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1

Mental health survey among landmine survivors in Siem Reap province, Cambodia.  

PubMed

Many survivors of the Khmer Rouge period in Cambodia and the subsequent war with Vietnam have now returned to Cambodia. In this two-stage household cluster survey in Siem Reap Province in Cambodia, we explored the mental health consequences on 166 landmine injury survivors selected from 1000 household in 50 clusters and an oversample of all landmine survivors. We found a prevalence of anxiety of 62% for all respondents, 74% for depression, and 34% for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These prevalences were statistically significantly higher than among the adult population who had not been injured by landmines. These data underscore the importance of providing mental health care services for the people in Siem Reap Province in Cambodia who have been injured by landmines. PMID:22873010

Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Blanton, Curtis; Zalewski, Tami; Tor, Svang; McDonald, Laura; Lavelle, James; Brooks, Robert; Anderson, Mark; Mollica, Richard

2012-01-01

2

Typhoid Fever among Hospitalized Febrile Children in Siem Reap, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Typhoid fever was confirmed by positive blood culture in 5 (3.7%) of 134 febrile children hospitalized in Cambodia. Typhoid was suspected in an additional 25 (18.7 %) blood culture-negative children based on: a positive immunoglobulin M lateral flow assay (IgMFA) (16); a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Salmonella typhi (2); or clinical assessment (7). The specificity of the IgMFA and PCR assays requires further study. PMID:21508082

Kumar, Varun; Chanpheaktra, Ngoun; Chheng, Kheng; Smits, Henk L.; Pastoor, Rob; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Baker, Stephen; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Peacock, Sharon J.; Putchhat, Hor; Parry, Christopher M.

2012-01-01

3

Analysis of the introduction to the computer programming education by the SIEM assessment standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve students' motivation, SIEM (systematical information education method, which uses the learning theory based on cognitive psychology) is proposed. Through the application of SIEM to the goal of prompting computer programming education in the Java course, an evaluation of students' motivation as reflected in passage of time as well as through other qualitative measures has been performed

Shinichi Dohi; Osamu Miyakawa; Noriko Konno

2005-01-01

4

MECHANICAL TESTING OF EPON SU-8 WITH SIEM  

SciTech Connect

High aspect ratio structures are often present in MEMS devices and EPON SU-8 is often used to produce such structures because of its low cost. It is essential to know the mechanical properties of SU-8 for producing reliable MEMS products. However, the mechanical properties of SU-8 may depend on the manufacturing process and the size of the structure, which is in the micron domain. Hence, one needs to test specimens that are similar in size to MEMS structures to determine if the mechanical properties change with processing protocol. In this work, the authors applied the newly developed technique SIEM (Speckle Interferometry with Electron Microscopy) to the determination of SU-8's mechanical properties.

CHANG,S.; WARREN,J.; CHIANG,F.P.

2000-06-08

5

REAP Briefings Management Briefing Paper 3 http://www.reap.ac.uk Assessment as a driver for institutional transformation  

E-print Network

as something the teacher does, assessment in REAP is conceptualised as a collaborative process where studentsREAP Briefings ­ Management Briefing Paper 3 http://www.reap.ac.uk -1- Assessment as a driver. Thirdly, the application of new technologies should produce positive benefits. Assessment is arguably one

Azzopardi, Leif

6

Education in Cambodia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes future education policy and strategic priorities in Cambodia for the new millennium, taking account of the labor market and the fiscal and institutional development outlooks. Also explored are access to education, gender issues, and financial aspects. Discusses some education efficiency issues and discusses their implications for public…

Journal of Southeast Asian Education, 2000

2000-01-01

7

Burden of stroke in Cambodia.  

PubMed

In Cambodia, stroke is not ranked among the top 10 leading causes of death, but infectious disease are among the top three leading causes of death. This finding could be attributed to a lack of awareness among Cambodians of the signs and symptoms of stroke or to poor reporting, incomplete data, lack of neurologists and neurosurgeons, or low accessibility to the hospitals. The only study of stroke in Cambodia is the Prevalence of Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors in Cambodia survey, which identified several stroke-related risk factors in the population. Tobacco chewing or smoking is the main risk factor for stroke in Cambodia. Traditional therapies, such as oyt pleung (moxibustion) and jup (cupping), are widely practiced for stroke rehabilitation. In Cambodia, there are few neurologists and few important equipment, such as magnetic resonance imaging machines and computed tomography scanners. The Cambodian government should cooperate with the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund to attract foreign expertise and technologies to treat stroke patients. PMID:22973861

Loo, Keat Wei; Gan, Siew Hua

2013-08-01

8

Revisiting Primary School Dropout in Rural Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies on school dropout in Cambodia often used data from subjects after they already dropped out or statistics from education-related institutions. Using data from children in two rural provinces before they dropped out, this study examines four main factors in order to identify their influence on primary school dropout in Cambodia.…

No, Fata; Sam, Chanphirun; Hirakawa, Yukiko

2012-01-01

9

Women helping women in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Dr. Ouk Vong Vathiny is the first director of the Reproductive Health Association of Cambodia (RHAC), the International Planned Parenthood's newest affiliate. Dr. Vathiny's interest in reproductive health began with her first position in a clinic serving women working in Phnom Penh's commercial sex district. Today, she works with RHAC staff to provide a full range of reproductive health services to a wide variety of rural and urban women. Under the direction of Dr. Ping Chutema, the RHAC clinic provides a standard package of safe motherhood services and highlights provision of birth spacing counseling and methods. Although it operates in only three of 22 provinces, the RHAC now distributes between a fourth and a third of all contraceptives dispensed by government services. Dr. Vathiny and Dr. Chutema note that the biggest problem they face is the fact that most women in Cambodia have very little education and that rumors spread faster than real information. Efforts to insure safe motherhood are challenged by high rates of sexually transmitted diseases and by a high prevalence and rate of increase of HIV infection, both of which are exacerbated by the popularity of commercial sex among married men. Domestic violence and women's low nutritional status are also problems. RHAC considers education and counseling essential elements of its safe motherhood package and even trains community-based contraceptive distributors to counsel women on ways to negotiate with their husbands. PMID:12293654

Huff-rousselle, M

1998-01-01

10

National news. Cambodia. The future of ARH.  

PubMed

The escalating HIV/AIDS crisis in Cambodia underscores the importance of reproductive health programs aimed at adolescents. Although the Cambodian Government has not developed a strategy specifically aimed at reaching youth, it has initiated several related health promotion and HIV/AIDS prevention programs. Such programming is especially urgent in light of rapid economic changes in Cambodia and the growing influence of the mass media on urban youth. An in-country paper prepared by a staff member of the Youth Department of Cambodia's Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports stressed the importance of four factors: 1) designation of young couples as a target for birth spacing campaigns and services, 2) realistic HIV/AIDS educational messages in the mass media, 3) incorporation of traditional practices in adolescent reproductive health campaigns, and 4) greater sensitivity to youth culture and habits. PMID:12158261

1998-06-01

11

Cambodia: The Odyssey of the Khmer People  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bruce Sharp, in collaboration with a host of colleagues, has developed this Web site dealing with the history and culture of Cambodia. Paying close attention to the Khmer Rouge period of the country's history, the site contains a wealth of general information and statistics about Cambodia that will help visitors seeking a basic overview of the country's current status. The site is divided into numerous sections, several that will be of particular interest to visitors. The Oral Histories section contains a dozen narratives from Cambodian men and women who lived in Cambodia during the reign of Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge. A photo gallery hosts several photo essays by Mr. Sharp, including some dramatic shots of Angkor Wat. Finally, the site also has a search engine and a What's New section that lists new material that is periodically added to the site.

2002-01-01

12

English in Cambodia: Changes and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports research undertaken at a prestigious university in Phnom Penh in late 2007. The views of lecturers who teach the BEd (TEFL) degree and their students were canvassed in relation to the status of English in Cambodia. The students completed a questionnaire probing their views on the notion of a Cambodian English, as well as their…

Moore, Stephen H.; Bounchan, Suksiri

2010-01-01

13

Reemergence of Chikungunya Virus in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), probably Asian genotype, was first detected in Cambodia in 1961. Despite no evidence of acute or recent CHIKV infections since 2000, real-time reverse transcription PCR of serum collected in 2011 detected CHIKV, East Central South African genotype. Spatiotemporal patterns and phylogenetic clustering indicate that the virus probably originated in Thailand. PMID:23171736

Duong, Veasna; Andries, Anne-Claire; Ngan, Chantha; Sok, Touch; Richner, Beat; Asgari-Jirhandeh, Nima; Bjorge, Steve; Huy, Rekol; Ly, Sovann; Laurent, Denis; Hok, Bunheng; Roces, Maria Concepcion; Ong, Sivuth; Char, Meng Chuor; Deubel, Vincent; Tarantola, Arnaud

2012-01-01

14

UNTAC, CEAT, other international actions and the restoration of Cambodia`s forestry policy  

SciTech Connect

Although no verifiable hard data regarding the rate of nation-wide deforestation in Cambodia exists, it is understood that on account of increasing logging activities, uncontrolled forest fires, increased demand for agricultural land and fuel wood for charcoal production and other domestic usage, the rates of deforestation and the degradation of existing forests will continue to be on the rise if no effective policy and management plans are established soon. There now seems to be international recognition and acceptance of the fact that unless the impact of human activities are incorporated into forestry management plans, the problems of deforestation in the world`s poorest regions will continue unabated. The depletion of this natural resource brings about complex changes in the environment which results in such phenomenon as global warming. Sound forest policies and management practices are central to the global warming solution. Without these, human survival remains, potentially, threatened. An essential key to the development of such policies and management practices lies in the identification of the problems related to the forests. In this process of identification and subsequent concrete actions in restoring Cambodia`s forest policies and management practices, the Royal government of Cambodia has been assisted and supported by the international community through organizations and agencies. The examine and appraisal of such assistance and the strategies and efforts of the Royal Government of Cambodia, is the main theme of this paper.

Mareth, M. [Secretariat of State for Environment of Cambodia, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Vanderstighelen, D.; Bann, C.; Ngongi, M.I. [Cambodian Environmental Advisory Team, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Aertgeerts, R. [Office for Project Services United Nations Development Program, New York, NY (United States); Eav, B.B. [Dept. of Agriculture, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1995-03-01

15

Economic disparity and child survival in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Despite improvements in child survival in recent decades, levels of infant and child mortality remain unacceptably high, particularly among the poor in developing countries recovering from recent wars and civil unrests. Using information on 8498 childbirths in five years preceding the 2000 Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey, this study measured the association between economic disparity and infant mortality using multivariate Weibull regression. Results indicate that children born in the poorest 40% households were more than twice as likely to die during infancy as those born in the richest 20% households, even after controlling for pregnancy care, birth weight, household living conditions, and other factors. Children born in the middle-income households also had significantly higher mortality risks. Not receiving antenatal care and low birth weight were associated with an increased risk. Also, boys had a higher risk than girls. The study concludes that poverty is strongly negatively associated with infant survival in Cambodia. PMID:18050562

Hong, R; Mishra, V; Michael, J

2007-01-01

16

A Multimedia Approach to ODL for Agricultural Training in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Open distance learning (ODL) has long been an important option for formal and non-formal education (NFE) in most developed and developing countries, but less so in post-conflict countries, including Cambodia. However, in Cambodia there is now greater awareness that ODL can complement traditional face-to-face educational approaches, particularly as…

Grunfeld, Helena; Ng, Maria Lee Hoon

2013-01-01

17

Introduction of ICT and Multimedia into Cambodia's Teacher Training Centres  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the integration of ICT in the teacher training centres of Cambodia. It focuses on the collaboration between the Teacher Training Department of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MoEYS) of Cambodia and VVOB (Flemish Association for Development Cooperation and Technical Assistance), which is aimed at improving ICT…

Dionys, David

2012-01-01

18

Forging new media representation of women affairs in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Women's Media Centre of Cambodia (WMC), a local non-government organisation (NCO), is a public interest media centre which offers media services to other NGOs. It is the only NCO in Cambodia that produces radio and television broadcasts and audio-visual training material on social issues. WMC enjoys a unique and excellent working relationship with other NGOs, the mainstream Cambodian media,

C. MacCarthy

1997-01-01

19

Cambodia passes new limits on abortion.  

PubMed

According to international news sources, Cambodia's parliament approved a law limiting the circumstances under which abortions can be performed on October 6 [1997]. Members of parliament say the new law, the first ever passed regulating abortion in Cambodia, is intended to reduce maternal morality rates from abortions performed by unlicensed health practitioners under unsanitary conditions. Local news outlets report that the Cambodian Health Ministry estimates the maternal mortality at 4.7 deaths per 1000 live births. The rate in the US is 0.12 deaths per 1000 live births. The law requires that abortions be performed by licensed health professionals in hospitals and certified clinics within the first trimester of pregnancy, and that women under the age of 18 must obtain parental consent. The new law also sets harsh penalties for those who harm women during illegal procedures--up to 5 years in prison if a woman is injured and up to 10 years if she dies. Opponents of the law say they fear that the new restrictions will push abortion even further underground, as the hospital system cannot handle the current demand for abortion. PMID:12292784

1997-10-17

20

Reserve Educational Assistance Program (REAP), Chapter 1607 Title 10, U.S. Code  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Reserve Education Assistance Program, or REAP (Chapter 1607 of title 10, U.S. Code), is a new benefit providing educational assistance to members of the reserve components--Selected Reserve (Sel Res) and Individual Ready Reserve (IRR)--who are called or ordered to active service in response to a war or national emergency, as declared by the…

US Department of Veterans Affairs, 2005

2005-01-01

21

Self-Assessment in the REAP Tutor: Knowledge, Interest, Motivation, & Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-assessment questionnaires have long been used in tutoring systems to help researchers measure and evaluate various aspects of a student's performance during learning activities. In this paper, we chronicle the efforts made in the REAP project, a language tutor developed to teach vocabulary to ESL students through reading activities, to…

Dela Rosa, Kevin; Eskenazi, Maxine

2013-01-01

22

A blueprint for transformational organisational change in higher education: REAP as a case study  

E-print Network

development activities already underway A significant barrier to institution-wide change in higher education1 A blueprint for transformational organisational change in higher education: REAP as a case study. Transforming Higher Education through Technology-Enhanced Learning ed. J.T.Mayes Introduction In this chapter

Williamson, John

23

Analysis of Radar Images of Angkor, Cambodia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the 1996 AIRSAR Pacific Rim Deployment, data were collected over Angkor in Cambodia. The temples of Angkor date the succession of cities to the 9th-13th century AD, but little is known of its prehistoric habitation. A related area of archaeological debate has been the origin, spiritual meaning and use of the hydraulic constructions in the urban zone. The high resolution, multi-channel capability of AIRSAR, together with the unprecedentedly accurate topography provided by TOPSAR, offer identification and delineation of these features. Examples include previously unrecorded circular earthworks around circular village sites, detection of unrecorded earthwork dykes, reservoirs and canal features, and of temple sites located some distance from the main temple complex at Angkor.

Freeman, Anthony; Hensley, Scott; Moore, Elizabeth

2000-01-01

24

Nipah virus in Lyle's flying foxes, Cambodia.  

PubMed

We conducted a survey in Cambodia in 2000 on henipavirus infection among several bat species, including flying foxes, and persons exposed to these animals. Among 1,072 bat serum samples tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, antibodies reactive to Nipah virus (NiV) antigen were detected only in Pteropus lylei species; Cynopterus sphinx, Hipposideros larvatus, Scotophilus kuhlii, Chaerephon plicata, Taphozous melanopogon, and T. theobaldi species were negative. Seroneutralization applied on a subset of 156 serum samples confirmed these results. None of the 8 human serum samples was NiV seropositive with the seroneutralization test. One virus isolate exhibiting cytopathic effect with syncytia was obtained from 769 urine samples collected at roosts of P. lylei specimens. Partial molecular characterization of this isolate demonstrated that it was closely related to NiV. These results strengthen the hypothesis that flying foxes could be the natural host of NiV. Surveillance of human cases should be implemented. PMID:16022778

Reynes, Jean-Marc; Counor, Dorian; Ong, Sivuth; Faure, Caroline; Seng, Vansay; Molia, Sophie; Walston, Joe; Georges-Courbot, Marie Claude; Deubel, Vincent; Sarthou, Jean-Louis

2005-07-01

25

31 CFR 500.565 - Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. 500.565 Section 500...565 Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. (a) The remittances...provided that the relative is a national of Vietnam or Cambodia, is a resident of...

2010-07-01

26

ASEAN intervention in Cambodia: from Cold War to conditionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their other theoretical differences, virtually all scholars of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) agree that the organization's members share an almost religious commitment to the norm of non-intervention. This article disrupts this consensus, arguing that ASEAN repeatedly intervened in Cambodia's internal political conflicts from 1979 to 1999, often with powerful and destructive effects. ASEAN's role in maintaining

Lee Jones

2007-01-01

27

Seattle University School of Law Cambodia Legal Internship  

E-print Network

Magazine" (attached). Non-DC-Cam Work: While in Cambodia, I spent two weekends at Wat Opot Orphanage in the Takeo province. I had volunteered at this orphanage for a few weeks two years ago, so there was no formal set-up required. The orphanage is located in the Takeo province and cares for approximately 60

Carter, John

28

Academic Achievement among Adolescents in Cambodia: Does Caregiver Trauma Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How will hostilities occurring around today's world influence future generations in affected areas? Cambodia may be one place where this question can be answered, and academic achievement is one way to measure these effects. Cambodian adolescent/caregiver dyads (n=288) were examined for links between caregiver trauma history and adolescent…

Eng, Sothy; Mulsow, Miriam; Cleveland, Harrington; Hart, Sybil L.

2009-01-01

29

Estimating Money Demand Function in Cambodia: ARDL Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically estimates the money demand function in Cambodia. We adopt the money demand model that includes exchange rate. For the analysis, Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration is employed. Our results indicate that there is cointegration among variables in money demand function. CUSUM and CUSUMSQ tests roughly support the stability of estimated model. However, in the long-run,

Sovannroeun Samreth

2008-01-01

30

Seattle University School of Law Cambodia Legal Internship  

E-print Network

Seattle University School of Law Cambodia Legal Internship Intern Report ­ Summer, 2008 From of their Original Request for Information regarding Mr. Boyle a "judicial officer" in the OCIJ. The Ieng Sary Defence Request for Information stemmed from allegations of bias on the part of Mr. Boyle based on his

Carter, John

31

Is participatory water management effective? Evidence from Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participatory management of water resources presents special problems because the interests of the farmers located at the head and the tail of a canal do not match and government machinery is usually the sole arbiter. This paper attempts to quantify the benefits of participation in irrigation systems in Cambodia through a survey of 50 irrigation projects in the country. We

Anand N. Asthana

2009-01-01

32

Media reporting of tenofovir trials in Cambodia and Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Two planned trials of pre-exposure prophylaxis tenofovir in Cambodia and Cameroon to prevent HIV infection in high-risk populations were closed due to activist pressure on host country governments. The international news media contributed substantially as the primary source of knowledge transfer regarding the trials. We aimed to characterize the nature of reporting, specifically focusing on the issues identified by

Edward Mills; Beth Rachlis; Ping Wu; Elaine Wong; Kumanan Wilson; Sonal Singh

2005-01-01

33

Gender, Development, and Neoliberalism: HIV\\/ AIDS in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thanks to the anti-HIV\\/AIDS measures of international and non-governmental organizations, Cambodia has been considered a successful case in preventing the transmission of the virus. Declaration of such a victory for the Cambodian case is premature, however, given that HIV prevalence continues to rise among women and, according to Cambodian health officials, another wave of epidemic could occur soon. This study

Yavuz Yasar

2010-01-01

34

Inspiring Trip to Cambodia for Notre Dame Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meeting with survivors of Pol Pot’s infamous ‘Killing Fields’ proved to be an inspiration for five students studying in the School of Arts and Sciences at The University of Notre Dame Australia, Fremantle.\\u000aThe students accompanied by Associate Professor Neil Drew spent 12 days in Cambodia as part of a social justice program run in conjunction with the Catholic organisation,

Moira Saunders

2007-01-01

35

"Deaf Health Talks" DHCC is a community partner of the NCDHR, working with RRCD's R.E.A.P  

E-print Network

"Deaf Health Talks" DHCC is a community partner of the NCDHR, working with RRCD's R.E.A.P Health, 2013 Times: 7:00 - 8:30 pm Location: Rochester Recreation Club for the Deaf, 1564 Lyell Avenue, Rochester, NY 14606 Calling all Deaf Women (and the men who CARE about them)! Please join us to discuss

Goldman, Steven A.

36

Hydrological change:reaping prosperity and pain inAustralia Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11(1), 7795, 2007  

E-print Network

, the hydrological consequences of changes in land use have been determined, allowing the benefits in terms of plant on outflow in maintaining the chemical and physical integrity of the edaphic environment.. KeywordsHydrological change:reaping prosperity and pain inAustralia 77 Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

37

Introducing the GRACEnet/REAP Data Contribution, Discovery, and Retrieval System.  

PubMed

Difficulties in accessing high-quality data on trace gas fluxes and performance of bioenergy/bioproduct feedstocks limit the ability of researchers and others to address environmental impacts of agriculture and the potential to produce feedstocks. To address those needs, the GRACEnet (Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network) and REAP (Renewable Energy Assessment Project) research programs were initiated by the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS). A major product of these programs is the creation of a database with greenhouse gas fluxes, soil carbon stocks, biomass yield, nutrient, and energy characteristics, and input data for modeling cropped and grazed systems. The data include site descriptors (e.g., weather, soil class, spatial attributes), experimental design (e.g., factors manipulated, measurements performed, plot layouts), management information (e.g., planting and harvesting schedules, fertilizer types and amounts, biomass harvested, grazing intensity), and measurements (e.g., soil C and N stocks, plant biomass amount and chemical composition). To promote standardization of data and ensure that experiments were fully described, sampling protocols and a spreadsheet-based data-entry template were developed. Data were first uploaded to a temporary database for checking and then were uploaded to the central database. A Web-accessible application allows for registered users to query and download data including measurement protocols. Separate portals have been provided for each project (GRACEnet and REAP) at nrrc.ars.usda.gov/slgracenet/#/Home and nrrc.ars.usda.gov/slreap/#/Home. The database architecture and data entry template have proven flexible and robust for describing a wide range of field experiments and thus appear suitable for other natural resource research projects. PMID:24216379

Del Grosso, S J; White, J W; Wilson, G; Vandenberg, B; Karlen, D L; Follett, R F; Johnson, J M F; Franzluebbers, A J; Archer, D W; Gollany, H T; Liebig, M A; Ascough, J; Reyes-Fox, M; Pellack, L; Starr, J; Barbour, N; Polumsky, R W; Gutwein, M; James, D

2013-07-01

38

8 CFR 245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of...Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of...permanent resident, a native or citizen of Vietnam, Cambodia, or Laos who: (1)...

2010-01-01

39

8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of...Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of...permanent resident, a native or citizen of Vietnam, Cambodia, or Laos who: (1)...

2010-01-01

40

Is Something Better than Nothing? An Evaluation of Early Childhood Programs in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the relative effectiveness of home-based, community-based, and state-run early childhood programs across Cambodia. A total of 880 five-year-olds (55% girls) from 6 rural provinces in Cambodia attending State Preschools, Community Preschools, Home-Based Programs, or no programs were assessed twice using the Cambodian…

Rao, Nirmala; Sun, Jin; Pearson, Veronica; Pearson, Emma; Liu, Hongyun; Constas, Mark A.; Engle, Patrice L.

2012-01-01

41

Ensuring Gender Equity in Education for All: Is Cambodia on Track?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender-equity goals in Cambodia are intimately linked with socio-economic and cultural biases that are embedded in the very system of education and in the society as a whole. There are, however, strong indicators that the vicious cycle in Cambodia's education system could be broken, and here the commitment of key stakeholders and partnership modes…

Velasco, Esther

2004-01-01

42

China's Guangxi and Vietnam Laos and Cambodia in Stadiums Investment Cooperation Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's Guangxi and Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia build a new platform in tourism?? culture?? sports industry for trade and investment exchanges and cooperation. With the methods of literature research?? statistics method?? tracking surveys and other research methods, this paper analyzes the status of China's Guangxi to Vietnam?? Laos and Cambodia in investment and construction of stadiums. Draw a conclusion: Expanding

He Wei-Dong

2011-01-01

43

Educational Policy Trajectories in an Era of Globalization: Singapore and Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper critically discusses the educational policy trajectories of Singapore and Cambodia in an era of globalization. Drawing upon David Johnson's five metaphors to describe the historical and political forces that shape educational policy trajectories, the paper argues that Cambodia's current educational policy trajectory is characterized by…

Tan, Charlene

2010-01-01

44

Orphans in Cambodia: A Case Study of Families of Children in a Public Orphanage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a case study of a municipal orphanage in Phnom Penh, Cambodia called Rose Center No. 4.A large number of children in Cambodia became orphaned after the prolonged conflicts in the 1970s, especially at the end of the Pol Pot regime in 1979. However, it has been a substantial period of time since then, and there are still many

Misaka Nakajima

2003-01-01

45

Poverty, Wealth Inequality, and Health among Older Adults in Rural Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This paper examines,the distribution of household,wealth and tests whether associations exist between ,wealth inequality and health outcomes ,among ,older adults living in one ,of the world’s poorest regions, rural Cambodia. The 2004 Survey of the Elderly in Cambodia, the first probability sample survey of the country’s elderly population, is employed. Health is conceptualized,as having ,multiple components ,and is operationalized

Zachary Zimmer

2006-01-01

46

Cigarette smoking and tuberculosis in Cambodia: findings from a national sample  

PubMed Central

Background Cambodia has very high rates of tuberculosis and smoked tobacco use among adults. Efforts to control both tobacco use and tuberculosis in Cambodia need to be informed by nationally representative data. Our objective is to examine the relation between daily cigarette smoking and lifetime tuberculosis (TB) history in a national sample of adults in Cambodia. Methods In 2011, a multi-stage, cluster sample of 15,615 adults (ages 15?years and older) from all regions of Cambodia were administered the Global Adult Tobacco Survey by interviewers from the National Institute of Statistics of Cambodia. Results Our findings include: 1) among daily smokers, a significant positive relation between TB and number of cigarettes smoked per day (OR?=?1.70 [95% CI 1.01, 2.87]) and pack-years of smoking (OR?=?1.53 [95% CI 1.05, 2.25]) 2) a non-significant 58% increase in odds of ever having being diagnosed with TB among men who smoked manufactured cigarettes (OR?=?1.58 [95% CI 0.97, 2.58]). Conclusion In Cambodia, manufactured cigarette smoking was associated with lifetime TB infection and the association was most evident among the heaviest smokers (> 1 pack per day, > 30 pack years). PMID:23537342

2013-01-01

47

Multiple populations of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Cambodia.  

PubMed

We describe an analysis of genome variation in 825 P. falciparum samples from Asia and Africa that identifies an unusual pattern of parasite population structure at the epicenter of artemisinin resistance in western Cambodia. Within this relatively small geographic area, we have discovered several distinct but apparently sympatric parasite subpopulations with extremely high levels of genetic differentiation. Of particular interest are three subpopulations, all associated with clinical resistance to artemisinin, which have skewed allele frequency spectra and high levels of haplotype homozygosity, indicative of founder effects and recent population expansion. We provide a catalog of SNPs that show high levels of differentiation in the artemisinin-resistant subpopulations, including codon variants in transporter proteins and DNA mismatch repair proteins. These data provide a population-level genetic framework for investigating the biological origins of artemisinin resistance and for defining molecular markers to assist in its elimination. PMID:23624527

Miotto, Olivo; Almagro-Garcia, Jacob; Manske, Magnus; Macinnis, Bronwyn; Campino, Susana; Rockett, Kirk A; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Lim, Pharath; Suon, Seila; Sreng, Sokunthea; Anderson, Jennifer M; Duong, Socheat; Nguon, Chea; Chuor, Char Meng; Saunders, David; Se, Youry; Lon, Chantap; Fukuda, Mark M; Amenga-Etego, Lucas; Hodgson, Abraham V O; Asoala, Victor; Imwong, Mallika; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Nosten, François; Su, Xin-Zhuan; Ringwald, Pascal; Ariey, Frédéric; Dolecek, Christiane; Hien, Tran Tinh; Boni, Maciej F; Thai, Cao Quang; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; Conway, David J; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Zongo, Issaka; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Alcock, Daniel; Drury, Eleanor; Auburn, Sarah; Koch, Oliver; Sanders, Mandy; Hubbart, Christina; Maslen, Gareth; Ruano-Rubio, Valentin; Jyothi, Dushyanth; Miles, Alistair; O'Brien, John; Gamble, Chris; Oyola, Samuel O; Rayner, Julian C; Newbold, Chris I; Berriman, Matthew; Spencer, Chris C A; McVean, Gilean; Day, Nicholas P; White, Nicholas J; Bethell, Delia; Dondorp, Arjen M; Plowe, Christopher V; Fairhurst, Rick M; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

2013-06-01

48

he Documentation Center of Cambodia (DC-Cam) seeks several exceptional law students to serve as Summer Legal  

E-print Network

T he Documentation Center of Cambodia (DC-Cam) seeks several exceptional law students to serve in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC). In addition, there will be opportunities to assist DC-Cam in heritage law and Cambodian law school community. DC-Cam is an independent Cambodian NGO originally created by Yale University

Carter, John

49

Association between Arsenic Exposure and Diabetes Mellitus in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Whereas studies in Taiwan found associations between arsenic exposure from drinking water and diabetes mellitus (DM), studies in other countries yielded inconsistent results, and diet might be a confounder. We conducted a study in Cambodia, where people have non-Western style diet, to evaluate the association. We measured well water and urine samples and examined skin signs of arsenicosis to assess arsenic exposure and used questionnaires to collect data on potential risk factors. We performed a fingertip blood glucose test followed by measurement of hemoglobin A1c to assess DM. The 43-male and 99-female participants had an average age of 40.4 years. We found that participants with skin signs of arsenicosis had a higher level of arsenic in the drinking water (1101.1 versus 972.2??g/L, P = 0.02). Drinking water with arsenic levels above the median (907.25??g/L) was associated with a nearly twofold increase in the risk of DM (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5–5.8), so was having skin sings of arsenicosis (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 0.5–5.6). The ORs did not reach statistical significance most likely because of the small case number. Therefore, further studies with larger study populations are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:24949461

Huang, Jhih-Wei; Cheng, Ya-Yun; Sung, Tzu-Ching; Guo, How-Ran

2014-01-01

50

Paleoenvironmental history of the West Baray, Angkor (Cambodia)  

PubMed Central

Angkor (Cambodia) was the seat of the Khmer Empire from the 9th to 15th century AD. The site is noted for its monumental architecture and complex hydro-engineering systems, comprised of canals, moats, embankments, and large reservoirs, known as barays. We infer a 1,000-y, 14C-dated paleoenvironmental record from study of an approximately 2-m sediment core taken in the largest Khmer reservoir, the West Baray. The baray was utilized and managed from the time of construction in the early 11th century, through the 13th century. During that time, the West Baray received relatively high rates of detrital input. In the 14th century, linear sedimentation rates diminished by an order of magnitude, yielding a condensed section that correlates temporally with episodes of regional monsoon failure during the late 14th and early 15th century, recorded in tree ring records from Vietnam. Our results demonstrate that changes in the water management system were associated with the decline of the Angkorian kingdom during that period. By the 17th century, the West Baray again functioned as a limnetic system. Ecologic and sedimentologic changes over the last millennium, detected in the baray deposits, are attributed to shifts in regional-scale Khmer water management, evolving land use practices in the catchment, and regional climate change. PMID:22215582

Day, Mary Beth; Hodell, David A.; Brenner, Mark; Chapman, Hazel J.; Curtis, Jason H.; Kenney, William F.; Kolata, Alan L.; Peterson, Larry C.

2012-01-01

51

Microbiological effectiveness of mineral pot filters in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Mineral pot filters (MPFs) are household water treatment (HWT) devices that are manufactured and distributed by the private sector, with millions of users in Southeast Asia. Their effectiveness in reducing waterborne microbes has not been previously investigated. We purchased three types of MPFs available on the Cambodian market for systematic evaluation of bacteria, virus, and protozoan surrogate microbial reduction in laboratory challenge experiments following WHO recommended performance testing protocols. Results over the total 1500 L testing period per filter indicate that the devices tested were highly effective in reducing Esherichia coli (99.99%+), moderately effective in reducing bacteriophage MS2 (99%+), and somewhat effective against Bacillus atrophaeus, a spore-forming bacterium we used as a surrogate for protozoa (88%+). Treatment mechanisms for all filters included porous ceramic and activated carbon filtration. Our results suggest that these commercially available filters may be at least as effective against waterborne pathogens as other, locally available treatment options such as ceramic pot filters or boiling. More research is needed on the role these devices may play as interim solutions to the problem of unsafe drinking water in Cambodia and globally. PMID:23030639

Brown, Joe; Chai, Ratana; Wang, Alice; Sobsey, Mark D

2012-11-01

52

Minehound TM trials in Cambodia, Bosnia, and Angola  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the trials of the MINEHOUND TM dual sensor, land mine detector carried out in Cambodia, Bosnia and Angola. MINEHOUND TM has been developed for use in humanitarian demining as a means of improving the efficiency of clearance operations. The trials were sponsored by the UK Department for International Development (DFID). ERA Technology Ltd conducted the trials, which were monitored by staff drawn from the countries participating in the International Test and Evaluation Programme (ITEP) for humanitarian de-mining. Experienced deminers from the Mines Advisory Group (MAG) and Norwegian Peoples Aid (NPA) used the pre-production units in live minefields. The objectives of the trial were: 1. To record information on the performance of MINEHOUND TM when used in a live minefield. 2. To determine the reduction in False Alarm Rate (FAR) that could be achieved using a dual sensor mine detector. The trials were conducted in three mine-affected countries for a period of eight weeks per country; the programme of trials ran from July 2005 to December 2005, with an additional smaller trial in late February 2006. The results of the trials showed that MINEHOUND TM achieved 100% detection of the mines encountered and an improvement in FAR of better than 5:1 compared with a basic metal detector. The trials enabled optimisation of the production design and clearly demonstrated that new technology can be brought to humanitarian clearance operations in a safe and controlled manner. As a result of the highly successful trials, Vallon and ERA will produce the MINEHOUND TM (Type number VMR1) starting in Q3 of 2006.

Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul

2006-05-01

53

Reviewing the Role of Teachers in Achieving Education for All in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last 20 years education policies in Cambodia have been driven by the global Education for All (EFA) campaign and have resulted in a rapid increase in the rates of primary education enrolment. However, the increasing number of children enrolling in schools has not always translated into high rates of primary education completion. Against…

Kim, Chae-Young; Rouse, Martyn

2011-01-01

54

Role of risk and protective factors in risky sexual behavior among high school students in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In many developing countries, adolescents have become increasingly prone to engage in habitual risky sexual behavior such as early sexual initiation and unprotected sex. The objective of this study was to identify the operation of risk and protective factors in individual, family, peer, school, and community domains in predicting risky sexual behavior among male and female adolescents in Cambodia.

Siyan Yi; Krishna C Poudel; Junko Yasuoka; Paula H Palmer; Songky Yi; Masamine Jimba

2010-01-01

55

Characteristics of bedrock-alluvial anastomosed rivers: the Mekong River in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mekong River is the 12th largest river in the world in terms of its length and mean annual discharge and yet it is poorly investigated. In the north eastern regions of Cambodia the Mekong River develops a multichannel pattern. It is characterised by a complex of intersecting bedrock channels, well vegetated alluvial and seasonally inundated islands, various types of

Liubov. V. Meshkova; Paul. A. Carling

2010-01-01

56

Violence, Democracy, and the Neoliberal “Order”: The Contestation of Public Space in Posttransitional Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neoliberal policies explain why authoritarianism and violence remain the principal modes of governance among many ruling elites in posttransitional settings. Using Cambodia as an empirical case to illustrate the neoliberalizing process, the promotion of intense marketization is revealed as a foremost causal factor in a country's inability to consolidate democracy following political transition. Neoliberalization effectively acts to suffocate an indigenous

Simon Springer

2009-01-01

57

What International Aid Organizations Can Learn From International Adult Learning: Experiences From Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Many countries receive international support to strengthen professional capacity. The effect of these professional development activities (PDAs), however, is often negligible. This article provides useful insights on how international aid organizations could improve their PDAs, by describing an intervention developed and applied in Cambodia. This intervention aimed at developing a training approach to be used within the local ministry

Jan Berkvens

2012-01-01

58

Poverty, wealth inequality and health among older adults in rural Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little research exists on health determinants among adults living in economically deprived regions despite the fact that these areas comprise a good part of the world. This paper examines the distribution of wealth then tests associations between wealth inequality and a variety of health outcomes, among older adults, in one of the world's poorest regions—rural Cambodia. Data from the 2004

Zachary Zimmer

2008-01-01

59

Chronic pain in land mine accident survivors in Cambodia and Kurdistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of the study were to study chronic pain in land mine accident survivors, and to study the impact of trauma and trauma care parameters on chronic pain. The level of chronic pain was registered (patient-rated and by clinical examination) in 57 severely injured adult land mine accident survivors in Cambodia and Northern Iraq more than one year after

Hans Husum; Kirsten Resell; Gyri Vorren; Yang Van Heng; Mudhafar Murad; Mads Gilbert; Torben Wisborg

2002-01-01

60

Cambodia: Summary Report. The Impact of Informal School Fees. Asia-South Pacific Education Watch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A prior study of costs of education in Cambodia was undertaken by Mark Bray in 1999. In his study he suggests that: "... the scale of dropout from Cambodian primary schools has been demonstrated to be high. Costs appear to be an important factor for many households when making decisions to withdraw their children from school." In that study,…

de Guzman, Sylvia

2007-01-01

61

Luminescence dating of anthropogenically reset canal sediments from Angkor Borei, Mekong Delta, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study in the analysis of anthropogenically reset sedimentary materials, through work undertaken to identify and date sediments in an ancient canal in the Mekong Delta, Cambodia. The emergence of rice cultivating communities, utilising canals for both hydraulic management and transport, represents an important stage in the social evolution of southeast Asia. The emergence of complex

D. C. W. Sanderson; P. Bishop; M. T. Stark; J. Q. Spencer

2003-01-01

62

Plantation based natual forests biomass estimation for REDD policies implementation in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forests play an important role in the climate change mitigation and regulation. Monitoring of forest biomass from local to global scale has become a challenging issue in the context of climate change. In this study, we have investigated the backscattering properties of ALOS\\/PALSAR data in cashew and rubber plantation area of Cambodia. The result shows that PALSAR backscattering coefficient (?

Ram Avtar; Wataru Takeuchi; Haruo Sawada

2011-01-01

63

Student Transition from Primary to Lower Secondary School in Cambodia: Narrative Insights into Complex Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article has three purposes. First, it presents findings from a study of student retention and dropout in Cambodia, as pupils transition from primary to lower secondary school. Second, it aims to understand from an in-depth, emic perspective the dynamics of this process and the challenges that individual families and their students face around…

Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Zimmermann, Thomas; Sitha, Chhinh; Williams, James H.; Kitamura, Yuto

2014-01-01

64

Distance Education Policy and Public Awareness in Cambodia, Laos, and Viet Nam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current project brings together academic and governmental specialists from Cambodia, Laos, and Viet Nam (CLV), in a collaborative study of the prospects for distance education (DE) in those countries. The study's overall objectives are to: (1) survey and take stock of existing educational scenarios and problems in CLV; (2) document the…

Vuth, Doung; Than, Chhuon Chan; Phanousith, Somphone; Phissamay, Phonpasit; Tai, Tran Thi

2007-01-01

65

Radar Image with Color as Height, Sman Teng, Temple, Cambodia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of Cambodia's Angkor region, taken by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), reveals a temple (upper-right) not depicted on early 19th Century French archeological survey maps and American topographic maps. The temple, known as 'Sman Teng,' was known to the local Khmer people, but had remained unknown to historians due to the remoteness of its location. The temple is thought to date to the 11th Century: the heyday of Angkor. It is an important indicator of the strategic and natural resource contributions of the area northwest of the capitol, to the urban center of Angkor. Sman Teng, the name designating one of the many types of rice enjoyed by the Khmer, was 'discovered' by a scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., working in collaboration with an archaeological expert on the Angkor region. Analysis of this remote area was a true collaboration of archaeology and technology. Locating the temple of Sman Teng required the skills of scientists trained to spot the types of topographic anomalies that only radar can reveal.

This image, with a pixel spacing of 5 meters (16.4 feet), depicts an area of approximately 5 by 4.7 kilometers (3.1 by 2.9 miles). North is at top. Image brightness is from the P-band (68 centimeters, or 26.8 inches) wavelength radar backscatter, a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color represents 25 meters (82 feet) of elevation change, so going from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again corresponds to 25 meters (82 feet) of elevation change.

AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR mode, AIRSAR collects radar interferometry data from two spatially separated antennas (2.6 meters, or 8.5 feet). Information from the two antennas is used to form radar backscatter imagery and to generate highly accurate elevation data. Built, operated and managed by JPL, AIRSAR is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise program. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2002-01-01

66

Transpiration characteristics of a rubber plantation in central Cambodia.  

PubMed

The rapid and widespread expansion of rubber plantations in Southeast Asia necessitates a greater understanding of tree physiology and the impacts of water consumption on local hydrology. Sap flow measurements were used to study the intra- and inter-annual variations in transpiration rate (Et) in a rubber stand in the low-elevation plain of central Cambodia. Mean stand sap flux density (JS) indicates that rubber trees actively transpire in the rainy season, but become inactive in the dry season. A sharp, brief drop in JS occurred simultaneously with leaf shedding in the middle of the dry season in January. Although the annual maxima of JS were approximately the same in the two study years, the maximum daily stand Et of ?2.0 mm day(-1) in 2010 increased to ?2.4 mm day(-1) in 2011. Canopy-level stomatal response was well explained by changes in solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit, soil moisture availability, leaf area, and stem diameter. Rubber trees had a relatively small potential to transpire at the beginning of the study period, compared with average diffuse-porous species. After 2 years of growth in stem diameter, transpiration potential was comparable to other species. The sensitivity of canopy conductance (gc) to atmospheric drought indicates isohydric behavior of rubber trees. Modeling also predicted a relatively small sensitivity of gc to the soil moisture deficit and a rapid decrease in gc under extreme drought conditions. However, annual observations suggest the possibility of a change in leaf characteristics with tree maturity and/or initiation of latex tapping. The estimated annual stand Et was 469 mm year(-1) in 2010, increasing to 658 mm year(-1) in 2011. Diagnostic analysis using the derived gc model showed that inter-annual change in stand Et in the rapidly growing young rubber stand was determined mainly by tree growth rate, not by differences in air and soil variables in the surrounding environment. Future research should focus on the potentially broad applicability of the relationship between Et and tree size as well as environmental factors at stands different in terms of clonal type and age. PMID:24646689

Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Tateishi, Makiko; Lim, Tiva K; Mudd, Ryan G; Ziegler, Alan D; Giambelluca, Thomas W; Yin, Song

2014-03-01

67

"Almost a role model of what we would like to do everywhere": British American Tobacco in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To examine British American Tobacco's (BAT's) renewed interest in Cambodia from the early 1990s, reviewing negotiations to establish a joint venture and the subsequent conduct of BAT Cambodia (BATC). Methods: Analysis of previously confidential BAT documents relevant to the Cambodian market. Results: With the advent of comparative political stability in the early 1990s, BAT was quick to explore the possibilities for investment. The Cambodian government urgently required foreign investment, offering inducements and assistance to investors. In developing a joint venture, BAT saw a cost effective opportunity to dominate the local market and to defend its regional interests, Cambodia being viewed as strategically located to support smuggling. Given minimal advertising regulation, BATC have undertaken wide ranging promotions and sought to prevent advances in tobacco control. Conclusions: BATC is presented as a contribution to Cambodia's regeneration, but the documents highlight its exploitation of state incapacity and an escalating threat to public health. PMID:15564213

MacKenzie, R; Collin, J; Sopharo, C; Sopheap, Y

2004-01-01

68

Farm-level bureaucrats in action (and inaction) : the distribution of veterinary services in Laos and Cambodia  

E-print Network

In this study, I analyze several dimensions of the institutional environment that govern contractual exchange between veterinary service providers and farmers in Laos and Cambodia. I hypothesize that the negotiation, ...

Ballard, Brett M

2005-01-01

69

Unusual increase in reported cases of paratyphoid A fever among travellers returning from Cambodia, January to September 2013.  

PubMed

From January to September 2013, a marked increase in notifications of Salmonella Paratyphi A infections among travellers returning from Cambodia occurred in France. An investigation revealed 35 cases without a common source: 21 in France, five in Germany, three in the Netherlands, one in Norway, one in the United Kingdom, four in New-Zealand. Data suggest an ongoing event that should trigger further investigation. Travellers to Cambodia should observe preventive measures including good personal hygiene and food handling practices. PMID:24094059

Tourdjman, M; Le Hello, S; Gossner, C; Delmas, G; Tubiana, S; Fabre, L; Kerléguer, A; Tarantola, A; Fruth, A; Friesema, I; Thorstensen Brandal, L; Lawrence, J; Fisher, I; Dufour, M; Weill, F X; de Valk, H

2013-01-01

70

Radar Image with Color as Height, Hariharalaya, Cambodia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hariharalaya, the ancient 9th Century A.D. capitol of the Khmer in Cambodia, is shown in the upper center portion of this NASA Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) image. The image was acquired during the 1996 PACRIM mission with AIRSAR operating in the TOPSAR mode. At the center of the image is the terraced sandstone temple mountain of the King Indravarman, the Bakong. The smaller enclosed rectangular feature just to the north is Preah Ko. Further to the south are more rectangular features, temples and water reservoirs attributed to other kings in the earlier part of the 9th Century A.D. and maybe even earlier. Just visible at the top on the image is a long linear feature that forms the southern border of the immense water reservoir, at the center of which is the Lolei temple. The city was the first capitol of the Khmer after the 802 A.D. ceremony consecrating the king as 'Devaraja'. This usually translated as 'god who was king' or 'king who was god'. In the next century, the center of power shifted to the northwest, to the area known today as Angkor.

Thus this early capital is unique both in being the first after the historical 'founding' of the Khmer Empire, and for being inhabited for a relatively short time. Although kings returned from Angkor in the 11th and 12th Centuries A.D. to build the temple known as the Lolei and to construct the tower in the center of Bakong, the city of Hariharalaya remained on the perimeter of royal power. It was revered, however, as part of a longstanding and important custom of ancestral veneration. This manifested itself in a complex set of rituals honoring one's forebears--also ensuring legitimacy for one's claim to the throne. So behind this seemingly simple patterning of rectangles on the radar image lies many layers of history, ritual and meaning for the Khmer people, past and present.

Image dimensions are approximately 6 by 4.8 kilometers (3.7 by 3 miles) with a pixel spacing of 5 meters (16.4 feet). North is at top. Image brightness is from the C-band (5.6 centimeters, or 2.2 inches wavelength) radar backscatter, which is a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color--from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again--represents 10 meters (32.8 feet) of elevation change.

AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR mode, AIRSAR collects radar interferometry data from two spatially separated antennas (2.6 meters, or 8.5 feet). Information from the two antennas is used to form radar backscatter imagery and to generate highly accurate elevation data. Built, operated and managed by JPL, AIRSAR is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise program. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2002-01-01

71

Utilisation of dental services in Cambodia and the role of traditional dentists.  

PubMed

Cambodia has a small, but growing number of qualified dentists, as well as about 300 traditional dentists. This study describes the current level of utilisation of dental services in Cambodia in Phnom Penh and in 6 provincial areas. 548 adults aged 35-45 and 60-80 years of age were interviewed concerning previous dental attendance, type of service used and preference for qualified or traditional practitioner services. Only 38 per cent had ever had dental treatment, with 87 per cent of attenders last visiting the dentist because of toothache. Although 34 per cent of attenders received their last course of treatment from a traditional dentist, 77 per cent of all subjects said they would prefer to visit a qualified dentist if they had the choice. The role of traditional practitioners may therefore diminish as numbers of qualified dentists increase. PMID:8193982

Todd, R; Durward, C S

1994-03-01

72

Infectious Etiologies of Acute Febrile Illness among Patients Seeking Health Care in South-Central Cambodia  

PubMed Central

The agents of human febrile illness can vary by region and country suggesting that diagnosis, treatment, and control programs need to be based on a methodical evaluation of area-specific etiologies. From December 2006 to December 2009, 9,997 individuals presenting with acute febrile illness at nine health care clinics in south-central Cambodia were enrolled in a study to elucidate the etiologies. Upon enrollment, respiratory specimens, whole blood, and serum were collected. Testing was performed for viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. Etiologies were identified in 38.0% of patients. Influenza was the most frequent pathogen, followed by dengue, malaria, and bacterial pathogens isolated from blood culture. In addition, 3.5% of enrolled patients were infected with more than one pathogen. Our data provide the first systematic assessment of the etiologies of acute febrile illness in south-central Cambodia. Data from syndromic-based surveillance studies can help guide public health responses in developing nations. PMID:22302857

Kasper, Matthew R.; Blair, Patrick J.; Touch, Sok; Sokhal, Buth; Yasuda, Chadwick Y.; Williams, Maya; Richards, Allen L.; Burgess, Timothy H.; Wierzba, Thomas F.; Putnam, Shannon D.

2012-01-01

73

Sustained by Snakes? Seasonal Livelihood Strategies and Resource Conservation by Tonle Sap Fishers in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper situates concerns for conservation of aquatic snakes and livelihood sustainability in Cambodia within a social–ecological\\u000a systems context and thereby presents a challenge to conventional species-based conservation programmes. Fishing for low-value\\u000a water snakes has become a widespread activity within the floating communities of Tonle Sap Lake in the last 20 years in response\\u000a to new market opportunities, provided primarily by

Sharon E. Brooks; John D. Reynolds; Edward H. Allison

2008-01-01

74

A first assessment of the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Cambodia is among the 22 high-burden TB countries, and has one of the highest rates of TB in South-East Asia. This study aimed to describe the genetic diversity among clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) isolates collected in Cambodia and to relate these findings to genetic diversity data from neighboring countries. Methods We characterized by 24 VNTR loci genotyping and spoligotyping 105 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates collected between 2007 and 2008 in the region of Phnom-Penh, Cambodia, enriched in multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates (n = 33). Results Classical spoligotyping confirmed that the East-African Indian (EAI) lineage is highly prevalent in this area (60%-68% respectively in whole sample and among non-MDR isolates). Beijing lineage is also largely represented (30% in whole sample, 21% among non-MDR isolates, OR = 4.51, CI95% [1.77, 11.51]) whereas CAS lineage was absent. The 24 loci MIRU-VNTR typing scheme distinguished 90 patterns with only 13 multi-isolates clusters covering 28 isolates. The clustering of EAI strains could be achieved with only 8 VNTR combined with spoligotyping, which could serve as a performing, easy and cheap genotyping standard for this family. Extended spoligotyping suggested relatedness of some unclassified "T1 ancestors" or "Manu" isolates with modern strains and provided finer resolution. Conclusions The genetic diversity of MTC in Cambodia is driven by the EAI and the Beijing families. We validate the usefulness of the extended spoligotyping format in combination with 8 VNTR for EAI isolates in this region. PMID:21299851

2011-01-01

75

Data mining and stock assessment of fisheries resources in Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of catch per unit effort (CPUE) analysis based on statistics of local fisheries in Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia\\u000a was evaluated. The fishery statistics system was improved through a cooperative project conducted by the Department of Fisheries\\u000a and the Mekong River Commission between 1994 and 2000, especially in the seven provinces adjacent to Tonle Sap Lake. However,\\u000a the

Kazuhiro Enomoto; Satoshi Ishikawa; Mina Hori; Hort Sitha; Srun Lim Song; Nao Thuok; Hisashi Kurokura

76

Identification of multidrug resistance in previously treated tuberculosis patients: a mixed methods study in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Setting Previously treated tuberculosis (TB) patients are a priority for drug susceptibility testing (DST) to identify cases with multidrug resistance (MDR). In Cambodia, a recent study found that only one-third of smear-positive previously treated patients had DST results. Objective To quantify the gaps in detecting MDR in previously treated TB patients in Cambodia, and describe health workers’ perspectives on barriers, facilitators and potential interventions. Design We analyzed case notifications in Cambodia (2004–2012) and conducted semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders Results The proportion of previously treated notifications varied significantly across provinces 2010–12, in the context of longer term trends of decreasing relapse and increasing “other” retreatment notifications. Correct classification of patients’ TB treatment history and ensuring specimens from previously-treated patients are collected and reach the laboratory could nearly double the number of detected MDR-TB cases. Identified barriers include patients’ reluctance to disclose and staff difficulty eliciting treatment history, partly due to availability of streptomycin only in hospitals. Facilitators include trained health workers, collection of sputum for DST even if previously treated patients are not taking streptomycin, streamlining sputum transportation and promptly reporting results. Conclusion Improved monitoring, supportive supervision, and correctly classifying previously treated patients are essential for improving detection of MDR-TB. PMID:25299861

Royce, S; Khann, S; Yadav, RP; Mao, ET; Cattamanchi, A; Sam, S; Handley, MA

2014-01-01

77

[Mental health and cultural issues: the return of Khmers from France to Cambodia for healing purposes].  

PubMed

There are many kinds of traditional healers in Cambodia, mostly in the rural areas. People often seek advice from monks at the pagoda, traditional doctors (kru khmer) or mediums when they are ill, and consult medical practitioners only as a last resort. Each of these healers provides a different solution and form of care. Traditional healers are difficult to find in France and they often work in secret. Monks teach meditation rather than magic, brahmanism and superstition. There are now Khmer in Cambodia who have returned after long and complex treatments in general and psychiatric hospitals in France, seeking a release from suffering in their motherland. They seek an alternative understanding of their problems and a different kind of care, based largely on witchcraft and spiritual possession, which is not available in France. Returning to Cambodia is important because they are allowed to live according to their beliefs without being seen as insane. However, this return also involves confrontation with the lost country and the past, with war and the Killing Fields, in the same place as the trauma itself occurred. Several cases illustrate the healing nature of the return and emphasize the importance of a culturally sensitive interpretation of the patient's symptoms, which may express cultural bereavement and do not fit easily into international psychiatric categories. This requires much careful attention and listening to the patient. PMID:9480040

Bertrand, D

1997-01-01

78

Suicidal expressions among young people in Nicaragua and Cambodia: a cross-cultural study  

PubMed Central

Background Whereas prevalence of suicidal expressions among young people is fairly similar in different countries, less is known about associated risk factors. This study compares young people in Nicaragua and Cambodia to examine if the pattern of association between mental health problems and suicidal expressions differs. Methods 368 and 316 secondary school students, from each country respectively, participated. Self-reported suicidal expressions, exposure to suicidal behavior in significant others and mental health problems among the students were measured using Attitude Towards Suicide (ATTS) and the Youth Self-Report (YSR) questionnaires. Results Prevalence of serious suicidal expressions (plans and attempts) during recent year, did not differ between countries. Cambodian young people scored significantly higher on all eight YSR-syndromes, except for withdrawn/depressed. In Nicaragua, all YSR-syndromes were significantly associated with serious suicidal expressions in both genders compared to Cambodia where only one syndrome showed an association in each gender; Withdrawn/depressed among girls and Somatic complaints among boys. Associations between being exposed to suicide among significant others and serious suicidal expressions also differed between Cambodia and Nicaragua. Conclusions While the magnitude of serious suicidal expressions is similar between these structurally similar but culturally different countries, determinants behave differently. Qualitative studies are warranted to further explore cultural specific determinants for suicidal expressions among young people. PMID:22463077

2012-01-01

79

Distribution of selected healthcare resources for influenza pandemic response in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Human influenza infection poses a serious public health threat in Cambodia, a country at risk for the emergence and spread of novel influenza viruses with pandemic potential. Prior pandemics demonstrated the adverse impact of influenza on poor communities in developing countries. Investigation of healthcare resource distribution can inform decisions regarding resource mobilization and investment for pandemic mitigation. Methods A health facility survey performed across Cambodia obtained data on availability of healthcare resources important for pandemic influenza response. Focusing on five key resources considered most necessary for treating severe influenza (inpatient beds, doctors, nurses, oseltamivir, and ventilators), resource distributions were analyzed at the Operational District (OD) and Province levels, refining data analysis from earlier studies. Resources were stratified by respondent type (hospital vs. District Health Office [DHO]). A summary index of distribution inequality was calculated using the Gini coefficient. Indices for local spatial autocorrelation were measured at the OD level using geographical information system (GIS) analysis. Finally, a potential link between socioeconomic status and resource distribution was explored by mapping resource densities against poverty rates. Results Gini coefficient calculation revealed variable inequality in distribution of the five key resources at the Province and OD levels. A greater percentage of the population resides in areas of relative under-supply (28.5%) than over-supply (21.3%). Areas with more resources per capita showed significant clustering in central Cambodia while areas with fewer resources clustered in the northern and western provinces. Hospital-based inpatient beds, doctors, and nurses were most heavily concentrated in areas of the country with the lowest poverty rates; however, beds and nurses in Non-Hospital Medical Facilities (NHMF) showed increasing concentrations at higher levels of poverty. Conclusions There is considerable heterogeneity in healthcare resource distribution across Cambodia. Distribution mapping at the local level can inform policy decisions on where to stockpile resources in advance of and for reallocation in the event of a pandemic. These findings will be useful in determining future health resource investment, both for pandemic preparedness and for general health system strengthening, and provide a foundation for future analyses of equity in health services provision for pandemic mitigation planning in Cambodia. PMID:24090286

2013-01-01

80

Achieving universal access and moving towards elimination of new HIV infections in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Introduction In the mid-1990s, Cambodia faced one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in Asia. For its achievement in reversing this trend, and achieving universal access to HIV treatment, the country received a United Nations millennium development goal award in 2010. This article reviews Cambodia’s response to HIV over the past two decades and discusses its current efforts towards elimination of new HIV infections. Methods A literature review of published and unpublished documents, including programme data and presentations, was conducted. Results and discussion Cambodia classifies its response to one of the most serious HIV epidemics in Asia into three phases. In Phase I (1991–2000), when adult HIV prevalence peaked at 1.7% and incidence exceeded 20,000 cases, a nationwide HIV prevention programme targeted brothel-based sex work. Voluntary confidential counselling and testing and home-based care were introduced, and peer support groups of people living with HIV emerged. Phase II (2001–2011) observed a steady decline in adult prevalence to 0.8% and incidence to 1600 cases by 2011, and was characterized by: expanding antiretroviral treatment (coverage reaching more than 80%) and continuum of care; linking with tuberculosis and maternal and child health services; accelerated prevention among key populations, including entertainment establishment-based sex workers, men having sex with men, transgender persons, and people who inject drugs; engagement of health workers to deliver quality services; and strengthening health service delivery systems. The third phase (2012–2020) aims to attain zero new infections by 2020 through: sharpening responses to key populations at higher risk; maximizing access to community and facility-based testing and retention in prevention and care; and accelerating the transition from vertical approaches to linked/integrated approaches. Conclusions Cambodia has tailored its prevention strategy to its own epidemic, established systematic linkages across different services and communities, and achieved nearly universal coverage of HIV services nationwide. Still, the programme must continually (re)prioritize the most effective and efficient interventions, strengthen synergies between programmes, contribute to health system strengthening, and increase domestic funding so that the gains of the previous two decades are sustained, and the goal of zero new infections is reached. PMID:24950749

Vun, Mean Chhi; Fujita, Masami; Rathavy, Tung; Eang, Mao Tang; Sopheap, Seng; Sovannarith, Samreth; Chhorvann, Chhea; Vanthy, Ly; Sopheap, Oum; Welle, Emily; Ferradini, Laurent; Sedtha, Chin; Bunna, Sok; Verbruggen, Robert

2014-01-01

81

What are effective components of in?service teacher training? A study examining teacher trainers’ perceptions of the components of a training programme in mathematics education in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes and analyses an in?service education project, financed by the Belgium Technical Cooperation, to improve the quality of mathematics teaching in 138 primary and lower secondary schools in Cambodia. The project design drew on recent research in developing countries and prior experience of training programmes in Cambodia. The research focused on the components of the in?service programme, which

Jane Courtney

2007-01-01

82

Enteric fever in Cambodian children is dominated by multidrug-resistant H58 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi with intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin.  

PubMed

Infections with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates that are multidrug resistant (MDR: resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole) with intermediate ciprofloxacin susceptibility are widespread in Asia but there is little information from Cambodia. We studied invasive salmonellosis in children at a paediatric hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia. Between 2007 and 2011 Salmonella was isolated from a blood culture in 162 children. There were 151 children with enteric fever, including 148 serovar Typhi and three serovar Paratyphi A infections, and 11 children with a non-typhoidal Salmonella infection. Of the 148 serovar Typhi isolates 126 (85%) were MDR and 133 (90%) had intermediate ciprofloxacin susceptibility. Inpatient antimicrobial treatment was ceftriaxone alone or initial ceftriaxone followed by a step-down to oral ciprofloxacin or azithromycin. Complications developed in 37/128 (29%) children admitted with enteric fever and two (1.6%) died. There was one confirmed relapse. In a sample of 102 serovar Typhi strains genotyped by investigation of a subset of single nucleotide polymorphisms, 98 (96%) were the H58 haplotype, the majority of which had the common serine to phenylalanine substitution at codon 83 in the DNA gyrase. We conclude that antimicrobial-resistant enteric fever is common in Cambodian children and therapeutic options are limited. PMID:23122884

Emary, Kate; Moore, Catrin E; Chanpheaktra, Ngoun; An, Khun Peng; Chheng, Kheng; Sona, Soeng; Duy, Pham Thanh; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Kumar, Varun; Wijedoru, Lalith; Stoesser, Nicole E; Carter, Michael J; Baker, Stephen; Day, Nicholas P J; Parry, Christopher M

2012-12-01

83

Respondent-driven sampling on the Thailand-Cambodia border. I. Can malaria cases be contained in mobile migrant workers?  

PubMed Central

Background Reliable information on mobility patterns of migrants is a crucial part of the strategy to contain the spread of artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites in South-East Asia, and may also be helpful to efforts to address other public health problems for migrants and members of host communities. In order to limit the spread of malarial drug resistance, the malaria prevention and control programme will need to devise strategies to reach cross-border and mobile migrant populations. Methodology The Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method was used to survey migrant workers from Cambodia and Myanmar, both registered and undocumented, in three Thai provinces on the Thailand-Cambodia border in close proximity to areas with documented artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites. 1,719 participants (828 Cambodian and 891 Myanmar migrants) were recruited. Subpopulations of migrant workers were analysed using the Thailand Ministry of Health classification based on length of residence in Thailand of greater than six months (long-term, or M1) or less than six months (short-term, or M2). Key information collected on the structured questionnaire included patterns of mobility and migration, demographic characteristics, treatment-seeking behaviours, and knowledge, perceptions, and practices about malaria. Results Workers from Cambodia came from provinces across Cambodia, and 22% of Cambodian M1 and 72% of Cambodian M2 migrants had been in Cambodia in the last three months. Less than 6% returned with a frequency of greater than once per month. Of migrants from Cambodia, 32% of M1 and 68% of M2 were planning to return, and named provinces across Cambodia as their likely next destinations. Most workers from Myanmar came from Mon state (86%), had never returned to Myanmar (85%), and only 4% stated plans to return. Conclusion Information on migratory patterns of migrants from Myanmar and Cambodia along the malaria endemic Thailand-Cambodian border within the artemisinin resistance containment zone will help target health interventions, including treatment follow-up and surveillance. PMID:21554744

2011-01-01

84

Assessment of financial impact of foot and mouth disease on smallholder cattle farmers in Southern Cambodia.  

PubMed

The financial impact of an outbreak of FMD in 2010 on 62 smallholder cattle farmers in four villages in southern Cambodia was investigated by a financial impact survey questionnaire. Financial losses associated with FMD infection were severe with variation depending on whether the animal survived or died or was used for draft. The average post-FMD loss varied from USD 216.32, a 54% reduction from the pre-FMD value because of weight loss and treatment costs, to USD 370.54, a 92% reduction from pre-FMD values if the animal was treated, died and a rental draft replacement was required. Partial budget analysis identified a strongly positive incentive for cattle to be vaccinated biannually for FMD, providing USD 31.48 per animal for each animal owned. However low vaccination rates suggest that farmers are mostly unaware of the need or averse to the practice of vaccinating their cattle for FMD. This may be due to poor understanding of preventative disease strategies such as vaccination, unavailable disposable income for purchase of vaccines, and failure to recognize the full costs that are incurred when the disease occurs. Enhancing smallholder cattle productivity through the introduction of forage growing systems has been suggested as a pathway for alleviating rural poverty in the Mekong region. As our financial analysis identified a net benefit of vaccination for smallholder farmer enterprises in an endemic FMD area in Cambodia, it is considered important that farmer education strategies aimed at improving cattle productivity, also include both access to vaccine and training in preventative disease risk management and biosecurity practices in Cambodia. PMID:22510453

Young, J R; Suon, S; Andrews, C J; Henry, L A; Windsor, P A

2013-04-01

85

Surveillance on chronic arsenic exposure in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia using different biomarkers.  

PubMed

Thousands of Cambodia populations are currently at high risks of both toxic and carcinogenic effects through drinking arsenic-rich groundwater. In order to determine and assess the use of arsenic contents in different biological samples as biomarkers of chronic arsenic exposure from drinking arsenic-rich groundwater in Cambodia, individual scalp hair, fingernail and toenail were collected from three different provinces in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. After washing and acid-digestion, digestate was analyzed for total arsenic by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Chemical analysis of the acid-digested hair revealed that among 270 hair samples cut from Kandal, 78.1% had arsenic content in scalp hair (As(h)) greater than the typical As(h) (1.00 ?g g(-1)), indicating possible arsenic toxicity. Concurrently, 1.2% and 0.6% were found elevated in Kratie (n=84) and Kampong Cham (n=173), respectively. Similarly, the upper end of the ranges for arsenic contents in fingernail (As(fn)) and toenail (As(tn)) clipped from Kandal (fingernail n=241; toenail n=187) were higher than the normal arsenic content in nail (0.43-1.08 ?g g(-1)), however, none was observed elevated in both Kratie (fingernail n=76, toenail n=42) and Kampong Cham (fingernail n=83; toenail n=52). Significant positive intercorrelations between groundwater arsenic concentration (As(w)), average daily dose (ADD) of arsenic, As(h), As(fn) and As(tn) suggest that As(h), As(fn) and As(tn) can be used as biomarkers of chronic arsenic exposure from drinking arsenic-rich groundwater, in which As(h) is more favorable than As(fn) and As(tn) due to the ease of sample processing and analytical measurements, respectively. PMID:21820958

Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

2011-12-01

86

Mercury contamination in human hair and fish from Cambodia: levels, specific accumulation and risk assessment.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) concentrations in human hair and fish samples from Phnom Penh, Kien Svay, Tomnup Rolork and Batrong, Cambodia, collected in November 1999 and December 2000 were determined to understand the status of contamination, and age- and sex-dependent accumulation in humans and to assess the intake of mercury via fish consumption. Mercury concentrations in human hair ranged from 0.54 to 190mug/g dry wt. About 3% of the samples contained Hg levels exceeding the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) of WHO (50mug/g) and the levels in some hair samples of women also exceeded the NOAEL (10mug/g) associated with fetus neurotoxicity. A weak but significant positive correlation was observed between age and Hg levels in hair of residents. Mercury concentrations in muscle of marine and freshwater fish from Cambodia ranged from <0.01 to 0.96mug/g wet wt. Mercury intake rates were estimated on the basis of the Hg content in fish and daily fish consumption. Three samples of marine fish including sharp-tooth snapper and obtuse barracuda, and one sample of sharp-tooth snapper exceeded the guidelines by US EPA and by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), respectively, which indicates that some fish specimens examined (9% and 3% for US EPA and JECFA guidelines, respectively) were hazardous for consumption at the ingestion rate of Cambodian people (32.6g/day). It is suggested that fish is probably the main source of Hg for Cambodian people. However, extremely high Hg concentrations were observed in some individuals and could not be explained by Hg intake from fish consumption, indicating some other contamination sources of Hg in Cambodia. PMID:15572226

Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Iwata, Hisato; Monirith, In; Tana, Touch Seang; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

2005-03-01

87

Beliefs about tobacco, health, and addiction among adults in Cambodia: findings from a national survey.  

PubMed

There remains a very high rate of smoked and smokeless tobacco use in the Western Pacific Region. The most recent findings from national adult tobacco surveys indicate that very few daily users of tobacco intend to quit tobacco use. In Cambodia, a nation that is predominantly Buddhist, faith-based tobacco control programs have been implemented where, under the fifth precept of Buddhism that proscribes addictive behaviors, monks were encouraged to quit tobacco and temples have been declared smoke-free. In the present study, we included items on a large national tobacco survey to examine the relation between beliefs (faith-based, other) about tobacco, health, and addiction among adults (18 years and older). In a stratified, multistage cluster sample (n=13,988) of all provinces of Cambodia, we found that (1) 88-93% believe that Buddhist monks should not use tobacco, buy tobacco, or be offered tobacco during a religious ceremony; (2) 86-93% believe that the Wat (temple) should be a smoke-free area; (3) 93-95% believe that tobacco is addictive in the same way as habits (opium, gambling, alcohol) listed under the fifth precept of Buddhism; and (4) those who do not use tobacco are significantly more likely to cite a Buddhist principle as part of their anti-tobacco beliefs. These data indicate that anti-tobacco sentiments are highly prevalent in the Buddhist belief system of Cambodian adults and are especially evident among non-users of tobacco. Our findings indicate that faith-based initiatives could be an effective part of anti-tobacco campaigns in Cambodia. PMID:21948146

Yel, Daravuth; Bui, Anthony; Job, Jayakaran S; Knutsen, Synnove; Singh, Pramil N

2013-09-01

88

Cardiologist in the shadow of Angkor Wat: A medical mission to Cambodia  

PubMed Central

In a medical mission to Cambodia, our team of doctors, dentists, and nurses saw over 1000 patients during 4 days of clinics. The most common cardiovascular problems were hypertension (11%) and heart murmurs (3%). Obesity and a history of diabetes were very rare. Unlike the cardiac patients I typically see in my Atlanta office, the Cambodians were trim and muscular from their predominantly farming and, less often, construction jobs. They are a gentle, seemingly happy people, appreciative of whatever limited medical help we could offer. Tuberculosis was the most prevalent serious illness noted. PMID:24688208

2014-01-01

89

High Prevalence and Spatial Distribution of Strongyloides stercoralis in Rural Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background The threadworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, endemic in tropical and temperate climates, is a neglected tropical disease. Its diagnosis requires specific methods, and accurate information on its geographic distribution and global burden are lacking. We predicted prevalence, using Bayesian geostatistical modeling, and determined risk factors in northern Cambodia. Methods From February to June 2010, we performed a cross-sectional study among 2,396 participants from 60 villages in Preah Vihear Province, northern Cambodia. Two stool specimens per participant were examined using Koga agar plate culture and the Baermann method for detecting S. stercoralis infection. Environmental data was linked to parasitological and questionnaire data by location. Bayesian mixed logistic models were used to explore the spatial correlation of S. stercoralis infection risk. Bayesian Kriging was employed to predict risk at non-surveyed locations. Principal Findings Of the 2,396 participants, 44.7% were infected with S. stercoralis. Of 1,071 strongyloidiasis cases, 339 (31.6%) were among schoolchildren and 425 (39.7%) were found in individuals under 16 years. The incidence of S. stercoralis infection statistically increased with age. Infection among male participants was significantly higher than among females (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4–2.0; P<0.001). Participants who defecated in latrines were infected significantly less than those who did not (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4–0.8; P?=?0.001). Strongyloidiasis cases would be reduced by 39% if all participants defecated in latrines. Incidence of S. stercoralis infections did not show a strong tendency toward spatial clustering in this province. The risk of infection significantly decreased with increasing rainfall and soil organic carbon content, and increased in areas with rice fields. Conclusions/Significance Prevalence of S. stercoralis in rural Cambodia is very high and school-aged children and adults over 45 years were the most at risk for infection. Lack of access to adequate treatment for chronic uncomplicated strongyloidiasis is an urgent issue in Cambodia. We would expect to see similar prevalence rates elsewhere in Southeast Asia and other tropical resource poor countries. PMID:24921627

Khieu, Virak; Schar, Fabian; Forrer, Armelle; Hattendorf, Jan; Marti, Hanspeter; Duong, Socheat; Vounatsou, Penelope; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

2014-01-01

90

Deployment of dual-sensor ALIS for humanitarian demining in Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are in the process of developing a high-resolution landmine scanning system "ALIS" which produces horizontal slices of the shallow subsurface for visualization of buried explosives and inert clutter. As many AP mines contain minimum amounts of metal, metal detectors need to be combined with a complimentary subsurface imaging sensor. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is widely accepted for subsurface sensing in the fields of geology, archaeology and utility detection. The demining application requires real-time imaging results with centimetre resolution in a highly portable package. The key requirement for sharp images of the subsurface is the precise tracking of the geophysical sensor(s) during data collection. We should also notice that GPR system is a very wide band radar system, and equivalent to UWB radar, which has recently been developed for short-range high-accuracy radar. We are testing simplified but effective signal processing for imaging mines. We are currently testing a dual sensor ALIS which is a realtime sensor tracking system based on a CCD camera and image processing. In this paper we introduce the GPR systems which we have developed for detection of buried antipersonnel mines and small size explosives. ALIS has been deployed in Cambodia since 2009 and detected more than 70 mines in mine fields, and returned more than 13ha cleaned fields to local farmers. We also report the current status of ALIS in Cambodia.

Sato, M.; Takahashi, K.

2013-06-01

91

Subsurface Imaging by UWB Radar: Application to Humanitarian Demining in Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been widely used applications which include detection of subsurface facilities, concrete inspection and archaeology. Among these applications, humanitarian demining is still difficult task. Since 2002, we have developed a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor ALIS. ALIS is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR, and it has a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. ALIS can process the data and is used for image re-construction by migration processing. ALIS is the only one mine detection system in the world which can visualize the GPR image by hand scanning. We found that the migration processing can reduce the clutter and gives us clear images of buried mines. After several tests of ALIS in mine affected courtiers, operation of ALIS in mine fields in Cambodia started in summer 2009. Two sets of ALIS have been operated in Cambodia and more than 77 antipersonnel mines have been detected and 137,000m2 farmland was cleaned.

Sato, Motoyuki

92

Parents and Family Members in the Era of ART: Evidence from Cambodia and Thailand  

PubMed Central

Ensuring treatment adherence is critical for the success of ART programs in developing countries. Enlisting NGOs or PLHA group members as treatment supporters is one common strategy. Less attention is given to family members and especially older-age parents. Yet ART patients often live with other family members who are highly motivated to ensure treatment success. This study examines the role of family members and especially parents in assisting adherence in Cambodia and Thailand among adult ART patients. Most have a living parent and many live with or near a parent. Family members including parents commonly remind patients to take medications, particularly if coresident in the same household. Parents also remind patients to get resupplies and accompany them to appointments. Some contrasts between Cambodia and Thailand emerged. Fewer Cambodian than Thai patients had a living parent. However, among those who did, equal shares lived with parents. Cambodian parents more commonly reminded patients to take medications and get resupplies and accompanied them when doing so. In both countries correct knowledge of ART among parents was associated with the amount of advice from program personnel. The results underscore both the need to more explicitly incorporate close family members, including parents, into efforts to promote adherence and need for PLHA peers and home based care teams to provide them with adequate information, training and resources to increase their effectiveness. PMID:21726159

Knodel, John; Hak, Sochanny; Khuon, Chandore; So, Dane; McAndrew, John

2011-01-01

93

Improving immunization equity through a public-private partnership in Cambodia.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects on immunization equity of the large-scale contracting of primary health-care services in rural areas of Cambodia. METHODS: Data were obtained pre-intervention and post-intervention from a large-scale quasi-experiment in contracting with nongovernmental organizations to provide primary health care in nine rural districts of Cambodia between 1999 and mid-2001. Coverage targets and equity targets for all primary health-care services, including immunization of children, were explicitly included in the contracts awarded in five of nine rural districts which together have a population of over 1.25 million people. The remaining four districts used the traditional government model for providing services and were given identical targets. FINDINGS: After the 2.5 years of the trial, bivariate and multivariate analyses of the results suggested that although there was a substantial increase in the proportion of children who were fully immunized in all districts, children in the poorest 50% of households in the districts served by contractors were more likely to be fully immunized than poor children living in similar circumstances in districts using the government's model, all other things being equal. CONCLUSION: The contracting approach described in this paper suggests a means of moving towards a more equitable distribution of immunization services in developing countries. PMID:15628203

Schwartz, J. Brad; Bhushan, Indu

2004-01-01

94

Arsenic concentration in rice, fish, meat and vegetables in Cambodia: a preliminary risk assessment.  

PubMed

To assess arsenic contaminations and its possible adverse health effects, food samples were collected from Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham in Cambodia. The highest and the lowest concentrations were observed in fish (mean 2,832 ng g(-1), ww) collected from Kandal province and cattle stomach (1.86 ± 1.10 ng g(-1), ww) collected from Kratie, respectively. The daily intake of arsenic via food consumption was 604, 9.70 and 136 ?g day(-1) in Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham, respectively. The arsenic dietary intake in Kandal ranked No. 1 among all the 17 compared countries or regions. Fish consumption contributed the greatest proportion of total arsenic daily intake in Kandal (about 63.0 %) and Kampong Cham (about 69.8 %). It is revealed to be a much more important exposure pathway than drinking water for residents in Kampong Cham. The results of risk assessment suggested that the residents in Cambodia, particularly for people in Kandal province, suffer high public health risks due to consuming arsenic-contaminated food. PMID:23728998

Wang, Hong-Sheng; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Chen, Zhuo-Jia; Man, Yu-Bon; Du, Jun; Xing, Guang-Hua; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Mohamed Yasin, Mohamed Salleh; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Wong, Ming-Hung

2013-12-01

95

Changing patterns of forest malaria among the mobile adult male population in Chumkiri District, Cambodia.  

PubMed

Forest malaria remains a major problem in many parts of Southeast Asia and South America. In Cambodia, where a significant reduction of malaria morbidity and mortality has been observed in the last 20 years, the forest malaria situation was studied in Chumkiri District by analysing the available passive case detection data and conducting malariometric (n=1018) and questionnaire surveys (n=374) in four forest-fringe villages. There has been a decreasing trend of malaria incidence from 2001. Plasmodium falciparum was highly predominant and P. vivax was rare. The nearby-forest villages showed significantly higher parasite rates than the far-from-forest villages (9.0% vs. 1.2%, p<0.01). Malaria was highly restricted to the male adults but was nearly non-existent in other accompanying family members, including small children and females. Low income and working in forests were strongly associated with the malaria risk. Our results suggest that transmission has greatly reduced in forest-fringe villages, but remains active in forests, which is primarily maintained between the forest vector Anopheles dirus and ethnic minority inhabitants. Specific interventions directed to these previously neglected in-forest inhabitants to protect themselves and male adult villagers during their forest activities are necessary to achieve an ultimate goal of malaria elimination from Cambodia. PMID:18471797

Dysoley, Lek; Kaneko, Akira; Eto, Hideaki; Mita, Toshihiro; Socheat, Doung; Börkman, Anders; Kobayakawa, Takatoshi

2008-06-01

96

Can Human Movements Explain Heterogeneous Propagation of Dengue Fever in Cambodia?  

PubMed Central

Background Determining the factors underlying the long-range spatial spread of infectious diseases is a key issue regarding their control. Dengue is the most important arboviral disease worldwide and a major public health problem in tropical areas. However the determinants shaping its dynamics at a national scale remain poorly understood. Here we describe the spatial-temporal pattern of propagation of annual epidemics in Cambodia and discuss the role that human movements play in the observed pattern. Methods and Findings We used wavelet phase analysis to analyse time-series data of 105,598 hospitalized cases reported between 2002 and 2008 in the 135 (/180) most populous districts in Cambodia. We reveal spatial heterogeneity in the propagation of the annual epidemic. Each year, epidemics are highly synchronous over a large geographic area along the busiest national road of the country whereas travelling waves emanate from a few rural areas and move slowly along the Mekong River at a speed of ?11 km per week (95% confidence interval 3–18 km per week) towards the capital, Phnom Penh. Conclusions We suggest human movements – using roads as a surrogate – play a major role in the spread of dengue fever at a national scale. These findings constitute a new starting point in the understanding of the processes driving dengue spread. PMID:23236536

Teurlai, Magali; Huy, Rekol; Cazelles, Bernard; Duboz, Raphael; Baehr, Christophe; Vong, Sirenda

2012-01-01

97

Amphetamine-type stimulant use and HIV\\/STI risk behaviour among young female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundUse of amphetamine-type substances (ATS) has been linked to increased risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) worldwide. In Cambodia, recent ATS use is independently associated with incident STI infection among young female sex workers (FSWs).

L. Maher; P. Phlong; J. Mooney-Somers; S. Keo; E. Stein; M. C. Couture; K. Page

2011-01-01

98

The experiences and perspectives on birth preparedness from women and communities in rural Cambodia : rethinking the “the first delay”  

Microsoft Academic Search

High maternal mortality is a major health and social problem in Cambodia, particularly in rural areas where many women still deliver at home without the assistance of skilled birth attendants. As a majority of maternal deaths could be prevented with timely and adequate medical treatment, it is important to unpack the factors that cause what Thaddeus and Maine refer to

A. Hiwasa

2010-01-01

99

ORIGINAL ARTICLES CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES IN RURAL CAMBODIA: AN EXAMINATION OF FUNCTIONAL STATUS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR SERVICE DELIVERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to obtain a clearer understanding of the functional status of children in rural Cambodia with disabilities, and to learn how families perceived and used relevant services for their children. Using existing databases, a survey was conducted targeting caregivers of 500 identified children with different types of disabilities, in two rural Cambodian provinces. Although 25% of the

Betsy VanLeit; Samol Channa; Prum Rithy

100

Balancing effectiveness, side-effects and work: women's perceptions and experiences with modern contraceptive technology in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This community-based study presents the results of 17 focus-group discussions primarily among poor married women of reproductive age in urban and rural Cambodia regarding their experiences with modern contraceptive methods and their preferences for different technical attributes, including effectiveness, mode of administration, secrecy and rapid return of fertility. Key findings indicate that women who use modern contraceptive technologies desire highly

Ritu Sadana; Rachel Snow

1999-01-01

101

Perceptions of the local community on the outcome of community fishery management in Krala Peah village, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since fishery resources are regarded as an important source of income and food security, these resources need to be protected and conserved for sustainable use. To do this, the government of Cambodia has revised its policies, shifting management and responsibility to the local level. In response to government policy, Krala Peah village community fishery was established to manage resources within

Vanna Nuon; Wenresti Gallardo

2011-01-01

102

NAME CITY STATE COMPANY POSITION/SERVICES EMAIL PHONE Vu, Thuyhien Cambodia Homes of Love thuyhien@temple.edu  

E-print Network

NAME CITY STATE COMPANY POSITION/SERVICES EMAIL PHONE Vu, Thuyhien Cambodia Homes of Love thuyhien karen1319@gmail.com Shelashska, Raya Kyiv, Ukraine International Leadership and Development Center Children's Services Social Worker lifeline@lifelinechild.org (205) 967-0811 Blunt, Felicity Birmingham AL

Cooper, Brenton G.

103

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Outbreak in Captive Wild Birds and Cats, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

From December 2003 through January 2004, the Phnom Tamao Wildlife Rescue Centre, Cambodia, was affected by the highly pathogenic influenza virus (H5N1). Birds from 26 species died. Influenza virus subtype H5N1 was detected in 6 of 7 species tested. Cats from 5 of 7 species were probably infected; none died. PMID:19239769

Marx, Nick; Ong, Sivuth; Gaidet, Nicolas; Hunt, Matt; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Sorn, San; Peiris, Malik; Van der Werf, Sylvie; Reynes, Jean-Marc

2009-01-01

104

What Makes the Difference? An Analysis of a Reading Intervention Programme Implemented in Rural Schools in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares the existing single-strategy approach towards the teaching of early literacy in schools in rural Cambodia with a multiple-strategy approach introduced as part of a reading intervention programme. Classroom observations, questionnaires and in-depth interviews with teachers were used to explore teachers' practices and…

Courtney, Jane; Gravelle, Maggie

2014-01-01

105

Epidemiological and Virological Characteristics of Influenza Viruses Circulating in Cambodia from 2009 to 2011  

PubMed Central

Background The Cambodian National Influenza Center (NIC) monitored and characterized circulating influenza strains from 2009 to 2011. Methodology/Principal Findings Sentinel and study sites collected nasopharyngeal specimens for diagnostic detection, virus isolation, antigenic characterization, sequencing and antiviral susceptibility analysis from patients who fulfilled case definitions for influenza-like illness, acute lower respiratory infections and event-based surveillance. Each year in Cambodia, influenza viruses were detected mainly from June to November, during the rainy season. Antigenic analysis show that A/H1N1pdm09 isolates belonged to the A/California/7/2009-like group. Circulating A/H3N2 strains were A/Brisbane/10/2007-like in 2009 before drifting to A/Perth/16/2009-like in 2010 and 2011. The Cambodian influenza B isolates from 2009 to 2011 all belonged to the B/Victoria lineage represented by the vaccine strains B/Brisbane/60/2008 and B/Malaysia/2506/2004. Sequences of the M2 gene obtained from representative 2009–2011 A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm09 strains all contained the S31N mutation associated with adamantanes resistance except for one A/H1N1pdm09 strain isolated in 2011 that lacked this mutation. No reduction in the susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibitors was observed among the influenza viruses circulating from 2009 to 2011. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that A/H3N2 strains clustered each year to a distinct group while most A/H1N1pdm09 isolates belonged to the S203T clade. Conclusions/Significance In Cambodia, from 2009 to 2011, influenza activity occurred throughout the year with peak seasonality during the rainy season from June to November. Seasonal influenza epidemics were due to multiple genetically distinct viruses, even though all of the isolates were antigenically similar to the reference vaccine strains. The drug susceptibility profile of Cambodian influenza strains revealed that neuraminidase inhibitors would be the drug of choice for influenza treatment and chemoprophylaxis in Cambodia, as adamantanes are no longer expected to be effective. PMID:25340711

Ly, Sovann; Heng, Seng; Vong, Sirenda; Kitsutani, Paul; Ieng, Vannra; Tarantola, Arnaud; Ly, Sowath; Sar, Borann; Chea, Nora; Sokhal, Buth; Barr, Ian; Kelso, Anne; Horwood, Paul F.; Timmermans, Ans; Hurt, Aeron; Lon, Chanthap; Saunders, David; Ung, Sam An; Asgari, Nima; Roces, Maria Concepcion; Touch, Sok; Komadina, Naomi; Buchy, Philippe

2014-01-01

106

Sustained high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Cambodia: high turnover seriously challenges the 100% condom use programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cambodia's 100% Condom-Use Programme (CUP), implemented nationally in 2001, requires brothel-based female sex workers (FSWs) to use condoms with all clients. In 2005, we conducted a sexually transmitted infection (STI) survey among FSWs. This paper presents the STI prevalence and related risk factors, and discusses prevalence trends in the context of the 100% CUP in Cambodia. METHODS: From March-May,

Heng Sopheab; Guy Morineau; Joyce J Neal; Vonthanak Saphonn; Knut Fylkesnes

2008-01-01

107

Formalizing under-the-table payments to control out-of-pocket hospital expenditures in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Growing evidence has demonstrated that informal fees for health services comprise a large proportion of total health spending in some countries. In 1999, individual out-of-pocket payments for health in Cambodia were estimated at 27 US dollars per person, with a proportion paid as under-the-table fees at public facilities. By formalizing such payments and implementing resource management systems within a comprehensive health financing scheme, Takeo Referral Hospital controlled out-of-pocket patient expenditures, ensured patients of fixed prices, protected patients from the unpredictability of hospital fees and promoted financial sustainability. Utilization levels increased by more than 50% for inpatient and surgical services, and cost recovery from user fees averaged 33%. Furthermore, the hospital phased out external donor support gradually over 4 years and achieved financial sustainability. PMID:15208276

Barber, Sarah; Bonnet, Frédéric; Bekedam, Henk

2004-07-01

108

The tyranny of taste: the case of organic rice in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Fair-trade and organic products are often sold at price premiums justified by smaller production volumes that are associated with greater social and environmental responsibility. The consumption of these products confers on the consumer a greater sense of morality – and usually a claim to better taste. This paper tells the story of attempts to promote organic/fair-trade rice production by de facto organic Cambodian farmers for export to North American and European markets in order to assist poor farmers to trade their way out of poverty. It demonstrates that instead of promoting sustainable agriculture and fair trade between developed and developing markets, organic/fair-trade projects may impose First World consumer ideals and tastes that are out of step with the larger realities of agrarian transition in Cambodia and the wider region of developing Southeast Asia. PMID:22216476

Thavat, Maylee

2011-01-01

109

A Novel Experimental Apparatus (PDL) and Its Application in Higher Education in Japan and Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low cost and attractive equipment for use in experimental higher physics education has been desired by teachers, especially those in developing world. A system of novel experimental apparatus named Personal Desk Lab (PDL) was developed [1]. Each apparatus is miniaturized to one-fifth of the conventional one or less, and built on a steel plate; therefore, it is portable and can be used on a classroom desk. Each set is constructed by some parts divided according to their functions, and some of the parts are used in a number of experiments; which saves material, cost, and storage space. All parts are designed to be easy to make, maintain and repair. Almost all apparatus are battery driven [2]. After ICPE 2006, we have improved the system continuously; consequently, the experimental themes cover the field of mechanics, electromagnetism and optics. The number of these themes in use exceeds ten. The performance of PDL has been tested at Chiba University, Japan and Royal University of Phnom Penh (RUPP), Cambodia. In Chiba University, physics education with PDL is currently conducted individually to 80(max.) students in a classroom at the same time, and to more than 900 students per year. Experiment class using PDL in Cambodia started on October 2008 with 120 students of physics department, RUPP. They were divided into three classes, and conducted four experimental themes in pairs. The advantages confirmed from the practices at two universities are as follows: (1) the use of PDL arouses learner's interest, promotes their deep understanding extensively, and inspires to learn further; and (2) costs for introduction and running of PDL system are fairly small compared to the traditional one. Furthermore, the instruction for distant learners having PDL on each hand was conducted successfully through internet.

Sou, K.; Kato, T.; Oto, K.; Sakurai, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Omosa, E.; Tozaki, K.

2010-07-01

110

Prevalence and risk factors of Strongyloides stercoralis in Takeo Province, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background The threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis, the most neglected helminth, affects an estimated 30-100 million people worldwide. Information on S. stercoralis infection is scarce in tropical and sub-tropical resource poor countries, including Cambodia. We determined S. stercoralis infection prevalence and risk factors for infection in the general population in Southern Cambodia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and April 2011 among 2,861 participants living in 60 villages of Takeo province, using Koga-agar plate culture, the Baermann technique and the Kato-Katz technique on a single stool sample. Results Eight intestinal helminth species were diagnosed. Hookworm (31.4%) and S. stercoralis (21.0%) occurred most frequently. Prevalence of S. stercoralis infection increased with age. In all age groups a higher prevalence was found among males than among females (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4 – 2.0; P

2014-01-01

111

Betel quid use in relation to infectious disease outcomes in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Summary Objectives The habitual chewing of betel quid (areca nut, betel leaf, tobacco) is estimated to occur among 600 million persons in Asia and the Asia-Pacific Region. Emerging data from rural Asia indicate that the betel quid is part of traditional medicine practices that promote its use for a wide range of ailments, including infectious disease. In the present study, we examined the association between betel quid, traditional medicine, and infectious disease outcomes. Methods For the purpose of a nationwide, interviewer-administered, cross-sectional survey of tobacco use (including betel quid), we conducted a stratified three-stage cluster sampling of 13 988 adults aged 18 years and older from all provinces of Cambodia. Results We found an association between the intensity of betel quid use and HIV/AIDS (odds ratio (OR) 2.06, 95% CI 1.09–3.89), dengue fever (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.55–2.72), tuberculosis (OR 1.50, 95% CI 0.96–2.36), and typhoid (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.95–2.30). These associations were even stronger in women – the primary users of betel quid in Cambodia. Multivariable analyses that controlled for age, gender, income, education, urban versus rural dwelling, receiving care from traditional medicine practitioners, and cigarette smoking did not alter the betel quid–infectious disease association. Conclusions Our findings raise the possibility of a role of betel quid use in the transmission of infectious disease through pathways such as immunosuppression, oral route of entry for a pathogen (i.e., through injury to the oral mucosa), and contamination (i.e., fecal–oral) of the betel quid ingredients. PMID:22296863

Singh, Pramil N.; Natto, Zuhair; Yel, Daravuth; Job, Jayakaran; Knutsen, Synnove

2012-01-01

112

Development of a participatory tool for the evaluation of Village Animal Health Workers in Cambodia.  

PubMed

In countries with a lack of primary care systems, health workers are of crucial importance to improving the delivery of health and animal health services at community level. But somehow they are rarely evaluated and usually with a top-down approach. This is the case in Cambodia, where thousands of Village Animal Health Workers (VAHWs) have been trained by the government, and where no standardized evaluation tool is available to accurately assess the situation. Based on methodology developed by the French NGO Agronomes et Vétérinaires Sans Frontières (AVSF) in Madagascar for farmers' association evaluation, we developed our own participatory methods to collect information about the VAHW context and build a criteria grid for their evaluation. In this framework, several participatory approaches were used such as problem trees, semi-structured interviews, pair-wise ranking and focus groups. The grid was built with the help of relevant stakeholders involved in the animal health system in Cambodia in order to (i) identify VAHW functions; (ii) set up criteria and associated questionnaires, and (iii) score the grid with all the stakeholders. The tool was divided into five categories of evaluation criteria: sustainability, treatment, production, vaccination and disease reporting. Our approach looked at local indicators of success developed and used by VAHWs themselves, which should lead to better acceptability of evaluation. This method gave priority to dialog aiming to engage decision makers and other stakeholders in a mutual learning process and could be applied in other countries to develop trust between health workers and official service representatives as well as to foster corrective action after evaluation. PMID:24583141

Calba, Clementine; Ponsich, Aurelia; Nam, Sophorn; Collineau, Lucie; Min, Sophoan; Thonnat, Jerome; Goutard, Flavie Luce

2014-06-01

113

Tobacco use among adults in Cambodia: evidence for a tobacco epidemic among women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To identify the demographic characteristics of current tobacco users in Cambodia, particularly women, and to explore the reasons for current tobacco use in demographic subgroups of the Cambodian population. Methods We used a stratified three-stage cluster sample of 13 988 adults aged 18 years and older from all provinces in 2005–2006. Participants completed an interviewer-administered survey that contained items on all forms of tobacco use and on health and lifestyle variables. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to identify demographic predictors of tobacco use. Findings Cigarette smoking occurred among 48.0% of men and 3.6% of women. We estimated that 560 482 women (95% confidence interval, CI: 504 783 to 616 180) currently chewed tobacco (typically as a component of betel quid) and that the prevalence more than doubles with each decade of adulthood up to the point that about half of all older women chew tobacco. Both men and women cited the influence of older relatives as their primary reason for starting to use tobacco. About one out of five rural women who used chewing tobacco started their habit for relief from morning sickness. The highest prevalence of chewing tobacco among women was seen among midwives (67.9%) and traditional healers (47.2%). High rates (66.8%) of cigarette and pipe tobacco use occurred among ethnic minorities who represent hill tribes found throughout south-east Asia. Conclusion The tobacco epidemic in Cambodia extends far beyond cigarette smoking in men. Tobacco control that focuses only on cigarettes will not address the health burden from smokeless tobacco use in women that may be an integral part of cultural, familial, and traditional medicine practices. PMID:20454481

Yel, Daravuth; Sin, Sovann; Khieng, Sothy; Lopez, Jaime; Job, Jayakaran; Ferry, Linda; Knutsen, Synnove

2009-01-01

114

A new species of wolf snake (Colubridae: Lycodon Fitzinger, 1826) from Phnom Samkos Wildlife Sanctuary, Cardamom Mountains, southwest Cambodia.  

PubMed

A new species of the genus Lycodon Fitzinger, 1826 is described from the Cardamom Mountains of southwest Cambodia. Lycodon zoosvictoriae distinctly differs from all other species of Lycodon in Southeast Asia by a combination of its morphometric characters and unique coloration. The new species has 17 dorsal scales at midbody; 2+2 temporals; 8 supralabials; 10 infralabials; loreal separated from internasal and orbit; 213 ventrals; 85 subcaudals; pale tan brown ground color; irregular dark brown blotches on anterior part, 31 transverse blotches on posterior part of body and 26 blotches on tail. Given its submontane type locality, the new species could prove to be endemic to the Cardamom Mountains of southwest Cambodia and probably Southeast Thailand. PMID:24943413

Neang, Thy; Hartmann, Timo; Hun, Seiha; Souter, Nicholas J; Furey, Neil M

2014-01-01

115

Volunteering in the developing world: The 2003-2004 Sterling Bunnell Traveling Fellowship to Honduras and Cambodia.  

PubMed

One of the goals of my Sterling Bunnell Traveling Fellowship, sponsored by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand and the American Foundation for Surgery of the Hand, was to serve the poor in developing countries. I had the unique opportunities to work in Honduras and Cambodia, 2 countries with rich cultural heritage residing at opposite ends of the world. This report describes my observations and my experiences in these 2 countries. PMID:15576206

Chung, Kevin C

2004-11-01

116

Common and Private Property Linkages in the Low-Land Forest-Fishery-Farming Systems of Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of the population of north west Cambodia is dependent on subsistence farming-foraging systems. Forests, fishery and farming are the main resource-bases. The self-sustaining peasant-type households draw their food and livelihood from a combination of activities such as farming and hunting-gathering of fish, wildlife and wood materials. This system of utilisation of common and private property has evolved over

Numa Shams; Mahfuzuddin Ahmed

2000-01-01

117

Soils Under Different Forest Types in the Dry Evergreen Forest Zone of Cambodia: Morphology, Physicochemical Properties, and Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the morphology and physicochemical properties of soils under three different types of forest, i.e., dry evergreen\\u000a forest (DEF), dry deciduous forest (DDF), and mixed forest with evergreen and deciduous trees (MF), in the dry evergreen forest\\u000a zone of Kampong Thom Province, Cambodia. The morphological features of soils varied among the three different forest types.\\u000a The physical characteristics of

Jumpei Toriyama; Seiichi Ohta; Makoto Araki; Mamoru Kanzaki; Saret Khorn; Phearak Pith; Sopheap Lim; Sopheavuth Pol

118

A SemiParametric Spatial Regression Approach to Post-War Human Security: Cambodia, 2002–2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human security in post-war societies depends on incentives to forego violence in local interactions. The government of Cambodia\\u000a monitors domestic violence, land conflicts and serious crime in over 13,000 villages and urban neighbourhoods. We use three\\u000a annual data collections to estimate the response of these conflicts to the legacy of the war, poverty and resource competition,\\u000a urbanity as well as

Aldo Benini; Taylor Owen; Håvard Rue

2008-01-01

119

The design of a photovoltaic\\/biomass hybrid electrical energy system for a rural village in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid renewable energy system, consisting of a 1.27 kWp solar photovoltaic generator, a 15 kWe biomass gasification system and a 7.28 kWh battery backup, has been designed for the electrification of a representative village, namely Chhouk Ksach in Cambodia, which is not currently connected to the electrical power grid and where car batteries are used for electrification. The hybrid

S. Sou; W. Siemers; R. H. B. Exell

2010-01-01

120

Increase in Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A infections in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, January 2011 to August 2013.  

PubMed

We report an increased number of Salmonella enterica Paratyphi A infections in adults in Cambodia. Between January 2011 and August 2013, 71 S. Paratyphi A isolates were recovered from blood cultures, representing a 44-fold increase compared to July 2007 to December 2010, while monthly numbers of cultures did not change. Infections with S. Typhi increased two-fold in the same period. Most cases came from the capital Phnom Penh. These findings warrant epidemiological investigation to support public health measures. PMID:24094060

Vlieghe, E; Phe, T; De Smet, B; Veng, C H; Kham, C; Sar, D; van Griensven, J; Lim, K; Thai, S; Jacobs, J

2013-01-01

121

Injections, Cocktails and Diviners: Therapeutic Flexibility in the Context of Malaria Elimination and Drug Resistance in Northeast Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Adherence to effective malaria medication is extremely important in the context of Cambodia’s elimination targets and drug resistance containment. Although the public sector health facilities are accessible to the local ethnic minorities of Ratanakiri province (Northeast Cambodia), their illness itineraries often lead them to private pharmacies selling “cocktails” and artemether injections, or to local diviners prescribing animal sacrifices to appease the spirits. Methods The research design consisted of a mixed methods study, combining qualitative (in-depth interviews and participant observation) and quantitative methods (household and cross-sectional survey). Results Three broad options for malaria treatment were identified: i) the public sector; ii) the private sector; iii) traditional treatment based on divination and ceremonial sacrifice. Treatment choice was influenced by the availability of treatment and provider, perceived side effects and efficacy of treatments, perceived etiology of symptoms, and patient-health provider encounters. Moreover, treatment paths proved to be highly flexible, changing mostly in relation to the perceived efficacy of a chosen treatment. Conclusions Despite good availability of anti-malarial treatment in the public health sector, attendance remained low due to both structural and human behavioral factors. The common use and under-dosage of anti-malaria monotherapy in the private sector (single-dose injections, single-day drug cocktails) represents a threat not only for individual case management, but also for the regional plan of drug resistance containment and malaria elimination. PMID:24244678

Gryseels, Charlotte; Uk, Sambunny; Erhart, Annette; Gerrets, Rene; Sluydts, Vincent; Durnez, Lies; Muela Ribera, Joan; Hausmann Muela, Susanna; Menard, Didier; Heng, Somony; Sochantha, Tho; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Coosemans, Marc; Peeters Grietens, Koen

2013-01-01

122

Characteristics of bedrock-alluvial anastomosed rivers: the Mekong River in Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mekong River is the 12th largest river in the world in terms of its length and mean annual discharge and yet it is poorly investigated. In the north eastern regions of Cambodia the Mekong River develops a multichannel pattern. It is characterised by a complex of intersecting bedrock channels, well vegetated alluvial and seasonally inundated islands, various types of sand bars, numerous bedrock exposures, rapids, waterfalls and deep bedrock pools which can be classified as a large mixed bedrock-alluvial anastomosed river of a tropical monsoonal climate zone. In order to complete a portrait of the river at the high level of details new data on morphology, geology and sediments were obtained during field surveys of a 120 km river section in Cambodia and combined with information from published literature and interpretation of available remote sensing images. This process has enabled to update and clarify knowledge on morphology of observed islands and floodplain, comprehensive geology and tectonic structures, hydrological regime and land cover. Complex analyses of the collected data have distinguished several geomorphological zones accordingly to frequency of morphological elements, the planview configuration of channels and vertical profile characteristics. The occurrence of each zone is a subject of variable controlling factors such as local topography, channel gradient, structural and tectonic elements and intercalating geological units. Evolution of the channel pattern has been considered at both short- and long term time scales. Historical cartographic and remote sensing materials were applied to determine planform channel changes over the last 50 years revealing the channels stability and cases of occasional, local erosion and deposition. The channel network was extracted from vector layers to examine channels and islands width and length parameters, bifurcation angles at the upstream end of islands and to obtain main channel network indices such as braiding intensity and channel sinuosity. In addition, luminescence dating of the sediments from a palaeochannel and the sediments constituting the surfaces of alluvial islands and an adjacent plain elucidate paleo-the development of the Mekong in this region. Finally, the description of the channel planform and the network metrics provide a quantitative means to describe the distinctive character of the Mekong in comparison with other well known large alluvial anastomosed river systems in similar environmental settings.

Meshkova, Liubov. V.; Carling, Paul. A.

2010-05-01

123

Improving government health services through contract management: a case from Cambodia.  

PubMed

Most government health facilities in Cambodia perform poorly, due to lack of funds, inadequate management and inefficient use of resources, but mostly due to poor motivation of staff. This paper describes contracting as a possible tool for Ministries of Health to improve health service delivery more rapidly than the more traditional reform approaches. In Cambodia, the Ministry of Health started an experiment with contracting in eight districts, covering 1 million people. Health care management in five districts was sub-contracted to private sector operators, and their results were compared with three control districts. Both internal and external reviews showed that after 3 years of implementation, the utilization of health services in the contracted districts improved significantly, in comparison with the control districts. There was adequate competition in awarding the contracts. A Ministry of Health Project Co-ordinating Unit measured the performance of the contractors, and contributed pro-actively. There was no evidence of rent-seeking practices by either the contracting agency or the contractors. This paper describes in more detail the successes and failures in one of the contracted districts, where HealthNet International applied the contracting approach. Despite significantly increased official user fees, constituting 16% of recurrent costs, the utilization of services was equally increased. Patients thought the fees were reasonable because they were still lower than the fees demanded if government health workers charged informally. They also thought that the services were of better quality than in the unregulated private sector. Another important result was that combining strict monitoring with performance-based incentives demonstrates a decrease in total family health expenditure of some 40% from US dollars 18 to US dollars 11 per capita per year. Innovative and decisive management proved to be essential, which is more likely to be achieved by a contracted manager than by regular government managers with life-long employment. This paper discusses how the contractor addressed the deeply rooted problems of informal private activities of government health workers. The NGO district management experimented with two management systems: first by individual contracts with health workers, and secondly by sub-contracting directly with the health centre chiefs and hospital directors. A reason for concern is that poli-pharmacy and excessive use of injectables continued. Also, the participation of the central level of the Ministry of Health was positive in the contracting process, but the role and participation of the provincial level of the Ministry was more tentative. PMID:12582110

Soeters, Robert; Griffiths, Fred

2003-03-01

124

Individual-based primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in Cambodia and Mongolia: early identification and management of hypertension and diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background To assess the coverage of individual-based primary prevention strategies for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Cambodia and Mongolia: specifically the early identification of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, major proximate physiological CVD risk factors, and management with pharmaceutical and lifestyle advice interventions. Methods Analysis of data collected in national cross-sectional STEPS surveys in 2009 (Mongolia) and 2010 (Cambodia) involving participants aged 25-64 years: 5433 in Cambodia and 4539 in Mongolia. Results Mongolia has higher prevalence of CVD risk factors than Cambodia --hypertension (36.5% versus 12.3%), diabetes (6.3% versus 3.1%), hypercholesterolemia (8.5% versus 3.2%), and overweight (52.5% versus 15.5%). The difference in tobacco smoking was less notable (32.1% versus 29.4%). Coverage with prior testing for blood glucose in the priority age group 35-64 years remains limited (16.5% in Cambodia and 21.7% in Mongolia). Coverage is higher for hypertension. A large burden of both hypertension and diabetes remains unidentified at current strategies for early identification: only 45.4% (Cambodia) to 65.8% (Mongolia) of all hypertensives and 22.8% (Mongolia) to 50.3% (Cambodia) of all diabetics in the age group 35-64 years had been previously diagnosed. Approximately half of all hypertensives and of all diabetics in both countries were untreated. 7.2% and 12.2% of total hypertensive population and 5.9% and 16.1% of total diabetic population in Cambodia and Mongolia, respectively, were untreated despite being previously diagnosed. Only 24.1% and 28.6% of all hypertensives and 15.9% and 23.9% of all diabetics in Mongolia and Cambodia, respectively were adequately controlled. Estimates suggest deficits in delivery of important advice for lifestyle interventions. Conclusions Multifaceted strategies are required to improve early identification, initiation of treatment and improving quality of treatment for common CVD risk factors. Periodic population-based surveys including questions on medical and treatment history and the context of testing and treatment can facilitate monitoring of individual-based prevention strategies. PMID:22471424

2012-01-01

125

Parental styles in the intergenerational transmission of trauma stemming from the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia.  

PubMed

The impact of parental styles in intergenerational transmission of trauma among mothers who survived the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia, in power from 1975 to 1979, and their teenaged children was examined in 2 studies. In Study 1, 46 Cambodian female high school students and their mothers were recruited. Each daughter completed anxiety and depression measures as well as assessment of her mother's role-reversing, overprotective, and rejecting parental styles, whereas the mothers completed measures of their trauma exposure during the Khmer Rouge regime and PTSD symptoms. In support of trauma transmission, the mother's PTSD symptoms were predictive of her daughter's anxiety. Moreover, the mother's role-reversing parental style was shown to mediate the relationship between her own and her daughter's symptoms. In support of their generalizability, the results were replicated in Study 2 in a Cambodian-American refugee sample comparing 15 mental health treatment-seeking mothers and their teenaged children with 17 nontreatment-seeking mother-child pairs. The implications of the findings within the larger literature on intergenerational trauma transmission stemming from genocide are discussed. PMID:24164520

Field, Nigel P; Muong, Sophear; Sochanvimean, Vannavuth

2013-10-01

126

Evidence of an 'invitation' effect in feeding sylvatic Stegomyia albopicta from Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Orientation of haematophagous insects towards a potential host is largely mediated by kairomones that, in some groups or species may include chemicals produced during feeding by the insects themselves, the so called ‘invitation’ effect. Methods The ‘invitation’ effect in blood-feeding diurnally active Stegomyia albopicta was investigated over 33 days in secondary forest in Mondolkiri Province, Cambodia. Two human volunteers sitting inside a shelter collected mosquitoes and noted where and when they landed. A 10% emanator of a synthetic pyrethroid with high vapour action was in use on alternate days. Results Overall, 2726 mosquitoes were collected, 1654 of which had the landing site recorded. The heads of the volunteers were the locations with the highest density of landings per surface area whilst the knees and elbows accounted for most of the landings received on the arms and legs. Landings recorded within three minutes of each other on a collector were about 2.5 times more likely to be on the same body part than on a random body part, weighted for landing site preference. This preference did not vary with collector or pyrethroid. Conclusions The ‘invitation’ effect may be due to a semio-chemical produced early in the feeding process. Incorporation of such a chemical into traps designed to control this important vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses might potentially improve their attractiveness. PMID:25015104

2014-01-01

127

Strongyloides stercoralis infection and re-infection in a cohort of children in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Information on Strongyloides stercoralis re-infection after ivermectin treatment is scarce in S. stercoralis endemic countries. In semi-rural Cambodia, we determined S. stercoralis infection and re-infection rates among schoolchildren, two years after ivermectin treatment (2×100 ?g/kg PO, 24 h apart). The study was conducted among 484 children from four primary schools in semi-rural villages in Kandal province from 2009 to 2011, using Koga agar plate culture and the Baermann method on two stool samples per child. Complete data were available for 302 participants. We observed infections in 24.2% and 22.5% of the children at baseline and at follow-up, respectively. At baseline, 73 children were treated for S. stercoralis infection. At follow-up, one-third of those treated for S. stercoralis infection had been reinfected, while 19.6% of the 229 healthy children (at baseline) had been newly infected with S. stercoralis. Possession of shoes and defecation in toilet were negatively associated with S. stercoralis infection at follow-up. Infection and re-infection rates of S. stercoralis among schoolchildren are considerably high. However, 68.5% of infected children remained free of infection for at least two years. A large-scale cohort study is required to understand age-specific infection and re-infection dynamics in endemic countries. PMID:24970767

Khieu, Virak; Hattendorf, Jan; Schär, Fabian; Marti, Hanspeter; Char, Meng Chuor; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

2014-10-01

128

Care providers' needs and perspectives on suffering and care in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Cambodia.  

PubMed

This exploratory study aimed to obtain insight into field-level care providers' views on suffering and healing as well as existing obstacles and needs related to providing care to their clients. This research provides a "snapshot" for a better understanding of existing care systems in two post-conflict settings. By identifying existing approaches to care and the needs of the care provider community, this research might be useful in guiding psychosocial assistance programming in post-conflict settings. Utilizing a semi-structured questionnaire, 45 care providers were interviewed, including local health care practitioners, traditional/ spiritual healers, and humanitarian relief workers, in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Cambodia. This study found that the majority of care providers in both settings perceived poverty and violence as significant causes and consequences of human suffering and, at the same time, felt ill-equipped in addressing these issues and related problems. Other issues that hindered these healers in providing care included: limited government/institutional support; lack of training; material resources and funding. Study findings point to a new framework for developing effective interventions and the need for further emphasis on supporting care providers in their work, and most specifically, in identifying and responding to poverty and violence. PMID:23331393

McDonald, Laura; Mollica, Richard F; Douglas Kelley, Susan; Tor, Svang; Halilovic, Majda

2012-01-01

129

Safety of packaged water distribution limited by household recontamination in rural Cambodia.  

PubMed

Packaged water treatment schemes represent a growing model for providing safer water in low-income settings, yet post-distribution recontamination of treated water may limit this approach. This study evaluates drinking water quality and household water handling practices in a floating village in Tonlé Sap Lake, Cambodia, through a pilot cross-sectional study of 108 households, approximately half of which used packaged water as the main household drinking water source. We hypothesized that households purchasing drinking water from local packaged water treatment plants would have microbiologically improved drinking water at the point of consumption. We found no meaningful difference in microbiological drinking water quality between households using packaged, treated water and those collecting water from other sources, including untreated surface water, however. Households' water storage and handling practices and home hygiene may have contributed to recontamination of drinking water. Further measures to protect water quality at the point-of-use may be required even if water is treated and packaged in narrow-mouthed containers. PMID:24937228

Holman, Emily J; Brown, Joe

2014-06-01

130

Reaching out and reaching up - developing a low cost drug treatment system in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Cambodia, confronted by the spread of drug misuse among young people, requested support from international agencies to develop a drug treatment programme in 2000. The initial plan developed by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime was to set up a number of conventional drug treatment centres in urban areas. During the planning phase, however, the project was redesigned as a community based outreach programme. Ten Community Counselling Teams have been formed and trained in pilot areas, and within the first year of operation 462 drug and alcohol users contacted. Comprising former drug users, family members affected by drug use and health care staff, they have drug scene credibility, local knowledge and connectivity, and a rudimentary level of medical competence. Crucially, they enjoy the support of village elders, who are involved in the planning and reporting stages. While the Community Counselling Teams with their basic training in addiction counselling are in no position as yet to either provide or refer clients to treatment, they can provide brief interventions, organise self help groups, and most importantly provide an alternative to law enforcement. By taking a development centred approach, with emphasis on community, empowerment and inclusion, it provides a constructive and inclusive alternative to medical approaches and the compulsory drug treatment centres. The paper is based on an evaluation involving interviews with a range of stakeholders and a review of project documents. PMID:22410105

2012-01-01

131

Using Social Network Analysis to Evaluate Health-Related Adaptation Decision-Making in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Climate change adaptation in the health sector requires decisions across sectors, levels of government, and organisations. The networks that link these different institutions, and the relationships among people within these networks, are therefore critical influences on the nature of adaptive responses to climate change in the health sector. This study uses social network research to identify key organisational players engaged in developing health-related adaptation activities in Cambodia. It finds that strong partnerships are reported as developing across sectors and different types of organisations in relation to the health risks from climate change. Government ministries are influential organisations, whereas donors, development banks and non-government organisations do not appear to be as influential in the development of adaptation policy in the health sector. Finally, the study highlights the importance of informal partnerships (or ‘shadow networks’) in the context of climate change adaptation policy and activities. The health governance ‘map’ in relation to health and climate change adaptation that is developed in this paper is a novel way of identifying organisations that are perceived as key agents in the decision-making process, and it holds substantial benefits for both understanding and intervening in a broad range of climate change-related policy problems where collaboration is paramount for successful outcomes. PMID:24487452

Bowen, Kathryn J.; Alexander, Damon; Miller, Fiona; Dany, Va

2014-01-01

132

Arsenic Concentrations in Rice and Associated Health Risks Along the Upper Mekong Delta, Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The consumption of arsenic contaminated food, such as rice, can be a significant portion of daily arsenic exposure, even for populations already exposed through drinking water. While arsenic contamination of rice grains has been documented in parts of Southern Asia, (e.g. Bangladesh), little research has been conducted on arsenic contamination of Cambodian-grown rice. We collected rice plant samples at various locations within the upper Mekong River Delta near Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and we analyzed total arsenic concentrations in plant digests of grains, husk, and straw. In addition, we used CaCl2-, DTPA-, and oxalate-extractable arsenic to define plant-available soil pools. We found variability of arsenic concentration in the plants, with grain arsenic ranging from 0.046 to 0.214 ?g g-1; other researchers have shown that concentrations higher than 0.1 ?g g-1 could be a concern for human health. Although more extensive sampling is needed to assess the risk of arsenic exposure from rice consumption on a country-wide basis, our work clearly illustrates the risk within regions of the Mekong Delta.

Barragan, L.; Seyfferth, A.; Fendorf, S.

2011-12-01

133

A comprehensive archaeological map of the world's largest preindustrial settlement complex at Angkor, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

The great medieval settlement of Angkor in Cambodia [9th–16th centuries Common Era (CE)] has for many years been understood as a “hydraulic city,” an urban complex defined, sustained, and ultimately overwhelmed by a complex water management network. Since the 1980s that view has been disputed, but the debate has remained unresolved because of insufficient data on the landscape beyond the great temples: the broader context of the monumental remains was only partially understood and had not been adequately mapped. Since the 1990s, French, Australian, and Cambodian teams have sought to address this empirical deficit through archaeological mapping projects by using traditional methods such as ground survey in conjunction with advanced radar remote-sensing applications in partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Here we present a major outcome of that research: a comprehensive archaeological map of greater Angkor, covering nearly 3,000 km2, prepared by the Greater Angkor Project (GAP). The map reveals a vast, low-density settlement landscape integrated by an elaborate water management network covering >1,000 km2, the most extensive urban complex of the preindustrial world. It is now clear that anthropogenic changes to the landscape were both extensive and substantial enough to have created grave challenges to the long-term viability of the settlement. PMID:17717084

Evans, Damian; Pottier, Christophe; Fletcher, Roland; Hensley, Scott; Tapley, Ian; Milne, Anthony; Barbetti, Michael

2007-01-01

134

Using social network analysis to evaluate health-related adaptation decision-making in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Climate change adaptation in the health sector requires decisions across sectors, levels of government, and organisations. The networks that link these different institutions, and the relationships among people within these networks, are therefore critical influences on the nature of adaptive responses to climate change in the health sector. This study uses social network research to identify key organisational players engaged in developing health-related adaptation activities in Cambodia. It finds that strong partnerships are reported as developing across sectors and different types of organisations in relation to the health risks from climate change. Government ministries are influential organisations, whereas donors, development banks and non-government organisations do not appear to be as influential in the development of adaptation policy in the health sector. Finally, the study highlights the importance of informal partnerships (or 'shadow networks') in the context of climate change adaptation policy and activities. The health governance 'map' in relation to health and climate change adaptation that is developed in this paper is a novel way of identifying organisations that are perceived as key agents in the decision-making process, and it holds substantial benefits for both understanding and intervening in a broad range of climate change-related policy problems where collaboration is paramount for successful outcomes. PMID:24487452

Bowen, Kathryn J; Alexander, Damon; Miller, Fiona; Dany, Va

2014-02-01

135

Municipal solid waste management in Phnom Penh, capital city of Cambodia.  

PubMed

This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) for both technical and regulatory arrangements in the municipality of Phnom Penh (MPP), Cambodia. Problems with the current MSWM are identified, and challenges and recommendations for future improvement are also given in this paper. MPP is a small city with a total area of approximately 374 km(2) and an urban population of about 1.3 million in 2008. For the last 14 years, average annual municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in MPP has increased rapidly from 0.136 million tons in 1995 to 0.361 million tons in 2008. The gross generation rate of MSW per capita was 0.74 kg day(-1). However, the per capita household waste generation was 0.487 kg day(- 1). At 63.3%, food waste is the predominant portion of generated waste, followed by plastics (15.5%), grass and wood (6.8%), and paper and cardboard (6.4%). The remaining waste, including metals, glass, rubber/leather, textiles, and ceramic/ stone, accounted for less than 3%. Waste recycling through informal sectors is very active; recycled waste accounted for about 9.3% of all waste generated in 2003. Currently, the overall technical arrangement, including storage and discharge, collection and transport, and disposal, is still in poor condition, which leads to environmental and health risks. These problems should be solved by improving legislation, environmental education, solid waste management facilities, and management of the waste scavengers. PMID:20813763

Seng, Bunrith; Kaneko, Hidehiro; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko

2011-05-01

136

Boiling as Household Water Treatment in Cambodia: A Longitudinal Study of Boiling Practice and Microbiological Effectiveness  

PubMed Central

This paper focuses on the consistency of use and microbiological effectiveness of boiling as it is practiced in one study site in peri-urban Cambodia. We followed 60 randomly selected households in Kandal Province over 6 months to collect longitudinal data on water boiling practices and effectiveness in reducing Escherichia coli in household drinking water. Despite > 90% of households reporting that they used boiling as a means of drinking water treatment, an average of only 31% of households had boiled water on hand at follow-up visits, suggesting that actual use may be lower than self-reported use. We collected 369 matched untreated and boiled water samples. Mean reduction of E. coli was 98.5%; 162 samples (44%) of boiled samples were free of E. coli (< 1 colony-forming unit [cfu]/100 mL), and 270 samples (73%) had < 10 cfu/100 mL. Storing boiled water in a covered container was associated with safer product water than storage in an uncovered container. PMID:22826487

Brown, Joseph; Sobsey, Mark D.

2012-01-01

137

The Linked Response: Lessons Emerging from Integration of HIV and Reproductive Health Services in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

A qualitative assessment was made of service provider and user perceptions of the quality of integrated reproductive health services established through a pilot intervention in Cambodia. The intervention aimed to promote pregnant women's HIV testing and general utilization of reproductive health facilities as well as improve the follow-up of HIV-positive women and exposed infants through strengthened referral and operational linkages amongst health facilities/services and community-based support interventions for PLHIV. The study was conducted in one operational district where the intervention was piloted and for comparative purposes in a district where integrated services had yet to be implemented. Service providers in the pilot district reported improved collaboration and coordination of services, more effective referral, and the positive impact of improved proximity of HIV testing through integrated local level facilities. Community-based support teams for PLHIV embraced their expanded role, were valued by families receiving their assistance, and were understood to have had an important role in referral, PMTCT follow-up and countering PLHIV stigmatization; findings which underscore the potential role of community support in integrated service provision. Challenges identified included stigmatization of PLHIV by health staff at district hospital level and a lack of confidence amongst non-specialized health staff when managing deliveries by HIV-positive women, partly due to fear of HIV transmission. PMID:23424679

White, Joanna; Delvaux, Therese; Chhea, Chhorvann; Saramony, Sarun; Ouk, Vichea; Saphonn, Vonthanak

2013-01-01

138

Initial loss of productive days and income among women seeking induced abortion in Cambodia.  

PubMed

The study describes the loss of productive time and income related to abortion care and care-seeking among 110 women presenting at public and private sector abortion providers in Cambodia. Data were collected through women's exit interviews, and descriptive analysis was used to examine lost time and income against a number of explanatory variables, such as gestational age of pregnancy, type of abortion provider and facility, type of uterine evacuation procedure, number of health visits, and the woman's occupation. Results indicate that lost time and earnings increase with the number of visits to obtain the termination, gestational age, and selection of a private physician or non-governmental organization clinic. Lost time and earnings also vary by the woman's type of employment. The study underscores the need for safer, accessible, and more affordable abortion services in order to ensure that these services are available for all women. Even in the Cambodian context, where abortion is unrestricted during the first trimester of pregnancy, the study findings show that the process of searching for and obtaining high-quality abortion care was unnecessarily complicated and costly to women and their household members. PMID:18308261

Potdar, Rukmini; Fetters, Tamara; Phirun, Lam

2008-01-01

139

Comparison of trust in public vs private health care providers in rural Cambodia.  

PubMed

How trust in providers affects health care-seeking behaviour is not well understood. Focus groups and household surveys were conducted in Cambodia to examine how villagers describe their trust in public and private providers, and to assess whether a difference exists in provider trust levels. Our findings suggest the reasons for trusting public and private providers differ, and that villagers' trust in and relationship with providers is one of the important considerations affecting where they seek care. People believed that public providers were 'honest' and 'sincere', did not 'bad mouth people' and explained the 'status of [the] disease'. Villagers trusted public providers for their skills and abilities, and for an effective referral system. In contrast, respondents noted that seeing private providers was 'comfortable and easy', that they 'come to our home' and patients can 'owe [them] some money'. Private providers were trusted for being very friendly and approachable, extremely thorough and careful, and easy to contact. Among those who sought care in the past 30 days, trust in the health care provider was listed as the fifth and second most important consideration for choosing public or private providers, respectively. This study illustrates the importance of trust as a unique concept that can affect people's choice of health care providers in a low-income country. PMID:21729914

Ozawa, Sachiko; Walker, Damian G

2011-07-01

140

Respondent-driven sampling on the Thailand-Cambodia border. II. Knowledge, perception, practice and treatment-seeking behaviour of migrants in malaria endemic zones  

PubMed Central

Background Population movements along the Thailand-Cambodia border, particularly among highly mobile and hard-to-access migrant groups from Cambodia and Myanmar, are assumed to play a key role in the spread of artemisinin resistance. Data on treatment-seeking behaviours, knowledge and perceptions about malaria, and use of preventive measures is lacking as characteristics of this population prevent them from being represented in routine surveillance and the lack of a sampling frame makes reliable surveys challenging. Methods A survey of migrant populations from Cambodia and Myanmar was implemented in five selected rural locations in Thailand along the Thai-Cambodian border using respondent driven sampling (RDS) to determine demographic characteristics of the population, migratory patterns, knowledge about malaria, and health-care -seeking behaviours. Results The majority of migrants from Myanmar are long-term residents (98%) with no plans to move back to Myanmar, understand spoken Thai (77%) and can therefore benefit from health messages in Thai, have Thai health insurance (99%) and accessed public health services in Thailand (63%) for their last illness. In comparison, the majority of Cambodian migrants are short-term (72%). Of the short-term Cambodian migrants, 92% work in agriculture, 18% speak Thai, 3.4% have Thai health insurance, and the majority returned to Cambodia for treatment (45%), self-treated (11%), or did not seek treatment for their last illness (27%). Conclusion Most highly mobile migrants along the Thai-Cambodia border are not accessing health messages or health treatment in Thailand, increasing their risk of malaria and facilitating the spread of potentially resistant Plasmodium falciparum as they return to Cambodia to seek treatment. Reaching out to highly mobile migrants with health messaging they can understand and malaria diagnosis and treatment services they can access is imperative in the effort to contain the spread of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum. PMID:21554711

2011-01-01

141

Composition of pluralistic health systems: how much can we learn from household surveys? An exploration in Cambodia.  

PubMed

In spite of all efforts to build national health services, health systems of many low-income countries are today highly pluralistic. Households use a vast range of public and private health care providers, many of whom are not controlled by national health authorities. Experts have called on Ministries of Health to re-establish themselves as stewards of the entire health system. Modern stewardship will require national and decentralized health authorities to have an overall view of their pluralistic health system, especially of the components outside the public sector. Little guidance has been provided so far on how to develop such a view. In this paper, we explore whether household surveys could be a source of information. The study builds on secondary data analysis of a household survey carried out in three health districts in rural Cambodia and of two national surveys. Cambodia is indeed an interesting case, as massive efforts by donors in favour of the public sector go hand in hand with a dominant role of the private sector in the provision of health care services. The study confirms that the health care sector in Cambodia is now highly pluralistic, and that the great majority of health seeking behaviour takes place outside the public health system. Our analysis of the survey also shows that the disaffection of the population with public health facilities varies across places, socio-economic groups and health problems. We illustrate how such knowledge could allow stewards to better identify challenges for existing or future health policies. We argue that a whole research programme on the composition of pluralistic health systems still needs to be developed. We identify some challenges and opportunities. PMID:21729915

Meessen, Bruno; Bigdeli, Maryam; Chheng, Kannarath; Decoster, Kristof; Ir, Por; Men, Chean; Van Damme, Wim

2011-07-01

142

A survey of the training, practice and dental health knowledge of traditional dentists practising in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.  

PubMed

Interviews with 50 traditional dentists practising in Phnom Penh, Cambodia showed that the majority had been trained as an apprentice of either their father or a relative. The most frequently undertaken treatment procedures were tooth coloured fillings, and cast, preformed metal or acrylic crowns and bridges. Knowledge of dental pathology was poor. With the recommencement of dental training in the University of Phnom Penh restriction on the training and practice of traditional dentists needs to be considered, together with the possible retraining of these practitioners as dental technicians. PMID:8044708

Durward, C; Todd, R; So, P K; Phlok, S

1994-06-01

143

Scenario analysis of the benefit of municipal organic-waste composting over landfill, Cambodia.  

PubMed

This paper presents insight into the benefits of organic waste recycling through composting over landfill, in terms of landfill life extension, compost product, and mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Future waste generation from 2003 to 2020 was forecast, and five scenarios of organic waste recycling in the municipality of Phnom Penh (MPP), Cambodia, were carried out. Organic waste-specifically food and garden waste-was used for composting, and the remaining waste was landfilled. The recycling scenarios were set based on organic waste generated from difference sources: households, restaurants, shops, markets, schools, hotels, offices, and street sweeping. Through the five scenarios, the minimum volume reductions of waste disposal were about 56, 123, and 219 m(3) d(-1) in 2003, 2012, and 2020, respectively, whereas the maximum volume reductions in these years were about 325, 643, and 1025 m(3) d(-1). These volume reductions reflect a landfill life extension of a minimum of half a year and a maximum of about four years. Compost product could be produced at a minimum of 14, 30, and 54 tons d(-1) in 2003, 2012, and 2020, respectively, and at a maximum in those years of about 80, 158, and 252 tons d(-1). At the same time benefit is gained in compost product, GHG emissions could be reduced by a minimum of 12.8% and a maximum of 65.0% from 2003 to 2020. This means about 3.23 (minimum) and 5.79 million tons CO(2)eq (maximum) contributed to GHG mitigation. In this regard, it is strongly recommended that MPP should try to initiate an organic-waste recycling strategy in a best fit scenario. PMID:23168253

Seng, Bunrith; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko; Ochiai, Satoru; Kaneko, Hidehiro

2013-01-15

144

Can vouchers deliver? An evaluation of subsidies for maternal health care in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of vouchers for maternity care in public health-care facilities on the utilization of maternal health-care services in Cambodia. Methods The study involved data from the 2010 Cambodian Demographic and Health Survey, which covered births between 2005 and 2010. The effect of voucher schemes, first implemented in 2007, on the utilization of maternal health-care services was quantified using a difference-in-differences method that compared changes in utilization in districts with voucher schemes with changes in districts without them. Findings Overall, voucher schemes were associated with an increase of 10.1 percentage points (pp) in the probability of delivery in a public health-care facility; among women from the poorest 40% of households, the increase was 15.6 pp. Vouchers were responsible for about one fifth of the increase observed in institutional deliveries in districts with schemes. Universal voucher schemes had a larger effect on the probability of delivery in a public facility than schemes targeting the poorest women. Both types of schemes increased the probability of receiving postnatal care, but the increase was significant only for non-poor women. Universal, but not targeted, voucher schemes significantly increased the probability of receiving antenatal care. Conclusion Voucher schemes increased deliveries in health centres and, to a lesser extent, improved antenatal and postnatal care. However, schemes that targeted poorer women did not appear to be efficient since these women were more likely than less poor women to be encouraged to give birth in a public health-care facility, even with universal voucher schemes. PMID:24839322

Flores, Gabriela; Ir, Por; O'Donnell, Owen; Van Doorslaer, Eddy

2014-01-01

145

Entrenched Geographical and Socioeconomic Disparities in Child Mortality: Trends in Absolute and Relative Inequalities in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Cambodia has made considerable improvements in mortality rates for children under the age of five and neonates. These improvements may, however, mask considerable disparities between subnational populations. In this paper, we examine the extent of the country's child mortality inequalities. Methods Mortality rates for children under-five and neonates were directly estimated using the 2000, 2005 and 2010 waves of the Cambodian Demographic Health Survey. Disparities were measured on both absolute and relative scales using rate differences and ratios, and where applicable, slope and relative indices of inequality by levels of rural/urban location, regions and household wealth. Findings Since 2000, considerable reductions in under-five and to a lesser extent in neonatal mortality rates have been observed. This mortality decline has, however, been accompanied by an increase in relative inequality in both rates of child mortality for geography-related stratifying markers. For absolute inequality amongst regions, most trends are increasing, particularly for neonatal mortality, but are not statistically significant. The only exception to this general pattern is the statistically significant positive trend in absolute inequality for under-five mortality in the Coastal region. For wealth, some evidence for increases in both relative and absolute inequality for neonates is observed. Conclusion Despite considerable gains in reducing under-five and neonatal mortality at a national level, entrenched and increased geographical and wealth-based inequality in mortality, at least on a relative scale, remain. As expected, national progress seems to be associated with the period of political and macroeconomic stability that started in the early 2000s. However, issues of quality of care and potential non-inclusive economic growth might explain remaining disparities, particularly across wealth and geography markers. A focus on further addressing key supply and demand side barriers to accessing maternal and child health care and on the social determinants of health will be essential in narrowing inequalities. PMID:25295528

Jimenez-Soto, Eliana; Durham, Jo; Hodge, Andrew

2014-01-01

146

Reconstruction of the past flow channels in the early Holocene at Lake Tonle Sap, Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Tonle Sap is located at the central part of Cambodia, South-East Asia. In rainy season, the water body swells with the water depth accordingly increasing from 1 up to 10 meters due to a pulsive intrusion from the Mekong River. The lake is therefore a vital reservoir that protects the region from flooding. It is paleolimnologically important to better understand how the lake has gained the function controlling water balance of this region. We undertook an extensive echo-sounding exploration at the lake in order to clarify the subsurface structure of Lake Tonle Sap. The survey was conducted in rainy seasons from 2009 to 2012. Sediment cores were collected at three sites at the middle part of the lake. Echo sounding was undertaken over the whole part of the lake using a single-channel sub-bottom profiling system (Stratabox, SyQwest Inc.). A prominent sound frequency of 10 KHz was selected in order to observe structure of reflectance planes up to the 40-m depth. In consequence, we discovered deposited valleys forming a complex network of past flow channels. The subsurface structure of the lake bed was mostly complacent showing a strongly reflecting plane observed at the depth of 1-2 meters; the sediments mainly consisted of mud. A number of valley-shaped reflecting planes were observed at the depth of 10-14 meters. Radiocarbon dates of carbonaceous materials collected at the vally bottom were around 10 ka calBP. A 3-D reconstruction presented a complex network of deposited flow channels.

Haraguchi, T.; Yonenobu, H.; Tokunaga, T.; Shimoda, I.

2013-05-01

147

Prediction of contamination potential of groundwater arsenic in Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand using artificial neural network.  

PubMed

The arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater has increasingly been recognized as a major global issue of concern. As groundwater resources are one of most important freshwater sources for water supplies in Southeast Asian countries, it is important to investigate the spatial distribution of As contamination and evaluate the health risk of As for these countries. The detection of As contamination in groundwater resources, however, can create a substantial labor and cost burden for Southeast Asian countries. Therefore, modeling approaches for As concentration using conventional on-site measurement data can be an alternative to quantify the As contamination. The objective of this study is to evaluate the predictive performance of four different models; specifically, multiple linear regression (MLR), principal component regression (PCR), artificial neural network (ANN), and the combination of principal components and an artificial neural network (PC-ANN) in the prediction of As concentration, and to provide assessment tools for Southeast Asian countries including Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand. The modeling results show that the prediction accuracy of PC-ANN (Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients: 0.98 (traning step) and 0.71 (validation step)) is superior among the four different models. This finding can be explained by the fact that the PC-ANN not only solves the problem of collinearity of input variables, but also reflects the presence of high variability in observed As concentrations. We expect that the model developed in this work can be used to predict As concentrations using conventional water quality data obtained from on-site measurements, and can further provide reliable and predictive information for public health management policies. PMID:21917287

Cho, Kyung Hwa; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Kim, Joon Ha

2011-11-01

148

Water-supply options in arsenic-affected regions in Cambodia: targeting the bottom income quintiles.  

PubMed

In arsenic-affected regions of Cambodia, rural water committees and planners can choose to promote various arsenic-avoidance and/or arsenic-removal water supply systems. Each of these has different costs of providing water, subsequently born by the consumer in order to be sustainable. On a volumetric basis ($/m3-yr) and of the arsenic-avoidance options considered, small-scale public water supply - e.g., treated water provided to a central tap stand - is the most expensive option on a life-cycle cost basis. Rainwater harvesting, protected hand dug wells, and vendor-supplied water are the cheapest with a normalized present worth value, ranging from $2 to $10 per cubic meter per year of water delivered. Subsidization of capital costs is needed to make even these options affordable to the lowest (Q5) quintile. The range of arsenic-removal systems considered here, using adsorptive media, is competitive with large-scale public water supply and deep tube well systems. Both community level and household-scale systems are in a range that is affordable to the Q4 quintile, though more research and field trials are needed. At a target cost of $5.00/m3, arsenic removal systems will compete with the OpEx costs for most of the arsenic-safe water systems that are currently available. The life-cycle cost approach is a valuable method for comparing alternatives and for assessing current water supply practices as these relate to equity and the ability to pay. PMID:24457133

Chamberlain, Jim F; Sabatini, David A

2014-08-01

149

Breastfeeding Trends in Cambodia, and the Increased Use of Breast-Milk Substitute--Why Is It a Danger?  

PubMed Central

A cross-sectional analysis of the Cambodia Demographic Health Surveys from 2000, 2005 and 2010 was conducted to observe the national trends in infant and young child feeding practices. The results showed that rates of exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged 0–5.9 months have increased substantially since 2000, concurrent with an increase in the rates of early initiation of breastfeeding and a reduction in the giving of pre-lacteal feeds. However, the proportion of infants being fed with breast-milk substitutes (BMS) during 0–5.9 months doubled in 5 years (3.4% to 7.0%) from 2000 to 2005, but then did not increase from 2005, likely due to extensive public health campaigns on exclusive breastfeeding. BMS use increased among children aged 6–23.9 months from 2000 to 2010 (4.8% to 9.3%). 26.1% of women delivering in a private clinic provided their child with breast-milk substitute at 0–5.9 months, which is five times more than women delivering in the public sector (5.1%), and the greatest increase in bottle use happened among the urban poor (5.8% to 21.7%). These findings are discussed with reference to the increased supply and marketing of BMS that is occurring in Cambodia. PMID:25054552

Prak, Sophonneary; Iuell Dahl, Miriam; Oeurn, Sam; Conkle, Joel; Wise, Aaron; Laillou, Arnaud

2014-01-01

150

Testimony ceremonies in Asia: integrating spirituality in testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines.  

PubMed

This study explores the therapeutic implications of including culturally adapted spiritual ceremonies in the process of testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Data were collected through an action research process with Asian mental health and human rights organizations, during which the testimonial method was reconceptualized and modified to include four sessions. In the first two sessions, community workers assist survivors in the writing of their testimony, which is their narrative about the human rights violations they have suffered. In the third session, survivors participate in an honour ceremony in which they are presented with their testimony documents. In the fourth session, the community workers meet with the survivors for a reevaluation of their well-being. The honour ceremonies developed during the action research process came to employ different kinds of symbolic language at each site: human rights (India), religious/Catholic (Sri Lanka), religious/Buddhist (Cambodia), and religious/Moslem (Philippines). They all used embodied spirituality in various forms, incorporating singing, dancing, and religious purification rituals in a collective gathering. We suggest that these types of ceremonies may facilitate an individual's capacity to contain and integrate traumatic memories, promote restorative self-awareness, and engage community support. Additional research is needed to determine the method's applicability in other sociopolitical contexts governed by more Western-oriented medical traditions. PMID:22637721

Agger, Inger; Igreja, Victor; Kiehle, Rachel; Polatin, Peter

2012-07-01

151

Arsenic concentrations in paddy soil and rice and health implications for major rice-growing regions of Cambodia.  

PubMed

Despite the global importance of As in rice, research has primarily focused on Bangladesh, India, China, and the United States with limited attention given to other countries. Owing to both indigenous As within the soil and the possible increases arising from the onset of irrigation with groundwater, an assessment of As in rice within Cambodia is needed, which offers a "base-case" comparison against sediments of similar origin that comprise rice paddy soils where As-contaminated water is used for irrigation (e.g., Bangladesh). Here, we evaluated the As content of rice from five provinces (Kandal, Prey Veng, Battambang, Banteay Meanchey, and Kampong Thom) in the rice-growing regions of Cambodia and coupled that data to soil-chemical factors based on extractions of paddy soil collected and processed under anoxic conditions. At total soil As concentrations ranging 0.8 to 18 ?g g(-1), total grain As concentrations averaged 0.2 ?g g(-1) and ranged from 0.1 to 0.37 with Banteay Meanchey rice having significantly higher values than Prey Veng rice. Overall, soil-extractable concentrations of As, Fe, P, and Si and total As were poor predictors of grain As concentrations. While biogeochemical factors leading to reduction of As(V)-bearing Fe(III) oxides are likely most important for predicting plant-available As, husk and straw As concentrations were the most significant predictors of grain-As levels among our measured parameters. PMID:24712677

Seyfferth, Angelia L; McCurdy, Sarah; Schaefer, Michael V; Fendorf, Scott

2014-05-01

152

PALSAR 50 m Mosaic Data Based National Level Biomass Estimation in Cambodia for Implementation of REDD+ Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Tropical countries like Cambodia require information about forest biomass for successful implementation of climate change mitigation mechanism related to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). This study investigated the potential of Phased Array-type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar Fine Beam Dual (PALSAR FBD) 50 m mosaic data to estimate Above Ground Biomass (AGB) in Cambodia. AGB was estimated using a bottom-up approach based on field measured biomass and backscattering (?o) properties of PALSAR data. The relationship between the PALSAR ?o HV and HH/HV with field measured biomass was strong with R2?=?0.67 and 0.56, respectively. PALSAR estimated AGB show good results in deciduous forests because of less saturation as compared to dense evergreen forests. The validation results showed a high coefficient of determination R2?=?0.61 with RMSE ?=?21 Mg/ha using values up to 200 Mg/ha biomass. There were some uncertainties because of the uncertainty in the field based measurement and saturation of PALSAR data. AGB map of Cambodian forests could be useful for the implementation of forest management practices for REDD+ assessment and policies implementation at the national level. PMID:24116012

Avtar, Ram; Suzuki, Rikie; Takeuchi, Wataru; Sawada, Haruo

2013-01-01

153

ORAL HEALTH STATUS AMONG 12YEAROLD CHILDREN IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS PARTICIPATING IN AN ORAL HEALTH PREVENTIVE SCHOOL PROGRAM IN PHNOM PENH CITY, CAMBODIA, 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess dental caries status, knowledge, attitude and practice in oral health among 12-year-old primary schoolchildren participating in the Oral Health Preventive School Program (OHPSP) conducted since 1998 in Phnom Penh City, Cambodia. Schools were stratified into 3 groups by levels of cooperation (good, partial, and poor ) with the OHPS pro- gram and samples

O Teng; K Narksawat; J Podang

154

Pathways of Thriving and Resilience: Growth Responses to Adversity and Trauma in Two Cambodian Communities: A Comparative Study between Lowell, Massachusetts and Phnom Penh, Cambodia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study investigated individual, contextual, and cultural factors that promote trauma-related resilience and positive growth among Cambodian survivors of the Pol Pot regime who reside in Phnom Penh, Cambodia and Lowell, Massachusetts. A thriving paradigm framed semi-structured interviews that were conducted with 21 Cambodians in…

West, Cheryl D.

155

Sustainable gasificationbiochar systems? A case-study of rice-husk gasification in Cambodia, Part II: Field trial results, carbon abatement,  

E-print Network

Sustainable gasification­biochar systems? A case-study of rice-husk gasification in Cambodia, Part II: Field trial results, carbon abatement, economic assessment and conclusions Simon Shackley a, Metro Manila, Philippines a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 15 June 2011 Accepted 8

Haszeldine, Stuart

156

Reaping Recruits On-Line.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A consortium of St. Louis-area school districts, college career officers, and consultants developed an online teacher and administrator recruitment/job-application system that has gone statewide and is being used by nine other states. Next is a nationwide job bank to help districts recruit educators. (MLH)

Wright, Gary K.; Simpson, George

2001-01-01

157

Kerala reaps low fertility dividends.  

PubMed

Unlike much of India, the state of Kerala has promoted the development of human resources, resulting in lower fertility rates. If current UN projections are correct, India will overtake China as the most populous nation in the world by 2025. Within India, however, great differences exist in fertility rates, reflecting the level of commitment from state governments. In India, state governments control much of the policy and spending on health, education, etc. While the state of Kerala has been among the most committed to human resource development in the developing world, India's 5 northern states (Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, and Orissa) have been among the least committed. As a result, Kerala's fertility rate has fallen to 2.3 children/women--a rate lower than that of Thailand, China, the formers USSR, or Ireland. Kerala has a contraceptive prevalence rate 3 times the national average and the lowest infant mortality rate in all of India--only 26/1000 live births (infant mortality is 4-5 times higher in the 5 northern states). Only 27% of Kerala's population lives in poverty, compared to 34-49.5% in the northern states. Real incomes and industrialization have been growing faster in Kerala. And industrialization does not appear to have come at the expense of the environment. 2 factors are responsible for Kerala' accomplishments: 1) State government support of human development--the state has invested in health, education, and has conducted a land reform benefiting 3 million landless peasants. 2) The status of women--in Kerala, women are viewed as an asset, not a liability (as in the north). Kerala's female literacy is 66%, compared to 11-21% in the northern states. Kerala also enjoys the highest level of female labor force participation (35%) anywhere in India. PMID:12285239

1992-01-01

158

"Bad Boys", Big Trouble: Subcultural Formation and Resistance in a Cambodian Village  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the experiences of adolescent males in Cambodia who, simultaneous to their maltreatment and marginalization within the family and community, have reduced opportunities to produce identities of sociomoral value through access to cultural capital. It draws on ethnographic data gathered from adolescents boys aged 9 to 16 in Siem

Czymoniewicz-Klippel, Melina T.

2013-01-01

159

Hydrogeologic reconnaissance of the Mekong Delta in South Vietnam and Cambodia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The present report describes the results of a hydrogeologic reconnaissance in the Mekong Delta region by the writer, a hydrogeologist of the U.S. Geological Survey, while on assignment as an adviser to the Vietnamese Directorate of Water Supply from October 1968 to April 1970 under the auspices of the U.s. Agency for International Development. The delta of the Mekong River, comprising an area of about 70,000 square kilometres in South Vietnam and Cambodia, is an almost featureless plain rising gradually from sea level to about 5 metres above sea level at its apex 300 kilometres inland. Most of the shallow ground water in the Holocene Alluvium of the delta in Vietnam is brackish or saline down to depths of 50 to 100 metres. Moreover, in the Dong Thap Mu?oi (Plain of Reeds) the shallow ground water is alum-bearing. Locally, however, perched bodies of fresh ground water occur in ancient beach and dune ridges and are tapped by shallow dug wells or pits for village and domestic water supply. The Old Alluvium beneath the lower delta contains freshwater in some areas, notably in the Ca Mau Peninsula and adjacent areas, in the viciniy of Bau Xau near Saigon, and in the Tinh Long An area. Elsewhere in the lower delta both the Holocene and Old Alluvium may contain brackish or saline water from the land surface to depths of as much as 568 metres, as for example in Tinh Vinh Binh. Ground water in the outcrop area of Old Alluvium northwest of Saigon is generally fresh and potable, but high iron and low pH are locally troublesome. Although considerable exploratory drilling for ground water down to depths of as much as 568 metres has already been completed, large areas of the delta remain yet to be explored before full development of the ground-water potential can be realized. With careful development and controlled management to avoid saltwater contamination, however, it is estimated that freshwater aquifers could provide approximately 80 percent of existing needs for village and small municipal supplies in the delta.

Anderson, Henry R.

1978-01-01

160

Diagnosis, Treatment and Risk Factors of Strongyloides stercoralis in Schoolchildren in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide, an estimated 30 to 100 million people are infected with Strongyloides stercoralis, a soil-transmitted helminth. Information on the parasite is scarce in most settings. In semi-rural Cambodia, we determined infection rates and risk factors; compared two diagnostic methods (Koga agar plate [KAP] culture and Baermann technique) for detecting S. stercoralis infections, using a multiple stool examination approach; and assessed efficacy of ivermectin treatment. Methods/Principal Findings We performed a cross-sectional study in 458 children from four primary schools in semi-rural villages in Kandal province, using three diagnostic procedures (Kato-Katz, KAP culture and Baermann technique) on three stool samples. Infected children were treated with ivermectin (100 µg/kg/day for two days) and re-examined three weeks after treatment. Hookworm, S. stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, and small trematode eggs were most prevalent, with 24.4% of children being infected with S. stercoralis. The sensitivity of KAP culture and Baermann technique was 88.4% and 75.0%, respectively and their negative predictive values were 96.4% and 92.5%, respectively. The cumulative prevalence of S. stercoralis increased from 18.6% to 24.4%, after analyzing three stool samples, which was close to the modeled ‘true’ prevalence of 24.8%. Children who reported defecating in latrines were significantly less infected with S. stercoralis than those who did not use latrines (p<0.001). Itchy skin and diarrhea were significantly associated with S. stercoralis infection. The cure rate of ivermectin was 98.3%. Conclusions/Significance S. stercoralis infection is highly prevalent among semi-rural Cambodian schoolchildren. The sensitivity of KAP culture is higher than that of the Baermann technique. In the absence of a “gold standard”, analysis of multiple stool samples by different diagnostic methods is required to achieve a satisfactory level of sensitivity. Almost three-quarters of the infections could have been avoided by proper sanitation. Ivermectin is highly efficacious against S. stercoralis but prohibitive costs render the drug inaccessible to most Cambodians. PMID:23409200

Khieu, Virak; Schar, Fabian; Marti, Hanspeter; Sayasone, Somphou; Duong, Socheat; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

2013-01-01

161

Patterns of ecosystem metabolism in the Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia with links to capture fisheries.  

PubMed

The Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia is a dynamic flood-pulsed ecosystem that annually increases its surface area from roughly 2,500 km(2) to over 12,500 km(2) driven by seasonal flooding from the Mekong River. This flooding is thought to structure many of the critical ecological processes, including aquatic primary and secondary productivity. The lake also has a large fishery that supports the livelihoods of nearly 2 million people. We used a state-space oxygen mass balance model and continuous dissolved oxygen measurements from four locations to provide the first estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) for the Tonle Sap. GPP averaged 4.1±2.3 g O2 m(-3) d(-1) with minimal differences among sites. There was a negative correlation between monthly GPP and lake level (r?=?0.45) and positive correlation with turbidity (r?=?0.65). ER averaged 24.9±20.0 g O2 m(-3) d(-1) but had greater than six-fold variation among sites and minimal seasonal change. Repeated hypoxia was observed at most sampling sites along with persistent net heterotrophy (GPP

Holtgrieve, Gordon W; Arias, Mauricio E; Irvine, Kim N; Lamberts, Dirk; Ward, Eric J; Kummu, Matti; Koponen, Jorma; Sarkkula, Juha; Richey, Jeffrey E

2013-01-01

162

Little Evidence of Subclinical Avian Influenza Virus Infections among Rural Villagers in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

In 2008, 800 adults living within rural Kampong Cham Province, Cambodia were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. After enrollment, participants were contacted weekly for 24 months to identify acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI). Follow-up sera were collected at 12 and 24 months. A transmission substudy was also conducted among the family contacts of cohort members reporting ILI who were influenza A positive. Samples were assessed using serological or molecular techniques looking for evidence of infection with human and avian influenza viruses. Over 24 months, 438 ILI investigations among 284 cohort members were conducted. One cohort member was hospitalized with a H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus infection and withdrew from the study. Ninety-seven ILI cases (22.1%) were identified as influenza A virus infections by real-time RT-PCR; none yielded evidence for AIV. During the 2 years of follow-up, 21 participants (3.0%) had detectable antibody titers (?1?10) against the studied AIVs: 1 against an avian-like A/Migratory duck/Hong Kong/MPS180/2003(H4N6), 3 against an avian-like A/Teal/Hong Kong/w312/97(H6N1), 9 (3 of which had detectible antibody titers at both 12- and 24-month follow-up) against an avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), 6 (1 detected at both 12- and 24-month follow-up) against an avian-like A/Duck/Memphis/546/74(H11N9), and 2 against an avian-like A/Duck/Alberta/60/76(H12N5). With the exception of the one hospitalized cohort member with H5N1 infection, no other symptomatic avian influenza infections were detected among the cohort. Serological evidence for subclinical infections was sparse with only one subject showing a 4-fold rise in microneutralization titer over time against AvH12N5. In summary, despite conducting this closely monitored cohort study in a region enzootic for H5N1 HPAI, we were unable to detect subclinical avian influenza infections, suggesting either that these infections are rare or that our assays are insensitive at detecting them. PMID:24819948

Gray, Gregory C.; Krueger, Whitney S.; Chum, Channimol; Putnam, Shannon D.; Wierzba, Thomas F.; Heil, Gary L.; Anderson, Benjamin D.; Yasuda, Chadwick Y.; Williams, Maya; Kasper, Matthew R.; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Blair, Patrick J.

2014-01-01

163

Integrating Mechanisms that Control the Concentration and Distribution of Groundwater Arsenic in Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic contamination in the groundwater of the deltaic regions of southeastern Asia affects as many as one hundred million people. In these areas, the dominant mechanism for arsenic release into solution is the reductive dissolution of arsenic-bearing iron (hydr)oxides. What continues to confound researchers, however, is the heterogeneous nature of arsenic in groundwater. Recent evidence suggests that specific geomorphic environments are linked to regions of elevated groundwater arsenic. Moreover, waters from actively cycling surficial environments represent important sources of groundwater As in many environments. Here, we examine the mechanistic link between the localized expression of iron reduction and the large scale distribution of arsenic in groundwater along the Mekong River in Cambodia in a region impacted by widespread but heterogeneous arsenic contamination. In this region, arsenic levels in groundwater were correlated to sulfate levels, and both were strongly influenced by the extent of local surface water flooding (as quantified by remote sensing). Concentrations of arsenic ranged from 0 to 2100 micrograms/L, and were always found in groundwaters with significant dissolved iron and a sulfate concentration less than 1 mg/L. This indicates that the delivery of As and S was influenced by active redox processes in near-surface environments. In many, but not all, high As regions, groundwater concentrations of conservative halide anions also were similar to those of surficial environments, indicating that they were likely derived from the same locations. Low As regions, however, had widely variable halide concentrations in groundwater that may reflect additional groundwater sources. Thus, the expression of As contamination is strongly influenced by the hydrological connectivity of the aquifer with the surface. The isotopic composition of groundwater (hydrogen and oxygen) of high As areas also is similar to that of surface waters. Dissolved inorganic carbon isotopic composition of waters is more complex, with As-impacted groundwaters having distinct isotopic signatures characteristic of either extensive or relatively limited organic matter decomposition. Regional correlations of As with dissolved organic carbon are also not uniform, suggesting that sedimentary carbon is also important in generating reducing conditions. These data indicate that the distribution of organic carbon helps determine the distribution of arsenic in the environment. Moreover, these data indicate that heterogeneity in arsenic concentrations results from the interplay of variable organic matter content and reactivity within complex hydrological systems that can at least in part be explained regionally based on depositional environment.

Bostick, B. C.; Rosen, E. L.; Nguyen, H. M.; Sampson, M. L.

2008-12-01

164

Case management of malaria fever in Cambodia: results from national anti-malarial outlet and household surveys  

PubMed Central

Background Continued progress towards global reduction in morbidity and mortality due to malaria requires scale-up of effective case management with artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT). The first case of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum was documented in western Cambodia. Spread of artemisinin resistance would threaten recent gains in global malaria control. As such, the anti-malarial market and malaria case management practices in Cambodia have global significance. Methods Nationally-representative household and outlet surveys were conducted in 2009 among areas in Cambodia with malaria risk. An anti-malarial audit was conducted among all public and private outlets with the potential to sell anti-malarials. Indicators on availability, price and relative volumes sold/distributed were calculated across types of anti-malarials and outlets. The household survey collected information about management of recent "malaria fevers." Case management in the public versus private sector, and anti-malarial treatment based on malaria diagnostic testing were examined. Results Most public outlets (85%) and nearly half of private pharmacies, clinics and drug stores stock ACT. Oral artemisinin monotherapy was found in pharmacies/clinics (9%), drug stores (14%), mobile providers (4%) and grocery stores (2%). Among total anti-malarial volumes sold/distributed nationally, 6% are artemisinin monotherapies and 72% are ACT. Only 45% of people with recent "malaria fever" reportedly receive a diagnostic test, and the most common treatment acquired is a drug cocktail containing no identifiable anti-malarial. A self-reported positive diagnostic test, particularly when received in the public sector, improves likelihood of receiving anti-malarial treatment. Nonetheless, anti-malarial treatment of reportedly positive cases is low among people who seek treatment exclusively in the public (61%) and private (42%) sectors. Conclusions While data on the anti-malarial market shows favourable progress towards replacing artemisinin monotherapies with ACT, the widespread use of drug cocktails to treat malaria is a barrier to effective case management. Significant achievements have been made in availability of diagnostic testing and effective treatment in the public and private sectors. However, interventions to improve case management are urgently required, particularly in the private sector. Evidence-based interventions that target provider and consumer behaviour are needed to support uptake of diagnostic testing and treatment with full-course first-line anti-malarials. PMID:22039922

2011-01-01

165

Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance  

PubMed Central

This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR) malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world's most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders. PMID:23865048

Bhumiratana, Adisak; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Maneekan, Pannamas; Koyadun, Surachart

2013-01-01

166

The prevalence and psychological costs of household violence by family members against women with disabilities in cambodia.  

PubMed

Women with disabilities (WWDs) are at triple jeopardy due to the combined risks associated with gender, disability, and violence. Not only are WWDs marginalized socially but the violence against them in their own homes is largely neglected in domestic violence research. Evidence from developing countries is particularly sparse. A cross-sectional survey conducted in Cambodia found rates of violence by household members besides intimate partners were significantly higher among WWDs than non-disabled women. This violence engendered increased levels of psychological distress and higher rates of physical injury but low rates of disclosure to health workers and other formal sources of potential support. Community-based strategies are recommended to radically change social and cultural attitudes, beliefs, and responses to WWDs who are victims of household violence to reduce negative social reactions toward them and to make it safer for them to disclose and receive psychosocial, legal, and other necessary support for this underreported type of violence. PMID:24879651

Astbury, Jill; Walji, Fareen

2014-11-01

167

Assessing mixed trace elements in groundwater and their health risk of residents living in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia.  

PubMed

We investigated the potential contamination of trace elements in shallow Cambodian groundwater. Groundwater and hair samples were collected from three provinces in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia and analyzed by ICP-MS. Groundwater from Kandal (n = 46) and Kraite (n = 12) were enriched in As, Mn, Ba and Fe whereas none of tube wells in Kampong Cham (n = 18) had trace elements higher than Cambodian permissible limits. Risk computations indicated that 98.7% and 12.4% of residents in the study areas of Kandal (n = 297) and Kratie (n = 89) were at risk of non-carcinogenic effects from exposure to multiple elements, yet none were at risk in Kampong Cham (n = 184). Arsenic contributed 99.5%, 60.3% and 84.2% of the aggregate risk in Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham, respectively. Sustainable and appropriate treatment technologies must therefore be implemented in order for Cambodian groundwater to be used as potable water. PMID:23906558

Phan, Kongkea; Phan, Samrach; Huoy, Laingshun; Suy, Bunseang; Wong, Ming Hung; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Mohamed Yasin, Mohamed Salleh; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

2013-11-01

168

Identifying Conservation Successes, Failures and Future Opportunities; Assessing Recovery Potential of Wild Ungulates and Tigers in Eastern Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Conservation investment, particularly for charismatic and wide-ranging large mammal species, needs to be evidence-based. Despite the prevalence of this theme within the literature, examples of robust data being generated to guide conservation policy and funding decisions are rare. We present the first published case-study of tiger conservation in Indochina, from a site where an evidence-based approach has been implemented for this iconic predator and its prey. Despite the persistence of extensive areas of habitat, Indochina's tiger and ungulate prey populations are widely supposed to have precipitously declined in recent decades. The Seima Protection Forest (SPF), and broader Eastern Plains Landscape, was identified in 2000 as representing Cambodia's best hope for tiger recovery; reflected in its designation as a Global Priority Tiger Conservation Landscape. Since 2005 distance sampling, camera-trapping and detection-dog surveys have been employed to assess the recovery potential of ungulate and tiger populations in SPF. Our results show that while conservation efforts have ensured that small but regionally significant populations of larger ungulates persist, and density trends in smaller ungulates are stable, overall ungulate populations remain well below theoretical carrying capacity. Extensive field surveys failed to yield any evidence of tiger, and we contend that there is no longer a resident population within the SPF. This local extirpation is believed to be primarily attributable to two decades of intensive hunting; but importantly, prey densities are also currently below the level necessary to support a viable tiger population. Based on these results and similar findings from neighbouring sites, Eastern Cambodia does not currently constitute a Tiger Source Site nor meet the criteria of a Global Priority Tiger Landscape. However, SPF retains global importance for many other elements of biodiversity. It retains high regional importance for ungulate populations and potentially in the future for Indochinese tigers, given adequate prey and protection. PMID:23077476

O'Kelly, Hannah J.; Evans, Tom D.; Stokes, Emma J.; Clements, Tom J.; Dara, An; Gately, Mark; Menghor, Nut; Pollard, Edward H. B.; Soriyun, Men; Walston, Joe

2012-01-01

169

Arsenic contamination in the food chain and its risk assessment of populations residing in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the potential arsenic exposure of Cambodian residents from their daily food consumption. Environmental and ecological samples such as paddy soils, paddy rice (unhusked), staple rice (uncooked and cooked), fish and vegetables were collected from Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham provinces in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. After acid-digestion, digestates were chemically analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results revealed that the means of total arsenic concentration ([As]tot) in paddy soils and paddy rice from Kandal were significantly higher than those from Kampong Cham province (t-test, p<0.05). Moreover, a significant positive correlation between the [As]tot in paddy soils and paddy rice was found (r(14) = 0.826, p<0.01). Calculations of arsenic intake from food consumption indicated that the upper end of the range of the daily dose of inorganic arsenic for Kandal residents (0.089-8.386 ?g d(-1) kg(-1) body wt.) was greater than the lower limits on the benchmark dose for a 0.5% increased incidence of lung cancer (BMDL0.5 is equal to 3.0 ?g d(-1) kg(-1) body wt.). The present study suggests that the residents in Kandal are at risk of arsenic intake from their daily food consumption. However, the residents in Kratie and Kampong Cham provinces are less likely to be exposed to arsenic through their daily dietary intake. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report estimating the daily intake and daily dose of inorganic arsenic from food consumption in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. PMID:22818591

Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Heng, Savoeun; Phan, Samrach; Huoy, Laingshun; Wong, Ming Hung; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

2013-11-15

170

Domestic Violence against Women in Cambodia: Husband’s Control, Frequency of Spousal Discussion, and Domestic Violence Reported by Cambodian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to examine the effects of husband’s control and frequency of spousal discussion on domestic violence against\\u000a Cambodian married women, using the 2005 Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey data. The sample included 1,707 married women,\\u000a aged 16–49 (M?=?35.14). Structural Equation Modeling showed that husband’s control positively predicted both emotional and physical violence.\\u000a Frequency of spousal discussion positively predicted

Sothy Eng; Yingli Li; Miriam Mulsow; Judith Fischer

2010-01-01

171

Evaluating the efficiency of participatory epidemiology to estimate the incidence and impacts of foot-and-mouth disease among livestock owners in Cambodia.  

PubMed

The economic and social impacts of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) for livestock owners of developed countries have been extensively documented over the past few years. In developing countries such as Cambodia, this evaluation is often lacking due to the scarcity of accurate data. In the present study, we used a range of participatory tools to infer farmers' knowledge and perception, and the relative incidence of FMD from January 2009 to June 2010 in fifty-one villages of Svay Rieng province, Cambodia. In addition, the detection of non-structural protein at village level was used to cross-validate the results from the participatory epidemiology (PE) study. A quantitative assessment using Bayesian modeling was carried out to assess the ability of PE to retrospectively determine the FMD-infected status of a village in Cambodia. Our study shows that even if FMD is ranked second in the list of priority diseases, livestock owners did not see any benefit in reporting it since the disease entailed low direct losses. The average clinical incidence rates at individual level for cattle-buffaloes and pigs in infected villages were assessed by proportional piling at 18% and 11%, respectively for the year 2009. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of PE study were estimated at 87%, 30%, 51% and 74%, respectively. This approach seems to largely overestimate the presence of the disease but proves useful in evaluating the impact of FMD at household level and in understanding the reasons for not reporting it. This information may be important in establishing well-adapted disease prevention and control strategies in Cambodia. PMID:22487753

Bellet, C; Vergne, T; Grosbois, V; Holl, D; Roger, F; Goutard, F

2012-07-01

172

Socially-marketed rapid diagnostic tests and ACT in the private sector: ten years of experience in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Whilst some populations have recently experienced dramatic declines in malaria, the majority of those most at risk of Plasmodium falciparum malaria still lack access to effective treatment with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) and others are already facing parasites resistant to artemisinins.In this context, there is a crucial need to improve both access to and targeting of ACT through greater availability of good quality ACT and parasitological diagnosis. This is an issue of increasing urgency notably in the private commercial sector, which, in many countries, plays an important role in the provision of malaria treatment. The Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm) is a recent initiative that aims to increase the provision of affordable ACT in public, private and NGO sectors through a manufacturer-level subsidy. However, to date, there is little documented experience in the programmatic implementation of subsidized ACT in the private sector. Cambodia is in the unique position of having more than 10 years of experience not only in implementing subsidized ACT, but also rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) as part of a nationwide social marketing programme. The programme includes behaviour change communication and the training of private providers as well as the sale and distribution of Malarine, the recommended ACT, and Malacheck, the RDT. This paper describes and evaluates this experience by drawing on the results of household and provider surveys conducted since the start of the programme. The available evidence suggests that providers' and consumers' awareness of Malarine increased rapidly, but that of Malacheck much less so. In addition, improvements in ACT and RDT availability and uptake were relatively slow, particularly in more remote areas.The lack of standardization in the survey methods and the gaps in the data highlight the importance of establishing a clear system for monitoring and evaluation for similar initiatives. Despite these limitations, a number of important lessons can still be learnt. These include the importance of a comprehensive communications strategy and of a sustained and reliable supply of products, with attention to the geographical reach of both. Other important challenges relate to the difficulty in incentivising providers and consumers not only to choose the recommended drug, but to precede this with a confirmatory blood test and ensure that providers adhere to the test results and patients to the treatment regime. In Cambodia, this is particularly complicated due to problems inherent to the drug itself and the emergence of artemisinin resistance. PMID:21851625

Yeung, Shunmay; Patouillard, Edith; Allen, Henrietta; Socheat, Duong

2011-01-01

173

Evaluation of the impact of the voucher and accreditation approach on improving reproductive behaviors and status in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Cost of delivering reproductive health services to low income populations will always require total or partial subsidization by government and/or development partners. Broadly termed "demand-side financing" or "output-based aid", these strategies include a range of interventions that channel government or donor subsidies to the user rather than the service provider. Initial pilot assessments of reproductive health voucher programs suggest that they can increase access, reduce inequities, and enhance program efficiency and service quality. However, there is a paucity of evidence describing how these programs function in different settings for various reproductive health services. Methods/Design Population Council, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, intends to generate evidence around the "voucher and accreditation" approaches to improving the reproductive health of low-income women in Cambodia. The study comprises of four populations: facilities, providers, women of reproductive age using facilities, and women and men who have been pregnant and/or used family planning within the previous 12 months. The study will be carried out in a sample of 20 health facilities that are accredited to provide maternal and newborn health and family planning services to women holding vouchers from operational districts in three provinces: Kampong Thom, Kampot and Prey Veng and a matched sample of non-accredited facilities in three other provinces. Health facility assessments will be conducted at baseline and endline to track temporal changes in quality-of-care, client out-of-pocket costs, and utilization. Facility inventories, structured observations, and client exit interviews will be used to collect comparable data across facilities. Health providers will also be interviewed and observed providing care. A population survey of about 3000 respondents will also be conducted in areas where vouchers are distributed and similar non-voucher locations. Discussion A quasi-experimental study will investigate the impact of the voucher approach on improving reproductive health behaviors, reproductive health status and reducing inequities at the population level and assess effects on access, equity and quality of care at the facility level. If the voucher scheme in Cambodia is found effective, it may help other countries adopt this approach for improving utilization and access to reproductive health and family planning services. PMID:21864405

2011-01-01

174

A matter of good taste: Investigating preferences for in-house water treatment in peri-urban communities in Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is commonly argued that low demand for in-house water treatment technologies is not simply due to their cost, but also results from their other unfavorable features, notably distaste or convenience problems. This research considers household preferences for in-house water treatment in two peri-urban communes around Phnom Penh, Cambodia, with a particular focus on taste. In an effort to measure sensitivity to taste problems, respondents from more than 900 households were given water samples treated with randomly assigned levels of chlorine, as well as a bottled water placebo, and were asked to compare their favorite samples with their existing drinking water source. Households were also asked to complete a series of conjoint tasks in which they selected their preferred drinking water alternative among options that varied in terms of cost, taste, effectiveness against diarrheal disease and quantity of water treated. Our findings suggest that households do perceive distaste for water treated with chlorine products, and that taste is an important feature of their selection of water treatment alternatives. Better understanding of the taste preferences of households in communities without access to safe water is thus critical to interventions seeking to promote in-house water treatment.

Jeuland, M. A.; Orgill, J.; Brown, J.; Shaheed, A.

2012-12-01

175

Arsenic in groundwater and its influence on exposure risks through traditionally cooked rice in Prey Vêng Province, Cambodia.  

PubMed

Arsenic (As) contamination of communal tubewells in Prey Vêng, Cambodia, has been observed since 2000. Many of these wells exceed the WHO As in drinking water standard of 10 ?g/L by a factor of 100. The aim of this study was to assess how cooking water source impacts dietary As intake in a rural community in Prey Vêng. This aim was fulfilled by (1) using geostatistical analysis techniques to examine the extent of As contaminated groundwater in Prey Vêng and identify a suitable study site, (2) conducting an on-site study in two villages to measure As content in cooked rice prepared with water collected from tubewells and locally harvested rainwater, and (3) determining the dietary intake of As from consuming this rice. Geostatistical analysis indicated that high risk tubewells (>50 ?g As/L) are concentrated along the Mekong River's east bank. Participants using high risk tubewells are consuming up to 24 times more inorganic As daily than recommended by the previous FAO/WHO provisional tolerable daily intake value (2.1 ?g/kg BW/day). However, As content in rice cooked in rainwater was significantly reduced, therefore, it is considered to be a safer and more sustainable option for this region. PMID:23643198

O'Neill, A; Phillips, D H; Kok, S; Chea, E; Seng, B; Sen Gupta, B

2013-11-15

176

Microbial Community Analysis of Fresh and Old Microbial Biofilms on Bayon Temple Sandstone of Angkor Thom, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

The temples of Angkor monuments including Angkor Thom and Bayon in Cambodia and surrounding countries were exclusively constructed using sandstone. They are severely threatened by biodeterioration caused by active growth of different microorganisms on the sandstone surfaces, but knowledge on the microbial community and composition of the biofilms on the sandstone is not available from this region. This study investigated the microbial community diversity by examining the fresh and old biofilms of the biodeteriorated bas-relief wall surfaces of the Bayon Temple by analysis of 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequences. The results showed that the retrieved sequences were clustered in 11 bacterial, 11 eukaryotic and two archaeal divisions with disparate communities (Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria; Alveolata, Fungi, Metazoa, Viridiplantae; Crenarchaeote, and Euyarchaeota). A comparison of the microbial communities between the fresh and old biofilms revealed that the bacterial community of old biofilm was very similar to the newly formed fresh biofilm in terms of bacterial composition, but the eukaryotic communities were distinctly different between these two. This information has important implications for understanding the formation process and development of the microbial diversity on the sandstone surfaces, and furthermore to the relationship between the extent of biodeterioration and succession of microbial communities on sandstone in tropic region. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00248-010-9707-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20593173

Lan, Wensheng; Li, Hui; Wang, Wei-Dong; Katayama, Yoko

2010-01-01

177

Technology, Culture and the Manufacturing Engineer: How Studying SME's in Cambodia Can Teach Manufacturing Students About Global Enterprise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In his book The World is Flat, Thomas Friedman describes what he calls "the quiet crisis" as the "erosion of Americas science and engineering base, which has always been the source of Americas innovation and our standard of living." The crisis is the increasing penetration of global competition on the economic output of the United States, now an issue to which engineering education is paying serious attention. However, it is not a crisis of just technical issues. What is needed with respect to global learning and experience is more than just technical competence and expertise. Bill Wulf said "engineering is now practiced in a global, holistic business context, and engineers must design under constraints that reflect that context. In the future, understanding other cultures, speaking other languages, and communicating with people from marketing and finance will be just as fundamental to the practice of engineering as physics and calculus." For faculty and students and BYU, a recent project of studying manufacturing in Cambodia also became a study of Cambodian history, government, and culture. As a result it became, for both students and faculty, a learning experience in the broader, more holistic context of manufacturing, engineering, technology, and global issues.

Hawks, Val D.; Miles, Michael

2011-11-21

178

Prevalence of Human Leukocyte Antigen-B*5701 Among HIV-infected Children in Thailand and Cambodia: Implications for Abacavir Use  

PubMed Central

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*5701 allele is associated with abacavir hypersensitivity. Limited data among Asians showed lower rates of HLA-B*5701 compared with Caucasians. In 296 children with HIV in Thailand and Cambodia, the prevalence of HLA-B*5701 was 4.0% (95% confidence interval: 1.6–8.0%) among Thai and 3.4% (95% confidence interval: 0.9–8.5%) among Cambodian children. HLA-B*5701 carriage is not uncommon among Thai and Cambodian children; it is close to the prevalence found in European and higher than the prevalence found in East Asian and African studies. PMID:22986704

Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Vibol, Ung; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Ubolyam, Sasiwimol; Suwanlerk, Tulathip; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Ngampiyaskul, Chaiwat; Wongsawat, Jurai; Luesomboon, Wicharn; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

2014-01-01

179

Amphetamine-type stimulant use and HIV/STI risk behaviour among young female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Use of amphetamine-type substances (ATS) has been linked to increased risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) worldwide. In Cambodia, recent ATS use is independently associated with incident STI infection among young female sex workers (FSW). Methods We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with women (15–29 years old) engaged in sex work to explore ATS use and vulnerability to HIV/STI. Results Participants reported that ATS, primarily methamphetamine in pill and crystalline forms (yama), were cheap, widely available and commonly used. Yama was described as a “power drug” (thnam kamlang) which enabled women to work long hours and serve more customers. Use of ATS by clients was also common, with some providing drugs for women and/or encouraging their use, often resulting in prolonged sexual activity. Requests for unprotected sex were also more common among intoxicated clients and strategies typically employed to negotiate condom use were less effective. Conclusion ATS use was highly functional for young women engaged in sex work, facilitating a sense of power and agency and highlighting the occupational significance and normalization of ATS in this setting. This highly gendered dynamic supports the limited but emerging literature on women’s use of ATS, which to date has been heavily focused on men. Results indicate an urgent need to increase awareness of the risks associated with ATS use, to provide women with alternative and sustainable options for income generation, to better regulate the conditions of sex work, and to work with FSWs and their clients to develop and promote culturally appropriate harm reduction interventions. PMID:21316935

Maher, L; Phlong, P; Mooney-Somers, J; Keo, S; Stein, E; Page, K

2011-01-01

180

Vibrio parahaemolyticus enteritis outbreak following a wedding banquet in a rural village – Kampong Speu, Cambodia, April 2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction Foodborne outbreaks are common in Cambodia, but only a few investigations documenting the etiology and source have been conducted. In April, we learnt of 49 acute diarrhoea cases in a village following a wedding banquet. We undertook an investigation to identify the pathogen, source and mode of transmission. Methods We interviewed banquet hosts and food handlers to obtain the menu and guest list. Guests were asked about signs and symptoms and onset of illness, time of meal and food or drinks consumed. Rectal swabs were taken from 13 cases for culture. A case-control study was undertaken; cases were guests who had acute diarrhoea within three days after the wedding and controls were guests who remained well during the same time period. Results There were 256 guests. Of 69 interviewees, 52 got sick (attack rate 75%). Aside from diarrhoea, cases had abdominal pain (94%), vomiting (48%), nausea (42%) and fever (25%). Incubation periods ranged from seven to 51 hours (median 16.5). Rectal swabs from three cases grew Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Among the food and drinks served, vegetable salad with raw octopus was the only one associated with illness (odds ratio: 6.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.3–36.1, P = 0.01). Discussion Vegetable salad with raw octopus was the suspected vehicle for transmission of this Vibrio parahaemolyticus enteritis outbreak. Messages regarding the risks from eating raw seafood were disseminated, and food handlers were advised to cook seafood to high temperatures. Efforts to improve foodborne disease surveillance and food safety are being undertaken. PMID:23908935

Vandy, Som; Leakhann, Som; Phalmony, Has; Denny, Justin

2012-01-01

181

Ex Vivo Activity of Endoperoxide Antimalarials, Including Artemisone and Arterolane, against Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Novel synthetic endoperoxides are being evaluated as new components of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) to treat artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. We conducted blinded ex vivo activity testing of fully synthetic (OZ78 and OZ277) and semisynthetic (artemisone, artemiside, artesunate, and dihydroartemisinin) endoperoxides in the histidine-rich protein 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against 200 P. falciparum isolates from areas of artemisinin-resistant malaria in western and northern Cambodia in 2009 and 2010. The order of potency and geometric mean (GM) 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) were as follows: artemisone (2.40 nM) > artesunate (8.49 nM) > dihydroartemisinin (11.26 nM) > artemiside (15.28 nM) > OZ277 (31.25 nM) > OZ78 (755.27 nM). Ex vivo activities of test endoperoxides positively correlated with dihydroartemisinin and artesunate. The isolates were over 2-fold less susceptible to dihydroartemisinin than the artemisinin-sensitive P. falciparum W2 clone and showed sensitivity comparable to those with test endoperoxides and artesunate, with isolate/W2 IC50 susceptibility ratios of <2.0. All isolates had P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter mutations, with negative correlations in sensitivity to endoperoxides and chloroquine. The activities of endoperoxides (artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, OZ277, and artemisone) significantly correlated with that of the ACT partner drug, mefloquine. Isolates had mutations associated with clinical resistance to mefloquine, with 35% prevalence of P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1) amplification and 84.5% occurrence of the pfmdr1 Y184F mutation. GM IC50s for mefloquine, lumefantrine, and endoperoxides (artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, OZ277, OZ78, and artemisone) correlated with pfmdr1 copy number. Given that current ACTs are failing potentially from reduced sensitivity to artemisinins and partner drugs, newly identified mutations associated with artemisinin resistance reported in the literature and pfmdr1 mutations should be examined for their combined contributions to emerging ACT resistance. PMID:25049252

Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Lon, Chanthap; Saunders, David L.; Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Bathurst, Ian; Ding, Xavier C.; Tyner, Stuart D.

2014-01-01

182

Molecular epidemiology of Orientia tsutsugamushi in Cambodia and Central Vietnam reveals a broad region-wide genetic diversity.  

PubMed

Scrub typhus is an acute infectious disease caused by an obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi following the bite of infected trombiculid mites of the genus Leptotrombidium. This zoonotic disease is a major cause of febrile illness in the Asia-Pacific region, with a large spectrum of clinical manifestations from unapparent or mild disease to fatal disease. O. tsutsugamushi is characterized by a very high genomic plasticity and a large number of antigenic variants amongst strains. The 56-kDa type specific antigen (TSA) gene, encoding the major antigenic protein, was used as reference to investigate the genetic relationships between the strains and to genotype O. tsutsugamushi isolates. The open reading frame of the 56-kDa TSA gene of 41 sequences (28 Cambodian and 13 Vietnamese strains) from patient samples were sequenced and used for genotyping. The 28 Cambodian isolates clustered into 5 major groups, including Karp (43.5%), JG-v (25%), Kato/TA716 (21.5%), TA763 (3.5%) and Gilliam (3.5%). Karp (77%), TA763 (15.5%) and JG-v (7.5%) strains were identified amongst the 13 Vietnamese isolates. This is the first countrywide genotyping description in Cambodia and in Central Vietnam. These results demonstrate the considerable diversity of genotypes in co-circulation in both countries. The genotyping result might raise awareness amongst Cambodian and Vietnamese clinicians of the high genetic diversity of circulating O. tsutsugamushi strains and provides unique and beneficial data for serological and molecular diagnosis of scrub typhus infections as well as raw materials for future studies and vaccine development. PMID:21241829

Duong, Veasna; Mai, Trinh Thi Xuan; Blasdell, Kim; Lo, Le Viet; Morvan, Claire; Lay, Sreyrath; Anukool, Wichittra; Wongprompitak, Patimaporn; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Laurent, Denis; Richner, Beat; Ra, Chheang; Chien, Bui Trong; Frutos, Roger; Buchy, Philippe

2013-04-01

183

Potential Use of School Absenteeism Record for Disease Surveillance in Developing Countries, Case Study in Rural Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Disease surveillance allows prospective monitoring of patterns in disease incidence in the general community, specific institutions (e.g. hospitals, elderly care homes), and other important population subgroups. Surveillance activities are now routinely conducted in many developed countries and in certain easy-to-reach areas of the developing ones. However due to limited health resources, population in rural area that consisted of the most the vulnerable groups are not under surveillance. Cheaper alternative ways for disease surveillance were needed in resource-limited settings. Methods and Findings In this study, a syndromic surveillance system using disease specific absenteeism rates was established in 47 pre-schools with 1,417 students 3–6 y of age in a rural area of Kampot province, Cambodia. School absenteeism data were collected via short message service. Data collected between 1st January and 31st December 2012 was used for system evaluation for future potential use in larger scale. The system appeared to be feasible and acceptable in the rural study setting. Moderate correlation was found between rates of school absenteeism due to illness and the reference data on rates of attendance at health centers in persons <16 y (maximum cross-correlation coefficient?=?0.231 at lag?=??1 week). Conclusions School absenteeism data is pre-existing, easily accessible and requires minimum time and resources after initial development, and our results suggest that this system may be able to provide complementary data for disease surveillance, especially in resource limited settings where there is very little information on illnesses in the community and traditional surveillance systems are difficult to implement. An important next step is to validate the syndromic data with other forms of surveillance including laboratory data. PMID:24155907

Cheng, Calvin K. Y.; Channarith, Hing; Cowling, Benjamin J.

2013-01-01

184

Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted diseases in Dutch marines and naval personnel on a United Nations mission in Cambodia.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To determine the sexual risk behaviour and the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among Dutch marines and naval personnel during a United Nations (UN) deployment. METHODS--Surveillance by post deployment questionnaire, administered to 2289 persons in three successive battalions who served for 6 months on a UN deployment in Cambodia during June 1992-November 1993. On site the medical history of all individuals was kept up to date in a database. All personnel received extra education on STD prevention prior to deployment. Condoms were freely obtainable during deployment. RESULTS--1885 persons (82%) handed in the questionnaire of whom 842 (45%) reported to have had sexual contacts with prostitutes or local population. Being younger and single were independent risk factors for having contact. Out of these 842 persons, 750 (89.1%) reported condom use at all times, while 82 (9.7%) reported inconsistent use and 10 persons (1.2%) reported not to have used condoms. Risk factors for inconsistent and non use were being 40 years or older and a higher number of contacts. From the 832 (750 + 82) condom users, 248 (30%) reported condom failure. Risk factors for failure were: inconsistent condom use, having had more than six contacts and being in the second battalion. The patient recording database showed 43 STD cases registered in the total population of 2289 persons (1.9%). CONCLUSIONS--A low STD incidence was found despite a considerable number of reported sexual contacts. The reported condom use was high but the failure rate was considerable and needs further attention. PMID:7635494

Hopperus Buma, A P; Veltink, R L; van Ameijden, E J; Tendeloo, C H; Coutinho, R A

1995-01-01

185

Impacts on rural livelihoods in Cambodia following adoption of best practice health and husbandry interventions by smallholder cattle farmers.  

PubMed

To better understand how smallholder farmers whom own the majority of Cambodian cattle can contribute to efforts to address food security needs in the Mekong region, a five-year research project investigating methods to improve cattle health and husbandry practices was conducted. Cattle production in Cambodia is constrained by transboundary animal diseases (TADs) including foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) plus poor nutrition, reproduction and marketing knowledge. The project worked in six villages in Kandal, Takeo and Kampong Cham province during 2007-12. Farmers from three 'high intervention' (HI) villages incrementally received a participatory extension programme that included FMD and HS vaccination, forage development and husbandry training. Evaluation of project impacts on livelihoods was facilitated by comparison with three 'low intervention' (LI) villages where farmers received vaccinations only. Results of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) and socio-economic surveys conducted in 2012 of 120 participating farmers identified that farmer knowledge in the HI project sites exceeded LI sites on the topics of biosecurity, internal parasites, nutrition and reproduction. HI farmers adopted biosecurity practices including a willingness to vaccinate for FMD and HS at their own cost, separate sick from healthy cattle, grow and feed forages and displayed awareness of the benefits of building fattening pens. HI farmers that grew forages observed time savings exceeding two hours per day each for men, women and children, enabling expansion of farm enterprises, secondary employment and children's schooling. Logistic regression analysis revealed that farmers in the HI group significantly increased annual household income (P < 0.001), with 53% reporting an increase of 100% or more. We conclude that improving smallholder KAP of cattle health and production can lead to improved livelihoods. This strategy should be of interest to policymakers, donors, researchers and extension workers interested in addressing TAD control, food insecurity and rural poverty in Southeast Asia. PMID:24393407

Young, J R; O'Reilly, R A; Ashley, K; Suon, S; Leoung, I V; Windsor, P A; Bush, R D

2014-08-01

186

Evaluation of community-based systems for the surveillance of day three-positive Plasmodium falciparum cases in Western Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites is used as an operational indicator of potential artemisinin resistance. Effective community-based systems to detect P. falciparum cases remaining positive 72 hours after initiating treatment would be valuable for guiding case follow-up in areas of known resistance risk and for detecting areas of emerging resistance. Methods Systems incorporating existing networks of village malaria workers (VMWs) to monitor day three-positive P. falciparum cases were piloted in three provinces in western Cambodia. Quantitative and qualitative data were used to evaluate the wider feasibility and sustainability of community-based surveillance of day three-positive P. falciparum cases. Results Of 294 day-3 blood slides obtained across all sites (from 297 day-0 positives), 63 were positive for P. falciparum, an overall day-3 positivity rate of 21%. There were significant variations in the systems implemented by different partners. Full engagement of VMWs and health centre staff is critical. VMWs are responsible for a range of individual tasks including preparing blood slides on day-0, completing forms, administering directly observed therapy (DOT) on days 0–2, obtaining follow-up slides on day-3 and transporting slides and paperwork to their supervising health centre. When suitably motivated, unsalaried VMWs are willing and able to produce good quality blood smears and achieve very high rates of DOT and day-3 follow-up. Conclusions Community-based surveillance of day-3 P. falciparum cases is feasible, but highly intensive, and as such needs strong and continuous support, particularly supervision and training. The purpose and role of community-based day-3 surveillance should be assessed in the light of resource requirements; scaling-up would need to be systematic and targeted, based on clearly defined epidemiological criteria. To be truly comprehensive, the system would need to be extended beyond VMWs to other public and private health providers. PMID:25052222

2014-01-01

187

Orthogonius species and diversity in Thailand (Coleoptera, Caraboidea, Orthogoniini), a result from the TIGER project  

PubMed Central

Abstract The carabid genus Orthogonius MacLeay is treated, based mainly on materials collected in Thailand through the TIGER project (the Thailand Inventory Group for Entomological Research). Among 290 specimens, 20 species are identified in total, 10 of them are new species: Orthogonius taghavianae sp. n. (Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park), Orthogonius coomanioides sp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius similaris sp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Loei: Phu Kradueng National Park), Orthogonius setosopalpiger sp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius gracililamella sp. n. (Loei: Phu Kradueng National Park; Chaiyaphum: Tat Tone National Park), Orthogonius pseudochaudoiri sp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park), Orthogonius constrictus sp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius pinophilus sp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius vari sp. n. (Cambodia: Siem Reap; Thailand: Ubon Ratchathani: Pha Taem National Park; Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park) and Orthogonius variabilis sp. n. (Thailand: Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park; Phetchabun: Nam Nao National Park; China: Yunnan). In addition, Orthogonius mouhoti Chaudoir, 1871 and Orthogonius kirirom Tian & Deuve, 2008 are recorded in Thailand for the first time. In total, 30 species of Orthogonius have been recorded from Thailand, indicating that Thailand holds one of the richest Orthogonius faunas in the world. A provisional key to all Thai species is provided. A majority of Thai Orthogonius species are endemic. Among the ten national parks in which orthogonine beetles were collected, Thung Salaeng Luang holds the richest fauna, including 16 species. PMID:22328852

Tian, Mingyi; Deuve, Thierry; Felix, Ron

2012-01-01

188

High compliance randomized controlled field trial of solar disinfection of drinking water and its impact on childhood diarrhea in rural Cambodia.  

PubMed

Recent solar disinfection (SODIS) studies in Bolivia and South Africa have reported compliance rates below 35% resulting in no overall statistically significant benefit associated with disease rates. In this study, we report the results of a 1 year randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of SODIS of drinking water on the incidence of dysentery and nondysentery diarrhea among children of age 6 months to 5 years living in rural communities in Cambodia. We compared 426 children in 375 households using SODIS with 502 children in 407 households with no intervention. Study compliance was greater than 90% with only 5% of children having less than 10 months of follow-up and 2.3% having less than 6 months. Adjusted for water source type, children in the SODIS group had a reduced incidence of dysentery, with an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 0.50 (95% CI 0.27-0.93, p = 0.029). SODIS also had a protective effect against nondysentery diarrhea, with an IRR of 0.37 (95% CI 0.29-0.48, p < 0.001). This study suggests strongly that SODIS is an effective and culturally acceptable point-of-use water treatment method in the culture of rural Cambodia and may be of benefit among similar communities in neighboring South East Asian countries. PMID:21827166

McGuigan, Kevin G; Samaiyar, Priyajit; du Preez, Martella; Conroy, Ronán M

2011-09-15

189

Toward a typology of health-related informal credit: an exploration of borrowing practices for paying for health care by the poor in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Borrowing money is a common strategy to cope with health care costs. The impact of borrowing on households can be severe, leading to indebtedness and further impoverishment. However, the available literature on borrowing practices for health is limited. We explore borrowing practices for paying for health care by the poor in Cambodia and provide a typology, associated conditions, and the extent of the phenomenon. Methods In addition to a semi-structured literature review, in-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of 47 households with health-related debt and 19 managers of formal or informal credit schemes. Results A large proportion of Cambodians, especially the poor, resort to borrowing to meet the cost of health care. Because of limited cash flow and access to formal creditors, the majority take out loans with high interest rates from informal money lenders. The most common type of informal credit is locally known as Changkar and consists of five kinds of loans: short-term loans, medium-term loans, seasonal loans, loans for an unspecified period, and loans with repayment in labour, each with different lending and repayment conditions and interest rates. Conclusion This study suggests the importance of informal credit for coping with the cost of treatment and its potentially negative impact on the livelihood of Cambodian people. We provide directions for further studies on financial protection interventions to mitigate harmful borrowing practices to pay for health care in Cambodia. PMID:23134845

2012-01-01

190

Gamma-rays attenuation of zircons from Cambodia and South Africa at different energies: A new technique for identifying the origin of gemstone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the gamma-rays interaction properties of zircons from Cambodia and South Africa have been studied. The densities of Cambodian and South African's zircons are 4.6716±0.0040 g/cm3 and 4.5505±0.0018 g/cm3, respectively. The mass attenuation coefficient and the effective atomic number of gemstones were measured with the gamma-ray in energies range 223-662 keV using the Compton scattering technique. The mass attenuation coefficients of both zircons decreased with the increasing of gamma-rays energies. The different mass attenuation coefficients between the two zircons observed at gamma-ray energies below 400 keV are attributed to the differences in the photoelectric interaction. The effective atomic number of zircons was decreased with the increasing of gamma-ray energies and showed totally different values between the Cambodia and South Africa sources. The origins of the two zircons could be successfully identified by the method based on gamma-rays interaction with matter with advantage of being a non-destructive testing.

Limkitjaroenporn, P.; Kaewkhao, J.

2014-10-01

191

Plasmodium vivax Isolates from Cambodia and Thailand Show High Genetic Complexity and Distinct Patterns of P. vivax Multidrug Resistance Gene 1 (pvmdr1) Polymorphisms  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium vivax accounts for an increasing fraction of malaria infections in Thailand and Cambodia. We compared P. vivax genetic complexity and antimalarial resistance patterns in the two countries. Use of a heteroduplex tracking assay targeting the merozoite surface protein 1 gene revealed that vivax infections in both countries are frequently polyclonal (84%), with parasites that are highly diverse (HE = 0.86) but closely related (GST = 0.18). Following a history of different drug policies in Thailand and Cambodia, distinct patterns of antimalarial resistance have emerged: most Cambodian isolates harbor the P. vivax multidrug resistance gene 1 (pvmdr1) 976F mutation associated with chloroquine resistance (89% versus 8%, P < 0.001), whereas Thai isolates more often display increased pvmdr1 copy number (39% versus 4%, P < 0.001). Finally, genotyping of paired isolates from individuals suspected of suffering relapse supports a complex scheme of relapse whereby recurrence of multiple identical variants is sometimes accompanied by the appearance of novel variants. PMID:23509126

Lin, Jessica T.; Patel, Jaymin C.; Kharabora, Oksana; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Muth, Sinuon; Ubalee, Ratawan; Schuster, Anthony L.; Rogers, William O.; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda; Juliano, Jonathan J.

2013-01-01

192

[Do reproductive health care practices create a risk of HIV, HVB, and HVC transmission? Case studies in Cambodia].  

PubMed

The processes involved in nosocomial transmission of HIV, HBV, and HCV nosocomial transmission have not been studied at a global level; little is known about them or about the underlying social and cultural logic that contributes to this transmission. Hospital hygiene has mainly been studied from a biological perspective until now. However, hospital hygiene is shaped by norms and sociocultural representations, and the increase or limitation of disease transmission always takes place within social relations. We need to analyse the practices related to hygiene from a cultural perspective, especially since norms are interpreted at the local level according to social and symbolic logic. Our paper aims to investigate these issues in the context of reproductive health care practices in Cambodia. We describe various perceptions, attitudes and roles of both medical and non-medical caregivers and show how they determine practices, as well as how sanitary, social and institutional contexts shape practices. Since 1995, public health institutions have provided contraceptive methods (condoms, oral or injectable contraceptives, contraceptive implants, intrauterine devices, and emergency contraception). Except for the free distribution of condoms, particularly by NGOs as part of HIV prevention programs, access to contraception is not free. Private clinics and local and international NGOs provide many of these services. Many women in both urban and rural areas seek reproductive health care in the informal sector, from caregivers who may or may not be trained. We thus wonder if these practices, as implemented in the formal and informal care sectors, create a risk for the transmission of HIV, HVB, and HVC. We analyse those issues in considering especially the injection of Depo-Provera, insertion of intrauterine devices, vaginal cleaning practices, and surgical abortion. This investigation of the sociocultural dimension of hygiene in the field of reproductive health care underlines how and to what extent these practices may present a risk of nosocomial transmission of HIV, HBV, or HCV when they are performed by trained or untrained caregivers practising outside the formal health care setting. We also wonder if in some circumstances, reproductive health practices may be at risk when they are performed "informally", particularly at night and on weekends by caregivers in the public sector of care. Finally, because of the high cost of abortions in the institutions allowed to provide this service, many women have recourse to informal care sector, where the materials and techniques, as well as the lack of training for practitioners, appear to be the source of haemorrhagic risks and subsequent infection. PMID:20368136

Petitet, Pascale Hancart

2010-01-01

193

“Souls of the ancestor that knock us out” and other tales. A qualitative study to identify demand-side factors influencing malaria case management in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Appropriate case management of suspected malaria in Cambodia is critical given anti-malarial drug resistance in the region. Improving diagnosis and the use of recommended malarial treatments is a challenge in Cambodia where self-treatment and usage of drug cocktails is widespread, a notable difference from malaria treatment seeking in other countries. This qualitative study adds to the limited evidence base on Cambodian practices, aiming to understand the demand-side factors influencing treatment-seeking behaviour, including the types of home treatments, perceptions of cocktail medicines and reasons for diagnostic testing. The findings may help guide intervention design. Methods The study used in-depth interviews (IDIs) (N?=?16) and focus group discussions (FGDs) (N?=?12) with Cambodian adults from malaria-endemic areas who had experienced malaria fever in the previous two weeks. Data were analysed using NVivo software. Results Findings suggest that Cambodians initially treat suspected malaria at home with home remedies and traditional medicines. When seeking treatment outside the home, respondents frequently reported receiving a cocktail of medicines from trusted providers. Cocktails are perceived as less expensive and more effective than full-course, pre-packaged medicines. Barriers to diagnostic testing include a belief in the ability to self-diagnose based on symptoms, cost and reliance on providers to recommend a test. Factors that facilitate testing include recommendation by trusted providers and a belief that anti-malarial treatment for illnesses other than malaria can be harmful. Conclusions Treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria in Cambodia is complex, driven by cultural norms, practicalities and episode-related factors. Effective malaria treatment programmes will benefit from interventions and communication materials that leverage these demand-side factors, promoting prompt visits to facilities for suspected malaria and challenging patients’ misconceptions about the effectiveness of cocktails. Given the importance of the patient-provider interaction and the pivotal role that providers play in ensuring the delivery of appropriate malaria care, future research and interventions should also focus on the supply side factors influencing provider behaviour. PMID:23039260

2012-01-01

194

In vivo study of the response of Plasmodium falciparum to standard mefloquine/sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (MSP) treatment among gem miners returning from Cambodia.  

PubMed

An in vivo study of the response of P. falciparum to the combination drug, MSP, was conducted among gem miners who contracted malaria from Cambodia in 1991-1992. High level resistance (RII, RIII responses) was observed in 22.5% of the 40 cases attending Mae Sot malaria clinic, west Thailand border, and in 28.1% of the 96 cases attending Bo Rai malaria clinic, east Thailand border. The observations on in vitro studies conducted prior to the MSP treatment and after recrudescence, together with the findings on adequate mefloquine blood levels strongly indicated the serious deterioration of mefloquine efficacy. The first line treatment for the malaria control program needs to be revised and the use of qinghaosu derivatives considered. Intensive measures to combat spreading of the highly resistant strains to other parts of the country should be taken into account. PMID:8629047

Thimasarn, K; Sirichaisinthop, J; Vijaykadga, S; Tansophalaks, S; Yamokgul, P; Laomiphol, A; Palananth, C; Thamewat, U; Tháithong, S; Rooney, W

1995-06-01

195

Correlates of amphetamine-type stimulants use and associations with HIV-related risks among young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) use has increased in Cambodia and emerged as a significant problem among female sex workers (FSWs), potentially contributing to increased risk of HIV. We examined the prevalence of ATS use and its effect on sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STI) among FSWs in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods A one-year prospective study among young women engaged in sex work in brothels, entertainment establishments and on a freelance basis. Socio-demographics, sexual risks, and recent ATS use were assessed by self-report. Blood and urine samples were collected to detect HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC). Bivariate and multivariate longitudinal analyses were conducted to assess the effects of ATS use on number of sex partners, inconsistent condom use with paying partners and incident STI. Results ATS use was higher among women working freelance (35.6%) and in brothels (34.8%) compared to women working in entertainment establishments (17.7%) or in multiple venues (14.8%). ATS users reported more sex partners and days drunk in the previous month. In multivariate longitudinal analysis, ATS use was associated with having a higher number of sex partners (Adjusted Risk Ratio 1.49; 95% CI: 1.00–2.21) and incident STI (Adjusted Odds Ratio 5.41; 95% CI: 1.15–25.48), but not inconsistent condom use with paying partner. Conclusion ATS users had more sex partners, high level of alcohol use, and were at increased risk of STI. Our findings underscore ATS use as an important emerging risk exposure that should be integrated into HIV prevention interventions targeting this population. PMID:21820251

Couture, Marie-Claude; Evans, Jennifer L.; Sothy, Neth San; Stein, Ellen S.; Sichan, Keo; Maher, Lisa; Page, Kimberly

2011-01-01

196

[A foci of Schistosomiasis mekongi rediscovered in Northeast Cambodia: cultural perception of the illness; description and clinical observation of 20 severe cases].  

PubMed

In 1992 a foci of Schistosomiasis mekongi was rediscovered in the province of Kracheh in Northeast Cambodia. Severe clinical signs due to portal hypertension, which were frequently observed in this population, allowed the discovery of this 'forgotten' focus. Elements of the perception of the population and clinical observations of 20 severe cases due to S. mekongi infections are presented. Interviews with patients and villagers of the area of Kracheh showed severe psychosocial impact including fear from death, infirmity and invalidity. The symptoms of schistosomiasis were well known by the population and were reported to have increased in frequency in the last two decades. They have received traditional names and specific traditional treatment. The description of the clinical cases illustrates the severe pathology, which was observed in the hospital of Sambour, in the north of the province of Kracheh. It shows the pathogenic potential of S. mekongi in all age groups (from 7 to 58 years old): cachexia, hepatosplenomegaly, stunting and retardation of puberty, decompensation of portal hypertension with ascites and rupture of oesophagual varicies. The efficacy of the treatment in the severe stages varies. A follow-up after 30 months showed that 5 patients died, 5 initially improved but then relapsed, 3 remained unchanged and only 5 patients clearly improved. Two patients could not be followed-up. The clinical observations and interviews show severe pathology with impact at both individual and community level. The infection with S. mekongi is the main factor but additional concomitant factors are responsible for this fact. At a certain stage of the disease the prognosis for successful treatment is very low. These observations show the importance of the foci in the Province of Kracheh, Cambodia and underline the need for a long-term global intervention. PMID:10583900

Biays, S; Stich, A H; Odermatt, P; Long, C; Yersin, C; Men, C; Saem, C; Lormand, J D

1999-10-01

197

Population-Based Study of Epilepsy in Cambodia Associated Factors, Measures of Impact, Stigma, Quality of Life, Knowledge-Attitude-Practice, and Treatment Gap  

PubMed Central

Purpose Identify epilepsy-associated factors and calculate measures of impact, stigma, quality of life (QOL), knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) and treatment gap in Prey Veng, Cambodia. Methods This first Cambodian population-based case-control study had 96 epileptologist-confirmed epilepsy cases and 192 randomly selected matched healthy controls. Standard questionnaires, which have been used in similar settings, were used for collecting data on various parameters. Univariate and multivariate regression was done to determine odds ratios. Jacoby stigma, 31-item QOL, KAP etc were determined and so were the factors associated with them using STATA software. Treatment gap was measured using direct method. Key findings Multivariate analyses yielded family history of epilepsy, difficult or long delivery, other problems beside seizures (mainly mental retardation, hyperthermia), and eventful pregnancy of the subject's mother as factors associated with epilepsy. There was high frequency of seizure precipitants esp. those related to sleep. Population attributable risk (%) was: family history (15.0), eventful pregnancy of subject's mother (14.5), long/difficult birth (6.5), and other problem beside seizures (20.0). Mean stigma (1.9±1.1, on a scale of 3) was mainly related to treatment efficacy. Mean QOL (5.0±1.4 on a scale of 10) was mainly related to treatment regularity. Cause or risk factor could be determined in 56% of cases. Treatment gap was 65.8%. Significance Factors in pre- and perinatal period were found to be most crucial for epilepsy risk in Cambodia which inturn provides major prevention opportunities. A global action plan for treatment, stigma reduction and improvement of QOL should be set-up in this country. PMID:23077505

Bhalla, Devender; Chea, Kimly; Hun, Chamroeun; Vannareth, Mey; Huc, Pierre; Chan, Samleng; Sebbag, Robert; Gerard, Daniel; Dumas, Michel; Oum, Sophal; Druet-Cabanac, Michel; Preux, Pierre-Marie

2012-01-01

198

Increased Risk of Q151M and K65R Mutations in Patients Failing Stavudine-Containing First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Multi-nucleos(t)ide resistance (MNR) mutations including Q151M, K65R mutations, and insertion at codon 69 of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase coding region may confer resistance to all molecules of nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). The presence of these mutations is an emerging problem compromising non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors-based therapies. Furthermore, factors associated with selection of these mutations are still not well defined. The current study aimed to evaluate the frequency and to characterize factors associated with the occurrence of multi-nucleos(t)ide resistance mutations among HIV-1 infected patients failing recommended first-line antiretroviral regimens in Cambodia. Methodology/Principal Finding This is a retrospective analysis of HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping of 520 HIV-1 infected patients in virological failure (viral load > 250 copies/mL) while on first-line antiretroviral therapy in Cambodia with at least one reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance associated mutation. Among these 520 patients, a total of 66 subjects (66/520, 12.7%) presented ?1 MNR mutation, including Q151M, K65R, and Insert69 for 59 (11.3%), 29 (5.6%), and 2 (0.4%) patients, respectively. In multivariate analysis, both Q151M (p?=?0.039) and K65R (p?=?0.029) mutations were independently associated with current stavudine- compared to zidovudine-use. Conclusion Such selection of mutations by stavudine drastically limits the choice of antiretroviral molecules available for second-line therapy in resource-limited settings. This finding supports the World Health Organization’s recommendation for stavudine phase-out. PMID:24015311

Nouhin, Janin; Madec, Yoann; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Ferradini, Laurent; Nerrienet, Eric

2013-01-01

199

Focused Screening and Treatment (FSAT): A PCR-Based Strategy to Detect Malaria Parasite Carriers and Contain Drug Resistant P. falciparum, Pailin, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown that Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in Pailin province, along the border between Thailand and Cambodia, have become resistant to artemisinin derivatives. To better define the epidemiology of P. falciparum populations and to assess the risk of the possible spread of these parasites outside Pailin, a new epidemiological tool named “Focused Screening and Treatment” (FSAT), based on active molecular detection of asymptomatic parasite carriers was introduced in 2010. Cross-sectional malariometric surveys using PCR were carried out in 20 out of 109 villages in Pailin province. Individuals detected as P. falciparum carriers were treated with atovaquone-proguanil combination plus a single dose of primaquine if the patient was non-G6PD deficient. Interviews were conducted to elicit history of cross-border travel that might contribute to the spread of artemisinin-resistant parasites. After directly observed treatment, patients were followed up and re-examined on day 7 and day 28. Among 6931 individuals screened, prevalence of P. falciparum carriers was less than 1%, of whom 96% were asymptomatic. Only 1.6% of the individuals had a travel history or plans to go outside Cambodia, with none of those tested being positive for P. falciparum. Retrospective analysis, using 2010 routine surveillance data, showed significant differences in the prevalence of asymptomatic carriers discovered by FSAT between villages classified as “high risk” and “low risk” based on malaria incidence data. All positive individuals treated and followed-up until day 28 were cured. No mutant-type allele related to atovaquone resistance was found. FSAT is a potentially useful tool to detect, treat and track clusters of asymptomatic carriers of P. falciparum along with providing valuable epidemiological information regarding cross-border movements of potential malaria parasite carriers and parasite gene flow. PMID:23049687

Hoyer, Stefan; Nguon, Sokomar; Kim, Saorin; Habib, Najibullah; Khim, Nimol; Sum, Sarorn; Christophel, Eva-Maria; Bjorge, Steven; Thomson, Andrew; Kheng, Sim; Chea, Nguon; Yok, Sovann; Top, Samphornarann; Ros, Seyha; Sophal, Uth; Thompson, Michelle M.; Mellor, Steve; Ariey, Frederic; Witkowski, Benoit; Yeang, Chhiang; Yeung, Shunmay; Duong, Socheat; Newman, Robert D.; Menard, Didier

2012-01-01

200

Sustained high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Cambodia: high turnover seriously challenges the 100% condom use programme  

PubMed Central

Background Cambodia's 100% Condom-Use Programme (CUP), implemented nationally in 2001, requires brothel-based female sex workers (FSWs) to use condoms with all clients. In 2005, we conducted a sexually transmitted infection (STI) survey among FSWs. This paper presents the STI prevalence and related risk factors, and discusses prevalence trends in the context of the 100% CUP in Cambodia. Methods From March-May, 1079 FSWs from eight provinces consented to participate, provided specimens for syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhoea testing, and were interviewed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with STIs. STI prevalence was compared with data from the 1996 and 2001 STI surveys. Results Most FSWs were young (55% aged 15–24) and new to sex work (60% had worked 12 ? months). Consistent condom use with clients was reported by 80% of FSWs, but only 38% of FSWs always used condoms with sweethearts or casual partners. Being new to sex work was the only factor significantly associated with "any STI" (OR = 2.1). Prevalence of syphiliwas 2.3%; chlamydia, 14.4%; gonorrhoea, 13.0%; and any STI, 24.4%. Prevalence of each STI in 2005 was significantly lower than in 1996, but essentially the same as prevalence observed in 2001. Conclusion New FSWs were found to have substantially higher prevalence than those with longer experience. The percent of FSWs who used condoms consistently was high with clients but remained low with non-paying sex partners. Because of the high turnover of FSWs, the prevention needs of new FSWs should be ascertained and addressed. Despite 100% CUP implementation, the prevalence of STIs among FSWs was the same in 2005 as it was in 2001. Limited coverage and weak implementation capacity of the programme along with questionable quality of the STI services are likely to have contributed to the sustained high prevalence. The programme should be carefully reviewed in terms of intensity, quality and coverage. PMID:19077261

Sopheab, Heng; Morineau, Guy; Neal, Joyce J; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Fylkesnes, Knut

2008-01-01

201

"The REAP project has demonstrated that  

E-print Network

learning, higher student satisfaction and more efficient use of staff time." Re-Engineering Assessment in terms of staff time and resources· they deeply affect the quality of student-teacher interaction· they are the main areas of dissatisfaction in the National· Student Survey (NSS) in higher education The key

Azzopardi, Leif

202

Optimization of catalyst system reaps economic benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Champlin Refining and Chemicals Inc. is learning to optimize its catalyst systems for hydrotreating Venezuelan gas oils through a program of research, pilot plant testing, and commercial unit operation. The economic results of this project have been evaluated, and the benefits are most evident in improvements in product yields and qualities. The project has involved six commercial test runs, to

C. F. Le Roy; M. J. Hanshaw; S. M. Fischer; T. Malik; R. R. Kooiman

1991-01-01

203

Perioperative Antibiotic Process Improvement Reaps Rewards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent health care improvement initiatives have linked financial payments to compliance with predetermined performance measures. This article reports the effect of a unique prophylactic antibiotic use program on compliance rates and costs. The Departments of Surgery, Infection Control, and Anesthesiology collaborated on a prophylactic preoperative antibiotic protocol, whereby Anesthesiology assumed responsibility for timely antibiotic prophylaxis (TAP) before surgical incision. Data

Brenda G. Fahy; Edwin A. Bowe; Joseph Conigliaro

2011-01-01

204

Hydrogen Reaction Experiment Reaps a Surprise  

NSF Publications Database

... theories of scattering, the HD is expected to recoil, or scatter, in the opposite direction from ... reaction mechanism that leads to backward scattering, as predicted, another indirect mechanism at ...

205

Reaping Energy Savings from Petroleum Refining  

E-print Network

years’ energy conservation and demand-side management program participation. The PG&E’s refinery energy efficiency program (REEP) is designed to address key market barriers and tap into the savings potential from energy-intensive refining processes... on-site staff. PROGRAM BACKGROUND Recently accepted by PG&E as part its 2006 – 2008 energy resource portfolio, the Refinery Energy Efficiency Program (REEP) is designed to address key market barriers and tap into the savings potential from...

Deng, A.; Cascone, R.

2006-01-01

206

Perioperative antibiotic process improvement reaps rewards.  

PubMed

Recent health care improvement initiatives have linked financial payments to compliance with predetermined performance measures. This article reports the effect of a unique prophylactic antibiotic use program on compliance rates and costs. The Departments of Surgery, Infection Control, and Anesthesiology collaborated on a prophylactic preoperative antibiotic protocol, whereby Anesthesiology assumed responsibility for timely antibiotic prophylaxis (TAP) before surgical incision. Data from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2008, were compared (z test) with the 12-month period before this change. ?(2) Analysis identified factors associated with TAP. Return on investment (ROI) was calculated. TAP compliance rates increased from 75.1% to 89.3% (P < .001) following program implementation. Factors associated with TAP failure included >60 minutes from anesthesia induction to surgical incision (P < .001), surgical procedure (P < .001), specific antibiotic administered (P < .001), and individual anesthesia provider (P < .001). The ROI was 2.2. TAP compliance rates increased after Anesthesiology assumed responsibility, with anesthesia providers being a significant factor. PMID:20935273

Fahy, Brenda G; Bowe, Edwin A; Conigliaro, Joseph

2011-01-01

207

Reap unseen benefits from NAVSTAR-GPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although navigation is its primary purpose and it will probably be the world standard for the next 25 years, the NAVSTAR satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) has a by-product-time and frequency transfer. Four methods of extracting time and frequency from a satellite signal, providing varying degrees of accuracy, are considered. The first is to find time and compare a local clock with the GPS time scale (accurate to 100 ns); the second employs a clock flyover with GPS time decoded at two locations and times (accurate to about 50 ns); in the third, common-view, approach, the time of arrival of a signal from one satellite is measured at two locations to compare the computed time of transmission according to the two clocks (less than 10 ns); and the fourth, JPL geodesy, used in very long baseline interferometry, records signals from four locations to determine locations and time differences. It is noted that for less than $50,000 one can have a well-designed rubidium-based NAVSTAR-GPS time and frequency transfer receiver with a frequency accuracy of better than 5 x 10 to the -12th, time accuracy to less than 200 ns of universal time, short-term stability of one part in 10 to the 12th for 100 s, and phase noise of better than -145 dBc/Hz at a 1-kHz offset; such a receive can fit a standard 19-in. rack. Thus, a workable alternative is available to the primary cesium standard for frequency and timekeeping anywhere in the world.

Fruehauf, Hugo

1986-11-01

208

Nonhuman primate retroviruses from Cambodia: high simian foamy virus prevalence, identification of divergent STLV-1 strains and no evidence of SIV infection.  

PubMed

Nonhuman primates (NHPs) carry retroviruses such as simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV), simian T-cell lymphotropic viruses (STLV) and simian foamy viruses (SFV). Here, we revisited NHPs from Cambodia to assess the prevalence and diversity of these retroviruses using updated viral detection tools. We screened blood from 118 NHPs consisting of six species (Macaca fascicularis (n=91), Macaca leonine (n=8), Presbytis cristata (n=3), Nycticebus coucang (n=1), Hylobates pileatus (n=14), and Pongo pygmaeus) (n=1) by using a Luminex-based multiplex serology assay that allows the detection of all known SIV/HIV and SFV lineages. We also used highly sensitive PCR assays to detect each simian retrovirus group. Positive PCR products were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed to infer evolutionary histories. Fifty-three of 118 (44.9%) NHPs tested positive for SFV by serology and 8/52 (15.4%), all from M. fascicularis, were PCR-confirmed. The 8 novel SFV sequences formed a highly supported distinct lineage within a clade composed of other macaque SFV. We observed no serological or molecular evidence of SIV infection among the 118 NHP samples tested. Four of 118 (3.3%) NHPs were PCR-positive for STLV, including one M. fascicularis, one P. cristata, and two H. pileatus. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the four novel STLV belonged to the PTLV-1 lineage, outside the African radiation of PTLV-1, like all Asian PTLV identified so far. Sequence analysis of the whole STLV-1 genome from a H. pileatus (C578_Hp) revealed a genetic structure characteristic of PTLV. Similarity analysis comparing the STLV-1 (C578_Hp) sequence with prototype PTLVs showed that C578_Hp is closer to PTLV-1s than to all other types across the entire genome. In conclusion, we showed a high frequency of SFV infection but found no evidence of SIV infection in NHPs from Cambodia. We identified for the first time STLV-1 in a P. cristata and in two H. pileatus. PMID:23612320

Ayouba, Ahidjo; Duval, Linda; Liégeois, Florian; Ngin, Sopheak; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Switzer, William M; Delaporte, Eric; Ariey, Frédéric; Peeters, Martine; Nerrienet, Eric

2013-08-01

209

From public to private and back again: sustaining a high service-delivery level during transition of management authority: a Cambodia case study.  

PubMed

Contracting non-governmental organizations (NGOs) has been shown to increase health service delivery output considerably over relatively short time frames in low-income countries, especially when applying performance-related pay as a stimulus. A key concern is how to manage the transition back to government-operated systems while maintaining health service delivery output levels. In this paper we describe and analyse the transition from NGO-managed to government-managed health services over a 3-year period in a health district in Cambodia with a focus on the level of health service delivery. Data are derived from four sources, including cross-sectional surveys and health management and financial information systems. The transition was achieved by focusing on all the building blocks of the health care system and ensuring an acceptable financial remuneration for the staff members of contracted health facilities. The latter was attained through performance subsidies derived from financial commitment by the central government, and revenue from user fees. Performance management had a crucial role in the gradual handover of responsibilities. Not all responsibilities were handed back to government over the case study period-notably the development of performance indicators and targets and the performance monitoring. PMID:19917650

Jacobs, Bart; Thomé, Jean-Marc; Overtoom, Rob; Sam, Sam Oeun; Indermühle, Lorenz; Price, Neil

2010-05-01

210

Identification of Molecular Markers Associated with Alteration of Receptor-Binding Specificity in a Novel Genotype of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses Detected in Cambodia in 2013.  

PubMed

Human infections with influenza A(H5N1) virus in Cambodia increased sharply during 2013. Molecular characterization of viruses detected in clinical specimens from human cases revealed the presence of mutations associated with the alteration of receptor-binding specificity (K189R, Q222L) and respiratory droplet transmission in ferrets (N220K with Q222L). Discovery of quasispecies at position 222 (Q/L), in addition to the absence of the mutations in poultry/environmental samples, suggested that the mutations occurred during human infection and did not transmit further. PMID:25210193

Rith, Sareth; Davis, C Todd; Duong, Veasna; Sar, Borann; Horm, Srey Viseth; Chin, Savuth; Ly, Sovann; Laurent, Denis; Richner, Beat; Oboho, Ikwo; Jang, Yunho; Davis, William; Thor, Sharmi; Balish, Amanda; Iuliano, A Danielle; Sorn, San; Holl, Davun; Sok, Touch; Seng, Heng; Tarantola, Arnaud; Tsuyuoka, Reiko; Parry, Amy; Chea, Nora; Allal, Lotfi; Kitsutani, Paul; Warren, Dora; Prouty, Michael; Horwood, Paul; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Lindstrom, Stephen; Villanueva, Julie; Donis, Ruben; Cox, Nancy; Buchy, Philippe

2014-12-01

211

Simplified Clinical Prediction Scores to Target Viral Load Testing in Adults with Suspected First Line Treatment Failure in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background For settings with limited laboratory capacity, 2013 World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend targeted HIV-1 viral load (VL) testing to identify virological failure. We previously developed and validated a clinical prediction score (CPS) for targeted VL testing, relying on clinical, adherence and laboratory data. While outperforming the WHO failure criteria, it required substantial calculation and review of all previous laboratory tests. In response, we developed four simplified, less error-prone and broadly applicable CPS versions that can be done ‘on the spot’. Methodology/Principal Findings From May 2010 to June 2011, we validated the original CPS in a non-governmental hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia applying the CPS to adults on first-line treatment >1 year. Virological failure was defined as a single VL >1000 copies/ml. The four CPSs included CPS1 with ‘current CD4 count’ instead of %-decline-from-peak CD4; CPS2 with hemoglobin measurements removed; CPS3 having ‘decrease in CD4 count below baseline value’ removed; CPS4 was purely clinical. Score development relied on the Spiegelhalter/Knill-Jones method. Variables independently associated with virological failure with a likelihood ratio ?1.5 or ?0.67 were retained. CPS performance was evaluated based on the area-under-the-ROC-curve (AUROC) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The CPSs were validated in an independent dataset. A total of 1490 individuals (56.6% female, median age: 38 years (interquartile range (IQR 33–44)); median baseline CD4 count: 94 cells/µL (IQR 28–205), median time on antiretroviral therapy 3.6 years (IQR 2.1–5.1)), were included. Forty-five 45 (3.0%) individuals had virological failure. CPS1 yielded an AUROC of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.62–0.75) in validation, CPS2 an AUROC of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.62–0.74), and CPS3, an AUROC of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.61–0.73). The purely clinical CPS4 performed poorly (AUROC-0.59; 95% CI: 0.53–0.65). Conclusions Simplified CPSs retained acceptable accuracy as long as current CD4 count testing was included. Ease of field application and field accuracy remains to be defined. PMID:24504463

van Griensven, Johan; Phan, Vichet; Thai, Sopheak; Koole, Olivier; Lynen, Lutgarde

2014-01-01

212

Development of a real-time hydrological cycle - rice growth coupled simulation system as a tool for farmers' decision making in an ungauged basin in Cambodia for the better agricultural water resources management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The entire country of Cambodia depends on agriculture for its economy. Rice is the staple food, making it the major agricultural product (roughly 80% of total national production). The target area of this study is western Cambodia, where rice production is the greatest in the country and most land is rainfed. Since most farmers rely only on their (non-science-based) experience, they would not adjust to changing rainfall and degraded water resources under climate change, so food security in the region would be seriously threatened (Monichoth et al., 2013). Under this condition, irrigation master plans are being considered by several ODA projects. This study aims to contribute to the design of such irrigation plans through the development of a real-time hydrological cycle - rice growth coupled simulation system. The purpose of the development of this system is to support decision making 1) for determining the necessary agricultural water resources and 2) for allocating limited water resources to various sectors. Rice growing condition as affected by water stress due to the water shortage is supposed to be shown for both of the cases with and without irrigation for several rainfall patterns. A dynamically coupled model of a distributed hydrological model (WEB-DHM., Wang et al., 2009) and a rice growth model (SIMRIW-rainfed, Homma et al., 2009) has been developed with a simple irrigation model. The target basin, a small basin in western Cambodia, is basically an ungauged basin and the model was validated by soil moisture, LAI, dry matter production of the rice crop, and rice yield, using both intensive field observation and satellite observations. Calibrating hourly satellite precipitation dataset (GSMaP/NRT) using ground rain gauges, hydrological cycle (soil moisture at three layers, river discharge, irrigatable water amount, water level of each paddy field, water demand of each paddy field, etc.) and rice growth (LAI, developmental index of the rice crop, dry matter production of the rice crop, etc.) are being calculated on near real time basis and opened to the Cambodian governmental staff by a website with only 5-hour delay. This system enables the Cambodian local government to virtually experience the effectiveness of irrigation and to get qualitative information for the examination on whether or how much they will investigate for irrigation.

Tsujimoto, K.; Ohta, T.; Yasukawa, M.; Koike, T.; Kitsuregawa, M.; Homma, K.

2013-12-01

213

Treating 4,000 diabetic patients in Cambodia, a high-prevalence but resource-limited setting: a 5-year study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the worldwide increasing burden of diabetes, there has been no corresponding scale-up of treatment in developing countries and limited evidence of program effectiveness. In 2002, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health of Cambodia, Médecins Sans Frontières initiated an outpatient program of subsidized diabetic care in two hospital-based chronic disease clinics in rural settings. We aimed to describe the outcomes of newly and previously diagnosed diabetic patients enrolled from 2002 to 2008. Methods We calculated the mean and proportion of patients who met the recommended treatment targets, and the drop from baseline values for random blood glucose (RBG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), and body mass index (BMI) at regular intervals. Analysis was restricted to patients not lost to follow-up. We used the t test to compare baseline and subsequent paired values. Results Of 4404 patients enrolled, 2,872 (65%) were still in care at the time of the study, 24 (0.5%) had died, and 1,508 (34%) were lost tofollow-up. Median age was 53 years, 2,905 (66%) were female and 4,350 (99%) had type 2 diabetes. Median (interquartile range (IQR)) follow-up was 20 months (5 to 39.5 months). A total of 24% (51/210) of patients had a HbA1c concentration of <7% and 35% (709/1,995) had a RBG <145 mg/dl within 1 year. There was a significant drop of 109 mg/dl (95% confidence interval (CI) 103.1 to 114.3) in mean RBG (P < 0.001) and a drop of 2.7% (95% CI 2.3 to 3.0) in mean HbA1c (P < 0.001) between baseline and month 6. In all, 45% (327/723) and 62% (373/605) of patients with systolic or diastolic hypertension at baseline, respectively, reached = 130/80 mm Hg within 1 year. There was a drop of 13.5 mm Hg (95% CI 12.1 to 14.9) in mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) (P < 0.001), and a drop of 11.7 mm Hg (95% CI 10.8 to 12.6) in mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (P < 0.001) between baseline and month 6. Only 22% (90/401) patients with obesity at baseline lowered their BMI <27.5 kg/m2 after 1 year. Factors associated with loss to follow-up were male sex, age >60 years, living outside the province, normal BMI on admission, high RBG on last visit, and coming late for the last consultation. Conclusion Significant and clinically important improvements in glycemia and BP were observed, but a relatively low proportion of diabetic patients reached treatment targets. These results and the high loss to follow-up rate highlight the challenges of delivering diabetic care in rural, resource-limited settings. PMID:19602220

Raguenaud, Marie-Eve; Isaakidis, Petros; Reid, Tony; Chy, Say; Keuky, Lim; Arellano, Gemma; Van Damme, Wim

2009-01-01

214

Direct comparison of the histidine-rich protein-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests in Plasmodium falciparum reference clones and fresh ex vivo field isolates from Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Performance of the histidine-rich protein-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR Green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests were directly compared using Plasmodium falciparum reference strains and fresh ex vivo isolates from Cambodia against a panel of standard anti-malarials. The objective was to determine which of these two common assays is more appropriate for studying drug susceptibility of “immediate ex vivo” (IEV) isolates, analysed without culture adaption, in a region of relatively low malaria transmission. Methods Using the HRP-2 and MSF methods, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against a panel of malaria drugs were determined for P. falciparum reference clones (W2, D6, 3D7 and K1) and 41 IEV clinical isolates from an area of multidrug resistance in Cambodia. Comparison of the IC50 values from the two methods was made using Wilcoxon matched pair tests and Pearson’s correlation. The lower limit of parasitaemia detection for both methods was determined for reference clones and IEV isolates. Since human white blood cell (WBC) DNA in clinical samples is known to reduce MSF assay sensitivity, SYBR Green I fluorescence linearity of P. falciparum samples spiked with WBCs was evaluated to assess the relative degree to which MSF sensitivity is reduced in clinical samples. Results IC50 values correlated well between the HRP-2 and MSF methods when testing either P. falciparum reference clones or IEV isolates against 4-aminoquinolines (chloroquine, piperaquine and quinine) and the quinoline methanol mefloquine (Pearson r?=?0.85-0.99 for reference clones and 0.56-0.84 for IEV isolates), whereas a weaker IC50 value correlation between methods was noted when testing artemisinins against reference clones and lack of correlation when testing IEV isolates. The HRP-2 ELISA produced a higher overall success rate (90% for producing IC50 best-fit sigmoidal curves), relative to only a 40% success rate for the MSF assay, when evaluating ex vivo Cambodian isolates. Reduced sensitivity of the MSF assay is likely due to an interference of WBCs in clinical samples. Conclusions For clinical samples not depleted of WBCs, HRP-2 ELISA is superior to the MSF assay at evaluating fresh P. falciparum field isolates with low parasitaemia (<0.2%) generally observed in Southeast Asia. PMID:23849006

2013-01-01

215

Reaping the rewards - coordinating Europe's Earth Observation Ground System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Monitoring of Environment and Security (GMES) programme is based on a fleet of European Earth observation satellites, built and operated by ESA, member states and commercial entities. GMES will also offer data from non-European satellites. In order to provide operational and sustainable user services and to avoid unnecessary duplication in technologies, the challenge is to harmonise the various approaches to the ground segments of the different satellites and to involve the users. To begin this harmonisation process, a Ground Segment Coordination Body was created to adopt a common, coordinated and cost-effective approach that responds to the needs of Earth observation users.

Forcada, Eugenia; Kohlhammer, Gunther; Casgrain, Catherine; Lavergne, Yves; Tuozzi, Alberto; Schreier, Gunter; Winterholer, Maurice

2007-02-01

216

Are Universities Reaping the Available Benefits Internship Programs Offer?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many research studies have examined the benefits student internships offer students and employers, but few looked at the benefits internships might lend to educational institutions. A survey instrument was developed and sent to 619 deans of all U.S. business programs. In all, 29% replied. The results indicate some institutions are gaining the…

Weible, Rick

2010-01-01

217

Persuasive GERONtechnology: Reaping Technology's Coaching Benefits at Older Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The keynote speaker for this conference, Dr. B.J. Fogg, defines persuasive technology as, “interactive computing systems designed\\u000a to change people’s attitudes and behaviors.” [1]. Such changes find their origin in changes in people’s motivation. The coaching\\u000a possibilities of technology may be viewed as an embellishment of conditioning and behavior therapy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a With respect to aging, most people want to live a

James L. Fozard; William D. Kearns

2006-01-01

218

A quarter century of reaping what we SOE.  

PubMed

Gene Splicing by Overlap Extension (SOE), described in a BioTechniques Research Report 23 years ago, is still widely used today in spite of changes in technology and scientific fashion. The history of SOE offers practical lessons for those who seek the best techniques, and for those who strive to develop them. PMID:23477381

Matsumura, Ichiro

2013-03-01

219

Asthma investigators begin to reap the fruits of genomics  

PubMed Central

Microarray experiments have identified novel candidate genes in animal models of asthma. In the near future, genomics may have a profound impact on the way we think about this common and complex disease. PMID:14611649

Erle, David J; Yang, Yee Hwa

2003-01-01

220

Who sows? Who reaps? Women and land rights in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noting the significance of direct access to land, and not just access mediated via male members, for the economic and social well?being of women and their families, this article traces women's past and existing rights to land in law and in customary practice, across communities and regions; examines changes in these rights among communities traditionally practising matrilineal inheritance; and seeks

Bina Agarwal

1988-01-01

221

Reap what you sow: harvesting the deep Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the growth of the invisible Web, and efforts underway to make its contents more accessible. Dynamic Web publishing is described. The Open Archives Metadata Harvesting Protocol is reviewed, as are projects related to OCLC’s implementation of the Open Archives Initiative. Recent Dublin Core activities are reported.

Norm Medeiros

2002-01-01

222

Domestic Violence Against Married Women in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate the effects of marital resources and early-life experiences on recent domestic violence and attitudes about wife abuse among 2,074 married Cambodian women. Household standard of living was negatively associated with physical domestic violence. Women with 8-13 fewer years of schooling than their husbands more often experienced physical and psychological domestic violence. Women with more living children more often

Kathryn M. Yount; Jennifer S. Carrera

2006-01-01

223

Domestic Violence against Married Women in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluate the effects of marital resources and early-life experiences on recent domestic violence and attitudes about wife abuse among 2,074 married Cambodian women. Household standard of living was negatively associated with physical domestic violence. Women with 8-13 fewer years of schooling than their husbands more often experienced physical…

Yount, Kathryn M.; Carrera, Jennifer S.

2006-01-01

224

Cultivating Our Physics Community and Reaping the Next Generation of Physics Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Even if today's physics and physical science teacher has been fortunate enough to graduate from an excellent college or university teacher preparation program, as this teacher begins a career teaching high school physics, he or she is typically: 1) the only physics or physical science teacher on the campus, 2) teaches physics as only one of several course responsibilities, 3) has inherited low tech, ancient (enigmatic), broken or inadequate equipment with which to carry out necessary labs and 4) has little contact with a physics mentor or other physics teachers on a regular basis. Add to this dilemma a lack of the possession of anything like an experienced teacher's "bag of tricks" or other resources to help in planning a coherent curriculum for student learning, the new or cross-over physics teacher has a difficult road ahead. University and college faculty, if aware of this situation may want to help but may be at a loss to know where to begin. Mentoring requires time and resources with a plan of action behind it. There are many excellent formal mentoring programs in place as exemplified by TIR and PTRA. But it is through the many informal support mechanisms and ready online resources that can be offered to the many needy and isolated high school physics teachers that the greatest national impact may be made. The Physics Front and other online libraries and collections can be a lifeline and a means of communication and support between college faculty and public school teacher alike.

Ezrailson, Cathy

2007-03-24

225

Weed 'Em and Reap: The Art of Weeding to Avoid Criticism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today media centers provide students the opportunity to learn and explore subjects of their interest in depth. The media center is the largest classroom in the school providing service to every student and every teacher in all curricular areas. The library should be a place to encourage students' interests and a place to broaden their horizons by…

Allen, Melissa

2010-01-01

226

VentureStar(trademark) Reaping the Benefits of the X-33 Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major X-33 flight hardware has been delivered, and assembly of the vehicle is well underway in anticipation of its flight test program commencing in the summer of 1999. Attention has now turned to the operational VentureStar(trademark), the first single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) reusable launch vehicle. Activities are grouped under two broad categories: (1) vehicle development and (2) market/business planning, each of which is discussed. The mission concept is presented for direct payload delivery to the International Space Station and to low Earth orbit, as well as payload delivery with an upper stage to Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) and other high energy orbits. System requirements include flight segment and ground segment. Vehicle system sizing and design status is provided including the application of X-33 traceability and lessons learned. Technology applications to the VentureStar(trademark) are described including the structure, propellant tanks, thermal protection system, aerodynamics, subsystems, payload bay and propulsion. Developing a market driven low cost launch services system for the 21 st Century requires traditional and non-traditional ways of being able to forecast the evolution of the potential market. The challenge is balancing both the technical and financial assumptions of the market. This involves the need to provide a capability to meet market segments that in some cases are very speculative, while at the same time providing the financial community with a credible revenue stream.

Sumrall, J.; Lane, C.

1998-01-01

227

Digging a Vegetarian Diet: Plant-Based Eating Can Reap Rewards  

MedlinePLUS

... and fish,” says NIH nutritionist Dr. Susan Krebs-Smith, who monitors trends in cancer risk factors. Most ... are many different types of vegetarian diets,” Krebs-Smith explains. “Some are more restrictive than others.” Strict ...

228

Worlds apart 1: Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh. Reaping rewards of social development.  

PubMed

Tamil Nadu had a 1991 annual growth rate of 1.1% compared to a rate of over 2% in the northern states of Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. The lower fertility and mortality in Tamil Nadu was achieved through a sustained, multifaceted social and economic effort and through promotion, reach, and quality of family planning in a short time period. Political leadership and media efforts since the 1960s have strengthened support for the small family norm, later marriage, and improved status of women. Infrastructure development includes roads and water supplies in every village, rural electrification, and a government center in every village. Tamil Nadu devotes over 33% of its total budget to health and education. Special emphasis was placed on a program initiated in 1982 to provide a nutritious midday meal in school to every child living in poverty. In 1994, this program cost Rs. 3350. The result has been increasing school enrollment, greater retention of female children, reductions in malnutrition, and opportunities for local part-time employment and increased social status in the community. In some locations, the meal program includes day care centers and meals for the aged. Another social program provides cash loans of Rs. 5000 to couples at first marriage who are over the age of 18 years with a completed high school degree. Rs. 300 are provided for nutritional support for the first two pregnancies. Rs. 10,000 are also given to girls whose family income is under Rs. 12,000 a year. Financial assistance is available for widows who remarry and for intercaste marriages. A new program provides a gold ring, educational expenses, and Rs. 20 for families with an only girl child or two girl children and which accept a permanent method of family planning. A negligible 20,000 couples joined the program, although about 15% of the total population was eligible. 50-55% of women receive state subsidies and loans. Collectives exist in 12,000 women's groups. Tamil Nadu's chief administrator prepared a 10-point program for the advancement of women. Some feminist groups have challenged the official presentation of government successes because of their concern that demographic successes would be achieved at the expense of care and respect for human aspects of population. PMID:12345833

Chhabra, R

1994-01-01

229

Restoring Coastal Plants to Improve Global Carbon Storage: Reaping What We Sow  

PubMed Central

Long-term carbon capture and storage (CCS) is currently considered a viable strategy for mitigating rising levels of atmospheric CO2 and associated impacts of global climate change. Until recently, the significant below-ground CCS capacity of coastal vegetation such as seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangroves has largely gone unrecognized in models of global carbon transfer. However, this reservoir of natural, free, and sustainable carbon storage potential is increasingly jeopardized by alarming trends in coastal habitat loss, totalling 30–50% of global abundance over the last century alone. Human intervention to restore lost habitats is a potentially powerful solution to improve natural rates of global CCS, but data suggest this approach is unlikely to substantially improve long-term CCS unless current restoration efforts are increased to an industrial scale. Failure to do so raises the question of whether resources currently used for expensive and time-consuming restoration projects would be more wisely invested in arresting further habitat loss and encouraging natural recovery. PMID:21479244

Irving, Andrew D.; Connell, Sean D.; Russell, Bayden D.

2011-01-01

230

Reaping the space investment. [Shuttle era geosynchronous satellite based technological trends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By 1999 operational space systems will be implemented routinely on a worldwide scale in many areas vital to human survival and life quality. Geosynchronous-based monitoring and observation will be extensively used. The Shuttle era will bring in the capability to allow monitoring and identifying pollution sources which fail to stay within required limits. Remotely sensed data over land masses will provide needed facts on renewable and nonrenewable earth resources. New instruments and techniques will have been developed to provide geologists with clues to the declining number of deposits of fuels and minerals. Also, practical methods for predicting earthquakes will have been elaborated by 1999. Communications will see implementation of many of the technological goals of 1978.

Calio, A. J.

1979-01-01

231

Reaping the Return on Agricultural Research and Education in Virginia. Information Series 93-3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report focuses upon the economic and other contributions that agricultural research and education have made to Virginia over the past 40 years. Agricultural research, extension, and classroom instruction contribute in the following ways to Virginia's citizens: increased supplies and reduced costs, improved competitiveness, multiplier effects…

Norton, George W.; Paczkowski, Remi

232

Reaping Environmental Benefits of a Global Hydrogen Economy: How Large, Fow Soon, and at What Risks?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Western world has taken an aggressive posture to transition to a global hydrogen economy. While numerous technical challenges need to be addressed to achieve this it is timely to examine the environmental benefits and risks of this transition. Hydrogen provides an efficient energy carrier that promises to enhance urban and regional air quality that will benefit human health. It could also reduce risks of climate change if large-scale hydrogen production by renewable or nuclear energy sources becomes viable. While it is well known that the byproduct of energy produced from hydrogen is water vapor, it is not well known that the storage and transfer of hydrogen is inevitably accompanied by measurable leakage of hydrogen. Unintended consequences of hydrogen leakage include reduction in global oxidative capacity, changes in tropospheric ozone, and increase in stratospheric water that would exacerbate halogen induced ozone losses as well as impact the earth's radiation budget and climate. We construct plausible global hydrogen energy use and leak scenarios and assess their impacts using global 3-D simulations by the Model for Ozone And Related Trace species (MOZART). The hydrogen fluxes and photochemistry in our model successfully reproduce the contemporary hydrogen cycle as observed by a network of remote global stations. Our intent is to determine environmentally tolerable leak rates and also facilitate a gradual phasing in of a hydrogen economy over the next several decades as the elimination of the use of halocarbons gradually reduces halogen induced stratospheric ozone loss rates. We stress that the leak rates in global hydrogen infrastructure and the future evolution of microbial soil sink of hydrogen that determines its current lifetime (about 2 years) are principal sources of uncertainty in our assessment.

Dubey, M. K.; Horowitz, L. W.; Rahn, T. A.; Kinnison, D. E.

2004-12-01

233

Recruit 'Grandpeople' as Volunteer Tutors, and Students Will Reap the Rewards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how a senior citizen volunteer tutor program at Emerson Elementary School in Riverside (California) achieved success through careful preparation, staff and student cooperation, extra effort to find interested senior citizens, and continual expression of appreciation to volunteers. Presents 17 hints on starting a grandpeople project. (RW)

De Pillis, Susan

1982-01-01

234

Re-engineering Assessment Practices in Higher Education www.reap.ac.uk  

E-print Network

implementations including description of lessons learned Papers in peer reviewed journals and reports. Outcomes of experts. Peer review, students evaluating and commenting on each other's work, is one way to achieve this''. What is the PEER project? PEER stands for Peer Evaluation in Education Review the PEER project

Azzopardi, Leif

235

Beyond reaping the first harvest: management objectives for timber production in the Brazilian Amazon.  

PubMed

Millions of hectares of future timber concessions are slated to be implemented within large public forests under the forest law passed in 2006 by the Brazilian Congress. Additional millions of hectares of large, privately owned forests and smaller areas of community forests are certified as well managed by the Forest Stewardship Council, based on certification standards that will be reviewed in 2007. Forest size and ownership are two key factors that influence management objectives and the capacity of forest managers to achieve them. Current best ecological practices for timber production from Brazil's native Amazon forests are limited to reduced-impact logging (RIL) systems that minimize the environmental impacts of harvest operations and that obey legal restrictions regarding minimum diameters, rare species, retention of seed trees, maximum logging intensity, preservation of riparian buffers, fire protection, and wildlife conservation. Compared with conventional, predatory harvesting that constitutes >90% of the region's timber production, RIL dramatically reduces logging damage and helps maintain forest cover and the presence of rare tree species, but current RIL guidelines do not assure that the volume of timber removed can be sustained in future harvests. We believe it is counterproductive to expect smallholders to subscribe to additional harvest limitations beyond RIL, that larger private forested landholdings managed for timber production should be sustainable with respect to the total volume of timber harvested per unit area per cutting cycle, and that large public forests should sustain volume production of individual harvested species. These additional requirements would improve the ecological sustainability of forest management and help create a stable forest-based sector of the region's economy, but would involve costs associated with lengthened cutting cycles, reduced harvest intensities, and/or postharvest silviculture to promote adequate growth and regeneration. PMID:17650242

Zarin, Daniel J; Schulze, Mark D; Vidal, Edson; Lentini, Marco

2007-08-01

236

Reaping the benefits of task conflict in teams: the critical role of team psychological safety climate.  

PubMed

Past research suggests that task conflict may improve team performance under certain conditions; however, we know little about these specific conditions. On the basis of prior theory and research on conflict in teams, we argue that a climate of psychological safety is one specific context under which task conflict will improve team performance. Using evidence from 117 project teams, the present research found that psychological safety climate moderates the relationship between task conflict and performance. Specifically, task conflict and team performance were positively associated under conditions of high psychological safety. The results support the conclusion that psychological safety facilitates the performance benefits of task conflict in teams. Theoretical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:21728397

Bradley, Bret H; Postlethwaite, Bennett E; Klotz, Anthony C; Hamdani, Maria R; Brown, Kenneth G

2012-01-01

237

(Almost) Word for Word: As Voice Recognition Programs Improve, Students Reap the Benefits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Voice recognition software is hardly new--attempts at capturing spoken words and turning them into written text have been available to consumers for about two decades. But what was once an expensive and highly unreliable tool has made great strides in recent years, perhaps most recognized in programs such as Nuance's Dragon NaturallySpeaking…

Smith, Mark

2006-01-01

238

Exploring resilience: strengths of trafficking survivors in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Western literature provides an array of information regarding resilience within at-risk youth. Resilience research within non-Western contexts, and more specifically with exploited youth, is more limited. Despite exploitation, some youth develop a hardy ability to overcome adversity, allowing them more mastery over their environments and even increased psychological steadfastness. This project involved exploring the protective factors of resilience and psychological functioning in Cambodian youth, specifically a group of 24 survivors of sexual trafficking and another group of 24 rural youth without reported exploitation. The ages of participants ranged from 13 to 22 years, with the average age being 15.62 years [standard deviation (SD=2.68)]. Results indicated resilience constructs (mastery and relatedness) correlated with psychological functioning (anxiety and depression), as expected. The sense of relatedness was moderately associated with age. Also, as predicted, the trafficked young women demonstrated more resilience and less pathology. Consistent with previous research, earlier trauma is believed to inoculate survivors of trauma against further stress, mobilize them to better confront adversity and reduce psychological disruptions. Understanding these issues can help in understanding the relationship between resilience factors and psychological functioning as well as the strengths of many trauma survivors. Their strengths are particularly useful for developing effective treatment protocols for traumatized youth from non-Western backgrounds. PMID:23183739

Gray, Glori G; Luna, Lilia; Seegobin, Winston

2012-01-01

239

Child Labour, Education Policy and Governance in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers how the issue of child labour is located in Cambodian education policy debates and how it is affected by the major constraints surrounding the Cambodian education sector. In particular, it asks why Cambodian policy makers have not sought to address the issue explicitly despite its considerable, and adverse, impact on…

Kim, Chae-Young

2011-01-01

240

THE PHOENIX POPULATION: DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS AND REBOUND IN CAMBODIA*  

PubMed Central

The study of mortality crises provides an unusual and valuable perspective on the relationship between mortality and fertility changes, a relationship that has puzzled demographers for decades. In this article, we combine nationally representative survey and demographic-surveillance system data to study fertility trends around the time of the Khmer Rouge (KR) regime, under which 25% of the Cambodian population died. We present the first quantitative evidence to date that attests to a one-third decline of fertility during this regime, followed by a substantial “baby boom” after the fall of the KR. Further analyses reveal that the fertility rebound was produced not only by a two-year marriage bubble but also by a surge in marital fertility that remained for nearly a decade above its precrisis level. Our results illustrate the potential influence of mortality on fertility, which may be more difficult to identify for more gradual mortality declines. To the extent that until recently, Cambodian fertility appears to fit natural fertility patterns, our findings also reinforce meaning of this core paradigm of demographic analysis. In July 1978, a youth named Korb, bound hand and foot, arrived at a Pol Pot regime extermination camp. The local security chief, “Comrade Uncle An,” was handed the following note: Formerly this person was normal in character. Then, over about ten days, he went crazy. […] If many people come in, first he begins to whistle, and then he sings the following rhyme out loud: O! Khmers with black blood Now the eight-year Buddhist prophecy is being fulfilled. Vietnam is the elder brother Kampuchea is the younger. If we do not follow the Vietnamese as our elder brothers There will be nothing left of the Khmer this time but ashes.(Kiernan and Boua 1982:363) PMID:17583312

HEUVELINE, PATRICK; POCH, BUNNAK

2014-01-01

241

Cambodia Studies Conference Schedule DRAFT [as of May 25, 2012  

E-print Network

:30-6:00 Welcome reception for opening of the NIU Art Museum exhibit, "Music of the Divine" (Altgeld Hall) 6:00-8:00 Exhibit open for viewing Friday, September 14 8:30-10:00 Session I (HSC) Panel 1: Land and Water Panel 2 10: Dance/Theatre Panel 11: Development in Historical and Contemporary Perspectives Panel 12: Ethnic

Kostic, Milivoje M.

242

Techniques used by traditional dentists in Vietnam and Cambodia.  

PubMed

One of the largest ethnic minorities in the UK, and especially London, is people of Chinese descent. A dental practitioner treating these people may encounter restorations that have been performed by traditional practitioners in their country of origin. These restorations are likely to be very different from anything else a practitioner in the UK will have come across, and in order to treat these patients it is important to have an understanding of how and why the restorations were made. PMID:8948196

Todd, R V; Durward, C S

1996-03-01

243

Education, Teacher Training and Prospects for Economic Recovery in Cambodia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the history of Cambodian education, 1945-95, including heavy investment in urban secondary and higher education after independence, Khmer Rouge destruction of the educational system, rapid educational expansion in the 1980s despite the lack of qualified teachers, and present international aid programs to train teachers. Discusses…

Duggan, Stephen J.

1996-01-01

244

Health Insurance in Rural Cambodia: Impacts and Selection  

E-print Network

literacy/numeracy questions correctly Household Size Education of healthliteracy/numeracy questions correctly Household Size Education of healthEducation of health decision-maker (years) Answered all literacy/

Polimeni, Rachel

2011-01-01

245

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Pulmonary melioidosis in Cambodia  

E-print Network

with an environmental exposure, underlying conditions pre-disposing for the disease include diabetes mellitus, alcohol localizations include skin abscess, osteomyelitis, arthritis, prostatic and parotids abscesses [1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

246

REAP is an apprenticeship experience designed for highly motivated, first-year students in the Honors Program. The REAP experience will provide a fast-track for talented students, enabling them to explore topics of interest,  

E-print Network

, and Biomedical Sciences Topic: The Flavor of Animal Life: Molecular Cloning and Expression of an Evolutionary Evolution of Cuticular Hydrocarbons and Reproductive Division of Labor in Social Insects Sarah Piet

Pringle, James "Jamie"

247

Bilingual Toddlers Reap the Language They Sow: Ethnic Minority Toddlers' Childcare Attendance Increases Maternal Host Language Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the development and correlates of language use in bilingual Turkish-Dutch immigrant mothers and their toddlers. In this short-term longitudinal study 87 mothers completed questionnaires on their Dutch and Turkish language use, ethnic identity and use of childcare. Observational data were obtained for maternal supportive…

Prevoo, Marielle J. L.; Mesman, Judi; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Pieper, Suzanne

2011-01-01

248

One-to-One in Alaska: In the Remote Alaskan Interior, Students are Reaping the Benefits of Laptop Computing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each school, district, or state has a unique set of circumstances and obstacles to deal with in implementing a one-to-one laptop program. That is especially true of Denali Borough School District in Alaska. Located in the Alaskan interior, it encompasses Denali National Park (with North America's tallest mountain), covers more than 12,000 square…

McHale, Tom

2007-01-01

249

"Scholarships provide us with the opportunity to attend a university such as this. We reap what we sow; thus, hard  

E-print Network

of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences #12;Aaren N. Casimiro Aaren's education is made possible in part from possible in part from the generous support of the Marius DeBrabant Scholarship Fund Operation Education Fund #12;Aaron R. Long Aaron's education is made possible in part from the generous support of the UCR

Lyubomirsky, Ilya

250

Just Doing What They Gotta Do: Single Black Custodial Fathers Coping with the Stresses and Reaping the Rewards of Parenting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For single African American custodial fathers, parenting stress is exacerbated by the cultural expectation that Black fathers are "normally" absent and by the clustering of stresses that Black men are more likely to encounter. This sample of African American fathers have used a repertoire of problem-focused and cognitive coping strategies,…

Coles, Roberta L.

2009-01-01

251

Areawide suppression of European corn borer with Bt maize reaps savings to non-Bt maize growers.  

PubMed

Transgenic maize engineered to express insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has become widely adopted in U.S. agriculture. In 2009, Bt maize was planted on more than 22.2 million hectares, constituting 63% of the U.S. crop. Using statistical analysis of per capita growth rate estimates, we found that areawide suppression of the primary pest Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer) is associated with Bt maize use. Cumulative benefits over 14 years are an estimated $3.2 billion for maize growers in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, with more than $2.4 billion of this total accruing to non-Bt maize growers. Comparable estimates for Iowa and Nebraska are $3.6 billion in total, with $1.9 billion for non-Bt maize growers. These results affirm theoretical predictions of pest population suppression and highlight economic incentives for growers to maintain non-Bt maize refugia for sustainable insect resistance management. PMID:20929774

Hutchison, W D; Burkness, E C; Mitchell, P D; Moon, R D; Leslie, T W; Fleischer, S J; Abrahamson, M; Hamilton, K L; Steffey, K L; Gray, M E; Hellmich, R L; Kaster, L V; Hunt, T E; Wright, R J; Pecinovsky, K; Rabaey, T L; Flood, B R; Raun, E S

2010-10-01

252

You Reap What You Sow: Parental Investment in Language Learning and Its Reflection in a Seven-Year-Old's World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the 2000 Census, 329 different languages, including English, are spoken in the United States today. With the increasing number of immigrant and international groups, a number of topics such as language learning, language loss and maintenance, and bilingual education have started to follow an important line of investigation in the past…

Celik, Servet

2007-01-01

253

Neuro-fuzzy reaping of shear wave velocity correlations derived by hybrid genetic algorithm-pattern search technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shear wave velocity is a critical physical property of rock, which provides significant data for geomechanical and geophysical studies. This study proposes a multi-step strategy to construct a model estimating shear wave velocity from conventional well log data. During the first stage, three correlation structures, including power law, exponential, and trigonometric were designed to formulate conventional well log data into shear wave velocity. Then, a Genetic Algorithm-Pattern Search tool was used to find the optimal coefficients of these correlations. Due to the different natures of these correlations, they might overestimate/underestimate in some regions relative to each other. Therefore, a neuro-fuzzy algorithm is employed to combine results of intelligently derived formulas. Neuro-fuzzy technique can compensate the effect of overestimation/underestimation to some extent, through the use of fuzzy rules. One set of data points was used for constructing the model and another set of unseen data points was employed to assess the reliability of the propounded model. Results have shown that the hybrid genetic algorithm-pattern search technique is a robust tool for finding the most appropriate form of correlations, which are meant to estimate shear wave velocity. Furthermore, neuro-fuzzy combination of derived correlations was capable of improving the accuracy of the final prediction significantly.

Asoodeh, Mojtaba; Bagheripour, Parisa

2013-06-01

254

Embarking on large-scale qualitative research: reaping the benefits of mixed methods in studying youth, clubs and drugs  

PubMed Central

Qualitative research is often conceptualized as inherently small-scale research, primarily conducted by a lone researcher enmeshed in extensive and long-term fieldwork or involving in-depth interviews with a small sample of 20 to 30 participants. In the study of illicit drugs, traditionally this has often been in the form of ethnographies of drug-using subcultures. Such small-scale projects have produced important interpretive scholarship that focuses on the culture and meaning of drug use in situated, embodied contexts. Larger-scale projects are often assumed to be solely the domain of quantitative researchers, using formalistic survey methods and descriptive or explanatory models. In this paper, however, we will discuss qualitative research done on a comparatively larger scale—with in-depth qualitative interviews with hundreds of young drug users. Although this work incorporates some quantitative elements into the design, data collection, and analysis, the qualitative dimension and approach has nevertheless remained central. Larger-scale qualitative research shares some of the challenges and promises of smaller-scale qualitative work including understanding drug consumption from an emic perspective, locating hard-to-reach populations, developing rapport with respondents, generating thick descriptions and a rich analysis, and examining the wider socio-cultural context as a central feature. However, there are additional challenges specific to the scale of qualitative research, which include data management, data overload and problems of handling large-scale data sets, time constraints in coding and analyzing data, and personnel issues including training, organizing and mentoring large research teams. Yet large samples can prove to be essential for enabling researchers to conduct comparative research, whether that be cross-national research within a wider European perspective undertaken by different teams or cross-cultural research looking at internal divisions and differences within diverse communities and cultures. PMID:22308079

Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Fazio, Adam

2012-01-01

255

Higher Education in the Wake of New ICT: Reaping Benefits or Creating More Problems through E-Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article deals with e-learning by focusing on the perceptible tension between ICT and Education. It calls for the implementation of a supple platform within higher education community in the new era of ICT. A personal experience and the analysis of different approaches are used in dealing with the issues. The choice of Moodle as a case study…

Mouyabi, J. Seke Mboungou

2011-01-01

256

Newer antidepressant drug use in East Asian psychiatric treatment settings: REAP (Research on East Asia Psychotropic Prescriptions) Study  

PubMed Central

Aims Antidepressant use in East Asia is poorly documented. We compared patients given newer and older antidepressants to test the hypothesis, suggested in the literature, that use of newer antidepressants is associated with treatment settings rather than specific diagnostic categories. Methods We compared rates of use of older (pre1990) vs. newer antidepressants among 1898 patients identified as antidepressant treated at 21 centres in five East Asian countries (China, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan) in 2003. Demographics, treatment setting and clinical factors associated with preferential use of newer drugs were tested in univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Newer antidepressants were included in the treatment regimens of 67.5% (N = 1282/1898) of study subjects. Prescription for newer antidepressants was significantly associated with younger age (z = ?4.55, d.f. = 1888, P < 0.001), hospitalization [odds ratio (OR) 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07, 1.64, P < 0.01] and treatment within psychiatric hospitals (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.27, 2.00, P < 0.001). On multivariate analyses, treatment with newer antidepressants was independently associated with younger age (P < 0.001), country (P < 0.001) and treatment within private hospitals (P < 0.001), but not with sex or diagnosis of affective or anxiety disorders (all P > 0.1). Conclusion Demographic factors and treatment settings appear to influence antidepressant choice more than clinical factors such as diagnosis. PMID:17076698

Sim, Kang; Lee, N B; Chua, Hong C; Mahendran, Rathi; Fujii, Senta; Yang, Shu-yu; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Si, Tianmei; He, Yan L; Lee, Min S; Sung, Kil M; Chung, Eun K; Chan, Yiong H; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Tan, Chay H; Sartorius, Norman; Baldessarini, Ross J

2007-01-01

257

Empowering Fourth-Grade Researchers: Reaping the Rewards of Web 2.0 Student-Centered Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

NCTE's Framework for 21st Century Literacies (2008) prompted collaboration between a university professor and classroom teacher resulting in a professional inquiry project utilizing a Web 2.0 tool, Scrapblog, with fourth-grade students. This article describes implementation of this project, including both challenges and positive outcomes. The…

Atkinson, Terry S.; Swaggerty, Elizabeth A.

2011-01-01

258

Baksbat (broken courage): a trauma-based cultural syndrome in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) sufficiently explains and encompasses the symptoms experienced by people from non-Western cultures is debatable. The etymological, social, and historical contexts of idioms of distress experienced by Khmer, known as baksbat, were studied through interviews with 53 Cambodian experts. Phey-khlach (double fear), bor-veas-cheas-chgnay (wishing that the trauma would go away), dam-doeum-kor (planting a kapok tree-remaining mute), chos-nhorm (submissive, easily giving in), kob yobal (ideas are buried), and loss of togetherness, were all identified as specific symptoms of baksbat. Similarities and differences between symptoms of baksbat, PTSD, anxiety, and depression indicate that baksbat is a Cambodian idiom of distress with sufficient characteristics to be recognized as a formal cultural trauma syndrome distinct from PTSD. Increased awareness of its criteria and phenomenology may help clinicians provide appropriate support for traumatized Cambodians. PMID:23406066

Chhim, Sotheara

2013-01-01

259

Khyâl attacks: a key idiom of distress among traumatized cambodia refugees.  

PubMed

Traumatized Cambodian refugees with PTSD often complain of khyâl attacks. The current study investigates khyâl attacks from multiple perspectives and examines the validity of a model of how khyâl attacks are generated. The study found that khyâl attacks had commonly been experienced in the previous 4 weeks and that their severity was strongly correlated with the severity of PTSD (PTSD Checklist). It was found that khyâl attacks were triggered by various processes--such as worry, trauma recall, standing up, going to a mall--and that khyâl attacks almost always met panic attack criteria. It was also found that during a khyâl attack there was great fear that death might occur from bodily dysfunction. It was likewise found that a complex nosology of khyâl attacks exists that rates the attacks on a scale of severity, that the severity determines how the khyâl attacks should be treated and that those treatments are often complex. As illustrated by the article, khyâl attacks constitute a key aspect of trauma ontology in this group, a culturally specific experiencing of anxiety and trauma-related disorder. The article also contributes to the study of trauma somatics, that is, to the study of how trauma results in specific symptoms in a specific cultural context, showing that a key part of the trauma-somatic reticulum is often a cultural syndrome. PMID:20407813

Hinton, Devon E; Pich, Vuth; Marques, Luana; Nickerson, Angela; Pollack, Mark H

2010-06-01

260

What International Aid Organizations Can Learn from International Adult Learning: Experiences from Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Many countries receive international support to strengthen professional capacity. The effect of these professional development activities (PDAs), however, is often negligible. This article provides useful insights on how international aid organizations could improve their PDAs, by describing an intervention developed and applied in…

Berkvens, Jan

2012-01-01

261

Improving adult learning and professional development in a post-conflict area: The case of Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

All over the world, international development organizations try to increase professional capacity of local staff. These attempts are thought to fail because of financial constraints, but this is just part of the story. Professional development and adult learning theories approach learning from a western perspective, while many developing societies are organized according to non-western models. This article describes research conducted

Jan B. Y. Berkvens; Maya Kalyanpur; Wilmad Kuiper; Jan Van den Akker

262

Towards effective emerging infectious disease surveillance: Cambodia, Indonesia, and NAMRU-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose international security threats because of their potential to inflict harm upon humans, crops, livestock, health infrastructure, and economies. The following questions stimulated the research described in this report: What infrastructure is necessary to enable EID surveillance in developing countries? What are the cultural, political, and economic challenges that are faced? Are there generalizations that may

Sophal Ear

2011-01-01

263

World Heritage management: boundary-making at Angkor Archaeological Park, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A World Heritage (WH) designation requires that international obligations to protect and conserve pre-eminent natural and cultural heritage properties be implemented at a local level. As part of this obligation to protect, each WH property needs to be demarcated in space (or bounded). While there is a large literature relating to the efficacy of protected area management from a wide

Josephine Gillespie

2012-01-01

264

Cultural Orientation for Vietnamese Montagnard Refugees: A Special Project of IOM Cambodia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2002, the International Organization for Migration provided pre-arrival cultural orientation training to 905 Vietnamese Montagnard refugees living in a transit processing facility on the outskirts of Phnom Penh. The training was specifically designed to prepare the refugees for third country resettlement to the United States. It provided tools…

Timko, Leslie

265

Snake prices and crocodile appetites: Aquatic wildlife supply and demand on Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia  

E-print Network

Snake prices and crocodile appetites: Aquatic wildlife supply and demand on Tonle Sap Lake trade Conservation Trade regulation Exploitation Crocodile farming Consumer preferences Substitutability is the domestic trade in snakes as crocodile food. We estimate that farmed crocodiles consume between 2.7 and 12

Reynolds, John D.

266

Health, women and environment in a marginal region of north-eastern Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a population of 70,000, the province of Ratanakiri, close to southern Laos and western central Vietnam, is inhabited\\u000a by proto-Chinese ethnic minorities who all practice slash and burn cultivation. Despite its natural wealth (wild forests,\\u000a precious stones, fertile basaltic lands), the region is still a relatively unexplored and deserted area. The geographical\\u000a isolation of the hilly territory has been

F. Bourdier

1998-01-01

267

The Environmental Impact of Cambodia's Ancient City of Mahendraparvata (Phnom Kulen)  

PubMed Central

The Khmer kingdom, whose capital was at Angkor from the 9th to the 14th-15th century, was founded in 802 by king Jayavarman II in a city called Mahandraparvata, on Phnom Kulen. Virtually nothing more is known of Mahandraparvata from the epigraphic sources, but systematic archaeological survey and excavation have identified an array of cultural features that point to a more extensive and enduring settlement than the historical record indicates. Recent remote sensing data have revolutionized our view, revealing the remains of a city with a complex and spatially extensive network of urban infrastructure. Here, we present a record of vegetation change and soil erosion from within that urban network, dating from the 8th century CE. Our findings indicate approximately 400 years of intensive land use, punctuated by discrete periods of intense erosion beginning in the mid 9th century and ending in the late 11th century. A marked change in water management practices is apparent from the 12th century CE, with implications for water supply to Angkor itself. This is the first indication that settlement on Mahendraparvata was not only extensive, but also intensive and enduring, with a marked environmental impact. PMID:24416206

Penny, Dan; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Tang, David; De Greef, Stephane

2014-01-01

268

Effects of ICTs on Media Transformation, Education and Training in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Journalists in the affluent industrialised world have since the mid-80s adopted information and communication technology (hereafter referred to as the internet) as part of their daily work. The internet has also enabled geographically isolated journalists to build an extensive network of contacts and access diverse information sources. Journalists, and citizens alike, are increasingly publishing their work for access by a

Eric Loo; D. T. T. Hang

2007-01-01

269

The environmental impact of Cambodia's ancient city of Mahendraparvata (Phnom Kulen).  

PubMed

The Khmer kingdom, whose capital was at Angkor from the 9(th) to the 14(th)-15(th) century, was founded in 802 by king Jayavarman II in a city called Mahandraparvata, on Phnom Kulen. Virtually nothing more is known of Mahandraparvata from the epigraphic sources, but systematic archaeological survey and excavation have identified an array of cultural features that point to a more extensive and enduring settlement than the historical record indicates. Recent remote sensing data have revolutionized our view, revealing the remains of a city with a complex and spatially extensive network of urban infrastructure. Here, we present a record of vegetation change and soil erosion from within that urban network, dating from the 8(th) century CE. Our findings indicate approximately 400 years of intensive land use, punctuated by discrete periods of intense erosion beginning in the mid 9(th) century and ending in the late 11(th) century. A marked change in water management practices is apparent from the 12(th) century CE, with implications for water supply to Angkor itself. This is the first indication that settlement on Mahendraparvata was not only extensive, but also intensive and enduring, with a marked environmental impact. PMID:24416206

Penny, Dan; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Tang, David; De Greef, Stéphane

2014-01-01

270

Highlanders of Central Vietnam and Cambodia: Economic and socio-cultural changes between 1975 and 20071  

E-print Network

, intensive land development, land grabbing as well as pressures to change their habits affects the daily life servants, foresters, traders, coffee growers. They spread over their land, fundamentally shattering. However, many Highlanders suffer from the situation and want to stand for their land, their customs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

271

The challenge of assessing social dimensions of avoided deforestation: Examples from Cambodia  

SciTech Connect

Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD +) has moved to the central stage of the climate change debate by being promoted as a significant, cheap, and quick win-win strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and thereby mitigate climate change. In order to be successful in reducing emissions while providing the projected social and environmental co-benefits, REDD + needs to overcome key challenges of insecure forest tenure and inequity in the distribution of benefits. Such challenges threaten to affect the livelihoods and well-being in the local communities and in turn the effectiveness of REDD+. While REDD + programs will affect the participating communities, there is limited knowledge as to what social impacts these projects may bring to the local population. Similarly, assessment of these social dimensions has received little attention until recently, and is consequently out of sync with the realities of REDD + projects. The present paper aims to shed light on the methodological and contextual challenges in the assessment of the social dimensions of REDD+. Some of the main social concerns of REDD + are outlined with an emphasis on the uniqueness and complexity of REDD + interventions. Recently proposed approaches to assess social impacts in REDD + are critically assessed in terms of the diversity of frameworks proposed, choice of social indicators, and data collection requirements. Specifically, these methodological implications are further discussed in the light of the social dimensions and the prescribed regulations of REDD + in a Cambodian context. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insecure tenure and inequitable benefit sharing are main social concerns in REDD +. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two guides to social assessments in REDD + are critically reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mismatch between social assessment requirements and the reality of REDD + is analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete, topical examples from Cambodian REDD + are used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Support the claim to add qualitative assessment of social dimensions in REDD +.

Pasgaard, M., E-mail: mase@life.ku.dk

2013-01-15

272

Forest transition pathways in Asia – studies from Nepal, India, Thailand, and Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical forest habitat continues to decline globally, with serious consequences for environmental sustainability. The South\\/Southeast Asian landscapes represent one of the most challenging parts of the world to study issues of landscape change. High population densities in the region pose major threats to forest cover. Despite presentations of supposedly catastrophic declines in forest cover, substantial areas have been observed to

Jane Southworth; Harini Nagendra; Lin Cassidy

2011-01-01

273

Forest transition pathways in Asia – studies from Nepal, India, Thailand, and Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical forest habitat continues to decline globally, with serious consequences for environmental sustainability. The South\\/Southeast Asian landscapes represent one of the most challenging parts of the world to study issues of landscape change. High population densities in the region pose major threats to forest cover. Despite presentations of supposedly catastrophic declines in forest cover, substantial areas have been observed to

Jane Southworth; Harini Nagendra; Lin Cassidy

2012-01-01

274

Starting from Nowhere? Popular Music in Cambodia after the Khmer Rouge  

Microsoft Academic Search

illuminates the power of culture. By “culture,” I denote a traditional way of life, a rubric of familiar phenomena that include indigenous ritual, ideology, belief systems, and the spatial and temporal rhythms to which these systems move and integrate. Yet, also revealed in such a study is the power of cultural change—change fueled by a growing market economy, tourism, and

Stephen Mamula

2008-01-01

275

Microbial biofilms on the sandstone monuments of the Angkor Wat Complex, Cambodia.  

PubMed

Discoloring biofilms from Cambodian temples Angkor Wat, Preah Khan, and the Bayon and West Prasat in Angkor Thom contained a microbial community dominated by coccoid cyanobacteria. Molecular analysis identified Chroococcidiopsis as major colonizer, but low similarity values (<95%) suggested a similar genus or species not present in the databases. In only two of the six sites sampled were filamentous cyanobacteria, Microcoleus, Leptolyngbya, and Scytonema, found; the first two detected by sequencing of 16S rRNA gene library clones from samples of a moist green biofilm on internal walls in Preah Khan, where Lyngbya (possibly synonymous with Microcoleus) was seen by direct microscopy as major colonizer. Scytonema was detected also by microscopy on an internal wall in the Bayon. This suggests that filamentous cyanobacteria are more prevalent in internal (high moisture) areas. Heterotrophic bacteria were found in all samples. DNA sequencing of bands from DGGE gels identified Proteobacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Methylobacterium radiotolerans) and Firmicutes (Bacillus sp., Bacillus niacini, Bacillus sporothermodurans, Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Paenibacillus sp., Paenibacillus panacisoli, and Paenibacillus zanthoxyli). Some of these bacteria produce organic acids, potentially degrading stone. Actinobacteria, mainly streptomycetes, were present in most samples; algae and fungi were rare. A dark-pigmented filamentous fungus was detected in internal and external Preah Khan samples, while the alga Trentepohlia was found only in samples taken from external, pink-stained stone at Preah Khan. Results show that these microbial biofilms are mature communities whose major constituents are resistant to dehydration and high levels of irradiation and can be involved in deterioration of sandstone. Such analyses are important prerequisites to the application of control strategies. PMID:22006074

Gaylarde, Christine C; Rodríguez, César Hernández; Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Ortega-Morales, B Otto

2012-02-01

276

Professional Education Programme for Land Management and Land Administration in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Land management and land administration are defined as a system of planning, management and administration methods and techniques that aims to integrate ecological with social, economic and legal principles in the management of land for urban and rural development purposes. The main objective is to meet changing and developing human needs, while…

Setha, Vung; Mund, Jan-Peter

2008-01-01

277

Geomorphic controls on groundwater arsenic distribution in the Mekong River Delta, Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural arsenic contamination of groundwater is a severe publichealth crisis affecting nearly 60 million people in South Asiaand Southeast Asia alone. Contamination is spatially heterogeneousand results from the coupled microbial decomposition of organicmatter and reductive dissolution of arsenic-bearing iron minerals.Here we demonstrate that elevated arsenic concentrations arisein regions of recent organic matter deposition and thus arecontrolled by fluvial geomorphic processes. Arsenic contaminationis best expressed within recent geomorphic features such asdocked islands, scroll bars, and avulsions. Within these features,the deposition of rapidly buried reactive organic matter facilitatesmicrobial iron reduction and arsenic release. Ultimately, theorganic matter supply is exhausted and the conditions necessaryfor soluble arsenic to persist diminish.

Papacostas, Nicholas C.; Bostick, Benjamin C.; Quicksall, Andrew N.; Landis, Joshua D.; Sampson, Michael

2008-11-01

278

Utilization of Tum Nub (Embankment) for Expanding Double Rice Cropping Area in the Mekong Delta, Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to examine the effect of embankments for expanding double rice cropping area in the Cambodian Mekong Delta, where many traditional embankments called Tum Nub. For realizing double rice cropping in the flood plain, securing the cropping period and irrigation water during non-submerged days is essential, for which utilization of Tum Nub is considered to be effective. The field investigation revealed that some villages are practicing double rice cropping by introducing early rainy season rice. Hence, for introducing early rainy season rice, the effect of combination of two types of embankments was simulated for a target area selected: Type 1 embankment is making a reservoir for storing water, but single rice cropping is allowed in the inside of the reservoir after consuming stored water; and Type 2 is that for delaying the start of inundation. The result of the simulation showed that the combination of the embankments can increase rice production of the target area by 24-30% from the current level.

Saito, Miho; Goto, Akira; Mizutani, Masakazu; Khem, Sothea

279

The last man standing is the most resistant: eliminating artemisinin-resistant malaria in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is now the recommended first-line treatment for falciparum malaria throughout the world. Initiatives to eliminate malaria are critically dependent on its efficacy. There is recent worrying evidence that artemisinin resistance has arisen on the Thai-Cambodian border. Urgent containment interventions are planned and about to be executed. Mathematical modeling approaches to intervention design are now integrated

Richard J Maude; Wirichada Pontavornpinyo; Sompob Saralamba; Ricardo Aguas; Shunmay Yeung; Arjen M Dondorp; Nicholas PJ Day; Nicholas J White; Lisa J White

2009-01-01

280

Chemical analysis of black crust on the Angkor sandstone at the Bayon temple, Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Angkor complex is the one of the greatest cultural heritages in the world. It is constructed in the early 12th century, designated as a world cultural heritage by UNESCO in 1992. The temples at the Angkor complex are mainly made of sandstone and laterite. However, due to the tropical climate, plants, lichens and various microorganisms are growing well on the rock surface. Black crusts are also easily found on the stone surface. The 21st technical session of the International Coordinating Committee for the Safeguarding and Development of the Historic Site of Angkor (ICC-Angkor) held in 2012 recommended that to preserve both the biofilms and the forest cover and to prohibit the biocides (chlorine-based) and organic biocides. However, there are many reports that lichens and microorganisms accelerate rock weathering. It is important to clarify that how the biofilm on the Angkor temples affect Angkor sandstones. We sampled Angkor sandstone covered by black crust at the Bayon temple, Angkor complex, and observed the section and the surface of the rock sample by using SEM. Surfaces of the samples are not polished in order to observe the original condition. The samples are coated with gold for 180 seconds. The depth of the black crust is up to 1 mm. Many filamentous materials were found on the black crust. Average energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data of the five areas of ca. 20 ?m ×15 ?m in the black crusts shows that over 80 % of the filamentous materials are compounds of carbon. It seems that these materials are hyphae. The shape of the hypha is like a thread and its size is few ?m in diameter and up to several centimeters in length. Black crusts are consisted of elements and compounds of carbon, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, and Fe. Further research has to be done to find out the better and proper way of conservation for the Angkor complex.

Song, Wonsuh; Oguchi, Chiaki; Waragai, Tetsuya

2014-05-01

281

Distribution of hemoglobin E and beta-thalassemia in Kampuchea (Cambodia).  

PubMed

The hemoglobin type of 360 adult Cambodian subjects was determined by cellulose acetate electrophoresis and microcolumn chromatography. The following distributions and frequencies of the Hb E (beta E) and the beta-thalassemia (beta-thal) genes were found: in a group of 264 Cambodians of rural areas 153 Hb A, 83 Hb AE, 19 Hb E, and nine beta-thalassemia minor (frequency beta E 0.2292, beta-thal 0.0170). In an urban group from the capital Phnom Penh there were 68 Hb A, 21 Hb AE, four Hb E, and three beta-thalassemia minor (frequency beta E 0.1510, beta-thal 0.0156). The low frequency of beta E in the urban group is probably due to Chinese admixture. Possible causes of the observed deficiency of Hb AE heterozygotes in comparison with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium are discussed. PMID:3429245

Sanguansermsri, T; Flatz, G; Flatz, S D

1987-01-01

282

Houston-Area Community Colleges Reap Rewards of Cooperative Television Campaign. Presentation to the National Council of Community Relations National Conference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to a statewide economic crisis resulting in a 9% funding cut for Texas community colleges, the presidents of nine Houston area community colleges formed a consortium to pool their resources and aggressively market the colleges. Since 1986, the Gulf Coast Consortium has mounted late-summer television and radio advertising campaigns to…

Boatright, Joyce; Lestarjette, Steve

283

Individual differences in lexical learning and use of a pronunciation feature in REAP, an intelligent tutoring system that teaches ESL vocabulary through reading new words in context  

E-print Network

syllables 3 syllables 4 syllables Category % known sample size % known sample size % known sample size Easy syllable words Category % correct sample size Easy 52.1 48 Medium 45.7 208 Hard 33.7 95 BACKGROUND Native

284

Beating the Odds: Parents Choose to Expand Their Family--Despite the Risks--And Reap The Rewards of Their Strength in The Face of Adversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the fall of 1995, Cindy Cook and her husband were anxiously awaiting the arrival of their first child. They were thrilled, excited and a little nervous about this new person that would be changing their lives. During a routine ultrasound around the fourth month of pregnancy, doctors noticed the walls of the baby's heart appeared thickened.…

Cook, Cindy

2006-01-01

285

Setting up a CFO Trust Fund: Forging a Bond with Your Director of Finance Will Reap Rewards for Your Institution--And Your Department  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While it would be naive to think that every CIO can achieve a rapport with his CFO, understanding the importance of a solid relationship with the head of finance is critical to success, both for the IT department and the institution as a whole. Never has this been truer than in today's bleak economy, as CFOs become increasingly cautious about…

Schaffhauser, Dian

2011-01-01

286

Strong performance. Healthcare executives reaped big rewards in 2010, with returning hospital CEOs seeing a 58.2% gain in compensation.  

PubMed

Healthcare CEOs saw their compensation slip relative to other industries but still earned big paydays last year. "2010 was a great year for corporate earnings and stock performance," says Steve Kaplan, left, a professor of finance and entrepreneurship. "Part of the reason for the increase in pay is that the CEOs delivered in 2010." PMID:21882381

Galloro, Vince

2011-08-15

287

Commentary: The Five Ws of a Fracture Liaison Service: Why, Who, What, Where and How? In Osteoporosis, We Reap What We Sow  

PubMed Central

Establishing a Fracture Liason Service (FLS) to identify and treat patients with a recent fragility fracture has been show to be effective, save money, useful to document high quality of care, and makes good clinical sense. A FLS starts with an osteoporosis champion and encompasses identification of patients with a recent fracture, diagnostic workup, treatment and followup. A FLS is most effective when it is able to function in multiple settings: the hospital, emergency department and outpatient clinic. Implementation may be somewhat easier in a closed healthcare system but can be feasible even in an open system. There are many barriers to implementation which can be addressed. The future of FLS care lies in a collaborative systems-based approach with appropriate stakeholder engagement, leading to seamless integration of osteoporosis care. PMID:24104520

Curtis, Jeffrey; Silverman, Stuart L.

2013-01-01

288

Gambling on change. Five big systems buy into a venture capital fund to try to reap profits from the transformation of healthcare.  

PubMed

Five healthcare systems have financed a venture-capital fund with hopes for a financial and operational return. Executives say the investment is a way to influence technological developments and evaluate products and software. James Bosscher, chief investment officer at Trinity Health, left, said Heritage fund investments will target health information technology. PMID:21370624

Evans, Melanie

2011-01-31

289

Evaluation of Flexibility Under "No Child Left Behind": Volume I--Executive Summary of Transferability, REAP Flex, and Local-Flex Evaluations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reauthorization of the "Elementary and Secondary Education Act" ("ESEA") as amended by the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001" ("NCLB") relied on two notable policy instruments to improve education: accountability and flexibility. "NCLB" complements accountability with several new flexibility provisions. It exchanges greater accountability for…

Christensen, Gayle S.

2007-01-01

290

3 CFR - Presidential Determination for the Kingdom of Cambodia Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2) of the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, as amended Presidential Documents...2) of the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, as amended Memorandum for the Secretary...C) of the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, as amended (12 U.S.C....

2010-01-01

291

Water source and diarrhoeal disease risk in children under 5 years old in Cambodia: a prospective diary based study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite claims that the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) targets on access to safe drinking water have been met, many 100 s of millions of people still have no access. The challenge remains how to provide these people and especially young children with safe drinking water. Method We report a longitudinal study designed to assess the effectiveness of an intervention based on provided treated drinking water in containers on self-reported diarrhoea in children. The intervention was “1001 fontaines pour demain” (1001 F) is a non-governmental not for profit organization (created in 2004 and based in Caluire, France) that helps local entrepreneurs treat package, and sell safe drinking water. Cases and controls were chosen at village and household level by propensity score matching Participants were visited twice a month over six months and asked to complete a diarrhoea health diary. Results In total 4275 follow-up visits were completed on 376 participants from 309 homes. Diarrhoea was reported in 20.4% of children on each visit, equating to an incidence rate estimate of 5.32 episodes per child per year (95% confidence interval =?4.97 to 5.69). Compared to those drinking 1001 F water, children drinking surface water were 33% (95% CI -1 to 17%), those drinking protected ground water were 62% (95% CI 19 to 120%) and those drinking other bottled water 57% (95% CI 15 to 114%) more likely to report diarrhoea. Children drinking harvested rainwater had similar rates of diarrhoea to Children drinking 1001 F water. Conclusion Our study suggests that 1001 F water provides a safer alternative to groundwater or surface water. Furthermore, our study raises serious concerns about the validity of assuming protected groundwater to be safe water for the purposes of assessing the MDG targets. By contrast our study provides addition evidence of the relative safety of rainwater harvesting. PMID:24321624

2013-01-01

292

Drift of fish juveniles and larvae and invertebrates over 24-hour periods in the Mekong River at Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish production in the Mekong River system depends largely upon fish spawned in productive floodplain habitats during the wet season. Many of the important fish of the lower Mekong system are flood-spawners; they spawn at the start of and during the wet season, producing large numbers of eggs that hatch quickly. The resultant larvae and juvenile fish then drift downstream

K. G. Hortle; T. Chea; R. Bun; P. Thac

293

How Can Social Enterprise Really Tackle Social Exclusion? A Comparative Study of Children's Welfare in the United Kingdom and Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social enterprise is being increasingly encouraged as a solution to social problems concerning social exclusion, child development and family welfare within both developed and developing countries. This article considers these policy contexts and two case studies of social enterprises that provide children's services in the United Kingdom and…

Lyne, Isaac

2008-01-01

294

The Use of Ovitraps Baited with Hay Infusion as a Surveillance Tool for Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to test (a) if a modified version of the CDC-enhanced ovitrap would attract more gravid female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes than standard ovitraps for more frequent monitoring of oviposition activity, and (b) the placement of ovitraps indoors or outdoors affected their performance. Paired ovitraps were placed in 25 strategically selected houses in Toul Kouk, a village on

Karen A Polson; Chris Curtis; Chang Moh Seng; James G Olson; Ngan Chantha; Sam C Rawlins

295

Incidence of Treatment-Limiting Toxicity with Stavudine-Based Antiretroviral Therapy in Cambodia: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAlthough stavudine (D4T) remains frequently used in low-income countries in Asia, associated long-term toxicity data are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term incidence of severe D4T-toxicity (requiring drug substitution) and associated risk factors in HIV-infected Cambodians up to six years on antiretroviral treatment (ART).Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThis is a retrospective analysis of an observational cohort, using data

Vichet Phan; Sopheak Thai; Kimcheng Choun; Lutgarde Lynen; Johan van Griensven

2012-01-01

296

From competition to community: participatory learning and action among young, debt-bonded Vietnamese sex workers in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community mobilisation strategies for HIV\\/AIDS prevention based on recognition of social vulnerability and concepts of empowerment have emerged at the forefront of international efforts to reduce the AIDS pandemic, increasingly replacing a focus on individual risk. This paper describes the start-up phase of a participatory learning and action project to create a sense of community identity as a first step

Joanna Busza; Bettina T. Schunter

2001-01-01

297

Prevalence, numbers and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella serovars and Campylobacter spp. in retail poultry in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.  

PubMed

Salmonella and Campylobacter are common bacterial pathogens associated with human gastro-enteritis; and raw poultry is considered to be an important source of these bacteria. To evaluate whether the Salmonella serovars and Campylobacter spp. bacteria could be monitored for the purpose of microbial presence, enumeration and antimicrobial resistance in raw poultry, 152 poultry carcasses were randomly selected from 10 markets in retail outlets of Phnom Penh during March 2006 to February 2007. The majority of poultry samples was contaminated by Salmonella serovars (88.2%) and Campylobacter spp. (80.9%). A very high contamination of Salmonella was found at 3-4 log?? CFU/g for 22.4% of samples and of Campylobacter at 7-8 log?? CFU/g for 1.3% of samples. Fifty nine different Salmonella serovars contaminated 134 poultry carcasses; five most prevalent serovars covered 29.1% of serovars isolates (Anatum, Typhimurium, Corvallis, Stanley and Enteritidis). Three Campylobacter species contaminating 123 raw poultry were Campylobacter jejuni (50.0%), Campylobacter coli (29.0%) and Campylobacter lari (21.0%). High antibiotic resistance percentages were found among Salmonella serovars and Campylobacter spp. isolates. This study revealed that raw poultry at the retail outlets in Phnom Penh markets are contaminated with high prevalences of food-borne pathogens, and communicating the importance of minimizing this risk in reducing human infections. PMID:21060246

Lay, Kruy Sun; Vuthy, Yith; Song, Ping; Phol, Khem; Sarthou, Jean Louis

2011-03-01

298

Reproductive and Trophic Ecology of an Assemblage of Aquatic and Semi-Aquatic Snakes in Tonle Sap, Cambodia  

E-print Network

of 8982 specimens of seven snake species, five of which belong to the family Homalopsidae. The seven significantly with female body size in all species, and with body condition in E. enhydris. Our data also and traded as a food supply for the numerous crocodile farms surrounding the lake (Stuart et al., 2000

Reynolds, John D.

299

The Impact of English language education on Cambodian elementary school children: Perceptions of EFL teachers in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a preliminary study on how the teaching of the English language is influencing Cambodian elementary children. A small-scale survey was conducted to investigate how the English language education is impacting(1)Cambodian elementary studentsdevelopment of their fi rst language, Khmer, and(2)the acquisition of the native culture by the children. It is also part of this study to examine(3) instances of

Koji IGAWA

2010-01-01

300

8 CFR 245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...  

...automatically stay the order of removal, deportation...vacating of the final order of removal, deportation...Act, if eligible. In order to obtain a waiver for...following: (1) A birth certificate or other record...submit an affidavit to that effect in lieu of actual...

2014-01-01

301

8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...vacating of the final order of removal, deportation...if eligible. In order to obtain a waiver...following: (1) A birth certificate or other record of birth; (2) Documentation...affidavit to that effect in lieu of actual...advance parole in order to avoid...

2013-01-01

302

8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...vacating of the final order of removal, deportation...if eligible. In order to obtain a waiver...following: (1) A birth certificate or other record of birth; (2) Documentation...affidavit to that effect in lieu of actual...advance parole in order to avoid...

2012-01-01

303

8 CFR 245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...automatically stay the order of removal, deportation...vacating of the final order of removal, deportation...Act, if eligible. In order to obtain a waiver for...following: (1) A birth certificate or other record...submit an affidavit to that effect in lieu of actual...

2013-01-01

304

8 CFR 245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...vacating of the final order of removal, deportation...if eligible. In order to obtain a waiver...following: (1) A birth certificate or other record of birth; (2) Documentation...affidavit to that effect in lieu of actual...advance parole in order to avoid...

2011-01-01

305

8 CFR 245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...automatically stay the order of removal, deportation...vacating of the final order of removal, deportation...Act, if eligible. In order to obtain a waiver for...following: (1) A birth certificate or other record...submit an affidavit to that effect in lieu of actual...

2012-01-01

306

8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...vacating of the final order of removal, deportation...if eligible. In order to obtain a waiver...following: (1) A birth certificate or other record of birth; (2) Documentation...affidavit to that effect in lieu of actual...advance parole in order to avoid...

2011-01-01

307

8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...  

...vacating of the final order of removal, deportation...if eligible. In order to obtain a waiver...following: (1) A birth certificate or other record of birth; (2) Documentation...affidavit to that effect in lieu of actual...advance parole in order to avoid...

2014-01-01

308

Cardiovascular Risk in the Cambodian Community  

E-print Network

..................................................................................................7 E. Cambodian Lifestyle in the United States and in Cambodia............................................................................................................13 i. Perceptions of Obesity

Bandettini, Peter A.

309

Using an ounce of prevention: does it reduce health care expenditures and reap pounds of profits? A study of the financial impact of wellness and health risk screening programs.  

PubMed

As we are all well aware, health care expenditures in the United States are out of control and growing at epic proportions. Since private industry shoulders a significant burden of paying these rising health care costs, the huge and ever increasing sum paid by these corporations continues to impact the US economy translating into higher prices of services and manufactured goods and reduced job opportunities when companies outsource jobs or locate manufacturing facilities to avoid paying health care benefits for workers. As a result, health care expenditures have become a centerpiece of an enormous public policy debate as Congress is currently working on several versions of a bill to completely revise health care from the ground up. This research project was accomplished to examine the effectiveness of one approach to control rising health care costs and contain corporate financial responsibility--the establishment of wellness and health risk screening programs to improve the health of employees. Total health care cost per insured individual was gathered through an online survey directly from health care benefit administrators. The survey also asked information about wellness and health risk screening programs and the related responses were used to determine if there were a relationship between health care costs and health prevention programs. While statistical analysis was hampered in the current study because of the small sample size, some valid conclusions were reached. The study was successful in identifying a benchmark of Average Total Health Care Cost per Individual from $5,100 to $5,800 for 2005 through 2007. This is especially interesting in light of the fact that an average of $7,026 was spent on health care per person in 2006 in the United States. The study was also able to contribute an estimate of the increase realized in these expenditures of 6 percent in 2007 over 2006, and 4 percent in 2006 over 2005, which were in fact similar to the national average. The final contribution of the study is to suggest an explanation for the costs which appear to be holding their own in terms of the national average. While this cannot be statistically verified, it does seem that the active participation of these companies in wellness programs could be a factor. Wellness programs were very popular in this sample of companies as 82 percent of the respondents answered "YES" when asked if the company funds their own employee wellness program. This is an impressive number of companies that have recognized wellness programs as a potential means to reduce employee health care costs. In regards to specific programs, at least 50 percent of respondents answered that they have smoking cessation, employee fitness, counseling, health risk screening, and bio-metric screening programs. The existence of health screening variables show an impressive 73 percent of respondents do practice some sort of health care screening, 50 percent offer biometric screening while 18 percent have onsite clinics and 23 percent run annual employee fairs. PMID:20499716

Phillips, Janet F

2009-01-01

310

The use of AMS 14C dating to explore issues of occupation and demise at the medieval city of Angkor, Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Angkorian temples are characterised by one or more encircling moats that are excavated into the alluvial substrate. As a key part of the overall design of the temple, the moats are important symbolically and are presumed to be contemporaneous with the associated temple. They also represent important depositional basins for sediment and other materials and can therefore yield vertical profiles of sediment that has accumulated since the moat was originally excavated. Unconformities in these moat profiles can be dated absolutely using small-sample, high-precision AMS radiocarbon techniques. These unconformities are likely to represent periodic re-excavation or maintenance of the moat and therefore indicate the presence of large, presumably centrally organised workforces. In some instances, presumed anthropogenic unconformities occur centuries after Angkor was supposedly abandoned. In this way, radiocarbon dates themselves are being used as a proxy indicator of cultural activity and are being used to challenge the historiography of Angkor's famous demise.

Penny, Dan; Hua, Quan; Pottier, Christophe; Fletcher, Roland; Barbetti, Mike

2007-06-01

311

Identifying Live Bird Markets with the Potential to Act as Reservoirs of Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus: A Survey in Northern Viet Nam and Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Wet markets are common in many parts of the world and may promote the emergence, spread and maintenance of livestock pathogens, including zoonoses. A survey was conducted in order to assess the potential of Vietnamese and Cambodian live bird markets (LBMs) to sustain circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 (HPAIV H5N1). Thirty Vietnamese and 8 Cambodian LBMs were visited, and structured interviews were conducted with the market managers and 561 Vietnamese and 84 Cambodian traders. Multivariate and cluster analysis were used to construct a typology of traders based on their poultry management practices. As a result of those practices and large poultry surplus (unsold poultry reoffered for sale the following day), some poultry traders were shown to promote conditions favorable for perpetuating HPAIV H5N1 in LBMs. More than 80% of these traders operated in LBMs located in the most densely populated areas, Ha Noi and Phnom Penh. The profiles of sellers operating at a given LBM could be reliably predicted using basic information about the location and type of market. Consequently, LBMs with the largest combination of risk factors for becoming virus reservoirs could be easily identified, potentially allowing control strategies to be appropriately targeted. These findings are of particular relevance to resource-scarce settings with extensively developed LBM systems, commonly found in South-East Asia. PMID:22675502

Fournie, Guillaume; Guitian, Javier; Desvaux, Stephanie; Mangtani, Punam; Ly, Sowath; Cong, Vu Chi; San, Sorn; Dung, Do Huu; Holl, Davun; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Vong, Sirenda; Ghani, Azra C.

2012-01-01

312

[Calmette Hospital, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Assessment of the implementation of the Medical Information System (SIM). Global analysis of the 1998 results].  

PubMed

Calmette is a national university hospital with 220 adult beds. It has emergency, surgical, medical and gynecology and obstetrics departments, along with a radiology unit, a laboratory for medical analyses, a central pharmacy and an outpatient clinic. This hospital has an unusual statute, with managerial autonomy and a system of cost recovery that currently provides 64% of the hospital's income. Since 1994, it has benefited from a French cooperation program. The French NGO, Médecins du Monde, has been present at Calmette since 1990, providing support for , the indigent sector of the medical department. The aim of the Medical Information System (SIM) is to develop a simple, reliable and reproducible system so that, for every action undertaken at the hospital (hospitalization, day hospital and outpatient clinic) the following pieces of information are recorded: 1) the disease; 2) the type of patient; 3) the type of management; 4) the means used to treat the patient; 5) the cost. Data are collected and analyzed using programs created with EPIINFO software (CDC, WHO), using the EPIGLUE module. In 1998, 10,814 admissions were recorded at Calmette Hospital, 7,811 (72.2%) of which were to the Emergency Department and 3,003 (27.2%) of which were direct admissions to other wards. We analyzed 10,603 (95%) computerized medical summaries (RMI). About 50% of beds were occupied in the maternity and gynecology ward whereas almost 90% of beds were occupied in the surgical and emergency wards. AIDS and tuberculosis were the conditions most frequently treated by the medical department, despite a marked increase in more specialized areas of medicine such as cardiology and diabetology. The surgical department reflected the concentration on emergency services of the hospital, with cranial traumatism the primary reason for admission for the hospital as a whole. The mean age of patients was 27 years for the maternity ward and 49 years for the medicine A ward. The mortality rate was about 5% for the medical wards (mainly due to AIDS) and almost 50% in the emergency department (cerebrovascular neurologic disease, cranial traumatism). The proportion of nonpaying patients was high (about 40% in terms of stays in hospital and about 50% of all days spent in hospital). The training of a Cambodian manager for the SIM is a key priority. The point of the SIM is to use the treated data it produces to improve management and decision-making. The data it produces should be used to define the profile of the patients treated, both from a medical point of view and in terms of their ability to pay. This is a fundamental step towards identifying activities that should receive priority as part of a development strategy for a structure evolving in a highly competitive environment. The SIM data are also invaluable for the short-term management of the hospital through the contribution they make to the development of effective analytical accounting, making it possible to evaluate costs and to adjust charges appropriately. Finally, the involvement of the SIM in the setting up and functioning of the Comité de Lutte Contre les Infections Nosocomiales (CLIN; the Hospital-Acquired Infections Committee) in 1999 to 2000 is not utopia, it is the logical continuation of improvements in the overall quality of care It involves, in particular, the training of nurses and head nurses, initiated by nurses acting as technical assistants in the French cooperation program. The definition of the role of the hygiene nurse and the selection of such a nurse from the trained head nurses are also part of this process. PMID:10705317

Fabre-Teste, B; Sokha, O

1999-01-01

313

Improving access to safe delivery for poor pregnant women: a case study of vouchers plus health equity funds in three health districts in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many developing countries, maternal mortality rates remain high with huge poor-rich inequalities. Programmes aimed at improving maternal health and preventing maternal mortality often fail to reach poor women. Vouchers potentially are an effective financial mechanism for targeting health services to the poor. We examine voucher and Health Equity Fund (HEF) schemes for safe delivery in three health districts in

Por Ir; Dirk Horeman; Souk Narin; Wim Van Damme

314

Quality of care in maternal health : childbirth practices of public and private skilled birth attendants and a quality improvement system in Cambodia .  

E-print Network

??High-quality midwifery services, including access to skilled birth attendants (SBAs) and high quality emergency obstetric and neonatal care are essential for reducing maternal mortality worldwide.… (more)

Ith, Ponndara

2013-01-01

315

LehighUniversity UnitedNations  

E-print Network

� Ambassadors from Iraq, South Korea, Pakistan, Sudan, Bangladesh, Israel, Palestine, Syria, and Afghanistan Center for Peace, Israel � Darfur Rehabilitation Project, Sudan/USA � Caring for Cambodia, Cambodia

Napier, Terrence

316

ASEM Conference on Forests, forest governance and timber products trade  

E-print Network

and illegal logging: drivers for change in the forest sector Thang Hooi Chiew (ASEAN) "Promoting Forest Law and mitigation of climate change Keo Omaliss (Cambodia) REDD implementation in Cambodia, Tim Boyle (UNREDD) REDD

317

78 FR 52535 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The meeting announced below concerns Impact of Japanese Encephalitis Vaccination in Cambodia, Funding Opportunity...applications received in response to ``Impact of Japanese Encephalitis Vaccination in Cambodia, FOA CK14-...

2013-08-23

318

Current Herpetology 23(1): 7-16, June 2004 O 2004 by The HerpetologicalSociety of Japan  

E-print Network

all four currently recognized species. A hypothesis of maternal relationships was generated based of ing Pulau Pinang and Pulau Tioman, Laos, arborealagamids distributedin southernChina, Cambodia- gaster, occurs in northern Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos, and southern China (Yunnan

Murphy, Bob

319

A doctrinal approach to property law scholarship. Who cares and Why?  

E-print Network

), Research Methods in Law (Routledge, London, 2013) 7 2 See Siems M and Mac Sithigh D, n 1 at 674-5. 3 Posner E, “The Rise of Interdisciplinary Approaches in American Legal Scholarship”, keynote address at the University of Tilburg Symposium, Towards a...

Dixon, Martin

2014-01-01

320

Alcohol consumption is controlled by angiotensin II1 BJOERN MAUL,2  

E-print Network

Alcohol consumption is controlled by angiotensin II1 BJOERN MAUL,2 WOLF-EBERHARD SIEMS, MARGRET R in alcohol-consuming behavior and investigated the alcohol intake of mice harboring a rat angiotensino- gen- ther explain the effects in the transgenic mice. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS 1. Alcohol consumption is directly

Hoehe, Margret

321

Translating the sign of dumb person using ARM processor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the blabbering voice-to-Speech Translation research is to enable real-time, interpersonal communication via natural spoken language for people who do not share a common language. The Multilingual Automatic blabbering voice-to-Speech Translator (MASTOR) system is the first Speech-to-Speech system that allows for bidirectional (blabbering voice Tamil) free-form speech input and output. The speech interactivity embedded module (SIEM) that is

C. Nijusekar; A. Brindhu Kumari

2010-01-01

322

Hiroshima-Remembered.com: Documents about the Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Documents about the atomic boming of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These include: Potsdam Declaration, White House Press Release on Hiroshima, an Eyewitness Account of Atomic Bomb Over Nagasaki, Eyewitness Account of Hiroshima By Father John A. Siemes, The Voice of Hibakusha, The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District, The Yields of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki Nuclear Explosions , On My Participation In The Atom Bomb Project - Albert Einstein, and Truman's Reflections on the Atomic Bombings.

Griffith, Christopher

323

The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Historical Documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Documents about the atomic boming of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. There are two sets of documents and reports. The first covers before the bombing and includes the scienctists petitions to prevent the bombing, the bombing order, and the Potsdam Declaration. The second covers the aftermath of the bombings. These documents include: White House Press Release on Hiroshima, Eyewitness Account of Atomic Bomb Over Nagasaki, Eyewitness Account of Hiroshima By Father John A. Siemes, and Truman's Reflections on the Atomic Bombings.

Griffith, Christopher

324

Photo Exhibition of inspiring trip for Notre Dame Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trip to Cambodia for Arts and Science students from The University of Notre Dame Australia, Fremantle proved so inspiring it motivated them to hold an exhibition of the photos they took while visiting the country.\\u000aEntitled, To Capture Cambodia, the exhibition displays elements of the students’ trip and shows how communities in Cambodia live and cope in extreme conditions

Moira Saunders

2007-01-01

325

Personalization of Reading Passages Improves Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The REAP tutoring system provides individualized and adaptive English as a Second Language vocabulary practice. REAP can automatically personalize instruction by providing practice readings about topics that match interests as well as domain-based, cognitive objectives. While most previous research on motivation in intelligent tutoring…

Heilman, Michael; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn; Callan, Jamie; Eskenazi, Maxine; Juffs, Alan; Wilson, Lois

2010-01-01

326

The Singapore Reading and English Acquisition program  

Microsoft Academic Search

English is an important language for multi-racial Singaporeans, and is the medium of instruction in Singapore schools from Year 1. During an extensive research study commissioned by the Ministry of Education, the Reading and English Acquisition Program (REAP), was introduced in 1985 to Year 1 classes in 30 primary schools. REAP was an integrated book-based program aimed at improving language

Seok Moi Ng; Claudia Sullivan

2001-01-01

327

Estimating Kinship in Admixed Populations Timothy Thornton,1,* Hua Tang,2 Thomas J. Hoffmann,3,4 Heather M. Ochs-Balcom,5 Bette J. Caan,6  

E-print Network

REAP to the Mexican Americans in Los Angeles, California (MXL) population sample of release 3 of phase-degree relatives who have not previously been reported. We also apply REAP to the African American and Hispanic samples from the Women's Health Initiative SNP Health Association Resource (WHI-SHARe) study, in which

Tang, Hua

328

Scientific Drilling, No. 12, September 2011 49 International Drilling to Recover Aquifer Sands (IDRAs)  

E-print Network

million rural inhabitants across Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, and Vietnam deadly cancers and cardiovascular disease and to inhibit the mental development of children (Smith, A

van Geen, Alexander

329

78 FR 15351 - International Trade Administration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore...growing rapidly, resulting in electricity rationing. Electricity demand growth has been 14...National Master Plan for Electricity Development for 2011-...

2013-03-11

330

9 CFR 93.301 - General prohibitions; exceptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...no longer conducts CEM culturing and testing. (j) Examination and treatment for screwworm. Horses from Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia,...

2010-01-01

331

9 CFR 93.301 - General prohibitions; exceptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...no longer conducts CEM culturing and testing. (j) Examination and treatment for screwworm. Horses from Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia,...

2011-01-01

332

9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...free of classical swine fever. (b) Swine from Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, China, Columbia, Congo,...

2012-01-01

333

Effect of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Cytochrome P450 Isoenzyme and N-Acetyltransferase 2 Genes on the Metabolism of Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies in Malaria Patients from Cambodia and Tanzania  

PubMed Central

The pharmacogenetics of antimalarial agents are poorly known, although the application of pharmacogenetics might be critical in optimizing treatment. This population pharmacokinetic-pharmacogenetic study aimed at assessing the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cytochrome P450 isoenzyme genes (CYP, namely, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5) and the N-acetyltransferase 2 gene (NAT2) on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin-based combination therapies in 150 Tanzanian patients treated with artemether-lumefantrine, 64 Cambodian patients treated with artesunate-mefloquine, and 61 Cambodian patients treated with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. The frequency of SNPs varied with the enzyme and the population. Higher frequencies of mutant alleles were found in Cambodians than Tanzanians for CYP2C9*3, CYP2D6*10 (100C?T), CYP3A5*3, NAT2*6, and NAT2*7. In contrast, higher frequencies of mutant alleles were found in Tanzanians for CYP2D6*17 (1023C?T and 2850C?T), CYP3A4*1B, NAT2*5, and NAT2*14. For 8 SNPs, no significant differences in frequencies were observed. In the genetic-based population pharmacokinetic analyses, none of the SNPs improved model fit. This suggests that pharmacogenetic data need not be included in appropriate first-line treatments with the current artemisinin derivatives and quinolines for uncomplicated malaria in specific populations. However, it cannot be ruled out that our results represent isolated findings, and therefore more studies in different populations, ideally with the same artemisinin-based combination therapies, are needed to evaluate the influence of pharmacogenetic factors on the clearance of antimalarials. PMID:23229480

Staehli Hodel, Eva Maria; Csajka, Chantal; Ariey, Frederic; Guidi, Monia; Kabanywanyi, Abdunoor Mulokozi; Duong, Socheat; Decosterd, Laurent Arthur; Olliaro, Piero; Genton, Blaise

2013-01-01

334

Quantitative bedrock geology of east and Southeast Asia (Brunei, Cambodia, eastern and southeastern China, East Timor, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, North Korea, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, far-eastern Russia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We quantitatively analyze the area-age distribution of sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic bedrock based on data from the most recent digital geologic maps of East and Southeast Asia (Coordinating Committee for Coastal and Offshore Geosciences Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) and the Geologic Survey of Japan, 1997; 1:2,000,000), published as Digital Geoscience Map G-2 by the Geological Survey of Japan. Sedimentary rocks, volcanic rocks, plutonic rocks, ultramafic rocks and metamorphic rocks cover 73.3%, 8.5%, 8.8%, 0.9%, and 8.6% of the surface area, respectively. The average ages of major lithologic units, weighted according to bedrock area, are as follows: sedimentary rocks (average stratigraphic age of 123 Myr/median age of 26 Myr), volcanic rocks (84 Myr/20 Myr), intrusive rocks (278 Myr/195 Myr), ultramafic rocks (unknown) and metamorphic rocks (1465 Myr/1118 Myr). The variability in lithologic composition and age structure of individual countries reflects the complex tectonic makeup of this region that ranges from Precambrian cratons (e.g., northeast China and North Korea) to Mesozoic-Cenozoic active margins (e.g., Japan, the Philippines, Indonesia and New Guinea). The spatial resolution of the data varies from 44 km2 per polygon (Japan) to 1659 km2 per polygon (Taiwan) and is, on average (490 km2/polygon), similar to our previous analyses of the United States of America and Canada. The temporal and spatial resolution is sufficiently high to perform age-area analyses of individual river basins larger than ˜10,000 km2 and to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between bedrock geology and river chemistry. As many rivers draining tropical, mountainous islands of East and Southeast Asia have a disproportionate effect on the dissolved and particulate load delivered to the world oceans, bedrock geology in such river drainage basins disproportionately affect ocean chemistry.

Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Miller, Mark W.

2004-01-01

335

Indochina Policy for the Next Administration. Report of the Strategy for Peace, US Foreign Policy Conference (29th, Warrenton, Virginia, October 13-15, 1988).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommended guidelines for U.S. policy toward Cambodia, Vietnam, and Laos were developed by a bipartisan group of experts. General premises are stated first, followed by specific recommendations on how to assist in bringing about a settlement in Cambodia; how to pursue U.S. bilateral relations with Vietnam on refugees, the prisoner of war/missing…

Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

336

Use of sugar cane fibre\\/pig excreta as substrate for cultivation of earthworms (Eisenia foetida)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was carried out at the Ecological Farm of CelAgrid (UTA, Cambodia), located Kandal province, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, to evaluate the feasibility of growing earthworms on the feed residues from pigs fed whole sugar cane stalks, dried fish and fresh water spinach (mainly the sugar cane fibre discarded by the pigs after chewing to extract the juice, some uneaten

Sorn Suheang; T R Preston

337

Lessons Learnt in the Use of "Contract" Teachers. Synthesis Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report sheds light on the use of contract teachers with a particular focus on Cambodia, Nicaragua and India--countries that have all relied on contract teachers at some point. The report documents the use of contract teachers in Cambodia, Nicaragua and India and outlines the experience of contract teachers in West Africa. It also discusses…

Duthilleul, Yael

2005-01-01

338

Cross-cultural communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Cambodia established peace in 1992, foreign aid, including United Nation Agencies, International Non-Government Organizations (NGO), and other Humanitarian Organizations, has come into Cambodia to help with social, human, and economic development in the rural areas, and even small business enterprises. World Education is an International Non-Government Organization. World Education, Inc. is a nonprofit organization dedicated to improving the lives

Arther Desomoeur

2003-01-01

339

Improving the probability of effective organizational change in the Coast Guard through the combined use of System Dynamics and Enterprise Value Stream Mapping & Analysis  

E-print Network

Most major organizational changes never reap the benefits the original planners envisioned, they often take longer to implement than expected and in a dynamic environment that can spell disaster for a large enterprise. The ...

Johnston, Michael J., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01

340

Spacecraft formation flight exploiting potential fields  

E-print Network

The potential benefits that can be reaped from a distributed satellite system have led to the proposal of several multi-spacecraft missions by both NASA and DoD. One such benefit is the reconfigurability of these ...

Kong, Edmund Mun Choong, 1973-

2002-01-01

341

78 FR 7279 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coastal Migratory Pelagic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...This trip limit increase is necessary to maximize the socioeconomic benefits of the quota. DATES: This rule is effective 12...trip limit allows and preventing fishermen from reaping the socioeconomic benefits derived from this increase in daily catch....

2013-02-01

342

77 FR 5413 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coastal Migratory Pelagic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...This trip limit increase is necessary to maximize the socioeconomic benefits of the quota. DATES: This rule is effective 12...trip limit allows and preventing fishermen from reaping the socioeconomic benefits derived from this increase in daily catch....

2012-02-03

343

The Media Mural Project: Empowering Youth in New Mass Media  

E-print Network

psychological and spiritual benefits that students reap as budding digital artspsychological and economic pressures they experience in their mass media environment through learning and participating in emerging digital art

Damsen, Jess

2007-01-01

344

A widget library for creating policy-aware semantic Web applications  

E-print Network

In order to truly reap the benefits of the Semantic Web, there must be adequate tools for writing Web applications that aggregate, view, and edit the widely varying data the Semantic Web makes available. As a step toward ...

Hollenbach, James Dylan

2010-01-01

345

This list includes a sampling of volunteer opportunities and organizations working in the environ-mental studies field. These opportunities may be suitable for students majoring or interested in  

E-print Network

sustainable agriculture practices, preserve the diversity and safety of our food supply and address the food a regional food system that is healthful, just, and both environmentally and economically sustainable. REAP

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

346

Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction  

MedlinePLUS

... Complementary Health Approaches: What You Need To Know Meditation: An Introduction Rheumatoid Arthritis and Complementary Health Approaches ... Reap Genetic Changes After a Day of Mindfulness Meditation (11/15/13) Meditation or Exercise May Help ...

347

CX: A Scalable, Robust Network for Parallel Peter Cappello and Dimitrios Mourloukos  

E-print Network

challenge computations, and reap the rewards in physics, chemistry, bioinformatics, and medicine, among more rapidly than that for supercomputer networks. The SETI@home project discloses an emerging global

Cappello, Peter

348

By invitation What's good for the poor is good for America  

E-print Network

the United States, to get serious about contributing to global economic development. During the cold war the end of the cold war. Even when the United States reaped a peace dividend of more than 2% of GDP

349

www.stfc.ac.uk/innovations 8 97654321Issue 03 November 2009  

E-print Network

, and for the UK to reap some of the benefits of the major scientific investment made by the STFC in CERN and human cells. Knowing the differences between ribosomes in bacteria and humans has led the way

350

77 FR 8845 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Elementary and Secondary Education Type of Review: Extension...Package for the Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) Small...Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), to...Small, Rural School Achievement Program...

2012-02-15

351

Celebrity Endorsement : A Strategic Promotion Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The celebrity endorser is a panacea for all marketing woes. It is today a frequently used approach in marketing for all brand building exercises. The star appeal however needs to be perfectly blended intelligently and strategically to reap the important \\

PUJA KHATRI

352

Design Decisions in the RideNow Project School of Information  

E-print Network

would decline. That would reduce conges- tion for everyone using the roads and reduce smog and other- convenience while others reap the benefits of reduced con- gestion and smog. To overcome these barriers

Resnick, Paul

353

Sports and Technology. Resources in Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology is making a significant impact in all areas of sports and recreation. New equipment and computer training methods in spectator sports have had a major social and economic impact, and individual sports have reaped the benefits of technology. (JOW)

Hadley, Fred W.

1993-01-01

354

Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project  

SciTech Connect

The Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project (REAP), which is being conducted by the Probabilistic Integrity Safety Assessment (PISA) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under funding from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission s (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, aims to provide an archival source of information about the effect of neutron radiation on the properties of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Specifically, this project is an effort to create an Internet-accessible RPV steel embrittlement database. The project s website, https://reap.ornl.gov, provides information in two forms: (1) a document archive with surveillance capsule(s) reports and related technical reports, in PDF format, for the 104 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States, with similar reports from other countries; and (2) a relational database archive with detailed information extracted from the reports. The REAP project focuses on data collected from surveillance capsule programs for light-water moderated, nuclear power reactor vessels operated in the United States, including data on Charpy V-notch energy testing results, tensile properties, composition, exposure temperatures, neutron flux (rate of irradiation damage), and fluence, (Fast Neutron Fluence a cumulative measure of irradiation for E>1 MeV). Additionally, REAP contains data from surveillance programs conducted in other countries. REAP is presently being extended to focus on embrittlement data analysis, as well. This paper summarizes the current status of the REAP database and highlights opportunities to access the data and to participate in the project.

Klasky, Hilda B [ORNL] [ORNL; Bass, Bennett Richard [ORNL] [ORNL; Williams, Paul T [ORNL] [ORNL; Phillips, Rick [ORNL] [ORNL; Erickson, Marjorie A [ORNL] [ORNL; Kirk, Mark T [ORNL] [ORNL; Stevens, Gary L [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

355

Wind Power and the Clean Development Mechanism  

E-print Network

: Cambodia, Philippines, Vietnam · Latin America: Bolivia, Ecuador, Guatemala · Middle East and North Africa Biogas Cement HFCs Geothermal EE Households Solar N2O Fugitive Tidal EE Service Transport Energy distrib

356

Tuberculosis Information for International Travelers  

MedlinePLUS

... general symptoms of TB disease include feelings of sickness or weakness, weight loss, fever, and night sweats. ... CDC's Role in Global TB Control Where we work Botswana Cambodia China Guyana Ethiopia Haiti India Kenya ...

357

Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (XDR TB)  

MedlinePLUS

... general symptoms of TB disease include feelings of sickness or weakness, weight loss, fever, and night sweats. ... CDC's Role in Global TB Control Where we work Botswana Cambodia China Guyana Ethiopia Haiti India Kenya ...

358

78 FR 24779 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Telemanagement Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Ltd. to China Communication Service Application and Solution Technology CO. Ltd, Beijing, PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA; Hello Axiata Company Ltd. to Latelz Co. Ltd. (Smart), Khan Chamkarmon, CAMBODIA; UPC Broadband Operations b.v. to...

2013-04-26

359

Who provides nursing services in Cambodian hospitals?  

PubMed

In Cambodia, the number of nurses is insufficient and details of nursing services are unknown and undocumented. This research explored who provides nursing service activities in Cambodia. The study was conducted at nine hospitals in Cambodia. Findings indicate that non-invasive medical care such as vital signs taking was designated to nurses. In performing more complex medical interventions, nurses shared the tasks with medical doctors. Conversely, simpler nursing tasks, including maintaining bedside environment/hygiene and supporting patient activities, tasks were shared by nurses with patients' family. This study elucidated an optimal personnel mix and task shared between nurses, doctors and patients' families. There are important implications for nursing legislation related to streamlining the production of nurses to provide an adequate and qualified nursing service in Cambodia. PMID:24661282

Sakurai-Doi, Yukie; Mochizuki, Noriko; Phuong, Keat; Sung, Chao; Visoth, Pheng; Sriv, Bun; Amara, Sar Rath; Murakami, Hitoshi; Komagata, Tomoko; Fujita, Noriko

2014-03-01

360

Médecins sans frontières.  

PubMed

Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) - Doctors Without Borders - was set up in 1971 as a small unit of emergency doctors offering international relief missions in countries such as Cambodia, Nicaragua and the war-torn Nigerian province of Biafra. PMID:25370255

Evans, Roger

2014-11-01

361

Performance of "VIKIA Malaria Ag Pf/Pan" (IMACCESS), a new malaria rapid diagnostic test  

E-print Network

Performance of "VIKIA Malaria Ag Pf/Pan" (IMACCESS®), a new malaria rapid diagnostic test for detection of symptomatic malaria infections Monidarin Chou1, Email: cmonidarin, Phnom Penh, Cambodia 2 Malaria Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Phnom Penh

Boyer, Edmond

362

Spring 2013 OPEN DAY 2013  

E-print Network

between nature and capitalism is being waged deep within the forests of Cambodia. Politics by numbers 18 Director's Residence is getting a new lease of life. 30 Poetry and punishment Caribbean PhD student Melissa

Botea, Adi

363

A SYSTEMATIC REVISION OF GAERTNERA (RUBIACEAE,  

E-print Network

Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Co^te d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, phylogenetic analysis, Pristidia, Republic of the Congo, Re´union, Rubiaceae, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Southeast

Malcomber, Simon

364

9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the certificate shall show that the entire region of origin is free of classical swine fever. (b) Swine from Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia,...

2010-01-01

365

9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia,...

2010-01-01

366

9 CFR 93.405 - Health certificate for ruminants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (2) That the ruminants are not in quarantine in the region of origin; and (3) If the ruminants are from Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia,...

2011-01-01

367

9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia,...

2011-01-01

368

7 CFR 305.17 - Authorized treatments; exceptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with seeds from South America, Central America, or Mexico. (2) Citrus with peel from Afghanistan, Andaman Islands, Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Cambodia, China (People's Republic of), Comoros, Cote d'Ivoire, Federated States...

2010-01-01

369

9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the certificate shall show that the entire region of origin is free of classical swine fever. (b) Swine from Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia,...

2011-01-01

370

9 CFR 93.405 - Health certificate for ruminants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (2) That the ruminants are not in quarantine in the region of origin; and (3) If the ruminants are from Angola, Argentina, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia,...

2010-01-01

371

The Origin ofthe Graph in the Thai Script Michel Ferlus  

E-print Network

as well as v (Ferlus 1993). This is due to the fact that the Indians who introduced Sanskrit cultule to anciant Cambodia pronounced Sanskrit ÿ as b but kept the two distinct in Sanskrit texts. WTen the Pallava

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

372

DEEPENING THE MISSION OF RECONCILIATION IN THE WORK OF JRS  

E-print Network

and other forcibly displaced persons. As a Catholic organisation and a work of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits in Cambodia, Colombia, Indonesia, Syria, the Philippines and the Democratic Republic of Congo. They also

Huang, Jianyu

373

19 CFR 4.75 - Incomplete manifest; incomplete export declarations; bond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...manifest and all required shipper's export declarations have been filed with the port director: Albania Bulgaria Cambodia China, People's Republic of Cuba Czechoslovakia Estonia German Democratic Republic (Soviet Zone of Germany and...

2010-04-01

374

75 FR 15764 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Gods of Angkor: Bronzes...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Gods of Angkor: Bronzes From the National Museum of Cambodia...determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Gods of Angkor: Bronzes from the National Museum of...

2010-03-30

375

\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses data from Cambodia’s 2005 Demographic and Health Survey to examine how three measures of children’s nutritional status vary by mother’s educational attainment. To identify mechanisms for that association, the study analyzes birth size, which depends on factors during gestation, and low height-for-age (stunting) and low weight-for-height (wasting), which are affected by factors that operate after birth. In

Jane E. Miller; Yana V. Rodgers

2009-01-01

376

Indochina energy outlook. Report series Number 3  

SciTech Connect

Indochina contains large energy resources of oil, gas, coal, and hydropower, and will become an important oil, gas, and electricity exporter in Southeast Asia over the next decade. The combination of substantial energy resources and economic reforms in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia are attracting major investments in the energy sector. This report discusses the economy; the resources, reserves, and projected production of oil, gas, coal, and hydropower; and electric power in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. 10 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Johnson, C.J.; Lamke, A.J.; Li, B.

1995-05-01

377

The spread of the H5N1 bird flu epidemic in Asia in 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

H5N1 avian influenza has spread to eight countries in eastern Asia including China, Japan, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia,\\u000a Thailand, and Indonesia in early 2004. This H5N1 influenza A virus is extremely virulent in poultry including chickens and\\u000a ducks, killing millions of birds throughout the region. Additionally this virus has transmitted to humans (mainly children)\\u000a in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Thailand,

R. G. Webster; Y. Guan; L. Poon; S. Krauss; R. Webby; E. Govorkova; M. Peiris

378

Mentoring Cambodian and Lao health professionals in tobacco control leadership and research skills  

PubMed Central

Design The aim of the programme was to ultimately affect public health practice and policy in the Kingdom of Cambodia and Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) by training key health professionals to conduct tobacco control research. Setting Encouraged by the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, a global partnership formed to build effective leadership to develop and guide national tobacco control agendas. The partners were the Ministries of Health (Cambodia and Lao PDR), non?government organisations (Adventist Development and Relief Agency in Cambodia and Laos) and an academic institution (Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California, USA). Subjects 16 health professionals, 10 from Cambodia and 6 from Lao PDR, were selected by local advisory committees to enter a two?year, intensive tobacco research graduate certificate and research training programme. Intervention We developed a “Global Tobacco Control Methods” (GTCM) 28 unit certificate programme that was offered in five sessions from September 2003 to September 2005 at the National Institute of Public Health, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. As part of their coursework, the 16 trainees actively participated in the development and implementation of two research projects. In the first project, “Healthy Doc Healthy Patient” (HDHP), trainees adapted an existing, self?administered questionnaire designed to assess health practices and beliefs of medical students in Cambodia and Lao PDR. The second project involved the design of a national prevalence of tobacco use and health beliefs study in Cambodia using a multi?stage, cluster sample method. Trainees were sponsored to attend and present at international tobacco control conferences to enhance their awareness of the tobacco epidemic. Results As of September 2005, 14 trainees (8 from Cambodia and 6 from Lao PDR) completed the courses in the GTCM certificate programme. The HDHP study sampled four medical school classes (years 3, 4, 5 and 6) in both Cambodia (n??=??330, 71.1% response rate) and Lao PDR (n??=??386, 87.3% response rate). As part of the Cambodian adult tobacco prevalence study in Cambodia, 13?988 adults (ages ??18 years) were interviewed from all 22 provinces during the summer of 2005. Over the two years, more than half of the trainees participated substantially in local and regional tobacco control and research activities. Programme challenges included the trainees' limited English language and computer proficiency skills, both of which improved during the two years. Conclusions With the successful completion of the certificate programme, the remaining two years of the grant will be used to prepare the trainees for positions of leadership within their Ministries of Health and other agencies to implement effective tobacco control policies based on locally?derived research findings. PMID:16723675

Ferry, L Hyder; Job, J; Knutsen, S; Montgomery, S; Petersen, F; Rudatsikira, E; Singh, P

2006-01-01

379

Recursive estimator for OSO-8 attitude  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modifications and enhancements that have been made to the Recursive Estimation Attitude Program (REAP) are discussed. Continuous attitudes for OSO-8 to + or - 0.05 degree accuracy are determined from Sun and star slit sensors mounted on the spinning portion of the spacecraft. The bulk of the attitude production is performed by a Weighted Least Squares (WLS) batch processor, but REAP is used for problem passes such as those involving gas jet maneuvers, sparse star fields, or star sensor saturation by high energy particles in the South Atlantic Anomaly.

Headrick, R. D.; Park, D. Y.

1978-01-01

380

Publishing in Peril  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University presses are more likely to give voice to stories that might not otherwise be told, such as those involving minority perspectives. But opportunities are shrinking. As extensions of their parent schools, academic presses rarely reap profits, experts say. Many rely on school subsidies to survive. Factor in substantial budget cuts to…

Lum, Lydia

2009-01-01

381

The Nineteenth Century Experience of Women College Students: A Profile of the Women and Their Motivations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The early women college students were pioneers. They had a difficult time obtaining an opportunity for a college education, because college was not thought to be necessary for the women of the 19th century. By overcoming many obstacles, these early college graduates were able to reap the rewards of an intellectually stimulating career. This study…

Kelly, Diana K.

382

Extensions to a Histogram-Based Student Modeling Approach to  

E-print Network

of curriculum, text difficulty, student reading skills, and possibly topic interest. The REAP tools wereExtensions to a Histogram-Based Student Modeling Approach to Facilitate Reading in Morphologically negotiate authentic texts in languages where reading is particularly difficult due to the morphological

Pennsylvania, University of

383

Retrieval of Authentic Documents for Reader-Specific Lexical Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a teacher gives a reading assignment in today s language learning classrooms, all of the students are almost always reading the same text. Although students have different reading levels, it is impractical for a single teacher to seek out unique texts matched to each student s abilities. In this paper, we describe REAP, a system designed to assign each

Jonathan Brown; Maxine Eskenazi

384

Choosing Reading Passages for Vocabulary Learning by Topic to Increase Intrinsic Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrinsic motivation has been shown in previous research to lead to better learning. In order to increase intrinsic motivation, REAP, a tutoring system for ESL vocabulary was enhanced to prefer practice readings that match personal interests. In a randomized experiment, students receiving personalized readings indicated higher levels of interest in post-reading questionnaires. Additionally, overall post-test scores were higher (but not

Michael Heilman; Alan Juffs; Maxine Eskenazi

2007-01-01

385

Retrieval of Authentic Documents for Reader-Specific Lexical Practice Jonathan Brown  

E-print Network

learning classrooms, all of the students are almost always reading the same text. Although students have individualized readings by combining detailed student and curriculum modelling with the large amount of authentic level, thereby focusing on curriculum. REAP can take into account other goals, such as student interests

Eskenazi, Maxine

386

Aligning Diversity, Quality, and Equity: The Implications of Legal and Public Policy Developments for Promoting Racial Diversity in Graduate Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diversity today is considered central to the capacity of postsecondary institutions to thrive in an increasingly multiracial and multiethnic society. However, as universities take steps to reap the educational benefits of racial and ethnic diversity, legal decisions and state laws increasingly restrict the tools these institutions have…

Garces, Liliana M.

2014-01-01

387

Psychology, meaning and the challenges of longevity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humankind has begun to reap one of the most valued harvests of its scientific and technological pursuits: a significant increase in human longevity. We now live longer than ever before, due in large part to advances in medicine and health care that provide those who have the opportunity to afford them a lifespan that for many approaches or exceeds the

D. G. MacGregor

2003-01-01

388

Resource-Based Determinants of Online Channel Commitment and Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

While some firms' entire business models revolve around online channels, others have made only limited commitments to online channel ventures. What accounts for this marked heterogeneity, and do firms reap the performance benefits of increased levels of commitment? Drawing on findings from the literature on innovation and insights from the resource-based view (RBV) of the firm, we propose an integrative

John Hulland; Kersi Antia; Michael Wade

2005-01-01

389

The Impact of Electronic Media on Faculty Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the proliferation of computer networks and the increased use of Internet-based applications, many forms of social interactions now take place in an on-line context through "Computer-Mediated Communication" (CMC). Many universities are now reaping the benefits of using CMC applications to collect data on student evaluations of faculty, rather…

Barkhi, Reza; Williams, Paul

2010-01-01

390

The Contribution of Sports to Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In both subtle and explicit ways, women face many barriers to participating in sports, which prevent women and girls from reaping the many benefits that can be gained from playing sports and engaging in physical activity. Around the world, women encounter discrimination and stereotyping. Women athletes receive lower levels of media coverage, and are subjected to sexist and derogatory language

Allison Huggins; Shirley Randell

391

Friend or foe? A behavioral and stable isotopic investigation of an ant–plant symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ant–plant symbioses, the behavior of ant inhabitants affects the nature of the interaction, ranging from mutualism to parasitism. Mutualistic species confer a benefit to the plant, while parasites reap the benefits of the interaction without reciprocating, potentially resulting in a negative impact on the host plant. Using the ant–plant symbiosis between Cordia alliodora and its ant inhabitants as a

Chadwick V. Tillberg

2004-01-01

392

EFFECTIVELY Set, Achieve and Maintain  

E-print Network

people desire to improve their health and reap the benefits of healthy living. Unfortunately, making the benefits of healthy living. Get informed. Learn about the fantastic benefits associated with adopting the stages towards readiness to change by learning more about the benefits of healthy living and by giving

Doedel, Eusebius

393

Democratic Citizenship and Information Technology: Promises, Challenges, and Remedies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the relationship between democratic citizenship and information technology. Modern information technology disputes the idea that citizens can be properly educated to assume the burdens necessary to reap the blessing of freedom. Information technologies challenge the ability of citizens to fulfill the fundamental requirement of…

White, Charles S.

394

CelebratingCelebrating Dear Friends,  

E-print Network

and has grown to a multi-million dollar research organization with over 120 employ- ees nationwide. Today management programs for specialty crops. As a result, the general public reaps enormous benefits from IR-4's How IR-4 Helps the Public... research contributes to a safe, high quality food supply $7.2 Billion

395

Book Clubs: Not Just for Public Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

While recreational reading is often seen as the purview of public libraries, academic libraries can also reap the benefits of hosting book clubs. This article discusses the steps the St. Catherine University library took to create a book club on campus. The article includes an overview of the St. Catherine University's book club, the benefits of hosting a book club,

Anika Fajardo

2010-01-01

396

Object-oriented Dynamics Modeling for Legged Robot Trajectory Optimization and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

ó This paper discusses the development and applica- tion of object-oriented modeling and implementation techniques to achieve a representation of the mechanical model amenable to the various requirements by legged robot applications. This leads to a uniform, modular, and exible code generation while reaping the performance of efcient domain-specic articulated body algorithms. Trajectory optimization problems of bipedal and quadrupedal robots

Robert Hpler; Maximilian Stelzer; Oskar von Stryk

2004-01-01

397

Inefficiencies in markets for intellectual property rights: experiences of academic and public research institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formal use of such intellectual property rights (IPR) as patents and registered copyright by universities has increased steadily in the last two decades. Mainstream arguments, embedded in economic theory and policy, advocating the use of IPR to protect academic research results are based on the view that IPR marketplaces work well and allow universities to reap significant benefits. However,

Birgitte Andersen; Federica Rossi

2012-01-01

398

A Positive Explanation of EU Enlargement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of international unions suggest that large and rich countries reap little economic benefits from political integration with smaller and poorer countries. This paper challenges this view by presenting a formal study of economic influence by special interest groups in an international union. We first show that countries where more groups are organized to lobby gain from political integration on

Daniel Brou; Michele Ruta

2004-01-01

399

Basically Unheard: Developmental Writers and the Conversation on Online Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online learning, according to a recent Department of Education meta-analysis (Means et al. 2009), is equal to and sometimes better than traditional face-to-face instruction, while hybrid education is best of all. Students seem eager to reap those online benefits; the March 2009 "Digest of Education Statistics" reports that the U.S. college with…

Stine, Linda

2010-01-01

400

Michael Heilman and Maxine Eskenazi Language Technologies Institute  

E-print Network

://reap.cs.cmu.edu #12;Intelligent Tutoring System for ESL Vocabulary Practice. Provides authentic reading passages. #12;Students work through an individualized series of readings. Target words are highlighted set of words that the student most needs to learn. Need to provide readings for effective practice

Eskenazi, Maxine

401

10 ways to improve healthcare cost management.  

PubMed

As a healthcare CFO, you know that effective financial control has enormous impact on a hospital's bottom line. But how do you maintain that financial control? Well, a few simple improvements in cost management techniques-assigning accountability, adopting useful monitoring and reporting methods, and reducing resource consumption, among others--can reap significant benefits. PMID:15372813

Berger, Steven H

2004-08-01

402

Data mining on time series: an illustration using fast-food restaurant franchise data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the widespread use of modern information technology, a large number of time series may be collected during normal business operations. We use a fast-food restaurant franchise as a case to illustrate how data mining can be applied to such time series, and help the franchise reap the benefits of such an effort. Time series data mining at both the

Lon-Mu Liu; Siddhartha Bhattacharyya; Rong Chen; William J. Lattyak

2001-01-01

403

Developing Ecological Site Kirt Walstad  

E-print Network

is currently at · Development of Montana's Key ­ Structure ­ Process · Other Tools for Development and SiteSlope Elevation Landscape #12;Effective Precipitation Climate Wetting and Drying Cycles Freeze Thaw Cycles ·FFD #12;Relative Effective Annual Precipitation · REAP is derived from actual rain gauge precipitation

404

98 Ways to Balance Your Budget.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In education, competition and devolution are two dominant forces driving schools to become leaner, faster, smarter, and more viable institutions. This article presents 98 ideas for helping administrators raise funds and reap cost savings on employee salaries, facilities, financial management, food service, maintenance, purchasing, scheduling,…

Nagel, Michael E.; Wood, Venita M.

1997-01-01

405

This is an author-deposited version published in: http://oatao.univ-toulouse.fr/ Eprints ID: 5678  

E-print Network

catalysts of the electro- chemical reduction of oxygen. Based on their genomic analysis, seven bacterial required for oxygen reduction to water is a major impediment to the development of economically effi- cient platinum catalysts, but it reap- pears dramatically for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) because they function

Mailhes, Corinne

406

Effective Assessment in a Digital Age JISC video transcripts: University of Strathclyde.  

E-print Network

University of Strathclyde Exterior cityscape shot of Glasgow. Screen shots of Reap Project website. Shots across 3 Glasgow universities. This 2-year project was led by David Nicol from the University of Strathclyde. PROFESSOR DAVID NICOL, PROFESSOR OF HIGHER EDUCATION Interview shot of David Nicol. Screen shots

Azzopardi, Leif

407

Options for Improving the Military Child Care System. Occasional Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evidence presented in this paper questions whether the current U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) system of in-kind subsidies for child care is meeting DoD recruitment, readiness, and retention goals or service member needs in an optimal way. DoD appears to be reaping limited benefits from the substantial subsidies provided to families that use…

Zellman, Gail; Gates, Susan M.; Cho, Michelle; Shaw, Rebecca

2008-01-01

408

Options for Improving the Military Child Care System. Occasional Paper Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document summarizes a report that questions whether the current U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) system of in-kind subsidies for child care is meeting DoD recruitment, readiness, and retention goals or service member needs in an optimal way. DoD appears to be reaping limited benefits from the substantial subsidies provided to families that…

Zellman, Gail L.; Gates, Susan M.; Cho, Michelle; Shaw, Rebecca

2008-01-01

409

"Kidney Health" Deaf Health Talks  

E-print Network

"Kidney Health" Deaf Health Talks September 22, 2010 #12;Supporters Deaf Health Community Committee Recreation Club for the Deaf ("REAP") #12;Overview What do kidneys do for us? What are common causes for kidney failure? What are common causes for kidney stones? How can we protect our kidneys? #12;Quiz How

Goldman, Steven A.

410

Department of Veterans Affairs  

E-print Network

Department of Veterans Affairs APPLICATION FOR VA EDUCATION BENEFITS (VA FORM 22-1990) Use Assistance Program (REAP) chapter 1607 of title 10, U.S. Code · Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Program (VEAP) program on or before October 9, 1996, or you firs

Qiu, Weigang

411

Peacebuilding theory and the United Nations Peacebuilding Commission: implications for non-UN interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extensive experience of the United Nations in peacekeeping and peacebuilding is beginning to reap rewards in terms of lessons learned and improved peacebuilding practice. Evolving peacebuilding theory and ideas about best practice to promote sustainable peacebuilding have been boosted by the creation of the UN Peacebuilding Commission (PBC). This paper reviews sustainable peacebuilding theory and the potential contribution of

Wendy Lambourne; Annie Herro

2008-01-01

412

Best Practices for Managing Organizational Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organizations with increasingly diverse workforces and customer populations face challenges in reaping diversity's benefits while managing its potentially disruptive effects. This article defines workplace diversity and identifies best practices supporting planned and positive diversity management. It explores how academic libraries can apply…

Kreitz, Patricia A.

2008-01-01

413

Ensuring Security and Trust in Electronic Communication: Towards A European Framework for Digital Signatures And Encryption  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This European Commission European Internet Forum Policy Paper addresses the need for "a secure and trustworthy environment" in order to reap the benefits of the "commercial opportunities [for] electronic communication via open networks." The document contains major sections on digital signatures, encryption, and policy, as well as explanatory annexes on such topics as signature, encryption, key escrow, and relevant European Commission policy initiatives.

414

The Virtual University: A Corporate Perspective on Learning at Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "The Knowledge Harvest: Ensuring You Reap What You Sow" (Christie, Sandelands); "Credit Mapping: Validating Work-Based Training Using Action Learning Outcomes" (Wills); "Customer Orientation and Motivation: The Key to Effective Learning Organisations" (Prestoungrange); "Barriers to Entry: Implications for Private Finance Initiatives in…

Prestoungrange, Gordon, Ed.; Sandelands, Eric, Ed.; Teare, Richard, Ed.

2000-01-01

415

Social Inclusion and Reading: An Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading for pleasure is associated with numerous educational and social benefits. For example, it has been associated with increased reading attainment and writing ability, greater breadth of vocabulary and greater general knowledge (e.g. Cox and Guthrie, 2001). Children who read very little do not reap these benefits, and studies show that when…

Clark, Christina; Akerman, Rodie

2006-01-01

416

Revue de presse ANGLAIS Semaine du 06 au 12 juin 2011  

E-print Network

, but are they making any difference? World Faith in the arab spring (by Bruce Feiler): Headlines about Muslim together. Viewpoint Cherchez les Femmes (by Judith Warner): Has the women's movement in France finallyVille (By Naomi Alderman) : Aimed at older women and 'casual gamers', FarmVille has reaped a bumper crop

Rennes, Université de

417

Converting 15-Minute Interval Electricity Load Data into Reduced Demand, Energy Reduction and Cash Flow  

E-print Network

Whole-building-electric (WBE) 15-minute interval data is an extremely low-cost, easy approach to reap an immediate reduction in energy consumption. With the advance of lower cost Internet based metering technology integrated with TCP/IP Internet...

Herrin, D. G.

418

TOPIC  

Cancer.gov

REAPS (Rapid Eating Assessment for Participants - Shortened Version) CJSegal-Isaacson, EdD RD, Judy-Wylie-Rosett, EdD RD, Kim Gans, PhD, MPH In an average week, how often do you: Usually/ Often Sometimes Rarely/ Never Does not apply to me

419

ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN ELECTRONIC GOVERNANCE PLANNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of Internet technology is changing the way people live, communicate, and work. What is the impact of the technology in the functioning of the government? Around the world, governments started utilizing the potential of the technology to deliver online information and services to citizens. To reap the benefits of e -governance, issues on technology, management of change related

B. Ramadoss

420

BUSINESS PROFITABILITY vs. SOCIAL PROFITABILITY: EVALUATING THE SOCIAL CONTRIBUTION OF INDUSTRIES WITH EXTERNALITIES, THE CASE OF THE CASINO INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Casino gambling is a social issue, because in addition to the direct benets to those who own and use casinos, positive and negative externalities are reaped and borne by those who do not gamble. To correctly assess the total economic impact of casinos, one must distinguish between business protability and social protability. This paper provides the most comprehensive framework for

Earl L. Grinols; David B. Mustard

421

Professional energy audit points way to $100,000 annual saving.  

PubMed

St. Mary's Hospital, Troy, NY, as part of a general budget-trimming effort, had a professional energy audit conducted. The hospital's management expect to reap both short-and long-term energy and cost savings for the hospital and recommend such an audit by trained professionals. PMID:649135

Bradley, J A; Janco, J W

1978-06-01

422

OU Veterans Association (OU-VA) Student Handbook / Educational Benefits  

E-print Network

& Selected Reserve MGIB (CH 1606) #12;o Reserve Educational Assistance Program (CH 1607 ­ REAP) o Post 9/11 (CH 33) o Post 9/11 (CH 33/Transfer of Entitlement) is a two-step process: STEP 1 ­ Approval must

Oklahoma, University of

423

05-07 \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we argue that advocates for new U.S. agricultural trade policies should consider refocusing their campaigns on the corporate livestock sector rather than farmers. There is little evidence that farmers as a group are reaping significant gains from current U.S. agricultural subsidy programs, even though they are the direct recipients. Low prices and high costs have left farmers

Timothy A. Wise

424

This list includes a sampling of volunteer opportunities and organizations working in the field of agriculture. These opportunities may be suitable for students majoring or interested in these areas.  

E-print Network

sustainable agriculture practices, preserve the diversity and safety of our food supply and address the food of agriculture. These opportunities may be suitable for students majoring or interested in these areas. You can a regional food system that is healthful, just, and both environmentally and economically sustainable. REAP

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

425

TRANSMISSION EFFECTS IN MARKET POWER ANALYSIS OF ELECTRICITY MARKETS  

E-print Network

the benefits of lower prices and innovation that competition can provide. Such benefits are not attainable when a player utilizing the electric transmission system may exercise such market power. This paper describers of this restructuring is to reap the benefits of lower prices and innovation resulting from the establishment

Gross, George

426

Treating Type 2 Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... chronic illnesses, like cancer. In addition to all of these benefits, exercise can help kids with diabetes: keep blood lipids ... t have to be athletic to reap the benefits of physical activity. Things like walking the dog, helping around the ... Problems During Exercise To help avoid problems during exercise, kids with ...

427

Taking a Holistic Approach to Sustainability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The benefits of sustainability go way beyond improving the environment. School districts that choose to build facilities using sustainable principles reap the benefits of environmentally friendly, healthy establishments; attractive work spaces (which improve recruiting and retention); and significant operational cost savings. Districts realize…

Girouard, Miles

2011-01-01

428

What Really Counts When Hospitals Adopt a Marketing Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence continues to accumulate which supports marketing's contribution to hospital performance. When hospitals do adopt a marketing orientation they reap the benefits of higher occupancy rates and revenues. The study advances our understanding of the relationship between marketing orientation and hospital performance by investigating the specific contribution of each component of marketing orientation. Results indicate that hospitals should develop a

Bruce Wrenn

1996-01-01

429

MEDIA RELEASE 16 December 2010  

E-print Network

capital investment of wind farms, BC is not reaping the economic benefits it could, the report says and cleantech sector means such policies are likely to face increased legal challenges, and BC is now too far Meyer, PICS Senior Communications Officer: Tel: 250-588-4053 or rmeyer@uvic.ca #12;

Pedersen, Tom

430

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON EDUCATION, VOL. 42, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 1999 247 Information Technology Enhanced Learning in  

E-print Network

to their students. There is no doubt that nothing will replace synchronous learning through face to face interaction, provides the best quality of education because of the almost unbounded modes of communication S 0018-9359(99)09009-3. demanding schedules are forcing more and more students to reap the benefits

Latchman, Haniph A.

431

Energy-Efficiency of Cooperative Sensing Schemes in Ad hoc WLAN Cognitive Radios  

E-print Network

with and overcome this issue. The spectrum measurements taken by BWRC and the shared spectrum company clearly show Email:{rssyeda, vinod.namboodiri}@wichita.edu Abstract In cognitive radio networks, the secondary users need to coordinate among themselves to reap the benefits of cooperative spectrum sensing. In this paper

Namboodiri, Vinod

432

Tools for Teaching Content Literacy. [Flipchart  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading and writing across content areas is emphasized in the standards and on high-stakes tests at the state and national level. As educators seek to incorporate content-area literacy into their teaching, they confront a maze of theories, instructional strategies, and acronyms like REAP and RAFT. Teachers who do work their way through the myriad…

Allen, Janet

2004-01-01

433

The Virtual Learning Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since there is a real possibility that online courses will become the dominant informational platforms of the future universities need to address a range of issues from design and quality through to ethics and economics to ensure that the all-round investment required reaps positive outcomes. This paper addresses some of the issues that have…

Westbrook, Vivienne

2006-01-01

434

Hamilton, James Archibald (1748-1815)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irish astronomer, born in Athlone, on the recommendation of NEVIL MASKELYNE became first director of Armagh Observatory, where he supervised the erection of the equatorial telescope by EDWARD TROUGHTON. The benefits of his efforts were reaped in science not by himself but by the third director of Armagh Observatory ROMNEY ROBINSON....

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

435

A Dynamic Mixture Model to Detect Student Motivation and Proficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmotivated students do not reap the full rewards of using a computer-based intelligent tutoring system. De- tection of improper behavior is thus an important com- ponent of an online student model. To meet this chal- lenge, we present a dynamic mixture model based on Item Response Theory. This model, which simultane- ously estimates a student's proficiency and changing motivation level,

Jeffrey Johns; Beverly Park Woolf

2006-01-01

436

Role-Playing Games and Simulations for International Issues Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes criteria that instructors should be sensitive to when evaluating simulations or role-plays for use in international/comparative politics courses. The potential benefits and drawbacks to these interactive exercises are addressed as well as the special circumstances that must be taken into consideration to reap the full promise…

Wheeler, Sarah M.

2006-01-01

437

Economics of Scholarly Publishing: Exploring the Causes of Subscription Price Variations of Scholarly Journals in Business Subject-Specific Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This empirical research investigates subscription price variations of scholarly journals in five business subject-specific areas using the semilogarithmic regression model. It has two main purposes. The first is to address the unsettled debate over whether or not and to what extent commercial publishers reap monopoly profits by overcharging…

Liu, Lewis G.

2011-01-01

438

Effectiveness of Online Instruction: Differences in Measured Student Outcomes Online versus Face-to-Face Instruction at the High School Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been an exponential growth in online courses offered at the high school level but little evidence as to whether they are as effective as face-to-face courses. It has become critical to understand and evaluate the effectiveness of online education in order to reap the benefits and reduce the drawbacks of contrasting learning modes. The…

Langenhorst, Don G.

2012-01-01

439

Task Groups in the School Setting: Promoting Children's Social and Emotional Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through social and emotional learning (SEL), individuals develop skill in negotiating relationships successfully and expressing emotions appropriately. The socially and emotionally intelligent child reaps benefits in school and later life. Counselors are best qualified to promote children's SEL and the task group in the classroom provides an…

Van Velsor, Patricia

2009-01-01

440

Beyond the resource curse? Diamond mining, development and post-conflict reconstruction in Sierra Leone  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the so-called ‘resource curse’ syndrome has gained increasing currency. Growing evidence suggests that many African countries with significant natural wealth have actually reaped limited rewards, instead experiencing underdevelopment, corruption, political instability, and in some cases, violent conflict. In the small West African state of Sierra Leone, it has been suggested that diamonds played a key role in

Roy Maconachie; Tony Binns

2007-01-01

441

Boston Globe Horoscope for 19 September 2011 8. Put money into property or another long-term investment. Call in a favor if it will help you  

E-print Network

and you'll make an impression. Love is in the stars, and socializing will reap rewards. 4 stars 7 it for granted. Physical health should be highlighted. Children and seniors will have an impact on your future. Make a promise to follow through and you will find success. Love is in the stars. 5 stars #12;

Lowenthal, James D.

442

Passive solar energy in buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing commercial, institutional and domestic buildings so that they reap the benefits of freely available solar energy, is explored fully. People have been orientating buildings to make use of sunlight since they first began to live in permanent dwellings. New techniques are now available for employing passive solar energy in the home. On a bigger scale, these and other techniques

1988-01-01

443

Leading a technical organization through change: A focus on the key drivers affecting communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the key factors within communication which facilitates the change process in a technical organization, thereby allowing the organization to reap the true benefits of the change. The results aim at improving the efficiency of roll-out by ensuring that the correct aspects of communication are adequately addressed during the change process. The research

T. Ramkhelawan; M. L. Barry

2010-01-01

444

Iowa State University: Live Green Revolving Loan Fund. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The $3 million Live Green Revolving Loan Fund (LGRLF) at Iowa State University (ISU) was launched in 2008. The LGRLF is unique in its decentralized implementation structure which allows each department and building to reap the benefits of their own efficiency measures and gives individual departments the incentive to propose resource-saving…

Billingsley, Christina

2011-01-01

445

States' Budgets Reflect Rising Tax Collections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many state budgets are reaping the benefits of tax revenues that are rising faster than at any time since the economic slowdown ended. Overall tax collections by states rose by 11.7 percent in the first quarter of 2005, giving the legislatures extra cash to shore up school aid, increase teacher pay, and finance new initiatives such as full-day…

Hoff, David J.

2005-01-01

446

Economic and Environmental Repair in the Shadow of Superfund: Local Government Leadership in Building Strategic Partnerships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly rigorous U.S. environmental policy is forcing the convergence of economic and environmental concerns with the intent of internalizing the costs of environmental protection and repair Unfortunately, the costs associated with the generic application of national environmental policy often exceed benefits reaped in environmental repair This article examines the intent and dysfunction of Superfund—Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act

Mark Glaser

1994-01-01

447

Children's Art Show: An Educational Family Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a time of seemingly rampant budget cuts in the arts in school systems throughout the country, a children's art show reaps many rewards. It can strengthen family-school relationships and community ties and stimulate questions and comments about the benefits of art and its significance in the development of young children. In this photo essay of…

Bakerlis, Julienne

2007-01-01

448

"Skin Cancer-What to Look For" Rochester Recreation  

E-print Network

"Skin Cancer- What to Look For" Rochester Recreation Club for the Deaf May 20, 2010 #12;Supporters for the Deaf ("REAP") #12;Overview Skin Overview What is skin cancer? Who is at risk? How common is skin cancer? Signs of skin cancer Prevention Treatments #12;Skin Overview Skin is the largest organ in your body

Goldman, Steven A.

449

Making 1+1=1. The Central Role of Identity in Merger Math  

E-print Network

that psychological synergies (1+1=1) are required to reap the financial benefits of mergers and acquisitions and acquisitions hal-00707595,version1-13Jun2012 #12;1 Making 1+1 = 1 The Central Role of Identity in Merger Math and for employees. What happens when the two organizations actually confront the challenge of post-merger

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

450

A Plan to Implement a Pre-Military Development Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides technical and practical assistance to teams of professionals who are interested in replicating a premilitary program. The stated purpose for the program is to help prepare young men and women to become qualified for military recruitment so they might reap the benefits provided by the military as well as civilian opportunities.…

Cotton, Gail, Ed.; Mannino, Lewie, Ed.

451

IBM Human Ability and Accessibility Center Executive brief  

E-print Network

IBM Human Ability and Accessibility Center Executive brief Reaping the business advantages for innovative ways to differentiate themselves from the competition. Innovation occurs at the intersection approaches to solve problems. Accessibility is one area where you can harness insight into what makes your

452

Hybrid Genetic Algorithms: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid genetic algorithms have received significant interest in recent years and are being increasingly used to solve real-world problems. A genetic algorithm is able to incorporate other techniques within its framework to produce a hybrid that reaps the best from the combination. In this paper, different forms of integration between genetic algorithms and other search and optimization techniques are reviewed.

Tarek A. El-mihoub; Adrian A. Hopgood; Lars Nolle; Alan Battersby

2006-01-01

453

INTRODUCTION ossil fuels help drive the world  

E-print Network

44 INTRODUCTION F ossil fuels help drive the world economy because they are abundant and relatively Capture and Storage (CCS) is the only technology available to drastically reduce CO2 emissions from fossil fuels that also allows the world to continue to reap their benefits without the negative impacts

454

OSU Human Resources, 106 Whitehurst, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 -(405) 744-5373 http://hr.okstate.edu July 2009 What's Inside  

E-print Network

interview. What can we do to prevent these people from reap- plying to University positions? Answer question why and use that refusal in your decision not to hire. At OSU if a person is terminated for cause) forms using the Online EA appli- cation. The Online EA application is a web-based application designed

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

455

Dear Editor, With the news just released that Reed Elsevier's acquisition of the Harcourt  

E-print Network

for scientists and libraries. I would like to give you some insight into how we will do this. The combined of a presentation I made earlier this year, which should give you a flavour of our current thinking on how we can move forward to reap the full benefits of electronic publishing. I would like to thank you for your

Stein, William

456

SPECIAL INTERESTS AND FINANCIAL LIBERALIZATION: THE CASE OF MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Financial liberalization is often believed to enhance economic growth. Yet in many cases a few powerful incumbents seem to capture most of the gains from the reform. In this paper, I construct a model with endogenous formation of special interest groups that could reap most of the benefits of financial liberalization. In particular, these groups lobby to limit entry by

SERGEY V. MITYAKOV

2011-01-01

457

Calculating High School Graduation Rates. Education Policy Brief. Volume 6, Number 5, Spring 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports consistently demonstrate that the attainment of a high school diploma is not simply of value to the individual student, but that the benefit of a high school diploma is reaped by the graduate's community as well. Most educators readily acknowledge the importance of dropout prevention and the significance of a high school diploma. A…

Stanley, Kylie R.; Spradlin, Terry E.; Plucker, Jonathan A.

2008-01-01

458

Service Learning and Simulations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both service learning and simulations have been shown to positively impact student outcomes, but they are not often used together. This article examines how to effectively combine these active learning styles to reap the benefits of both. After examining a case in which the two were combined and the impact this approach had on student evaluations…

Jenkins, Shannon

2010-01-01

459

The Impact of Physical Education on Student Outcomes: A Review of Research in Economics, Education, Kinesiology, and Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature from a variety of fields indicates that Physical Education classes can have a positive impact on students? educational outcomes. Kinesiology and health related publications indicate that individuals who engage in regular, vigorous exercise reap myriad health benefits, including a decreased risk of contracting chronic diseases. The benefits of exercise are particularly noteworthy for school age children, many of whom

Alexander LaRose

2011-01-01

460

Benefits of coextruded micro tubing.  

PubMed

Coextruded tubing products offer additional functions through multiple material combinations and facilitate secondary assembly processes. This article presents four applications in which coextruded micro tubings have solved problems and reaped significant advantages: infusion therapy, regional anaesthesia, micro dialysis and parenteral feeding. PMID:19626950

Ziembinski, R

2009-01-01

461

Return on Investment in Training. Myths and Realities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in the economy and declining profit margins are prompting many businesses to question the value of their training investments. Companies that had been operating under the assumption that they were reaping positive benefits from their training efforts are asking their human resource managers to provide proof that their training programs are…

Brown, Bettina Lankard

462

Action or Reaction!: Reflecting on Sally Lubeck's Wisdom to Reinvent the Field of Early Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to this author, the field of teaching young children is at a pivotal point in its history. On the one hand, there is an unprecedented attention from policy-makers and funders all keen to reap the proven economic, social and academic outcomes of early childhood for their communities. However, unlike the K-12 system, the provision of early…

Ryan, Sharon

2008-01-01

463

Improving Attendance and Retention in Out-of-School Time Programs. Research-to-Results Practitioner Insights. Publication # 2007-17  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regular participation in out-of-school time activities is associated with benefits for children. However, children cannot reap the benefits of program participation if they do not attend programs in the first place. This brief focuses on ways in which out-of-school time programs can improve the attendance and retention of children and youth in…

Kennedy, Elena; Wilson, Brooke; Valladares, Sherylls; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta

2007-01-01

464

Globalization and Conflict Management: Reflections on the Security Challenges Facing West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monumental human security and developmental tragedies modern Africa embodies are turning the discourse on globalisation into a particularly contentious pursuit; at the same period dominant neo-liberal epistemology is adamant that all parts of the world are poised to reap its fabled, all-round benefits. Instead of renewal and sustainability, globalisation is exacerbating the fault lines among different social groups and

Charles Ukeje

2008-01-01

465

Utilizing Massively Multiplayer Online Games to foster collaboration and learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful integration of traditional learning objectives with elements of entertainment becomes the goal for the design and application of video games used for educational purposes. Oftentimes assumptions are made that students who are not gamers can play video games and reap the pedagogical benefits of gameplay without experiencing a learning curve relative to understanding game objectives. We argue that inexperienced

Yolanda Rankin; Deidra Morrison; Marcus Shute

2009-01-01

466

Making a Place for Bibliotherapy on the Shelves of a Curriculum Materials Center: The Case for Helping Pre-Service Teachers Use Developmental Bibliotherapy in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With developmental bibliotherapy frequently used in schools, this article addresses the necessity of educating future teachers in the proper implementation of bibliotherapy so that their students may reap the benefits and avoid inadvertent harm. The purpose of this article is to discuss the benefits and use of developmental bibliotherapy in the…

Catalano, Amy

2008-01-01

467

The level of information and communication technology use by museums in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent advances in information and communication technology (ICT) have tremendously affected the way teaching and learning (T&L) is delivered in both formal and informal education. For formal education, Malaysia is reaping the benefits of ICT through Smart School project under MSC Malaysia initiatives. For informal education, an initial observation suggests that museums, a critical institution which protects and preserves

J. A. A. Bakar; P. S. J. Kassim; M. Mahmud

2010-01-01

468

Is more information technology better for new product development?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Firms spend considerable amount of money on information technology (IT) to improve their processes, thereby reducing costs, enhancing quality and getting to market faster. Consequently, understanding the effective relationship between the IT department and new product development (NPD) teams can inform whether firms reap the expected benefits from their IT. The purpose of this paper is to provide

Serdar S. Durmusoglu; Roger J. Calantone; V. Sambamurthy

2006-01-01

469

theearthobserver National Aeronautics and Space Administration  

E-print Network

--reaped benefits from ESTO's observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) conducted under the Advanced's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program. Established in 2002 to demonstrate the weather forecasting application of realtime EOS measurements, the SPoRT project has grown into an end

470

University of Edinburgh, Community Strategy  

E-print Network

of Edinburgh, which will have the following benefits­ Facilitate the recruitment and retention of local staff participation) Reap economic benefits (e.g. increased take-up of income generating services such as room hire and Buildings OLL Main Library Business School Centre for Sport and Exercise Physical Education Sport

Edinburgh, University of

471

Science Experiences among Female Athletes: Race Makes a Difference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sport participation is increasingly seen as a resource with considerable physical, social, and academic benefits. As a new millennium begins with girls more visible in sport, an important question is whether all girls reap these benefits. Although general academic benefits of sport have been shown, the authors' earlier work showed that experience in the male sport domain benefits young women

Rebecca S. Kraus; Sandra L. Hanson

2003-01-01

472

Teaching "Beloved": Images of Transcendence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bases the author's approach to the novel in the senior course on imagery and transcendence, investigating how characters live through devastation to find hope. Describes the use of water, tree, and animal imagery. Notes that the students, white and black, burdened by guilt and questions, sometimes read this as a reassurance that you reap what you…

Greenbaum, Vicky

2002-01-01

473

The importance of shelter for butterflies in open landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Britain, much emphasis has been placed on conserving butterfly species in specialized habitats, since this is where most of it‘s threatened butterflies exist, whilst the wider countryside has been largely overlooked. However, there is increasing awareness that small improvements to the dominant landscape could potentially reap huge benefits to the populations of many of Britain‘s butterfly species. Recent studies

J. W. Dover; T. H. Sparks; J. N. Greatorex-Davies

1997-01-01

474

Climate change: impacts and adaptation in England's woodlands  

E-print Network

Climate change: impacts and adaptation in England's woodlands The changing climate presents associated with climate change, and the likely impact on trees, silviculture and forest operations that increase resilience whatever climate change brings, or that are likely to reap the greatest rewards

475

Early adversity and mechanisms of plasticity: Integrating affective neuroscience with developmental approaches to psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in the effects of early adversity on children's development reflects contemporary emphases on early experience in the behavioral sciences and plasticity in the neurosciences. Over the past decade, powerful new tools and approaches for understanding the neural circuitry involved in emotion have become increasingly available. Yet, research in developmental psychopathology has not reaped the full benefits of affective neuroscience

SETH D. POLLAK

2005-01-01

476

Rochester Recreation Club for the Deaf  

E-print Network

failure Diabetes also causes: ­ High blood pressure ­ Nerve damage (neuropathy) *American Diabetes"Diabetes" Rochester Recreation Club for the Deaf January 21, 2010 #12;Supporters Deaf Health ("REAP") #12;Overview What is diabetes? How common is diabetes? Symptoms and signs of diabetes Prevention

Goldman, Steven A.

477

GIS for understanding physical and social change in urban settings: a case from Amman, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data-poor environments, or where data are not routinely collected and\\/or poorly archived, or where public records are not easily accessible understandably create a major obstacle to research and the reaping of the benefits of research for urban policy and urban management. However, in such rather unwelcoming research environments GIS seems to provide enhanced opportunities for maximizing the benefits of whatever

Nabil Abu-Dayyeh; Firas Ziadat

2005-01-01

478

Privacy Recovery with Disposable Email Addresses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposable e-mail address (DEA) services are a privacy recovery mechanism for the growing spam problem. However, this problem is clearly more complex than simply closing DEA; as the rolling e-mail address protocols (