M. is also used to estimate confidence (prediction) interval values of a runoff criterion variable, given a prescribed rainfall-runoff model, and a similarity measure used to condition the storms that are utilized for model calibration purposes. Because of the increasing attention given to the issue of uncertainty in rainfall-runoff modeling estimates, the S.I.E.M. provides a promising tool for the hydrologist to consider in both research and design.

  18. 31 CFR 500.554 - Gifts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...than North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. (b) Specific...from North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam: (1) Of goods...acquired in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam as a bona...

  19. 31 CFR 500.558 - Accounts of blocked partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...laws of North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam, as follows...from North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam and have established...is in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam (or...

  20. 31 CFR 500.560 - Bank accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. 500.560...governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. Specific...governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam for...

  1. 31 CFR 500.549 - Proof of origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...which is North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam are generally...outside North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam prior to the...interest of North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam in the...

  2. 77 FR 27109 - Certification Related to the Khmer Rouge Tribunal; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ...the United Nations and Government of Cambodia are taking credible steps to address...Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC), also commonly known as the...of Legal Affairs and the Government of Cambodia reached agreement to establish an...

  3. 78 FR 976 - Notice of Meeting of the Cultural Property Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ...and the Government of the Kingdom of Cambodia Concerning the Imposition of Import Restrictions on Archaeological Material from Cambodia from the Bronze Age Through the Khmer...the Docket No. DOS-2012-0063 for Cambodia, and follow the prompts to submit...

  4. 31 CFR 500.554 - Gifts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. (b) Specific licenses are issued for the importation directly from North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam: (1) Of goods which are claimed by... acquired in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam as a bona fide gift, subject......

  5. 31 CFR 500.560 - Bank accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. 500.560... governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. Specific licenses are issued... Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam for transactions which are not inconsistent with the......

  6. 31 CFR 500.204 - Importation of and dealings in certain merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. Articles which are the growth, produce or manufacture of... is North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam, notwithstanding that they may have been... merchandise whose country of origin is North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam, if......

  7. Exploring Crown Ethers as Shift Reagents for Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    E-print Network

    Clemmer, David E.

    .; Valentine, S. J.; Counterman, A. E.; Clemmer, D. E. Anal. Chem. 1999, 71, 291-301. (2) Valentine, S. J.; Schultz, A. J. Anal. Chem. 2000, 72, 3965-3971. (5) Wu, C.; Siems, W. F.; Klasmeier, J.; Hill, H. H., Jr. Anal. Chem. 2000, 72, 391. (6) Guevremont, R.; Barnett, D. A.; Purves, R. W.; Vandermey, J. Anal. Chem

  8. STRUCTUREu DITERPENE ELUCIDATION FROM 1 3 C NMR

    E-print Network

    Dzeroski, Saso

    with detailed spectroscopic knowledge and substantial experience in natural products chemistry, speci cally Lehrach, Berlin, Germany KARSTEN SIEMS AnalytiCon GmbH, Berlin-Wedding, Germany DIETRICH WETTSCHERECK GMD and chemical structure. The approaches used include rst-order inductive learning, relational instance based

  9. American Journal of Botany 85(6): 820828. 1998. EARLY SUCCESSION ON LAHARS SPAWNED BY

    E-print Network

    del Moral, Roger

    , and reviewers James O. Luken, Joseph Antos, and David R. Peart for their cogent suggestions to improve the manuscript; S. C. Bard, S. Crawford, K. M. Dlugosch, R. N. Fuller, L. B. McMullan, R. R. Ro- bohm, R. Siems

  10. Bank Failure Prediction Using DEA to Measure Management Quality

    E-print Network

    Barr, Richard

    Bank Failure Prediction Using DEA to Measure Management Quality Richard S. Barr \\Lambda Thomas F. Siems y June, 1996 Abstract Presented are new failure­prediction models for detecting a bank's troubled. Quality is assessed using data envelopment analysis (DEA), which views a bank as transforming multiple

  11. Forecasting Bank Failure: A NonParametric Frontier Estimation Approach +

    E-print Network

    Barr, Richard

    Forecasting Bank Failure: A Non­Parametric Frontier Estimation Approach + Richard S. Barr Dept. Siems Financial Industry Studies Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas Dallas, TX 75201USA Abstract The dramatic rise in bank failures over the last decade has led to a search for leading indicators so

  12. Forecasting Bank Failure: A Non-Parametric Frontier Estimation Approach

    E-print Network

    Barr, Richard

    Forecasting Bank Failure: A Non-Parametric Frontier Estimation Approach Richard S. Barr Dept. Siems Financial Industry Studies Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas Dallas, TX 75201USA Abstract The dramatic rise in bank failures over the last decade has led to a search for leading indicators so

  13. 15 CFR 768.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administration Regulations (EAR) are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. (a) Authority. Pursuant to.... Controlled countries. Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Cuba, Estonia,...

  14. 15 CFR 736.2 - General prohibitions and determination of applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 736.2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which..., Azerbaijan, Belarus, Cambodia, Cuba, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Mongolia, North Korea,...

  15. 15 CFR 736.2 - General prohibitions and determination of applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 736.2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which..., Azerbaijan, Belarus, Cambodia, Cuba, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Mongolia, North Korea,...

  16. 15 CFR 736.2 - General prohibitions and determination of applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 736.2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which..., Azerbaijan, Belarus, Cambodia, Cuba, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Mongolia, North Korea,...

  17. 75 FR 9423 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Impact of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Impact of Japanese Encephalitis Vaccination in Cambodia, Funding Opportunity..., discussion, and evaluation of applications received in response to ``Impact of Japanese...

  18. 15 CFR 736.2 - General prohibitions and determination of applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 736.2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which..., Azerbaijan, Belarus, Cambodia, Cuba, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Mongolia, North Korea,...

  19. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 745 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belize Belgium Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia-Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Article 5 Parties

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Armenia Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile...

  1. 9 CFR 93.301 - General prohibitions; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Examination and treatment for screwworm. Horses from Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, China, Columbia, Congo,...

  2. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 710 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia-Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam* Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African...

  3. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, China, Columbia, Congo,...

  4. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 745 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belize Belgium Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia-Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African...

  5. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 745 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belize Belgium Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia-Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Article 5 Parties

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Armenia Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Article 5 Parties

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic,...

  8. 9 CFR 93.301 - General prohibitions; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Examination and treatment for screwworm. Horses from Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, China, Columbia, Congo,...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Article 5 Parties

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Armenia, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic,...

  10. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 710 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia-Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam* Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Article 5 Parties

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Armenia, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic,...

  12. 9 CFR 93.301 - General prohibitions; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Examination and treatment for screwworm. Horses from Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, China, Columbia, Congo,...

  13. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 745 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belize Belgium Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia-Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African...

  14. 7 CFR 319.37-5 - Special foreign inspection and certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Argentina, Australia, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Brunei, Canary Islands, Chile, China, Colombia...and Vepris from Argentina, Bangladesh, Belize, Bhutan, Brazil, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African...

  15. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 710 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia-Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam* Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African...

  16. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 745 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belize Belgium Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia-Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African...

  17. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 710 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia-Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam* Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African...

  18. 7 CFR 319.37-5 - Special foreign inspection and certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Argentina, Australia, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Brunei, Canary Islands, Chile, China, Colombia...and Vepris from Argentina, Bangladesh, Belize, Bhutan, Brazil, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African...

  19. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...free of classical swine fever. (b) Swine from Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, China, Columbia, Congo,...

  20. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, China, Columbia, Congo,...

  1. 7 CFR 319.37-5 - Special foreign inspection and certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Argentina, Australia, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Brunei, Canary Islands, Chile, China, Colombia...and Vepris from Argentina, Bangladesh, Belize, Bhutan, Brazil, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African...

  2. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...free of classical swine fever. (b) Swine from Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, China, Columbia, Congo,...

  3. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...free of classical swine fever. (b) Swine from Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, China, Columbia, Congo,...

  4. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, China, Columbia, Congo,...

  5. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 710 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia-Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam* Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African...

  6. 7 CFR 319.37-5 - Special foreign inspection and certification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Argentina, Australia, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Brunei, Canary Islands, Chile, China, Colombia...and Vepris from Argentina, Bangladesh, Belize, Bhutan, Brazil, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African...

  7. 76 FR 13598 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ...the following countries: Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chad, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Guinea- Bissau, Haiti, Kenya, Lao PDR, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nepal,...

  8. 48 CFR 52.219-1 - Small Business Program Representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...American Indians, Eskimos, Aleuts, or Native Hawaiians). __ Asian-Pacific American (persons with origins from Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Japan, China, Taiwan, Laos, Cambodia (Kampuchea), Vietnam,...

  9. 48 CFR 52.219-1 - Small Business Program Representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...American Indians, Eskimos, Aleuts, or Native Hawaiians). __ Asian-Pacific American (persons with origins from Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Japan, China, Taiwan, Laos, Cambodia (Kampuchea), Vietnam,...

  10. 48 CFR 52.219-1 - Small Business Program Representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...American Indians, Eskimos, Aleuts, or Native Hawaiians). __ Asian-Pacific American (persons with origins from Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Japan, China, Taiwan, Laos, Cambodia (Kampuchea), Vietnam,...

  11. 48 CFR 52.219-1 - Small Business Program Representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...American Indians, Eskimos, Aleuts, or Native Hawaiians). __ Asian-Pacific American (persons with origins from Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Japan, China, Taiwan, Laos, Cambodia (Kampuchea), Vietnam,...

  12. 15 CFR 768.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Administration Regulations (EAR) are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. (a) Authority. Pursuant to.... Controlled countries. Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Cuba, Estonia,...

  13. 15 CFR 768.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Administration Regulations (EAR) are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. (a) Authority. Pursuant to.... Controlled countries. Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Cuba, Estonia,...

  14. 15 CFR 768.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administration Regulations (EAR) are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. (a) Authority. Pursuant to.... Controlled countries. Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Cuba, Estonia,...

  15. 15 CFR 768.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Administration Regulations (EAR) are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. (a) Authority. Pursuant to.... Controlled countries. Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Cuba, Estonia,...

  16. Personalization of Reading Passages Improves Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, Michael; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn; Callan, Jamie; Eskenazi, Maxine; Juffs, Alan; Wilson, Lois

    2010-01-01

    The REAP tutoring system provides individualized and adaptive English as a Second Language vocabulary practice. REAP can automatically personalize instruction by providing practice readings about topics that match interests as well as domain-based, cognitive objectives. While most previous research on motivation in intelligent tutoring…

  17. A SUMMER OF SCIENCE AT LOYOLA--AND MORE!!

    E-print Network

    Kelly, John J.

    planning on applying to undergraduate, professional or medical schools. REAP is a high school, REAP students must self-identify as meeting one or more of the criteria listed below: · Student self-identifies as qualifying for free or reduced lunch. · Student self-identifies as a minority historically underrepresented

  18. A SUMMER OF SCIENCE AT LOYOLA--AND MORE!!

    E-print Network

    Kelly, John J.

    planning on applying to undergraduate, professional or medical schools. REAP is a high school, REAP students must self-identify as meeting one or more of the criteria listed below: Student self-identifies as qualifying for free or reduced lunch. Student self-identifies as a minority historically underrepresented

  19. Development of Sustainable Corn Stover Feedstock Supply Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rising global energy demand has increased the importance of developing sustainable land management strategies. In response, the Renewable Energy Assessment Project (REAP) was begun to quantify the sustainability of harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover and other materials for bio-energy. REAP obj...

  20. Sustainable corn stover harvest strategies for Midwest agricultural landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To support emerging U.S. cellulosic bioenergy industries, 239 site-years of data from field studies at 36 sites in seven states were recently summarized in BioEnergy Research by the ARS Resilient Economic Agricultural Practices (REAP) team [formerly the Renewable Energy Assessment Project (REAP) tea...

  1. Balancing Feedstock Production and Soil Resource Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Renewable Energy Assessment Project (REAP) is a multi-location research endeavor designed to determine the impact of harvesting corn stover and other crop residues on soil, water, and air quality. This poster provides conference attendees an overview of REAP activities and initial findings....

  2. Lessons Learnt in the Use of "Contract" Teachers. Synthesis Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duthilleul, Yael

    2005-01-01

    This report sheds light on the use of contract teachers with a particular focus on Cambodia, Nicaragua and India--countries that have all relied on contract teachers at some point. The report documents the use of contract teachers in Cambodia, Nicaragua and India and outlines the experience of contract teachers in West Africa. It also discusses…

  3. Acculturation Difficulties of the Khmer in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Ellen

    The intent of this paper is to provide a historical and cultural overview of the Khmer refugee movement and to outline problems the refugees face upon resettlement in New York City. The paper begins by describing the land and people of Cambodia, the social structure of Khmer society, the role of Buddhism in that society, Cambodia's recent history,…

  4. National Woodfuels and Wood Energy Information Analysis Prepared by: Sok Bun Heng

    E-print Network

    of biomass. Cambodia relies for its all energy needs on two primary sources; Biomass comprising wood 82 % Charcoal 1.2 %, other biomass 1.7 % and imported petroleum product. The most recent national energy supplyDesk Study on National Woodfuels and Wood Energy Information Analysis CAMBODIA Prepared by: Sok Bun

  5. Establishment of Institutional Policies for Enhancing Education Quality in Cambodian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rany, Sam; Zain, Ahmad Nurulazam Md; Jamil, Hazri

    2012-01-01

    In the context of global and national economic development, higher education in Cambodia plays a significant role to develop human capital with technical knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes for sustainable economic growth, social development, and alleviation of poverty. When the civil war in 1998 was over, the Royal Government of Cambodia

  6. 31 CFR 500.559 - Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...established under the laws of North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam if the proprietor has emigrated from...proprietorship due to persons in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. [41 FR 16556, Apr. 20,...

  7. The Struggle to Develop a "Research Culture" in a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    During the past 20 years, English language teaching and learning has grown phenomenally in Cambodia as the country has opened up to the outside world following more than two decades of civil war. As a result, the standard of English spoken today in Cambodia has also risen dramatically. One feature of this context of dynamic change has been the…

  8. It's the context!

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This editorial was written to summarize 3 large clinical trials, one among pregnant women in Malawi, another in pregnant women in Ghana and the third in children in Cambodia. The Ghana study showed a benefit from food supplements, while the studies in Malawi and Cambodia found little benefit from ...

  9. 19 CFR 12.104g - Specific items or categories designated by agreements or emergency actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... from the Paleolithic Era (Stone Age) to approximately the mid-eighteenth century CBP Dec. 12-14... CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.... 14-01 Cambodia Archaeological Material from Cambodia from the Bronze Age through the Khmer Era....

  10. 31 CFR 500.559 - Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam if the proprietor has emigrated from those countries... licenses do not unblock any indebtedness of the proprietorship due to persons in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam....

  11. Indochina Policy for the Next Administration. Report of the Strategy for Peace, US Foreign Policy Conference (29th, Warrenton, Virginia, October 13-15, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    Recommended guidelines for U.S. policy toward Cambodia, Vietnam, and Laos were developed by a bipartisan group of experts. General premises are stated first, followed by specific recommendations on how to assist in bringing about a settlement in Cambodia; how to pursue U.S. bilateral relations with Vietnam on refugees, the prisoner of war/missing…

  12. Abstractions Visit Nautilus for regular news relevant to Nature authors http://blogs.nature.com/nautilus and see

    E-print Network

    Schecter, Stephen

    ) cleans parasites off the skins of other coral-reef fishes, reaping a satisfy- ing meal in return of cleaner pairs. The researchers observed cleaner­client relations among coral reefs in the Red Sea at Ras

  13. Diabetes Should Be a Factor in Weight-Loss Surgery Decision: Study

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_154684.html Diabetes Should Be a Factor in Weight-Loss Surgery ... 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Obese patients with type 2 diabetes might reap greater health-care savings after weight- ...

  14. 41 CFR 109-50.106 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REAPS system and provided to the Office of Energy Research by electronic means. (b) The Office of Energy Research provides this information to prospective grantees through an automated system. (c) The...

  15. How Should Happiness Guide Policy? Why Gross National Happiness is not opposed to Democracy

    E-print Network

    Hirata, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    advantage that politicians, or indeed voters, may expect to reap (“we recommend to abolish eco-taxes in order to make more profitable use of defenseless future generations’ assets”). Even the public choice school that portrays policy makers as purely...

  16. A widget library for creating policy-aware semantic Web applications

    E-print Network

    Hollenbach, James Dylan

    2010-01-01

    In order to truly reap the benefits of the Semantic Web, there must be adequate tools for writing Web applications that aggregate, view, and edit the widely varying data the Semantic Web makes available. As a step toward ...

  17. Drive Out Fear (Unless You Can Drive It In):The role of agency and job security in process improvement

    E-print Network

    Repenning, Nelson

    Understanding the wide range of outcomes achieved by firms trying to implement TQM and similar process improvement initiatives presents a challenge to management science and organization theory: a few firms reap sustained ...

  18. Why Firefighting Is Never Enough: Preserving High-Quality Product Development

    E-print Network

    Black, Laura

    2000-01-01

    Understanding the wide range of outcomes achieved by firms trying to implement TQM and similar process improvement initiatives presents a challenge to management science and organization theory: a few firms reap sustained ...

  19. Healing centered organizing : what side are you on?

    E-print Network

    Campos, A. Sofia (Ana Sofia)

    2015-01-01

    Many youth today grew up with narratives about reaching for the American Dream and working hard to reap the benefits. Yet over 2 million people have been deported under President Obama's administration and over 2 million ...

  20. Improving the probability of effective organizational change in the Coast Guard through the combined use of System Dynamics and Enterprise Value Stream Mapping & Analysis

    E-print Network

    Johnston, Michael J., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    Most major organizational changes never reap the benefits the original planners envisioned, they often take longer to implement than expected and in a dynamic environment that can spell disaster for a large enterprise. The ...

  1. Design Decisions in the RideNow Project School of Information

    E-print Network

    Resnick, Paul

    would decline. That would reduce conges- tion for everyone using the roads and reduce smog and other- convenience while others reap the benefits of reduced con- gestion and smog. To overcome these barriers

  2. At-Risk Boys' Self-Efficacy in A Summer Sports Camp 

    E-print Network

    Su, Xiaoxia

    2014-12-09

    Research has documented that summer sports camps can provide opportunities for social and physical benefits for at-risk boys who are often from low-income families and vulnerable to academic failure. However, whether these boys can reap...

  3. Cascading Goals and Objectives to Ensure Accountability and Action 

    E-print Network

    Tarifi, M.; Bingham, P. R.

    2000-01-01

    Bristol-Myers Squibb Worldwide Beauty Care Group has adopted a methodology that is reaping benefits throughout the company. The underlying principle in cascading goals and objectives is that every employee is accountable for achieving any corporate...

  4. Spacecraft formation flight exploiting potential fields

    E-print Network

    Kong, Edmund Mun Choong, 1973-

    2002-01-01

    The potential benefits that can be reaped from a distributed satellite system have led to the proposal of several multi-spacecraft missions by both NASA and DoD. One such benefit is the reconfigurability of these ...

  5. Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project

    SciTech Connect

    Klasky, Hilda B; Bass, Bennett Richard; Williams, Paul T; Phillips, Rick; Erickson, Marjorie A; Kirk, Mark T; Stevens, Gary L

    2013-01-01

    The Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project (REAP), which is being conducted by the Probabilistic Integrity Safety Assessment (PISA) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under funding from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission s (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, aims to provide an archival source of information about the effect of neutron radiation on the properties of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Specifically, this project is an effort to create an Internet-accessible RPV steel embrittlement database. The project s website, https://reap.ornl.gov, provides information in two forms: (1) a document archive with surveillance capsule(s) reports and related technical reports, in PDF format, for the 104 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States, with similar reports from other countries; and (2) a relational database archive with detailed information extracted from the reports. The REAP project focuses on data collected from surveillance capsule programs for light-water moderated, nuclear power reactor vessels operated in the United States, including data on Charpy V-notch energy testing results, tensile properties, composition, exposure temperatures, neutron flux (rate of irradiation damage), and fluence, (Fast Neutron Fluence a cumulative measure of irradiation for E>1 MeV). Additionally, REAP contains data from surveillance programs conducted in other countries. REAP is presently being extended to focus on embrittlement data analysis, as well. This paper summarizes the current status of the REAP database and highlights opportunities to access the data and to participate in the project.

  6. Land-use Change: Deforestation by land grabbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudel, Tom

    2015-10-01

    Leases of land concessions in Cambodia have accelerated in the last ten years. An analysis using high-resolution maps and official documents shows that deforestation rates in the land concessions are higher than in other areas.

  7. 15 CFR 736.2 - General prohibitions and determination of applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...applies to Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Cambodia, Cuba, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Mongolia, North Korea, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam. (9) General Prohibition Nine—Violation of any order,...

  8. 15 CFR 736.2 - General prohibitions and determination of applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...applies to Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Cambodia, Cuba, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Mongolia, North Korea, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam. (9) General Prohibition Nine—Violation of any order,...

  9. 9 CFR 94.6 - Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...considered to exist in the following regions: Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Laos, Malaysia, Romania, Russia, South Korea, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam. (e) Unprocessed carcasses, and parts or products of...

  10. 15 CFR 736.2 - General prohibitions and determination of applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...applies to Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Cambodia, Cuba, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Mongolia, North Korea, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam. (9) General Prohibition Nine—Violation of any order,...

  11. 9 CFR 94.6 - Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...considered to exist in the following regions: Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Laos, Malaysia, Romania, Russia, South Korea, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam. (e) Unprocessed carcasses, and parts or products of...

  12. 15 CFR 736.2 - General prohibitions and determination of applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...applies to Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Cambodia, Cuba, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Mongolia, North Korea, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam. (9) General Prohibition Nine—Violation of any order,...

  13. 15 CFR 736.2 - General prohibitions and determination of applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...applies to Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Cambodia, Cuba, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Mongolia, North Korea, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam. (9) General Prohibition Nine—Violation of any order,...

  14. Publications for Daniel Penny Hamilton, R., Penny, D. (2015). Ecological history of Lachlan

    E-print Network

    Müller, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    : geoarchaeological investigation of the 'underwater road' crossing on the Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia. Journal of Archaeological Science, 39(8), 2604-2611. [More Information.), Peopled Landscapes: Archaeological and Biogeographic Approaches to Landscapes, (pp. 359-373). Canberra

  15. 31 CFR 505.10 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Bulgaria Cambodia The Czech Republic Estonia Latvia Lithuania North Korea Mongolia People's Republic of China Poland Romania The Slovak Republic The geographic area formerly known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics...

  16. 48 CFR 52.225-23 - Required Use of American Iron, Steel, and Manufactured Goods-Buy American Statute-Construction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...clause: Required Use of American Iron, Steel, and Manufactured Goods—Buy American Statute—Construction...Burundi, Cambodia, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros...United States. (The Buy American statute applies.)...

  17. 48 CFR 52.225-23 - Required Use of American Iron, Steel, and Manufactured Goods-Buy American Act-Construction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...clause: Required Use of American Iron, Steel, and Manufactured Goods—Buy American Act—Construction Materials...Burundi, Cambodia, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros...United States. (The Buy American Act applies.)...

  18. 75 FR 53153 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (the Recovery Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ...Required Use of American Iron, Steel, and Manufactured Goods--Buy American Act--Construction Materials...Burundi, Cambodia, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros...United States. (The Buy American Act applies.) (2)...

  19. 48 CFR 52.225-23 - Required Use of American Iron, Steel, and Manufactured Goods-Buy American Act-Construction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...clause: Required Use of American Iron, Steel, and Manufactured Goods—Buy American Act—Construction Materials...Burundi, Cambodia, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros...United States. (The Buy American Act applies.)...

  20. 48 CFR 52.225-11 - Buy American-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Clauses 52.225-11 Buy American—Construction Materials Under...the following clause: Buy American—Construction Materials Under...Burundi, Cambodia, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros...S.C. chapter 83, Buy American, by providing a...

  1. 48 CFR 52.225-23 - Required Use of American Iron, Steel, and Manufactured Goods-Buy American Act-Construction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...clause: Required Use of American Iron, Steel, and Manufactured Goods—Buy American Act—Construction Materials...Burundi, Cambodia, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros...United States. (The Buy American Act applies.)...

  2. 19 CFR 4.75 - Incomplete manifest; incomplete export declarations; bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...been filed with the port director: Albania Bulgaria Cambodia China, People's Republic of Cuba Czechoslovakia Estonia German Democratic Republic (Soviet Zone of Germany and Soviet Zone sector of Berlin) Hungary Iran Iraq Laos...

  3. 19 CFR 4.75 - Incomplete manifest; incomplete export declarations; bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...been filed with the port director: Albania Bulgaria Cambodia China, People's Republic of Cuba Czechoslovakia Estonia German Democratic Republic (Soviet Zone of Germany and Soviet Zone sector of Berlin) Hungary Iran Iraq Laos...

  4. The Magazine of Robinson College, Cambridge Alumnus report

    E-print Network

    Flynn, E. Victor

    is that Tep knows all this. When he returned to Cambodia from France in 1977 he was sent to a concentration camp, seven out of his eleven brothers and sisters died during the Khmer Rouge years. There doesn

  5. a monthly publication of outreach and international affairs volume 2, issue 3

    E-print Network

    dreamed of a career at the United Nations."As a teenager, I was interested in international relations such as transportation and farming inputs. Female students in Cambodia told us, `We have a brain, and we can use tractors

  6. 19 CFR 4.75 - Incomplete manifest; incomplete export declarations; bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...export declarations have been filed with the port director: Albania Bulgaria Cambodia China, People's Republic of Cuba Czechoslovakia Estonia German Democratic Republic (Soviet Zone of Germany and Soviet Zone sector of Berlin)...

  7. 4 AUGUST 2006 VOL 313 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org612 Keeping Bandits at Bay?

    E-print Network

    Myers, Ransom A.

    Australia Solomon Islands Vietnam Malaysia Indonesia Cambodia 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002. Of greater concern are areas such as the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, and eastern Pacific, at potentially high risk

  8. 9 CFR 93.405 - Health certificate for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...of origin; and (3) If the ruminants are from Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, China, Columbia, Congo,...

  9. 9 CFR 93.405 - Health certificate for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...of origin; and (3) If the ruminants are from Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, China, Columbia, Congo,...

  10. 9 CFR 93.405 - Health certificate for ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...of origin; and (3) If the ruminants are from Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, China, Columbia, Congo,...

  11. 7 CFR 305.17 - Authorized treatments; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...America, Central America, or Mexico. (2) Citrus with peel from Afghanistan, Andaman Islands, Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Cambodia, China (People's Republic of), Comoros, Cote d'Ivoire, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji...

  12. If You, Your Parents, or Your Children Were Born in Any of These Places...

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cambodia, China, Eastern Europe, Haiti, Ha- waii, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Korea, Laos, Malaysia, the Middle East, ... a physician and be checked regularly for the development of serious liver problems. How do you get ...

  13. 76 FR 55419 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ...Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Cote D'Ivoire, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Gambia, The; Ghana, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, India, Kenya, Kyrgyz Republic, Lao PDR, Lesotho, Liberia,...

  14. 76 FR 69290 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ...Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Central African Republic Chad Comoros Cote D'Ivoire Dem. Rep. of the Congo Djibouti Ethiopia Gambia, The Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti Honduras India Kenya Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Lesotho Liberia Malawi Mali...

  15. 19 CFR 4.75 - Incomplete manifest; incomplete export declarations; bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 15 CFR 30.24), the port director may accept in lieu thereof an incomplete manifest (referred to as a... export declarations have been filed with the port director: Albania Bulgaria Cambodia China,...

  16. Asian American Populations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. According ... 2012 US Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, Consumer Income Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage, US: 2010 ...

  17. 45 CFR 506.2 - Other definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...the Vietnam conflict. Southeast Asia means, but is not necessarily restricted to, the areas of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. Went into hiding means the action taken by a civilian American citizen when that person initiated a course of...

  18. 76 FR 34277 - Sunshine Act; Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ...Southeast Asia. 6. Finance Project--India, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. 7. Finance Project--Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. 8. Finance Project--Israel. 9. Finance Project--Sub-Saharan Africa and North Africa. 10. Finance...

  19. 76 FR 30954 - Notification of the Imposition of Conditions of Entry for Certain Vessels Arriving to the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ...arrival. With this notice, the current list of countries not maintaining effective anti-terrorism measures is as follows: Cambodia, Cameroon, Comoros, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Equatorial Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia,...

  20. 78 FR 76106 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ...reconsider our determination in light of the evidence discovered in AR6 regarding Hilltop's affiliation with Ocean King (Cambodia) Co. Ltd.\\9\\ On February 27, 2013, the Department published in the Federal Register its Preliminary...