Note: This page contains sample records for the topic siem reap cambodia from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Social and behavioural factors associated with condom use among direct sex workers in Siem Reap, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the social and behavioural factors associated with condom use among direct sex workers in Siem Reap, Cambodia.Methods: Using a structured behavioural questionnaire, interviews were conducted with 140 direct sex workers attending a health centre in Siem Reap for HIV screening.Results: Consistent condom use with their clients was reported by 78% of sex workers compared to only 20%

M L Wong; I Lubek; B C Dy; S Pen; S Kros; M Chhit

2003-01-01

2

Application of integrated magnetic resonance sounding and resistivity methods for borehole implementation. A case study in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geophysical survey was conducted in Cambodia to measure the contribution of geophysics to a running drilling programme. The geology of the area (the province of Siem Reap) mainly consists of recent heterogeneous sediments of sand, silt and clay. The thickness of this formation ranges from 20 to 100 m and lies on Jurassic to Tertiary rocks. Surveys were done

Jean-Michel Vouillamoz; Marc Descloitres; Jean Bernard; Pierre Fourcassier; Laurent Romagny

2002-01-01

3

Integrated Child Health Project - Siem Reap Province, Cambodia October 1, 2004 - September 30, 2008. Mid-Term Evaluation Report October 31, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of the Integrated Child Health Project is to reduce child morbidity and mortality in a sustainable fashion. The project is implemented by the Cambodian Red Cross (CRC) with technical and financial support from the American Red Cross (ARC). The pr...

2006-01-01

4

The enduring mental health impact of mass violence: A community comparison study of Cambodian civilians living in Cambodia and Thailand.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: No population-based studies have directly compared the long-term health and mental health outcomes of conflict- versus non-conflict-affected communities from the same ethnic background. AIMS: To identify and compare levels of psychiatric morbidity between a traumatized and non-traumatized civilian community; to investigate the long-term impact of mass violence. METHODS: Double-stratified community surveys in Siem Reap and Surin provinces were conducted by highly qualified Cambodian interviewers using culturally validated survey instruments with known psychometric properties. These included Cambodian versions of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Medical Outcome Study Short Form. RESULTS: Siem Reap and Surin respondents experienced 12,266 and 621 major trauma events, respectively; 745 (76.2%) Siem Reap respondents and six (0.6%) Surin respondents reported torture events; 499 (49.5%) Siem Reap respondents and 203 (19.7%) Surin respondents met the clinical threshold for depression (OR 4.01, 95% CI 3.29-4.88); 204 (20.6%) Siem Reap respondents and 23 (2.2%) Surin respondents met the clinical threshold for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (OR 11.39, 95% CI 7.3-17.7). The MOS physical disability was higher in Siem Reap versus Surin respondents (74 (7.5%) vs 13 (1.3%), ?2 = 47.4 df = 1, p < .001). Health status was poorest among Siem Reap respondents when compared with Surin respondents (mean score 1.59 vs 0.59, respectively; t = 19.85 df = 2018, p < .001). Path analysis reveals that recent and past extreme violence are associated with the health and mental health status of the Siem Reap community. CONCLUSION: After 25 years, the Khmer civilian population that experienced the Pol Pot genocide continues to suffer psychiatric morbidity and poor health. PMID:23396287

Mollica, Richard F; Brooks, Robert; Tor, Svang; Lopes-Cardozo, Barbara; Silove, Derrick

2013-02-01

5

A Prospective Study of the Causes of Febrile Illness Requiring Hospitalization in Children in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Febrile illnesses are pre-eminent contributors to morbidity and mortality among children in South-East Asia but the causes are poorly understood. We determined the causes of fever in children hospitalised in Siem Reap province, Cambodia. Methods and Findings A one-year prospective study of febrile children admitted to Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and outcome data were comprehensively analysed. Between October 12th 2009 and October 12th 2010 there were 1225 episodes of febrile illness in 1180 children. Median (IQR) age was 2.0 (0.8–6.4) years, with 850 (69%) episodes in children <5 years. Common microbiological diagnoses were dengue virus (16.2%), scrub typhus (7.8%), and Japanese encephalitis virus (5.8%). 76 (6.3%) episodes had culture-proven bloodstream infection, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (22 isolates, 1.8%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (13, 1.1%), Escherichia coli (8, 0.7%), Haemophilus influenzae (7, 0.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (6, 0.5%) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (6, 0.5%). There were 69 deaths (5.6%), including those due to clinically diagnosed pneumonia (19), dengue virus (5), and melioidosis (4). 10 of 69 (14.5%) deaths were associated with culture-proven bloodstream infection in logistic regression analyses (odds ratio for mortality 3.4, 95% CI 1.6–6.9). Antimicrobial resistance was prevalent, particularly in S. enterica Typhi, (where 90% of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and 86% were multi-drug resistant). Comorbid undernutrition was present in 44% of episodes and a major risk factor for acute mortality (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1–4.2), as were HIV infection and cardiac disease. Conclusion We identified a microbiological cause of fever in almost 50% of episodes in this large study of community-acquired febrile illness in hospitalized children in Cambodia. The range of pathogens, antimicrobial susceptibility, and co-morbidities associated with mortality described will be of use in the development of rational guidelines for infectious disease treatment and control in Cambodia and South-East Asia.

Chheng, Kheng; Carter, Michael J.; Emary, Kate; Chanpheaktra, Ngoun; Moore, Catrin E.; Stoesser, Nicole; Putchhat, Hor; Sona, Soeng; Reaksmey, Sin; Kitsutani, Paul; Sar, Borann; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Uyen, Nguyen Hanh; Van Tan, Le; Paris, Daniel; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Amornchai, Premjit; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Parry, Christopher M.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Kumar, Varun

2013-01-01

6

Pediatric suppurative parotitis in Cambodia between 2007 and 2011.  

PubMed

The causes of suppurative parotitis in Cambodian children are not known. We describe 39 cases at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, between January 2007 and July 2011 (0.07/1000 hospital attendances). The median age was 5.7 years with no neonates affected. Burkholderia pseudomallei was cultured in 29 (74%) cases. No deaths occurred; 1 child developed facial nerve palsy. PMID:22531239

Stoesser, Nicole; Pocock, Joanna; Moore, Catrin E; Soeng, Sona; Chhat, Hor P; Sar, Poda; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Day, Nicholas; Thy, Vann; Sar, Vuthy; Parry, Christopher M

2012-08-01

7

Pediatric Suppurative Parotitis in Cambodia 2007-2011  

PubMed Central

The causes of suppurative parotitis in Cambodian children are not known. We describe 39 cases at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap between January 2007 and July 2011 (0.07/1000 hospital attendances). The median age was 5.7 years with no neonates affected. B. pseudomallei was cultured in 29 (74%) cases. No deaths occurred; one child developed a facial nerve palsy.

Stoesser, Nicole; Pocock, Joanna; Moore, Catrin Elisabeth; Soeng, Sona; Chhat, Hor Put; Sar, Poda; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Day, Nicholas; Thy, Vann; Sar, Vuthy; Parry, Christopher M.

2012-01-01

8

MECHANICAL TESTING OF EPON SU-8 WITH SIEM  

SciTech Connect

High aspect ratio structures are often present in MEMS devices and EPON SU-8 is often used to produce such structures because of its low cost. It is essential to know the mechanical properties of SU-8 for producing reliable MEMS products. However, the mechanical properties of SU-8 may depend on the manufacturing process and the size of the structure, which is in the micron domain. Hence, one needs to test specimens that are similar in size to MEMS structures to determine if the mechanical properties change with processing protocol. In this work, the authors applied the newly developed technique SIEM (Speckle Interferometry with Electron Microscopy) to the determination of SU-8's mechanical properties.

CHANG,S.; WARREN,J.; CHIANG,F.P.

2000-06-08

9

Education in Cambodia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analyzes future education policy and strategic priorities in Cambodia for the new millennium, taking account of the labor market and the fiscal and institutional development outlooks. Also explored are access to education, gender issues, and financial aspects. Discusses some education efficiency issues and discusses their implications for public…

Journal of Southeast Asian Education, 2000

2000-01-01

10

Echoes of Ancient Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author of this article chose Cambodia's Angkor temples as a jumping-off point for her students' exploration of printmaking. This article describes a lesson in which students used subjects, themes, and symbols that demonstrate knowledge of contexts, values, and aesthetics that communicate intended meaning in artworks.|

Feiring, Nancy Click

2004-01-01

11

Education in Cambodia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes future education policy and strategic priorities in Cambodia for the new millennium, taking account of the labor market and the fiscal and institutional development outlooks. Also explored are access to education, gender issues, and financial aspects. Discusses some education efficiency issues and discusses their implications for public…

Journal of Southeast Asian Education, 2000

2000-01-01

12

Echoes of Ancient Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author of this article chose Cambodia's Angkor temples as a jumping-off point for her students' exploration of printmaking. This article describes a lesson in which students used subjects, themes, and symbols that demonstrate knowledge of contexts, values, and aesthetics that communicate intended meaning in artworks.

Feiring, Nancy Click

2004-01-01

13

Keeping the peace in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

UN Peacekeeping in Cambodia: UNTAC's Civil Mandate. by Michael W. Doyle. Boulder, CO, and London: Lynne Rienner for International Peace Academy, 1995. 117pp. £8.95.Cambodia's New Deal. by William Shawcross. Washington DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1994. 106pp. $9.95.The United Nations and Cambodia 1991–1995. New York: United Nations Department of Public Information, 1995. 352pp. £22.00.

Michael C. Williams

1996-01-01

14

Country watch: Cambodia.  

PubMed

Based on the results of a study on sexuality among young people in Cambodia, a series of interactive teaching video packages that model real-life situations are being developed by the UN International Children's Emergency Fund. It is noted that the videos can be used to facilitate group discussions on issues such as problem identification, problem solving, assessment of personal risk for HIV infection, and how to reduce HIV infection risks in situations similar to those in the videos. Each video package tells the story of problem situations and model behavior options, and provides a facilitator guide that includes suggested discussion questions. These videos include ¿Snooker Game¿, ¿At the Brothel¿, ¿The Quiet Place¿, ¿The Vulnerable Housewife¿, and ¿The Drinking Scene¿. Meanwhile, the field-tested interactive teaching videos have been indicated as extremely popular among Cambodian young people, teachers, teacher trainers, school administrators, community leaders, and nongovernmental organization community workers. However, important concerns have also been raised about the risks of focusing on real-life social norms and attitudes in Cambodia. PMID:12294335

Mielke, J

1998-01-01

15

Cambodia and Southeast Asian Regionalism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study is presented of aspects of Cambodian foreign policy to discern factors impinging on Cambodian participation in regional cooperation efforts in Southeast Asia--particularly in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Cambodia's reliance ...

B. K. Gordon A. V. Cyr

1969-01-01

16

Cambodia and Southeast Asian Regionalism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study has been made of aspects of Cambodian foreign policy to discern factors impinging on Cambodian participation in regional cooperation efforts in Southeast Asia--particularly in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Cambodia's reliance...

B. K. Gordon A. V. Cyr

1969-01-01

17

Rabies Situation in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Rabies, a fatal but preventable zoonosis, is a major public health problem in developing countries. In Cambodia the disease burden is largely underestimated because patients with encephalitis following dog bites are rarely hospitalized and die at home. Since 1998 Institut Pasteur in Cambodia (IPC), Phnom Penh has been the only source of free post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and post-mortem diagnosis. Methods The 1998–2007 data compiled by IPC was analyzed to describe all treated patients for PEP, results of human testing and confirmed rabies cases, and results of animal testing. From dog bites' characteristics, we defined a suspected rabid dog bite injury (SRDBI) in humans as a bite that was unprovoked, from a dog that died spontaneously, or from a dog that was reported sick. We applied a deterministic probability model to estimate 2007 rabies human mortality nationwide from the estimated incidence of rabid dog bites, the body distribution of bite wounds, and the probability of PEP access. Results During 1998–2007, 124,749 patients received PEP at IPC (average 12,470; range 8,907–14,475), and 63 fatal human cases presenting with encephalitis following a dog bite were reported, in which 73% were confirmed positive for rabies by direct immunofluorescence assay or by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. During 1998–2007, IPC tested 1,255 animal brain samples; 1,214 (97%) were from dogs including 610 (49%) positive samples. In 2007, 14,475 patients received PEP (100 PEP/100,000 people in Cambodia) including 95% who resided in Phnom Penh (615 PEP/100,000) or five neighboring provinces. The predictive model estimated 810 human rabies deaths would occur in 2007 (95%confidence interval [CI] 394–1,607), an incidence of 5.8/100,000 (95% CI 2.8–11.5). Conclusions Access to PEP is only sufficient for Phnom Penh residents. In 2007, the estimated rabies related mortality exceeded that of malaria and that of dengue. A national rabies control program is needed to improve surveillance and access to PEP, and to initiate vaccination campaigns in dogs.

Ly, Sowath; Buchy, Philippe; Heng, Nay Yim; Ong, Sivuth; Chhor, Nareth; Bourhy, Herve; Vong, Sirenda

2009-01-01

18

iREAP: Improving Reading, Writing, and Thinking in the Wired Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that the REAP system (Read, Encode, Annotate, Ponder) improves reading, writing, and thinking. Describes how the "i" in iREAP represents its currency and connection to Internet community building. Presents applications to help students internalize REAP "spectrum thinking," or thinking from different perspectives, so that it becomes a habit…

Manzo, Anthony; Manzo, Ula; Albee, Julie Jackson

2002-01-01

19

Burden of stroke in Cambodia.  

PubMed

In Cambodia, stroke is not ranked among the top 10 leading causes of death, but infectious disease are among the top three leading causes of death. This finding could be attributed to a lack of awareness among Cambodians of the signs and symptoms of stroke or to poor reporting, incomplete data, lack of neurologists and neurosurgeons, or low accessibility to the hospitals. The only study of stroke in Cambodia is the Prevalence of Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors in Cambodia survey, which identified several stroke-related risk factors in the population. Tobacco chewing or smoking is the main risk factor for stroke in Cambodia. Traditional therapies, such as oyt pleung (moxibustion) and jup (cupping), are widely practiced for stroke rehabilitation. In Cambodia, there are few neurologists and few important equipment, such as magnetic resonance imaging machines and computed tomography scanners. The Cambodian government should cooperate with the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund to attract foreign expertise and technologies to treat stroke patients. PMID:22973861

Loo, Keat Wei; Gan, Siew Hua

2012-09-13

20

Focus on women in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Dr. Mam Bunheng, Undersecretary of State for Health, Cambodia, provided an overview of the health situation of women and children in Cambodia during a visit to JOICFP on December 8. He also expressed his country's desire to seek collaboration with JOICFP in the future. Providing background on the maternal and child health (MCH) system in Cambodia, Mam explained that the birth-spacing program is an integral part of the MCH activities and is primarily aimed at ensuring the health of women. Cambodia, which has a population of about 10 million people, presently has a high maternal mortality rate of 500/100,000 deliveries. Noting that the country also has a high total fertility rate of about 5.1, Mam emphasized that the government's birth spacing program is not aimed at controlling the population, but rather to ensure balanced development and population growth with the ultimate goal of guaranteeing the health of women. Cambodia also has a high infant mortality rate of 113/1000 live births. Mam explained that lack of access to services, supplies, and trained personnel hamper efforts to promote birth spacing. To overcome these obstacles, Cambodia needs support to develop human resources and to ensure supplies of basic medical equipment and essential drugs. Specifically, Mam stressed the need to train and retrain health staff to ensure adequate staffing at the community level. At present, the total number is insufficient, he said. While in Japan, Mam visited many health facilities as part of JICA's technical cooperation program and was impressed most with the quality services and facilities of the public health center. PMID:12290710

1996-02-01

21

Mental health care in Cambodia.  

PubMed Central

An effort is being made in Cambodia to involve grass-roots personnel in the integration of the care of the mentally ill into a broad framework of health services. This undertaking is examined with particular reference to the work of the Transcultural Psychosocial Organization.

Somasundaram, D. J.; van de Put, W. A.

1999-01-01

22

Cambodia: World Oil Report 1991  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the Ministry of Industry which has the that hydrocarbon potential exists in the 57,600-sq-mi sedimentary basin covering both onshore and offshore Cambodia. It is also reported that 13 foreign oil companies have contacted the government, regarding obtaining interests in Kampot and Koh Kong Provinces in the southwestern part of the country.

Khin, J.A. (AFKA Co., PTE Ltd. (SG))

1991-08-01

23

Myths about AIDS in Cambodia.  

PubMed

HIV has been reported in the capital city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, as well as in the northwestern provinces of Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Pursat, and Kompong Chhnang. Unofficial reports indicate the presence of HIV in three northeastern provinces. According to World Health Organization data, 382 people were infected with HIV in Cambodia as of March 1994, but the national AIDS program estimates that 2000-4000 Cambodians may be HIV-seropositive. Small surveys in 1992 identified HIV infection rates to be 4.5% among patients of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and 9.2% among prostitutes. A seroprevalence rate of 4.3% was found in 1993 among clients of STD clinics and others requesting HIV testing. These rather marked levels of infection exist in Cambodia even though HIV was first identified in the country as recently as 1991 among screened blood from volunteer donors. By December 1993, the rate of positive results from blood donors had increased to 1.97%.; the rate of infection among blood donors is expected to double to approximately 4% in 1994. People in Cambodia variously believe that AIDS is nonexistent, AIDS is a problem of other countries, can be transmitted by mosquitoes, healthy people do not have AIDS, a cure exists for AIDS, AIDS can be contracted only from prostitutes, AIDS is the most severe state of syphilis, and AIDS is only a propaganda ploy of condom producers to market their products. It is therefore proving extremely difficult to convince people that AIDS is a truly threatening disease against which they should protect themselves, especially when symptoms are rarely present during the early stage of infection. Health education campaigns, videos, posters, and accurate reporting in the media will, however, help change minds and hopefully induce HIV-preventive behaviors. Of interest, the article notes that virtually every prostitute in Cambodia has at least two-three STDs. PMID:12345639

Nariddh, M C

1994-08-01

24

Revisiting Primary School Dropout in Rural Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous studies on school dropout in Cambodia often used data from subjects after they already dropped out or statistics from education-related institutions. Using data from children in two rural provinces before they dropped out, this study examines four main factors in order to identify their influence on primary school dropout in Cambodia.…

No, Fata; Sam, Chanphirun; Hirakawa, Yukiko

2012-01-01

25

Cambodia's Garment Industry - Origins and Future Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper, written largely before Multi-Fibre Agreement (MFA) quotas on developing country exports of textiles and garments were removed on 31 December 2004, argues that Cambodia’s garment industry is well placed to withstand the increase in competition in its export markets that quota removal has brought. This conclusion is highly significant for the Cambodian economy, over 80% of whose exports

Omar Bargawi

2005-01-01

26

The Political Economy of Tourism in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the historical development of the Cambodian political economy and the role of tourism in shaping it since the early 1990s when Cambodia opened its door to the world. The paper provides a general overview of tourism products and the government's policies in tourism development in Cambodia and then examines the perceived impacts of tourism

Vannarith Chheang

2008-01-01

27

Chemical Sensitivity in Symptomatic Cambodia Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following their participation in a United Nations peacekeeping operation in Cambodia (1992-1993), Dutch veterans complained of symptoms similar to those reported by Gulf War veterans. The authors conducted a matched case-control study to evaluate 76 symptomatic and 32 matched asymptomatic Cambodia veterans on the basis of data collected by postal questionnaire. The number of symptomatic veterans who reported having used

Erik W. M. A. Bischoff; Patricia M. M. B. Soetekouw; Maaike De Vries; Paul T. J. Scheepers; Gijs Bleijenberg

2003-01-01

28

Starting mental health services in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cambodia has undergone massive psychosocial trauma in the last few decades, but has had virtually no western-style mental health services. For the first time in Cambodia a number of mental health clinics in rural areas have been started. This experience is used to discuss the risks and opportunities in introducing these services in the present war-torn situation. Basic statistics from

Daya J. Somasundaram; Willem A. C. M. van de Put; Maurice Eisenbruch

1999-01-01

29

USAID/Cambodia Operational Plan, FY 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of USAID's program is to promote more effective, inclusive, and accountable governance in order to better protect Cambodia's natural resources, develop its economic potential and democratic institutions, and expand health services. Impedimen...

2006-01-01

30

Basic Information Package for Cambodia, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication provides background information on Cambodia for those interested in trade with or investment in that country. It provides an economic summary, investment climate and regulations summary, best prospects list, economic fact sheet, and list o...

1992-01-01

31

Cambodia: Background and U.S. Relations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cambodia has made some notable progress, with foreign assistance, in developing its economy, nurturing a civil society, and holding elections that are at least procedurally democratic. A number of significant problems remain, however. Weak legal and finan...

T. Lum

2005-01-01

32

Migrant Interactions with Elderly Parents in Rural Cambodia and Thailand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines interactions between older adults living in rural areas of Thailand and Cambodia and their adult children. Thai data come from the Survey of the Welfare of the Elderly (N = 3,202 older adults and 17,517 adult children). Cambodia data are from the Survey of the Elderly in Cambodia (N = 777 older adults and 3,751 adult…

Zimmer, Zachary; Korinek, Kim; Knodel, John; Chayovan, Napaporn

2008-01-01

33

Cambodia-China Relation: Past, Present and Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cambodia's geographical, economical, and cultural landscapes as well as the multi- faceted mutual influences and interactions between Cambodia and China have allowed Cambodia-China bilateral relations to take a vital position in Beijing's foreign policy. Currently, the relations of the two countries have reached a new peak in terms of political, diplomatic, military, economic, and social aspects. This paper describes and

Phou Sambath

34

Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Declines in clothing exports, tourism receipts, and construction caused by the global recession brought about a contraction in GDP last year. Inflation faded, then turned up by year-end. Despite the adoption of an expansionary fiscal policy to cushion the impact of the slump, poverty incidence likely increased. This demonstrates a need to diversify sources of growth and to better target

Eric Sidgwick

35

Cambodia: The Odyssey of the Khmer People  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bruce Sharp, in collaboration with a host of colleagues, has developed this Web site dealing with the history and culture of Cambodia. Paying close attention to the Khmer Rouge period of the country's history, the site contains a wealth of general information and statistics about Cambodia that will help visitors seeking a basic overview of the country's current status. The site is divided into numerous sections, several that will be of particular interest to visitors. The Oral Histories section contains a dozen narratives from Cambodian men and women who lived in Cambodia during the reign of Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge. A photo gallery hosts several photo essays by Mr. Sharp, including some dramatic shots of Angkor Wat. Finally, the site also has a search engine and a What's New section that lists new material that is periodically added to the site.

2002-01-01

36

31 CFR 500.565 - Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. 500.565 Section 500.565 ...remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. (a) The remittances specified...relative is a national of Vietnam or Cambodia, is a resident of Vietnam,...

2009-07-01

37

31 CFR 500.565 - Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. 500.565 Section 500.565 ...remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. (a) The remittances specified...relative is a national of Vietnam or Cambodia, is a resident of Vietnam,...

2010-07-01

38

DALE CARNEGIE, THE CARPENTERS, AND CAMBODIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems of politics in the postmodern were never made more clear to me than during a visit to Cambodia and Vietnam in 1990. The following is an autoethnographic tale of my struggles as a white, middle-class, female, political sociologist encountering these remains of the Vietnam War. I write about my problem of locating a stable place for political action

BARBARA G. BRENTS

1999-01-01

39

HUMAN SECURITY FOR CHILDREN IN CAMBODIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three decades of civil war and cold war powers interference have resulted in an extremely painful situation for children in Cambodia. They suffer from the physical and psychological scars of conflict, from displacement and exploitation, from insufficient health care and environmental insecurity, from a political culture of corruption which diverts funds from their educational and health objectives and from a

Anne Lise Rêve

40

Cambodia: Lasting key to Southeast Asia's stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite many positive changes inside Cambodia in recent years, it remains the region's weakest spot: It is caught forever between Vietnam's slow but inexorable expansion southward and westward over the centuries, Thailand's historic instinct to play hostile neighboring elements off against each other as a means of guaranteeing its own survival, and gigantic China to the north. With Russia and

Robert H. Miller

1995-01-01

41

Area Handbook for the KHMER Republic (Cambodia).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This handbook, one of a series designed to be useful to the military and others with an interest in foreign affairs, contains basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of Cambodia. There are four major sections to the handbook. Section one describes the general character of the society and examines…

Whitaker, Donald P.; And Others

42

English in Cambodia: Changes and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports research undertaken at a prestigious university in Phnom Penh in late 2007. The views of lecturers who teach the BEd (TEFL) degree and their students were canvassed in relation to the status of English in Cambodia. The students completed a questionnaire probing their views on the notion of a Cambodian English, as well as their…

Moore, Stephen H.; Bounchan, Suksiri

2010-01-01

43

Garment manufacturing in Cambodia and Laos  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses the systemic quad to examine the strength of the embedding support and firm-level technological capabilities of garment firms in Cambodia and Laos. Although garment exports have surged in both countries, it is argued in the paper that its sustenance will require institutional capacity building. Laos is the more disadvantaged of the two countries as it is landlocked

Rajah Rasiah

2009-01-01

44

Harm reduction in Cambodia: a disconnect between policy and practice  

PubMed Central

In 2003 the Government of Cambodia officially began to recognise that harm reduction was an essential approach to preventing HIV among people who use drugs and their sexual partners. Several programs aiming to control and prevent HIV among drug users have been implemented in Cambodia, mostly in the capital, Phnom Penh. However, there have been ongoing tensions between law enforcement and harm reduction actors, despite several advocacy efforts targeting law enforcement. This study attempts to better understand the implementation of harm reduction in Cambodia and how the policy environment and harm reduction program implementation has intersected with the role of law enforcement officials in Cambodia.

2012-01-01

45

UNTAC, CEAT, other international actions and the restoration of Cambodia`s forestry policy  

SciTech Connect

Although no verifiable hard data regarding the rate of nation-wide deforestation in Cambodia exists, it is understood that on account of increasing logging activities, uncontrolled forest fires, increased demand for agricultural land and fuel wood for charcoal production and other domestic usage, the rates of deforestation and the degradation of existing forests will continue to be on the rise if no effective policy and management plans are established soon. There now seems to be international recognition and acceptance of the fact that unless the impact of human activities are incorporated into forestry management plans, the problems of deforestation in the world`s poorest regions will continue unabated. The depletion of this natural resource brings about complex changes in the environment which results in such phenomenon as global warming. Sound forest policies and management practices are central to the global warming solution. Without these, human survival remains, potentially, threatened. An essential key to the development of such policies and management practices lies in the identification of the problems related to the forests. In this process of identification and subsequent concrete actions in restoring Cambodia`s forest policies and management practices, the Royal government of Cambodia has been assisted and supported by the international community through organizations and agencies. The examine and appraisal of such assistance and the strategies and efforts of the Royal Government of Cambodia, is the main theme of this paper.

Mareth, M. [Secretariat of State for Environment of Cambodia, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Vanderstighelen, D.; Bann, C.; Ngongi, M.I. [Cambodian Environmental Advisory Team, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Aertgeerts, R. [Office for Project Services United Nations Development Program, New York, NY (United States); Eav, B.B. [Dept. of Agriculture, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1995-03-01

46

Self-Assessment in the REAP Tutor: Knowledge, Interest, Motivation, & Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Self-assessment questionnaires have long been used in tutoring systems to help researchers measure and evaluate various aspects of a student's performance during learning activities. In this paper, we chronicle the efforts made in the REAP project, a language tutor developed to teach vocabulary to ESL students through reading activities, to…

Dela Rosa, Kevin; Eskenazi, Maxine

2013-01-01

47

MS 685\\/ MW 680 Church Abroad: Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Course Requirements: 1. All students (any course level) should read Don McCormack’s book KILLING FIELDS, HARVEST FIELDS prior to the trip. 2. All students (any course level) should write a 10-15 page chronology of the history of the church in Cambodia in the midst of its socio-political history. This should describe the encounter between Christian witnesses and Cambodian people and

Eunice L. Irwin

2003-01-01

48

Heineken and Promotion Girls in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In Cambodia so-called promotion girls (PGs) working in bars and restaurants play a large role in marketing beer. PGs’ work\\u000a and the circumstances in which they work are far from ideal. The situation is made more complicated by the fact that some\\u000a PGs have sexual contact with pub customers after hours to earn more money. Among the most frequently cited

Frans-Paul van der Putten; Rosalie Feilzer

49

Land law in the kingdom of Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cambodia has been undergoing a seemingly continual metamorphosis over the last 200 years. During that time, the government has changed from the traditional Khmer feudal system; through periods of colonialism; independent self-rule under a monarchy; republicanism; agrarian socialism during the horrendous Khmer Rouge period; socialism under the Vietnamese-controlled government; and finally an evolving democratically-elected government. Along with the changes in

Ray Russell

1997-01-01

50

Cost and disease burden of Dengue in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Dengue is endemic in Cambodia (pop. estimates 14.4 million), a country with poor health and economic indicators. Disease burden estimates help decision makers in setting priorities. Using recent estimates of dengue incidence in Cambodia, we estimated the cost of dengue and its burden using disability adjusted life years (DALYs). METHODS: Recent population-based cohort data were used to calculate direct

Julien Beauté; Sirenda Vong

2010-01-01

51

Tradition, Modernity, and the Development of Education in Cambodia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews Cambodia's educational development, characterized by a series of successive crises since the country's independence from France in 1953. Examines various approaches of development discourse to the educational crisis, and suggests that previous analyses of Cambodia's educational development have failed to recognize the tensions generated…

Ayres, David M.

2000-01-01

52

Vocal Diversity and Taxonomy of Nomascus in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is usually thought that Nomascus gabriellae is the only Nomascus sp. in Cambodia. We studied vocal diversity among different wild populations of Nomascus in Cambodia to assess their taxonomic relationships and to examine whether their vocal patterns correspond to forms previously described for Nomascus leucogenys siki and Nomascus gabriellae. We tape-recorded crested gibbon songs in southern Mondulkiri Province, in

Roger Konrad; Thomas Geissmann

2006-01-01

53

Cambodia Report : Feeding China's Expanding Demand for Wood Pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

After decades of war, Cambodia is one of the world's poorest nations, its economy and its political life are still suffering from the civil war that racked the country during the latter part of the 20th century. Rice and rubber were traditionally the principal exports of Cambodia, but exports fell sharply after the onset of the civil war, which put

Jean-Marc Roda; Santosh Rathi

2006-01-01

54

Tradition, Modernity, and the Development of Education in Cambodia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews Cambodia's educational development, characterized by a series of successive crises since the country's independence from France in 1953. Examines various approaches of development discourse to the educational crisis, and suggests that previous analyses of Cambodia's educational development have failed to recognize the tensions generated by…

Ayres, David M.

2000-01-01

55

Cambodia: From Killing Fields to Field of Dreams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although the Paris Peace Accords of October 1991 opened the way for peace in Cambodia, the country has always enjoyed a violent history. As a small country, about the size of the state of Missouri, a lot of news or information about Cambodia does not surf...

T. Dougherty

1997-01-01

56

Introduction of ICT and Multimedia into Cambodia's Teacher Training Centres  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes the integration of ICT in the teacher training centres of Cambodia. It focuses on the collaboration between the Teacher Training Department of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MoEYS) of Cambodia and VVOB (Flemish Association for Development Cooperation and Technical Assistance), which is aimed at improving ICT…

Dionys, David

2012-01-01

57

UNTAC, CEAT, other international actions and the restoration of Cambodia`s forestry policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although no verifiable hard data regarding the rate of nation-wide deforestation in Cambodia exists, it is understood that on account of increasing logging activities, uncontrolled forest fires, increased demand for agricultural land and fuel wood for charcoal production and other domestic usage, the rates of deforestation and the degradation of existing forests will continue to be on the rise if

M. Mareth; D. Vanderstighelen; C. Bann; M. I. Ngongi; R. Aertgeerts; B. B. Eav

1995-01-01

58

Natural resources management for human security in Cambodia’s Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tonle Sap Great Lake in Cambodia is significant for its biological and societal diversity, as well as for the fundamental role it plays in the local and national economy. Conflicting natural resources are aggravating population pressures and governance deficits, thereby threatening the ecological and economic viability of the lake and its systems. In response to this, and as part

Neou Bonheur

2002-01-01

59

HPLC analysis of Stephania rotunda extracts and correlation with antiplasmodial activity.  

PubMed

Stephania rotunda (Menispermaceae), a creeper commonly found in the mountainous areas of Cambodia, has been mainly used for the treatment of fever and malaria. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the chemical composition and antiplasmodial activity of different samples of S. rotunda and compare their antiplasmodial activity with their alkaloid content. Sixteen samples from different parts (roots, stem, and tuber) of S. rotunda were collected from four regions of Cambodia (Battambang, Pailin, Siem Reap, and Kampot). Reversed-phase HPLC was used to determine the content of three bioactive alkaloids (cepharanthine, tetrahydropalmatine, and xylopinine). These three alkaloids have been found in all samples from Battambang and Pailin (samples I-IX), whereas only tetrahydropalmatine was present in samples from Siem Reap and Kampot (samples X-XVI). The analyzed extracts were evaluated for their antiplasmodial activity on W2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Among them, 13 extracts were significantly active with inhibitory concentration 50 (IC(50) ) from 1.2 to 3.7?µg/mL and 2 extracts were moderately active (IC(50) ?=?6.1 and 10?µg/mL, respectively), whereas sample XI was not active (IC(50) ?=?19.6?µg/mL). A comparison between antiplasmodial activity and concentration of the three bioactive alkaloids in S. rotunda extracts has been realized. PMID:22566106

Bory, Sothavireak; Bun, Sok-Siya; Baghdikian, Béatrice; Dumètre, Aurélien; Hutter, Sébastien; Mabrouki, Fathi; Bun, Hot; Elias, Riad; Azas, Nadine; Ollivier, Evelyne

2012-05-08

60

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 2004: Cambodia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cambodia is a constitutional monarchy with an elected government. On October 14, Prince Norodom Sihamoni was chosen by the Cambodian Throne Council to succeed his father as the constitutional monarch and head of state. The most recent National Assembly el...

2005-01-01

61

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 2000: Cambodia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cambodia is a constitutional monarchy. Political stability, achieved through the coalition government formed following the 1998 national elections, generally continued through year's end. Hun Sen of the Cambodian People's Party (CPP) is Prime Minister, Pr...

2001-01-01

62

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 1999: Cambodia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cambodia is a constitutional monarchy. Political stability, achieved through the coalition Government formed following the 1998 national elections, continued through year's end. Hun Sen of the Cambodian People's Party (CPP) is Prime Minister, Prince Norod...

2000-01-01

63

The problem of ‘choice’ and the constructionof the demand for English in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses Cambodia as a case study to problematise the notion of choice in the spread of English. I explore specific\\u000a historical contexts which were central to the construction of the demand for English and English language teaching (ELT) in\\u000a Cambodia. The actions of a range of external agencies resulted in the close discursive articulation of English with Cambodia’s

Stephen Clayton

2008-01-01

64

Collaborative Development of Anatomy Workshops for Medical and Dental Students in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|After Phnom Penh was liberated from the Khmer Rouge in 1979, health science education in Cambodia had to be completely rebuilt. In this article, the authors report the results of a teaching collaboration between the University of Melbourne (Australia), the International University (Cambodia), and the University of Health Sciences (Cambodia). The…

Hayes, Jennifer A.; Ivanusic, Jason J.; le Roux, Cara M.; Hatzopoulos, Kate; Gonsalvez, David; Hong, Someth; Durward, Callum

2011-01-01

65

A Bibliographic Foray into Documents and Publications Relating to Peacekeeping in Cambodia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the publications, documents, and other materials relating to peacekeeping in Cambodia. Focuses on the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia as a part in the development of the United Nations peacekeeping missions. Evaluates sources concerning operations within Cambodia. Identifies resources of international government…

Patterson, MacGregor

1996-01-01

66

Poverty in Rural Cambodia: The Differentiated Impact of Linkages, Inputs, and Access to Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cambodia has been growing rapidly over the past few years, but remains one of the poorest countries in East Asia. This paper analyzes rural poverty in Cambodia to identify the factors that explain its occurrence and persistence. The reduction of rural poverty in Cambodia requires (1) improvements in agricultural productivity and (2) the establishment of other income-earning opportunities for the

Anders Engvall; Örjan Sjöberg; Fredrik Sjöholm

2008-01-01

67

Poverty in Rural Cambodia: The Differentiated Impact of Linkages, Inputs and Access to Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cambodia has been growing rapidly over the past few years but still remains one of the poorest countries in East Asia. In particular, poverty is widespread in rural Cambodia. This paper examines rural poverty in Cambodia with a view to furthering our understanding of the factors that might explain its occurrence and persistence. Setting out from the existing literature, it

Anders Engvall; Örjan Sjöberg; Fredrik Sjöholm

2007-01-01

68

Exploitative Labour Brokerage Practices in Cambodia: The Role and Practices of Private Recruitment Agencies1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background of Labour Migration and Trafficking in Cambodia Labour brokering is a potentially lucrative business in Cambodia. With a rapidly increasing labour force which grows at an annual rate of 3.5 percent (since 2001), Cambodia has a sizeable young population who are hungry for employment. The government faces a tough challenge of creating 300,000 new jobs every year in order

Chen Chen Lee; ILO IPEC-TICW

69

Living arrangements and socio-demographic conditions of older adults in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the takeover of Cambodia by the Khmer Rouge in 1975, the socialconditions within the country have been understudied. Only recently hasdependable socio-demographic data become available. We use some thesedata to examine living arrangements and other socio-demographicconditions among Cambodia's older population. We compare results to thoserecently found in Thailand and Vietnam, two neighboring countries, inorder to place Cambodia within a

Zachary Zimmer; SovanKiry Kim

2001-01-01

70

Production and Examination of Prestress loss of Precast Prestressed Concrete Bridge Girder Using Self-Compacting Concrete in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cambodia post civil war has demanded immediate rehabilitation of infrastructure including hundreds of bridges and road network for revival and development of economy. To make it possible to produce required human resources and technology domestically in Cambodia, Kochi University of Technology (KUT), Japan and Institute of Technology of Cambodia (ITC), Cambodia have established collaboration to implement \\

Taiju YONEDA; Tetsuya MISHIMA; Masahiro OUCHI

71

Species diversity and ecology of Tonle Sap Great Lake, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tonle Sap Great Lake in Cambodia, the largest natural freshwater lake in southeast Asia, is situated within the fl oodplain of the Mekong River. Water levels in the lake vary by about 8 m between the dry season minimum and the wet season maximum when waters from the Mekong River back up the Tonle Sap River. The lake is highly

Ian C. Campbell; Colin Poole; Wim Giesen; John Valbo-Jorgensen

2006-01-01

72

The Teaching of Foreign Languages in Cambodia: A Historical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The teaching of foreign languages in Cambodia is examined in the light of its recent history. The paper describes the French colonial period, beginning in 1863, the emergence of the independent state under King Sihanouk (1953-70), the Khmer Republic (1970-75) and Democratic Kampuchea (1975-79), during which the infamous mass killings took place,…

Neau, Vira

2003-01-01

73

Academic Achievement among Adolescents in Cambodia: Does Caregiver Trauma Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How will hostilities occurring around today's world influence future generations in affected areas? Cambodia may be one place where this question can be answered, and academic achievement is one way to measure these effects. Cambodian adolescent/caregiver dyads (n=288) were examined for links between caregiver trauma history and adolescent…

Eng, Sothy; Mulsow, Miriam; Cleveland, Harrington; Hart, Sybil L.

2009-01-01

74

Household Determinants of Schooling Progression among Rural Children in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the individual and household determinants that affected the chances of Cambodian rural children being enrolled in or dropping out of school before completing grade four. Data were obtained from interviews with 159 children aged between 12 to 18 years and their families from two rural villages in Pursat province of Cambodia.…

Keng, Chansopheak

2004-01-01

75

Men With a Mission: Veterans' Meanings of Peacekeeping in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study examines veterans' meanings of peacekeeping in Cambodia. In-depth interviews were conducted among 19 veterans. Purposive sampling distinguished between veterans with and without stress responses. Thematic analysis showed that peacekeeping reflected a different reality in which military performance and comradeship provided clear sense and direction. A sense of fulfillment and appreciation by the local people was perceived as

Michaela L. Schok; Rolf J. Kleber; Hennie R. Boeije

2010-01-01

76

The Teaching of Foreign Languages in Cambodia: A Historical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching of foreign languages in Cambodia is examined in the light of its recent history. The paper describes the French colonial period, beginning in 1863, the emergence of the independent state under King Sihanouk (1953-70), the Khmer Republic (1970-75) and Democratic Kampuchea (1975-79), during which the infamous mass killings took place,…

Neau, Vira

2003-01-01

77

Re?orientations in moral education in Cambodia since 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, Cambodia has transitioned from a communist state to a liberal democracy following market economic practices. Transition in the political economy has, in turn, influenced education and, more specifically, moral education. In this article, I define moral education more broadly than many, as additionally dedicated to the preparation of students ideologically for participation in, or opposition to, political

Thomas Clayton

2005-01-01

78

Political implications of stagnant agricultural productivity in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper outlines changes in agricultural production and rural policies in Cambodia since 1953, when the country gained independence from France, and considers whether current rural conditions are different from those that existed during the 1960s, prior to the Khmer Rouge insurgencies. Economic and political reforms begun in 1989 by the Khmer People's Revolutionary Party government have not yet created

Chad Raymond

1996-01-01

79

TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN CAMBODIA: OPPORTUNITIES FOR JAPANESE COMPANIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cambodia has an emerging economy with relatively high economic growth and political stability. Since the 1990s, the country has undergone economic reforms and transformed to become a market economy with strong support from the international donor community and various organizations. Tourism is the third largest sector of the economy after agriculture and the garment industry, and the second largest income

Vannarith Chheang

80

Re-Orientations in Moral Education in Cambodia Since 1975  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, Cambodia has transitioned from a communist state to a liberal democracy following market economic practices. Transition in the political economy has, in turn, influenced education and, more specifically, moral education. In this article, I define moral education more broadly than many, as additionally dedicated to the preparation…

Clayton, Thomas

2005-01-01

81

Future Prospects of the Garment Industry of Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of the participation of Vietnam to WTO as well as of the abolition of restrictions on Chinese exports of textiles and clothing to the US and EU on the Cambodian Economy, by using a computable general equilibrium model. A seminal aspect of this paper is that this paper has succeeded in constructing a Cambodia specific

Sak Sambath; Ryuta Ray Kato

2009-01-01

82

Trade and Financial Service Liberalization in Cambodia1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vast majority of firms operating in Cambodia are microenterprises, very small firms of 10 or fewer employees. These informal, unregistered firms play an important role in economic development, offering employment and income opportunities to poor and unskilled people. These microenterprises are the most common stepping-stone to small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs), which typically employ up to 20 employees. In

Hang Chuon Naron

83

The Khmer Migrants And Trafficking Victims From Cambodia To Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study takes a close look at the situation in which Cambodians are forced to beg in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. This paper was based on the experiences of Cambodians who were trafficked, forced to go to Vietnam as beggars and who were captured by Vietnamese authorities, held in the detention centers, and forcefully returned to Cambodia. I

Hong ThiThu Son

2007-01-01

84

Influenza activity in Cambodia during 2006-2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is little information about influenza disease among the Cambodian population. To better understand the dynamics of influenza in Cambodia, the Cambodian National Influenza Center (NIC) was established in August 2006. To continuously monitor influenza activity, a hospital based sentinel surveillance system for ILI (influenza like illness) with a weekly reporting and sampling scheme was established in five sites

Sek Mardy; Sovann Ly; Seng Heng; Sirenda Vong; Chea Huch; Chea Nora; Nima Asgari; Megge Miller; Isabelle Bergeri; Sybille Rehmet; Duong Veasna; Weigong Zhou; Takeshi Kasai; Sok Touch; Philippe Buchy

2009-01-01

85

Re-Orientations in Moral Education in Cambodia Since 1975  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In recent years, Cambodia has transitioned from a communist state to a liberal democracy following market economic practices. Transition in the political economy has, in turn, influenced education and, more specifically, moral education. In this article, I define moral education more broadly than many, as additionally dedicated to the preparation…

Clayton, Thomas

2005-01-01

86

Mental Health Policy Development: Case Study of Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify key issues in the mental health policy development process in Cambodia that will contribute to an increased understanding of how mental health policy gets on the public policy agenda, how it stays there and why policy implementation fails or succeeds. The research was formative because mental health policy analysis is a young and newly emerging discipline.Method: A

Alexis Stockwell; Harvey Whiteford; Clare Townsend; Donald Stewart

2005-01-01

87

Irregular Migration from Cambodia: Characteristics, Challenges, and Regulatory Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines the characteristics, root causes, and challenges of irregular migration from Cambodia and then discusses the regulatory approaches and policy options to manage it. It employed mixed approaches, including a survey of 507 households in six high-migration villages, focus group discussions with returned and intending migrant workers, and in-depth interviews with government officers, migration experts, and local community

Vutha Hing; Pide Lun; Dalis Phann

2011-01-01

88

Deterioration of stone materials in the Angkor monuments, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Angkor monuments in Cambodia are built mainly of sandstone and laterite. This paper mainly describes the deterioration of sandstone blocks. The sandstone in the monuments can be classified into three types based on the colour, texture, chemical composition and constituent mineral; grey to yellowish brown sandstone, red sandstone and greenish greywacke. The deterioration is distinct in grey to yellowish

E. Uchida; Y. Ogawa; N. Maeda; T. Nakagawa

2000-01-01

89

Analysis of WWW traffic in Cambodia and Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an analysis of HTTP trac cap- tured from Internet caf es and kiosks from two dieren t de- veloping countries { Cambodia and Ghana. This paper has two main contributions. The rst contribution is a anal- ysis of the characteristics of the web trace, including the distribution and classication of the web objects requested by

Bowei Du; Michael J. Demmer; Eric A. Brewer

2006-01-01

90

Persistent Organochlorine Residues in Marine and Freshwater Fish in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT compounds (DDTs), HCH (hexachlorocyclohexanes) isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs) and HCB (hexachlorobenzene) were determined in 27 species of marine and freshwater fish collected from Cambodia. DDT and its derivatives were the predominantly detected compounds in both marine and freshwater fish. PCBs were the second highest followed by HCHs, CHLs

Haruhiko Nakata; Shinsuke Tanabe; Touch Seang Tana

1999-01-01

91

Currency Substitution and Financial Sector Developments in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tendency to substitute domestic for foreign currency (as a way of holding wealth and a means of transaction for goods and services) is common throughout the world, and particularly so in countries attempting to overcome thin financial institutions or errant monetary policy. This paper uses monthly data to analyze the phenomenon of currency substitution in Cambodia during the recent

Kem Reat Viseth

2001-01-01

92

Media reporting of tenofovir trials in Cambodia and Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Two planned trials of pre-exposure prophylaxis tenofovir in Cambodia and Cameroon to prevent HIV infection in high-risk populations were closed due to activist pressure on host country governments. The international news media contributed substantially as the primary source of knowledge transfer regarding the trials. We aimed to characterize the nature of reporting, specifically focusing on the issues identified by

Edward Mills; Beth Rachlis; Ping Wu; Elaine Wong; Kumanan Wilson; Sonal Singh

2005-01-01

93

SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN CAMBODIA, LAOS, AND VIETNAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are categorized into four groups: supporting industries, export-oriented industries, domestic market-oriented industries and cottage industries. Supporting industries are defined as having backward linkages with the machinery industry. The creation of such linkages may accelerate industrialization, create more employment, and diversify economic activities. Apparel and footwear are the main export industries in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam

Shuji Uchikawa; Souknilanh Keola

94

Can Garment Exports from Cambodia, Laos and Burma be Sustained?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines institutional and firm-level technological capabilities to assess the capacity of Cambodia, Laos and Burma to sustain garment exports over the long term. Although the preferential access enjoyed by products from these countries in the developed markets has helped attract strong foreign direct investment inflows that have supported rapid growth in employment and exports, the empirical evidence shows

Rajah Rasiah

2009-01-01

95

E-Government challenges in Least Developed Countries (LDCs): A case of Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far there have been few studies dealing with e-Government in Cambodia, one of the least developed countries (LDCs) with an emerging economy. This study can be considered as an opening pace in the examination of e-Government challenges in Cambodia. Government administration information system (GAIS), one of the leading e-Government projects in Cambodia, is a main setting for this study.

Sinawong Sang; Jeong-Dong Lee; Jongsu Lee

2009-01-01

96

Educational policy trajectories in an era of globalization: Singapore and Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper critically discusses the educational policy trajectories of Singapore and Cambodia in an era of globalization.\\u000a Drawing upon David Johnson’s five metaphors to describe the historical and political forces that shape educational policy\\u000a trajectories, the paper argues that Cambodia’s current educational policy trajectory is characterized by the “politics of\\u000a compelling” while Singapore’s situation is more akin to the “politics

Charlene Tan; UNESCO IBE

2010-01-01

97

National Shipbuilding Research Program. Proceedings of the REAPS Technical Symposium. Paper No. 22: Design for Production (The National Shipbuilding Research Program).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Proceedings of the REAPS Technical Symposium. Paper No. 22: Design for Production. The traditional role of the Ship Designer is the preparation of an overall design of vessel which will have a performance satisfying the owner's Statement of Requirements. ...

D. Carss I. MacDougall

1979-01-01

98

3 CFR - Presidential Determination for the Kingdom of Cambodia Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Presidential Determination for the Kingdom of Cambodia Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import...Presidential Determination for the Kingdom of Cambodia Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import...hereby determine that the Kingdom of Cambodia has ceased to be a...

2010-01-01

99

Evaluation test of ALIS in Cambodia for humanitarian demining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ALIS is a hand-held dual sensor developed by Tohoku University, Japan since 2002. Dual sensor is a general name of sensor for humanitarian demining, which are equipped with metal detector and GPR. ALIS is only one hand-held dual sensor, which can record the sensor position with sensor signals. Therefore, the data can be processed after data acquisition, and can increase the imaging capability. ALIS has been tested in some mine affected courtiers including Afghanistan (2004), Egypt(2005), Croatia(2006-) and Cambodia(2007-). Mine fields at each country has different conditions and soil types. Therefore testes at the real mine fields are very important. ALIS has detected more than 30 AP-Mines in evaluation test in Cambodia held in 2009.

Sato, Motoyuki

2010-04-01

100

Rapid assessment of injection practices in Cambodia, 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Injection overuse and unsafe injection practices facilitate transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Anecdotal reports of unsafe and unnecessary therapeutic injections and the high prevalence of HBV (8.0%), HCV (6.5%), and HIV (2.6%) infection in Cambodia have raised concern over injection safety. To estimate the magnitude

Sirenda Vong; Joseph F Perz; Srun Sok; Seiharath Som; Susan Goldstein; Yvan Hutin; James Tulloch

2005-01-01

101

Case Description: Heineken and Promotion Girls in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In Cambodia so-called promotion girls (PGs) working in bars and restaurants play a large role in marketing beer. PGs’ work\\u000a and the circumstances in which they work are far from ideal. The situation is made more complicated by the fact that some\\u000a PGs have sexual contact with pub customers after hours to earn more money. Among the most frequently cited

Frans-Paul van der Putten; Rosalie Feilzer

102

Price and exchange rate determination between the Mekong river economies of Cambodia and Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors use cointegration techniques to test for: (i) purchasing power parity (PPP) on the bilateral exchange rate between Cambodia and Thailand; and (ii) the existence of a long?run equilibrium relationship between the official and parallel market exchange rates. The period under study is the phase of economic transition in Cambodia from central planning to a market economy during which

Roselyne Joyeux; William E. Worner

1998-01-01

103

Educational Policy Trajectories in an Era of Globalization: Singapore and Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper critically discusses the educational policy trajectories of Singapore and Cambodia in an era of globalization. Drawing upon David Johnson's five metaphors to describe the historical and political forces that shape educational policy trajectories, the paper argues that Cambodia's current educational policy trajectory is characterized by…

Tan, Charlene

2010-01-01

104

Is Something Better than Nothing? An Evaluation of Early Childhood Programs in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study evaluated the relative effectiveness of home-based, community-based, and state-run early childhood programs across Cambodia. A total of 880 five-year-olds (55% girls) from 6 rural provinces in Cambodia attending State Preschools, Community Preschools, Home-Based Programs, or no programs were assessed twice using the Cambodian…

Rao, Nirmala; Sun, Jin; Pearson, Veronica; Pearson, Emma; Liu, Hongyun; Constas, Mark A.; Engle, Patrice L.

2012-01-01

105

Cambodia: Background and U.S. Relations. (Updated Apr 30, 2009).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the past few years, U.S. policy toward the Kingdom of Cambodia has broadened from a human rights focus to a multi-faceted approach. A key challenge for U.S. policy toward Cambodia lies in combining and balancing efforts to improve relations and to prom...

T. Lum

2009-01-01

106

The Problem of "Choice" and the Construction of the Demand for English in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper uses Cambodia as a case study to problematise the notion of choice in the spread of English. I explore specific historical contexts which were central to the construction of the demand for English and English language teaching (ELT) in Cambodia. The actions of a range of external agencies resulted in the close discursive articulation…

Clayton, Stephen

2008-01-01

107

Enhancing Aid Effectiveness in Education through a Sector-Wide Approach in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since 2001 the government of Cambodia has striven to advance policy-led education reform based on a sector-wide approach. This paper critically reviews the status and progress of Cambodia's education reform from the perspective of the aid's effectiveness. The paper looks at the performance of the sector reform in the three priority areas…

Hattori, Hiroyuki

2009-01-01

108

"A Frog in a Well": The Exclusion of Disabled People from Work in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on ethnographic research conducted in north-west Cambodia in 2000-2001, this paper examines why disabled people experience systematic marginalisation in the labour market. Although there are no official data on the relationship between disability and employment status in Cambodia, this research suggests that disabled people are more likely…

Gartrell, Alexandra

2010-01-01

109

Two Views of Education: Promoting Civic and Moral Values in Cambodia Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses the Cambodian government's attempt to promote civic and moral values in Cambodia schools through the subject "Civics and Morals". The paper argues that the tensions and challenges associated with civic and moral education are linked to a fundamental difference between the traditional view of education in Cambodia, and the…

Tan, Charlene

2008-01-01

110

The Problem of "Choice" and the Construction of the Demand for English in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses Cambodia as a case study to problematise the notion of choice in the spread of English. I explore specific historical contexts which were central to the construction of the demand for English and English language teaching (ELT) in Cambodia. The actions of a range of external agencies resulted in the close discursive articulation of…

Clayton, Stephen

2008-01-01

111

Sowing and sewing growth: The political economy of rice and garments in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

What explains Cambodia’s double digit growth in 2006, 2005, and 2004 of 11%, 13%, and 10%, respectively, despite relatively poor governance (162 out of 179 countries in the 2007 Corruption Perception Index, 151 out of 163 in 2006, 130 out of 158 in 2005 the year in which it was first ranked)? Why do some sectors thrive while others fail

Sophal Ear

2009-01-01

112

Cambodia Report : Feeding China’s Expanding Demand for Wood Pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

After decades of war, Cambodia is one of the world’s poorest nations, its economy and its political life are still suffering from the civil war that racked the country during the latter part of the 20th century. Rice and rubber were traditionally the principal exports of Cambodia, but exports fell sharply after the onset of the civil War, which put

Jean-Marc Roda; Santosh Sankarlal Rathi

113

Democracy in Cambodia — One Decade, US$5 Billion Later: What Went Wrong?  

Microsoft Academic Search

:In an age of heightened emphasis on democratization, the Royal Government of Cambodia illustrates many of the serious challenges which must be addressed to implant and nurture democracy in less developed political economies. The national elections conducted in 1993, celebrated at the time as a unique achievement, failed to spark requisite change in the political culture of Cambodia. Rejecting central

Ronald Bruce St John

2005-01-01

114

China's Guangxi and Vietnam Laos and Cambodia in Stadiums Investment Cooperation Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's Guangxi and Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia build a new platform in tourism?? culture?? sports industry for trade and investment exchanges and cooperation. With the methods of literature research?? statistics method?? tracking surveys and other research methods, this paper analyzes the status of China's Guangxi to Vietnam?? Laos and Cambodia in investment and construction of stadiums. Draw a conclusion: Expanding

He Wei-Dong

2011-01-01

115

"A Frog in a Well": The Exclusion of Disabled People from Work in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on ethnographic research conducted in north-west Cambodia in 2000-2001, this paper examines why disabled people experience systematic marginalisation in the labour market. Although there are no official data on the relationship between disability and employment status in Cambodia, this research suggests that disabled people are more likely…

Gartrell, Alexandra

2010-01-01

116

Current HIV\\/AIDS\\/STI Epidemic: Intervention Programs in Cambodia, 1993?2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade, Cambodia has been experiencing the most serious HIV\\/AIDS epidemic in Southeast Asia. With full support from the top policy makers, good leadership in program management, and the commitment of the public health program officers, the HIV\\/AIDS prevention and care program in Cambodia has been successful, despite its resource constraints. Available data from surveillance and other studies

Vonthanak Saphonn; Heng Sopheab; Ly Penh Sun; Mean Chhi Vun; Seng Suth Wantha; Pamina M. Gorbach; Roger Detels

2004-01-01

117

Finding the evidence: The links between weapon collection programmes, gun use and homicide rates in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cambodia is a typical example of a post-conflict country where the lack of easily available data to guide policy design is one of the fundamental challenges to be addressed. While Cambodia has benefited from sustained Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) collection and destruction programmes since 1998, these have not been accompanied by any data analysis on the impact of

Christina Wille

2006-01-01

118

The role of sex worker clients in transmission of HIV in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The study investigated whether clients of sex workers are a bridge for transmission of HIV to the general population of Cambodia. We interviewed and collected blood from 468 clients attending 30 randomly selected brothels in three provinces of Cambodia. The levels of HIV knowledge and condom use, and prevalence of HIV (9.2%) were high. Almost 40% of those interviewed

Leng Bun Hor; Roger Detels; Sopheab Heng; Phalkun Mun

2005-01-01

119

Ensuring Gender Equity in Education for All: Is Cambodia on Track?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gender-equity goals in Cambodia are intimately linked with socio-economic and cultural biases that are embedded in the very system of education and in the society as a whole. There are, however, strong indicators that the vicious cycle in Cambodia's education system could be broken, and here the commitment of key stakeholders and partnership…

Velasco, Esther

2004-01-01

120

Analysis of the Cambodia's garment industry and catch?up strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to assess the capabilities of Cambodia's garment industry in the post?Safeguard Policy era, and the country's ability to upgrade its garment assembling status to Original Equipment Manufacture (OEM) status. This article analyzes and proposes a strategic positioning of Cambodia's garment industry in the next decade by utilizing the analytical framework developed by the US International Trade Commission

Joosung J. Lee; Vathana TE Duong

2010-01-01

121

Workplace practices in Hong Kong-invested garment factories in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adopting an analytical approach grounded in the literature on the impact of industrial relations (IR) systems on foreign direct investment (FDI) decisions, this article assesses the workplace practices in Hong Kong-invested garment factories in the regulated IR system in Cambodia. Cambodia opened up FDI in 1993. The country has attracted FDI in light manufacturing, mainly in the export-orientated garment and

Catherine C. H. Chiu

2007-01-01

122

Negotiating Globalization: The Royal University of Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Closed to the outside world during the Pol Pot regime, restructured as a socialist state, then pushed towards democracy and\\u000a a market economy as a result of foreign technical assistance provided through numerous multi- and bi-lateral aid and development\\u000a programs, Cambodia\\u000a \\u000a is still one of the poorest countries in the Asia-Pacific\\u000a \\u000a region, albeit with a now rapidly growing economy. One

David Howes; David Ford

123

Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. Aerial Protection of Mekong River Convoys in Cambodia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In early January 1971, the American Embassy in Phnom Penh expressed considerable concern over the critical petroleum, oil, and lubricant (POL) shortages in the Khmer Republic (Cambodia) which had resulted from successful enemy attacks on commercial shippi...

W. A. Mitchell

1971-01-01

124

A communications system for the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between Nov. 1991 and Feb. 1992, the United Nations Advance Mission in Cambodia (UNIMAC) established rudimentary military communications services covering administration and factional communications needs. UNIMAC's successor, United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) was established in Mar. 1992 and is mandated to provide a range of services including a comprehensive commercial communications network. The development of this commercial communications network is discussed. The satellite system facilities, and operations and maintenance support are discussed.

Demontfort, Ian J.

125

‘A frog in a well’: the exclusion of disabled people from work in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on ethnographic research conducted in north?west Cambodia in 2000–2001, this paper examines why disabled people experience systematic marginalisation in the labour market. Although there are no official data on the relationship between disability and employment status in Cambodia, this research suggests that disabled people are more likely than their able?bodied counterparts to be unemployed, in low status occupations, earn

Alexandra Gartrell

2010-01-01

126

[Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection: clinical trial under the coordination of the Institut Pasteur in Cambodia].  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is a major cause of death among adults infected by HIV. The CAMELIA (ANRS 1295/CIPRA KH001) randomized clinical trial aimed to determine the optimal timing of ARV initiation after tuberculosis treatment onset to reduce mortality. Here, we describe the trial implementation in five hospitals in Cambodia under the coordination of the Institut Pasteur in Cambodia, its conduct, the challenges and public health benefits in Cambodia and beyond. PMID:24148131

Borand, Laurence; Pheng, Phearavin; Saman, Manil; Leng, Chanthy; Chea, Phalla; Sarady Ay, Sao; Suom, Sophea; Roat Men, Nimul; Nerrienet, Eric; Marcy, Olivier

2013-10-18

127

Cigarette smoking and tuberculosis in Cambodia: findings from a national sample  

PubMed Central

Background Cambodia has very high rates of tuberculosis and smoked tobacco use among adults. Efforts to control both tobacco use and tuberculosis in Cambodia need to be informed by nationally representative data. Our objective is to examine the relation between daily cigarette smoking and lifetime tuberculosis (TB) history in a national sample of adults in Cambodia. Methods In 2011, a multi-stage, cluster sample of 15,615 adults (ages 15?years and older) from all regions of Cambodia were administered the Global Adult Tobacco Survey by interviewers from the National Institute of Statistics of Cambodia. Results Our findings include: 1) among daily smokers, a significant positive relation between TB and number of cigarettes smoked per day (OR?=?1.70 [95% CI 1.01, 2.87]) and pack-years of smoking (OR?=?1.53 [95% CI 1.05, 2.25]) 2) a non-significant 58% increase in odds of ever having being diagnosed with TB among men who smoked manufactured cigarettes (OR?=?1.58 [95% CI 0.97, 2.58]). Conclusion In Cambodia, manufactured cigarette smoking was associated with lifetime TB infection and the association was most evident among the heaviest smokers (> 1 pack per day, > 30 pack years).

2013-01-01

128

Kinetoplastid RNA-editing-associated protein 1 (REAP-1): a novel editing complex protein with repetitive domains.  

PubMed Central

Kinetoplastid RNA editing consists of the addition or deletion of uridines at specific sites within mitochondrial mRNAs. This unusual RNA processing event is catalyzed by a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that includes editing site-specific endoribonuclease, RNA ligase and terminal uridylnucleotidyl transferase (Tutase) among its essential enzymatic activities. To identify the components of this RNP, monoclonal antibodies were raised against partially purified editing complexes. One antibody reacts with a mitochondrially located 45 kDa polypeptide (p45) which contains a conserved repetitive amino acid domain. p45 co-purifies with RNA ligase and Tutase in a large ( approximately 700 kDa) RNP, and anti-p45 antibody inhibits in vitro RNA editing. Thus, p45 is the first kinetoplastid RNA-editing-associated protein (REAP-1) that has been cloned and identified as a protein component of a functional editing complex.

Madison-Antenucci, S; Sabatini, R S; Pollard, V W; Hajduk, S L

1998-01-01

129

Multiple populations of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

We describe an analysis of genome variation in 825 Plasmodium falciparum samples from Asia and Africa that reveals an unusual pattern of parasite population structure at the epicentre of artemisinin resistance in western Cambodia. Within this relatively small geographical area we have discovered several distinct but apparently sympatric parasite subpopulations with extremely high levels of genetic differentiation. Of particular interest are three subpopulations, all associated with clinical resistance to artemisinin, which have skewed allele frequency spectra and remarkably high levels of haplotype homozygosity, indicative of founder effects and recent population expansion. We provide a catalogue of SNPs that show high levels of differentiation in the artemisinin-resistant subpopulations, including codon variants in various transporter proteins and DNA mismatch repair proteins. These data provide a population genetic framework for investigating the biological origins of artemisinin resistance and for defining molecular markers to assist its elimination.

Miotto, Olivo; Almagro-Garcia, Jacob; Manske, Magnus; MacInnis, Bronwyn; Campino, Susana; Rockett, Kirk A; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Lim, Pharath; Suon, Seila; Sreng, Sokunthea; Anderson, Jennifer M; Duong, Socheat; Nguon, Chea; Chuor, Char Meng; Saunders, David; Se, Youry; Lon, Chantap; Fukuda, Mark M; Amenga-Etego, Lucas; Hodgson, Abraham VO; Asoala, Victor; Imwong, Mallika; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Nosten, Francois; Su, Xin-zhuan; Ringwald, Pascal; Ariey, Frederic; Dolecek, Christiane; Hien, Tran Tinh; Boni, Maciej F; Thai, Cao Quang; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; Conway, David J; Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Zongo, Issaka; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Alcock, Daniel; Drury, Eleanor; Auburn, Sarah; Koch, Oliver; Sanders, Mandy; Hubbart, Christina; Maslen, Gareth; Ruano-Rubio, Valentin; Jyothi, Dushyanth; Miles, Alistair; O'Brien, John; Gamble, Chris; Oyola, Samuel O; Rayner, Julian C; Newbold, Chris I; Berriman, Matthew; Spencer, Chris CA; McVean, Gilean; Day, Nicholas P; White, Nicholas J; Bethell, Delia; Dondorp, Arjen M; Plowe, Christopher V; Fairhurst, Rick M; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

2013-01-01

130

Leptospira and Rodents in Cambodia: Environmental Determinants of Infection  

PubMed Central

We investigated infection of rodents and shrews by Leptospira spp. in two localities of Cambodia (Veal Renh, Kaev Seima) and in four types of habitat (forests, non-flooded lands, lowland rain-fed paddy fields, houses) during the wet and the dry seasons. Habitat preference was common, and rodent and shrew species were found only in houses or in rain-fed paddy fields or in forests. Among 649 small mammals trapped belonging to 12 rodent species and 1 shrew species, 71 of 642 animals tested were carriers of Leptospira according to the 16S ribosomal RNA marker used. Rodent infection was higher in low-slope locations, corresponding to rain-fed paddy fields, especially in the rainy season and in Kaev Seima. Rodents (Rattus exulans) and shrews (Suncus murinus) inhabiting households showed significantly low levels of infections, whereas rodents living in and near to forests (shrubby wasteland, orchards) showed high levels of infection.

Ivanova, Svilena; Herbreteau, Vincent; Blasdell, Kim; Chaval, Yannick; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; Morand, Serge

2012-01-01

131

Multiple populations of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Cambodia.  

PubMed

We describe an analysis of genome variation in 825 P. falciparum samples from Asia and Africa that identifies an unusual pattern of parasite population structure at the epicenter of artemisinin resistance in western Cambodia. Within this relatively small geographic area, we have discovered several distinct but apparently sympatric parasite subpopulations with extremely high levels of genetic differentiation. Of particular interest are three subpopulations, all associated with clinical resistance to artemisinin, which have skewed allele frequency spectra and high levels of haplotype homozygosity, indicative of founder effects and recent population expansion. We provide a catalog of SNPs that show high levels of differentiation in the artemisinin-resistant subpopulations, including codon variants in transporter proteins and DNA mismatch repair proteins. These data provide a population-level genetic framework for investigating the biological origins of artemisinin resistance and for defining molecular markers to assist in its elimination. PMID:23624527

Miotto, Olivo; Almagro-Garcia, Jacob; Manske, Magnus; Macinnis, Bronwyn; Campino, Susana; Rockett, Kirk A; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Lim, Pharath; Suon, Seila; Sreng, Sokunthea; Anderson, Jennifer M; Duong, Socheat; Nguon, Chea; Chuor, Char Meng; Saunders, David; Se, Youry; Lon, Chantap; Fukuda, Mark M; Amenga-Etego, Lucas; Hodgson, Abraham V O; Asoala, Victor; Imwong, Mallika; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Nosten, François; Su, Xin-Zhuan; Ringwald, Pascal; Ariey, Frédéric; Dolecek, Christiane; Hien, Tran Tinh; Boni, Maciej F; Thai, Cao Quang; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; Conway, David J; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Zongo, Issaka; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Alcock, Daniel; Drury, Eleanor; Auburn, Sarah; Koch, Oliver; Sanders, Mandy; Hubbart, Christina; Maslen, Gareth; Ruano-Rubio, Valentin; Jyothi, Dushyanth; Miles, Alistair; O'Brien, John; Gamble, Chris; Oyola, Samuel O; Rayner, Julian C; Newbold, Chris I; Berriman, Matthew; Spencer, Chris C A; McVean, Gilean; Day, Nicholas P; White, Nicholas J; Bethell, Delia; Dondorp, Arjen M; Plowe, Christopher V; Fairhurst, Rick M; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

2013-04-28

132

A Culture Under Siege: Post-Colonial Higher Education and Teacher Education in Cambodia from 1953 to 1979.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Charts the 20-year rise and fall of higher education and teacher education in Cambodia beginning with political independence in 1953 and ending with the devastation wrought by the Khmer Rouge. Discusses the effects of political instability, civil war, and the Vietnam War on Cambodia's educational system. (MJP)|

Le Masson, Gildas; Fergusson, Lee C.

1997-01-01

133

Coping Methods: Personal and Community Resources Used among Cambodians in Cambodia and Cambodian-Americans in Lowell, Massachusetts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative research assesses mental health resources from the perspective of providers in Cambodia and in Lowell, Massachusetts. The research documents culturally relevant coping strategies available to Cambodians for combating the effects of trauma and stress. Interviews were conducted with 11 caregivers in Cambodia and with 6 providers in…

pierSath, Chath

134

In vitro monitoring of Plasmodium falciparum susceptibility to artesunate, mefloquine, quinine and chloroquine in Cambodia: 2001–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a classical isotopic microtest to assess the in vitro sensitivity of 352 Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected in Cambodia in 2001 and 2002 to chloroquine, mefloquine, quinine and artesunate. Our results confirm conclusions drawn from earlier studies conducted by the Cambodian national malaria centre. Chloroquine-resistant phenotypes were highly prevalent in Cambodia. Similarly, a high proportion of isolates displayed elevated

Pharath Lim; Pheaktra Chim; Rithy Sem; Sina Nemh; Yi Poravuth; Chiv Lim; Soun Seila; Reiko Tsuyuoka; Mey Bouth Denis; Doung Socheat; Thierry Fandeur

2005-01-01

135

Coping Methods: Personal and Community Resources Used among Cambodians in Cambodia and Cambodian-Americans in Lowell, Massachusetts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative research assesses mental health resources from the perspective of providers in Cambodia and in Lowell, Massachusetts. The research documents culturally relevant coping strategies available to Cambodians for combating the effects of trauma and stress. Interviews were conducted with 11 caregivers in Cambodia and with 6 providers in…

pierSath, Chath

136

Emergency assistance in laboratory development for control of avian influenza in Laos and Cambodia.  

PubMed

Avian influenza (AI) diagnostic laboratories in Laos and Cambodia have been established recently to conduct AI surveillance and diagnostic tests to coordinate regional efforts for the control of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in South East Asia. Two laboratories have been provisioned with equipment, supplies, and reagents for routine diagnostic testing. Laboratory staff has received training to conduct serologic and virologic tests for isolation and identification of AI virus. Development of a disease reporting system and an AI surveillance program is in progress in Laos and Cambodia. There are plans to further upgrade laboratory facilities and to provide more comprehensive and advanced molecular diagnostic tests for control of HPAI in Laos and Cambodia. These two countries are on the frontline in the battle to fight HPAI H5N1 virus and to prevent it from spreading to other regions and mutating to a major human pathogen. PMID:17494583

Lu, Huaguang

2007-03-01

137

Paleoenvironmental history of the West Baray, Angkor (Cambodia).  

PubMed

Angkor (Cambodia) was the seat of the Khmer Empire from the 9th to 15th century AD. The site is noted for its monumental architecture and complex hydro-engineering systems, comprised of canals, moats, embankments, and large reservoirs, known as barays. We infer a 1,000-y, (14)C-dated paleoenvironmental record from study of an approximately 2-m sediment core taken in the largest Khmer reservoir, the West Baray. The baray was utilized and managed from the time of construction in the early 11th century, through the 13th century. During that time, the West Baray received relatively high rates of detrital input. In the 14th century, linear sedimentation rates diminished by an order of magnitude, yielding a condensed section that correlates temporally with episodes of regional monsoon failure during the late 14th and early 15th century, recorded in tree ring records from Vietnam. Our results demonstrate that changes in the water management system were associated with the decline of the Angkorian kingdom during that period. By the 17th century, the West Baray again functioned as a limnetic system. Ecologic and sedimentologic changes over the last millennium, detected in the baray deposits, are attributed to shifts in regional-scale Khmer water management, evolving land use practices in the catchment, and regional climate change. PMID:22215582

Day, Mary Beth; Hodell, David A; Brenner, Mark; Chapman, Hazel J; Curtis, Jason H; Kenney, William F; Kolata, Alan L; Peterson, Larry C

2012-01-03

138

Patterns of alcohol and tobacco use in cambodia.  

PubMed

Few studies have considered whether the habitual use of tobacco in Southeast Asia is part of an established pattern of addiction that includes regular alcohol use. As part of a national survey of adult tobacco use in Cambodia (n = 13 988), we found that men who smoked were 2 times more likely to have drank alcohol in the past week (odds ratio = 2.53, 95% confidence interval = 2.10-3.03). By age 18 to 25 years, 47% of male smokers drank alcohol, and this pattern of alcohol and tobacco use increased to >55% through the fifth decade. Women using smokeless tobacco with betel quid were more likely to be alcohol drinkers (odds ratio = 1.49, 95% confidence interval = 1.12-1.98). Past week's drinking declined by late middle age and was associated with lower education and being currently married; the behavior was lower in some ethnic groups (ie, Cham). Our findings indicate an important association between alcohol and tobacco use, and raise the possibility that reducing alcohol consumption can be an important component of tobacco control. PMID:23165486

Banta, Jim E; Addison, Askari; Job, Jayakaran S; Yel, Daravuth; Kheam, They; Singh, Pramil N

2012-11-18

139

Microbiological effectiveness of mineral pot filters in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Mineral pot filters (MPFs) are household water treatment (HWT) devices that are manufactured and distributed by the private sector, with millions of users in Southeast Asia. Their effectiveness in reducing waterborne microbes has not been previously investigated. We purchased three types of MPFs available on the Cambodian market for systematic evaluation of bacteria, virus, and protozoan surrogate microbial reduction in laboratory challenge experiments following WHO recommended performance testing protocols. Results over the total 1500 L testing period per filter indicate that the devices tested were highly effective in reducing Esherichia coli (99.99%+), moderately effective in reducing bacteriophage MS2 (99%+), and somewhat effective against Bacillus atrophaeus, a spore-forming bacterium we used as a surrogate for protozoa (88%+). Treatment mechanisms for all filters included porous ceramic and activated carbon filtration. Our results suggest that these commercially available filters may be at least as effective against waterborne pathogens as other, locally available treatment options such as ceramic pot filters or boiling. More research is needed on the role these devices may play as interim solutions to the problem of unsafe drinking water in Cambodia and globally. PMID:23030639

Brown, Joe; Chai, Ratana; Wang, Alice; Sobsey, Mark D

2012-10-24

140

Paleoenvironmental history of the West Baray, Angkor (Cambodia)  

PubMed Central

Angkor (Cambodia) was the seat of the Khmer Empire from the 9th to 15th century AD. The site is noted for its monumental architecture and complex hydro-engineering systems, comprised of canals, moats, embankments, and large reservoirs, known as barays. We infer a 1,000-y, 14C-dated paleoenvironmental record from study of an approximately 2-m sediment core taken in the largest Khmer reservoir, the West Baray. The baray was utilized and managed from the time of construction in the early 11th century, through the 13th century. During that time, the West Baray received relatively high rates of detrital input. In the 14th century, linear sedimentation rates diminished by an order of magnitude, yielding a condensed section that correlates temporally with episodes of regional monsoon failure during the late 14th and early 15th century, recorded in tree ring records from Vietnam. Our results demonstrate that changes in the water management system were associated with the decline of the Angkorian kingdom during that period. By the 17th century, the West Baray again functioned as a limnetic system. Ecologic and sedimentologic changes over the last millennium, detected in the baray deposits, are attributed to shifts in regional-scale Khmer water management, evolving land use practices in the catchment, and regional climate change.

Day, Mary Beth; Hodell, David A.; Brenner, Mark; Chapman, Hazel J.; Curtis, Jason H.; Kenney, William F.; Kolata, Alan L.; Peterson, Larry C.

2012-01-01

141

Media reporting of tenofovir trials in Cambodia and Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background Two planned trials of pre-exposure prophylaxis tenofovir in Cambodia and Cameroon to prevent HIV infection in high-risk populations were closed due to activist pressure on host country governments. The international news media contributed substantially as the primary source of knowledge transfer regarding the trials. We aimed to characterize the nature of reporting, specifically focusing on the issues identified by media reports regarding each trial. Methods With the aid of an information specialist, we searched 3 electronic media databases, 5 electronic medical databases and extensively searched the Internet. In addition we contacted stakeholder groups. We included media reports addressing the trial closures, the reasons for the trial closures, and who was interviewed. We extracted data using content analysis independently, in duplicate. Results We included 24 reports on the Cambodian trial closure and 13 reports on the Cameroon trial closure. One academic news account incorrectly reported that it was an HIV vaccine trial that closed early. The primary reasons cited for the Cambodian trial closure were: a lack of medical insurance for trial related injuries (71%); human rights considerations (71%); study protocol concerns (46%); general suspicions regarding trial location (37%) and inadequate prevention counseling (29%). The primary reasons cited for the Cameroon trial closure were: inadequate access to care for seroconverters (69%); participants not sufficiently informed of risks (69%); inadequate number of staff (46%); participants being exploited (46%) and an unethical study design (38%). Only 3/23 (13%) reports acknowledged interviewing research personnel regarding the Cambodian trial, while 4/13 (30.8%) reports interviewed researchers involved in the Cameroon trial. Conclusion Our review indicates that the issues addressed and validity of the media reports of these trials is highly variable. Given the potential impact of the media in formulation of health policy related to HIV, efforts are needed to effectively engage the media during periods of controversy in the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

Mills, Edward; Rachlis, Beth; Wu, Ping; Wong, Elaine; Wilson, Kumanan; Singh, Sonal

2005-01-01

142

MinehoundTM trials in Cambodia, Bosnia, and Angola  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the trials of the MINEHOUNDTM dual sensor, land mine detector carried out in Cambodia, Bosnia and Angola. MINEHOUNDTM has been developed for use in humanitarian demining as a means of improving the efficiency of clearance operations. The trials were sponsored by the UK Department for International Development (DFID). ERA Technology Ltd conducted the trials, which were monitored by staff drawn from the countries participating in the International Test and Evaluation Programme (ITEP) for humanitarian de-mining. Experienced deminers from the Mines Advisory Group (MAG) and Norwegian Peoples Aid (NPA) used the pre-production units in live minefields. The objectives of the trial were: 1. To record information on the performance of MINEHOUNDTM when used in a live minefield. 2. To determine the reduction in False Alarm Rate (FAR) that could be achieved using a dual sensor mine detector. The trials were conducted in three mine-affected countries for a period of eight weeks per country; the programme of trials ran from July 2005 to December 2005, with an additional smaller trial in late February 2006. The results of the trials showed that MINEHOUNDTM achieved 100% detection of the mines encountered and an improvement in FAR of better than 5:1 compared with a basic metal detector. The trials enabled optimisation of the production design and clearly demonstrated that new technology can be brought to humanitarian clearance operations in a safe and controlled manner. As a result of the highly successful trials, Vallon and ERA will produce the MINEHOUNDTM (Type number VMR1) starting in Q3 of 2006.

Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul

2006-06-01

143

Influence of household practices on the performance of clay pot water filters in rural Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, only 41% of Cambodians have access to safe drinking water. To combat this issue, Resource Development International Cambodia (RDIC) has been promoting and developing affordable clay pot water filters to be sold across the country. Although the filters have excellent bacterial removal capabilities, researchers have identified that the contamination of water storage containers through improper household practices is an

H. M. Murphy; M. Sampson; E. McBean; K. Farahbakhsh

2009-01-01

144

Policymaking in transitional economies: poverty reduction and health care in Cambodia and Laos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic liberalisation processes initiated in the middle of the 1980s opened up Cambodia and Laos to the outside world, for people, goods and ideas. Market economy thinking has replaced central planning system and war economy ideals. Still, both countries struggle with poverty, limited human resources, and weak health care systems. The differences between urban and rural areas continue to

Kristina Jönsson

2008-01-01

145

Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Surveillance at Live Poultry Markets, Cambodia, 2011  

PubMed Central

In Cambodia, influenza A(H5N1) virus surveillance at live poultry markets (LPMs) relies on virus isolation from poultry specimens; however, virus is rarely detected by this method. We tested 502 environmental LPM samples: 90 were positive by PCR, 10 by virus isolation. Virus circulation could be better monitored by environmental sampling of LPMs.

Horm, Srey Viseth; Sorn, San; Allal, Lotfi

2013-01-01

146

Role of risk and protective factors in risky sexual behavior among high school students in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In many developing countries, adolescents have become increasingly prone to engage in habitual risky sexual behavior such as early sexual initiation and unprotected sex. The objective of this study was to identify the operation of risk and protective factors in individual, family, peer, school, and community domains in predicting risky sexual behavior among male and female adolescents in Cambodia.

Siyan Yi; Krishna C Poudel; Junko Yasuoka; Paula H Palmer; Songky Yi; Masamine Jimba

2010-01-01

147

Influenza A(H5N1) virus surveillance at live poultry markets, Cambodia, 2011.  

PubMed

In Cambodia, influenza A(H5N1) virus surveillance at live poultry markets (LPMs) relies on virus isolation from poultry specimens; however, virus is rarely detected by this method. We tested 502 environmental LPM samples: 90 were positive by PCR, 10 by virus isolation. Virus circulation could be better monitored by environmental sampling of LPMs. PMID:23347451

Horm, Srey Viseth; Sorn, San; Allal, Lotfi; Buchy, Philippe

2013-02-01

148

Student Achievement and Education Policy in a Period of Rapid Expansion: Assessment Data Evidence from Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article analyses student achievement and school quality in large samples of schools in Cambodia. Descriptive summaries of student proficiency levels in language and mathematics reveal large gaps between average performance in grades three and six. Given the near universal completion rates for grade three--and lower access to grade six--these…

Marshall, Jeffery H.; Chinna, Ung; Nessay, Puth; Hok, Ung Ngo; Savoeun, Va; Tinon, Soeur; Veasna, Meung

2009-01-01

149

Distance Education Policy and Public Awareness in Cambodia, Laos, and Viet Nam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current project brings together academic and governmental specialists from Cambodia, Laos, and Viet Nam (CLV), in a collaborative study of the prospects for distance education (DE) in those countries. The study's overall objectives are to: (1) survey and take stock of existing educational scenarios and problems in CLV; (2) document the…

Vuth, Doung; Than, Chhuon Chan; Phanousith, Somphone; Phissamay, Phonpasit; Tai, Tran Thi

2007-01-01

150

Vernaculars in Literacy and Basic Education in Cambodia, Laos and Thailand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three Southeast Asian polities, Cambodia, Laos and Thailand share much of their geography, history, culture, religion and language. Not all speakers of more than 100 languages spoken in the area have a sufficient knowledge of the respective national languages, Khmer, Lao and Thai. Yet, for the most part, the national languages are the only…

Kosonen, Kimmo

2005-01-01

151

Learning to Read in Ratanakiri: A Case Study from Northeastern Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In Ratanakiri province, northeastern Cambodia, the majority of the local people are native speakers of ethnic minority languages. Primarily subsistence farmers, they use their own language to communicate with others in their villages, and as they work in their rice fields. A baseline survey taken between 1996 and 1998 in five such villages showed…

Gregerson, Marilyn J.

2009-01-01

152

Reviewing the Role of Teachers in Achieving Education for All in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over the last 20 years education policies in Cambodia have been driven by the global Education for All (EFA) campaign and have resulted in a rapid increase in the rates of primary education enrolment. However, the increasing number of children enrolling in schools has not always translated into high rates of primary education completion. Against…

Kim, Chae-Young; Rouse, Martyn

2011-01-01

153

Impact of School Readiness Program Interventions on Children's Learning in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To reduce the high repetition rates in early years of primary school, the government of Cambodia piloted a school readiness program (SRP) in the first two months of Grade 1 of primary school. This study examines whether such intervention has effects on students' immediate acquisition of school readiness skills as well as students' longer term…

Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Bredenberg, Kurt

2009-01-01

154

Educational Financing and Budgeting in Cambodia. Financial Management of Education Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book contains a detailed description of the challenges faced by educational finance and budgeting in Cambodia. Until recently, educational financing took the form of emergency budgets and was limited to government planning for teacher salaries and costs of examinations. There has been a general lack of coordination between provinces and the…

Pheng, Duy; Sovonn, Hang; Soly, Yos

155

Disability and Democracy in Cambodia: An Integrative Approach to Community Building and Civic Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The political framework through which the various communities of disabled persons in Cambodia advocate for and claim their rights is complex and confusing. Both governmental and non-governmental actors engage this political framework through the mobilization of persons from the various disabled communities, competing in the civic sphere through…

Zook, Darren C.

2010-01-01

156

“Reasonable Accommodations” or Education for All? The Case of Children Living With Disabilities in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine the various challenges and barriers to education for children living with disabilities, primarily those living with deafness and blindness in Cambodia. Poverty and economic instability of families are key hindrances to educational opportunities for these children. Other barriers include lack of government ownership of educational programs for people with disabilities, poor governance and low accountability of the

Michelle Mak; Bjorn H. Nordtveit

2011-01-01

157

The Transition to History in the Mekong Delta: A View from Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses methodological issues associated with the use of documentary and archaeological data to interpret the early historic period of southern Cambodia. Developments in the Lower Mekong region are used as a case study, and where the polity of “Funan” reputedly flourished from the second to the sixth centuries A.D. A variety of data sources available to us now—Chinese

Miriam T. Stark

1998-01-01

158

Conceptual Model for Cybersecurity Readiness Assessement for Public Institutions in Developing Country: Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study establishes a conceptual model to assess the cybersecurity readiness for the public sector in Cambodia. The prime motivation of prioritizing the public institutions in this study is due to the fact that these institutions have been reported as the most vulnerable and most wanted target of cyber attacks. We suggest that it is really vital should the weakness

Sopheak Cheang

2009-01-01

159

Paradigm and paradox: Education for All and the inclusion of children with disabilities in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In keeping with international guidelines and to meet the target of Education for All (EFA) by 2015, the Cambodian government, with assistance from non?government and aid organisations, has instituted several initiatives towards including children with disabilities in the educational mainstream. This paper examines these efforts within the context of current socio?political development and the general educational system in Cambodia, and

Maya Kalyanpur

2011-01-01

160

Much More Than Rice: Rice Field Biodiversity and Food Security in Southeastern Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild fish a nd aquatic plants play an important role in farmer food security in Southerstern Cambodia. Understanding the relationship between rice field b iodiversity and food security c an guide local communities, non-governmental organizations, and policy makers to implement sustainable management strategies for living a quatic resources in rainfed lowland rice g rowing areas. The report consists of preliminary

Numa Shams; Tuy Samram; Dennis Gutierrez; Mum Phanny; Ngang Sameoun

161

Basic Education for Rural Children: Current Facts, Situation and Challenges in Post-Conflict Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was a comparative study conducted between the two schools namely Kdie Tatam (KT) supported by the State and NGOs and Kbal Samraong (KS) supported by the State only. A field work was conducted in Samraong district of Takeo province, Cambodia where data gathered from both primary and secondary sources. The primary data was fundamentally obtained from a household survey

Sok Serey

162

Constraints and Options in Local Forest Management in Cambodia: Is Decentralization a Solution?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Cambodia there is an urgent need to ensure the livelihood of the forest-dependent rural poor while at the same time sustaining valuable forest resources. As past centralized forest management regimes have failed, international scholars and development practitioners increasingly recommend the decentralization of power in favor of granting authority over forest management to commune councils. Drawing on experience from community

Iben Nathan; Tove E. Boon

2012-01-01

163

Own and sibling effects of conditional cash transfer programs : theory and evidence from Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditional cash transfers have been adopted by a large number of countries in the past decade. Although the impacts of these programs have been studied extensively, understanding of the economic mechanisms through which cash and conditions affect household decisions remains incomplete. This paper uses evidence from a program in Cambodia, where eligibility varied substantially among siblings in the same household,

Francisco H. G. Ferreira; Deon Filmer; Norbert Schady

2009-01-01

164

From GHGs Abatement Potential To Viable CDM Projects - The Cases of Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the CDM potential in Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam by focusing not only on the absolute GHG abatement value of these countries. Rather, the potential of CDM inflows into the three countries will be identified through assessing the comparative CDM endowment on the basis of an holistic analysis of each country, thereby highlight the relative positions of

Dang Hanh; Axel Michaelowa; Friso de Jong

2006-01-01

165

Changes in Ante-Natal Care and Family Planning in Krakor, Pursat, Cambodia, 1996-1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines variations in ante-natal care (ANC) and family planning in Krakor, Pursat, Cambodia between 1996 and 1998. Population-based survey interviews were conducted with a total of 291 women in 1996 and 211 women in 1998. An intervention strategy designed to enhance the skills and roles of Health Centre staff, Village Health Volunteers (VHVs) and Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs)

Barbara Main; Tony Lower; Ross James; Ian Rouse

2001-01-01

166

Learning to read in Ratanakiri: a case study from northeastern Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Ratanakiri province, northeastern Cambodia, the majority of the local people are native speakers of ethnic minority languages. Primarily subsistence farmers, they use their own language to communicate with others in their villages, and as they work in their rice fields. A baseline survey taken between 1996 and 1998 in five such villages showed that more than 95% of the

Marilyn J. Gregerson

2009-01-01

167

Poverty, wealth inequality and health among older adults in rural Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little research exists on health determinants among adults living in economically deprived regions despite the fact that these areas comprise a good part of the world. This paper examines the distribution of wealth then tests associations between wealth inequality and a variety of health outcomes, among older adults, in one of the world's poorest regions—rural Cambodia. Data from the 2004

Zachary Zimmer

2008-01-01

168

How Road Traffic Injuries Affect Household Welfare in Cambodia Using the Millennium Development Goals Benchmarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reveals the welfare costs of traffic injuries in Cambodia at the beginning of a decade in which greater research and resources will be focused on road safety. The results quantify how road traffic injuries affect progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) using survey data from 100 Cambodian households. The median age of the police-reported casualties was 28

Matthew Ericson; Pagna Kim

2011-01-01

169

Evaluating the Competitiveness of the Tourism Industry in Cambodia: Self-assessment from Professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annual tourism growth rate in Cambodia is among the highest in the world; however, tourist industry impact on Cambodian's economy is quite low. The purpose of our study is to analyse the strengths and weaknesses of the Cambodian tourism market so that a framework can be established to help the country's policy-makers formulate strategies to use its resources effectively

Ching-Yaw Chens; Phyra Sok; Keomony Sok

2008-01-01

170

Exchange Rate Movements in a Dollarized Economy: The Case of Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been an on-going debate on whether dollarization helps stabilize exchange rates for emerging economies. This paper discusses this issue in a highly dollarized country, Cambodia, by empirically examining the relationship between dollarization and exchange rate movements. The GARCH analysis suggests that dollarization induces the depreciation of the Cambodian riel as well as intensifies exchange rate variability. The result

Sok Heng Lay; Makoto Kakinaka; Koji Kotani

2010-01-01

171

Exchange Rate Movements in a Dollarized Economy: The Case of Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been an ongoing debate on whether dollarization helps stabilize exchange rates for emerging economies. This paper discusses this issue in a highly dollarized country, Cambodia, by empirically examining the relationship between dollarization and exchange rate movements. The GARCH analysis suggests that dollarization induces the depreciation of the Cambodian riel as well as intensifies exchange rate variability. The result

Sok Heng Lay; Makoto Kakinaka; Koji Kotani

2012-01-01

172

Contribution of Rice Field Ecosytems to Food Security Strategies in Northwest Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rich in biodiversity, Cambodia's rice field ecosystems are an important source of livelihood and food security. Foraging of aquatic plants and animals alongside the cultivation of rice has been the main characteristic of food and income systems of traditional Cambodian rural society. Participatory action learning involving 30 farmers in three different villages located in three different lowland ecosystems of northwest

Numa Shams

2007-01-01

173

Characteristics of Small and Medium Enterprises in Cambodia: Case study of rice milling enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Abstract: This paper shows the significant role of Cambodia SMEs in the private sector and economic development after the government adopted its new economic system; from a planned economy to a market economy in the early 1990s. They form a majority of the country's industrial firms. This paper reveals the characteristics of SMEs particularly in rice milling enterprises. These

Wat Ho

174

Groundwater flow in an arsenic-contaminated aquifer, Mekong Delta, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

To advance understanding of hydrological influences on As concentrations within groundwaters of Southeast Asia, the flow system of an As-rich aquifer on the Mekong Delta in Cambodia where flow patterns have not been disturbed by irrigation well pumping was examined. Monitoring of water levels in a network of installed wells, extending over a 50km2 area, indicates that groundwater flow is

Shawn G. Benner; Matthew L. Polizzotto; Benjamin D. Kocar; Somenath Ganguly; Kongkea Phan; Kagna Ouch; Michael Sampson; Scott Fendorf

2008-01-01

175

Disability and Democracy in Cambodia: An Integrative Approach to Community Building and Civic Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The political framework through which the various communities of disabled persons in Cambodia advocate for and claim their rights is complex and confusing. Both governmental and non-governmental actors engage this political framework through the mobilization of persons from the various disabled communities, competing in the civic sphere through…

Zook, Darren C.

2010-01-01

176

Student Achievement and Education Policy in a Period of Rapid Expansion: Assessment Data Evidence from Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyses student achievement and school quality in large samples of schools in Cambodia. Descriptive summaries of student proficiency levels in language and mathematics reveal large gaps between average performance in grades three and six. Given the near universal completion rates for grade three--and lower access to grade six--these…

Marshall, Jeffery H.; Chinna, Ung; Nessay, Puth; Hok, Ung Ngo; Savoeun, Va; Tinon, Soeur; Veasna, Meung

2009-01-01

177

Indochinese Refugee Experience. Refugees from Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia in Nova Scotia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Firsthand accounts by refugees from Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam, telling how they escaped from Indochina and how they are adjusting to life in Canada (and particularly Nova Scotia), form the greater part of this book. Most of the accounts are by Vietnamese. Information is also provided on the history of the Canadian refugee program, and on the…

Ngo, Xuong, Comp.; Guay, Marcel, Ed.

178

What International Aid Organizations Can Learn From International Adult Learning: Experiences From Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Many countries receive international support to strengthen professional capacity. The effect of these professional development activities (PDAs), however, is often negligible. This article provides useful insights on how international aid organizations could improve their PDAs, by describing an intervention developed and applied in Cambodia. This intervention aimed at developing a training approach to be used within the local ministry

Jan Berkvens

2012-01-01

179

An Annotated Bibliography of Cambodia and Cambodian Refugees. Southeast Asian Refugee Studies Occasional Papers Number Five.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 578-entry annotated bibliography is intended for use by people who work with Cambodian refugees in the United States, as well as anyone interested in Cambodian history, politics, and culture. It consists primarily of books and journal articles on Cambodia and Cambodians available in the University of Minnesota library system or that are part…

Marston, John, Comp.

180

The Development of Libraries in Cambodia: The Post-Khmer Rouge Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the recent development of libraries in Cambodia. Topics include rebuilding the infrastructure; restoring old libraries and opening new ones; government libraries; public libraries; academic libraries; cultural considerations; collections; staffing; support from the United Nations and other international organizations; and the lack of…

D'Amicantonio, John

1997-01-01

181

Conservation needs of the dugong Dugong dugon in Cambodia and Phu Quoc, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was conducted to assess the location of population groups and conservation issues affecting dugong Dugong dugon along the eastern Gulf of Thailand off Cambodia and Phu Quoc Island, Vietnam. Interviews in fishing communities in 2002 and 2004 along the Cambodian coast revealed that dugongs are sporadically found in fishing nets and their body parts are sold for a

Ellen Hines; Kanjana Adulyanukosol; Phay Somany; Leng Sam Ath; Nick Cox; Potchana Boonyanate; Nguyen Xuan Hoa

182

An Annotated Bibliography of Cambodia and Cambodian Refugees. Southeast Asian Refugee Studies Occasional Papers Number Five.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This 578-entry annotated bibliography is intended for use by people who work with Cambodian refugees in the United States, as well as anyone interested in Cambodian history, politics, and culture. It consists primarily of books and journal articles on Cambodia and Cambodians available in the University of Minnesota library system or that are part…

Marston, John, Comp.

183

Getting Girls into School: Evidence from a Scholarship Program in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing the schooling attainment of girls is a challenge in much of the developing world. In this study we evaluate the impact of a program that gives scholarships to girls making the transition between the last year of primary school and the first year of secondary school in Cambodia. We show that the scholarship program increased the enrollment and attendance

Deon Filmer; Norbert Schady

2008-01-01

184

Where is the Poverty–Environment Nexus? Evidence from Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. — This paper investigates the poverty-environment nexus at the provincial and district levels in Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Vietnam. The analysis focuses on spatial associations between poverty populations and five environmental problems: deforestation, fragile soils, indoor air pollu- tion, contaminated water, and outdoor air pollution. The results suggest that the nexus is quite dif- ferent in each country. We

Susmita Dasgupta; Uwe Deichmann; Craig Meisner; David Wheeler

2005-01-01

185

Landslide susceptibility mapping in the Damrei Romel area, Cambodia using frequency ratio and logistic regression models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applied, tested and compared a probability model, a frequency ratio and statistical model, a logistic regression to Damre Romel area, Cambodia, using a geographic information system. For landslide susceptibility mapping, landslide locations were identified in the study area from interpretation of aerial photographs and field surveys, and a spatial database was constructed from topographic maps, geology and land

Saro Lee; Touch Sambath

2006-01-01

186

Behavioural and serological human immunodeficiency virus risk factors among female commercial sex workers in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Cambodia is mainly caused by sexual transmission and the high-risk group in this country are female commercial sex workers (CSW). There are two types of CSW, direct CSW (DCSW) and indirect CSW (IDCSW), who are different from each other in sexual activities. This study was conducted in order to describe the

K Ohshige; S Morio; K Tajima; P Tia; S Heng; V Saphonn; K Sodaa

2000-01-01

187

Countrywide Survey Shows Very High Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Multilocus Resistance Genotypes in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cambodia is located in an area of resistance to multiple antimalarials and has been the first country to implement the systematic use of an artesunate-mefloquine combination as first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Little is known, however, about the prevalence of resistance mutations within the natural parasite populations, impeding rational drug policy in this context. Using direct sequencing of PCR

Nimol Khim; Christiane Bouchier; Marie-Therese Ekala; Sandra Incardona; Pharath Lim; Eric Legrand; Ronan Jambou; Socheat Doung; Odile Mercereau Puijalon; Thierry Fandeur

2005-01-01

188

Support by Migrants to Their Elderly Parents in Rural Cambodia and Thailand: A Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Internal migration in Southeast Asia raises questions about strains upon traditional sys- tems of support ,for older adults. While remittances to parents’ households ,play a role in rural household economies, uncertainty remains regarding whether and under what circumstances children interact with their elderly parents. This paper focuses on the adult children of older per- sons living in rural Cambodia

Zachary Zimmer; Kim Korinek; John Knodel; Napaporn Chayovan

189

Situation Reports--Brasil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Data relating to population and family planning in six foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Brazil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

190

Technical Assistance and Capacity Development in an Aid-dependent Economy: The Experience of Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

To what extent can external technical assistance develop the capacity of counterparts, whether in government or in local nongovernmental organizations (LNGOs) in an aid-dependent economy? Cambodia's experience since 1993 suggests that most projects in such a situation are donor-driven in their identification, design and implementation, to the detriment of capacity development. Connected with this is the chronic underfunding of government

Martin Godfrey; Chan Sophal; Toshiyasu Kato; Long Vou Piseth; Pon Dorina; Tep Saravy; Tia Savora; So Sovannarith

2002-01-01

191

Development of Indicators for Educational Planning: Brazil, Cambodia, Estonia, Gambia, Lithuania, Thailand.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents the outcomes of a distance education course on development and dissemination of indicators used for educational planning. The course took place from November 2000 to February 2001 and was attended by representatives from the ministries of education of Brazil, Cambodia, Estonia, Gambia, Lithuania, and Thailand. The overall…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). International Inst. for Educational Planning.

192

Luminescence dating of anthropogenically reset canal sediments from Angkor Borei, Mekong Delta, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study in the analysis of anthropogenically reset sedimentary materials, through work undertaken to identify and date sediments in an ancient canal in the Mekong Delta, Cambodia. The emergence of rice cultivating communities, utilising canals for both hydraulic management and transport, represents an important stage in the social evolution of southeast Asia. The emergence of complex

D. C. W. Sanderson; P. Bishop; M. T. Stark; J. Q. Spencer

2003-01-01

193

Challenges of Adopting the Use of Technology in Less Developed Countries: The Case of Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Drawing on Everett Rogers's theory of the diffusion of innovations, this article identifies the barriers, challenges, and successes in the adoption of technology training by teacher trainers in Cambodia. The analysis was based on data collected from an open-ended survey, face-to-face interviews, and document analysis. Findings reveal that the…

Richardson, Jayson W.

2011-01-01

194

Characterization of forests and deforestation in Cambodia using ALOS\\/PALSAR observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we have demonstrated the capability of full polarimetric ALOS\\/Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data for the characterization of the forests and deforestation in Cambodia, to support climate change mitigation policies of Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD). We have observed mean backscattering coefficient (?°), entropy (H), alpha angle (?), anisotropy (A), pedestal height (PH),

Ram Avtar; Haruo Sawada; Wataru Takeuchi; Gulab Singh

2012-01-01

195

Characterization of forests and deforestation in Cambodia using ALOS\\/PALSAR observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we have demonstrated the capability of full polarimetric ALOS\\/Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data for the characterization of the forests and deforestation in Cambodia, to support climate change mitigation policies of Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD). We have observed mean backscattering coefficient (?°), entropy (H), alpha angle (?), anisotropy (A), pedestal height (PH),

Ram Avtar; Haruo Sawada; Wataru Takeuchi; Gulab Singh

2011-01-01

196

"Almost a role model of what we would like to do everywhere": British American Tobacco in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To examine British American Tobacco's (BAT's) renewed interest in Cambodia from the early 1990s, reviewing negotiations to establish a joint venture and the subsequent conduct of BAT Cambodia (BATC). Methods: Analysis of previously confidential BAT documents relevant to the Cambodian market. Results: With the advent of comparative political stability in the early 1990s, BAT was quick to explore the possibilities for investment. The Cambodian government urgently required foreign investment, offering inducements and assistance to investors. In developing a joint venture, BAT saw a cost effective opportunity to dominate the local market and to defend its regional interests, Cambodia being viewed as strategically located to support smuggling. Given minimal advertising regulation, BATC have undertaken wide ranging promotions and sought to prevent advances in tobacco control. Conclusions: BATC is presented as a contribution to Cambodia's regeneration, but the documents highlight its exploitation of state incapacity and an escalating threat to public health.

MacKenzie, R; Collin, J; Sopharo, C; Sopheap, Y

2004-01-01

197

Respondent-driven sampling on the Thailand-Cambodia border. I. Can malaria cases be contained in mobile migrant workers?  

PubMed Central

Background Reliable information on mobility patterns of migrants is a crucial part of the strategy to contain the spread of artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites in South-East Asia, and may also be helpful to efforts to address other public health problems for migrants and members of host communities. In order to limit the spread of malarial drug resistance, the malaria prevention and control programme will need to devise strategies to reach cross-border and mobile migrant populations. Methodology The Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method was used to survey migrant workers from Cambodia and Myanmar, both registered and undocumented, in three Thai provinces on the Thailand-Cambodia border in close proximity to areas with documented artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites. 1,719 participants (828 Cambodian and 891 Myanmar migrants) were recruited. Subpopulations of migrant workers were analysed using the Thailand Ministry of Health classification based on length of residence in Thailand of greater than six months (long-term, or M1) or less than six months (short-term, or M2). Key information collected on the structured questionnaire included patterns of mobility and migration, demographic characteristics, treatment-seeking behaviours, and knowledge, perceptions, and practices about malaria. Results Workers from Cambodia came from provinces across Cambodia, and 22% of Cambodian M1 and 72% of Cambodian M2 migrants had been in Cambodia in the last three months. Less than 6% returned with a frequency of greater than once per month. Of migrants from Cambodia, 32% of M1 and 68% of M2 were planning to return, and named provinces across Cambodia as their likely next destinations. Most workers from Myanmar came from Mon state (86%), had never returned to Myanmar (85%), and only 4% stated plans to return. Conclusion Information on migratory patterns of migrants from Myanmar and Cambodia along the malaria endemic Thailand-Cambodian border within the artemisinin resistance containment zone will help target health interventions, including treatment follow-up and surveillance.

2011-01-01

198

Comparison of health-seeking behaviour between poor and better-off people after health sector reform in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared health-seeking behaviour between poor and better-off people after health sector reform in Cambodia. The survey was conducted in the Prek Dach Health Centre coverage area, which is located in South-east Cambodia. The study population consisted of 257 housewives of reproductive age, selected at random. Data were collected through household surveys with a structured questionnaire. Data collected included

S Yanagisawa; V Mey; S Wakai

2004-01-01

199

Molecular identification of Taenia tapeworms by Cox1 gene in Koh Kong, Cambodia.  

PubMed

We collected fecal samples from 21 individuals infected with Taenia tapeworms in Koh Kong Province, Cambodia, and performed nucleotide sequencing of the cox1 gene and multiplex PCR on the eggs for DNA differential diagnosis of human Taenia tapeworms. Genomic DNA was extracted from the eggs of a minimum number of 10 isolated from fecal samples. Using oligonucleotide primers Ta7126F, Ts7313F, Tso7466F, and Rev7915, the multiplex PCR assay proved useful for differentially diagnosing Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica based on 706, 629, and 474 bp bands, respectively. All of the Taenia specimens from Kho Kong, Cambodia, were identified as either T. saginata (n=19) or T. solium (n=2) by cox1 sequencing and multiplex PCR. PMID:21738280

Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Hong, Sung-Jong; Han, Eun-Taek; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Chhakda, Tep; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong; Eom, Keeseon S

2011-06-14

200

Burden of injury from explosive remnants of conflict in Lao PDR and Cambodia.  

PubMed

In postconflict settings, a substantial number of injuries and related disabilities are caused by land mines and explosive remnants of war. This article reviews the literature on the prevalence of these injuries and subsequent disabilities in Cambodia and Lao PDR. Three major electronic databases were systematically for publications on the prevalence of these injuries. Six studies met the inclusion criteria. Five of these were in Cambodia and 1 in Lao PDR. None of these studies could estimate national prevalence rates of these injuries; only 2 considered the broader impact of related disabilities. The different methodological approaches and limitations of the studies prevented statistical synthesis. The studies reviewed suggested accurate estimates of the prevalence of war injuries and consequent disabilities are missing. There is a need for a comprehensive epidemiological research to quantify the burden that results from such injuries. PMID:23460585

Durham, Jo; Hoy, Damian

2013-03-01

201

HIV transmission from husbands to wives in Cambodia: a systematic review of the literature.  

PubMed

HIV transmission in Cambodia has declined considerably in recent years, yet new incidents of HIV transmission within marital relationships have increased. Evidence suggests that the cause of this is transmission from HIV-positive men to their HIV-negative spouses. The objective of this paper is to develop an evidence-based model of HIV transmission from husbands to wives in Cambodia in a context of culture and society, drawing from the published literature. A critical analysis of peer reviewed literature, professional papers, policy reports and reference books identified four plausible factors influencing inter-spousal HIV transmission: (1) a hierarchical male-dominated society, (2) husbands' involvement with sex workers, (3) cultural values concerning the ideal Khmer woman and (4) unprotected sex between an HIV-infected husband and his uninfected wife. This evidence-based explanatory model can be used to inform future culturally appropriate HIV-education and prevention programmes. PMID:23701215

Yang, Youngran; Lewis, Frances Marcus; Kraushaar, Daniel L

2013-05-24

202

Changes of Vertical Soil Moisture Conditions of a Dry Evergreen Forest in Kampong Thom, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes of soil water conditions in a soil profile were observed and estimated using a one-dimensional vertical soil water\\u000a movement model for a dry evergreen forest area of Kampong Thom Province, Cambodia. The research site was in a dry evergreen\\u000a forest where a meteorological observation tower had been established. Soil water matric potentials were measured at 20-, 50-,\\u000a 100-, 150-,

Makoto Araki; Akira Shimizu; Jumpei Toriyama; Eriko Ito; Naoki Kabeya; Tatsuhiko Nobuhiro; Bora Tith; Sopheavuth Pol; Sopheap Lim; Saret Khorn; Phearak Pith; Seila Det; Seiichi Ohta; Mamoru Kanzaki

203

Apparent Change in Soil Depth and Soil Hardness in Forest Areas in Kampong Thom Province, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the evergreen forests in Kampong Thom Province, Cambodia, soil depth and soil hardness apparently change from the rainy\\u000a season to the dry season. In contrast, in deciduous and mixed forests, these parameters hardly change in either season. The\\u000a apparent changes in soil depth and hardness would be strongly affected in the dry season by physical properties, including\\u000a clay content

Yasuhiro Ohnuki; Chansopheaktra Kimhean; Yoshiki Shinomiya; Sethik Sor; Jumpei Toriyama; Seiichi Ohta

204

Modeling the Dollarization: A Case Study for Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

We model the dollarization of three transitional economies in south-east Asia: Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam which have been experiencing the transition and reform process of the economy for the time period 1992–2007. Based on Rojas-Suarez (IMF Working Paper WP\\/92\\/33, 1992) work, we examine whether the holdings of US dollars depend on the effect of the expected rate of depreciation in

Hee-Ryang Ra

2008-01-01

205

Pfmdr1 copy number and arteminisin derivatives combination therapy failure in falciparum malaria in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The combination of artesunate and mefloquine was introduced as the national first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Cambodia in 2000. However, recent clinical trials performed at the Thai-Cambodian border have pointed to the declining efficacy of both artesunate-mefloquine and artemether-lumefantrine. Since pfmdr1 modulates susceptibility to mefloquine and artemisinin derivatives, the aim of this study was to assess the

Pharath Lim; Alisa P Alker; Nimol Khim; Naman K Shah; Sandra Incardona; Socheat Doung; Poravuth Yi; Denis Mey Bouth; Christiane Bouchier; Odile Mercereau Puijalon; Steven R Meshnick; Chansuda Wongsrichanalai; Thierry Fandeur; Jacques Le Bras; Pascal Ringwald; Frédéric Ariey

2009-01-01

206

Soil Moisture Conditions in Four Types of Forests in Kampong Thom, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil moisture conditions were observed in four types of forest in central Cambodia, where dry evergreen forests are distributed\\u000a widely, to investigate differences of soil moisture in each forest and to clarify relationships between forest types and soil\\u000a moisture conditions. Observations revealed that soil water contents were high during the rainy season in dry deciduous forest\\u000a (DDF) and mixed forest

Makoto Araki; Jumpei Toriyama; Seiichi Ohta; Mamoru Kanzaki; Eriko Ito; Bora Tith; Sopheavuth Pol; Sopheap Lim; Saret Khorn; Phearak Pith; Seila Det

207

Tourism, forest conversion, and land transformations in the Angkor basin, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Angkor basin of Cambodia, the site of the great Angkor temple complex, has experi- enced explosive tourism growth since the 1993 onset of national political stability and renewed international investment, which in turn has driven increasing demand for water, wood, and biomass fuel, and rapid and extensive land-use and land-cover change. We use multi-temporal Landsat imagery (1989-2005) to describe

Andrea E. Gaughan; Michael W. Binford; Jane Southworth

2008-01-01

208

Assessment of management of direct seeded rice production under different water conditions in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess direct seeding of rice technology to cope with future agricultural labor shortage in Cambodia, agronomic\\u000a experiments were conducted in 2005 and 2006 to compare direct seeding with transplanting under three water conditions (non-flooded,\\u000a shallow flooded, and deep flooded conditions) with\\/without weed control by herbicides (bentazone and cyhalofop-butyl) for\\u000a two Cambodian rice varieties (shorter stature and early

Hiroyuki Ikeda; Akihiko Kamoshita; Junko Yamagishi; Makara Ouk; Bunna Lor

2008-01-01

209

Estimation of solar radiation over Cambodia from long-term satellite data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, monthly average daily global solar irradiation over Cambodia was estimated from a long-term satellite data. A 14-year period (1995–2008) of visible channel data from GMS5, GOES9 and MTSAT-1R satellites were used to provide earth-atmospheric reflectivity. A satellite-based solar radiation model developed for a tropical environment was used to estimate surface solar radiation. The model relates the satellite-derived

S. Janjai; P. Pankaew; J. Laksanaboonsong; P. Kitichantaropas

2011-01-01

210

Positive outcomes of HAART at 24 months in HIV-infected patients in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: African and Asian cohort studies have demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of HAART in resource-poor settings. The long-term virological outcome and clinico-immunological criteria of success remain important questions. We report the outcomes at 24 months of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in patients treated in a Medecins Sans Frontieres\\/Ministry of Health programme in Cambodia. Methods: Adults who started HAART 24 ?

Laurent Ferradini; Didier Laureillard; Narom Prak; Chanchhaya Ngeth; Marcelo Fernandez; Loretxu Pinoges; Gloria Puertas; Anne-Marie Taburet; Nary Ly; Christine Rouzioux; Suna Balkan; Catherine Quillet; Jean-François Delfraissy

2007-01-01

211

Principal Forest Types of Three Regions of Cambodia: Kampong Thom, Kratie, and Mondolkiri  

Microsoft Academic Search

We enumerated all trees 10 cm or more in DBH with respect to DBH, height, and species identity in 29 circular plots of 20-m\\u000a radius from Kampong Thom, Kratie, and Mondolkiri Provinces, Cambodia. The composition data were analyzed using cluster analysis\\u000a with group-averaging protocol, and Sorensen’s similarity index based on basal area data and the resulting clusters were also\\u000a described

Akihiro Tani; Eriko Ito; Mamoru Kanzaki; Seiichi Ohta; Saret Khorn; Phearak Pith; Bora Tith; Sopheavuth Pol; Sopheap Lim

212

Influenza A\\/H5N1 virus infection in humans in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Between January 2005 and April 2006, six patients of influenza A\\/H5N1 virus infection were reported in Cambodia, all with fatal outcome. Objectives: We describe the virological findings of these six H5N1 patients in association with clinical and epidemiologic findings. Study design: Broncho-alveolar lavage, nasopharyngeal, throat and rectal swabs and sera were cultured for virus isolation and viral load quantified

Philippe Buchy; Sek Mardy; Sirenda Vong; Tetsuya Toyoda; Jean-Thierry Aubin; Megge Miller; Jean-Baptiste Dufourcq; Phan Van Tu; Sylvie Van der Werf

2007-01-01

213

Spatial analysis of woodfuel supply and demand in Kampong Thom Province, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study adopted a GIS-based approach to reveal how the potential supply and demand of woodfuel varies at different spatial scales within Kampong Thom Province, Cambodia. We considered three different scales: the first was the whole area of the province. The second scale calculated village-scale data in zones of 1, 3 and 5km from each village aggregated for all villages

Neth Top; Nobuya Mizoue; Satoshi Ito; Shigetaka Kai

2004-01-01

214

Out-of-pocket health expenditure and debt in poor households: evidence from Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary objectives To document how out-of-pocket health expenditure can lead to debt in a poor rural area in Cambodia. methods After a dengue epidemic, 72 households with a dengue patient were interviewed to document health-seeking behaviour, out-of-pocket expenditure, and how they financed such expenditure. One year later, a follow-up visit investigated how the 26 households with an initial debt had

Wim Van Damme; Luc Van Leemput; Ir Por; Wim Hardeman; Bruno Meessen

2004-01-01

215

Holocene Monsoon Changes Inferred from Lake Sediment Pollen and Carbonate Records, Northeastern Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major Holocene monsoon changes in continental Southeast Asia are reconstructed from analysis of 14C-dated changes in pollen and organic\\/inorganic carbon in sediment cores taken from permanent, closed-basin, volcanic lakes in Ratanakiri Province, northeastern Cambodia. Analysis focuses on the nature and timing of monsoon changes, inferred from changes in vegetation and lake conditions. These data provide the first well-dated palynological record,

Andrew Lee Maxwell

2001-01-01

216

Law and civil society in Cambodia and Vietnam: A gramscian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commentators have long struggled to understand state-society relations in Asia within the framework of the dominant liberal-democratic conceptualisation of civil society. This article examines the relevance of Antonio Gramsci's theory of civil society for understanding contemporary Cambodia and Vietnam, with reference to both legal and social frameworks. Such an analysis illuminates important aspects of state-society relations in Southeast Asia that

Ingrid Landau

2008-01-01

217

Socioeconomic Analysis of the Tonle Sap Region, Cambodia: Building Links and Capacity for Targeted Poverty Alleviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cambodia is recovering from three decades of violence. The Tonle Sap region is the poorest part of this deprived country. Its economy now suffers from substantial informal and destructive activities. A socio-economic analysis of the region--a part of the Mekong River Commission's Water Utilization Programme, which serves the lower Mekong's Basin Development Plan (BDP)--is documented. Besides the multifaceted collection and

Olli Varis; Marko Keskinen

2003-01-01

218

Suicidal expressions among young people in Nicaragua and Cambodia: a cross-cultural study  

PubMed Central

Background Whereas prevalence of suicidal expressions among young people is fairly similar in different countries, less is known about associated risk factors. This study compares young people in Nicaragua and Cambodia to examine if the pattern of association between mental health problems and suicidal expressions differs. Methods 368 and 316 secondary school students, from each country respectively, participated. Self-reported suicidal expressions, exposure to suicidal behavior in significant others and mental health problems among the students were measured using Attitude Towards Suicide (ATTS) and the Youth Self-Report (YSR) questionnaires. Results Prevalence of serious suicidal expressions (plans and attempts) during recent year, did not differ between countries. Cambodian young people scored significantly higher on all eight YSR-syndromes, except for withdrawn/depressed. In Nicaragua, all YSR-syndromes were significantly associated with serious suicidal expressions in both genders compared to Cambodia where only one syndrome showed an association in each gender; Withdrawn/depressed among girls and Somatic complaints among boys. Associations between being exposed to suicide among significant others and serious suicidal expressions also differed between Cambodia and Nicaragua. Conclusions While the magnitude of serious suicidal expressions is similar between these structurally similar but culturally different countries, determinants behave differently. Qualitative studies are warranted to further explore cultural specific determinants for suicidal expressions among young people.

2012-01-01

219

What Are Effective Components of In-Service Teacher Training? A Study Examining Teacher Trainers' Perceptions of the Components of a Training Programme in Mathematics Education in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes and analyses an in-service education project, financed by the Belgium Technical Cooperation, to improve the quality of mathematics teaching in 138 primary and lower secondary schools in Cambodia. The project design drew on recent research in developing countries and prior experience of training programmes in Cambodia. The…

Courtney, Jane

2007-01-01

220

Use of a Text Message-Based Pharmacovigilance Tool in Cambodia: Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background There is no functional pharmacovigilance system in Cambodia to our knowledge. Mobile phone–based tools, such as short message service (SMS) text messages, are increasingly used for surveillance purposes. Objective To pilot-test the FrontlineSMS mobile phone–based tool for notification of adverse events, using Cambodia’s only International Vaccination Center at the Institut Pasteur du Cambodge as a field site. Methods People receiving vaccinations, aged over 18 years, and who owned a cell phone were recruited in the study following informed consent. The names and mobile phone numbers of the participants interviewed were entered each day into the FrontlineSMS software. Two days after being vaccinated, participants received an automatically generated SMS text message asking whether any adverse events had occurred. Their SMS reply was number-coded and exported from the software daily to an Excel spreadsheet and examined before being saved. If the participant replied with a code for a severe adverse event (8 or 9), they were automatically advised to consult the nearest doctor. Results The active surveillance study was conducted over 72 days in the spring of 2012. Patients agreed to be asked by SMS text message whether unwanted events had occurred after vaccination. Of 1331 persons aged over 18 years referred to the vaccination unit, 184 (13.8%) were asked and agreed to participate. When texted for clinical status 48 hours after vaccination, 52 (28.3%) participants did not reply, 101 (54.9%) sent an immediate SMS reply, and 31 (16.8%) sent an SMS reply after additional prompting. Of the initial 184 participants, 132 (71.7%) replied. These 132 participants received 135 vaccine doses and 109 (82.6%) reported no adverse events, whereas 23 (17.4%) reported adverse events, all benign. Conclusions Notification using an SMS-based text message system is already used in Cambodia for syndromic surveillance in health centers and reporting by health care workers. Our results show that such tools can also be useful for notification by patients or health users in Cambodia, especially in an urban setting.

Baron, Sophie; Goutard, Flavie; Nguon, Kunthy

2013-01-01

221

Decreased In Vitro Susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Isolates to Artesunate, Mefloquine, Chloroquine, and Quinine in Cambodia from 2001 to 2007 ?  

PubMed Central

This study describes the results of in vitro antimalarial susceptibility assays and molecular polymorphisms of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Cambodia. The samples were collected from patients enrolled in therapeutic efficacy studies (TES) conducted by the Cambodian National Malaria Control Program for the routine efficacy monitoring of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) (artesunate-mefloquine and artemether-lumefantrine combinations). The isolates (n = 2,041) were obtained from nine sentinel sites during the years 2001 to 2007. Among these, 1,588 were examined for their in vitro susceptibilities to four antimalarials (artesunate, mefloquine, chloroquine, and quinine), and 851 isolates were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The geometric means of the 50% inhibitory concentrations (GMIC50s) of the four drugs tested were significantly higher for isolates from western Cambodia than for those from eastern Cambodia. GMIC50s for isolates from participants who failed artesunate-mefloquine therapy were significantly higher than those for patients who were cured (P, <0.001). In vitro correlation of artesunate with the other drugs was observed. The distributions of the SNPs differed between eastern and western Cambodia, suggesting different genetic backgrounds of the parasite populations in these two parts of the country. The GMIC50s of the four drugs tested increased significantly in eastern Cambodia during 2006 to 2007. These results are worrisome, because they may signal deterioration of the efficacy of artesunate-mefloquine beyond the Cambodian-Thai border.

Lim, Pharath; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda; Chim, Pheaktra; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Chy, Sophy; Sem, Rithy; Nhem, Sina; Yi, Poravuth; Duong, Socheat; Bouth, Denis Mey; Genton, Blaise; Beck, Hans-Peter; Gobert, Jean Gerard; Rogers, William O.; Coppee, Jean-Yves; Fandeur, Thierry; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Ringwald, Pascal; Le Bras, Jacques; Ariey, Frederic

2010-01-01

222

Self-Reported Serious Illnesses in Rural Cambodia: A Cross-Sectional Survey  

PubMed Central

Background There is substantial evidence that ill-health is a major cause of impoverishment in developing countries. Major illnesses can have a serious economic impact on poor households through treatment costs and income loss. However, available methods for measuring the impact of ill-health on household welfare display several shortcomings and new methods are thus needed. To understand the potential complex impact of major illnesses on household livelihoods, a study on poverty and illness was conducted in rural Cambodia, as part of an international comparative research project. A cross-sectional survey was performed to identify households affected by major illness for further in-depth interviews. Methodology and Principal Findings 5,975 households in three rural health districts were randomly selected through a two-stage cluster sampling and interviewed. 27% of the households reported at least one member with a serious illness in the year preceding the survey and 15% of the household members reported suffering from at least one serious illness. The most reported conditions include common tropical infectious diseases, chronic diseases (notably hypertension and heart diseases) and road traffic accidents. Such conditions were particularly concentrated among the poor, children under five, women, and the elderly. Poor women often reported complications related to pregnancy and delivery as serious illnesses. Conclusions and Significance Despite some methodological limitations, this study provides new information on the frequency of self-reported serious illnesses among the rural Cambodia's population, which serves as a basis for further in-depth investigation on ‘major illnesses’ and their economic consequences on poor households. This can in turn help policy makers to formulate appropriate interventions to protect the poor from the financial burden associated with ill-health. Our findings suggest that every year a considerable proportion of rural population in Cambodia, especially the poor and vulnerable, are affected by serious illnesses, both communicable and non-communicable diseases.

Ir, Por; Men, Chean; Lucas, Henry; Meessen, Bruno; Decoster, Kristof; Bloom, Gerald; Van Damme, Wim

2010-01-01

223

Prevalence and barriers to HIV testing among mothers at a tertiary care hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Barriers to HIV testing in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background One-third of all new HIV infections in Cambodia are estimated to be due to mother-to-child transmission. Although the Ministry of Health adopted a policy of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC), nearly a quarter of pregnant mothers were not tested in 2007. Greater acceptance of HIV testing is a challenge despite Cambodia's adoption of the PITC policy. Methods A hospital-based quantitative and cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of and barriers to HIV testing among mothers after delivery at the National Maternal and Child Health Center in Phnom Penh. The Center is one of the largest maternal and child care hospitals in the country to offer PITC services. All 600 eligible mothers who were admitted to the hospital after delivery from October to December 2007 were approached and recruited. Data were collected via a semi-structured questionnaire. Results The prevalence of HIV testing among women who delivered at the hospital was 76%. In multivariate logistic regression, factors such as the perceived need to obtain a partner's permission to be tested (OR=0.27, 95% CI=0.14-0.51, p<0.01), the lack of knowledge about HIV prevention and treatment (OR=0.38, CI=0.22-0.66, p<0.01), and the lack of access to ANC services (OR=0.35, 95% CI=0.21-0.58, p<0.01) were found to be the main barriers to HIV testing. Conclusion To achieve greater acceptance of HIV testing, counseling on HIV prevention and treatment must be provided not only to mothers but also to their partners. In addition, utilization of non-laboratory staff such as midwives to provide HIV testing services in rural health facilities could lead to the greater acceptance of HIV testing.

2010-01-01

224

Sex work and HIV in Cambodia: trajectories of risk and disease in two cohorts of high-risk young women in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Objectives HIV prevalence among Cambodian female sex workers (FSW) is among the highest in Southeast Asia. We describe HIV prevalence and associated risk exposures in FSW sampled serially in Phnom Penh, Cambodia (Young Women's Health Study (YWHS)), before and after the implementation of a new law designed to combat human trafficking and sexual exploitation. Design Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from two prospective cohorts. Setting Community-based study in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Participants Women aged 15–29?years, reporting ?2 sexual partners in the last month and/or engaged in transactional sex in the last 3?months, were enrolled in the studies in 2007 (N=161; YWHS-1), and 2009 (N=220; YWHS-2) following information sessions where 285 and 345 women attended. Primary outcomes HIV prevalence, sexual risk behaviour, amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) and alcohol use, and work-related factors were compared in the two groups, enrolled before and after implementation of the new law. Results Participants in the two cohorts were similar in age (median 25?years), but YWHS-2 women reported fewer sex partners, more alcohol use and less ATS use. A higher proportion of YWHS-2 compared with YWHS-1 women worked in entertainment-based venues (68% vs 31%, respectively). HIV prevalence was significantly lower in the more recently sampled women: 9.2% (95% CI 4.5% to 13.8%) vs 23% (95% CI 16.5% to 29.7%). Conclusions Sex work context and risk have shifted among young FSW in Phnom Penh, following implementation of anti-prostitution and anti-trafficking laws. While both cohorts were recruited using the same eligibility criteria, more recently sampled women had lower prevalence of sexual risk and HIV infection. Women engaging more directly in transactional sex have become harder to sample and access. Future prevention research and programmes need to consider how new policies and demographic changes in FSW impact HIV transmission.

Page, Kimberly; Stein, Ellen; Sansothy, Neth; Evans, Jennifer; Couture, Marie-Claude; Sichan, Keo; Cockroft, Melissa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Kaldor, John; Maher, Lisa

2013-01-01

225

Student Achievement and Education Policy in a Period of Rapid Expansion: Assessment Data Evidence From Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article analyses student achievement and school quality in large samples of schools in Cambodia. Descriptive summaries of student proficiency levels in language and mathematics reveal large gaps between average performance in grades three and six. Given the near universal completion rates for grade three - and lower access to grade six - these differences highlight the inherent challenges of maintaining quality while expanding participation. We also model student achievement variation using hierarchical linear models (HLM), and identify significant predictors that are infrequently available to researchers. These include content taught by teachers, their specialised knowledge of teaching mathematics, and indicators of pedagogical processes. The results reinforce the importance of teachers' impact on student learning outcomes.

Marshall, Jeffery H.; Chinna, Ung; Nessay, Puth; Hok, Ung Ngo; Savoeun, Va; Tinon, Soeur; Veasna, Meung

2009-07-01

226

Reproductive health for vulnerable children and youth in Cambodia. RAS/98/P14.  

PubMed

In Cambodia, Mith Samlanh/Friends, through Pharmaciens Sans Frontier, is developing a project aiming to provide reproductive health (RH) information, education and care among vulnerable urban youth and children in squatter areas, pagodas and streets. The project also seeks to reintegrate vulnerable youth and correct abusive and risky behavior, introduce RH services in vulnerable communities, and to build the capacity of partner nongovernmental organizations in all aspects of the project. As its strategy, it works with vulnerable groups, including commercial sex workers and street children in Phnom Penh and Kampong Cham province, to teach them useful skills. A summary of the main program activities is presented. PMID:12322644

1999-06-01

227

Essay Review of "Education and the Politics of Language: Hegemony and Pragmatism in Cambodia, 1979-1989," by Thomas Clayton.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews a book that reports on educational objectives and operations during the 10-year Vietnamese occupation of Cambodia, drawing on current developments in the theory of hegemonic relations. Suggests that the book's focus on linguistic policy in education has implications for the role of language in client-donor international-aid relationships.…

McNamara, Vincent

2001-01-01

228

Issues and Techniques in Translating Scientific Terms from English to Khmer for a University-Level Text in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teachers and students spend much time interacting with written resources such as textbooks, tests, or worksheets during classroom instruction. What if no text is available, however, in the language of the learners? This case study describes the processes and techniques adopted by two university lecturers in Cambodia, as they translated an L1…

Quigley, Cassie; Oliviera, Alandeom W.; Curry, Alastair; Buck, Gayle

2011-01-01

229

ARSENIC REMOVAL AND ECOLOGICALLY SAFE CONTAINMENT OF ARSENIC-WASTE: A SUSTAINABLE SOLUTION FOR ARSENIC CRISIS IN CAMBODIA  

EPA Science Inventory

An appalling degree of arsenic contamination in groundwater has affected more than a million people in wide region of Mekong delta flood plain in Cambodia. Arsenic is by far the most toxic species of all naturally occurring groundwater contaminants and disposal of removed arse...

230

Poverty, user fees and ability to pay for health care for children with suspected dengue in rural Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

User fees were introduced in public health facilities in Cambodia in 1997 in order to inject funds into the health system to enhance the quality of services. Because of inadequate health insurance, a social safety net scheme was introduced to ensure that all people were able to attend the health facilities. However, continuing high rates of hospitalization and mortality from

Sokrin Khun; Lenore Manderson

2008-01-01

231

Private Tutoring and Mass Schooling in East Asia: Reflections of Inequality in Japan, South Korea, and Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines private tutoring systems in three East Asian countries (Japan, South Korea, and Cambodia) with the purpose of examining the relationship between those systems and formal education systems. The study of private tutoring systems in each nation can be used to reveal the inadequacies of the formal education system in meeting the…

Dawson, Walter

2010-01-01

232

In vitro activity of amphotericin B, fluconazole and voriconazole against 162 Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from Africa and Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the potential role that various antifungal agents might have in the management of cryptococcosis in tropical areas, the in vitro susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from Africa ( n=52) and Cambodia ( n=110) to three antifungal agents (amphotericin B, fluconazole and voriconazole) were compared using the E-test method. The results of this study (i) confirm the

J. Chandenier; K. D. Adou-Bryn; C. Douchet; B. Sar; M. Kombila; D. Swinne; M. Thérizol-Ferly; Y. Buisson; D. Richard-Lenoble

2004-01-01

233

Spatial Patterns of E. Coli and Detergents in the Boeng Cheung Ek Treatment Wetland, Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The city of Phnom Penh, Cambodia (population 1.4 million), relies on a system of naturally- occurring wetlands to treat approximately 90% of its waste, with the remaining 10% going directly to the Mekong River system. The city is growing rapidly and some of the wetlands have been filled in for new construction, so the capacity to treat waste is being

Kim N. Irvine; Mickey Sampson; Tiev Visoth; Mongtoeun Yim; Kum Veasna; Thammarat Koottatep; Julie Rupp

2008-01-01

234

Essay Review of "Education and the Politics of Language: Hegemony and Pragmatism in Cambodia, 1979-1989," by Thomas Clayton.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews a book that reports on educational objectives and operations during the 10-year Vietnamese occupation of Cambodia, drawing on current developments in the theory of hegemonic relations. Suggests that the book's focus on linguistic policy in education has implications for the role of language in client-donor international-aid relationships.…

McNamara, Vincent

2001-01-01

235

Issues and Techniques in Translating Scientific Terms from English to Khmer for a University-Level Text in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers and students spend much time interacting with written resources such as textbooks, tests, or worksheets during classroom instruction. What if no text is available, however, in the language of the learners? This case study describes the processes and techniques adopted by two university lecturers in Cambodia, as they translated an L1…

Quigley, Cassie; Oliviera, Alandeom W.; Curry, Alastair; Buck, Gayle

2011-01-01

236

WHO/UNICEF Child Survival Workshop, Lao PDR and Key Partner Meetings in Cambodia, May 2006: Trip Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

RPM Plus traveled to Lao PDR and Cambodia, May 6-25, 2006 to meet with key child survival partners in both countries. At the request of WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific requested, RPM Plus participated as an observer at the WHO and UNICEF joint...

M. Lynders

2006-01-01

237

Salt weathering of sandstone at the Angkor monuments, Cambodia: identification of the origins of salts using sulfur and strontium isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Angkor monuments in northwestern Cambodia, which are primarily made of sandstone, are suffering from deterioration due to salt weathering. In order to elucidate the sources of the salts and salt weathering process, this paper analyzed bulk chemical compositions and S (sulfur) and Sr (strontium) isotopic ratios for the salts and surrounding environmental materials. At places where bats inhabit the

Takahiro Hosono; Etsuo Uchida; Chiyuki Suda; Akiyo Ueno; Takeshi Nakagawa

2006-01-01

238

The Killing Fields on TV: A Critical Analysis of Network Coverage of Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In an effort to determine the nature of American network television news coverage of the Khmer Rouge rule in Cambodia, a study examined the television evening news from April 16, 1975, the date on which the Lon Nol government first offered to capitulate to the Khmer Rouge, through January 8, 1979, when news of the fall of Phnom Penh to the…

Smith, Ted J., III; Grassmick, David E.

239

Improving access to hospital care for the poor: comparative analysis of four health equity funds in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews four hospital-based health equity funds in Cambodia and draws lessons for future operations. It investigates the practical questions of 'who should do what and how'. It presents, in a comparative framework, similarities and differences in objectives, the actors involved, design aspects and functional modalities between the health equity funds. The results of this review are presented along

Mathieu Noirhomme; Bruno Meessen; Fred Griffiths; Por Ir; Bart Jacobs; Rasoka Thor; Bart Criel; Wim Van Damme

2007-01-01

240

Balancing effectiveness, side-effects and work: women's perceptions and experiences with modern contraceptive technology in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This community-based study presents the results of 17 focus-group discussions primarily among poor married women of reproductive age in urban and rural Cambodia regarding their experiences with modern contraceptive methods and their preferences for different technical attributes, including effectiveness, mode of administration, secrecy and rapid return of fertility. Key findings indicate that women who use modern contraceptive technologies desire highly

Ritu Sadana; Rachel Snow

1999-01-01

241

Improving access for the poorest to public sector health services: insights from Kirivong Operational Health District in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents research findings into the effectiveness of an innovative equity fund approach to improving access to public sector health services for the poor in Kirivong Operational Health District in Cambodia. The operational health district is the lowest organizational level in the Cambodian health system, providing services through health centres and a single referral hospital. An equity fund involves

BART JACOBS; NEIL PRICE

2005-01-01

242

Media education to improve adolescent sexual and reproductive health in Cambodia. RAS/98/P10.  

PubMed

Through the use of interactive radio and other media, Health Unlimited through its implementing agencies, the Cambodia Health Education Media Services and Cambodia Health Education and Development is working towards increasing knowledge of reproductive and sexual health among Cambodian adolescents. It also seeks to promote the use of reproductive and sexual health services for the youth; improve youth involvement in developing information, education and communication (IEC) materials on reproductive health; and increase the capacity of nongovernmental organizations, government agencies and the private sector to develop IEC for the youth. The strategies being pursued include exploring the role of radio and using nongovernmental organization expertise in radio show production and sharing IEC messages with the media. The main activities being carried include the production of interactive radio magazine programs for the youth along with magazine supplements, training of health and media staff and providing them with work experience, and involving the youth in media production by using an interactive format and focus group discussion. PMID:12322652

1999-06-01

243

Changing patterns of forest malaria among the mobile adult male population in Chumkiri District, Cambodia.  

PubMed

Forest malaria remains a major problem in many parts of Southeast Asia and South America. In Cambodia, where a significant reduction of malaria morbidity and mortality has been observed in the last 20 years, the forest malaria situation was studied in Chumkiri District by analysing the available passive case detection data and conducting malariometric (n=1018) and questionnaire surveys (n=374) in four forest-fringe villages. There has been a decreasing trend of malaria incidence from 2001. Plasmodium falciparum was highly predominant and P. vivax was rare. The nearby-forest villages showed significantly higher parasite rates than the far-from-forest villages (9.0% vs. 1.2%, p<0.01). Malaria was highly restricted to the male adults but was nearly non-existent in other accompanying family members, including small children and females. Low income and working in forests were strongly associated with the malaria risk. Our results suggest that transmission has greatly reduced in forest-fringe villages, but remains active in forests, which is primarily maintained between the forest vector Anopheles dirus and ethnic minority inhabitants. Specific interventions directed to these previously neglected in-forest inhabitants to protect themselves and male adult villagers during their forest activities are necessary to achieve an ultimate goal of malaria elimination from Cambodia. PMID:18471797

Dysoley, Lek; Kaneko, Akira; Eto, Hideaki; Mita, Toshihiro; Socheat, Doung; Börkman, Anders; Kobayakawa, Takatoshi

2008-04-07

244

Fairness of utilizing health care facilities and out-of-pocket payment burden: evidence from Cambodia.  

PubMed

Catastrophic spending on health care through out-of-pocket payment is a huge problem in most low- and middle-income countries all over the world. The collapse of health systems and poverty have resulted in the proliferation of the private health sector in Cambodia, but very few studies have examined the fairness in ease of utilization of these services based on mode of payment. This study examined the utilization of health services for sickness or injury and identified its relationship with people's ability to pay for treatment seeking at various instances. Based on cross-sectional data from the Cambodian 2007 Demographic and Health Survey, the economic index estimated through principal component analysis and Lorenz curve was used to quantify the degree of fairness and equality in utilization and payment burden among the respondents. A distinct level of fairness was found in health care utilization and out-of-pocket payments. Specifically, use of private health care facilities and over-the-counter remedies dominate, and out-of-pocket payments cut across all socioeconomic strata. As many countries in low- and middle-income regions, and most importantly those in transition such as Cambodia, are repositioning their health systems, efforts should be made towards maintaining equitable access through adoption of finance mechanisms that make utilization of health care services fair and equitable. PMID:22958391

Dalal, Koustuv; Aremu, Olatunde

2012-09-10

245

Cotinine levels among betel quid users and cigarette smokers in cambodia.  

PubMed

Smokeless tobacco use in the form of the betel quid is common in the Western Pacific Region, and yet few studies have determined the nicotine delivery of this habit. During a validation substudy, we randomly sampled 201 adults from a rural province of Cambodia and determined nonparametric (bootstrapped) confidence intervals (CIs) for salivary cotinine levels in tobacco users. We found that cotinine levels for daily betel quid use among women (95% CI = 218.6-350.0 ng/mL) were (1) similar to the levels for daily cigarette smoking in men (95% CI = 240.2-317.1 ng/mL) and (2) significantly higher than the levels for daily cigarette smoking in women (95% CI = 71.8-202.7 ng/mL). The 95% confidence range for these habits exceeded the threshold for addiction. Our findings from rural Cambodia indicate that the typical betel quid habit among women supports the same level of nicotine addiction as the typical cigarette habit in men. PMID:24092815

Singh, Pramil N; Natto, Zuhair; Saxena, Rituraj; Banerjee, Hiya; Yel, Daravuth; Khieng, Sothy; Job, Jayakaran S

2013-09-01

246

Maternal use of cigarettes, pipes, and smokeless tobacco associated with higher infant mortality rates in cambodia.  

PubMed

In the Western Pacific Region, rural women use loose tobacco in betel quid chewing and pipe smoking. We examined the relation between maternal use of tobacco and infant mortality (IM) in a national sample of 24 296 birth outcomes in adult women (n = 6013) in Cambodia. We found that (1) age-adjusted odds of IM were higher for maternal use of any tobacco (odds ratio [OR] = 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27-2.26); (2) age-adjusted odds of IM were higher for cigarette use (OR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.54- 4.1), use of pipes (OR = 3.09; [95% CI = 1.86-5.11]), and betel quid chewing (OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.10-2.17); and (3) these associations remained after multivariable adjustment for environmental tobacco smoke, malnutrition, ethnicity, religion, marital status, education, income, occupation, and urban/rural dwelling. In addition to finding the established association with cigarettes, we also found that maternal use of smokeless tobacco and pipes was associated with higher rates of infant death in Cambodia. PMID:24092813

Singh, Pramil N; Eng, Carlin; Yel, Daravuth; Kheam, They; Job, Jayakaran S; Kanal, Koum

2013-09-01

247

Simulation of rainfall interception using multilayer model in evergreen broadleaf forest, Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proportion of forest area is relatively high in Cambodia compared with neighboring countries. Therefore forest is one of the important factors on the water cycle in this country. The rainfall interception by a tree canopy and evaporation after the rainfall event are one of the important factors for considering such a water cycle. To clarify those processes, a rainfall interception measurement plot (25 x 25 m) was constructed in the evergreen broadleaf forest area in Kampong Thom province, central part of Cambodia. We measured rainfall, through fall and stem flow in the interception plot, and then we analyzed the relationship between those components. Moreover, the simulation of rainfall interception was carried out using multilayer model. Model parameters such as canopy structure and leaf characteristics were estimated using observed interception components and meteorological elements during large rainfall event. Annual rainfall interception was reproduced using multilayer model with obtained parameters and observed meteorological elements. The simulation results were in agreement with the observed value. The rainfall interception rate in the interception plot was considered to be about 15 % against annual rainfall.

Nobuhiro, T.; Shimizu, A.; Tanaka, K.; Kabeya, N.; Tamai, K.; Chann, S.; Keth, N.

2006-12-01

248

Arsenic concentration in rice, fish, meat and vegetables in Cambodia: a preliminary risk assessment.  

PubMed

To assess arsenic contaminations and its possible adverse health effects, food samples were collected from Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham in Cambodia. The highest and the lowest concentrations were observed in fish (mean 2,832 ng g(-1), ww) collected from Kandal province and cattle stomach (1.86 ± 1.10 ng g(-1), ww) collected from Kratie, respectively. The daily intake of arsenic via food consumption was 604, 9.70 and 136 ?g day(-1) in Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham, respectively. The arsenic dietary intake in Kandal ranked No. 1 among all the 17 compared countries or regions. Fish consumption contributed the greatest proportion of total arsenic daily intake in Kandal (about 63.0 %) and Kampong Cham (about 69.8 %). It is revealed to be a much more important exposure pathway than drinking water for residents in Kampong Cham. The results of risk assessment suggested that the residents in Cambodia, particularly for people in Kandal province, suffer high public health risks due to consuming arsenic-contaminated food. PMID:23728998

Wang, Hong-Sheng; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Chen, Zhuo-Jia; Man, Yu-Bon; Du, Jun; Xing, Guang-Hua; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Mohamed Yasin, Mohamed Salleh; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Wong, Ming-Hung

2013-06-01

249

Reduced Artemisinin Susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Ring Stages in Western Cambodia  

PubMed Central

The declining efficacy of artemisinin derivatives against Plasmodium falciparum in western Cambodia is a major concern. The knowledge gap in the understanding of the mechanisms involved hampers designing monitoring tools. Here, we culture-adapted 20 isolates from Pailin and Ratanakiri (areas of artemisinin resistance and susceptibility in western and eastern Cambodia, respectively) and studied their in vitro response to dihydroartemisinin. No significant difference between the two sets of isolates was observed in the classical isotopic test. However, a 6-h pulse exposure to 700 nM dihydroartemisinin (ring-stage survival assay -RSA]) revealed a clear-cut geographic dichotomy. The survival rate of exposed ring-stage parasites (ring stages) was 17-fold higher in isolates from Pailin (median, 13.5%) than in those from Ratanakiri (median, 0.8%), while exposed mature stages were equally and highly susceptible (0.6% and 0.7%, respectively). Ring stages survived drug exposure by cell cycle arrest and resumed growth upon drug withdrawal. The reduced susceptibility to artemisinin in Pailin appears to be associated with an altered in vitro phenotype of ring stages from Pailin in the RSA.

Khim, Nimol; Chim, Pheaktra; Kim, Saorin; Ke, Sopheakvatey; Kloeung, Nimol; Chy, Sophy; Duong, Socheat; Leang, Rithea; Ringwald, Pascal; Dondorp, Arjen M.; Tripura, Rupam; Benoit-Vical, Francoise; Berry, Antoine; Gorgette, Olivier; Ariey, Frederic; Barale, Jean-Christophe; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

2013-01-01

250

Phylogenetic analysis and genetic characterization of chicken anemia virus isolates from Cambodia.  

PubMed

Three chicken anemia viruses (CAV) were detected by PCR during screening of field samples from village chickens collected in Cambodia in 2011/2012. Nearly full-length VP1 viral structural protein genes (nt 1-1,293) from the 3 CAV were sequenced and characterized. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all 3 of the Cambodian CAV were clustered with CAV strains belonging to genotype II and were most closely related to CAV strains from Guangdong province, China. On the amino acid level, major substitutions were observed at 12 residues in the VP1 protein (positions 22, 75, 97, 125, 139, 144, 254, 287, 290, 370, 376, and 413) when compared with published reference CAV strains. In motifs associated with virulence, all Cambodian CAV had virulence-associated motifs composed of 75I, 89T, 125I, 139Q, 141Q, 144Q, and 394Q, which are commonly found in highly virulent genotype II viruses and some genotype III viruses. This is the first report of CAV isolated from village chickens in Southeast Asia as well as Cambodia. PMID:24046415

Kye, Soo-Jeong; Kim, Ji-Ye; Seul, Hee-Jung; Kim, Seromi; Kim, Sang-Eun; Lee, Hee-Soo; Sorn, San; Choi, Kang-Seuk

2013-10-01

251

Efficacy of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in Cambodia, 2008 to 2010  

PubMed Central

We describe here the results of antimalarial therapeutic efficacy studies conducted in Cambodia from 2008 to 2010. A total of 15 studies in four sentinel sites were conducted using dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum infection and chloroquine (CQ) and DP for the treatment of P. vivax infection. All studies were performed according to the standard World Health Organization protocol for the assessment of antimalarial treatment efficacy. Among the studies of DP for the treatment of P. falciparum, an increase in treatment failure was observed in the western provinces. In 2010, the PCR-corrected treatment failure rates for DP on day 42 were 25% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 10 to 51%) in Pailin and 10.7% (95% CI = 4 to 23%) in Pursat, while the therapeutic efficacy of DP remained high (100%) in Ratanakiri and Preah Vihear provinces, located in northern and eastern Cambodia. For the studies of P. vivax, the day 28 uncorrected treatment failure rate among patients treated with CQ ranged from 4.4 to 17.4%; DP remained 100% effective in all sites. Further study is required to investigate suspected P. falciparum resistance to piperaquine in western Cambodia; the results of in vitro and molecular studies were not found to support the therapeutic efficacy findings. The emergence of artemisinin resistance in this region has likely put additional pressure on piperaquine. Although DP appears to be an appropriate new first-line treatment for P. vivax in Cambodia, alternative treatments are urgently needed for P. falciparum-infected patients in western Cambodia.

Barrette, Amy; Bouth, Denis Mey; Menard, Didier; Abdur, Rashid; Duong, Socheat; Ringwald, Pascal

2013-01-01

252

When social networking is not working: individuals with low self-esteem recognize but do not reap the benefits of self-disclosure on Facebook.  

PubMed

The popular media have publicized the idea that social networking Web sites (e.g., Facebook) may enrich the interpersonal lives of people who struggle to make social connections. The opportunity that such sites provide for self-disclosure-a necessary component in the development of intimacy--could be especially beneficial for people with low self-esteem, who are normally hesitant to self-disclose and who have difficulty maintaining satisfying relationships. We suspected that posting on Facebook would reduce the perceived riskiness of self-disclosure, thus encouraging people with low self-esteem to express themselves more openly. In three studies, we examined whether such individuals see Facebook as a safe and appealing medium for self-disclosure, and whether their actual Facebook posts enabled them to reap social rewards. We found that although people with low self-esteem considered Facebook an appealing venue for self-disclosure, the low positivity and high negativity of their disclosures elicited undesirable responses from other people. PMID:22318997

Forest, Amanda L; Wood, Joanne V

2012-02-07

253

Cost of dengue and other febrile illnesses to households in rural Cambodia: a prospective community-based case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The average annual reported dengue incidence in Cambodia is 3.3\\/1,000 among children < 15 years of age (2002–2007). To estimate the economic burden of dengue, accurate cost-of-illness data are essential. We conducted a prospective, community-based, matched case-control study to assess the cost and impact of an episode of dengue fever and other febrile illness on households in rural Cambodia.

Rekol Huy; Ole Wichmann; Mark Beatty; Chantha Ngan; Socheat Duong; Harold S Margolis; Sirenda Vong

2009-01-01

254

Ex vivo drug sensitivity profiles of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Cambodia and Thailand, 2005 to 2010, determined by a histidine-rich protein-2 assay  

PubMed Central

Background In vitro drug susceptibility assay of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates processed “immediate ex vivo” (IEV), without culture adaption, and tested using histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP-2) detection as an assay, is an expedient way to track drug resistance. Methods From 2005 to 2010, a HRP-2 in vitro assay assessed 451 P. falciparum field isolates obtained from subjects with malaria in western and northern Cambodia, and eastern Thailand, processed IEV, for 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) against seven anti-malarial drugs, including artesunate (AS), dihydroartemisinin (DHA), and piperaquine. Results In western Cambodia, from 2006 to 2010, geometric mean (GM) IC50 values for chloroquine, mefloquine, quinine, AS, DHA, and lumefantrine increased. In northern Cambodia, from 2009–2010, GM IC50 values for most drugs approximated the highest western Cambodia GM IC50 values in 2009 or 2010. Conclusions Western Cambodia is associated with sustained reductions in anti-malarial drug susceptibility, including the artemisinins, with possible emergence, or spread, to northern Cambodia. This potential public health crisis supports continued in vitro drug IC50 monitoring of P. falciparum isolates at key locations in the region.

2012-01-01

255

Orthogonius species and diversity in Thailand (Coleoptera, Caraboidea, Orthogoniini), a result from the TIGER project.  

PubMed

The carabid genus Orthogonius MacLeay is treated, based mainly on materials collected in Thailand through the TIGER project (the Thailand Inventory Group for Entomological Research). Among 290 specimens, 20 species are identified in total, 10 of them are new species: Orthogonius taghavianaesp. n. (Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park), Orthogonius coomanioidessp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius similarissp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Loei: Phu Kradueng National Park), Orthogonius setosopalpigersp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius gracililamellasp. n. (Loei: Phu Kradueng National Park; Chaiyaphum: Tat Tone National Park), Orthogonius pseudochaudoirisp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park), Orthogonius constrictussp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius pinophilussp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius varisp. n. (Cambodia: Siem Reap; Thailand: Ubon Ratchathani: Pha Taem National Park; Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park) and Orthogonius variabilissp. n. (Thailand: Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park; Phetchabun: Nam Nao National Park; China: Yunnan). In addition, Orthogonius mouhoti Chaudoir, 1871 and Orthogonius kirirom Tian & Deuve, 2008 are recorded in Thailand for the first time. In total, 30 species of Orthogonius have been recorded from Thailand, indicating that Thailand holds one of the richest Orthogonius faunas in the world. A provisional key to all Thai species is provided. A majority of Thai Orthogonius species are endemic. Among the ten national parks in which orthogonine beetles were collected, Thung Salaeng Luang holds the richest fauna, including 16 species. PMID:22328852

Tian, Mingyi; Deuve, Thierry; Felix, Ron

2012-01-11

256

Working With Small Companies in Cambodia to Teach Lean Manufacturing Principles to Undergraduate Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching lean manufacturing in the university environment is becoming more common, with many schools in the United States offering "lean" undergraduate courses in various technology and engineering programs. This trend is driven by companies who have implemented or are trying to implement lean as a manufacturing strategy, and who prefer graduates with some level of practical lean knowledge. Our approach to teaching lean has used experiential learning as a method of improving student understanding, as many others have done in various disciplines. To this end we have augmented university classroom lectures with industry-based projects, recognizing that lab exercises are useful, but can have limited utility in demonstrating lean principles. We have used this approach for a number of years in two graduate courses. And more recently we used this method in the context of an international internship in Cambodia, during the summer of 2004. The experience gained in that internship is the focus of this paper. Five junior and senior level students and two professors were involved in a five week project, where the first three weeks were spent gathering information about the challenges and opportunities of running a manufacturing company in Cambodia. A total of 37 companies were surveyed on a variety of topics, including the practical details of operating their businesses, of which most were small, family-run concerns. After completion of the initial three-week phase of studying the practical, social, and historical difficulties they face in this developing country, two small firms were chosen for a more in-depth study of manufacturing performance. The exercises that were carried out at these firms, and the results of evaluations conducted by 5 undergraduate students, will be discussed as a method for teaching lean manufacturing principles. Some background on the companies with whom we worked and a discussion of the business environment in Cambodia will also be provided. The entrepreneurial spirit and determination we found in these companies was a great lesson for us and our students, demonstrating that hard work and creativity can produce good results, even in difficult circumstances.

Miles, Michael; Hawks, Val D.

2010-03-16

257

Pfmdr1 copy number and arteminisin derivatives combination therapy failure in falciparum malaria in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background The combination of artesunate and mefloquine was introduced as the national first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Cambodia in 2000. However, recent clinical trials performed at the Thai-Cambodian border have pointed to the declining efficacy of both artesunate-mefloquine and artemether-lumefantrine. Since pfmdr1 modulates susceptibility to mefloquine and artemisinin derivatives, the aim of this study was to assess the link between pfmdr1 copy number, in vitro susceptibility to individual drugs and treatment failure to combination therapy. Methods Blood samples were collected from P. falciparum-infected patients enrolled in two in vivo efficacy studies in north-western Cambodia: 135 patients were treated with artemether-lumefantrine (AL group) in Sampovloun in 2002 and 2003, and 140 patients with artesunate-mefloquine (AM group) in Sampovloun and Veal Veng in 2003 and 2004. At enrollment, the in vitro IC50 was tested and the strains were genotyped for pfmdr1 copy number by real-time PCR. Results The pfmdr1 copy number was analysed for 115 isolates in the AM group, and for 109 isolates in the AL group. Parasites with increased pfmdr1 copy number had significantly reduced in vitro susceptibility to mefloquine, lumefantrine and artesunate. There was no association between pfmdr1 polymorphisms and in vitro susceptibilities. In the patients treated with AM, the mean pfmdr1copy number was lower in subjects with adequate clinical and parasitological response compared to those who experienced late treatment failure (n = 112, p < 0.001). This was not observed in the patients treated with AL (n = 96, p = 0.364). The presence of three or more copies of pfmdr1 were associated with recrudescence in artesunate-mefloquine treated patients (hazard ratio (HR) = 7.80 [95%CI: 2.09–29.10], N = 115), p = 0.002) but not with recrudescence in artemether-lumefantrine treated patients (HR = 1.03 [95%CI: 0.24–4.44], N = 109, p = 0.969). Conclusion This study shows that pfmdr1 copy number is a molecular marker of AM treatment failure in falciparum malaria on the Thai-Cambodian border. However, while it is associated with increased IC50 for lumefantrine, pfmdr1 copy number is not associated with AL treatment failure in the area, suggesting involvement of other molecular mechanisms in AL treatment failures in Cambodia.

Lim, Pharath; Alker, Alisa P; Khim, Nimol; Shah, Naman K; Incardona, Sandra; Doung, Socheat; Yi, Poravuth; Bouth, Denis Mey; Bouchier, Christiane; Puijalon, Odile Mercereau; Meshnick, Steven R; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda; Fandeur, Thierry; Le Bras, Jacques; Ringwald, Pascal; Ariey, Frederic

2009-01-01

258

Early detection of tuberculosis through community-based active case finding in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Since 2005, Cambodia’s national tuberculosis programme has been conducting active case finding (ACF) with mobile radiography units, targeting household contacts of TB patients in poor and vulnerable communities in addition to routine passive case finding (PCF). This paper examines the differences in the demographic characteristics, smear grades, and treatment outcomes of pulmonary TB cases detected through both active and passive case finding to determine if ACF could contribute to early case finding, considering associated project costs for ACF. Methods Demographic characteristics, smear grades, and treatment outcomes were compared between actively (n?=?405) and passively (n?=?602) detected patients by reviewing the existing programme records (including TB registers) of 2009 and 2010. Additional analyses were performed for PCF cases detected after the ACF sessions (n?=?91). Results The overall cost per case detected through ACF was US$ 108. The ACF approach detected patients from older populations (median age of 55 years) compared to PCF (median age of 48 years; p?Cambodia was found to be a cost-effective activity that is likely to have additional benefits such as contribution to early case finding and detection of patients from a vulnerable age group, possibly with an extended benefit for reducing secondary cases in the community. Further investigations are required to clarify the primary benefits of ACF in early and increased case detection and to assess its secondary impact on reducing on-going transmission.

2012-01-01

259

Toxicity assessment for the horseshoe crab Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda collected from Cambodia.  

PubMed

In this study, we assessed the toxicity of the horseshoe crab Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda collected from Cambodia within two successive months during rainy (April-May) and dry (December-January) seasons, respectively. Toxicity assessments of the collected specimens by standard mouse bioassay showed marked individual variation, and their toxin profiles by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) revealed tetrodotoxin (TTX) was the main toxin while no paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) were detected. All specimens were toxic and the highest toxicity values were 315, 113, 60, 47, 44 and 38 mouse units (MU)/g in the tissues of hepatic caecum, egg, viscera, muscle, intestine and testis, respectively. Although the current findings showed that the Cambodian C. rotundicauda was a moderately toxic species, they are not suitable for human consumption due to their toxicity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first scientific study on toxic marine seafood ever investigated in Cambodian territorial waters. PMID:17261323

Ngy, Laymithuna; Yu, Chun-Fai; Takatani, Tomohiro; Arakawa, Osamu

2006-12-28

260

[Marine envenomation by box-jellyfish in a tourist in Cambodia].  

PubMed

We report a case of box-jellyfish related envenomation in a 40 year old tourist that occurred in Sihanoukville, Cambodia, in the Gulf of Thailand. Symptoms that appeared within a few minutes associated intense pain, hand edema and large edematous and erythematous flagellations in the stung skin areas. Antibiotics and corticosteroids were delivered. Inflammatory signs and skin lesions disappeared within 15 days followed by crusts then scars. Jellyfish at risk for humans are generally found in tropical seas and their geographic distribution seems to spread. As it is difficult to prevent this kind of accident, travelers should be aware of the first acts to perform, such as appropriate cleaning of the wound, the interest of vinegar usage, the administration of analgesics and corticosteroids in case of significant inflammatory signs. PMID:24072422

Bellaud, G; Epelboin, L; Henn, A; Perignon, A; Bricaire, F; Caumes, E

2013-09-26

261

Cost-Effectiveness of a District Trauma Hospital in Battambang, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The Emergency Hospital in Battambang, Cambodia, is essentially a surgical center for victims of injuries. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Using methods previously described, operating costs were calculated, and effectiveness of treatment was estimated for 957\\u000a patients undergoing 895 surgical procedures over a 3 month period (October–December 2006).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Results of the cost-effectiveness analysis are compared to the few existing ones in the literature.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Conclusion  At $77.4

Richard A. Gosselin; Merja Heitto

2008-01-01

262

Isolation of Kaeng Khoi virus from dead Chaerephon plicata bats in Cambodia.  

PubMed

A virus isolated from dead Chaerephon plicata bats collected near Kampot, Cambodia, was identified as a member of the family Bunyaviridae by electron microscopy. The only bunyavirus previously isolated from Chaerephon species bats in South-East Asia is Kaeng Khoi (KK) virus (genus Orthobunyavirus), detected in Thailand over 30 years earlier and implicated as a public health problem. Using RT-PCR, nucleotide sequences from the M RNA segment of several virus isolates from the Cambodian C. plicata bats were found to be almost identical and to differ from those of the prototype KK virus by only 2.6-3.2 %, despite the temporal and geographic separation of the viruses. These results identify the Cambodian bat viruses as KK virus, extend the known virus geographic range and document the first KK virus isolation in 30 years. These genetic data, together with earlier serologic data, show that KK viruses represent a distinct group within the genus Orthobunyavirus. PMID:13679602

Osborne, J C; Rupprecht, C E; Olson, J G; Ksiazek, T G; Rollin, P E; Niezgoda, M; Goldsmith, C S; An, U S; Nichol, S T

2003-10-01

263

Baseline assessment for addressing acute malnutrition by public-health staff in Cambodia.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to formulate appropriate responses by the public-health sector to reduce acute malnutrition among children in Cambodia. A cross-sectional survey to identify wasting together with a simple wealth-ranking exercise was conducted. Thereafter, separate focus-group discussions were also conducted with mothers of malnourished and non-malnourished children, who belonged to the poorest strata, to identify coping mechanisms and to assess feeding and hygiene practices. There was no statistical correlation between wasting and socioseconomic status (df=3, p=0.06). Reported feeding practices were poor, including not giving of colostrum, too early introduction of weaning, low feeding frequency, and late introduction of nutritious foods. Healthcare-seeking behaviour appeared inadequate, and hand-washing with soap was not practised. Acute malnutrition was mainly related to these factors rather than to food insecurity. An education campaign in tandem with peer-counselling would be the most appropriate option. PMID:15473524

Jacobs, Bart; Roberts, Emma

2004-06-01

264

Circumstances around weapon injury in Cambodia after departure of a peacekeeping force: prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the circumstances surrounding weapon injury and combatant status of those injured by weapons. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Northwestern Cambodia after departure of United Nations peacekeeping force. Subjects 863 people admitted to hospital for weapon injuries over 12 months. Main outcome measures Annual incidence of weapon injury by time period; proportions of injuries inflicted as a result of interfactional combat (combat injuries) and outside such combat (non-combat injuries) by combatant status and weapon type. Results The annual incidence of weapon injuries was higher than the rate observed before the peacekeeping operation. 30% of weapon injuries occurred in contexts other than interfactional combat. Most commonly these were firearm injuries inflicted intentionally on civilians. Civilians accounted for 71% of those with non-combat injuries, 42% of those with combat related injuries, and 51% of those with weapon injuries of either type. Conclusions The incidence of weapon injuries remained high when the disarmament component of a peacekeeping operation achieved only limited success. Furthermore, injuries occurring outside the context of interfactional combat accounted for a substantial proportion of all weapon injuries, were experienced disproportionately by civilians, and were most likely to entail the intentional use of a firearm against a civilian. Key messagesThe study took place in Cambodia after a United Nations peacekeeping operation that achieved only limited success in disarmamentA substantial proportion of weapon injuries was inflicted in contexts unrelated to interfactional combatThese injuries were most commonly firearm injuries inflicted intentionally on civiliansWidespread availability of weapons can facilitate social violence

Meddings, David R; O'Connor, Stephanie M

1999-01-01

265

The multi-step process of building TB/HIV collaboration in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS have synergistic health impacts in terms of disease development and progression. Therefore, collaborative TB and HIV/AIDS activities are a logical health systems response. However, the establishment of these activities presents a challenge for countries that have strong vertical disease programs that differ in their implementation philosophies. Here, we review the process by which TB/HIV collaboration was established in Cambodia. A cycle of overlapping and mutually reinforcing initiatives - local research; piloted implementation with multiple options; and several rounds of policy formulation guided by a cross-functional Technical Working Group - was used to drive nationwide introduction of a full set of TB/HIV collaborative activities. Senior Ministry of Health officials and partner organizations brought early attention to TB/HIV. Both national programs implemented initial screening and testing interventions, even in the absence of a detailed, overarching framework. The use of multiple options for HIV testing identified which programmatic options worked best, and early implementation and pilots determined what unanswered questions required further research. Local conduct of this research - on co-treatment timing and TB symptom screening - speeded adoption of the results into policy guidance, and clarified the relative roles of the two programs. Roll-out is continuing, and results for a variety of key indicators, including screening PLHIV for TB, and testing TB patients for HIV, are at 70-80% and climbing. This experience in Cambodia illustrates the influence of health research on policy, and demonstrates that clear policy guidance, the pursuit of incremental advances, and the use of different approaches to generate evidence can overcome structural barriers to change and bring direct benefits to patients. PMID:23078621

Eang, Mao Tan; Vun, Mean Chhi; Eam, Khun Kim; Sovannarith, Samreth; Sopheap, Seng; Bora, Ngauv; Yadav, Rajendra; Fujita, Masami; Tomas, Bernard; Ghidinelli, Massimo; van Maaren, Pieter; Wells, William A

2012-10-18

266

Optimising Strategies for Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Elimination in Cambodia: Primaquine, Mass Drug Administration and Artemisinin Resistance  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria elimination requires a variety of approaches individually optimized for different transmission settings. A recent field study in an area of low seasonal transmission in South West Cambodia demonstrated dramatic reductions in malaria parasite prevalence following both mass drug administration (MDA) and high treatment coverage of symptomatic patients with artemisinin-piperaquine plus primaquine. This study employed multiple combined strategies and it was unclear what contribution each made to the reductions in malaria. Method and Findings A mathematical model fitted to the trial results was used to assess the effects of the various components of these interventions, design optimal elimination strategies, and explore their interactions with artemisinin resistance, which has recently been discovered in Western Cambodia. The modelling indicated that most of the initial reduction of P. falciparum malaria resulted from MDA with artemisinin-piperaquine. The subsequent continued decline and near elimination resulted mainly from high coverage with artemisinin-piperaquine treatment. Both these strategies were more effective with the addition of primaquine. MDA with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) increased the proportion of artemisinin resistant infections, although much less than treatment of symptomatic cases with ACT, and this increase was slowed by adding primaquine. Artemisinin resistance reduced the effectiveness of interventions using ACT when the prevalence of resistance was very high. The main results were robust to assumptions about primaquine action, and immunity. Conclusions The key messages of these modelling results for policy makers were: high coverage with ACT treatment can produce a long-term reduction in malaria whereas the impact of MDA is generally only short-term; primaquine enhances the effect of ACT in eliminating malaria and reduces the increase in proportion of artemisinin resistant infections; parasite prevalence is a better surveillance measure for elimination programmes than numbers of symptomatic cases; combinations of interventions are most effective and sustained efforts are crucial for successful elimination.

Maude, Richard J.; Socheat, Duong; Nguon, Chea; Saroth, Preap; Dara, Prak; Li, Guoqiao; Song, Jianping; Yeung, Shunmay; Dondorp, Arjen M.; Day, Nicholas P.; White, Nicholas J.; White, Lisa J.

2012-01-01

267

Tobacco use among adults in Cambodia: evidence for a tobacco epidemic among women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To identify the demographic characteristics of current tobacco users in Cambodia, particularly women, and to explore the reasons for current tobacco use in demographic subgroups of the Cambodian population. Methods We used a stratified three-stage cluster sample of 13 988 adults aged 18 years and older from all provinces in 2005–2006. Participants completed an interviewer-administered survey that contained items on all forms of tobacco use and on health and lifestyle variables. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to identify demographic predictors of tobacco use. Findings Cigarette smoking occurred among 48.0% of men and 3.6% of women. We estimated that 560 482 women (95% confidence interval, CI: 504 783 to 616 180) currently chewed tobacco (typically as a component of betel quid) and that the prevalence more than doubles with each decade of adulthood up to the point that about half of all older women chew tobacco. Both men and women cited the influence of older relatives as their primary reason for starting to use tobacco. About one out of five rural women who used chewing tobacco started their habit for relief from morning sickness. The highest prevalence of chewing tobacco among women was seen among midwives (67.9%) and traditional healers (47.2%). High rates (66.8%) of cigarette and pipe tobacco use occurred among ethnic minorities who represent hill tribes found throughout south-east Asia. Conclusion The tobacco epidemic in Cambodia extends far beyond cigarette smoking in men. Tobacco control that focuses only on cigarettes will not address the health burden from smokeless tobacco use in women that may be an integral part of cultural, familial, and traditional medicine practices.

Yel, Daravuth; Sin, Sovann; Khieng, Sothy; Lopez, Jaime; Job, Jayakaran; Ferry, Linda; Knutsen, Synnove

2009-01-01

268

Preliminary study of flow regimes and stream water residence times in multi-scale forested watersheds of central Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate the water cycle in lowland forests of the Mekong River basin, our research group established four experimental\\u000a watersheds in the Stung Chinit River basin in Kampong Thom Province, Cambodia. The drainage areas of these experimental watersheds\\u000a ranged from small (4 km2) to mesoscale (3,659 km2). Here, we present the first preliminary results of our rainfall-discharge observations and analyses of temporal

Naoki Kabeya; Akira Shimizu; Tatsuhiko Nobuhiro; Koji Tamai

2008-01-01

269

Experiential Learning and Filming 'Floating Lives' in Cambodia: A Report on a CDTL Teaching Enhancement Grant Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the recess week of Semester 1, Academic Year 2007\\/2008, Dr Carl Grundy-Warr conducted a 'learning journey' to Cambodia with a primary aim to expose students to an intensive learning experience whereby they would visit a variety of field-sites and meet with various people as a quick way to learn about real world problems in the country. Part of the

Carl Grundy-Warr

270

Gender differences in suicidal expressions and their determinants among young people in Cambodia, a post-conflict country  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Suicide among young people is a global public health problem, but adequate information on determinants of suicidal expression\\u000a is lacking in middle and low income countries. Young people in transitional economies are vulnerable to psychosocial stressors\\u000a and suicidal expressions. This study explores the suicidal expressions and their determinants among high school students in\\u000a Cambodia, with specific focus on gender differences.

Bhoomikumar Jegannathan; Gunnar Kullgren

2011-01-01

271

Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted diseases in Dutch marines and naval personnel on a United Nations mission in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--To determine the sexual risk behaviour and the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among Dutch marines and naval personnel during a United Nations (UN) deployment. METHODS--Surveillance by post deployment questionnaire, administered to 2289 persons in three successive battalions who served for 6 months on a UN deployment in Cambodia during June 1992-November 1993. On site the medical history of

A P Hopperus Buma; R L Veltink; E J van Ameijden; C H Tendeloo; R A Coutinho

1995-01-01

272

Soils Under Different Forest Types in the Dry Evergreen Forest Zone of Cambodia: Morphology, Physicochemical Properties, and Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the morphology and physicochemical properties of soils under three different types of forest, i.e., dry evergreen\\u000a forest (DEF), dry deciduous forest (DDF), and mixed forest with evergreen and deciduous trees (MF), in the dry evergreen forest\\u000a zone of Kampong Thom Province, Cambodia. The morphological features of soils varied among the three different forest types.\\u000a The physical characteristics of

Jumpei Toriyama; Seiichi Ohta; Makoto Araki; Mamoru Kanzaki; Saret Khorn; Phearak Pith; Sopheap Lim; Sopheavuth Pol

273

Seasonal fluctuation of groundwater in an evergreen forest, central Cambodia: experiments and two-dimensional numerical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of a water cycle was conducted in an evergreen forest located in the Mekong River Basin in central Cambodia. At\\u000a the observation site, we measured the dynamics of the spatial distribution of groundwater levels. The groundwater movement\\u000a was analyzed two-dimensionally using boundary conditions and parameters that had been observed in the field. The climate in\\u000a the research area

Makoto Araki; Akira Shimizu; Naoki Kabeya; Tatsuhiko Nobuhiro; Eriko Ito; Yasuhiro Ohnuki; Koji Tamai; Jumpei Toriyama; Bora Tith; Sopheavuth Pol; Sopheap Lim; Saret Khorn

2008-01-01

274

Dengue in Thailand and Cambodia: An Assessment of the Degree of Underrecognized Disease Burden Based on Reported Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDisease incidence data are needed to guide decision-making for public health interventions. Although dengue is a reportable disease in Thailand and Cambodia, the degree that reported incidence underrecognizes true disease burden is unknown. We utilized dengue incidence calculated from laboratory-confirmed outpatient and inpatient cases in prospective cohort studies to estimate the magnitude of dengue underrecognition and to establish more accurate

Ole Wichmann; In-Kyu Yoon; Sirenda Vong; Kriengsak Limkittikul; Robert V. Gibbons; Mammen P. Mammen; Sowath Ly; Philippe Buchy; Chukiat Sirivichayakul; Rome Buathong; Rekol Huy; G. William Letson; Arunee Sabchareon

2011-01-01

275

Although only recently reopened, Angkor Wat already facing growing pains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tourism official proposes elephant ban at Angkorhttp://english.people.com.cn/200609/20/eng20060920_304606.htmlAPSARA [Macromedia Flash Player]http://www.autoriteapsara.org/Is Angkor Wat too touristy?http://travel.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,18409-2363554,00.htmlGreat Buildings Online: Angkor Wathttp://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Angkor_Wat.htmlInteractive Map of World Heritage Properties [Macromedia Flash Player]http://whc.unesco.org/en/mapCambodia Posthttp://www.cambodiajournal.com/Rulers have long sought to create lasting landmarks through grand buildings and public works projects, and Angkor Wat is certainly one of the most well known places in South East Asia, if not the entire world. Initially built in the early 12th century, the temple and its surrounding grounds have long been popular tourist destinations, and they have survived a number of potential threats, including the long civil war in Cambodia that engulfed the entire country and the region for several decades. However, another threat is looming that could have even more dire consequences, namely the arrival of millions of tourists. Tourism officials recently reported that close to two million tourists will visit the temples this year, and almost 500,000 of them will arrive in November and December. In the town of Siem Reap, which serves as the gateway to the Angkor complex, the bureau chief of the townÂs tourism department remarked that ÂThere are too many people, and itÂs difficult to supply and feed them. The situation is also rather complex due to the fact that Cambodia as a whole is heavily reliant on tourism, and a number of government officials are hard pressed to reign in this booming sector of the nationÂs economy. In the meantime, there are plans in place to improve the local infrastructure problems around Siem Reap, but it remains to be seen what sustainable measures might need to be taken to ensure the integrity of these important elements of the historical and cultural landscape.The first link will take users to piece on the issues raised by increased tourism around Angkor Wat from the Christian Science MonitorÂs Adam Piore. The second link leads to a news story from the PeopleÂs Daily Online that talks about the proposal offered by one tourism official which would ban elephants from the grounds. The third link leads to the website of the APSARA agency, which is responsible for providing stewardship of the buildings and the grounds. Here, visitor can learn about the areaÂs history and art, and see maps of each monument. The fourth link whisks users away to a piece in the Sunday Times that offers some expert advice (along with the observations of other tourists) about whether or not Angkor Wat has become Âtoo touristyÂ. The fifth link leads to the entry from Great Buildings Online on Angkor Wat, which includes some basic history of the complex, along with a number of aerial photographs. The sixth link leads to the interactive map of World Heritage properties. Finally, the last link leads to a nice site that culls news stories about Cambodia and the region into one nice package for visitors who would like to stay abreast of ongoing events in the area.

Grinnell, Max

2006-01-01

276

Influenza epidemiology and characterization of influenza viruses in patients seeking treatment for acute fever in Cambodia.  

PubMed

The epidemiology, symptomology, and viral aetiology of endemic influenza remain largely uncharacterized in Cambodia. In December 2006, we established passive hospital-based surveillance to identify the causes of acute undifferentiated fever in patients seeking healthcare. Fever was defined as tympanic membrane temperature >38 degrees C. From December 2006 to December 2008, 4233 patients were screened for influenza virus by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Of these patients, 1151 (27.2%) were positive for influenza. Cough (68.8% vs. 50.5%, P < 0.0001) and sore throat (55.0% vs. 41.9%, P < 0.0001) were more often associated with laboratory-confirmed influenza-infected patients compared to influenza-negative enrollees. A clear influenza season was evident between July and December with a peak during the rainy season. Influenza A and B viruses were identified in 768 (66.3%) and 388 (33.7%) of the influenza-positive population (n = 1153), respectively. In December 2008, passive surveillance identified infection of the avian influenza virus H5N1 in a 19-year-old farmer from Kandal province who subsequently recovered. From a subset of diagnostic samples submitted in 2007, 15 A(H1N1), seven A(H3N2) and seven B viruses were isolated. The predominant subtype tested was influenza A(H1N1), with the majority antigenically related to the A/Solomon Island/03/2006 vaccine strain. The influenza A(H3N2) isolates and influenza B viruses analysed were closely related to A/Brisbane/10/2007 or B/Ohio/01/2005 (B/Victoria/2/87-lineage) vaccine strains, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA1 region of the HA gene of influenza A(H1N1) viruses demonstrated that the Cambodian isolates belonged to clade 2C along with representative H1N1 viruses circulating in SE Asia at the time. These viruses remained sensitive to oseltamivir. In total, our data suggest that viral influenza infections contribute to nearly one-fifth of acute febrile illnesses and demonstrate the importance of influenza surveillance in Cambodia. PMID:19698213

Blair, P J; Wierzba, T F; Touch, S; Vonthanak, S; Xu, X; Garten, R J; Okomo-Adhiambo, M A; Klimov, A I; Kasper, M R; Putnam, S D

2009-08-24

277

Regenerative Engine Analysis Program (REAP).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a 7-month program to conduct a preliminary design analysis of a 500-SHP fuel-efficient regenerative turboshaft engine and to identify promising heat-exchanger concepts for such engines. A technology level consistent wit...

R. W. Heldenbrand W. S. Miller

1981-01-01

278

Reaching out and reaching up - developing a low cost drug treatment system in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Cambodia, confronted by the spread of drug misuse among young people, requested support from international agencies to develop a drug treatment programme in 2000. The initial plan developed by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime was to set up a number of conventional drug treatment centres in urban areas. During the planning phase, however, the project was redesigned as a community based outreach programme. Ten Community Counselling Teams have been formed and trained in pilot areas, and within the first year of operation 462 drug and alcohol users contacted. Comprising former drug users, family members affected by drug use and health care staff, they have drug scene credibility, local knowledge and connectivity, and a rudimentary level of medical competence. Crucially, they enjoy the support of village elders, who are involved in the planning and reporting stages. While the Community Counselling Teams with their basic training in addiction counselling are in no position as yet to either provide or refer clients to treatment, they can provide brief interventions, organise self help groups, and most importantly provide an alternative to law enforcement. By taking a development centred approach, with emphasis on community, empowerment and inclusion, it provides a constructive and inclusive alternative to medical approaches and the compulsory drug treatment centres. The paper is based on an evaluation involving interviews with a range of stakeholders and a review of project documents. PMID:22410105

Klein, Axel; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Reid, Savanna

2012-03-12

279

Barriers to access and the purchasing function of health equity funds: lessons from Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Problem High out-of-pocket payments and user fees with unfunded exemptions limit access to health services for the poor. Health equity funds (HEF) emerged in Cambodia as a strategic purchasing mechanism used to fund exemptions and reduce the burden of health-care costs on people on very low incomes. Their impact on access to health services must be carefully examined. Approach Evidence from the field is examined to define barriers to access, analyse the role played by HEF and identify how HEF address these barriers. Local setting Two-thirds of total health expenditure consists of patients’ out-of-pocket spending at the time of care, mainly for self-medication and private services. While the private sector attracts most out-of-pocket spending, user fees remain a barrier to access to public services for people on very low incomes. Relevant changes HEF brought new patients to public facilities, satisfying some unmet health-care needs. There was no perceived stigma for HEF patients but many of them still had to borrow money to access health care. Lessons learned HEF are a purchasing mechanism in the Cambodian health-care system. They exercise four essential roles: financing, community support, quality assurance and policy dialogue. These roles respond to the main barriers to access to health services. The impact is greatest where a third-party arrangement is in place. A strong and supportive policy environment is needed for the HEF to exercise their active purchasing role fully.

Annear, Peter Leslie

2009-01-01

280

Leaf gas exchange traits of domestic and exotic tree species in Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In forests under the management by community villagers, exotic tree species with rapid growth rate are introduced in wide range of Cambodia. To evaluate the influence of the introduction on the forest gas exchange and water budget, we investigated the leaf gas exchange traits of two domestic (Dipterocarpus obtusifolius and Shorea roxburghii) and exotic tree species (Acasia auriculiformis and Eucalyptus camadilansis). We sampled shoots of each species and measured the leaf gas exchange traits (photosynthetic rates under different CO2 concentrations, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance) (6 leaves x 3 trees x 4 species). We carried out this measurement at 2 months intervals for a year from the beginning of rainy season and compared the obtained traits among species. Light saturated rate of net photosynthesis was higher in E. camadilansis but did not differ among other species both in rainy and dry seasons. Seasonal patter in photosynthetic traits was not obvious. Each species changed stomatal conductance in response to changes in environmental conditions. The response was more sensitive than reported values. In this presentation, we show details about the basic information about the leaf-level gas exchange traits, which are required to run soil- vegetation - atmosphere transfer model.

Miyazawa, Y.; Tateishi, M.; Kumagai, T.; Otsuki, K.

2009-12-01

281

Community Reaction to Older-age Parental AIDS Caregivers and their Families: Evidence from Cambodia.  

PubMed

Accounts of community reaction to persons with HIV/AIDS and their families typically focus only on negative reactions stemming from stigmatization with little acknowledgement of variation over time and across settings. To usefully guide local interventions, a broader view is needed that also encompasses attitudes and actions stemming from sympathy and friendship. We examine community reaction in Cambodia to families from the perspective of parents of adults who died of AIDS or currently receive antiretroviral therapy. Survey evidence and open-ended interviews reveal a mixture of reactions with respect to social relations, interactions with local officials, gossip, business patronage, funeral participation, and orphaned grandchildren. Positive support is often dominant and reactions typically improve substantially over time. Misplaced fears of contagion through casual contact underlie most negative reactions. Moral condemnation or blame is not evident as a source of negative reactions. Overall a sufficiently supportive atmosphere likely exists in many localities to facilitate community based efforts to mitigate the epidemic's impact on affected families. PMID:20161630

Knodel, John; Williams, Nathalie; Kim, Sovan Kiry; Puch, Sina; Saengtienchai, Chanpen

2010-01-01

282

Adult tobacco cessation in cambodia: I. Determinants of quitting tobacco use.  

PubMed

This study determined factors associated with quitting tobacco in Cambodia, a country with a high prevalence of men who smoke and women who use smokeless tobacco. As part of a nationwide survey, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 5145 current and 447 former tobacco users who had quit for ?2 years. Determinants of quitting in multivariate analyses were age >48 years, age at initiation >25 years, ?7 years of education, income ?1 US dollar per day, professional (odds ratio [OR] = 2.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27-5.01) or labor (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.10-3.56) occupations, and heart disease (OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.10, 3.42). Smokeless tobacco users were 10-fold less likely to quit (OR = 0.10; 95% = CI 0.05-0.20) than smokers. In conclusion, tobacco cessation among Cambodians was lower than in nations with decades of comprehensive tobacco control policies. Tobacco cessation programs and policies should include all forms of tobacco and target young to middle-aged users before onset of disease and premature death. PMID:22815309

Tonstad, Serena; Job, Jayakaran S; Batech, Michael; Yel, Daravuth; Kheam, They; Singh, Pramil N

2012-07-18

283

DEVELOPMENT OF MULTI POLARIZATION SAR ALGORITHM FOR SOIL MOISTURE IN PADDY FIELD, CAMBODIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Cambodia, agriculture is the important industry which engages many people. However, the water supplied only during rainy season is the source of water for agriculture. To use the limited water resources effectively, it is necessary to apply the water-resource management based on the meteorological prediction and the river runoff prediction. As the factor of these predictions, the soil moisture plays a key role in water and thermal transportation to the atmosphere, and the contribution of river runoff property. On the other hand, the soil moisture distribution with the paddy field scale is helpful in the agricultural activity and management. Therefore, Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR) is expected to observe soil moisture with high spatial resolution in large area. Recently, some multi-polarization SAR have been in operation. The purpose of this study is to develop the algorithm to estimate soil moisture by using multi-polarization data acquired with the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS).

Aida, Kentaro; Koike, Toshio; Shi, Jiancheng

284

The evaluation test of hand-held dual-sensor ALIS in Croatia and Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor (ALIS) which is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR. ALIS is equipped with a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. It makes possible to process the data after the data was acquired, including migration. The migration processing drastically increases the quality of the images of the buried objects. Evaluation test of ALIS has been conducted in several test sites. In February 2006, a one-month evaluation test was conducted in Croatia, and in October- December 2006, a two-month evaluation test was conducted in Croatia. Since the dual-sensor is a new landmine detection sensor, and the conventional evaluation procedure developed for metal detectors cannot directly be applied for the dual sensor. In Croatia, the detection probability was comparable to that by a metal detector operated by local deminers. In addition, we showed that ALIS provides image of buried objects by GPR, which can be used for identification. Therefore, their performances were sufficiently high. Then the test was also conducted in Cambodia. The test was carried out by 2 local deminers independently, which allows studying the influence of different operators and increases the statistical value of the results.

Sato, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Kazunori

2007-05-01

285

Higher microsatellite diversity in Plasmodium vivax than in sympatric Plasmodium falciparum populations in Pursat, Western Cambodia.  

PubMed

Previous microsatellite analyses of sympatric populations of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Brazil revealed higher diversity in the former species. However, it remains unclear whether regional species-specific differences in prevalence and transmission levels might account for these findings. Here, we examine sympatric populations of P. vivax (n=87) and P. falciparum (n=164) parasites from Pursat province, Western Cambodia, where both species are similarly prevalent. Using 10 genome-wide microsatellites for P. falciparum and 13 for P. vivax, we found that the P. vivax population was more diverse than the sympatric P. falciparum population (average virtual heterozygosity [HE], 0.87 vs. 0.66, P=0.003), with more multiple-clone infections (89.6% vs. 47.6%) and larger mean number of alleles per marker (16.2 vs. 11.1, P=0.07). Both populations showed significant multi-locus linkage disequilibrium suggestive of a predominantly clonal mode of parasite reproduction. The higher microsatellite diversity found in P. vivax isolates, compared to sympatric P. falciparum isolates, does not necessarily result from local differences in transmission level and may reflect differences in population history between species or increased mutation rates in P. vivax. PMID:23562882

Orjuela-Sánchez, Pamela; Sá, Juliana M; Brandi, Michelle C C; Rodrigues, Priscila T; Bastos, Melissa S; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Duong, Socheat; Fairhurst, Rick M; Ferreira, Marcelo U

2013-04-04

286

Adult Tobacco Cessation in Cambodia: II. Determinants of Intent to Quit.  

PubMed

Identifying determinants of intent to quit may aid the design of antitobacco programs and promote effective tobacco control policies. In a nationwide survey in Cambodia, two thirds of tobacco smokers and 45% of female smokeless tobacco users planned to stop in the future. Multivariate determinants of intent in 2279 male smokers were age <37 years, age at initiation ?18 years, Cham versus Khmer ethnicity (odds ratio [OR] = 6.93; 95% confidence interval[CI] = 1.38-34.89), longer education, and professional occupation. In 1188 female smokeless tobacco users, age <25 years, age at initiation ?18 years, and tuberculosis (OR = 3.26; 95% CI = 1.61-6.61) were associated with intent. In female smokers (n = 321), age 18 to 25 years at initiation was associated with intent. In male smokers and female smokeless tobacco users, perceived physical advantages of tobacco were inversely associated with intent. These findings underscore the importance of policies and interventions to delay initiation and promote cessation in young people and counteract perceived physical benefits. PMID:22865720

Tonstad, Serena; Job, Jayakaran S; Batech, Michael; Yel, Daravuth; Kheam, They; Singh, Pramil N

2012-08-02

287

Landslide susceptibility mapping in the Damrei Romel area, Cambodia using frequency ratio and logistic regression models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study applied, tested and compared a probability model, a frequency ratio and statistical model, a logistic regression to Damre Romel area, Cambodia, using a geographic information system. For landslide susceptibility mapping, landslide locations were identified in the study area from interpretation of aerial photographs and field surveys, and a spatial database was constructed from topographic maps, geology and land cover. The factors that influence landslide occurrence, such as slope, aspect, curvature and distance from drainage were calculated from the topographic database. Lithology and distance from lineament were extracted and calculated from the geology database. Land cover was classified from Landsat TM satellite imagery. The relationship between the factors and the landslides was calculated using frequency ratio and logistic regression models. The relationships, frequency ratio and logistic regression coefficient were overlaid to make landslide susceptibility map. Then the landslide susceptibility map was compared with known landslide locations and tested. As the result, the frequency ratio model (86.97%) and the logistic regression (86.37%) had high and similar prediction accuracy. The landslide susceptibility map can be used to reduce hazards associated with landslides and to land cover planning.

Lee, Saro; Sambath, Touch

2006-08-01

288

Biodiversity Monitoring at the Tonle Sap Lake of Cambodia: A Comparative Assessment of Local Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper assesses local biodiversity monitoring methods practiced in the Tonle Sap Lake of Cambodia. For the assessment we used the following criteria: methodological rigor, perceived cost, ease of use (user friendliness), compatibility with existing activities, and effectiveness of intervention. Constraints and opportunities for execution of the methods were also considered. Information was collected by use of: (1) key informant interview, (2) focus group discussion, and (3) researcher's observation. The monitoring methods for fish, birds, reptiles, mammals and vegetation practiced in the research area have their unique characteristics of generating data on biodiversity and biological resources. Most of the methods, however, serve the purpose of monitoring biological resources rather than biodiversity. There is potential that the information gained through local monitoring methods can provide input for long-term management and strategic planning. In order to realize this potential, the local monitoring methods should be better integrated with each other, adjusted to existing norms and regulations, and institutionalized within community-based organization structures.

Seak, Sophat; Schmidt-Vogt, Dietrich; Thapa, Gopal B.

2012-10-01

289

Boiling as Household Water Treatment in Cambodia: A Longitudinal Study of Boiling Practice and Microbiological Effectiveness  

PubMed Central

This paper focuses on the consistency of use and microbiological effectiveness of boiling as it is practiced in one study site in peri-urban Cambodia. We followed 60 randomly selected households in Kandal Province over 6 months to collect longitudinal data on water boiling practices and effectiveness in reducing Escherichia coli in household drinking water. Despite > 90% of households reporting that they used boiling as a means of drinking water treatment, an average of only 31% of households had boiled water on hand at follow-up visits, suggesting that actual use may be lower than self-reported use. We collected 369 matched untreated and boiled water samples. Mean reduction of E. coli was 98.5%; 162 samples (44%) of boiled samples were free of E. coli (< 1 colony-forming unit [cfu]/100 mL), and 270 samples (73%) had < 10 cfu/100 mL. Storing boiled water in a covered container was associated with safer product water than storage in an uncovered container.

Brown, Joseph; Sobsey, Mark D.

2012-01-01

290

Reaching out and reaching up - developing a low cost drug treatment system in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Cambodia, confronted by the spread of drug misuse among young people, requested support from international agencies to develop a drug treatment programme in 2000. The initial plan developed by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime was to set up a number of conventional drug treatment centres in urban areas. During the planning phase, however, the project was redesigned as a community based outreach programme. Ten Community Counselling Teams have been formed and trained in pilot areas, and within the first year of operation 462 drug and alcohol users contacted. Comprising former drug users, family members affected by drug use and health care staff, they have drug scene credibility, local knowledge and connectivity, and a rudimentary level of medical competence. Crucially, they enjoy the support of village elders, who are involved in the planning and reporting stages. While the Community Counselling Teams with their basic training in addiction counselling are in no position as yet to either provide or refer clients to treatment, they can provide brief interventions, organise self help groups, and most importantly provide an alternative to law enforcement. By taking a development centred approach, with emphasis on community, empowerment and inclusion, it provides a constructive and inclusive alternative to medical approaches and the compulsory drug treatment centres. The paper is based on an evaluation involving interviews with a range of stakeholders and a review of project documents.

2012-01-01

291

The Epidemiology of Pediatric Bone and Joint Infections in Cambodia, 2007-11  

PubMed Central

There are limited data on osteoarticular infections from resource-limited settings in Asia. A retrospective study of patients presenting to the Angkor Hospital for Children, Cambodia, January 2007–July 2011, identified 81 cases (28% monoarticular septic arthritis, 51% single-limb osteomyelitis and 15% multisite infections). The incidence was 13.8/100 000 hospital attendances. The median age was 7.3 years, with a male/female ratio of 1.9:1; 35% presented within 5 days of symptom onset (median 7 days). Staphylococcus aureus was cultured in 29 (36%) cases (52% of culture-positive cases); one isolate was methicillin-resistant (MRSA). Median duration of antimicrobial treatment was 29 days (interquartile range 21–43); rates of surgical intervention were 96%, and 46% of children had sequelae, with one fatality. In this setting osteoarticular infections are relatively common with high rates of surgical intervention and sequelae. Staphylococcus aureus is the commonest culturable cause, but methicillin-resistant S. aureus is not a major problem, unlike in other Asian centers.

Pocock, Joanna; Moore, Catrin E.; Soeng, Sona; Hor, PutChhat; Sar, Poda; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Day, Nicholas; Kumar, Varun; Khan, Sophy; Sar, Vuthy; Parry, Christopher M.

2013-01-01

292

Poverty, economic growth, deprivation, and water: the cases of Cambodia and Vietnam.  

PubMed

Poverty reduction decorates all development agendas, but the complexity of the poverty issue is too often hidden behind simplistic indicators and development goals. Here, a closer look is taken at the concepts of "deprivation" and "vulnerability" as outcomes of poverty. Deprivation leads typically to social exclusion and marginalization; such groups are particularly weak in getting themselves out of poverty by "self-help," and economic growth does not trickle down to these people. When looking at the connections between poverty reduction and economic growth, special emphasis should be put on the differences between modern and more traditional sectors: development of the modern sector should not marginalize and exclude those dependent on more traditional livelihoods. Two case studies--The Tonle Sap area, Cambodia, and the Mekong Delta, Vietnam--reveal that investment in education, empowerment of small-scale entrepreneurship and other means of microeconomic environment, along with good governance, infrastructure, and income distribution can ensure that economic growth includes the poorer echelons of society. PMID:18595279

Varis, Olli

2008-05-01

293

Cost-effectiveness of a successful schistosomiasis control programme in Cambodia (1995-2006).  

PubMed

Following preventive chemotherapy covering the entire population in the two endemic regions in Cambodia, the prevalence of schistosomiasis dropped from 77% in 1995 to 0.5% in 2003. The study presented here reports on the running cost of the control programme, and evaluates its cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit. Financial costs were assessed using data taken from the annual reports of the National Center for Malaria Control, the Cambodian institution responsible for the control activities. Other data were collected from interviews with provincial and district staff. The analysis was conducted from the point of views of the Cambodian Ministry of Health and that of the society, and the comparison was undertaken using the "do-nothing" option. The cost to treat an individual for the 9 years period of the implementation phase was 9.22 USD (1.02 per year), the cost for each severe infection avoided was 61.50 USD and 6531 USD for each death avoided. The drug cost corresponds on average to 17.34% of the programme's implementation cost. The cost of bringing one severely infected individual of productive age to complete productivity, was estimated at 114 USD and for 1 USD invested in the programme the return in increased productivity, for the economic system, was estimated to be 3.85 USD. The control programme demonstrated significant economical advantages. However, its costs are too high to be entirely supported by the Cambodian Ministry of Health. PMID:19962364

Croce, Davide; Porazzi, Emanuele; Foglia, Emanuela; Restelli, Umberto; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong; Montresor, Antonio

2009-12-03

294

Parental styles in the intergenerational transmission of trauma stemming from the khmer rouge regime in cambodia.  

PubMed

The impact of parental styles in intergenerational transmission of trauma among mothers who survived the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia, in power from 1975 to 1979, and their teenaged children was examined in 2 studies. In Study 1, 46 Cambodian female high school students and their mothers were recruited. Each daughter completed anxiety and depression measures as well as assessment of her mother's role-reversing, overprotective, and rejecting parental styles, whereas the mothers completed measures of their trauma exposure during the Khmer Rouge regime and PTSD symptoms. In support of trauma transmission, the mother's PTSD symptoms were predictive of her daughter's anxiety. Moreover, the mother's role-reversing parental style was shown to mediate the relationship between her own and her daughter's symptoms. In support of their generalizability, the results were replicated in Study 2 in a Cambodian-American refugee sample comparing 15 mental health treatment-seeking mothers and their teenaged children with 17 nontreatment-seeking mother-child pairs. The implications of the findings within the larger literature on intergenerational trauma transmission stemming from genocide are discussed. PMID:24164520

Field, Nigel P; Muong, Sophear; Sochanvimean, Vannavuth

2013-10-01

295

Trends of HIV-1 Seroincidence Among HIV-1 Sentinel Surveillance Groups in Cambodia, 1999-2002  

PubMed Central

Summary This study reports trends in HIV-1 incidence in Cambodia among different target groups in the HIV-1 Sentinel Surveillance Program in 1999, 2000, and 2002, using the newly developed IgG capture BED-enzyme (HIV subtypes B, E and D) immunoassay (BED-CEIA). HIV-1-positive specimens (n = 3599) from 4 sentinel groups in the HIV-1 Sentinel Surveillance Program from 1999 to 2002—brothel-based commercial sex workers (CSWs), indirect commercial sex workers (IDSWs), police, and women attending antenatal clinics (ANCs)—were tested using the BED-CEIA. Annualized incidence rates were calculated for each group and each geographic region. Between 1999 and 2002, incidence rates declined among CSWs from 13.9% to 6.45%, among IDSWs from 5.92% to 2.87%, and among police from 1.58% to 0.26%. In the ANC group, the incidence remained stable, 0.64% in 1999, 1.11% in 2000, and 0.59% in 2002. However, there was an increasing trend among ANCs in rural areas, from 0.12 to 0.89%. In conclusion, HIV-1 incidence among CSWs, IDSWs, and police has declined between 1999 and 2002; however, the incidence has not declined in the ANC group.

Saphonn, Vonthanak; Parekh, Bharat S.; Dobbs, Trudy; Mean, ChiVun; Bun, Leng Hor; Ly, Sun Penh; Heng, Sopheab; Detels, Roger

2010-01-01

296

[Female prostitutes in Phnom Penh, Cambodia: changes in knowledge, attitudes and practices between 2000 and 2004].  

PubMed

A survey was carried out to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practice of female prostitutes In Phnom Penh (Cambodia) in 2000 and 2004. A total of 131 women were included both years. The population was 75% Cambodian and 25% Vietnamese. Average age was 22.9 years in 2000 and 25.5 years in 2004. Sixty-seven percent of the women surveyed stated that prostitution was a "voluntary" choice. The awareness rate for sexual transmitted diseases (STD) including AIDS and its main clinical signs and of the protective value of condoms was 90% in 2000 and 96% in 2004. However 30% reported unprotected sexual relations with at least one of their last 10 clients. Twenty-five percent performed oral sex usually without precaution. Drug use was limited to methamphetamines. Monthly income ranged from 15 dollars to 22.5 dollars (mean, 66 dollars). This amount is higher than the salary of a factory worker. Despite good knowledge of STD and prevention measures, prostitutes in Phnom Penh appear to have unsafe sexual practices. PMID:16775939

Gazin, P; Plard-Rodrigo, C; Uong, C; De Greef, S; Rhis, B; Legros, P

2006-04-01

297

Consumption of animal source foods and dietary diversity reduce stunting in children in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Malnutrition in children is a major public health concern. This study aimed to determine the association between dietary diversity and stunting, underweight, wasting, and diarrhea and that between consumption of each specific food group and these nutritional and health outcomes among children. Methods A nationally representative household survey of 6209 children aged 12 to 59 months was conducted in Cambodia. We examined the consumption of food in the 24 hours before the survey and stunting, underweight, wasting, and diarrhea that had occurred in the preceding 2 weeks. A food variety score (ranging from 0 to 9) was calculated to represent dietary diversity. Results Stunting was negatively associated with dietary diversity (adjusted odd ratios [ORadj] 0.95, 95% confident interval [CI] 0.91-0.99, P?=?0.01) after adjusting for socioeconomic and geographical factors. Consumption of animal source foods was associated with reduced risk of stunting (ORadj 0.69, 95% CI 0.54-0.89, P?

2013-01-01

298

Preventing highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) at the rural community level: a case study from Cambodia.  

PubMed

Poultry is an integral part of the rural livelihoods in Cambodia, with more than half of the households keeping poultry in their small-scale, traditional, and extensive backyards. More than 20 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks have been reported since 2004 with deaths of over 21,000 birds. During the HPAI outbreaks, some of the flocks in the rural areas were culled without compensation and producers were not allowed to sell outside of the community. Heifer International worked with 2,000 rural families through local project partners in the target communities to develop an effective intervention mechanism to mitigate the impact of the HPAI crisis. Heifer International provided training, public education, and networking as well as promoting model farms based on improved scavenging poultry management. Each community selected one farm family to serve as a model farm. They were trained in Heifer's working approach and committed to practicing integrated farming systems based on scavenging poultry management. One Village Animal Health Worker (VAHW) in each community participated during the project implementation, playing a key role in the information exchange and the interaction between the communities and the avian influenza experts. Formal and informal trainings were conducted for all project partners and project recipients through experts and VAHWs, respectively. There have been no outbreaks reported in the communities in the project areas. Farmers have started using appropriate techniques to maintain biosecurity. They are passing on the knowledge and the skills to the surrounding communities. This participatory approach in educating rural farmers can serve as a model to mitigate HPAI in the developing countries around the world. PMID:21442155

Bhandari, Dilip P; Wollen, Terry S; Lohani, Mahendra N

2011-03-27

299

MLVA polymorphism of Salmonella enterica subspecies isolated from humans, animals, and food in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Salmonella (S.) enterica is the main cause of salmonellosis in humans and animals. The epidemiology of this infection involves large geographical distances, and strains related to an episode of salmonellosis therefore need to be reliably discriminated. Due to the limitations of serotyping, molecular genotyping methods have been developed, including multiple loci variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA). In our study, 11 variable number tandem-repeats markers were selected from the S. enterica Typhimurium LT2 genome to evaluate the genetic diversity of 206 S. enterica strains collected in Cambodia between 2001 and 2007. Findings Thirty one serovars were identified from three sources: humans, animals and food. The markers were able to discriminate all strains from 2 to 17 alleles. Using the genotype phylogeny repartition, MLVA distinguished 107 genotypes clustered into two main groups: S. enterica Typhi and other serovars. Four serovars (Derby, Schwarzengrund, Stanley, and Weltevreden) were dispersed in 2 to 5 phylogenic branches. Allelic variations within S. enterica serovars was represented using the minimum spanning tree. For several genotypes, we identified clonal complexes within the serovars. This finding supports the notion of endemo-epidemic diffusion within animals, food, or humans. Furthermore, a clonal transmission from one source to another was reported. Four markers (STTR3, STTR5, STTR8, and Sal20) presented a high diversity index (DI > 0.80). Conclusions In summary, MLVA can be used in the typing and genetic profiling of a large diversity of S. enterica serovars, as well as determining the epidemiological relationships of the strains with the geography of the area.

2011-01-01

300

Redeeming qualities: exploring factors that affect women's use of reproductive health vouchers in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background One approach to delivering healthcare in developing countries is through voucher programs, where vouchers are distributed to a specific population for free or subsidized health care. Recent evaluations suggest that vouchers have the potential to extend coverage of priority health services to the poor in developing countries. In Cambodia, a reproductive health voucher program was implemented in January 2011. This study aims to explore women’s early experiences accessing health services with their vouchers at accredited clinics. Methods This qualitative exploratory study used focus group methodology to gather information from five groups of older (>25 years) and four groups of younger (18–25 years) women who were eligible for the voucher program in three rural provinces. Focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed and translated from Khmer into English. Data analysis was an iterative process, which comprised of open coding to find commonalities that reflected categories or themes and axial coding to relate initial themes to each other. Next, a basic framework for analysis was formed by integrating the themes into the framework. Results Two overarching themes were identified in the data: 1) factors that facilitate voucher use and 2) factors that inhibit voucher use. Within each of these themes, three subthemes were identified: 1) pre-existing factors, 2) distribution factors, and 3) redemption factors. Overall, women expressed positive feelings towards the voucher program, while several areas for program improvement were identified including the importance of addressing pre-existing demand-side barriers to using reproductive health services, the need for more comprehensive counselling during voucher distribution, and the persistent cost of unofficial payments expected by midwives after delivery irrespective of voucher use. Conclusions Early information from program beneficiaries can lead to timely and responsive changes that can help to maximize program success. This study highlights the importance of tailoring voucher programs to specific community needs, a strategy that can lead to better program uptake.

2013-01-01

301

Whose Education Policies in Aid-Receiving Countries? A Critical Discourse Analysis of Quality and Normative Transfer through Cambodia and Laos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Critical discourse analysis of policy contexts and documents has been employed in this research to analyze the role of language in promoting normative positions affecting the quality of education in Cambodia and Laos. The article examines the ways institutional normative influences at multiple levels within the Education for All (EFA) program…

McCormick, Alexandra

2012-01-01

302

Whose Education Policies in Aid-Receiving Countries? A Critical Discourse Analysis of Quality and Normative Transfer through Cambodia and Laos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical discourse analysis of policy contexts and documents has been employed in this research to analyze the role of language in promoting normative positions affecting the quality of education in Cambodia and Laos. The article examines the ways institutional normative influences at multiple levels within the Education for All (EFA) program have…

McCormick, Alexandra

2012-01-01

303

Evaluation of an Influenza-Like Illness Case Definition in the Diagnosis of Influenza Among Patients with Acute Febrile Illness in Cambodia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Influenza-like illness (ILI) is often defined as fever (>38.0C) with cough or sore throat. In this study, we tested the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of this case definition in a Cambodia patient population. Methods...

L. Sovann M. R. Kasper P. J. Blair S. D. Putnam T. F. Wierzba

2010-01-01

304

Poverty, user fees and ability to pay for health care for children with suspected dengue in rural Cambodia  

PubMed Central

User fees were introduced in public health facilities in Cambodia in 1997 in order to inject funds into the health system to enhance the quality of services. Because of inadequate health insurance, a social safety net scheme was introduced to ensure that all people were able to attend the health facilities. However, continuing high rates of hospitalization and mortality from dengue fever among infants and children reflect the difficulties that women continue to face in finding sufficient cash in cases of medical emergency, resulting in delays in diagnosis and treatment. In this article, drawing on in-depth interviews conducted with mothers of children infected with dengue in eastern Cambodia, we illustrate the profound economic consequences for households when a child is ill. The direct costs for health care and medical services, and added indirect costs, deterred poor women from presenting with sick children. Those who eventually sought care often had to finance health spending through out-of-pocket payments and loans, or sold property, goods or labour to meet the costs. Costs were often catastrophic, exacerbating the extreme poverty of those least able to afford it.

Khun, Sokrin; Manderson, Lenore

2008-01-01

305

Validity and reliability of survey items and pictograms for use in a national household survey of tobacco use in cambodia.  

PubMed

The validity of survey measures of smoked and smokeless tobacco use in the Western Pacific Region is often unknown. We conducted a validation study (n = 201) in a random sample of rural adults in Cambodia. A comparison with salivary cotinine indicated (1) that survey items and pictograms of current tobacco use had an 87% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 78%-93%) sensitivity, 94% specificity (95% CI = 87%-98%), and 93% (95% CI = 85%-97%) positive predictive value in detecting cotinine levels >10 ng/mL; (2) a positive correlation with number of cigarettes smoked (R = 0.34; P = .01); and (3) a positive correlation with the amount of tobacco chewed (R = 0.44; P = .02). The validity of the index for the amount of smokeless tobacco used was enhanced by adding to the index the data from pictograms that were utilized to help participants estimate the amount of loose tobacco used per session. These tobacco items and pictograms were found to have excellent reliability (? = 0.80-1) over 2 to 3 weeks. Interviewer-administered survey items and pictograms can provide an accurate, quantitative measure of smoked and smokeless tobacco use in rural Cambodia. PMID:23695538

Singh, Pramil N; Khieng, Sothy; Yel, Daravuth; Nguyen, Duc; Job, Jayakaran S

2013-05-21

306

Testimony ceremonies in Asia: Integrating spirituality in testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines  

PubMed Central

This study explores the therapeutic implications of including culturally adapted spiritual ceremonies in the process of testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Data were collected through an action research process with Asian mental health and human rights organizations, during which the testimonial method was reconceptualized and modified to include four sessions. In the first two sessions, community workers assist survivors in the writing of their testimony, which is their narrative about the human rights violations they have suffered. In the third session, survivors participate in an honour ceremony in which they are presented with their testimony documents. In the fourth session, the community workers meet with the survivors for a reevaluation of their well-being. The honour ceremonies developed during the action research process came to employ different kinds of symbolic language at each site: human rights (India), religious/Catholic (Sri Lanka), religious/Buddhist (Cambodia), and religious/Moslem (Philippines). They all used embodied spirituality in various forms, incorporating singing, dancing, and religious purification rituals in a collective gathering. We suggest that these types of ceremonies may facilitate an individual’s capacity to contain and integrate traumatic memories, promote restorative self-awareness, and engage community support. Additional research is needed to determine the method’s applicability in other sociopolitical contexts governed by more Western-oriented medical traditions.

Agger, Inger; Igreja, Victor; Kiehle, Rachel; Polatin, Peter

2012-01-01

307

Testimony ceremonies in Asia: integrating spirituality in testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines.  

PubMed

This study explores the therapeutic implications of including culturally adapted spiritual ceremonies in the process of testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Data were collected through an action research process with Asian mental health and human rights organizations, during which the testimonial method was reconceptualized and modified to include four sessions. In the first two sessions, community workers assist survivors in the writing of their testimony, which is their narrative about the human rights violations they have suffered. In the third session, survivors participate in an honour ceremony in which they are presented with their testimony documents. In the fourth session, the community workers meet with the survivors for a reevaluation of their well-being. The honour ceremonies developed during the action research process came to employ different kinds of symbolic language at each site: human rights (India), religious/Catholic (Sri Lanka), religious/Buddhist (Cambodia), and religious/Moslem (Philippines). They all used embodied spirituality in various forms, incorporating singing, dancing, and religious purification rituals in a collective gathering. We suggest that these types of ceremonies may facilitate an individual's capacity to contain and integrate traumatic memories, promote restorative self-awareness, and engage community support. Additional research is needed to determine the method's applicability in other sociopolitical contexts governed by more Western-oriented medical traditions. PMID:22637721

Agger, Inger; Igreja, Victor; Kiehle, Rachel; Polatin, Peter

2012-05-25

308

PALSAR 50 m Mosaic Data Based National Level Biomass Estimation in Cambodia for Implementation of REDD+ Mechanism.  

PubMed

Tropical countries like Cambodia require information about forest biomass for successful implementation of climate change mitigation mechanism related to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). This study investigated the potential of Phased Array-type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar Fine Beam Dual (PALSAR FBD) 50 m mosaic data to estimate Above Ground Biomass (AGB) in Cambodia. AGB was estimated using a bottom-up approach based on field measured biomass and backscattering (?(o)) properties of PALSAR data. The relationship between the PALSAR ?(o) HV and HH/HV with field measured biomass was strong with R(2)?=?0.67 and 0.56, respectively. PALSAR estimated AGB show good results in deciduous forests because of less saturation as compared to dense evergreen forests. The validation results showed a high coefficient of determination R(2)?=?0.61 with RMSE ?=?21 Mg/ha using values up to 200 Mg/ha biomass. There were some uncertainties because of the uncertainty in the field based measurement and saturation of PALSAR data. AGB map of Cambodian forests could be useful for the implementation of forest management practices for REDD+ assessment and policies implementation at the national level. PMID:24116012

Avtar, Ram; Suzuki, Rikie; Takeuchi, Wataru; Sawada, Haruo

2013-10-07

309

PALSAR 50 m Mosaic Data Based National Level Biomass Estimation in Cambodia for Implementation of REDD+ Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Tropical countries like Cambodia require information about forest biomass for successful implementation of climate change mitigation mechanism related to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). This study investigated the potential of Phased Array-type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar Fine Beam Dual (PALSAR FBD) 50 m mosaic data to estimate Above Ground Biomass (AGB) in Cambodia. AGB was estimated using a bottom-up approach based on field measured biomass and backscattering (?o) properties of PALSAR data. The relationship between the PALSAR ?o HV and HH/HV with field measured biomass was strong with R2?=?0.67 and 0.56, respectively. PALSAR estimated AGB show good results in deciduous forests because of less saturation as compared to dense evergreen forests. The validation results showed a high coefficient of determination R2?=?0.61 with RMSE ?=?21 Mg/ha using values up to 200 Mg/ha biomass. There were some uncertainties because of the uncertainty in the field based measurement and saturation of PALSAR data. AGB map of Cambodian forests could be useful for the implementation of forest management practices for REDD+ assessment and policies implementation at the national level.

Avtar, Ram; Suzuki, Rikie; Takeuchi, Wataru; Sawada, Haruo

2013-01-01

310

Ex Vivo Susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to Antimalarial Drugs in Western, Northern, and Eastern Cambodia, 2011-2012: Association with Molecular Markers.  

PubMed

In 2008, dihydroartemisinin (DHA)-piperaquine (PPQ) became the first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in western Cambodia. Recent reports of increased treatment failure rates after DHA-PPQ therapy in this region suggest that parasite resistance to DHA, PPQ, or both is now adversely affecting treatment. While artemisinin (ART) resistance is established in western Cambodia, there is no evidence of PPQ resistance. To monitor for resistance to PPQ and other antimalarials, we measured drug susceptibilities for parasites collected in 2011 and 2012 from Pursat, Preah Vihear, and Ratanakiri, in western, northern, and eastern Cambodia, respectively. Using a SYBR green I fluorescence assay, we calculated the ex vivo 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of 310 parasites to six antimalarials: chloroquine (CQ), mefloquine (MQ), quinine (QN), PPQ, artesunate (ATS), and DHA. Geometric mean IC50s (GMIC50s) for all drugs (except PPQ) were significantly higher in Pursat and Preah Vihear than in Ratanakiri (P ? 0.001). An increased copy number of P. falciparum mdr1 (pfmdr1), an MQ resistance marker, was more prevalent in Pursat and Preah Vihear than in Ratanakiri and was associated with higher GMIC50s for MQ, QN, ATS, and DHA. An increased copy number of a chromosome 5 region (X5r), a candidate PPQ resistance marker, was detected in Pursat but was not associated with reduced susceptibility to PPQ. The ex vivo IC50 and pfmdr1 copy number are important tools in the surveillance of multidrug-resistant (MDR) parasites in Cambodia. While MDR P. falciparum is prevalent in western and northern Cambodia, there is no evidence for PPQ resistance, suggesting that DHA-PPQ treatment failures result mainly from ART resistance. PMID:23939897

Lim, Pharath; Dek, Dalin; Try, Vorleak; Eastman, Richard T; Chy, Sophy; Sreng, Sokunthea; Suon, Seila; Mao, Sivanna; Sopha, Chantha; Sam, Baramey; Ashley, Elizabeth A; Miotto, Olivo; Dondorp, Arjen M; White, Nicholas J; Su, Xin-Zhuan; Char, Meng Chuor; Anderson, Jennifer M; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Menard, Didier; Fairhurst, Rick M

2013-08-12

311

Community action for preventing HIV in Cambodia: evaluation of a 3-year project.  

PubMed

The 'Community Action for Preventing HIV/AIDS Project' was implemented in four provinces in Cambodia (2001-04) to support a comprehensive set of HIV prevention efforts. Implementation was strictly monitored in terms of inputs, outputs and outcomes. We examine changes in these variables during the project period to assess the extent to which they were related to the project. Inputs and outputs were monitored regularly by supervision and quarterly project reports. Baseline and follow-up surveys were conducted on 10 target groups to measure changes in outcome indicators related to sexual risk behaviours, uses of HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other indicators. The analyses use data from surveys and from project monitoring. Spending on HIV-related work at provincial level increased markedly, including investments in VCT, STI facilities and staff training. Yearly expenditure increased about 7-fold compared with years immediately preceding the project. VCT centres increased from 3 to 12, numbers of counsellors from 10 to 27, and numbers of client visits more than doubled. STI laboratory facilities increased from 0 to 6 with coverage of STI check-ups among sex workers increasing from 70% to 93% and a decline in men attending STI clinics. The survey results indicate significant changes in a number of major outcome indicators such as consistent condom use related to sex work (>80%), HIV testing and counselling after HIV tests, especially among police (42 to 72%, P < 0.001) and brothel-based sex workers (48 to 89%, P < 0.001). Self-reported STIs declined in most groups. Finally, the programmatic systems for planning, managing and monitoring implementation of activities at both central and provincial level, as well as technical guidelines, developed under the project have become the standard for the national programme. In conclusion, the project appears to have been comprehensive and a number of favourable changes in output and outcome indicators occurred. It seems likely that the project made a substantial contribution to these positive outcomes, though the extent is not clear. The project is likely to have powerful long-term effects through strengthening of capacity and establishment of systems for the national programme. PMID:18562460

Sopheab, Heng; Fylkesnes, Knut; Lim, Yi; Godwin, Peter

2008-07-01

312

Integrating Mechanisms that Control the Concentration and Distribution of Groundwater Arsenic in Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic contamination in the groundwater of the deltaic regions of southeastern Asia affects as many as one hundred million people. In these areas, the dominant mechanism for arsenic release into solution is the reductive dissolution of arsenic-bearing iron (hydr)oxides. What continues to confound researchers, however, is the heterogeneous nature of arsenic in groundwater. Recent evidence suggests that specific geomorphic environments are linked to regions of elevated groundwater arsenic. Moreover, waters from actively cycling surficial environments represent important sources of groundwater As in many environments. Here, we examine the mechanistic link between the localized expression of iron reduction and the large scale distribution of arsenic in groundwater along the Mekong River in Cambodia in a region impacted by widespread but heterogeneous arsenic contamination. In this region, arsenic levels in groundwater were correlated to sulfate levels, and both were strongly influenced by the extent of local surface water flooding (as quantified by remote sensing). Concentrations of arsenic ranged from 0 to 2100 micrograms/L, and were always found in groundwaters with significant dissolved iron and a sulfate concentration less than 1 mg/L. This indicates that the delivery of As and S was influenced by active redox processes in near-surface environments. In many, but not all, high As regions, groundwater concentrations of conservative halide anions also were similar to those of surficial environments, indicating that they were likely derived from the same locations. Low As regions, however, had widely variable halide concentrations in groundwater that may reflect additional groundwater sources. Thus, the expression of As contamination is strongly influenced by the hydrological connectivity of the aquifer with the surface. The isotopic composition of groundwater (hydrogen and oxygen) of high As areas also is similar to that of surface waters. Dissolved inorganic carbon isotopic composition of waters is more complex, with As-impacted groundwaters having distinct isotopic signatures characteristic of either extensive or relatively limited organic matter decomposition. Regional correlations of As with dissolved organic carbon are also not uniform, suggesting that sedimentary carbon is also important in generating reducing conditions. These data indicate that the distribution of organic carbon helps determine the distribution of arsenic in the environment. Moreover, these data indicate that heterogeneity in arsenic concentrations results from the interplay of variable organic matter content and reactivity within complex hydrological systems that can at least in part be explained regionally based on depositional environment.

Bostick, B. C.; Rosen, E. L.; Nguyen, H. M.; Sampson, M. L.

2008-12-01

313

A community-based education trial to improve backyard poultry biosecurity in rural Cambodia.  

PubMed

The emergence and spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 has caused substantial poultry-related economic losses and public health concerns in relation to a potential pandemic. While biosecurity measures for commercial poultry industry are of the highest standards, these measures are difficult to implement and often unaffordable for backyard poultry farming, particularly in tropical and low-income settings. We designed a feasible biosecurity intervention to improve flock hygiene in Cambodia, - based on community hygiene, cleaning of poultry flock areas and human and poultry movement control. We conducted a cluster randomized and controlled intervention trial in 18 villages in Takeo province to evaluate improvements in biosecurity-related knowledge and practices. The intervention relied on community involvement and community education using special information dissemination tools. We trained village teams (VT) to assist villagers in implementing the intervention using a cascade training approach, in which a few individuals were trained, who in turn trained a larger group of people. During the 14 month follow up, we conducted observational and interview-based surveys (baseline vs. final surveys, VT supervision visits, monitoring surveys) to assess VTs' motivation, intervention messages dissemination and the implementation of recommended measures. Most of villagers (95%, confidence interval: 87.8-100.0%) in intervention villages received general information about how to raise poultry. Farmers in intervention villages reported to have made more changes (?1 biosecurity related practice during the study period) compared with that of control villages (70.0% (260/372) vs. 22.6% (85/377), p value<0.01). When observing biosecurity-related practices in intervention villages, overall scores increased significantly (p<0.05). Practices such as use of quarantine cages for new and sick birds, limitation of people movement in backyards and waste management reached high scores during the 15-months period within five of the nine intervention villages. Cascade training managed to reach out to almost all villagers and significantly influence changes in biosecurity practices in the community. However, further follow-ups are needed to assess whether practices-related changes persist over a longer period of time. PMID:23262213

Conan, Anne; Ponsich, Aurélia; Luce Goutard, Flavie; Khiev, Ratana; Tarantola, Arnaud; Sorn, San; Vong, Sirenda

2012-12-19

314

Hydrogeologic reconnaissance of the Mekong Delta in South Vietnam and Cambodia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The present report describes the results of a hydrogeologic reconnaissance in the Mekong Delta region by the writer, a hydrogeologist of the U.S. Geological Survey, while on assignment as an adviser to the Vietnamese Directorate of Water Supply from October 1968 to April 1970 under the auspices of the U.s. Agency for International Development. The delta of the Mekong River, comprising an area of about 70,000 square kilometres in South Vietnam and Cambodia, is an almost featureless plain rising gradually from sea level to about 5 metres above sea level at its apex 300 kilometres inland. Most of the shallow ground water in the Holocene Alluvium of the delta in Vietnam is brackish or saline down to depths of 50 to 100 metres. Moreover, in the Dong Thap Mu?oi (Plain of Reeds) the shallow ground water is alum-bearing. Locally, however, perched bodies of fresh ground water occur in ancient beach and dune ridges and are tapped by shallow dug wells or pits for village and domestic water supply. The Old Alluvium beneath the lower delta contains freshwater in some areas, notably in the Ca Mau Peninsula and adjacent areas, in the viciniy of Bau Xau near Saigon, and in the Tinh Long An area. Elsewhere in the lower delta both the Holocene and Old Alluvium may contain brackish or saline water from the land surface to depths of as much as 568 metres, as for example in Tinh Vinh Binh. Ground water in the outcrop area of Old Alluvium northwest of Saigon is generally fresh and potable, but high iron and low pH are locally troublesome. Although considerable exploratory drilling for ground water down to depths of as much as 568 metres has already been completed, large areas of the delta remain yet to be explored before full development of the ground-water potential can be realized. With careful development and controlled management to avoid saltwater contamination, however, it is estimated that freshwater aquifers could provide approximately 80 percent of existing needs for village and small municipal supplies in the delta.

Anderson, Henry R.

1978-01-01

315

Epilepsy in Cambodia-Treatment Aspects and Policy Implications: A Population-Based Representative Survey  

PubMed Central

Introduction We tested two treatment strategies to determine: treatment (a) prognosis (seizure frequency, mortality, suicide, and complications), (b) safety and adherence of treatment, (c) self-reported satisfaction with treatment and self-reported productivity, and policy aspects (a) number of required tablets for universal treatment (NRT), (b) cost of management, (c) manpower-gap and requirements for scaling-up of epilepsy care. Methods We performed a random-cluster survey (N?=?16510) and identified 96 cases (?1 year of age) in 24 villages. They were screened by using a validated instrument and diagnosed by the neurologists. International guidelines were used for defining and classifying epilepsy. All were given phenobarbital or valproate (cost-free) in two manners patient’s door-steps (March 2009-March 2010, primary-treatment-period, PTP) and treatment through health-centers (March 2010-June 2011, treatment-continuation-period, TCP). The emphasis was to start on a minimum dosage and regime, without any polytherapy, according to the age of the recipients. No titration was done. Seizure-frequency was monthly and self-reported. Results The number of seizures reduced from 12.6 (pre-treatment) to 1.2 (end of PTP), following which there was an increase to 3.4 (end of TCP). Between start of PTP and end of TCP, >60.0% became and remained seizure-free. During TCP, ?26.0% went to health centers to collect their treatment. Complications reduced from 12.5% to 4.2% between start and end of PTP and increased to 17.2% between start and end of TCP. Adverse events reduced from 46.8% to 16.6% between start and end of PTP. Nearly 33 million phenobarbital 100 mg tablets are needed in Cambodia. Conclusions Epilepsy responded sufficiently well to the conventional treatment, even when taken at a minimal dosage and a simple daily regimen, without any polytherapy. This is yet another confirmation that it is possible to substantially reduce direct burden of epilepsy through means that are currently available to us.

Bhalla, Devender; Chea, Kimly; Hun, Chamroeun; Chan, Vichea; Huc, Pierre; Chan, Samleng; Sebbag, Robert; Gerard, Daniel; Dumas, Michel; Oum, Sophal; Druet-Cabanac, Michel; Preux, Pierre-Marie

2013-01-01

316

Dengue Incidence in Urban and Rural Cambodia: Results from Population-Based Active Fever Surveillance, 2006-2008  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue vaccines are now in late-stage development, and evaluation and robust estimates of dengue disease burden are needed to facilitate further development and introduction. In Cambodia, the national dengue case-definition only allows reporting of children less than 16 years of age, and little is known about dengue burden in rural areas and among older persons. To estimate the true burden of dengue in the largest province of Cambodia, Kampong Cham, we conducted community-based active dengue fever surveillance among the 0-to-19–year age group in rural villages and urban areas during 2006–2008. Methods and Findings Active surveillance for febrile illness was conducted in 32 villages and 10 urban areas by mothers trained to use digital thermometers combined with weekly home visits to identify persons with fever. An investigation team visited families with febrile persons to obtain informed consent for participation in the follow-up study, which included collection of personal data and blood specimens. Dengue-related febrile illness was defined using molecular and serological testing of paired acute and convalescent blood samples. Over the three years of surveillance, 6,121 fever episodes were identified with 736 laboratory-confirmed dengue virus (DENV) infections for incidences of 13.4–57.8/1,000 person-seasons. Average incidence was highest among children less than 7 years of age (41.1/1,000 person-seasons) and lowest among the 16-to-19–year age group (11.3/1,000 person-seasons). The distribution of dengue was highly focal, with incidence rates in villages and urban areas ranging from 1.5–211.5/1,000 person-seasons (median 36.5). During a DENV-3 outbreak in 2007, rural areas were affected more than urban areas (incidence 71 vs. 17/1,000 person-seasons, p<0.001). Conclusion The large-scale active surveillance study for dengue fever in Cambodia found a higher disease incidence than reported to the national surveillance system, particularly in preschool children and that disease incidence was high in both rural and urban areas. It also confirmed the previously observed focal nature of dengue virus transmission.

Vong, Sirenda; Khieu, Virak; Glass, Olivier; Ly, Sowath; Duong, Veasna; Huy, Rekol; Ngan, Chantha; Wichmann, Ole; Letson, G. William; Margolis, Harold S.; Buchy, Philippe

2010-01-01

317

Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance  

PubMed Central

This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR) malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world's most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders.

Bhumiratana, Adisak; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Maneekan, Pannamas; Koyadun, Surachart

2013-01-01

318

Assessing mixed trace elements in groundwater and their health risk of residents living in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia.  

PubMed

We investigated the potential contamination of trace elements in shallow Cambodian groundwater. Groundwater and hair samples were collected from three provinces in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia and analyzed by ICP-MS. Groundwater from Kandal (n = 46) and Kraite (n = 12) were enriched in As, Mn, Ba and Fe whereas none of tube wells in Kampong Cham (n = 18) had trace elements higher than Cambodian permissible limits. Risk computations indicated that 98.7% and 12.4% of residents in the study areas of Kandal (n = 297) and Kratie (n = 89) were at risk of non-carcinogenic effects from exposure to multiple elements, yet none were at risk in Kampong Cham (n = 184). Arsenic contributed 99.5%, 60.3% and 84.2% of the aggregate risk in Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham, respectively. Sustainable and appropriate treatment technologies must therefore be implemented in order for Cambodian groundwater to be used as potable water. PMID:23906558

Phan, Kongkea; Phan, Samrach; Huoy, Laingshun; Suy, Bunseang; Wong, Ming Hung; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Mohamed Yasin, Mohamed Salleh; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

2013-07-31

319

From reaching every district to reaching every community: analysis and response to the challenge of equity in immunization in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background An international review of the Cambodian Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 2010 and other data show that despite immunization coverage increases and vaccine preventable diseases incidence reductions, inequities in access to immunization services exist. Utilizing immunization and health systems literature, analysis of global health databases and the EPI review findings, this paper examines the characteristics of immunization access and outcome inequities, and describes proposed longer-term strategic and operational responses to these problems. Findings The national programme has evolved from earlier central and provincial level planning to strengthening routine immunization coverage through the District level ‘Reaching Every District Strategy’. However, despite remarkable improvements, the review found over 20% of children surveyed were not fully immunized, primarily from communities where inequities of both access and impact persist. These inequities relate mainly to socio-economic exposures including wealth and education level, population mobility and ethnicity. To address these problems, a shift in strategic and operational response is proposed that will include (a) a re-focus of planning on facility level to detect disadvantaged communities, (b) establishment of monitoring systems to provide detailed information on community access and utilization, (c) development of communication strategies and health networks that enable providers to adjust service delivery according to the needs of vulnerable populations, and (d) securing financial, management and political commitment for ‘reaching every community’. Conclusions For Cambodia to achieve its immunization equity objectives and disease reduction goals, a shift of emphasis to health centre and community is needed. This approach will maximize the benefits of new vaccine introduction in the coming ‘Decade of Vaccines’, plus potentially extend the reach of other life-saving maternal and child health interventions to the socially disadvantaged, both in Cambodia and in other countries with a similar level of development.

Chan Soeung, Sann; Grundy, John; Duncan, Richard; Thor, Rasoka; Bilous, Julian B

2013-01-01

320

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Oral Artesunate Monotherapy in Patients with Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Western Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Artemisinin-resistant malaria along the Thailand-Cambodian border is an important public health concern, yet mechanisms of drug action and their contributions to the development of resistance are poorly understood. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral artesunate monotherapy were explored in a dose-ranging trial in an area of emerging artesunate resistance in western Cambodia. We enrolled 143 evaluable subjects with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in an open label study of directly observed artesunate monotherapy at 3 dose levels (2, 4, and 6 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 7 days at Tasanh Health Center, Tasanh, Cambodia. Clinical outcomes were similar among the 3 groups. Wide variability in artesunate and dihydroartemisinin concentrations in plasma was observed. No significant dose-effect or concentration-effect relationships between pharmacokinetic (PK) and parasite clearance parameters were observed, though baseline parasitemia was modestly correlated with increased parasite clearance times. The overall parasite clearance times were prolonged compared with the clearance times in a previous study at this site in 2006 to 2007, but this did not persist when the evaluation was limited to subjects with a comparable artesunate dose (4 mg/kg/day) and baseline parasitemia from the two studies. Reduced plasma drug levels with higher presentation parasitemias, previously hypothesized to result from partitioning into infected red blood cells, was not observed in this population with uncomplicated malaria. Neither in vitro parasite susceptibility nor plasma drug concentrations appeared to have a direct relationship with the pharmacodynamic (PD) effects of oral artesunate on malaria parasites. While direct concentration-effect relationships were not found, it remains possible that a population PK modeling approach that allows modeling of greater dose separation might discern more-subtle relationships.

Khemawoot, Phisit; Vanachayangkul, Pattaraporn; Siripokasupkul, Raveewan; Bethell, Delia; Tyner, Stuart; Se, Youry; Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Chanthap, Lon; Lin, Jessica; Timmermans, Ans; Socheat, Doung; Ringwald, Pascal; Noedl, Harald; Smith, Bryan; Fukuda, Mark; Teja-isavadharm, Paktiya

2012-01-01

321

Population Structure of Wild Musk Shrews ( Suncus murinus ) in Asia Based on Mitochondrial DNA Variation, with Research in Cambodia and Bhutan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The musk shrew (Suncus murinus) is a small mammalian species belonging to Insectivora. It is widely distributed in Asia. To\\u000a identify the genetic relationship among wild musk shrew populations and examine its migration route, we investigated the populations\\u000a of Cambodia and Bhutan by using mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and compared them with\\u000a other Asian populations previously described.

Megumi Kurachi; Ba-Loc Chau; Vu-Binh Dang; Tashi Dorji; Yoshio Yamamoto; Maung Maung Nyunt; Yoshizane Maeda; Loan Chhum-Phith; Takao Namikawa; Takahiro Yamagata

2007-01-01

322

Occurrence of PCBs, Organochlorine Insecticides, tris (4-Chlorophenyl)methane, and tris (4-Chlorophenyl)methanol in Human Breast Milk Collected from Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study determined the concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) in human breast milk from Cambodia. DDTs, PCBs, HCHs, HCB, CHLs, and TCPMe were detected in almost all the human breast milk samples analyzed, and the concentrations

Tatsuya Kunisue; Masayuki Someya; Mafumi Watanabe; Touch Seang Tana; Shinsuke Tanabe

2004-01-01

323

Domestic Violence against Women in Cambodia: Husband’s Control, Frequency of Spousal Discussion, and Domestic Violence Reported by Cambodian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to examine the effects of husband’s control and frequency of spousal discussion on domestic violence against\\u000a Cambodian married women, using the 2005 Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey data. The sample included 1,707 married women,\\u000a aged 16–49 (M?=?35.14). Structural Equation Modeling showed that husband’s control positively predicted both emotional and physical violence.\\u000a Frequency of spousal discussion positively predicted

Sothy Eng; Yingli Li; Miriam Mulsow; Judith Fischer

2010-01-01

324

Detecting temporal changes in the extent of annual flooding within the Cambodia and the Vietnamese Mekong Delta from MODIS time-series imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the methodology used to detect temporal changes in the extent of annual flooding within the Cambodia and the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) based on MODIS time-series imagery (Wavelet-based Filter for detecting spatio-temporal changes in Flood Inundation; WFFI). This methodology involves the use of a wavelet-based filter to interpolate missing information and reduce the noise component in the

Toshihiro Sakamoto; Nhan Van Nguyen; Akihiko Kotera; Hiroyuki Ohno; Naoki Ishitsuka; Masayuki Yokozawa

2007-01-01

325

Evaluation of an influenza-like illness case definition in the diagnosis of influenza among patients with acute febrile illness in cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Influenza-like illness (ILI) is often defined as fever (>38.0°C) with cough or sore throat. In this study, we tested the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of this case definition in a Cambodia patient population. METHODS: Passive clinic-based surveillance was established at nine healthcare centers to identify the causes of acute undifferentiated fever in patients aged two

Matthew R Kasper; Thomas F Wierzba; Ly Sovann; Patrick J Blair; Shannon D Putnam

2010-01-01

326

Orthogonius species and diversity in Thailand (Coleoptera, Caraboidea, Orthogoniini), a result from the TIGER project  

PubMed Central

Abstract The carabid genus Orthogonius MacLeay is treated, based mainly on materials collected in Thailand through the TIGER project (the Thailand Inventory Group for Entomological Research). Among 290 specimens, 20 species are identified in total, 10 of them are new species: Orthogonius taghavianae sp. n. (Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park), Orthogonius coomanioides sp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius similaris sp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Loei: Phu Kradueng National Park), Orthogonius setosopalpiger sp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius gracililamella sp. n. (Loei: Phu Kradueng National Park; Chaiyaphum: Tat Tone National Park), Orthogonius pseudochaudoiri sp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park), Orthogonius constrictus sp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius pinophilus sp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius vari sp. n. (Cambodia: Siem Reap; Thailand: Ubon Ratchathani: Pha Taem National Park; Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park) and Orthogonius variabilis sp. n. (Thailand: Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park; Phetchabun: Nam Nao National Park; China: Yunnan). In addition, Orthogonius mouhoti Chaudoir, 1871 and Orthogonius kirirom Tian & Deuve, 2008 are recorded in Thailand for the first time. In total, 30 species of Orthogonius have been recorded from Thailand, indicating that Thailand holds one of the richest Orthogonius faunas in the world. A provisional key to all Thai species is provided. A majority of Thai Orthogonius species are endemic. Among the ten national parks in which orthogonine beetles were collected, Thung Salaeng Luang holds the richest fauna, including 16 species.

Tian, Mingyi; Deuve, Thierry; Felix, Ron

2012-01-01

327

Socially-marketed rapid diagnostic tests and ACT in the private sector: ten years of experience in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Whilst some populations have recently experienced dramatic declines in malaria, the majority of those most at risk of Plasmodium falciparum malaria still lack access to effective treatment with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) and others are already facing parasites resistant to artemisinins. In this context, there is a crucial need to improve both access to and targeting of ACT through greater availability of good quality ACT and parasitological diagnosis. This is an issue of increasing urgency notably in the private commercial sector, which, in many countries, plays an important role in the provision of malaria treatment. The Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm) is a recent initiative that aims to increase the provision of affordable ACT in public, private and NGO sectors through a manufacturer-level subsidy. However, to date, there is little documented experience in the programmatic implementation of subsidized ACT in the private sector. Cambodia is in the unique position of having more than 10 years of experience not only in implementing subsidized ACT, but also rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) as part of a nationwide social marketing programme. The programme includes behaviour change communication and the training of private providers as well as the sale and distribution of Malarine, the recommended ACT, and Malacheck, the RDT. This paper describes and evaluates this experience by drawing on the results of household and provider surveys conducted since the start of the programme. The available evidence suggests that providers' and consumers' awareness of Malarine increased rapidly, but that of Malacheck much less so. In addition, improvements in ACT and RDT availability and uptake were relatively slow, particularly in more remote areas. The lack of standardization in the survey methods and the gaps in the data highlight the importance of establishing a clear system for monitoring and evaluation for similar initiatives. Despite these limitations, a number of important lessons can still be learnt. These include the importance of a comprehensive communications strategy and of a sustained and reliable supply of products, with attention to the geographical reach of both. Other important challenges relate to the difficulty in incentivising providers and consumers not only to choose the recommended drug, but to precede this with a confirmatory blood test and ensure that providers adhere to the test results and patients to the treatment regime. In Cambodia, this is particularly complicated due to problems inherent to the drug itself and the emergence of artemisinin resistance.

2011-01-01

328

Socially-marketed rapid diagnostic tests and ACT in the private sector: ten years of experience in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Whilst some populations have recently experienced dramatic declines in malaria, the majority of those most at risk of Plasmodium falciparum malaria still lack access to effective treatment with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) and others are already facing parasites resistant to artemisinins.In this context, there is a crucial need to improve both access to and targeting of ACT through greater availability of good quality ACT and parasitological diagnosis. This is an issue of increasing urgency notably in the private commercial sector, which, in many countries, plays an important role in the provision of malaria treatment. The Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm) is a recent initiative that aims to increase the provision of affordable ACT in public, private and NGO sectors through a manufacturer-level subsidy. However, to date, there is little documented experience in the programmatic implementation of subsidized ACT in the private sector. Cambodia is in the unique position of having more than 10 years of experience not only in implementing subsidized ACT, but also rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) as part of a nationwide social marketing programme. The programme includes behaviour change communication and the training of private providers as well as the sale and distribution of Malarine, the recommended ACT, and Malacheck, the RDT. This paper describes and evaluates this experience by drawing on the results of household and provider surveys conducted since the start of the programme. The available evidence suggests that providers' and consumers' awareness of Malarine increased rapidly, but that of Malacheck much less so. In addition, improvements in ACT and RDT availability and uptake were relatively slow, particularly in more remote areas.The lack of standardization in the survey methods and the gaps in the data highlight the importance of establishing a clear system for monitoring and evaluation for similar initiatives. Despite these limitations, a number of important lessons can still be learnt. These include the importance of a comprehensive communications strategy and of a sustained and reliable supply of products, with attention to the geographical reach of both. Other important challenges relate to the difficulty in incentivising providers and consumers not only to choose the recommended drug, but to precede this with a confirmatory blood test and ensure that providers adhere to the test results and patients to the treatment regime. In Cambodia, this is particularly complicated due to problems inherent to the drug itself and the emergence of artemisinin resistance. PMID:21851625

Yeung, Shunmay; Patouillard, Edith; Allen, Henrietta; Socheat, Duong

2011-08-18

329

[How practical guidelines can be applied in poor countries? Example of the introduction of a bronchoscopy unit in Cambodia].  

PubMed

According to UN, Cambodia is one of the poorest countries in the World. Respiratory diseases are current public health priorities. In this context, a new bronchoscopy unit (BSU) was created in the respiratory medicine department of Preah Kossamak hospital (PKH) thanks to a tight cooperation between a French and a Cambodian team. Aim of this study was to describe conditions of introduction of this equipment. Two guidelines for practice are available. They are respectively edited by the French and British societies of pulmonology. These guidelines were reviewed and compared to the conditions in which BS was introduced in PKH. Each item from guidelines was combined to a categorical value: "applied", "adapted" or "not applied". In 2009, 54 bronchoscopies were performed in PKH, mainly for suspicion of infectious or tumour disease. In total, 52% and 46% of the French and British guideline items respectively were followed in this Cambodian unit. Patient safety items are those highly followed. By contrast "staff safety" items were those weakly applied. Implementation of EBS in developing countries seems feasible in good conditions of quality and safety for patients. However, some recommendations cannot be applied due to local conditions. PMID:23796499

Couraud, S; Chan, S; Avrillon, V; Horn, K; Try, S; Gérinière, L; Perrot, E; Guichon, C; Souquet, P-J; Ny, C

2013-06-22

330

Ground Water Modeling Of Arsenic Contaminated Sandy Aquifer With Response To Transient River Levels, Mekong Delta, Cambodia.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sandy aquifer of Mekong River Delta in Cambodia is a primary drinking water source and contains elevated concentrations of dissolved arsenic (15-1300?g/L), a common problem of Southeast Asia. Both hydraulic heads and dissolved arsenic concentrations vary temporally with respect to transient hydraulic head of the Mekong River, suggesting that groundwater flow plays a potentially important role in arsenic mobilization/transportation. The river fluctuates annually 5 to 8 m, with the highest levels in mid-September due to upstream monsoonal rains and Himalayan snowmelt and the lowest levels in mid-May to early June. The hydraulic gradient between the river and adjacent aquifer changes direction biannually; when the river is rising the gradient is from the river to the aquifer, when the river is falling the gradient is from the aquifer towards the river. In contrast, wetlands overlying the aquifer exhibit time varying head change of 2.5 to 3m annually due to local rain from late September to early October and an apparent limited hydraulic connection to aquifer. Numerical modeling (using MODFLOW) is able to reproduce the aquifer head distribution by transiently altering the river boundary condition, supporting the hypothesis that the temporal variations in observed hydraulic head are primarily driven by the seasonal river fluctuations. The modeling also supports the conclusion that the observed dampening of water level fluctuations in the distal part of the study area is due to increasing distance from the Mekong River.

Ganguly, S.; Polizzotto, M.; Sampson, M.; Fendor, S.; Benner, S.

2006-12-01

331

Technology, Culture and the Manufacturing Engineer: How Studying SME's in Cambodia Can Teach Manufacturing Students About Global Enterprise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In his book The World is Flat, Thomas Friedman describes what he calls "the quiet crisis" as the "erosion of Americas science and engineering base, which has always been the source of Americas innovation and our standard of living." The crisis is the increasing penetration of global competition on the economic output of the United States, now an issue to which engineering education is paying serious attention. However, it is not a crisis of just technical issues. What is needed with respect to global learning and experience is more than just technical competence and expertise. Bill Wulf said "engineering is now practiced in a global, holistic business context, and engineers must design under constraints that reflect that context. In the future, understanding other cultures, speaking other languages, and communicating with people from marketing and finance will be just as fundamental to the practice of engineering as physics and calculus." For faculty and students and BYU, a recent project of studying manufacturing in Cambodia also became a study of Cambodian history, government, and culture. As a result it became, for both students and faculty, a learning experience in the broader, more holistic context of manufacturing, engineering, technology, and global issues.

Miles, Michael; Hawks, Val D.

2011-11-21

332

Linking Organic Matter Deposition And Iron Mineral Transformations to Groundwater Arsenic Levels in the Mekong Delta, Cambodia  

SciTech Connect

Enriched As in drinking water wells in south and Southeast Asia has increased the risk of cancer for nearly 100 million people. This enrichment is generally attributed to the reductive dissolution of Fe oxides; however, the complex expression of As enrichment in these areas is not yet well understood. Here, the coupled sedimentological and geochemical factors that contribute to the extent and spatial distribution of groundwater As concentrations in the Mekong River delta, Cambodia in an avulsed scroll bar sequence are examined. X-Ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to determine Fe and As speciation in redox preserved sediment collected from drilled cores. Dissolved As, Fe and S solution concentrations in existing and newly drilled wells (cores) differed considerably depending on their source sedimentology. The rapid burial of organic matter in the scroll bar sequence facilitated the development of extensive Fe-reducing conditions, and As release into the aquifer. In older features organic C levels are high enough to sustain extensive Fe reduction and provide ample SO{sub 4} which is reduced to sulfide. This S reduction impacts As levels; As is sequestered in sulfide minerals outside of the scrollbar sequence, decreasing pore water concentrations. In contrast, As is depleted in sediments from the scroll sequence, and associated with elevated pore water aqueous concentrations. The concentration and form of organic C in the scrollbar sequence is related to depositional environment, and can facilitate Fe and S mineral transformations, distinct sedimentary environments explain a portion of the inherent heterogeneity of aquifer As concentrations.

Quicksall, A.N.; Bostick, B.C.; Sampson, M.L.

2009-05-21

333

Condom negotiation across different relationship types by young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Cambodia's 100% Condom Use Programme is credited with an increase in consistent condom use in commercial sexual interactions and a decrease in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). There has been little improvement in condom use between FSWs and non-commercial partners, prompting calls for more innovative approaches to increasing condom use in these relationships. To understand why condoms are used or not used in sexual interactions involving FSWs, we examined condom negotiation across different types of relationships. We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with young (15 to 29 years) women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh. There was an important interplay between the meanings of condom use and the meanings of women's relationships. Commercial relationships were characterised as inherently risky and necessitated condom use. Despite a similar lack of sexual fidelity, sweetheart relationships were rarely construed as risky and typically did not involve condom use. Husbands and wives constructed their sexual interactions with each other differently, making agreement on condom use difficult. The lack of improvement in condom use in FSWs' non-commercial sexual relationships needs to be understood in relation to both sex work and the broader Cambodian sexual culture within which these relationships are embedded.

Maher, Lisa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Couture, Marie-Claude; Kien, Serey Phal; Stein, Ellen; Bates, Anna Juong; Sansothy, Neth; Page, Kimberly

2013-01-01

334

Condom negotiation across different relationship types by young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.  

PubMed

Cambodia's 100% Condom Use Programme is credited with an increase in consistent condom use in commercial sexual interactions and a decrease in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). There has been little improvement in condom use between FSWs and non-commercial partners, prompting calls for more innovative approaches to increasing condom use in these relationships. To understand why condoms are used or not used in sexual interactions involving FSWs, we examined condom negotiation across different types of relationships. We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with young (15 to 29 years) women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh. There was an important interplay between the meanings of condom use and the meanings of women's relationships. Commercial relationships were characterised as inherently risky and necessitated condom use. Despite a similar lack of sexual fidelity, sweetheart relationships were rarely construed as risky and typically did not involve condom use. Husbands and wives constructed their sexual interactions with each other differently, making agreement on condom use difficult. The lack of improvement in condom use in FSWs' non-commercial sexual relationships needs to be understood in relation to both sex work and the broader Cambodian sexual culture within which these relationships are embedded. PMID:23432108

Maher, Lisa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Couture, Marie-Claude; Kien, Serey Phal; Stein, Ellen; Bates, Anna Juong; Sansothy, Neth; Page, Kimberly

2013-02-22

335

Testing for amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) use to ascertain validity of self-reported ATS use among young female sex workers in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess concordance between self-reported amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) use and toxicology results among young female sex workers (FSW) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods Cross-sectional data from the Young Women’s Health Study-2 (YWHS-2), a prospective study of HIV and ATS use among young (15 to 29?years) FSW in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, was analyzed. The YWHS-2 assessed sociodemographic characteristics, HIV serology, HIV risk, and ATS use by self-report and urine toxicology testing at each quarterly visit, the second of which provided data for this assessment. Outcomes include sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative predictive values (overall and stratified by age), sex-work setting, and HIV status. Results Among 200 women, prevalence of positive toxicology screening for ATS use was 14% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.2, 18.9%) and concurrent prevalence of self-reported ATS was 15.5% (95% CI, 10.4, 20.6%). The sensitivity and specificity of self-reported ATS use compared to positive toxicology test results was 89.3% (25/28), and 96.5% (166/172), respectively. The positive predictive value of self-reported ATS use was 80.6% (25/31); the negative predictive value was 98.2% (166/169). Some differences in concordance between self-report and urine toxicology results were noted in analyses stratified by age group and sex-work setting but not by HIV status. Conclusion Results indicate a high prevalence of ATS use among FSW in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and high concordance between self-reported and toxicology-test confirmed ATS use.

2012-01-01

336

Prevalence of human leukocyte antigen-B*5701 among HIV-infected children in Thailand and Cambodia: implications for abacavir use.  

PubMed

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*5701 allele is associated with abacavir hypersensitivity. Limited data among Asians showed lower rates of HLA-B*5701 compared with Caucasians. In 296 children with HIV in Thailand and Cambodia, the prevalence of HLA-B*5701 was 4.0% (95% confidence interval: 1.6-8.0%) among Thai and 3.4% (95% confidence interval: 0.9-8.5%) among Cambodian children. HLA-B*5701 carriage is not uncommon among Thai and Cambodian children; it is close to the prevalence found in European and higher than the prevalence found in East Asian and African studies. PMID:22986704

Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Vibol, Ung; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Ubolyam, Sasiwimol; Suwanlerk, Tulathip; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Ngampiyaskul, Chaiwat; Wongsawat, Jurai; Luesomboon, Wicharn; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

2013-03-01

337

Promoting community knowledge and action for malaria control in rural Cambodia: potential contributions of Village Malaria Workers  

PubMed Central

Background Cambodia has been investing in Village Malaria Workers (VMWs) to improve malaria case management in rural areas. This study assessed the quality of the VMWs’ services compared to those by a government-run health center from the perspective of community members. We focused on VMWs’ contribution to promote their action to control malaria. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Kampot province in 2009. Interviews were conducted at every accessible household in a village with VMWs (n?=?153) and a village with a health center (n?=?159), using interviewer administered questionnaire. Preference of the interview was given to female household head. Multiple regression analyses were run to compare knowledge about malaria, preventive measures taken, and time before first malaria treatment between the two villages. Findings The villagers perceived the VMWs’ services equally as good as those provided by the health center. After controlling for confounding factors, the following indicators did not show any statistical significance between two villages: community members’ knowledge about malaria transmission (AOR?=?0.60, 95% CI?=?0.30-1.22) and government-recommended antimalarial (AOR?=?0.55, 95% CI?=?0.25-1.23), preventive measures taken (Beta?=??0.191, p?=?0.315), and time before the first treatment (Beta?=?0.053, p?=?0.721). However, knowledge about malaria symptoms was significantly lower in the village with VMWs than the village with a health center (AOR?=?0.40, 95% CI?=?0.19-0.83). Conclusions VMWs played an equivalent role as the health center in promoting malaria knowledge, action, and effective case management. Although VMWs need to enhance community knowledge about malaria symptoms, the current government policy on VMWs is reasonable and should be expanded to other malaria endemic villages.

2012-01-01

338

Interspecies comparison of transpiration in Cambodia for the prediction of water use under the tropical monsoon climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently exotic fast-growing trees are planted in Southeast Asia, since economical profits of fast-growing tree plantations are expected. However, fast-growing species are also thought to consume more water than native species. There is concern these exotic species may influence water resources because of their large water consumption, especially during the dry season. In Cambodia there is a clear rainy season and extremely dry season with hardly any rainfall. Whether fast-growing trees adapt to such dry season and their effect on water resources is unconcern. To evaluate the impact of planting exotic trees, it is critical to know how much water these trees transpired and how they control water use under drought condition. To more thoroughly understand these processes, water flow was monitored in the stem of 4 species continuously using sap flux measurement to estimate transpiration of individual trees. For this experiment, we selected 6 trees of each species; two native species (Dipterocarpus obtusifolius and Shorea roxburghii) and 2 exotic species (Acacia auriculiformis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis). Meteorological observations were also conducted. All species had similar transpiration rates under the same environmental condition in the rainy season. Although there was a relationship between tree size and transpiration, difference among the tree species was not clear. That is to say, the difference of transpiration between small size trees and large trees was larger than interspecies variation in that period. From long-term observations, we found that transpiration of native and exotic species in the dry season show different responses to environmental conditions. While transpiration of A. auriculiformis slightly decreased during the dry season, the transpiration rate of S. roxburghii, a native species, remained high despite diminished groundwater at the end of the dry season. This result implies S. roxburghii develops deeper roots to access groundwater for supporting higher transpiration rate compared to A. auriculiformis.

Tateishi, Makiko; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Tomo'Omi, Kumagai; Ma, Vuthy; Sokh, Heng; Mizoue, Nobuya

2010-05-01

339

Inter- and intra-annual variations of transpiration at a rubber stand in lowland of central Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Southeast Asia, rubber plantation is rapidly expanding, and thus understanding the level of water consumption and tree physiology is a matter of importance to know the impacts on the local hydrology. Intra- and inter-annual variations in transpiration rate (Et) at a rubber stand, growing in lowland of central Cambodia, were examined during two years based on sap flow measurements. As for seasonality, Et was generally large in the rainy season and small in the dry season, showing sharp short-time drop in synchronization with the shedding in late January. Daily stand Et was ~ 2.0 mm day-1 in 2010 and ~ 2.4 mm day-1 in 2011 at the maximum. An analysis of non-linear multiple regression for the canopy conductance (gc) in the two years showed that the stomatal response of rubber trees was well explained by the changes in solar radiation, vapour pressure deficit, soil moisture availability, leaf area, and tree diameter. Sensitivity of gc to the atmospheric drought indicates isohydric behavior of rubber trees, while the same analysis for each year showed possibility of change in leaf characteristics due to tree maturity and/or initiation of latex tapping. The best fit model also predicted relatively small sensitivity of gc to the soil moisture deficit and rapid decrease in gc under extreme drought conditions. Annual stand Et estimated with the gc obtained in the present analysis was 469 mm yr-1 in 2010, while it increased up to 658 mm yr-1 in 2011. To find out the most important environmental variables, we examined the effect of each variable by keeping the others unchanged. This hypothesis analysis showed that in the young rubber stand which were growing very rapidly, inter-annual change of stand Et was determined mainly by the tree growth rate, not by the change of surrounding environments in the air and the soil.

Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Tateishi, Makiko; Tiva, Lim Khan; Mudd, Ryan; Giambelluca, Thomas; Song, Yin

2013-04-01

340

Amphetamine-type stimulant use and HIV/STI risk behaviour among young female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Use of amphetamine-type substances (ATS) has been linked to increased risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) worldwide. In Cambodia, recent ATS use is independently associated with incident STI infection among young female sex workers (FSW). Methods We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with women (15–29 years old) engaged in sex work to explore ATS use and vulnerability to HIV/STI. Results Participants reported that ATS, primarily methamphetamine in pill and crystalline forms (yama), were cheap, widely available and commonly used. Yama was described as a “power drug” (thnam kamlang) which enabled women to work long hours and serve more customers. Use of ATS by clients was also common, with some providing drugs for women and/or encouraging their use, often resulting in prolonged sexual activity. Requests for unprotected sex were also more common among intoxicated clients and strategies typically employed to negotiate condom use were less effective. Conclusion ATS use was highly functional for young women engaged in sex work, facilitating a sense of power and agency and highlighting the occupational significance and normalization of ATS in this setting. This highly gendered dynamic supports the limited but emerging literature on women’s use of ATS, which to date has been heavily focused on men. Results indicate an urgent need to increase awareness of the risks associated with ATS use, to provide women with alternative and sustainable options for income generation, to better regulate the conditions of sex work, and to work with FSWs and their clients to develop and promote culturally appropriate harm reduction interventions.

Maher, L; Phlong, P; Mooney-Somers, J; Keo, S; Stein, E; Page, K

2011-01-01

341

Molecular epidemiology of Orientia tsutsugamushi in Cambodia and Central Vietnam reveals a broad region-wide genetic diversity.  

PubMed

Scrub typhus is an acute infectious disease caused by an obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi following the bite of infected trombiculid mites of the genus Leptotrombidium. This zoonotic disease is a major cause of febrile illness in the Asia-Pacific region, with a large spectrum of clinical manifestations from unapparent or mild disease to fatal disease. O. tsutsugamushi is characterized by a very high genomic plasticity and a large number of antigenic variants amongst strains. The 56-kDa type specific antigen (TSA) gene, encoding the major antigenic protein, was used as reference to investigate the genetic relationships between the strains and to genotype O. tsutsugamushi isolates. The open reading frame of the 56-kDa TSA gene of 41 sequences (28 Cambodian and 13 Vietnamese strains) from patient samples were sequenced and used for genotyping. The 28 Cambodian isolates clustered into 5 major groups, including Karp (43.5%), JG-v (25%), Kato/TA716 (21.5%), TA763 (3.5%) and Gilliam (3.5%). Karp (77%), TA763 (15.5%) and JG-v (7.5%) strains were identified amongst the 13 Vietnamese isolates. This is the first countrywide genotyping description in Cambodia and in Central Vietnam. These results demonstrate the considerable diversity of genotypes in co-circulation in both countries. The genotyping result might raise awareness amongst Cambodian and Vietnamese clinicians of the high genetic diversity of circulating O. tsutsugamushi strains and provides unique and beneficial data for serological and molecular diagnosis of scrub typhus infections as well as raw materials for future studies and vaccine development. PMID:21241829

Duong, Veasna; Mai, Trinh Thi Xuan; Blasdell, Kim; Lo, Le Viet; Morvan, Claire; Lay, Sreyrath; Anukool, Wichittra; Wongprompitak, Patimaporn; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Laurent, Denis; Richner, Beat; Ra, Chheang; Chien, Bui Trong; Frutos, Roger; Buchy, Philippe

2011-01-15

342

Potential Use of School Absenteeism Record for Disease Surveillance in Developing Countries, Case Study in Rural Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Disease surveillance allows prospective monitoring of patterns in disease incidence in the general community, specific institutions (e.g. hospitals, elderly care homes), and other important population subgroups. Surveillance activities are now routinely conducted in many developed countries and in certain easy-to-reach areas of the developing ones. However due to limited health resources, population in rural area that consisted of the most the vulnerable groups are not under surveillance. Cheaper alternative ways for disease surveillance were needed in resource-limited settings. Methods and Findings In this study, a syndromic surveillance system using disease specific absenteeism rates was established in 47 pre-schools with 1,417 students 3–6 y of age in a rural area of Kampot province, Cambodia. School absenteeism data were collected via short message service. Data collected between 1st January and 31st December 2012 was used for system evaluation for future potential use in larger scale. The system appeared to be feasible and acceptable in the rural study setting. Moderate correlation was found between rates of school absenteeism due to illness and the reference data on rates of attendance at health centers in persons <16 y (maximum cross-correlation coefficient?=?0.231 at lag?=??1 week). Conclusions School absenteeism data is pre-existing, easily accessible and requires minimum time and resources after initial development, and our results suggest that this system may be able to provide complementary data for disease surveillance, especially in resource limited settings where there is very little information on illnesses in the community and traditional surveillance systems are difficult to implement. An important next step is to validate the syndromic data with other forms of surveillance including laboratory data.

Cheng, Calvin K. Y.; Channarith, Hing; Cowling, Benjamin J.

2013-01-01

343

How well do antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees represent the general population? A comparison of HIV prevalence from ANC sentinel surveillance sites with a population-based survey of women aged 15-49 in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether HIV-1 prevalence among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees in Cambodia provided a reasonable estimate of HIV-1 prevalence among all women 15-49 years. Methods Antenatal clinic attendees in five HIV sentinel surveillance sites (five provinces) were selected by consecutive sampling (n = 1695). The population survey of females by household was carried

Vonthanak Saphonn; Leng Bun Hor; Sun Penh Ly; Samrith Chhuon; Tobi Saidelb; Roger Detelsc

344

Plasmodium vivax isolates from Cambodia and Thailand show high genetic complexity and distinct patterns of P. vivax multidrug resistance gene 1 (pvmdr1) polymorphisms.  

PubMed

Plasmodium vivax accounts for an increasing fraction of malaria infections in Thailand and Cambodia. We compared P. vivax genetic complexity and antimalarial resistance patterns in the two countries. Use of a heteroduplex tracking assay targeting the merozoite surface protein 1 gene revealed that vivax infections in both countries are frequently polyclonal (84%), with parasites that are highly diverse (HE = 0.86) but closely related (GST = 0.18). Following a history of different drug policies in Thailand and Cambodia, distinct patterns of antimalarial resistance have emerged: most Cambodian isolates harbor the P. vivax multidrug resistance gene 1 (pvmdr1) 976F mutation associated with chloroquine resistance (89% versus 8%, P < 0.001), whereas Thai isolates more often display increased pvmdr1 copy number (39% versus 4%, P < 0.001). Finally, genotyping of paired isolates from individuals suspected of suffering relapse supports a complex scheme of relapse whereby recurrence of multiple identical variants is sometimes accompanied by the appearance of novel variants. PMID:23509126

Lin, Jessica T; Patel, Jaymin C; Kharabora, Oksana; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Muth, Sinuon; Ubalee, Ratawan; Schuster, Anthony L; Rogers, William O; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda; Juliano, Jonathan J

2013-03-18

345

Cash Management Program Reaps Financial Rewards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Basic components of a New Jersey district's profitable cash management program include consolidating funds using a negotiated bank agreement, a short term investment policy, accurate flowcharts for precise planning, and revenue and expenditure analysis. Data collection and analysis and the alternative of using a bank service agreement are…

Saylor, Joan Nesenkar

1984-01-01

346

REAP Economic Demographic Model: Technical Description.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the structure and data base of a computerized model for projecting localized economic, demographic, and fiscal impacts of new energy developments. The model provides baseline and single or multiple-project impact projections for a 15-...

T. Hertsgaard S. Murdock N. Toman M. Henry R. Ludtke

1978-01-01

347

How conservation investments can reap high returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

A good energy-management plan can reduce energy costs at most facilities by 20 to 50% and achieve net positive cash flows the first year. Careful analysis of the income potential and the total cost over time will determine the value of conservation investments. Enhanced company stability that comes from reduced vulnerability to energy-supply and price changes is also a consideration.

DeLozier

1982-01-01

348

Pressure instrument calibration reaps SPC benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calibration laboratories are faced with the need to become accredited or registered to one or more quality standards. One requirement common to all of these standards is the need to have in place a measurement assurance program. What is a measurement assurance program? Brian Belanger, in Measurement Assurance Programs: Part 1, describes it as a {open_quotes}quality assurance program for a

Kegel

1995-01-01

349

Pressure instrument calibration reaps SPC benefits  

SciTech Connect

Calibration laboratories are faced with the need to become accredited or registered to one or more quality standards. One requirement common to all of these standards is the need to have in place a measurement assurance program. What is a measurement assurance program? Brian Belanger, in Measurement Assurance Programs: Part 1, describes it as a {open_quotes}quality assurance program for a measurement process that quantifies the total uncertainty of the measurements (both random and systematic components of error) with respect to national or designated standards and demonstrates that the total uncertainty is sufficiently small to meet the user`s requirements.{close_quotes} Rolf Schumacher is more specific in Measurement Assurance in Your Own Laboratory. He states, {open_quotes}Measurement assurance is the application of broad quality control principles to measurements of calibrations.{close_quotes} Here, the focus is on one important part of any measurement assurance program: implementation of statistical process control (SPC). Paraphrasing Juran`s Quality Control Handbook, a process is in statistical control if the only observed variations are those that can be attributed to random causes. Conversely, a process that exhibits variations due to assignable causes is not in a state of statistical control. Finally, Carrol Croarkin states, {open_quotes}In the measurement assurance context the measurement algorithm including instrumentation, reference standards and operator interactions is the process that is to be controlled, and its direct product is the measurement per se. The measurements are assumed to be valid if the measurement algorithm is operating in a state of control.{close_quotes} Implicit in this statement is the important fact that an out-of-control process cannot produce valid measurements. 7 figs.

Kegel, T.M. [Colorado Engineering Experiment Station, Nunn, CO (United States)

1995-12-01

350

Reap unseen benefits from NAVSTAR-GPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although navigation is its primary purpose and it will probably be the world standard for the next 25 years, the NAVSTAR satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) has a by-product-time and frequency transfer. Four methods of extracting time and frequency from a satellite signal, providing varying degrees of accuracy, are considered. The first is to find time and compare a local clock with the GPS time scale (accurate to 100 ns); the second employs a clock flyover with GPS time decoded at two locations and times (accurate to about 50 ns); in the third, common-view, approach, the time of arrival of a signal from one satellite is measured at two locations to compare the computed time of transmission according to the two clocks (less than 10 ns); and the fourth, JPL geodesy, used in very long baseline interferometry, records signals from four locations to determine locations and time differences. It is noted that for less than $50,000 one can have a well-designed rubidium-based NAVSTAR-GPS time and frequency transfer receiver with a frequency accuracy of better than 5 x 10 to the -12th, time accuracy to less than 200 ns of universal time, short-term stability of one part in 10 to the 12th for 100 s, and phase noise of better than -145 dBc/Hz at a 1-kHz offset; such a receive can fit a standard 19-in. rack. Thus, a workable alternative is available to the primary cesium standard for frequency and timekeeping anywhere in the world.

Fruehauf, Hugo

1986-11-01

351

Early Followers Reap Benefits and Lower Costs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This case study evaluated restructuring by a faculty team of a large-enrollment computer fluency course at the University of Buffalo. It found that using existing online materials (acting as "early followers" rather than "early adopters") gave students multiple ways to learn and kept costs down. (EV)|

Walters, Deborah; Alphonce, Carl; Kershner, Helene; Burhans, Debra

2001-01-01

352

[Do reproductive health care practices create a risk of HIV, HVB, and HVC transmission? Case studies in Cambodia].  

PubMed

The processes involved in nosocomial transmission of HIV, HBV, and HCV nosocomial transmission have not been studied at a global level; little is known about them or about the underlying social and cultural logic that contributes to this transmission. Hospital hygiene has mainly been studied from a biological perspective until now. However, hospital hygiene is shaped by norms and sociocultural representations, and the increase or limitation of disease transmission always takes place within social relations. We need to analyse the practices related to hygiene from a cultural perspective, especially since norms are interpreted at the local level according to social and symbolic logic. Our paper aims to investigate these issues in the context of reproductive health care practices in Cambodia. We describe various perceptions, attitudes and roles of both medical and non-medical caregivers and show how they determine practices, as well as how sanitary, social and institutional contexts shape practices. Since 1995, public health institutions have provided contraceptive methods (condoms, oral or injectable contraceptives, contraceptive implants, intrauterine devices, and emergency contraception). Except for the free distribution of condoms, particularly by NGOs as part of HIV prevention programs, access to contraception is not free. Private clinics and local and international NGOs provide many of these services. Many women in both urban and rural areas seek reproductive health care in the informal sector, from caregivers who may or may not be trained. We thus wonder if these practices, as implemented in the formal and informal care sectors, create a risk for the transmission of HIV, HVB, and HVC. We analyse those issues in considering especially the injection of Depo-Provera, insertion of intrauterine devices, vaginal cleaning practices, and surgical abortion. This investigation of the sociocultural dimension of hygiene in the field of reproductive health care underlines how and to what extent these practices may present a risk of nosocomial transmission of HIV, HBV, or HCV when they are performed by trained or untrained caregivers practising outside the formal health care setting. We also wonder if in some circumstances, reproductive health practices may be at risk when they are performed "informally", particularly at night and on weekends by caregivers in the public sector of care. Finally, because of the high cost of abortions in the institutions allowed to provide this service, many women have recourse to informal care sector, where the materials and techniques, as well as the lack of training for practitioners, appear to be the source of haemorrhagic risks and subsequent infection. PMID:20368136

Petitet, Pascale Hancart

2010-04-06

353

Cervical human papillomavirus infection among young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia: prevalence, genotypes, risk factors and association with HIV infection  

PubMed Central

Background Although cervical cancer is the leading cancer in Cambodia, most women receive no routine screening for cervical cancer and few treatment options exist. Moreover, nothing is known regarding the prevalence of cervical HPV or the genotypes present among women in the country. Young sexually active women, especially those with multiple sex partners are at highest risk of HPV infection. We examine the prevalence and genotypes of cervical HPV, as well as the associated risk factors among young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among 220 young women (15–29?years) engaged in sex work in different venues including brothels or entertainment establishments, and on a freelance basis in streets, parks and private apartments. Cervical specimens were collected using standard cytobrush technique. HPV DNA was tested for by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyping using type-specific probes for 29 individual HPV types, as well as for a mixture of 10 less common HPV types. All participants were also screened for HIV status using blood samples. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess risk factors for any or multiple HPV infection. Results The prevalence of cervical HPV 41.1%. HPV 51 and 70 were the most common (5.0%), followed by 16 (4.6%), 71 (4.1%) and 81 (3.7%). Thirty-six women (16.4%) were infected with multiple genotypes and 23.3% were infected with at least one oncogenic HPV type. In multivariate analyses, having HIV infection and a higher number of sexual partners were associated with cervical HPV infection. Risk factors for infection with multiple genotypes included working as freelance female sex workers (FSW) or in brothels, recent binge use of drugs, high number of sexual partners, and HIV infection. Conclusions This is the first Cambodian study on cervical HPV prevalence and genotypes. We found that HPV infection was common among young FSW, especially among women infected with HIV. These results underscore the urgent need for accessible cervical cancer screening and treatment, as well as for a prophylactic vaccine that covers the HPV subtypes present in Cambodia.

2012-01-01

354

New outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in domestic poultry and wild birds in Cambodia in 2011.  

PubMed

Five outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) have been diagnosed in domestic poultry and wild birds in Cambodia from January to November of 2011. Of the five outbreaks, one occurred in a village backyard flock in Kandal province in January; two occurred in native Cambodian chickens and ducks in Banteay Meanchey province in July and August, respectively; one was seen in wild birds in Phnom Tamao Zoo in Kandal Province in July; and one outbreak occurred in commercial broilers at Opong Moan in Battambang province in northwestern Cambodia in early November. Clinically, HPAI-infected broilers and native chickens showed sudden death, severe depression, ruffled feathers, edema of heads and necks, swollen and cyanotic combs and wattles, and swollen and congested conjunctiva, with occasional hemorrhage, paralysis, and other neurologic signs. In ducks, significantly swollen sinuses and eyes, cloudy corneas, difficulty standing, or paralysis were commonly seen. Some affected ducks showed sudden death without obvious clinical symptoms. Necropsy lesions showed congestion and necrotic debris within sinuses and severe hemorrhages in gizzards, livers, and lungs in both affected native chickens and ducks during the new outbreaks in 2011. All five outbreaks were diagnosed as H5N1 HPAI by virus isolation and real-time reverse transcription-PCR tests. Once a backyard flock in a village or a poultry farm was diagnosed as positive for H5N1 HPAI; the whole village backyard poultry and all farm flocks were culled immediately by Cambodian provincial and central authorities as per the strategies adopted for the control of HPAI. PMID:23402105

Theary, Ren; San, Sorn; Davun, Holl; Allal, Lotfi; Lu, Huaguang

2012-12-01

355

Focused Screening and Treatment (FSAT): A PCR-Based Strategy to Detect Malaria Parasite Carriers and Contain Drug Resistant P. falciparum, Pailin, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown that Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in Pailin province, along the border between Thailand and Cambodia, have become resistant to artemisinin derivatives. To better define the epidemiology of P. falciparum populations and to assess the risk of the possible spread of these parasites outside Pailin, a new epidemiological tool named “Focused Screening and Treatment” (FSAT), based on active molecular detection of asymptomatic parasite carriers was introduced in 2010. Cross-sectional malariometric surveys using PCR were carried out in 20 out of 109 villages in Pailin province. Individuals detected as P. falciparum carriers were treated with atovaquone-proguanil combination plus a single dose of primaquine if the patient was non-G6PD deficient. Interviews were conducted to elicit history of cross-border travel that might contribute to the spread of artemisinin-resistant parasites. After directly observed treatment, patients were followed up and re-examined on day 7 and day 28. Among 6931 individuals screened, prevalence of P. falciparum carriers was less than 1%, of whom 96% were asymptomatic. Only 1.6% of the individuals had a travel history or plans to go outside Cambodia, with none of those tested being positive for P. falciparum. Retrospective analysis, using 2010 routine surveillance data, showed significant differences in the prevalence of asymptomatic carriers discovered by FSAT between villages classified as “high risk” and “low risk” based on malaria incidence data. All positive individuals treated and followed-up until day 28 were cured. No mutant-type allele related to atovaquone resistance was found. FSAT is a potentially useful tool to detect, treat and track clusters of asymptomatic carriers of P. falciparum along with providing valuable epidemiological information regarding cross-border movements of potential malaria parasite carriers and parasite gene flow.

Hoyer, Stefan; Nguon, Sokomar; Kim, Saorin; Habib, Najibullah; Khim, Nimol; Sum, Sarorn; Christophel, Eva-Maria; Bjorge, Steven; Thomson, Andrew; Kheng, Sim; Chea, Nguon; Yok, Sovann; Top, Samphornarann; Ros, Seyha; Sophal, Uth; Thompson, Michelle M.; Mellor, Steve; Ariey, Frederic; Witkowski, Benoit; Yeang, Chhiang; Yeung, Shunmay; Duong, Socheat; Newman, Robert D.; Menard, Didier

2012-01-01

356

Sustained high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Cambodia: high turnover seriously challenges the 100% condom use programme  

PubMed Central

Background Cambodia's 100% Condom-Use Programme (CUP), implemented nationally in 2001, requires brothel-based female sex workers (FSWs) to use condoms with all clients. In 2005, we conducted a sexually transmitted infection (STI) survey among FSWs. This paper presents the STI prevalence and related risk factors, and discusses prevalence trends in the context of the 100% CUP in Cambodia. Methods From March-May, 1079 FSWs from eight provinces consented to participate, provided specimens for syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhoea testing, and were interviewed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with STIs. STI prevalence was compared with data from the 1996 and 2001 STI surveys. Results Most FSWs were young (55% aged 15–24) and new to sex work (60% had worked 12 ? months). Consistent condom use with clients was reported by 80% of FSWs, but only 38% of FSWs always used condoms with sweethearts or casual partners. Being new to sex work was the only factor significantly associated with "any STI" (OR = 2.1). Prevalence of syphiliwas 2.3%; chlamydia, 14.4%; gonorrhoea, 13.0%; and any STI, 24.4%. Prevalence of each STI in 2005 was significantly lower than in 1996, but essentially the same as prevalence observed in 2001. Conclusion New FSWs were found to have substantially higher prevalence than those with longer experience. The percent of FSWs who used condoms consistently was high with clients but remained low with non-paying sex partners. Because of the high turnover of FSWs, the prevention needs of new FSWs should be ascertained and addressed. Despite 100% CUP implementation, the prevalence of STIs among FSWs was the same in 2005 as it was in 2001. Limited coverage and weak implementation capacity of the programme along with questionable quality of the STI services are likely to have contributed to the sustained high prevalence. The programme should be carefully reviewed in terms of intensity, quality and coverage.

Sopheab, Heng; Morineau, Guy; Neal, Joyce J; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Fylkesnes, Knut

2008-01-01

357

Development of the Khao Khwang Fold and Thrust Belt: Implications for the geodynamic setting of Thailand and Cambodia during the Indosinian Orogeny  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indosinian Orogeny in Thailand is often viewed as having developed between strongly linear terranes, which today trend approximately N–S. The terranes were subsequently disrupted by later tectonics, particularly NW–SE trending Cenozoic strike-slip faults. The ENE–WSW to NE–SW striking thrusts and folds in the Khao Khwang Platform area of the Saraburi Group on the SW margin of the Indochina Terrane are not easily explained in the context of this traditional view. Reversal of the clockwise rotation shown to have affected the block north of the Mae Ping Fault zone only enhances the E–W orientation of structures in the fold and thrust belt, and moves the belt further east towards Cambodia. One solution for the trend that fits better with regional understanding from hydrocarbon exploration of the Khorat Plateau is that the Indochina Terrane was actually a series of continental blocks, separated by Permian rifting. During the Early Triassic the early stages of collision (South China-Cathaysian Terrane collision with Vietnam Indochina) resulted in the amalgamation of disparate blocks that now form the Indochina Terrane by closure along the rifts. At the same time or following on from the collision there was closure of the back-arc area between Indochina and the Sukhothai zone. The rift basins, were thrusted and inverted during the early stages of the Indosinian orogeny, and only underwent minor reactivated when later Sibumasu collided with Sukhothai Zone-Indochina Terrane margin during the Late Triassic. The scenario described above requires the presence of a (minor) E–W trending suture in NW Cambodia. Evidence for this suture is suggested by the presence of Permo-Triassic calc-alkaline volcanism.

Morley, C. K.; Ampaiwan, P.; Thanudamrong, S.; Kuenphan, N.; Warren, J.

2013-01-01

358

Integrating child health services into malaria control services of village malaria workers in remote Cambodia: service utilization and knowledge of malaria management of caregivers  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria and other communicable diseases remain major threats in developing countries. In Cambodia, village malaria workers (VMWs) have been providing malaria control services in remote villages to cope with the disease threats. In 2009, the VMW project integrated child health services into the original malaria control services. However, little has been studied about the utilization of VMWs’ child health services. This study aimed to identify determinants of caregivers’ VMW service utilization for childhood illness and caregivers’ knowledge of malaria management. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 36 VMW villages of Kampot and Kampong Thom provinces in July-September 2012. An equal number of VMW villages with malaria control services only (M) and those with malaria control plus child health services (M+C) were selected from each province. Using structured questionnaires, 800 caregivers of children under five and 36 VMWs, one of the two VMWs who was providing VMW services in each study village were interviewed. Results Among the caregivers, 23% in M villages and 52% in M+C villages utilized VMW services for childhood illnesses. Determinants of caregivers’ utilization of VMWs in M villages included their VMWs’ length of experience (AOR = 11.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.46-31.19) and VMWs’ service quality (AOR = 2.04, CI = 1.01-4.11). In M+C villages, VMWs’ length of experience (AOR = 2.44, CI = 1.52-3.94) and caregivers’ wealth index (AOR = 0.35, CI = 0.18-0.68) were associated with VMW service utilization. Meanwhile, better service quality of VMWs (AOR = 3.21, CI = 1.34-7.66) and caregivers’ literacy (AOR = 9.91, CI = 4.66-21.05) were positively associated with caregivers’ knowledge of malaria management. Conclusions VMWs’ service quality and length of experience are important determinants of caregivers’ utilization of VMWs’ child health services and their knowledge of malaria management. Caregivers are seeking VMWs’ support for childhood illnesses even if they are providing only malaria control services. This underlines the importance of scaling-up VMWs’ capacity by adding child health services of good quality, which will result in improving child health status in remote Cambodia.

2013-01-01

359

Nonhuman primate retroviruses from Cambodia: high simian foamy virus prevalence, identification of divergent STLV-1 strains and no evidence of SIV infection.  

PubMed

Nonhuman primates (NHPs) carry retroviruses such as simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV), simian T-cell lymphotropic viruses (STLV) and simian foamy viruses (SFV). Here, we revisited NHPs from Cambodia to assess the prevalence and diversity of these retroviruses using updated viral detection tools. We screened blood from 118 NHPs consisting of six species (Macaca fascicularis (n=91), Macaca leonine (n=8), Presbytis cristata (n=3), Nycticebus coucang (n=1), Hylobates pileatus (n=14), and Pongo pygmaeus) (n=1) by using a Luminex-based multiplex serology assay that allows the detection of all known SIV/HIV and SFV lineages. We also used highly sensitive PCR assays to detect each simian retrovirus group. Positive PCR products were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed to infer evolutionary histories. Fifty-three of 118 (44.9%) NHPs tested positive for SFV by serology and 8/52 (15.4%), all from M. fascicularis, were PCR-confirmed. The 8 novel SFV sequences formed a highly supported distinct lineage within a clade composed of other macaque SFV. We observed no serological or molecular evidence of SIV infection among the 118 NHP samples tested. Four of 118 (3.3%) NHPs were PCR-positive for STLV, including one M. fascicularis, one P. cristata, and two H. pileatus. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the four novel STLV belonged to the PTLV-1 lineage, outside the African radiation of PTLV-1, like all Asian PTLV identified so far. Sequence analysis of the whole STLV-1 genome from a H. pileatus (C578_Hp) revealed a genetic structure characteristic of PTLV. Similarity analysis comparing the STLV-1 (C578_Hp) sequence with prototype PTLVs showed that C578_Hp is closer to PTLV-1s than to all other types across the entire genome. In conclusion, we showed a high frequency of SFV infection but found no evidence of SIV infection in NHPs from Cambodia. We identified for the first time STLV-1 in a P. cristata and in two H. pileatus. PMID:23612320

Ayouba, Ahidjo; Duval, Linda; Liégeois, Florian; Ngin, Sopheak; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Switzer, William M; Delaporte, Eric; Ariey, Frédéric; Peeters, Martine; Nerrienet, Eric

2013-04-21

360

Poverty does not limit tobacco consumption in cambodia: quantitative estimate of tobacco use under conditions of no income and adult malnutrition.  

PubMed

Current data indicate that under conditions of poverty, tobacco is consumed at the expense of basic needs. In a large national sample from Cambodia, we sought to determine whether tobacco consumption declines under extreme conditions of no income and malnutrition. Our major findings are as follows: (1) Among men, there was no significant difference in the number of cigarettes smoked for no income (425, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 395-456) versus >US$2 per day (442, 95% CI = 407-477); (2) among women, there was no significant difference in the amount of loose tobacco (ie, betel quid) consumed for no income (539 g, 95% CI = 441-637) versus >US$2 per day (558 g, 95% CI = 143-973); (3) for the contrast of no income + malnutrition versus >US$2 per day + no malnutrition in a linear model, there was no significant difference for men who smoked (462 vs 517 cigarettes/month, P = .82) or women who chewed (316 vs 404 g tobacco/month, P = .34), adjusting for confounders. Among the poorest and malnourished Cambodian adults, lack of resources did not appear to prevent them from obtaining smoked or smokeless tobacco. PMID:23666843

Singh, Pramil N; Washburn, Dawn; Yel, Daravuth; Kheam, They; Job, Jayakaran S

2013-05-10

361

Strengthening institutional and organizational capacity for social health protection of the informal sector in lesser-developed countries: a study of policy barriers and opportunities in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Reaching out to the poor and the informal sector is a major challenge for achieving universal coverage in lesser-developed countries. In Cambodia, extensive coverage by health equity funds for the poor has created the opportunity to consolidate various non-government health financing schemes under the government's proposed social health protection structure. This paper identifies the main policy and operational challenges to strengthening existing arrangements for the poor and the informal sector, and considers policy options to address these barriers. Conducted in conjunction with the Cambodian Ministry of Health in 2011-12, the study reviewed policy documents and collected qualitative data through 18 semi-structured key informant interviews with government, non-government and donor officials. Data were analysed using the Organizational Assessment for Improving and Strengthening Health Financing conceptual framework. We found that a significant shortfall related to institutional, organisational and health financing issues resulted in fragmentation and constrained the implementation of social health protection schemes, including health equity funds, community-based health insurance, vouchers and others. Key documents proposed the establishment of a national structure for the unification of the informal-sector schemes but left unresolved issues related to structure, institutional capacity and the third-party status of the national agency. This study adds to the evidence base on appropriate and effective institutional and organizational arrangements for social health protection in the informal sector in developing countries. Among the key lessons are: the need to expand the fiscal space for health care; a commitment to equity; specific measures to protect the poor; building national capacity for administration of universal coverage; and working within the specific national context. PMID:23466261

Annear, Peter Leslie; Ahmed, Shakil; Ros, Chhun Eang; Ir, Por

2013-02-16

362

The social determinants of health and health service access: an in depth study in four poor communities in Phnom Penh Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing urbanization and population density, and persisting inequities in health outcomes across socioeconomic groupings have raised concerns internationally regarding the health of the urban poor. These concerns are also evident in Cambodia, which prompted the design of a study to identify and describe the main barriers to access to health services by the poor in the capital city, Phnom Penh. Sources and Methods Main sources of data were through a household survey, followed by in-depth qualitative interviews with mothers, local authorities and health centre workers in four very poor communities in Phnom Penh. Main findings Despite low incomes and education levels, the study communities have moderate levels of access to services for curative and preventive care. However, qualitative findings demonstrate that households contextualize poor health and health access in terms of their daily living conditions, particularly in relation to environmental conditions and social insecurity. The interactions of low education, poor living conditions and high food costs in the context of low and irregular incomes reinforce a pattern of “living from moment to moment” and results in a cycle of disadvantage and ill health in these communities. There were three main factors that put poor communities at a health disadvantage; these are the everyday living conditions of communities, social and economic inequality and the extent to which a society assesses and acts on inequities in their health care access. Conclusions In order to improve access to health and health services for the urban poor, expansion of public health functions and capacities will be required, including building partnerships between health providers, municipal authorities and civil society.

2012-01-01

363

The effectiveness of text messages support for diabetes self-management: protocol of the TEXT4DSM study in the democratic Republic of Congo, Cambodia and the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Background People with diabetes find it difficult to sustain adequate self-management behaviour. Self-Management Support strategies, including the use of mobile technology, have shown potential benefit. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a mobile phone support intervention on top of an existing strategy in three countries, DR Congo, Cambodia and the Philippines to improve health outcomes, access to care and enablement of people with diabetes, with 480 people with diabetes in each country who are randomised to either standard support or to the intervention. Design/methods The study consists of three sub-studies with a similar design in three countries to be independently implemented and analysed. The design is a two-arm Randomised Controlled Trial, in which a total of 480 adults with diabetes participating in an existing DSME programme will be randomly allocated to either usual care in the existing programme or to usual care plus a mobile phone self-management support intervention. Participants in both arms complete assessments at baseline, one year and two years after inclusion. Glycosylated haemoglobin blood pressure, height, weight, waist circumference will be measured. Individual interviews will be conducted to determine the patients’ assessment of chronic illness care, degree of self-enablement, and access to care before implementation of the intervention, at intermediate moments and at the end of the study. Analyses of quantitative data including assessment of differences in changes in outcomes between the intervention and usual care group will be done. A probability of <0.05 is considered statistically significant. Outcome indicators will be plotted over time. All data are analysed for confounding and interaction in multivariate regression analyses taking potential clustering effects into account. Differences in outcome measures will be analysed per country and realistic evaluation to assess processes and context factors that influence implementation in order to understand why it works, for whom, under which circumstances. A costing study will be performed. Discussion The intervention addresses the problem that the greater part of diabetes management takes place without external support and that many challenges, unforeseen problems and questions occur at moments in between scheduled contacts with the support system, by exploiting communication technology. Trial registration ISRCTN86247213

2013-01-01

364

Treating 4,000 diabetic patients in Cambodia, a high-prevalence but resource-limited setting: a 5-year study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the worldwide increasing burden of diabetes, there has been no corresponding scale-up of treatment in developing countries and limited evidence of program effectiveness. In 2002, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health of Cambodia, Médecins Sans Frontières initiated an outpatient program of subsidized diabetic care in two hospital-based chronic disease clinics in rural settings. We aimed to describe the outcomes of newly and previously diagnosed diabetic patients enrolled from 2002 to 2008. Methods We calculated the mean and proportion of patients who met the recommended treatment targets, and the drop from baseline values for random blood glucose (RBG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), and body mass index (BMI) at regular intervals. Analysis was restricted to patients not lost to follow-up. We used the t test to compare baseline and subsequent paired values. Results Of 4404 patients enrolled, 2,872 (65%) were still in care at the time of the study, 24 (0.5%) had died, and 1,508 (34%) were lost tofollow-up. Median age was 53 years, 2,905 (66%) were female and 4,350 (99%) had type 2 diabetes. Median (interquartile range (IQR)) follow-up was 20 months (5 to 39.5 months). A total of 24% (51/210) of patients had a HbA1c concentration of <7% and 35% (709/1,995) had a RBG <145 mg/dl within 1 year. There was a significant drop of 109 mg/dl (95% confidence interval (CI) 103.1 to 114.3) in mean RBG (P < 0.001) and a drop of 2.7% (95% CI 2.3 to 3.0) in mean HbA1c (P < 0.001) between baseline and month 6. In all, 45% (327/723) and 62% (373/605) of patients with systolic or diastolic hypertension at baseline, respectively, reached = 130/80 mm Hg within 1 year. There was a drop of 13.5 mm Hg (95% CI 12.1 to 14.9) in mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) (P < 0.001), and a drop of 11.7 mm Hg (95% CI 10.8 to 12.6) in mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (P < 0.001) between baseline and month 6. Only 22% (90/401) patients with obesity at baseline lowered their BMI <27.5 kg/m2 after 1 year. Factors associated with loss to follow-up were male sex, age >60 years, living outside the province, normal BMI on admission, high RBG on last visit, and coming late for the last consultation. Conclusion Significant and clinically important improvements in glycemia and BP were observed, but a relatively low proportion of diabetic patients reached treatment targets. These results and the high loss to follow-up rate highlight the challenges of delivering diabetic care in rural, resource-limited settings.

Raguenaud, Marie-Eve; Isaakidis, Petros; Reid, Tony; Chy, Say; Keuky, Lim; Arellano, Gemma; Van Damme, Wim

2009-01-01

365

Asthma investigators begin to reap the fruits of genomics  

PubMed Central

Microarray experiments have identified novel candidate genes in animal models of asthma. In the near future, genomics may have a profound impact on the way we think about this common and complex disease.

Erle, David J; Yang, Yee Hwa

2003-01-01

366

Influenza vaccination: do the aged reap the benefit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An audit of 100 elderly in-patients with appropriate medical conditions revealed that 63% had not been vaccinated this winter. 74% would have accepted vaccination if offered. A general practitioner questionnaire found that 42% relied on elderly patients coming forward and requesting vaccination. Unfortunately, many elderly patients are still missing out on influenza vaccination.

R. Morgan; D. King; C. J. Turnbull

1995-01-01

367

Boys, Masculinity and School Violence: Reaping What We Sow  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper the author explores the relationship between masculinity and violence. She begins by pointing out that although all of the recent school shootings in the US have been perpetrated by boys, very few are associating the acts with the gender of the offenders. Perhaps this connection is not made because society is so conditioned to the…

Watson, Sandy White

2007-01-01

368

Persuasive GERONtechnology: Reaping Technology's Coaching Benefits at Older Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The keynote speaker for this conference, Dr. B.J. Fogg, defines persuasive technology as, “interactive computing systems designed\\u000a to change people’s attitudes and behaviors.” [1]. Such changes find their origin in changes in people’s motivation. The coaching\\u000a possibilities of technology may be viewed as an embellishment of conditioning and behavior therapy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a With respect to aging, most people want to live a

James L. Fozard; William D. Kearns

2006-01-01

369

Reaping the rewards - coordinating Europe's Earth Observation Ground System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Monitoring of Environment and Security (GMES) programme is based on a fleet of European Earth observation satellites, built and operated by ESA, member states and commercial entities. GMES will also offer data from non-European satellites. In order to provide operational and sustainable user services and to avoid unnecessary duplication in technologies, the challenge is to harmonise the various

Eugenia Forcada; Gunther Kohlhammer; Catherine Casgrain; Yves Lavergne; Alberto Tuozzi; Gunter Schreier; Maurice Winterholer

2007-01-01

370

Mentors Have Consequences and Reap Returns in Academic Biochemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores the possible measurable effects of mentors (major professors) on the subsequent productivity of the mentor's students. Also asked is whether there are benefits to the productive scientist who acts as a mentor. Analysis is based on a population of male biochemists (N=66) who obtained their doctorates in 1957, 1958, 1962, and…

McGinnis, Robert; Long, J. Scott

371

Are Universities Reaping the Available Benefits Internship Programs Offer?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many research studies have examined the benefits student internships offer students and employers, but few looked at the benefits internships might lend to educational institutions. A survey instrument was developed and sent to 619 deans of all U.S. business programs. In all, 29% replied. The results indicate some institutions are gaining the…

Weible, Rick

2010-01-01

372

Marine ecology: reaping the benefits of local dispersal.  

PubMed

A central question of marine ecology is, how far do larvae disperse? Evidence is accumulating that the probability of dispersal declines rapidly with distance. This provides an incentive for communities to manage their own fish stocks and cooperate with neighbors. PMID:23660355

Buston, Peter M; D'Aloia, Cassidy C

2013-05-01

373

Are Universities Reaping the Available Benefits Internship Programs Offer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many research studies have examined the benefits student internships offer students and employers, but few looked at the benefits internships might lend to educational institutions. A survey instrument was developed and sent to 619 deans of all U.S. business programs. In all, 29% replied. The results indicate some institutions are gaining the benefits available from internship programs. Of all respondents,

Rick Weible

2009-01-01

374

A Time to Plant and a Time to Reap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper formulates, identifies, and estimates a multistage model of the production of ability in childhood. The model is based on two features. First, Investments made at different ages of the child are not forced to be perfect substitutes as has been assumed,in the previous literature. In the model and in the estimation, I allow the technology to vary

Flavio Cunha; I Thank Tom Coleman; Lars Hansen; James Heckman; Lance Lochner; Miriam Gensowski; Robert Townsend

375

Automate your supply chain and reap the benefits.  

PubMed

Web-based materials management saves hospitals money by making the process more efficient. It also aids in contract negotiations with vendors and even helps boost quality of care by freeing up clinical staff time. PMID:21682239

Page, Douglas

2011-05-01

376

Research endeavors among pediatric nurse practitioners (REAP) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe purpose of this study was to identify the facilitators of and barriers to research utilization and to identify research activities and resources needed to promote research among pediatric nurse practitioners.

Victoria P. Niederhauser; Lisa Kohr

2005-01-01

377

Randomized trials of artemisinin-piperaquine, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine phosphate and artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of multi-drug resistant falciparum malaria in Cambodia-Thailand border area  

PubMed Central

Background Drug resistance of falciparum malaria is a global problem. Sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine-resistant and mefloquine-resistant strains of falciparum malaria have spread in Southeast Asia at lightning speed in 1980s-1990s, and the Cambodia-Thailand border is one of the malaria epidemic areas with the most severe forms of multi-drug resistant falciparum malaria. Methods Artemisinin-piperaquine (AP), dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine phosphate (DHP) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) were used to treat 110, 55 and 55 uncomplicated malaria patients, respectively. The total dosage for adults is 1,750 mg (four tablets, twice over 24 hours) of AP, 2,880 mg (eight tablets, four times over two days) of DHP, and 3,360 mg (24 tablets, six times over three days) of AL. The 28-day cure rate, parasite clearance time, fever clearance time, and drug tolerance of patients to the three drugs were compared. All of the above methods were consistent with the current national guidelines. Results The mean parasite clearance time was similar in all three groups (66.7 ± 21.9 hrs, 65.6 ± 27.3 hrs, 65.3 ± 22.5 hrs in AP, DHP and AL groups, respectively), and there was no remarkable difference between them; the fever clearance time was also similar (31.6 ± 17.7 hrs, 34.6 ± 21.8 hrs and 36.9 ± 15.4 hrs, respectively). After following up for 28-days, the cure rate was 95.1%(97/102), 98.2%(54/55) and 82.4%(42/51); and the recrudescence cases was 4.9%(5/102), 1.8%(1/55) and 17.6%(9/51), respectively. Therefore, the statistical data showed that 28-day cure rate in AP and DHP groups was superior to AL group obviously. The patients had good tolerance to all the three drugs, and some side effects (anoxia, nausea, vomiting, headache and dizziness) could be found in every group and they were self-limited; patients in control groups also had good tolerance to DHP and AL, there was no remarkable difference in the three groups. Conclusions AP, DHP and AL all remained efficacious treatments for the treatment of falciparum malaria in Cambodia-Thailand border area. However, in this particular setting, the AP regimen turned out to be favourable in terms of efficacy and effectiveness, simplicity of administration, cost and compliance. Trial Registration The trial was registered at Chinese Clinical Trial Register under identifier 2005L01041.

2011-01-01

378

Young Women Engaged in Sex Work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Have High Incidence of HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Amphetamine-Type Stimulant Use: New Challenges to HIV Prevention and Risk  

PubMed Central

Objectives To estimate prevalence and incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) and associated risk factors among young women working as sex workers (SWs) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods A prospective study of young (<29 years) women working as SWs in brothels, entertainment establishments, and freelance. Sociodemographics, sexual risk, and use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) (“yama” and “crystal”) were assessed by self-report. HIV and STI (Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) testing were conducted on blood and urine specimens, respectively. Results Baseline prevalences of HIV, C. trachomatis, and N. gonorrhoeae were 23%, 11.5%, and 7.8%, respectively. HIV incidence was 3.6 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2%– 11.1%); STI incidence was 21.2 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 12.6%– 35.8%). At baseline, 26.5% reported recent ATS use. HIV infection was associated with freelance SW (adjusted odds ratio, 5.85; 95% CI, 1.59–21.58) and younger age of first sex (?15 years; adjusted odds ratio, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.01–8.46). Incident STI was associated with duration (per year) of SW (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.1–1.2) and recent yama use (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.5–10.3). Conclusions HIV and STI infection rates were high among SWs working in various settings; freelancers had highest risk. ATS use was associated with incident STI. Venue of sex work and drug prevention should be considered in prevention programs.

Couture, Marie-Claude; Sansothy, Neth; Sapphon, Vonthanak; Phal, Serey; Sichan, Keo; Stein, Ellen; Evans, Jennifer; Maher, Lisa; Kaldor, John; Vun, Mean Chhi; Page, Kimberly

2013-01-01

379

Counseling and choosing between infant-feeding options: overall limits and local interpretations by health care providers and women living with HIV in resource-poor countries (Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon).  

PubMed

As part of prevention of HIV mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) strategies, HIV-positive women are asked to choose between two options regarding infant feeding: replacement feeding or exclusive breastfeeding with early weaning. Health services must offer women counseling, guidance, and support to enable them to make an informed choice. This article aims to shed light on the content of counseling and its adaptation to local situations, including women's perceptions, in three resource-poor countries with different infant feeding patterns (Burkina Faso, Cambodia, and Cameroon). The qualitative study included observations in health facilities and interviews with HIV-positive mothers and health workers. The results show that counseling practices vary, including prescriptive counseling proposing only one option to all women, an option based on the mother's economic level assessed by health care providers, and the choice between options. While health workers consider economic aspects first, women mostly consider social aspects related to the risk of being stigmatized as a "bad mother'" or as HIV-positive. Overall trends identify some limits to counseling effectiveness when considering women's perceptions and needs, such as: the content of information provided by health care providers, duration and timing of counseling, discrepancies between information provided during counseling and from the health system, and ranking of preventive options by health workers. Women's agency for feeding choices is related to local practices and local authorities' abilities to provide more or less comprehensive counseling based on the organization of the health and aid system. Local practices also depend on institutions' interpretations of international recommendations based on public health considerations regarding standard of care and women's and the health system's respective responsibilities. Beyond structural constraints that hinder the adoption of preventive infant feeding patterns, addressing these issues may help improve counseling practices. PMID:19559512

Desclaux, Alice; Alfieri, Chiara

2009-06-24

380

Case report: an example of international telemedicine success.  

PubMed

An 8-month old girl presented to the Angkor Hospital for Children in Siem Riep, Cambodia with fevers, bilateral eye discharge and an extensive body rash. The rash consisted of large, fluid-filled bullae and significant desquamation. The patient was admitted to the hospital and given intravenous cloxacillin for presumed bullous impetigo. Despite treatment with antibiotics, the skin lesions did not improve and the fevers continued. Telemedicine consultations were initiated by email between Angkor Hospital for Children and paediatric specialists in the USA. Several diagnoses were entertained throughout the subsequent collaborative dialogue. Ultimately, teleconsultation led to a diagnosis of chronic bullous dermatosis of childhood (CBDC), a rare sub-epidermal blistering disease. The child was started on appropriate medications. Within 24 hours, the lesions showed significant improvement and fevers resolved. By enabling advice from distant providers on diagnosis and treatment of paediatric patients, telemedicine may improve health care in developing countries. PMID:19471034

Froehlich, Wendy; Seitaboth, Soeung; Chanpheaktra, Ngoun; Pugatch, David

2009-01-01

381

Domestic Violence against Married Women in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We evaluate the effects of marital resources and early-life experiences on recent domestic violence and attitudes about wife abuse among 2,074 married Cambodian women. Household standard of living was negatively associated with physical domestic violence. Women with 8-13 fewer years of schooling than their husbands more often experienced physical…

Yount, Kathryn M.; Carrera, Jennifer S.

2006-01-01

382

Education Reforms in Cambodia: Issues and Concerns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses the key issues and concerns in the Cambodian government's efforts to implement three priority education policies for 2006-2010: ensure equitable access to education; increase quality and efficiency of the education services; and promote institutional development and capacity building for decentralisation. This paper…

Tan, Charlene

2007-01-01

383

Mercury Contamination Along the Mekong River, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of ten dolphins that died in the Mekong River had a high concentration of mercury (67 µg\\/g) in its liver. The mercury content of fish at Kratie was on average 103 ng\\/g (n=153) but in some species it was up to six fold higher. People located in the drainage basin with gold mines (Ratanakirri) had significantly more mercury in

T. P. Murphy; M. Sampson; J. Guo; T. Parr; M. Gilbert; K. Irvine

384

Domestic Violence Against Married Women in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate the effects of marital resources and early-life experiences on recent domestic violence and attitudes about wife abuse among 2,074 married Cambodian women. Household standard of living was negatively associated with physical domestic violence. Women with 8-13 fewer years of schooling than their husbands more often experienced physical and psychological domestic violence. Women with more living children more often

Kathryn M. Yount; Jennifer S. Carrera

2006-01-01

385

Recruit 'Grandpeople' as Volunteer Tutors, and Students Will Reap the Rewards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how a senior citizen volunteer tutor program at Emerson Elementary School in Riverside (California) achieved success through careful preparation, staff and student cooperation, extra effort to find interested senior citizens, and continual expression of appreciation to volunteers. Presents 17 hints on starting a grandpeople project.…

De Pillis, Susan

1982-01-01

386

Wearable Computing Meets Ubiquitous Computing: Reaping the Best of Both Worlds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes what we see as fundamentaldiculties in both the pure ubiquitous computing andpure wearable computing paradigms when applied tocontext-aware applications. In particular, ubiquitouscomputing and smart room systems tend to have dif-culties with privacy and personalization, while wearablesystems have trouble with localized information,localized resource control, and resource managementbetween multiple people. These diculties are discussed,and a peer-to-peer network of ...

Bradley J. Rhodes; Nelson Minar; Joshua Weaver

1999-01-01

387

The Place of Formative Evaluations in Assessment and Ways to Reap their Benefits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper presents several methods used in undergraduate geology classes to obtain mid-course improvements. These include teaching practices evaluation, consultation, in-class videotapes, student management teams, knowledge surveys, and classroom assessment techniques (CATs). The abstract is available on-line and the full paper can be downloaded.

Nuhfer, Edward

1998-03-01

388

Cultivating Our Physics Community and Reaping the Next Generation of Physics Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Even if today's physics and physical science teacher has been fortunate enough to graduate from an excellent college or university teacher preparation program, as this teacher begins a career teaching high school physics, he or she is typically: 1) the only physics or physical science teacher on the campus, 2) teaches physics as only one of several course responsibilities, 3) has inherited low tech, ancient (enigmatic), broken or inadequate equipment with which to carry out necessary labs and 4) has little contact with a physics mentor or other physics teachers on a regular basis. Add to this dilemma a lack of the possession of anything like an experienced teacher's "bag of tricks" or other resources to help in planning a coherent curriculum for student learning, the new or cross-over physics teacher has a difficult road ahead. University and college faculty, if aware of this situation may want to help but may be at a loss to know where to begin. Mentoring requires time and resources with a plan of action behind it. There are many excellent formal mentoring programs in place as exemplified by TIR and PTRA. But it is through the many informal support mechanisms and ready online resources that can be offered to the many needy and isolated high school physics teachers that the greatest national impact may be made. The Physics Front and other online libraries and collections can be a lifeline and a means of communication and support between college faculty and public school teacher alike.

Ezrailson, Cathy

2007-03-24

389

Reaping relational rewards from corporate social responsibility: The role of competitive positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the moderating influence of the extent to which a brand's social initiatives are integrated into its competitive positioning (i.e., a CSR positioning) on consumer reactions to CSR. We find that positive CSR beliefs held by consumers are associated not only with greater purchase likelihood but also with longer-term loyalty and advocacy behaviors. More importantly, we find that

Shuili Du; C. B. Bhattacharya; Sankar Sen

2007-01-01

390

What You Sow Is What You Reap: Violence and the Construction of Male Identity in Jamaica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the over 380 murders committed in Jamaica in 1996 and the nearly 500 in 1997, for which arrests were made, nearly eight out of every ten the police believed were committed by persons--males we assume--thirty years old and younger. Some of them were as young as a thirteen year old Grade 8 or Grade 9 student. We may assume

Barry Chevannes

391

As you weed, so shall you reap: on the origin of algaculture in damselfish.  

PubMed

Within their territories, damselfish cultivate particular algae for consumption. A recent study in BMC Evolutionary Biology shows extensive variation among and within fish species in the composition of these algal 'gardens', varying from monocultures to cultures of mixed species, and in the mode of cultivation. This fish-algal agriculture may provide insight into the early stages of domestication. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/185. PMID:20594375

Aanen, Duur K

2010-06-18

392

Precision Agriculture. Reaping the Benefits of Technological Growth. Resources in Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technological innovations have revolutionized farming. Using precision farming techniques, farmers get an accurate picture of a field's attributes, such as soil properties, yield rates, and crop characteristics through the use of Differential Global Positioning Satellite hardware. (JOW)

Hadley, Joel F.

1998-01-01

393

Reaping the Benefits of Task Conflict in Teams: The Critical Role of Team Psychological Safety Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past research suggests that task conflict may improve team performance under certain conditions; however, we know little about these specific conditions. On the basis of prior theory and research on conflict in teams, we argue that a climate of psychological safety is one specific context under which task conflict will improve team performance.…

Bradley, Bret H.; Postlethwaite, Bennett E.; Klotz, Anthony C.; Hamdani, Maria R.; Brown, Kenneth G.

2012-01-01

394

(Almost) Word for Word: As Voice Recognition Programs Improve, Students Reap the Benefits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Voice recognition software is hardly new--attempts at capturing spoken words and turning them into written text have been available to consumers for about two decades. But what was once an expensive and highly unreliable tool has made great strides in recent years, perhaps most recognized in programs such as Nuance's Dragon NaturallySpeaking…

Smith, Mark

2006-01-01

395

Restoring coastal plants to improve global carbon storage: reaping what we sow.  

PubMed

Long-term carbon capture and storage (CCS) is currently considered a viable strategy for mitigating rising levels of atmospheric CO(2) and associated impacts of global climate change. Until recently, the significant below-ground CCS capacity of coastal vegetation such as seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangroves has largely gone unrecognized in models of global carbon transfer. However, this reservoir of natural, free, and sustainable carbon storage potential is increasingly jeopardized by alarming trends in coastal habitat loss, totalling 30-50% of global abundance over the last century alone. Human intervention to restore lost habitats is a potentially powerful solution to improve natural rates of global CCS, but data suggest this approach is unlikely to substantially improve long-term CCS unless current restoration efforts are increased to an industrial scale. Failure to do so raises the question of whether resources currently used for expensive and time-consuming restoration projects would be more wisely invested in arresting further habitat loss and encouraging natural recovery. PMID:21479244

Irving, Andrew D; Connell, Sean D; Russell, Bayden D

2011-03-29

396

Introducing the GRACEnet/REAP data contribution, discovery and retrieval system  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Difficulties in accessing high quality data on trace gas fluxes and performance of bioenergy/bio-product feedstocks limit the ability of researchers and others to address environmental impacts of agriculture and the potential to produce feedstocks. To address those needs, the GRACEnet (Greenhouse ga...

397

Reaping the benefits of task conflict in teams: the critical role of team psychological safety climate.  

PubMed

Past research suggests that task conflict may improve team performance under certain conditions; however, we know little about these specific conditions. On the basis of prior theory and research on conflict in teams, we argue that a climate of psychological safety is one specific context under which task conflict will improve team performance. Using evidence from 117 project teams, the present research found that psychological safety climate moderates the relationship between task conflict and performance. Specifically, task conflict and team performance were positively associated under conditions of high psychological safety. The results support the conclusion that psychological safety facilitates the performance benefits of task conflict in teams. Theoretical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:21728397

Bradley, Bret H; Postlethwaite, Bennett E; Klotz, Anthony C; Hamdani, Maria R; Brown, Kenneth G

2011-07-04

398

Restoring Coastal Plants to Improve Global Carbon Storage: Reaping What We Sow  

PubMed Central

Long-term carbon capture and storage (CCS) is currently considered a viable strategy for mitigating rising levels of atmospheric CO2 and associated impacts of global climate change. Until recently, the significant below-ground CCS capacity of coastal vegetation such as seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangroves has largely gone unrecognized in models of global carbon transfer. However, this reservoir of natural, free, and sustainable carbon storage potential is increasingly jeopardized by alarming trends in coastal habitat loss, totalling 30–50% of global abundance over the last century alone. Human intervention to restore lost habitats is a potentially powerful solution to improve natural rates of global CCS, but data suggest this approach is unlikely to substantially improve long-term CCS unless current restoration efforts are increased to an industrial scale. Failure to do so raises the question of whether resources currently used for expensive and time-consuming restoration projects would be more wisely invested in arresting further habitat loss and encouraging natural recovery.

Irving, Andrew D.; Connell, Sean D.; Russell, Bayden D.

2011-01-01

399

Sunbelt States Reap GI Bill Bonanza. Eastern and Midwestern Vietnam Veterans Lose Scholarship Opportunities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major issue covered in this report involves the unequal distribution of GI Bill education benefits in different states. It is noted that since differences in state tuition charges are not recognized, veterans in Eastern and Midwestern high-tuition states have a harder time using education and training opportunities than veterans in Sunbelt…

Feldman, Stuart F.

400

Reap what you sow: spare cells for post-silicon metal fix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-silicon validation has recently become a major bottleneck in IC design. Several high prole IC designs have been taped-out with latent bugs, and forced the manufacturers to resort to addi- tional design revisions. Such changes can be applied through metal x; however, this is impractical without carefully pre-placed spare cells. In this work we perform the rst comprehensive analysis of

Kai-hui Chang; Igor L. Markov; Valeria Bertacco

2008-01-01

401

Weed 'Em and Reap: The Art of Weeding to Avoid Criticism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Today media centers provide students the opportunity to learn and explore subjects of their interest in depth. The media center is the largest classroom in the school providing service to every student and every teacher in all curricular areas. The library should be a place to encourage students' interests and a place to broaden their horizons by…

Allen, Melissa

2010-01-01

402

Reaping the Benefits of Task Conflict in Teams: The Critical Role of Team Psychological Safety Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Past research suggests that task conflict may improve team performance under certain conditions; however, we know little about these specific conditions. On the basis of prior theory and research on conflict in teams, we argue that a climate of psychological safety is one specific context under which task conflict will improve team performance.…

Bradley, Bret H.; Postlethwaite, Bennett E.; Klotz, Anthony C.; Hamdani, Maria R.; Brown, Kenneth G.

2012-01-01

403

The Weatherby Processing plant reaps big benefits from state-of-the-art technologies  

SciTech Connect

In the fall of 2003, the Weatherby Processing plant in Kanawha County, WV, USA launched a program to evaluate the overall operation and efficiency of its two heavy-medium cyclones circuits processing 2-inch x 0 raw coal with the intention of reducing coal losses misplaced to refuse. A plant sampling program was developed and conducted that provided the basis for the plant upgrade, which included the installation of a raw coal sizing screen, the establishment of coarse and fine heavy-medium cyclones circuits, a compound spirals circuit, and a column flotation circuit. The upgraded flowsheet resulted in a major improvement in separation efficiency as well as a significant reduction in magnetite consumption. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Bratton, R.C.; Raines, J. [Virginia Tech (United States). Dept. of Mining and Mineral Engineering

2006-10-15

404

Reaping the Whirlwind: "The Wind that Shakes the Barley", Liberation and after in the Movies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Popular culture includes stories that define and justify the existence of groups and nations. Among those stories are creation accounts, especially stories of the forming of nations through struggles for liberation from oppression. The useful liberation myths are exemplified by two recent films: "V for Vendetta" and "Children of Men." Another…

Beck, Bernard

2008-01-01

405

We Cannot Blindly Reap the Benefits of a Globalized ICT Supply Chain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM) seeks to manage and mitigate cyber and supply chain risk throughout an acquisition and sustainment lifecycle for an element or a system. It is a multi-disciplinary challeng...

D. Davidson S. Shankles

2013-01-01

406

Beyond reaping the first harvest: management objectives for timber production in the Brazilian Amazon.  

PubMed

Millions of hectares of future timber concessions are slated to be implemented within large public forests under the forest law passed in 2006 by the Brazilian Congress. Additional millions of hectares of large, privately owned forests and smaller areas of community forests are certified as well managed by the Forest Stewardship Council, based on certification standards that will be reviewed in 2007. Forest size and ownership are two key factors that influence management objectives and the capacity of forest managers to achieve them. Current best ecological practices for timber production from Brazil's native Amazon forests are limited to reduced-impact logging (RIL) systems that minimize the environmental impacts of harvest operations and that obey legal restrictions regarding minimum diameters, rare species, retention of seed trees, maximum logging intensity, preservation of riparian buffers, fire protection, and wildlife conservation. Compared with conventional, predatory harvesting that constitutes >90% of the region's timber production, RIL dramatically reduces logging damage and helps maintain forest cover and the presence of rare tree species, but current RIL guidelines do not assure that the volume of timber removed can be sustained in future harvests. We believe it is counterproductive to expect smallholders to subscribe to additional harvest limitations beyond RIL, that larger private forested landholdings managed for timber production should be sustainable with respect to the total volume of timber harvested per unit area per cutting cycle, and that large public forests should sustain volume production of individual harvested species. These additional requirements would improve the ecological sustainability of forest management and help create a stable forest-based sector of the region's economy, but would involve costs associated with lengthened cutting cycles, reduced harvest intensities, and/or postharvest silviculture to promote adequate growth and regeneration. PMID:17650242

Zarin, Daniel J; Schulze, Mark D; Vidal, Edson; Lentini, Marco

2007-08-01

407

Reaping the harvest: nursing student service involvement with a campus gardening project.  

PubMed

The authors describe the development and incorporation of a multidisciplinary community garden as a service project in a baccalaureate nursing cohort in an urban university. The concepts of professional ethics and service, application of nutritional theory to a community cohort, and competencies in community health nursing are briefly discussed and applied to this service project. PMID:22327536

Ahonen, Kathleen; Lee, Carolyn; Daker, Emily

408

Digging a Vegetarian Diet: Plant-Based Eating Can Reap Rewards  

MedlinePLUS

... and fish,” says NIH nutritionist Dr. Susan Krebs-Smith, who monitors trends in cancer risk factors. Most ... are many different types of vegetarian diets,” Krebs-Smith explains. “Some are more restrictive than others.” Strict ...

409

Child Labour, Education Policy and Governance in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper considers how the issue of child labour is located in Cambodian education policy debates and how it is affected by the major constraints surrounding the Cambodian education sector. In particular, it asks why Cambodian policy makers have not sought to address the issue explicitly despite its considerable, and adverse, impact on…

Kim, Chae-Young

2011-01-01

410

Is United States Participation in South Vietnam and Cambodia Legal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem is considered from the viewpoints of international law and United States constitutional law. Research included examination of the United States Constitution, treaties, judicial decisions, legal texts, books and articles which related to the su...

V. A. De Fiori

1970-01-01

411

The economic development of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three states of Indochina are engaged in the most radical economic transformation of any of the nations in Southeast Asia.\\u000a Of the three countries, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, with a population of 70 million, is the most important to the market\\u000a economies of Asia and the West. Although their individual situations vary greatly, the systemic reforms of all

Frederick Z. Brown

1993-01-01

412

The Impact of the Global Economic Crisis on Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We numerically examine the impact of the global economic crisis on the Cambodian garment exports as well as its economy by using the conventional CGE model. A seminal aspect of the paper is that we have successfully estimated the curvature of the CET and CES production functions for the Cambodian economy, by using the time series regression method. One of

Pisey Khin; Ryuta Ray Kato

2010-01-01

413

The phoenix population: Demographic crisis and rebound in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of mortality crises provides an unusual and valuable perspective on the relationship between mortality and fertility\\u000a changes, a relationship that has puzzled demographers for decades. In this article, we combine nationally representative survey\\u000a and demographic-surveillance system data to study fertility trends around the time of the Khmer Rouge (KR) regime, under which\\u000a 25% of the Cambodian population died.

Patrick. Heuveline; Bunnak. Poch

2007-01-01

414

Higher Education Reform in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists 12 changes to Vietnamese higher education resulting from the 1987 socioeconomic "renovation" that involved decentralization of authority and a shift to a mixed economy. Describes the development of higher education in Laos since 1975. Examines efforts by Cambodian higher education to recover from the devastation of the 1970s. (SV)

Can, Le Thac

1991-01-01

415

Community Management by Decree? Lessons From Cambodia's Fisheries Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cambodian government introduced a dramatic reform in 2001 that reduced the allocation of commercial fishing lots in favor of local community access. Hailed by community activists, the policy shift nevertheless accelerated a crisis in the sector, with effectively open access and very poor law enforcement leading to intense exploitation and a surge in illegal fishing. This essay reviews the

Blake D. Ratner

2006-01-01

416

Exploring Strategies that Build Livelihood Resilience: a Case from Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livelihoods in Cambodian fishing communities are complex and dynamic. Fluctuations in resource abundance, seasonal cycles of resource use, and changes in access create conditions that bring challenges for rural households, as do economic and policy drivers. Nonetheless, people are continuously \\

Melissa J. Marschke; Fikret Berkes

2006-01-01

417

Exploring resilience: strengths of trafficking survivors in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Western literature provides an array of information regarding resilience within at-risk youth. Resilience research within non-Western contexts, and more specifically with exploited youth, is more limited. Despite exploitation, some youth develop a hardy ability to overcome adversity, allowing them more mastery over their environments and even increased psychological steadfastness. This project involved exploring the protective factors of resilience and psychological functioning in Cambodian youth, specifically a group of 24 survivors of sexual trafficking and another group of 24 rural youth without reported exploitation. The ages of participants ranged from 13 to 22 years, with the average age being 15.62 years [standard deviation (SD=2.68)]. Results indicated resilience constructs (mastery and relatedness) correlated with psychological functioning (anxiety and depression), as expected. The sense of relatedness was moderately associated with age. Also, as predicted, the trafficked young women demonstrated more resilience and less pathology. Consistent with previous research, earlier trauma is believed to inoculate survivors of trauma against further stress, mobilize them to better confront adversity and reduce psychological disruptions. Understanding these issues can help in understanding the relationship between resilience factors and psychological functioning as well as the strengths of many trauma survivors. Their strengths are particularly useful for developing effective treatment protocols for traumatized youth from non-Western backgrounds. PMID:23183739

Gray, Glori G; Luna, Lilia; Seegobin, Winston

2012-01-01

418

As you reap, so shall you sow: coupling of harvesting and inoculating stabilizes the mutualism between termites and fungi  

PubMed Central

At present there is no consensus theory explaining the evolutionary stability of mutualistic interactions. However, the question is whether there are general ‘rules’, or whether each particular mutualism needs a unique explanation. Here, I address the ultimate evolutionary stability of the ‘agricultural’ mutualism between fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces fungi, and provide a proximate mechanism for how stability is achieved. The key to the proposed mechanism is the within-nest propagation mode of fungal symbionts by termites. The termites suppress horizontal fungal transmission by consuming modified unripe mushrooms (nodules) for food. However, these nodules provide asexual gut-resistant spores that form the inoculum of new substrate. This within-nest propagation has two important consequences: (i) the mutualistic fungi undergo severe, recurrent bottlenecks, so that the fungus is likely to be in monoculture and (ii) the termites ‘artificially’ select for high nodule production, because their fungal food source also provides the inoculum for the next harvest. I also provide a brief comparison of the termite–fungus mutualism with the analogous agricultural mutualism between attine ants and fungi. This comparison shows that—although common factors for the ultimate evolutionary stability of mutualisms can be identified—the proximate mechanisms can be fundamentally different between different mutualisms.

Aanen, Duur K

2006-01-01

419

Sowing and Reaping a Revolution: Economic Change and Growth in the People's Republic of China, 1949-1981.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit, intended for use with secondary students, presents background information on the Chinese economy. The subject warrants serious consideration because Sino-American trade has grown remarkable in the last decade and economic events occurring in China have the capacity to affect events in this country. The unit contains a six part narrative…

Taylor, Jeffrey R.

420

Higher Education in the Wake of New ICT: Reaping Benefits or Creating More Problems through E-Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article deals with e-learning by focusing on the perceptible tension between ICT and Education. It calls for the implementation of a supple platform within higher education community in the new era of ICT. A personal experience and the analysis of different approaches are used in dealing with the issues. The choice of Moodle as a case study…

Mouyabi, J. Seke Mboungou

2011-01-01

421

The contribution of ecological footprinting to planning policy development: using REAP to evaluate policies for sustainable housing construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of the sustainable-development policy goal is such that policy makers are searching for tools to enable them to evaluate and develop policy directions. To date, ecological footprinting has been used mainly for raising awareness of environmental impacts but it also has considerable potential as a policy tool, enabling policy makers in their strategic work. The paper presents an

Michael Nye; Yvonne Rydin

2008-01-01

422

National Shipbuilding Research Program, Proceedings of the REAPS Technical Symposium Paper No. 9: SPADE Interactive Graphics at Avondale.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When the decision was made to proceed with the development of the Interactive Graphics version of the SPADES System, a list of requirements and goals was made. One of the major considerations was to have total interchangeability between the graphic and th...

F. Cali

1976-01-01

423

National Shipbuilding Research Program, Proceedings of the REAPS Technical Symposium Paper No. 6: SPADES System Current Developments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For enhancement of the SPADES System, three new modules are currently planned and under development: (1) Ship Production and Control Module (SPAC) - A management information system which utilizes the information collected on the SPADES data base. (2) Deta...

A. Schulze

1976-01-01

424

Bilingual Toddlers Reap the Language They Sow: Ethnic Minority Toddlers' Childcare Attendance Increases Maternal Host Language Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the development and correlates of language use in bilingual Turkish-Dutch immigrant mothers and their toddlers. In this short-term longitudinal study 87 mothers completed questionnaires on their Dutch and Turkish language use, ethnic identity and use of childcare. Observational data were obtained for maternal supportive…

Prevoo, Marielle J. L.; Mesman, Judi; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Pieper, Suzanne

2011-01-01

425

Bilingual Toddlers Reap the Language They Sow: Ethnic Minority Toddlers' Childcare Attendance Increases Maternal Host Language Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the development and correlates of language use in bilingual Turkish-Dutch immigrant mothers and their toddlers. In this short-term longitudinal study 87 mothers completed questionnaires on their Dutch and Turkish language use, ethnic identity and use of childcare. Observational data were obtained for maternal supportive…

Prevoo, Marielle J. L.; Mesman, Judi; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Pieper, Suzanne

2011-01-01

426

National Shipbuilding Research Program, Proceedings of the REAPS Technical Symposium Paper No. 12: NASA's Dissemination of Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The law that created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration directed NASA to provide 'for the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination of information concerning its activities and results thereof.' Assuming that the research and develop...

L. N. Mogavero

1976-01-01

427

Areawide suppression of European corn borer with Bt maize reaps savings to non-Bt maize growers.  

PubMed

Transgenic maize engineered to express insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has become widely adopted in U.S. agriculture. In 2009, Bt maize was planted on more than 22.2 million hectares, constituting 63% of the U.S. crop. Using statistical analysis of per capita growth rate estimates, we found that areawide suppression of the primary pest Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer) is associated with Bt maize use. Cumulative benefits over 14 years are an estimated $3.2 billion for maize growers in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, with more than $2.4 billion of this total accruing to non-Bt maize growers. Comparable estimates for Iowa and Nebraska are $3.6 billion in total, with $1.9 billion for non-Bt maize growers. These results affirm theoretical predictions of pest population suppression and highlight economic incentives for growers to maintain non-Bt maize refugia for sustainable insect resistance management. PMID:20929774

Hutchison, W D; Burkness, E C; Mitchell, P D; Moon, R D; Leslie, T W; Fleischer, S J; Abrahamson, M; Hamilton, K L; Steffey, K L; Gray, M E; Hellmich, R L; Kaster, L V; Hunt, T E; Wright, R J; Pecinovsky, K; Rabaey, T L; Flood, B R; Raun, E S

2010-10-01

428

Digitization and the Creation of Virtual Libraries: The Princeton University Image Card Catalog--Reaping the Benefits of Imaging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project at the Princeton University libraries that converted the pre-1981 public card catalog, using digital imaging and optical character recognition technology, to fully tagged and indexed records of text in MARC format that are available on an online database and will be added to the online catalog. (LRW)

Henthorne, Eileen

1995-01-01

429

Neuro-fuzzy reaping of shear wave velocity correlations derived by hybrid genetic algorithm-pattern search technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shear wave velocity is a critical physical property of rock, which provides significant data for geomechanical and geophysical studies. This study proposes a multi-step strategy to construct a model estimating shear wave velocity from conventional well log data. During the first stage, three correlation structures, including power law, exponential, and trigonometric were designed to formulate conventional well log data into shear wave velocity. Then, a Genetic Algorithm-Pattern Search tool was used to find the optimal coefficients of these correlations. Due to the different natures of these correlations, they might overestimate/underestimate in some regions relative to each other. Therefore, a neuro-fuzzy algorithm is employed to combine results of intelligently derived formulas. Neuro-fuzzy technique can compensate the effect of overestimation/underestimation to some extent, through the use of fuzzy rules. One set of data points was used for constructing the model and another set of unseen data points was employed to assess the reliability of the propounded model. Results have shown that the hybrid genetic algorithm-pattern search technique is a robust tool for finding the most appropriate form of correlations, which are meant to estimate shear wave velocity. Furthermore, neuro-fuzzy combination of derived correlations was capable of improving the accuracy of the final prediction significantly.

Asoodeh, Mojtaba; Bagheripour, Parisa

2013-06-01

430

Just Doing What They Gotta Do: Single Black Custodial Fathers Coping with the Stresses and Reaping the Rewards of Parenting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For single African American custodial fathers, parenting stress is exacerbated by the cultural expectation that Black fathers are "normally" absent and by the clustering of stresses that Black men are more likely to encounter. This sample of African American fathers have used a repertoire of problem-focused and cognitive coping strategies,…

Coles, Roberta L.

2009-01-01

431

High-dose antipsychotic use in schizophrenia: a comparison between the 2001 and 2004 Research on East Asia Psychotropic Prescription (REAP) studies  

PubMed Central

AIMS We aimed to examine the frequency of high-dose (defined as mean chlorpromazine mg equivalent doses above 1000) antipsychotic prescriptions in schizophrenia and their clinical correlates in the context of a comparison between studies in 2001 and 2004 within six East Asian countries and territories. METHODS Prescriptions of high-dose antipsychotic for a sample of 2136 patients with schizophrenia from six countries and territories (mainland China, Hong Kong, Korea, Japan, Taiwan and Singapore) were evaluated in 2004 and compared with data obtained for 2399 patients in 2001. RESULTS Overall, the comparison between 2001 and 2004 showed a significant decrease in high-dose antipsychotic use from 17.9 to 6.5% [odds ratio (OR) 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.26, 0.39, P < 0.001]. Patients who received high-dose antipsychotics were significantly more likely to have multiple admissions (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.16, 3.33, P = 0.009), more positive psychotic symptoms such as delusions (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.38, 3.05, P < 0.001) and hallucinations (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.30, 2.64, P = 0.001), but less likely to have negative symptoms (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.40, 0.82, P = 0.002). Multivariate regression analyses revealed that prescription of high-dose antipsychotics was also predicted by younger age (P < 0.001), time period of study (2001; P < 0.001), use of first-generation antipsychotic (P < 0.001) and depot antipsychotics (P < 0.001) as well as antipsychotic polytherapy (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS We identified the clinical profile and treatment characteristics of patients who are at risk of receiving high antipsychotic doses. These findings should provide impetus for clinicians to constantly monitor the drug regimes and to foster rational, evidence-based prescribing practices.

Sim, Kang; Su, Hsin Chuan; Fujii, Senta; Yang, Shu-yu; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Ungvari, Gabor; Si, Tianmei; He, Yan Ling; Chung, Eun Kee; Chan, Yiong Huak; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Kua, Ee Heok; Tan, Chay Hoon; Sartorius, Norman

2009-01-01

432

Investments reap dividends for many universities, but access and quality of higher education across the United States continues to lag behind  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of noteworthy items related to the landscape of higher education found their way into major newspapers this week, including the announcement that Harvard University's endowment reported a 21.1 percent gain on its investments for the fiscal year 2004. This was the best performing year for Harvard's university fund since 2000, although the school also announced that the projected returns during the coming decade will be significantly lower than the past 10 years. Across the wide world of higher education throughout the United States, the news was not nearly as optimistic, at least in terms of access and affordability for those seeking higher education opportunities. A report issued this week from the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education on the state of higher education across the country noted that only three states (California, Utah, and Minnesota) scored higher than a "D" in terms of providing affordable options for attending college. The report essentially grades affordability by comparing net college costs with the average family income in each state, and by this measure, the Center has concluded that college is becoming less affordable in most states. Commenting on the report, David Breneman (dean of the Curry School of Education at the University of Virginia) remarked that "For at least another five to eight years we're looking at a real denial of opportunity." In conclusion, it should also be noted that the report also notes that the nation's high schools have improved over the past decade.The first link leads to an article on the spectacular performance by Harvard's endowment from this Wednesday's Boston Globe. The second link leads to a like-minded piece written by Alvin Powell of the Harvard News Office. The third link leads to a well-written piece in The Salt Lake Tribune that discusses the national affordable education report's comments on the state of Utah's higher education system. Visitors to the fourth link will find an article from The Sacramento Bee that discusses the generally fine performance of California's higher education system, but still offering the potential specter of increased tuition costs that may hinder efforts to increase accessibility and maintain affordability. The fifth link whisks visitors away to a piece from The Capital Times of Madison, Wisconsin, which discusses the ramifications of this national report throughout the state of Wisconsin, a place long lauded for its extensive and much-studied system of higher education. Finally, the last link leads to the homepage of the recently released National Report Card on Higher Education. Here visitors can view individual state reports, peruse a broad overview of national trends, and also compare states in terms of their overall performance during the past few years.

433

Beating the Odds: Parents Choose to Expand Their Family--Despite the Risks--And Reap The Rewards of Their Strength in The Face of Adversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the fall of 1995, Cindy Cook and her husband were anxiously awaiting the arrival of their first child. They were thrilled, excited and a little nervous about this new person that would be changing their lives. During a routine ultrasound around the fourth month of pregnancy, doctors noticed the walls of the baby's heart appeared thickened.…

Cook, Cindy

2006-01-01

434

Houston-Area Community Colleges Reap Rewards of Cooperative Television Campaign. Presentation to the National Council of Community Relations National Conference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In response to a statewide economic crisis resulting in a 9% funding cut for Texas community colleges, the presidents of nine Houston area community colleges formed a consortium to pool their resources and aggressively market the colleges. Since 1986, the Gulf Coast Consortium has mounted late-summer television and radio advertising campaigns to…

Boatright, Joyce; Lestarjette, Steve

435

National Shipbuilding Research Program. Proceedings of the REAPS Technical Sympsoium. Paper No. 14: Generating New Ship Lines From a Parent Hull.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Section area curve variation may be used to obtain a new set of fair ship lines from a parent hull by varying any or all of the following parameters: prismatic coefficient, longitudinal center of buoyancy, extent of parallel midbody, or slopes at entrance...

R. McNaull

1980-01-01

436

Exercise augmentation compared to usual care for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomised Controlled Trial (The REAP study: Randomised Exercise Augmentation for PTSD)  

PubMed Central

Background The physical wellbeing of people with mental health conditions can often be overlooked in order to treat the primary mental health condition as a priority. Exercise however, can potentially improve both the primary psychiatric condition as well as physical measures that indicate risk of other conditions such as diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Evidence supports the role of exercise as an important component of treatment for depression and anxiety, yet no randomised controlled trials (RCT's) have been conducted to evaluate the use of exercise in the treatment of people with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This RCT will investigate the effects of structured, progressive exercise on PTSD symptoms, functional ability, body composition, physical activity levels, sleep patterns and medication usage. Methods and design Eighty participants with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) diagnosis of PTSD will be recruited. Participants will have no contraindications to exercise and will be cognitively able to provide consent to participate in the study. The primary outcome measures will be PTSD symptoms, measured through the PTSD Checklist Civilian (PCL-C) scale. Secondary outcome measures will assess depression and anxiety, mobility and strength, body composition, physical activity levels, sleep patterns and medication usage. All outcomes will be assessed by a health or exercise professional masked to group allocation at baseline and 12 weeks after randomisation. The intervention will be a 12 week individualised program, primarily involving resistance exercises with the use of exercise bands. A walking component will also be incorporated. Participants will complete one supervised session per week, and will be asked to perform at least two other non-supervised exercise sessions per week. Both intervention and control groups will receive all usual non-exercise interventions including psychotherapy, pharmaceutical interventions and group therapy. Discussion This study will determine the effect of an individualised and progressive exercise intervention on PTSD symptoms, depression and anxiety, mobility and strength, body composition, physical activity levels, sleep patterns and medication usage among people with a DSM-IV diagnosis of PTSD. Trial Registration ACTRN12610000579099

2011-01-01

437

Freshwater fish as a dietary source of vitamin A in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem among children and women. Common Cambodian fish species were sampled and screened for vitamin A content. Contents of vitamin A-active compounds (all-trans retinol, all-trans dehydroretinol, 13-cis retinol, 13-cis dehydroretinol and ?-carotene) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography in samples of raw, whole fish from 29 fish species and in raw, edible parts

Nanna Roos; Chhoun Chamnan; Deap Loeung; Jette Jakobsen; Shakuntala Haraksingh Thilsted

2007-01-01

438

Two-wheel tractors: Road safety issues in Laos and Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-wheel tractors are known by different names: iron-ox; walking tractor; Kubota; mechanical ox; ox-machine; power tiller; rotary hoe, rotary plough, rotary tiller; Rotavator, tok-tok; and so on. They are increasingly common throughout rural areas in developing countries as they replace traditional ox-carts.This paper describes two-wheel tractors, including their dual function as an interchangeable agricultural implement and transport vehicle. Then an

Matthew Ericson

2010-01-01

439

Helmet use among motorcyclists in Cambodia: a survey of use, knowledge, attitudes, and practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a leading cause of disability and fatality globally. Motorcycle related injuries, mainly head injuries, and related deaths and disabilities are a significant contributor to the burden of disease in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Helmets have been proven to be an effective way to reduce the risk of head injury. As motorcycle use continually

Abdulgafoor M. Bachani; Nhan T. Tran; Socheata Sann; Michael F. Ballesteros; Chandara Gnim; Amra Ou; Panhavuth Sem; Xiaoyu Nie; Adnan A. Hyder

2012-01-01

440

Health, women and environment in a marginal region of north-eastern Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a population of 70,000, the province of Ratanakiri, close to southern Laos and western central Vietnam, is inhabited\\u000a by proto-Chinese ethnic minorities who all practice slash and burn cultivation. Despite its natural wealth (wild forests,\\u000a precious stones, fertile basaltic lands), the region is still a relatively unexplored and deserted area. The geographical\\u000a isolation of the hilly territory has been

F. Bourdier

1998-01-01

441

Comparative Studies Of Indochina Economies (Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam): An Input-Output (IO) Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Input-Output (I-O) table is now universally accepted as an effective analytical tool for the conduct of in-depth socio-economic as well as environmental studies, whether national or regional. The reason for its being widely used is because of its capability, in a simple compacted manner, to unravel the interwoven structural interdependent relations existing in an economy and the ability to

Francisco Secretario; Kim Kwangmoon; Bui Trinh; Vanndy Nor; Hung Duong Manh

2009-01-01

442

Evaluation of Immunization Knowledge, Practices, and Service-delivery in the Private Sector in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

A study of private-sector immunization services was undertaken to assess scope of practice and quality of care and to identify opportunities for the development of models of collaboration between the public and the private health sector. A questionnaire survey was conducted with health providers at 127 private facilities; clinical practices were directly observed; and a policy forum was held for government representatives, private healthcare providers, and international partners. In terms of prevalence of private-sector provision of immunization services, 93% of the private inpatient clinics surveyed provided immunization services. The private sector demonstrated a lack of quality of care and management in terms of health workers’ knowledge of immunization schedules, waste and vaccine management practices, and exchange of health information with the public sector. Policy and operational guidelines are required for private-sector immunization practices that address critical subject areas, such as setting of standards, capacity-building, public-sector monitoring, and exchange of health information between the public and the private sector. Such public/private collaborations will keep pace with the trends towards the development of private-sector provision of health services in developing countries.

Soeung, Sann Chan; Grundy, John; Morn, Cheng; Samnang, Chham

2008-01-01

443

Professional Education Programme for Land Management and Land Administration in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Land management and land administration are defined as a system of planning, management and administration methods and techniques that aims to integrate ecological with social, economic and legal principles in the management of land for urban and rural development purposes. The main objective is to meet changing and developing human needs, while…

Setha, Vung; Mund, Jan-Peter

2008-01-01

444

What International Aid Organizations Can Learn from International Adult Learning: Experiences from Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Many countries receive international support to strengthen professional capacity. The effect of these professional development activities (PDAs), however, is often negligible. This article provides useful insights on how international aid organizations could improve their PDAs, by describing an intervention developed and applied in…

Berkvens, Jan

2012-01-01

445

UN Peacekeeper in Cambodia, 1991-1992: An Interview with Major George Steuber.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the wake of the Cold War, peacekeeping -- or, more appropriately, peace enforcing -- is becoming an increasingly important role for military forces around the world. Because of the many other missions it has been responsible for, the U.S. Army has not ...

J. E. Brown

1992-01-01

446

Professional Education Programme for Land Management and Land Administration in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Land management and land administration are defined as a system of planning, management and administration methods and techniques that aims to integrate ecological with social, economic and legal principles in the management of land for urban and rural development purposes. The main objective is to meet changing and developing human needs, while…

Setha, Vung; Mund, Jan-Peter

2008-01-01

447

Fusion of ALOS PALSAR and ASTER data for landcover classification at Tonle Sap floodplain, Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The landcover of the northern floodplain around the Tonle Sap Lake involves the various vegetations, lacustrine lands, as well as settlements. In order to understand the contribution of landcover in this area for agricultural, piscicultural activity, and environmental protection, landcover classes should be classified by using remote sensing data. The aim of this study is to increase distinction between landcover classes for classification purpose. To improve the feature texture for pre-classification data, the ALOS PALSAR is fused with ASTER data. Both data are acquired in dry season in which the vegetation is little influenced by flooding. The fused data is created by injecting the feature texture of ALOS PALSAR into ASTER data. However, spectral character is distorted due to mixed spectrum. This is reduced by choosing optimal fused algorithm. The ten landcover classes are selected as signatures to classify and calculate confusion matrixes. Those confusion matrixes reveal that the distinction between the landcover classes in fused data is better than that in ASTER data.

Trung, Nguyen Van; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Won, Joong-Sun

2010-10-01

448

The Distribution of Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Cambodia: Gaps and Thresholds in Math Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Increasing teacher quality is a major objective of recent Cambodian education policy. In mathematics education literature, pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has emerged as a critical component of teacher quality that is strongly linked to student achievement. In this study I use data from a large survey of Cambodian schools to investigate the…

Ngo, Federick J.

2013-01-01

449

Implementing Quality Assurance at Royal University of Phnom Penh, Cambodia: Perceptions, Practices and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Quality Assurance in higher education has been an ongoing international issue for discussion. As higher education institutions move toward an era of accountability and accreditation, groups of stakeholders require proof of high-quality academic programs and services from higher education providers. Since the mid-1990s, most providers have strived…

Ros, Soveacha

2010-01-01

450

Improving Adult Learning and Professional Development in a Post-Conflict Area: The Case of Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|All over the world, international development organizations try to increase professional capacity of local staff. These attempts are thought to fail because of financial constraints, but this is just part of the story. Professional development and adult learning theories approach learning from a western perspective, while many developing…

Berkvens, Jan B. Y.; Kalyanpur, Maya; Kuiper, Wilmad; Van den Akker, Jan

2012-01-01

451

78 FR 56832 - Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological Material From Cambodia From the Bronze...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...pursuant to determinations of the United States Department of State made...Implementation Act in accordance with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural...to the provisions of the 1970 United Nations Educational, Scientific and...

2013-09-16

452

Prediction of contamination potential of groundwater arsenic in Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand using artificial neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater has increasingly been recognized as a major global issue of concern. As groundwater resources are one of most important freshwater sources for water supplies in Southeast Asian countries, it is important to investigate the spatial distribution of As contamination and evaluate the health risk of As for these countries. The detection of As contamination

Kyung Hwa Cho; Suthipong Sthiannopkao; Yakov A. Pachepsky; Kyoung-Woong Kim; Joon Ha Kim

2011-01-01

453

The Place of Animism within Popular Buddhism in Cambodia The Example of the Monastery1  

Microsoft Academic Search

At our stage of knowledge it is no more than a truism to state that popular Buddhism has adapted to local cults. And to say, on the other hand, that animistic practices were profoundly influenced by Buddhism would be equally a commonplace statement. In fact one finds always a phenomenon of syncretism, even of veritable symbiosis, within the rural or

ANG CHOUL

454

Rules, Roles and Rights: Gender, Participation and Community Fisheries Management in Cambodia's Tonle Sap Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Tonle Sap Region, Community Fisheries (CFs) have been recently constituted by the Cambodian Government to address the needs for local and sustainable management of fisheries resources. Local women are being urged to participate in these institutions by various state and non-state programmes. However, actual social conditions and practices of people demonstrate that women are not actively involved in

Bernadette P. Resurreccion

2006-01-01

455

Self-Reported Serious Illnesses in Rural Cambodia: A Cross-Sectional Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere is substantial evidence that ill-health is a major cause of impoverishment in developing countries. Major illnesses can have a serious economic impact on poor households through treatment costs and income loss. However, available methods for measuring the impact of ill-health on household welfare display several shortcomings and new methods are thus needed. To understand the potential complex impact of

Por Ir; Chean Men; Henry Lucas; Bruno Meessen; Kristof Decoster; Gerald Bloom; Wim van Damme; Pieter H. M. van Baal

2010-01-01

456

World Heritage management: boundary-making at Angkor Archaeological Park, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A World Heritage (WH) designation requires that international obligations to protect and conserve pre-eminent natural and cultural heritage properties be implemented at a local level. As part of this obligation to protect, each WH property needs to be demarcated in space (or bounded). While there is a large literature relating to the efficacy of protected area management from a wide

Josephine Gillespie

2012-01-01

457

Towards effective emerging infectious disease surveillance: Cambodia, Indonesia, and NAMRU-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose international security threats because of their potential to inflict harm upon humans, crops, livestock, health infrastructure, and economies. The following questions stimulated the research described in this report: What infrastructure is necessary to enable EID surveillance in developing countries? What are the cultural, political, and economic challenges that are faced? Are there generalizations that may

Sophal Ear

2011-01-01

458

Starting from Nowhere? Popular Music in Cambodia after the Khmer Rouge  

Microsoft Academic Search

illuminates the power of culture. By “culture,” I denote a traditional way of life, a rubric of familiar phenomena that include indigenous ritual, ideology, belief systems, and the spatial and temporal rhythms to which these systems move and integrate. Yet, also revealed in such a study is the power of cultural change—change fueled by a growing market economy, tourism, and

Stephen Mamula

2008-01-01

459

e-Learning in Higher Education Makes Its Debut in Cambodia: The Provincial Business Education Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing countries face a number of challenges in their efforts to compete successfully in the new global economy. Perhaps the most critical resource needed to achieve these goals is trained human capital. While many developing countries are trying to address this need through traditional means, this may not be the most effective or efficient…

Abdon, Buenafe R.; Ninomiya, Seishi; Raab, Robert T.

2007-01-01

460

Cytotoxic terpenes from the stems of Dipterocarpus obtusifolius collected in Cambodia.  

PubMed

From the stems of Dipterocarpus obtusifolius, five new triterpenes, 3-oxo-20-hydroxy-30?-methyl,17(29)?-epoxy-28-norlupane (1), 3-oxo-20-hydroxy-30?-methyl-17(29)?-epoxy-28-norlupane (2), 3,20-dioxo-28,29-norlupan-17?-ol (3), 27-demethyl-20(S)-dammar-23-ene-20-ol-3,25-dione (4), and 3-epi-cecropic acid (5) together with 13 known compounds including diterpene, sesquiterpenes and triterpenes were isolated and characterized. All isolates were tested for their cytotoxicities against a small panel of human cancer cell lines. Of the tested compounds, compounds 4-11 were found to be cytotoxic against one or more human cancer cell lines. PMID:22863697

Khiev, Piseth; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Ahn, Kyung-Seop; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Chin, Young-Won

2012-01-01

461

Conflict, Conflict Resolution and Peace-Building: The Role of Religion in Mozambique, Nigeria and Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Confounding the expectations of secularists, religion has a strong – perhaps growing – significance as a key source of identity for millions of people, especially in the developing world. In recent years, religion has made a muted but tangible impact in Western development circles, most commonly reflecting the view that religious hatreds and differences are central to many recent and

Jeffrey Haynes

2009-01-01

462

Paradigm and Paradox: Education for All and the Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In keeping with international guidelines and to meet the target of Education for All (EFA) by 2015, the Cambodian government, with assistance from non-government and aid organisations, has instituted several initiatives towards including children with disabilities in the educational mainstream. This paper examines these efforts within the context…

Kalyanpur, Maya

2011-01-01

463

Baksbat (broken courage): a trauma-based cultural syndrome in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) sufficiently explains and encompasses the symptoms experienced by people from non-Western cultures is debatable. The etymological, social, and historical contexts of idioms of distress experienced by Khmer, known as baksbat, were studied through interviews with 53 Cambodian experts. Phey-khlach (double fear), bor-veas-cheas-chgnay (wishing that the trauma would go away), dam-doeum-kor (planting a kapok tree-remaining mute), chos-nhorm (submissive, easily giving in), kob yobal (ideas are buried), and loss of togetherness, were all identified as specific symptoms of baksbat. Similarities and differences between symptoms of baksbat, PTSD, anxiety, and depression indicate that baksbat is a Cambodian idiom of distress with sufficient characteristics to be recognized as a formal cultural trauma syndrome distinct from PTSD. Increased awareness of its criteria and phenomenology may help clinicians provide appropriate support for traumatized Cambodians. PMID:23406066

Chhim, Sotheara

2013-01-01

464

72 FR 32869 - Combating Exploitive Child Labor Through Education in Bolivia, Cambodia, Colombia, the Democratic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Convention 182 for forms (a)-(c) of Article 3, and (b) Children who were involved in hazardous work (Article 3(d) of C.182) or work that impedes...child labor). ILO Convention 182, Article 3, defines the worst forms of...

2007-06-14

465

Discovery of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae in freshwater fish in southern Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small liver flukes, Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverini, are fish-borne trematodes (FBTs) causing significant public health problems in Asia. While C. sinensis is distributing mainly in far east Asia, O. viverini is distributing in Indochina peninsula. Recently, however, the geographical distributions of those small liver flukes were proven to be far wider than expected. Nevertheless, little is known about the

Sarun Touch; Chalit Komalamisra; Prayong Radomyos; Jitra Waikagul

2009-01-01

466

Rules of Origin and Non-Tariff Barriers in Agricultural Trade: Perspectives from Bangladesh and Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many developed and developing countries have been offering special schemes to benefit least developed countries (LDCs) from trade through increased market access. However, effective utilization of market access opportunities by the LDCs may be constrained by the rules of origin (RoO) criteria and non-tariff measures (NTMs) applied by the preference-giving countries. This report deals with RoO applied and non-tariff barriers

Uttam Kumar Deb

2006-01-01

467

Violent Accumulation: A Postanarchist Critique of Property, Dispossession, and the State of Exception in Neoliberalizing Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employing a poststructuralist-meets-anarchist stance that advances conceptual insight into the nature of sovereign power, this article examines the dialectics of a triadic system: capital\\/primitive accumulation, law\\/violence, and civilization\\/savagery, which are argued to exist in a mutually reinforcing “trilateral of logics.” This is a radical (re)appraisal of capitalism, its legal processes, and its civilizing effects that together serve to mask the

Simon Springer

2011-01-01

468

Professional Education Programme for Land Management and Land Administration in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land management and land administration are defined as a system of planning, management and administration methods and techniques that aims to integrate ecological with social, economic and legal principles in the management of land for urban and rural development purposes. The main objective is to meet changing and developing human needs, while simultaneously ensuring long-term productive potential of natural resources

Vung Setha; Jan-Peter Mund

2008-01-01

469

Baksbat (Broken Courage): A Trauma-Based Cultural Syndrome in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether PTSD sufficiently explains and encompasses the symptoms experienced by people from non-Western cultures is debatable. The etymological, social and historical contexts of idioms of distress experienced by Khmer, known as baksbat, were studied through interviews with 53 Cambodian experts. Phey-khlach (double fear), bor-veas-cheas-chgnay (wishing that the trauma would go away), dam-doeum-kor(planting a kapok tree – remaining mute), chos-nhorm (submissive,

Sotheara Chhim

2012-01-01

470

Adolescent survivors of massive childhood trauma in Cambodia: Life events and current symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cambodian adolescents who survived massive trauma as children were studied to examine the relation of current trauma symptoms to sex, age, trauma exposure, and other current symptoms. Exposure to traumatic life events was expected to be very high, to relate to age and to other symptoms of current psychological functioning. Questionnaires assessed traumatic life events, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and

George M. Realmuto; Ann Masten; Linda Flies Carole; Jon Hubbard; Andrea Groteluschen; Bunkhean Chhun

1992-01-01

471

pfcrt Polymorphism and Chloroquine Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum Strains Isolated in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

remains high and stable in this region in the absence of chloroquine pressure. Characterization of codons 72 to 78 and 218 to 220 of pfcrt revealed six distinct haplotypes, four of which had never been described. The frequency of each haplotype depended on the geographical origin of the samples. The CVIETIF\\/\\/ISS haplotype was detected in 92% of western Cambodian isolates

Pharath Lim; Sophy Chy; Frederic Ariey; Sandra Incardona; Pektra Chim; Rithy Sem; Mey Bouth Denis; Sean Hewitt; Stefan Hoyer; Doung Socheat; O. Merecreau-Puijalon; T. Fandeur

2003-01-01

472

Foci of Schistosomiasis mekongi, Northern Cambodia: II. Distribution of infection and morbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

tion of the east and west shore of the Mekong for prevalence (P 5 0.3) or intensity (P 5 0.9) of infection. Severe morbidity was very frequent. Hepatomegaly of the left lobe was detected in 48.7% of the population. Splenomegaly was seen in 26.8% of the study participants. Visible diverted circulation was found in 7.2% of the population, and ascites

A. H. R. Stich; S. Biays; P. Odermatt; Chan Men; Cheam Saem; Chuong Seng Ly; P. Legros; M. Philips; J.-D. Lormand; M. Tanner

1999-01-01

473

BURMA AND CAMBODIA: Human Rights, Social Disruption, and the Spread of HIV\\/AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

..AJDS-related human rights activism, sharing the ori- entation of the mainstream human rights movement, has focused on visible and purposeful governmental acts that jeop- ardize individual privacy, liberty, and protection against dis- crimination. Human rights obligations stemming from the right to health care, to social assistance, or from the neces- sity to improve the enjoyment of human rights through in-

Chris Beyrer

474

Access to artemisinin combination therapy for malaria in remote areas of Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Malaria-endemic countries are switching antimalarial drug policy to artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) and the global community are considering the setting up of a global subsidy mechanism in order to make them accessible and affordable. However, specific interventions may be needed to reach remote at-risk communities and to ensure that they are used appropriately. This analysis documents the coverage with

Shunmay Yeung; Wim Van Damme; Doung Socheat; Nicholas J White; Anne Mills

2008-01-01

475

GENOCIDE PREVENTION: GENOCIDE EDUCATION PROJECT NATIONAL TEACHER TRAINING FOR LOWER AND UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOL OF CAMBODIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piaget has been identified as a constructivist as well as an interactionist. His interest in cognitive development came from his interest in the origin of knowledge and his training in the natural sciences. Piaget was very interested in how children come to know and understand their world. He developed his cognitive theory by actually observing and studying children (some of

JEAN PIAGET

476

Improving Adult Learning and Professional Development in a Post-Conflict Area: The Case of Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All over the world, international development organizations try to increase professional capacity of local staff. These attempts are thought to fail because of financial constraints, but this is just part of the story. Professional development and adult learning theories approach learning from a western perspective, while many developing societies…

Berkvens, Jan B. Y.; Kalyanpur, Maya; Kuiper, Wilmad; Van den Akker, Jan

2012-01-01

477

Effects of ICTs on Media Transformation, Education and Training in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Journalists in the affluent industrialised world have since the mid-80s adopted information and communication technology (hereafter referred to as the internet) as part of their daily work. The internet has also enabled geographically isolated journalists to build an extensive network of contacts and access diverse information sources. Journalists, and citizens alike, are increasingly publishing their work for access by a

Eric Loo; D. T. T. Hang

2007-01-01

478