Sample records for siem reap cambodia

  1. January 27 February 14, 2013 Aboard the Clipper Odyssey VIETNAM & CAMBODIA BY SEA

    E-print Network

    Williams, Brian C.

    January 27 ­ February 14, 2013 · Aboard the Clipper Odyssey VIETNAM & CAMBODIA BY SEA WITH ANGKOR on a voyage to enchanting Vietnam and Cambodia. From the bustling cities and timeless villages of Vietnam OF TONKIN GULF OF THAILAND VIETNAM Siem Reap Angkor Phnom Penh Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)Phu Quoc

  2. Angkor, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This is an image of the area around the city of Angkor, Cambodia. The city houses an ancient complex of more than 60 temples dating back to the 9th century. The principal complex, Angkor Wat, is the bright square just left of the center of the image. It is surrounded by a reservoir that appears in this image as a thick black line. The larger bright square above Angkor Wat is another temple complex called Angkor Thom. Archeologists studying this image believe the blue-purple area slightly north of Angkor Thom may be previously undiscovered structures. In the lower right is a bright rectangle surrounded by a dark reservoir, which houses the temple complex Chau Srei Vibol. In its heyday, Angkor had a population of 1 million residents and was the spiritual center for the Khmer people until it was abandoned in the 15th century. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on the 15th orbit of the space shuttle Endeavour on September 30, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 55 kilometers by 85 kilometers (34 miles by 53 miles) that is centered at 13.43 degrees north latitude and 103.9 degrees east longitude. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). The body of water in the south-southwest corner is Tonle Sap, Cambodia's great central lake. The urban area at the lower left of the image is the present-day town of Siem Reap. The adjoining lines are both modern and ancient roads and the remains of Angkor's vast canal system that was used for both irrigation and transportation. The large black rectangles are ancient reservoirs. Today the Angkor complex is hidden beneath a dense rainforest canopy, making it difficult for researchers on the ground to study the ancient city. The SIR-C/X-SAR data are being used by archaeologists at the World Monuments Fund and the Royal Angkor Foundation to understand how the city grew, flourished and later fell into disuse over an 800-year period. The data are also being used to help reconstruct the vast system of hydrological works, canals and reservoirs, which have gone out of use over time. Research teams from more than 11 countries will be using this data to study the Angkor complex.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI).

  3. Prevalence of intestinal helminths among inhabitants of Cambodia (2006-2011).

    PubMed

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia. PMID:25548418

  4. Prevalence of Intestinal Helminths among Inhabitants of Cambodia (2006-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S.; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia. PMID:25548418

  5. Urinary antibiotic activity in paediatric patients attending an outpatient department in north-western Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Emary, Katherine R W; Carter, Michael J; Pol, Sreymom; Sona, Soeng; Kumar, Varun; Day, Nicholas P J; Parry, Christopher M; Moore, Catrin E

    2015-01-01

    Objective Antibiotic resistance is a prominent public and global health concern. We investigated antibiotic use in children by determining the proportion of unselected children with antibacterial activity in their urine attending a paediatric outpatient department in Siem Reap, Cambodia. Methods Caregiver reports of medication history and presence of possible infection symptoms were collected in addition to urine samples. Urine antibiotic activity was estimated by exposing bacteria to urine specimens, including assessment against multiresistant bacteria previously isolated from patients in the hospital (a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a multiresistant Salmonella typhi and an extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolate). Results Medication information and urine were collected from 775 children. Caregivers reported medication use in 69.0% of children in the preceding 48 h. 31.7% samples showed antibacterial activity; 16.3% showed activity against a local multiresistant organism. No specimens demonstrated activity against an ESBL-producing E. coli. Conclusions Antibiotics are widely used in the community setting in Cambodia. Parents are often ill-informed about drugs given to treat their children. Increasing the regulation and training of private pharmacies in Cambodia may be necessary. Regional surveillance of antibiotic use and resistance is also essential in devising preventive strategies against further development of antibiotic resistance, which would have both local and global consequences. PMID:25324202

  6. Qualitative understanding of an international learning experience: what Australian undergraduate nurses and midwives said about a Cambodia placement?

    PubMed

    Tuckett, Anthony; Crompton, Peta

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study is to report the experiences of three groups of Australian undergraduate nursing and midwifery students undertaking an international learning experience in Cambodia. Relying on an interpretative research design using qualitative content analysis, data were drawn from a sub-group of undergraduate third-year bachelor and dual degree nursing/midwifery students at a Queensland university, Australia. Students from a clinical placement in Siem Reap, Cambodia for a 4-week period in the January of 2010-2012 completed a formal expression of interest, and at three time intervals a questionnaire comprising open-ended questions. The evaluation by the undergraduate nursing/midwifery students of the clinical experience in Cambodia is understood through two core themes: global citizen/better citizen, personal/professional development. The findings have implications for university curriculum developers interested in the internationalization of nursing and midwifery programmes to ensure students are well equipped to practice in diverse multicultural and global health systems. PMID:24713009

  7. A Prospective Study of the Causes of Febrile Illness Requiring Hospitalization in Children in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Chheng, Kheng; Carter, Michael J.; Emary, Kate; Chanpheaktra, Ngoun; Moore, Catrin E.; Stoesser, Nicole; Putchhat, Hor; Sona, Soeng; Reaksmey, Sin; Kitsutani, Paul; Sar, Borann; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Uyen, Nguyen Hanh; Van Tan, Le; Paris, Daniel; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Amornchai, Premjit; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Parry, Christopher M.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Kumar, Varun

    2013-01-01

    Background Febrile illnesses are pre-eminent contributors to morbidity and mortality among children in South-East Asia but the causes are poorly understood. We determined the causes of fever in children hospitalised in Siem Reap province, Cambodia. Methods and Findings A one-year prospective study of febrile children admitted to Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and outcome data were comprehensively analysed. Between October 12th 2009 and October 12th 2010 there were 1225 episodes of febrile illness in 1180 children. Median (IQR) age was 2.0 (0.8–6.4) years, with 850 (69%) episodes in children <5 years. Common microbiological diagnoses were dengue virus (16.2%), scrub typhus (7.8%), and Japanese encephalitis virus (5.8%). 76 (6.3%) episodes had culture-proven bloodstream infection, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (22 isolates, 1.8%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (13, 1.1%), Escherichia coli (8, 0.7%), Haemophilus influenzae (7, 0.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (6, 0.5%) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (6, 0.5%). There were 69 deaths (5.6%), including those due to clinically diagnosed pneumonia (19), dengue virus (5), and melioidosis (4). 10 of 69 (14.5%) deaths were associated with culture-proven bloodstream infection in logistic regression analyses (odds ratio for mortality 3.4, 95% CI 1.6–6.9). Antimicrobial resistance was prevalent, particularly in S. enterica Typhi, (where 90% of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and 86% were multi-drug resistant). Comorbid undernutrition was present in 44% of episodes and a major risk factor for acute mortality (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1–4.2), as were HIV infection and cardiac disease. Conclusion We identified a microbiological cause of fever in almost 50% of episodes in this large study of community-acquired febrile illness in hospitalized children in Cambodia. The range of pathogens, antimicrobial susceptibility, and co-morbidities associated with mortality described will be of use in the development of rational guidelines for infectious disease treatment and control in Cambodia and South-East Asia. PMID:23593267

  8. Belize's REAP Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Zellynne

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the Rural Education and Agriculture Program (REAP) in Belize, a program which attempts to develop positive attitudes towards agriculture and influence young people to remain in rural Belize and engage in agricultural work. Examines factors that have contributed to the program's success. (GEA)

  9. Porting REAP to European Portuguese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jos ´ e Lopes; Isabel Trancoso; Juan Pino; Maxine Eskenazi; Jorge Baptista; Ceu Viana

    This paper describes the early stages of porting REAP, a tu- toring system for vocabulary learning, to European Portuguese. Students learn from authentic materials, on topics of their pref- erence. A large number of linguistic resources and filtering tools have already been integrated into the ported version. We modified the current system to also target oral comprehension.

  10. MECHANICAL TESTING OF EPON SU-8 WITH SIEM

    SciTech Connect

    CHANG,S.; WARREN,J.; CHIANG,F.P.

    2000-06-08

    High aspect ratio structures are often present in MEMS devices and EPON SU-8 is often used to produce such structures because of its low cost. It is essential to know the mechanical properties of SU-8 for producing reliable MEMS products. However, the mechanical properties of SU-8 may depend on the manufacturing process and the size of the structure, which is in the micron domain. Hence, one needs to test specimens that are similar in size to MEMS structures to determine if the mechanical properties change with processing protocol. In this work, the authors applied the newly developed technique SIEM (Speckle Interferometry with Electron Microscopy) to the determination of SU-8's mechanical properties.

  11. Global update: Cambodia.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993 in Cambodia, the number of blood donors who tested seropositive for HIV multiplied by 10. During March-December 1993, 30 of 4000 (0.75%) blood donors were HIV positive. These same 30 were among 91 HIV-positive cases reported to the World Health Organization [WHO] office in Phnom Penh in the last 9 months of 1992. As Cambodia attempts to recover from many years of political and social upheaval, the recent repatriation of 370,000 Khmer refugees from Thailand intensifies the increasing AIDS threat. Thailand already has a relatively high HIV prevalence. The number of tourists and visiting business professionals is increasing, and 22,000 people from the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia have been assigned to positions countrywide. In 1991, WHO officials designed a 1-year short-term AIDS prevention program aimed at people practicing high-risk behavior and the health, education, and media sectors. It targeted mainly Phnom Penh residents, WHO and the UN Development Programme (UNDP) are helping the National AIDS Committee in designing a more comprehensive national plan. UNDP plans to give US$ 1 million to AIDS prevention efforts in Cambodia. 20-30% of people in Cambodia are not familiar with condoms. Government AIDS prevention efforts are intended for the general public, but they also are going to target high-risk areas, especially the provinces bordering Thailand and the pot of Kompong Som. The government is working on ways to work with the many health-centered nongovernmental organizations in Cambodia. Even though it is inundated with many other problems, the government recognizes the need to combat AIDS. PMID:12159246

  12. Echoes of Ancient Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Nancy Click

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article chose Cambodia's Angkor temples as a jumping-off point for her students' exploration of printmaking. This article describes a lesson in which students used subjects, themes, and symbols that demonstrate knowledge of contexts, values, and aesthetics that communicate intended meaning in artworks.

  13. "The REAP project has demonstrated that

    E-print Network

    Azzopardi, Leif

    "The REAP project has demonstrated that assessment redesign with technology can result in improved of formative assessment and· feedback practices across these three institutions and is developing strategies for embedding new thinking about· assessment into institutional policies and quality enhancement processes Why

  14. Reaping Energy Savings from Petroleum Refining 

    E-print Network

    Deng, A.; Cascone, R.

    2006-01-01

    REAPING ENERGY SAVINGS FROM PETROLEUM REFINING Alan Deng, Project Manager, San Francisco, CA, Ron Cascone, Project Manager, White Plains, NY, Nexant, Inc. ABSTRACT The refining industry is one of the largest energy users in Pacific Gas... years’ energy conservation and demand-side management program participation. The PG&E’s refinery energy efficiency program (REEP) is designed to address key market barriers and tap into the savings potential from energy-intensive refining processes...

  15. Country watch: Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Mielke, J

    1998-01-01

    Based on the results of a study on sexuality among young people in Cambodia, a series of interactive teaching video packages that model real-life situations are being developed by the UN International Children's Emergency Fund. It is noted that the videos can be used to facilitate group discussions on issues such as problem identification, problem solving, assessment of personal risk for HIV infection, and how to reduce HIV infection risks in situations similar to those in the videos. Each video package tells the story of problem situations and model behavior options, and provides a facilitator guide that includes suggested discussion questions. These videos include żSnooker Gameż, żAt the Brothelż, żThe Quiet Placeż, żThe Vulnerable Housewifeż, and żThe Drinking Sceneż. Meanwhile, the field-tested interactive teaching videos have been indicated as extremely popular among Cambodian young people, teachers, teacher trainers, school administrators, community leaders, and nongovernmental organization community workers. However, important concerns have also been raised about the risks of focusing on real-life social norms and attitudes in Cambodia. PMID:12294335

  16. Burden of stroke in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Loo, Keat Wei; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-08-01

    In Cambodia, stroke is not ranked among the top 10 leading causes of death, but infectious disease are among the top three leading causes of death. This finding could be attributed to a lack of awareness among Cambodians of the signs and symptoms of stroke or to poor reporting, incomplete data, lack of neurologists and neurosurgeons, or low accessibility to the hospitals. The only study of stroke in Cambodia is the Prevalence of Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors in Cambodia survey, which identified several stroke-related risk factors in the population. Tobacco chewing or smoking is the main risk factor for stroke in Cambodia. Traditional therapies, such as oyt pleung (moxibustion) and jup (cupping), are widely practiced for stroke rehabilitation. In Cambodia, there are few neurologists and few important equipment, such as magnetic resonance imaging machines and computed tomography scanners. The Cambodian government should cooperate with the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund to attract foreign expertise and technologies to treat stroke patients. PMID:22973861

  17. Continuous CS Analysis of Using the SIEM to Introduction to Computer Programming Education in the School of Engineering Evening Division at the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohi, Shinichi; Miyakawa, Osamu; Konno, Noriko

    In order to improve students’ motivation, the SIEM (School of Information Environment Method) which is the education method for the introduction of the computer programming education was developed. We focus on students’ motivation, and we have measured students’ motivation as the educational effects. After the SIEM was developed in the School of Information Environment, it applied to introduction to the computer programming education in the School of Engineering Evening Division at the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. It is effective for the improvement of students’ motivation. By adding the Customer Satisfaction Analysis to the SIEM Analysis, it was able to clarify the priority level of the SIEM assessment item. In this paper, we describe results of the Customer Satisfaction Analysis.

  18. REAP Briefings Management Briefing Paper 1 http://www.reap.ac.uk Re-engineering Assessment Practices in Scottish Higher Education

    E-print Network

    Azzopardi, Leif

    the development of learner self-regulation and the skills required for lifelong learning. REAP Course Redesigns underpinning the REAP project is that if we wish to enable students to develop as self-regulating learners its e-learning transformation programme. Assessment in REAP is broadly defined to include tutor, peer

  19. Starting mental health services in Cambodia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daya J. Somasundaram; Willem A. C. M. van de Put; Maurice Eisenbruch

    1999-01-01

    Cambodia has undergone massive psychosocial trauma in the last few decades, but has had virtually no western-style mental health services. For the first time in Cambodia a number of mental health clinics in rural areas have been started. This experience is used to discuss the risks and opportunities in introducing these services in the present war-torn situation. Basic statistics from

  20. The Relevant Education for Agriculture and Production (REAP) Nine-Year Evaluation: Implications for Development Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Romeo M.

    Belize's Relevant Education for Agriculture and Production (REAP) national primary school program is described in data from seven annual formative evaluations (1979-1985). The 1984-85 program/school evaluation included 54 rural REAP schools and utilized a 43-item questionnaire containing eight quality sub-variables. The quality of REAP schools…

  1. The Rural Education and Agriculture Program (REAP): Belize's New Approach to Rural Primary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Romeo M.

    The Rural Education and Agriculture Program (REAP) was initiated in response to perceived deficiencies in the rural primary schools of Belize. Since its inception in 1976, REAP has moved through two of its anticipated three phases (Pilot Phase, July 1976-June 1979; District-Level Phase, July 1979-June 1982). REAP integrates academic subjects with…

  2. Migrant Interactions with Elderly Parents in Rural Cambodia and Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Zachary; Korinek, Kim; Knodel, John; Chayovan, Napaporn

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines interactions between older adults living in rural areas of Thailand and Cambodia and their adult children. Thai data come from the Survey of the Welfare of the Elderly (N = 3,202 older adults and 17,517 adult children). Cambodia data are from the Survey of the Elderly in Cambodia (N = 777 older adults and 3,751 adult children).…

  3. STUDY ABROAD IN VIETNAM AND CAMBODIA Sociology 491/UH347

    E-print Network

    Tennessee, University of

    STUDY ABROAD IN VIETNAM AND CAMBODIA Sociology 491/UH347 (Petition for Global Studies or Foreign Studies Credits) Seminar on Vietnam and Cambodia in the 20th Century and Beyond Mini-Term Session ­ May 8 economic, political and cultural history of Vietnam and Cambodia, countries that have a long history of war

  4. Cambodia: The Odyssey of the Khmer People

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bruce Sharp, in collaboration with a host of colleagues, has developed this Web site dealing with the history and culture of Cambodia. Paying close attention to the Khmer Rouge period of the country's history, the site contains a wealth of general information and statistics about Cambodia that will help visitors seeking a basic overview of the country's current status. The site is divided into numerous sections, several that will be of particular interest to visitors. The Oral Histories section contains a dozen narratives from Cambodian men and women who lived in Cambodia during the reign of Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge. A photo gallery hosts several photo essays by Mr. Sharp, including some dramatic shots of Angkor Wat. Finally, the site also has a search engine and a What's New section that lists new material that is periodically added to the site.

  5. Pulmonary melioidosis in Cambodia: A prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blandine Rammaert; Julien Beauté; Laurence Borand; Sopheak Hem; Philippe Buchy; Sophie Goyet; Rob Overtoom; Cécile Angebault; Vantha Te; Patrich Lorn Try; Charles Mayaud; Sirenda Vong; Bertrand Guillard

    2011-01-01

    Background  Melioidosis is a disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei and considered endemic in South-East Asia but remains poorly documented in Cambodia. We report the first series of hospitalized\\u000a pulmonary melioidosis cases identified in Cambodia describing clinical characteristics and outcomes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We characterized cases of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) that were identified through surveillance in two provincial\\u000a hospitals. Severity was defined by

  6. ASCO 2013: Extended Education Session: Reaping the Rewards of The Cancer Genome Atlas Project

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Events ASCO 2013: Reaping the Rewards of TCGA ASCO 2013: Extended Education Session: Reaping the Rewards of The Cancer Genome Atlas Project Friday, May 31, 2013, 3:45 PM - 6:00 PMMcCormick Place, Chicago, Ill.Chairperson: Andrea

  7. Marxist Educational Theory: Reflections in Cambodia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminsky, James S.

    1985-01-01

    It is proposed that Cambodia's recent government actions toward education and the educated are incongruous with the humanism of Marxist theory, and that Marxist educational theories fail because they are based on a general failure of knowledge demonstrated in Marxist ideology. (MSE)

  8. HUMAN SECURITY FOR CHILDREN IN CAMBODIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Lise Ręve

    Three decades of civil war and cold war powers interference have resulted in an extremely painful situation for children in Cambodia. They suffer from the physical and psychological scars of conflict, from displacement and exploitation, from insufficient health care and environmental insecurity, from a political culture of corruption which diverts funds from their educational and health objectives and from a

  9. Journalism Training in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downie, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Notes that both journalism and journalism training are undergoing major changes in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. Offers insights and practical guidance for trainers, elements of which could apply to most developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Highlights some of the problems encountered by a short-term foreign guest lecturer, albeit one who…

  10. Reemergence of Chikungunya Virus in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Veasna; Andries, Anne-Claire; Ngan, Chantha; Sok, Touch; Richner, Beat; Asgari-Jirhandeh, Nima; Bjorge, Steve; Huy, Rekol; Ly, Sovann; Laurent, Denis; Hok, Bunheng; Roces, Maria Concepcion; Ong, Sivuth; Char, Meng Chuor; Deubel, Vincent; Tarantola, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), probably Asian genotype, was first detected in Cambodia in 1961. Despite no evidence of acute or recent CHIKV infections since 2000, real-time reverse transcription PCR of serum collected in 2011 detected CHIKV, East Central South African genotype. Spatiotemporal patterns and phylogenetic clustering indicate that the virus probably originated in Thailand. PMID:23171736

  11. Reemergence of Chikungunya virus in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Duong, Veasna; Andries, Anne-Claire; Ngan, Chantha; Sok, Touch; Richner, Beat; Asgari-Jirhandeh, Nima; Bjorge, Steve; Huy, Rekol; Ly, Sovann; Laurent, Denis; Hok, Bunheng; Roces, Maria Concepcion; Ong, Sivuth; Char, Meng Chuor; Deubel, Vincent; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), probably Asian genotype, was first detected in Cambodia in 1961. Despite no evidence of acute or recent CHIKV infections since 2000, real-time reverse transcription PCR of serum collected in 2011 detected CHIKV, East Central South African genotype. Spatiotemporal patterns and phylogenetic clustering indicate that the virus probably originated in Thailand. PMID:23171736

  12. The Arts of Cambodia and Its Neighbors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, CA.

    This teacher's packet accompanies a slide presentation on the arts of Cambodia and those nations on the Indochina peninsula. The packet contains: (1) a slide list describing the art depicted on each slide with time period and dimensions of the piece; (2) an introductory essay describing the geography, people, religion, art and history of the area;…

  13. "We don't forget the old rice pot when we get the new one": discourses on ideals and practices of women in contemporary Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Brickell, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on microlevel research with men and women of differing ages living in rural and urban Siem Reap (home to the global heritage and tourist site of Angkor), this article focuses on the key discourses and practices that men and women draw on to (de)stabilize putatively traditional ideals of Cambodian womanhood and to (re)situate them in the contemporary period. Mapping the complex ways that people represent, make sense of, and respond to prerevolutionary cultural norms of female behavior in a very different era (with particular, though not exclusive, attention paid to mobility and education), the article demonstrates how deeper ideological changes concerning women’s relationship to Khmer tradition will have to accompany the surface reordering of Cambodian gender relations if equality between women and men is to be achieved. Until then, the ideal woman in contemporary Cambodian society is ultimately one who can creatively negotiate and balance the multiple demands placed on her by society, family, and self. PMID:21114083

  14. UNTAC, CEAT, other international actions and the restoration of Cambodia`s forestry policy

    SciTech Connect

    Mareth, M. [Secretariat of State for Environment of Cambodia, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Vanderstighelen, D.; Bann, C.; Ngongi, M.I. [Cambodian Environmental Advisory Team, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Aertgeerts, R. [Office for Project Services United Nations Development Program, New York, NY (United States); Eav, B.B. [Dept. of Agriculture, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Although no verifiable hard data regarding the rate of nation-wide deforestation in Cambodia exists, it is understood that on account of increasing logging activities, uncontrolled forest fires, increased demand for agricultural land and fuel wood for charcoal production and other domestic usage, the rates of deforestation and the degradation of existing forests will continue to be on the rise if no effective policy and management plans are established soon. There now seems to be international recognition and acceptance of the fact that unless the impact of human activities are incorporated into forestry management plans, the problems of deforestation in the world`s poorest regions will continue unabated. The depletion of this natural resource brings about complex changes in the environment which results in such phenomenon as global warming. Sound forest policies and management practices are central to the global warming solution. Without these, human survival remains, potentially, threatened. An essential key to the development of such policies and management practices lies in the identification of the problems related to the forests. In this process of identification and subsequent concrete actions in restoring Cambodia`s forest policies and management practices, the Royal government of Cambodia has been assisted and supported by the international community through organizations and agencies. The examine and appraisal of such assistance and the strategies and efforts of the Royal Government of Cambodia, is the main theme of this paper.

  15. A Multimedia Approach to ODL for Agricultural Training in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunfeld, Helena; Ng, Maria Lee Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Open distance learning (ODL) has long been an important option for formal and non-formal education (NFE) in most developed and developing countries, but less so in post-conflict countries, including Cambodia. However, in Cambodia there is now greater awareness that ODL can complement traditional face-to-face educational approaches, particularly as…

  16. 75 FR 11620 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Cambodia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ...Public Notice 6918] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Cambodia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State...7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Cambodia, and I hereby waive such restriction. This...

  17. Tradition, Modernity, and the Development of Education in Cambodia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, David M.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews Cambodia's educational development, characterized by a series of successive crises since the country's independence from France in 1953. Examines various approaches of development discourse to the educational crisis, and suggests that previous analyses of Cambodia's educational development have failed to recognize the tensions generated by…

  18. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    Cambodia (now the Khmer Republic), in tropical, humid southeast Asia, has an area of 175,630 km and a population of about 5 million. The Mekong River, one of the world's largest rivers, flows through Cambodia. Also, the Tonle Sap (Grand Lac), a highly productive fresh-water lake, functions as a huge off-channel storage reservoir for flood flow of the Mekong River. Surfacewater discharge in streams and rivers of Cambodia is abundant during the wet season, mid-May through mid-November, when 85 percent of the precipitation falls, but is frequently deficient during the remainder of the year. Annual rainfall ranges from 1,370 mm in the central lowlands to more than 5,000 mm in the mountainous highlands. The mean annual temperature for the country is 27.5?C and the evaporation rate is high. During 1960-63, 1,103 holes were drilled in 16 of the 18 khets (provinces), of which 795 or approximately 72 percent, were productive wells at rates ranging from 1.1 to 2,967 l/min. The productive wells ranged in depth from 2 to 209.4 m and were 23.2 m deep on the average. Mr. Rasmussen ' studied the subsurface geology of Cambodia in considerable detail by examining drillers' logs and constructing nine geologic cross sections. The principal aquifer tapped by drilled wells in Cambodia is the Old Alluvium. In many places, however, dug wells and a few shallow drilled wells obtain water from the Young Alluvium. Sandstone of the Indosinias Formation yields moderate to small quantities of water to wells in a number of places. Also, wells tapping water-bearing basalt have a small to moderate yield. The quality of water is recorded in only a few analyses. The dissolved solids concentrations appear to be generally low so that the water is usable for most purposes without treatment. Some well waters, however, are high in iron and would have to be aerated and filtered before use. In this report, well records are tabulated, and the geology and hydrology is discussed by khets. The bulk of the available information is on the central lowlands and contiguous low plateaus, as the mountainous areas on the west and the high plateaus on the east are relatively unexplored with respect to their ground-water availability. No persistent artesian aquifer has been identified nor have any large potential ground-water sources been found .although much of the country yet remains to be explored by test drilling. Well irrigation for garden produce is feasible on a modest scale in many localities throughout Cambodia. It does not seem likely, however, that large-scale irrigation from wells will come about in the future. Ground water may be regarded as a widely available supplemental source to surface water for domestic, small-scale industrial, and irrigation use.

  19. [First epidemiologic data on pneumonia in Cambodia].

    PubMed

    Avrillon, V; Ny, C; Chan, S; Souquet, P-J; Couraud, S

    2014-06-01

    About 15% of deaths in adults are related to lung infections in Cambodia. Some knowledge on microbial epidemiology is crucial for deciding first-line antibiotic treatment. However, to date, these data are not available in Cambodia. Consequently, antibiotic prescription relies on French or neighborhood's countries guidelines, which are possibly not suitable. This cases-series aimed to provide data on microbial ecology in pneumonia. Medical charts of patients newly admitted for lung infection in the pulmonology unit of Preah Kossamak Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Ninety-four patients were included and 29% had a complete microbiological diagnosis. Main germs isolated were: Gram-negative bacilli (n=20; 70.4%) and M. tuberculosis infections (n=7; 25.9%). There was one case of myeloďdosis. No S. pneumonia was isolated, possibly due to sample shipping tropical conditions. Antibiograms showed high resistance profiles. Although this study bring new data in the field, it also showed that European guidelines for antibiotic are not relevant in such countries and stress the need for further dedicated and prospective studies. PMID:24210153

  20. The Genus Letrouitia (Letrouitiaceae: Lichenized Ascomycota) New to Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Haixia; Qian, Zigang; Wang, Xinyu; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Yanyun; Ye, Xin; Harada, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The genus Letrouitia is newly recorded for Cambodia, including the four species as L. domingensis, L. leprolytoides, L. sayeri, and L. subvulpina. A brief description and illustrations are provided. PMID:26190924

  1. Analysis of Radar Images of Angkor, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Anthony; Hensley, Scott; Moore, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    During the 1996 AIRSAR Pacific Rim Deployment, data were collected over Angkor in Cambodia. The temples of Angkor date the succession of cities to the 9th-13th century AD, but little is known of its prehistoric habitation. A related area of archaeological debate has been the origin, spiritual meaning and use of the hydraulic constructions in the urban zone. The high resolution, multi-channel capability of AIRSAR, together with the unprecedentedly accurate topography provided by TOPSAR, offer identification and delineation of these features. Examples include previously unrecorded circular earthworks around circular village sites, detection of unrecorded earthwork dykes, reservoirs and canal features, and of temple sites located some distance from the main temple complex at Angkor.

  2. Reap What You Sow: Spare Cells for Post-Silicon Metal Fix Kai-hui Chang

    E-print Network

    Bertacco, Valeria

    Reap What You Sow: Spare Cells for Post-Silicon Metal Fix Kai-hui Chang University of Michigan EECS Bertacco University of Michigan EECS Department Ann Arbor, MI 48109 valeria@umich.edu ABSTRACT Post-silicon. Such changes can be applied through metal fix; however, this is impractical without carefully pre-placed spare

  3. Self-Assessment in the REAP Tutor: Knowledge, Interest, Motivation, & Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dela Rosa, Kevin; Eskenazi, Maxine

    2013-01-01

    Self-assessment questionnaires have long been used in tutoring systems to help researchers measure and evaluate various aspects of a student's performance during learning activities. In this paper, we chronicle the efforts made in the REAP project, a language tutor developed to teach vocabulary to ESL students through reading activities, to…

  4. Collaborative Development of Anatomy Workshops for Medical and Dental Students in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Jennifer A.; Ivanusic, Jason J.; le Roux, Cara M.; Hatzopoulos, Kate; Gonsalvez, David; Hong, Someth; Durward, Callum

    2011-01-01

    After Phnom Penh was liberated from the Khmer Rouge in 1979, health science education in Cambodia had to be completely rebuilt. In this article, the authors report the results of a teaching collaboration between the University of Melbourne (Australia), the International University (Cambodia), and the University of Health Sciences (Cambodia). The…

  5. Avian influenza: the political economy of disease control in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Ear, Sophal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the wake of avian flu outbreaks in 2004, Cambodia received $45 million in commitments from international donors to help combat the spread of animal and human influenza, particularly avian influenza (H5N1). How countries leverage foreign aid to address the specific needs of donors and the endemic needs of the nation is a complex and nuanced issue throughout the developing world. Cambodia is a particularly compelling study in pandemic preparedness and the management of avian influenza because of its multilayered network of competing local, national, and global needs, and because the level of aid in Cambodia represents approximately $2.65 million per human case-a disproportionately high number when compared with neighbors Vietnam and Indonesia. This paper examines how the Cambodian government has made use of animal and human influenza funds to protect (or fail to protect) its citizens and the global community. It asks how effective donor and government responses were to combating avian influenza in Cambodia, and what improvements could be made at the local and international level to help prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. Based on original interviews, a field survey of policy stakeholders, and detailed examination of Cambodia's health infrastructure and policies, the findings illustrate that while pandemic preparedness has shown improvements since 2004, new outbreaks and human fatalities accelerated in 2011, and more work needs to be done to align the specific goals of funders with the endemic needs of developing nations. PMID:22702421

  6. Seattle University School of Law Cambodia Legal Internship

    E-print Network

    Carter, John

    staff meetings and visit the court. These will vary in frequency and subject matter depending on what of those she compiled. I chose a procedural law issue because I wanted my topic to stretch beyond the court the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) is based, is a civil law system. So, to properly address

  7. Strategies and Policies for Basic Education in Cambodia: Historical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dy, Sideth S.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the process of development and change in the state of education in Cambodia over four decades preceding the 1990 Jomtien World Conference on Education for All. The author argues that during the 1950s and 1960s, efforts to enhance basic education opportunities for all Cambodians were largely unsuccessful due to the lack of…

  8. The Teaching of Foreign Languages in Cambodia: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neau, Vira

    2003-01-01

    The teaching of foreign languages in Cambodia is examined in the light of its recent history. The paper describes the French colonial period, beginning in 1863, the emergence of the independent state under King Sihanouk (1953-70), the Khmer Republic (1970-75) and Democratic Kampuchea (1975-79), during which the infamous mass killings took place,…

  9. Aspects of Social Work with Vulnerable Groups in Cambodia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Fujimoto

    (Abstract) Social Work in Cambodia is still largely conducted by NGOs and INGOs, rather than Gov- ernment employees of the Social Affairs Department. In the paper I focus on some organiza- tions which are meeting the needs of some of the most vulnerable groups in the society, women and children affected by domestic violence, and disabled children. It is important

  10. Academic Achievement among Adolescents in Cambodia: Does Caregiver Trauma Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eng, Sothy; Mulsow, Miriam; Cleveland, Harrington; Hart, Sybil L.

    2009-01-01

    How will hostilities occurring around today's world influence future generations in affected areas? Cambodia may be one place where this question can be answered, and academic achievement is one way to measure these effects. Cambodian adolescent/caregiver dyads (n=288) were examined for links between caregiver trauma history and adolescent…

  11. The Nature of the Genocide in Cambodia (Kampuchea).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Ben

    1991-01-01

    Gives an historical overview of Cambodia during the Pol Pot regime. Describes the genocide that attempted to eradicate Buddhist monks, Vietnamese, Chinese, and Muslim Chams between 1975 and 1979. Argues the regime should still be held accountable and that the case should be tried in the World Court. (NL)

  12. ASEAN intervention in Cambodia: from Cold War to conditionality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee Jones

    2007-01-01

    Despite their other theoretical differences, virtually all scholars of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) agree that the organization's members share an almost religious commitment to the norm of non-intervention. This article disrupts this consensus, arguing that ASEAN repeatedly intervened in Cambodia's internal political conflicts from 1979 to 1999, often with powerful and destructive effects. ASEAN's role in maintaining

  13. Fatal motorcycle crashes: a growing public health problem in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Roehler, Douglas R; Ear, Chariya; Parker, Erin M; Sem, Panhavuth; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2014-02-01

    This study examines the risk characteristics of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia over a 5-year period (2007-2011). Secondary data analyses were conducted using the Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System, the only comprehensive and integrated road crash surveillance system in the country. Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Handicap International found that (1) males are dying in motorcycle crashes roughly seven times more frequently than females; (2) motorcyclist fatalities increased by about 30% from 2007 to 2011; (3) the motorcyclist death rates per 100,000 population increased from 7.4 to 8.7 deaths from 2007 to 2011; and (4) speed-related crashes and not wearing motorcycle helmet were commonly reported for motorcyclist fatalities at approximately 50% and over 80% through the study years, respectively. Additionally, this study highlights that Cambodia has the highest motorcycle death rate in South-East Asia, far surpassing Thailand, Malaysia, and Myanmar. By recognising the patterns of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia, local road-safety champions and stakeholders can design targeted interventions and preventative measures to improve road safety among motorcyclists. PMID:24499413

  14. Sculpture of Angkor and Ancient Cambodia: Virtual Tour

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site from the National Gallery of Art allows visitors to take a virtual tour of a 1997 exhibition on sculpture of Angkor and ancient Cambodia. Each gallery section includes a text introduction, and within each section, users may select individual objects to learn more and view a larger image. RealAudio commentary is also provided for some items.

  15. E-Government challenges in Least Developed Countries (LDCs): A case of Cambodia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sinawong Sang; Jeong-Dong Lee; Jongsu Lee

    2009-01-01

    So far there have been few studies dealing with e-Government in Cambodia, one of the least developed countries (LDCs) with an emerging economy. This study can be considered as an opening pace in the examination of e-Government challenges in Cambodia. Government administration information system (GAIS), one of the leading e-Government projects in Cambodia, is a main setting for this study.

  16. Effectiveness of community forestry in Prey Long forest, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Lambrick, Frances H; Brown, Nick D; Lawrence, Anna; Bebber, Daniel P

    2014-04-01

    Cambodia has 57% forest cover, the second highest in the Greater Mekong region, and a high deforestation rate (1.2%/year, 2005-2010). Community forestry (CF) has been proposed as a way to reduce deforestation and support livelihoods through local management of forests. CF is expanding rapidly in Cambodia. The National Forests Program aims to designate one million hectares of forest to CF by 2030. However, the effectiveness of CF in conservation is not clear due to a global lack of controlled comparisons, multiple meanings of CF, and the context-specific nature of CF implementation. We assessed the effectiveness of CF by comparing 9 CF sites with paired controls in state production forest in the area of Prey Long forest, Cambodia. We assessed forest condition in 18-20 randomly placed variable-radius plots and fixed-area regeneration plots. We surveyed 10% of households in each of the 9 CF villages to determine the proportion that used forest products, as a measure of household dependence on the forest. CF sites had fewer signs of anthropogenic damage (cut stems, stumps, and burned trees), higher aboveground biomass, more regenerating stems, and reduced canopy openness than control areas. Abundance of economically valuable species, however, was higher in control sites. We used survey results and geographic parameters to model factors affecting CF outcomes. Interaction between management type, CF or control, and forest dependence indicated that CF was more effective in cases where the community relied on forest products for subsistence use and income. PMID:24400672

  17. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination for the Kingdom of Cambodia Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Presidential Determination for the Kingdom of Cambodia Under Section 2(b)(2...2009 Presidential Determination for the Kingdom of Cambodia Under Section 2(b)(2...C)), I hereby determine that the Kingdom of Cambodia has ceased to be a...

  18. Is Something Better than Nothing? An Evaluation of Early Childhood Programs in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Nirmala; Sun, Jin; Pearson, Veronica; Pearson, Emma; Liu, Hongyun; Constas, Mark A.; Engle, Patrice L.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the relative effectiveness of home-based, community-based, and state-run early childhood programs across Cambodia. A total of 880 five-year-olds (55% girls) from 6 rural provinces in Cambodia attending State Preschools, Community Preschools, Home-Based Programs, or no programs were assessed twice using the Cambodian…

  19. Educational Policy Trajectories in an Era of Globalization: Singapore and Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    This paper critically discusses the educational policy trajectories of Singapore and Cambodia in an era of globalization. Drawing upon David Johnson's five metaphors to describe the historical and political forces that shape educational policy trajectories, the paper argues that Cambodia's current educational policy trajectory is characterized by…

  20. 78 FR 17745 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cambodia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cambodia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State...requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Cambodia and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination...

  1. The Problem of "Choice" and the Construction of the Demand for English in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses Cambodia as a case study to problematise the notion of choice in the spread of English. I explore specific historical contexts which were central to the construction of the demand for English and English language teaching (ELT) in Cambodia. The actions of a range of external agencies resulted in the close discursive articulation of…

  2. Ensuring Gender Equity in Education for All: Is Cambodia on Track?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velasco, Esther

    2004-01-01

    Gender-equity goals in Cambodia are intimately linked with socio-economic and cultural biases that are embedded in the very system of education and in the society as a whole. There are, however, strong indicators that the vicious cycle in Cambodia's education system could be broken, and here the commitment of key stakeholders and partnership modes…

  3. 76 FR 33019 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Royal Government of Cambodia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Royal Government of Cambodia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State...1) of the Act with respect to the Royal Government of Cambodia and I hereby waive such restriction. This determination...

  4. Enhancing Aid Effectiveness in Education through a Sector-Wide Approach in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattori, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Since 2001 the government of Cambodia has striven to advance policy-led education reform based on a sector-wide approach. This paper critically reviews the status and progress of Cambodia's education reform from the perspective of the aid's effectiveness. The paper looks at the performance of the sector reform in the three priority areas…

  5. Improving government health services through contract management: a case from Cambodia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT SOETERS

    2003-01-01

    Most government health facilities in Cambodia perform poorly, due to lack of funds, inadequate manage- ment and inefficient use of resources, but mostly due to poor motivation of staff. This paper describes con- tracting as a possible tool for Ministries of Health to improve health service delivery more rapidly than the more traditional reform approaches. In Cambodia, the Ministry of

  6. Integration of species persistence, costs and conflicts: An evaluation of tree conservation strategies in Cambodia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niels Strange; Ida Theilade; So Thea; Arvid Sloth; Finn Helles

    2007-01-01

    Cambodia forms part of the Indo-Burma hotspot. Its extent of biodiversity, however, is subject to considerable uncertainty, as there has been little systematic collection of flora and fauna. During the Khmer Rouge regime institutions were banned, academics were prosecuted and written documentation systematically destroyed. Compared with neighbouring countries Cambodia has a low population density and relatively large natural areas that

  7. Two Views of Education: Promoting Civic and Moral Values in Cambodia Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the Cambodian government's attempt to promote civic and moral values in Cambodia schools through the subject "Civics and Morals". The paper argues that the tensions and challenges associated with civic and moral education are linked to a fundamental difference between the traditional view of education in Cambodia, and the…

  8. The role of sex worker clients in transmission of HIV in Cambodia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leng Bun Hor; Roger Detels; Sopheab Heng; Phalkun Mun

    2005-01-01

    Summary: The study investigated whether clients of sex workers are a bridge for transmission of HIV to the general population of Cambodia. We interviewed and collected blood from 468 clients attending 30 randomly selected brothels in three provinces of Cambodia. The levels of HIV knowledge and condom use, and prevalence of HIV (9.2%) were high. Almost 40% of those interviewed

  9. "Deaf Health Talks" DHCC is a community partner of the NCDHR, working with RRCD's R.E.A.P

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    Topic: Women's Health: Stay Healthy at Any Age" Presenter: Kim Kelstone, CI/CT Date: Thursday, Feb. 28 women's health. Kim (interpreter and nursing student) will discuss in American Sign Language: · current"Deaf Health Talks" DHCC is a community partner of the NCDHR, working with RRCD's R.E.A.P Health

  10. REAP. Rehabilitation Education Advancement and Placement (A Program in Adult Basic Education). Final Project Report. June 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittsburgh Univ., PA. Research and Training Center in Vocational Rehabilitation.

    The Rehabilitation Education Advancement and Placement (REAP) program, a pilot demonstration project sponsored by the Research and Training Center at the University of Pittsburgh and the Pennsylvania Rehabilitation Center (PRC), operated for 30 weeks and provided Adult Basic Education Training for rehabilitation clients. The ultimate goal of the…

  11. "Scholarships provide us with the opportunity to attend a university such as this. We reap what we sow; thus, hard

    E-print Network

    Lyubomirsky, Ilya

    #12;"Scholarships provide us with the opportunity to attend a university such as this. We reap what we sow; thus, hard work and dedication pays off. I've been blessed with scholarships and if not for them, I would be unable to attend UCR." -Christina Hwee Ruth F. Lewis Endowed Scholarship College

  12. Iodized salt in cambodia: trends from 2008 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Laillou, Arnaud; Mam, Borath; Oeurn, Sam; Chea, Chantum

    2015-01-01

    Though the consequences of nutritional iodine deficiency have been known for a long time, in Cambodia its elimination has only become a priority in the last 18 years. The Royal Government of Cambodia initiated the National Sub-Committee for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in 1996 to fight this problem. Using three different surveys providing information across all provinces, we examined the compliance of salt iodization in Cambodia over the last 6 years. Salt samples from the 24 provinces were collect at the household level in 2008 (n = 566) and 2011 (n = 1275) and at the market level in 2014 (n = 1862) and analysed through a wavelength spectrophotometer for iodine content. According to the samples collected, the median iodine content significantly dropped from 22 mg/kg (25th/75th percentile: 2/37 mg/kg) in 2011 to 0 mg/kg in 2014 (25th/75th percentile: 0/8.9 mg/kg) (p < 0.001). The proportion of non-iodized salt within our collected salt drastically increased from 22% in 2011 to 62% in 2014 (p < 0.001). Since the international organizations ceased to support the procurement of iodine, the prevalence of salt compliant with the Cambodian declined within our samples. To date, the current levels of iodine added to tested salt are unsatisfactory as 92% of those salts do not meet the government requirements (99.6% of the coarse salt and 82.4% of the fine salt). This inappropriate iodization could illustrate the lack of periodic monitoring and enforcement from government entities. Therefore, government quality inspection should be reinforced to reduce the quantity of salt not meeting the national requirement. PMID:26035245

  13. Iodized Salt in Cambodia: Trends from 2008 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Laillou, Arnaud; Mam, Borath; Oeurn, Sam; Chea, Chantum

    2015-01-01

    Though the consequences of nutritional iodine deficiency have been known for a long time, in Cambodia its elimination has only become a priority in the last 18 years. The Royal Government of Cambodia initiated the National Sub-Committee for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in 1996 to fight this problem. Using three different surveys providing information across all provinces, we examined the compliance of salt iodization in Cambodia over the last 6 years. Salt samples from the 24 provinces were collect at the household level in 2008 (n = 566) and 2011 (n = 1275) and at the market level in 2014 (n = 1862) and analysed through a wavelength spectrophotometer for iodine content. According to the samples collected, the median iodine content significantly dropped from 22 mg/kg (25th/75th percentile: 2/37 mg/kg) in 2011 to 0 mg/kg in 2014 (25th/75th percentile: 0/8.9 mg/kg) (p < 0.001). The proportion of non-iodized salt within our collected salt drastically increased from 22% in 2011 to 62% in 2014 (p < 0.001). Since the international organizations ceased to support the procurement of iodine, the prevalence of salt compliant with the Cambodian declined within our samples. To date, the current levels of iodine added to tested salt are unsatisfactory as 92% of those salts do not meet the government requirements (99.6% of the coarse salt and 82.4% of the fine salt). This inappropriate iodization could illustrate the lack of periodic monitoring and enforcement from government entities. Therefore, government quality inspection should be reinforced to reduce the quantity of salt not meeting the national requirement. PMID:26035245

  14. Magnitude of arsenic pollution in the Mekong and Red River Deltas — Cambodia and Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Berg; Caroline Stengel; P TRANG; P HUNGVIET; M SAMPSON; M LENG; S SAMRETH; D FREDERICKS

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Large alluvial deltas of the Mekong,River in southern Vietnam and Cambodia and the Red River in northern Vietnam have groundwaters that are exploited for drinking water by private tube-wells, which are of increasing demand since the mid-1990s. This paperpresentsanoverviewofgroundwaterarsenicpollutionintheMekongdelta:arsenicconcentrationsrangedfrom1–1610 ?g\\/Lin Cambodia (average 217 ?g\\/L) and 1–845 ?g\\/L in southern Vietnam (average 39 ?g\\/L), respectively. It also evaluates the situation

  15. Towards a low carbon future – the development and application of REAP Tourism, a destination footprint and scenario tool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma Rachel Whittlesea; Anne Owen

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the development and application of a bespoke modelling and scenario tool to quantify the full greenhouse gas (CO2e) footprint associated with visitor activity and consumption. Designed for use by destination decision-makers, it helps understand the full CO2e impact of visitors, explores potential mitigation strategies and identifies emissions reduction possibilities. REAP Tourism can calculate direct and indirect supply

  16. Cigarette smoking and tuberculosis in Cambodia: findings from a national sample

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cambodia has very high rates of tuberculosis and smoked tobacco use among adults. Efforts to control both tobacco use and tuberculosis in Cambodia need to be informed by nationally representative data. Our objective is to examine the relation between daily cigarette smoking and lifetime tuberculosis (TB) history in a national sample of adults in Cambodia. Methods In 2011, a multi-stage, cluster sample of 15,615 adults (ages 15?years and older) from all regions of Cambodia were administered the Global Adult Tobacco Survey by interviewers from the National Institute of Statistics of Cambodia. Results Our findings include: 1) among daily smokers, a significant positive relation between TB and number of cigarettes smoked per day (OR?=?1.70 [95% CI 1.01, 2.87]) and pack-years of smoking (OR?=?1.53 [95% CI 1.05, 2.25]) 2) a non-significant 58% increase in odds of ever having being diagnosed with TB among men who smoked manufactured cigarettes (OR?=?1.58 [95% CI 0.97, 2.58]). Conclusion In Cambodia, manufactured cigarette smoking was associated with lifetime TB infection and the association was most evident among the heaviest smokers (> 1 pack per day, > 30 pack years). PMID:23537342

  17. [Dermatology in Cambodia : Sustainable establishment of a medical discipline].

    PubMed

    Bendick, Ch

    2015-05-01

    After almost 25 years of dictatorship and civil war, in the mid1990s, Cambodia was in dire need of improvement of its medical infrastructure on all levels. Attention had already been focused on establishing primary care services such as emergency surgery, paediatrics and gynaecology/obstetrics; however dermatovenereology services had so far not been addressed. Using a comprehensive approach aiming at sustainable development, German, French and Cambodian institutions worked together to identify four core areas in need of improvement: postgraduate training, development of skin clinics, quality management, and integration of dermatology services into the health insurance scheme. Since 2005, this "Masterplan Dermatology" was financially supported by the Centre for International Migration and Development (CIM) based in Frankfurt am Main and Else Kröner Fresenius-Stiftung (EKFS) based in Bad Homburg auf der Höhe. Significant improvements have been made due to the efforts of the above institutions with the support of the donors; however challenges of this complex endeavor still remain. PMID:25868569

  18. Leptospira and Rodents in Cambodia: Environmental Determinants of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Svilena; Herbreteau, Vincent; Blasdell, Kim; Chaval, Yannick; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; Morand, Serge

    2012-01-01

    We investigated infection of rodents and shrews by Leptospira spp. in two localities of Cambodia (Veal Renh, Kaev Seima) and in four types of habitat (forests, non-flooded lands, lowland rain-fed paddy fields, houses) during the wet and the dry seasons. Habitat preference was common, and rodent and shrew species were found only in houses or in rain-fed paddy fields or in forests. Among 649 small mammals trapped belonging to 12 rodent species and 1 shrew species, 71 of 642 animals tested were carriers of Leptospira according to the 16S ribosomal RNA marker used. Rodent infection was higher in low-slope locations, corresponding to rain-fed paddy fields, especially in the rainy season and in Kaev Seima. Rodents (Rattus exulans) and shrews (Suncus murinus) inhabiting households showed significantly low levels of infections, whereas rodents living in and near to forests (shrubby wasteland, orchards) showed high levels of infection. PMID:22665613

  19. Language and Institutional Capacity Building in Cambodia: A Case Study of the Faculty of Business in Phnom Penh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thong, Iv

    The recent restructuring of the curriculum of the Faculty of Business of the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports in Phnom Penh (Cambodia) is described and offered as a model of the kind of reorganization occurring within Cambodia's higher education system. The history of language policy in the higher education system is chronicled briefly,…

  20. Strengthening community participation at health centers in rural Cambodia: role of local non-governmental organizations (NGOs)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ui; L. Heng; H. Yatsuya; L. Kawaguichi; H. Akashi; A. Aoyana

    2010-01-01

    Cambodia's health policy emphasizes community participation to improve health services. This study identifies factors facilitating community participation in health center management in rural Cambodia, focusing on roles of local NGOs. We conducted a questionnaire survey of 50 local NGOs regarding their understanding of new health systems and policies and NGO collaboration with health centers. Eight local NGOs and their partner

  1. Douching practices among female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Tran, Ly T H; Ross, Michael W; Markham, Christine M

    2015-03-01

    Several studies indicate that douching has few benefits but numerous adverse health outcomes, including increased risk for sexually transmitted infections and HIV. No published study explores douching practices among Cambodian female sex workers. This report provides preliminary data about the prevalence and frequency of douching among female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Survey data were obtained from 81 female sex workers who were taken into custody due to engagement in commercial sex from March to June 2011. Results showed that 91% of participants douched. The mean numbers of times douched before sex and after sex per 10 sex episodes were 4.43 (SD?=?3.87) and 4.63 (SD?=?3.94), respectively. Half of the participants thought that douching could help to prevent sexually transmitted infections including HIV; 24% were unsure about this. Usually, douching after sex was associated with ever obtaining an HIV test (p?=?.012) and was marginally associated (although not statistically significant) with a higher average number of clients per week (p?=.?063) and consistent condom use with clients (p?=?.053). This suggests that these practices may be related to individual perceptions of sexually transmitted infections/HIV risk or susceptibility. Given the commonness of douching and related misperceptions among Cambodian female sex workers, future studies and interventions are needed to prevent adverse health problems. PMID:24810219

  2. Microbiological effectiveness of mineral pot filters in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joe; Chai, Ratana; Wang, Alice; Sobsey, Mark D

    2012-11-01

    Mineral pot filters (MPFs) are household water treatment (HWT) devices that are manufactured and distributed by the private sector, with millions of users in Southeast Asia. Their effectiveness in reducing waterborne microbes has not been previously investigated. We purchased three types of MPFs available on the Cambodian market for systematic evaluation of bacteria, virus, and protozoan surrogate microbial reduction in laboratory challenge experiments following WHO recommended performance testing protocols. Results over the total 1500 L testing period per filter indicate that the devices tested were highly effective in reducing Esherichia coli (99.99%+), moderately effective in reducing bacteriophage MS2 (99%+), and somewhat effective against Bacillus atrophaeus, a spore-forming bacterium we used as a surrogate for protozoa (88%+). Treatment mechanisms for all filters included porous ceramic and activated carbon filtration. Our results suggest that these commercially available filters may be at least as effective against waterborne pathogens as other, locally available treatment options such as ceramic pot filters or boiling. More research is needed on the role these devices may play as interim solutions to the problem of unsafe drinking water in Cambodia and globally. PMID:23030639

  3. Environmental arsenic epidemiology in the Mekong river basin of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kongkea; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2014-11-01

    We investigated relationship of arsenicosis symptoms with total blood arsenic (BAs) and serum albumin (SAlb) of residents in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. We found that arsenicosis patients had significantly higher BAs and lower SAlb than asymptomatic villagers (Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.01). Arsenicosis symptoms were found to be 76.4% (1.764 times) more likely to develop among individuals having an SAlb?44.3gL(-1) than among those who had an SAlb>44.3gL(-1) (OR=1.764, 95% CI=0.999-3.114) and 117.6% (2.176 times) as likely to occur among those with BAs>5.73µgL(-1) than for those having BAs?5.73µgL(-1) (OR=2.176, 95% CI=1.223-3.872). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation was also found between BAs and SAlb (rs (199)=-0.354, p<0.0001). As such, this study suggests that people with low SAlb and/or high BAs are likely to rapidly develop arsenicosis symptoms. PMID:25262072

  4. Patterns of alcohol and tobacco use in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Banta, Jim E; Addison, Askari; Job, Jayakaran S; Yel, Daravuth; Kheam, They; Singh, Pramil N

    2013-09-01

    Few studies have considered whether the habitual use of tobacco in Southeast Asia is part of an established pattern of addiction that includes regular alcohol use. As part of a national survey of adult tobacco use in Cambodia (n = 13 988), we found that men who smoked were 2 times more likely to have drank alcohol in the past week (odds ratio = 2.53, 95% confidence interval = 2.10-3.03). By age 18 to 25 years, 47% of male smokers drank alcohol, and this pattern of alcohol and tobacco use increased to >55% through the fifth decade. Women using smokeless tobacco with betel quid were more likely to be alcohol drinkers (odds ratio = 1.49, 95% confidence interval = 1.12-1.98). Past week's drinking declined by late middle age and was associated with lower education and being currently married; the behavior was lower in some ethnic groups (ie, Cham). Our findings indicate an important association between alcohol and tobacco use, and raise the possibility that reducing alcohol consumption can be an important component of tobacco control. PMID:23165486

  5. Evaluation of alternative strategies to prevent Newcastle disease in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Sen, S; Shane, S M; Scholl, D T; Hugh-Jones, M E; Gillespie, J M

    1998-06-30

    Velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease (vvNCD), which is endemic in Cambodia, can be prevented in theory by a combination of biosecurity and immunization of broiler flocks. The relative contribution of appropriate biosecurity and effective vaccination was quantified at the farm level, applying realistic projections for capital investment, fixed and variable production costs and losses following infection. Non-protected broiler flocks generate a loss when the probability of vvNCD infection exceeds 0.4. Applying both biosecurity and effective vaccination would sustain profitability up to a probability of exposure of 1.0. The benefit to cost ratios for alternative strategies were evaluated for a range of probabilities of exposure to vvNCD extending from 0.1 to 1.0. The benefit-to-cost ratio for biosecurity exceeded unity at a risk of exposure exceeding 0.1, and 0.2 for vaccination and the combination of vaccination and biosecurity respectively. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the efficiency of protection, feed cost, and financial consequences of infection markedly affected the projected benefit-to-cost ratios associated with alternative methods of prevention. PMID:9689660

  6. Paleoenvironmental history of the West Baray, Angkor (Cambodia)

    PubMed Central

    Day, Mary Beth; Hodell, David A.; Brenner, Mark; Chapman, Hazel J.; Curtis, Jason H.; Kenney, William F.; Kolata, Alan L.; Peterson, Larry C.

    2012-01-01

    Angkor (Cambodia) was the seat of the Khmer Empire from the 9th to 15th century AD. The site is noted for its monumental architecture and complex hydro-engineering systems, comprised of canals, moats, embankments, and large reservoirs, known as barays. We infer a 1,000-y, 14C-dated paleoenvironmental record from study of an approximately 2-m sediment core taken in the largest Khmer reservoir, the West Baray. The baray was utilized and managed from the time of construction in the early 11th century, through the 13th century. During that time, the West Baray received relatively high rates of detrital input. In the 14th century, linear sedimentation rates diminished by an order of magnitude, yielding a condensed section that correlates temporally with episodes of regional monsoon failure during the late 14th and early 15th century, recorded in tree ring records from Vietnam. Our results demonstrate that changes in the water management system were associated with the decline of the Angkorian kingdom during that period. By the 17th century, the West Baray again functioned as a limnetic system. Ecologic and sedimentologic changes over the last millennium, detected in the baray deposits, are attributed to shifts in regional-scale Khmer water management, evolving land use practices in the catchment, and regional climate change. PMID:22215582

  7. Minehound TM trials in Cambodia, Bosnia, and Angola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the trials of the MINEHOUND TM dual sensor, land mine detector carried out in Cambodia, Bosnia and Angola. MINEHOUND TM has been developed for use in humanitarian demining as a means of improving the efficiency of clearance operations. The trials were sponsored by the UK Department for International Development (DFID). ERA Technology Ltd conducted the trials, which were monitored by staff drawn from the countries participating in the International Test and Evaluation Programme (ITEP) for humanitarian de-mining. Experienced deminers from the Mines Advisory Group (MAG) and Norwegian Peoples Aid (NPA) used the pre-production units in live minefields. The objectives of the trial were: 1. To record information on the performance of MINEHOUND TM when used in a live minefield. 2. To determine the reduction in False Alarm Rate (FAR) that could be achieved using a dual sensor mine detector. The trials were conducted in three mine-affected countries for a period of eight weeks per country; the programme of trials ran from July 2005 to December 2005, with an additional smaller trial in late February 2006. The results of the trials showed that MINEHOUND TM achieved 100% detection of the mines encountered and an improvement in FAR of better than 5:1 compared with a basic metal detector. The trials enabled optimisation of the production design and clearly demonstrated that new technology can be brought to humanitarian clearance operations in a safe and controlled manner. As a result of the highly successful trials, Vallon and ERA will produce the MINEHOUND TM (Type number VMR1) starting in Q3 of 2006.

  8. Constraints and Options in Local Forest Management in Cambodia: Is Decentralization a Solution?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iben Nathan; Tove E. Boon

    2011-01-01

    In Cambodia there is an urgent need to ensure the livelihood of the forest-dependent rural poor while at the same time sustaining valuable forest resources. As past centralized forest management regimes have failed, international scholars and development practitioners increasingly recommend the decentralization of power in favor of granting authority over forest management to commune councils. Drawing on experience from community

  9. Constraints and Options in Local Forest Management in Cambodia: Is Decentralization a Solution?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iben Nathan; Tove E. Boon

    2012-01-01

    In Cambodia there is an urgent need to ensure the livelihood of the forest-dependent rural poor while at the same time sustaining valuable forest resources. As past centralized forest management regimes have failed, international scholars and development practitioners increasingly recommend the decentralization of power in favor of granting authority over forest management to commune councils. Drawing on experience from community

  10. Disability and Democracy in Cambodia: An Integrative Approach to Community Building and Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zook, Darren C.

    2010-01-01

    The political framework through which the various communities of disabled persons in Cambodia advocate for and claim their rights is complex and confusing. Both governmental and non-governmental actors engage this political framework through the mobilization of persons from the various disabled communities, competing in the civic sphere through…

  11. Reviewing the Role of Teachers in Achieving Education for All in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chae-Young; Rouse, Martyn

    2011-01-01

    Over the last 20 years education policies in Cambodia have been driven by the global Education for All (EFA) campaign and have resulted in a rapid increase in the rates of primary education enrolment. However, the increasing number of children enrolling in schools has not always translated into high rates of primary education completion. Against…

  12. Impact of School Readiness Program Interventions on Children's Learning in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Bredenberg, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the high repetition rates in early years of primary school, the government of Cambodia piloted a school readiness program (SRP) in the first two months of Grade 1 of primary school. This study examines whether such intervention has effects on students' immediate acquisition of school readiness skills as well as students' longer term…

  13. Learning to Read in Ratanakiri: A Case Study from Northeastern Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregerson, Marilyn J.

    2009-01-01

    In Ratanakiri province, northeastern Cambodia, the majority of the local people are native speakers of ethnic minority languages. Primarily subsistence farmers, they use their own language to communicate with others in their villages, and as they work in their rice fields. A baseline survey taken between 1996 and 1998 in five such villages showed…

  14. SUITABLE TIMING OF APPLICATION OF PELLETIZED COMPOST AND FARMERS' ACCEPTANCE IN CAMBODIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bunthan Ngo; Lalita Siriwattananon

    2009-01-01

    The suitable timing for application of pelletized c ompost and the evaluation of local farmers' acceptance of composting and pelletized compost making was investigated in Wat Chas village, Prey Chhor district, Kampong Cham province, Cambodia. There was no significant difference between the microbial counts in compost and the initial count i n pelletized compost. But the microbial count of 12,228

  15. Distance Education Policy and Public Awareness in Cambodia, Laos, and Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuth, Doung; Than, Chhuon Chan; Phanousith, Somphone; Phissamay, Phonpasit; Tai, Tran Thi

    2007-01-01

    The current project brings together academic and governmental specialists from Cambodia, Laos, and Viet Nam (CLV), in a collaborative study of the prospects for distance education (DE) in those countries. The study's overall objectives are to: (1) survey and take stock of existing educational scenarios and problems in CLV; (2) document the…

  16. Cambodia: Summary Report. The Impact of Informal School Fees. Asia-South Pacific Education Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Sylvia

    2007-01-01

    A prior study of costs of education in Cambodia was undertaken by Mark Bray in 1999. In his study he suggests that: "... the scale of dropout from Cambodian primary schools has been demonstrated to be high. Costs appear to be an important factor for many households when making decisions to withdraw their children from school." In that study,…

  17. Educational Financing and Budgeting in Cambodia. Financial Management of Education Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pheng, Duy; Sovonn, Hang; Soly, Yos

    This book contains a detailed description of the challenges faced by educational finance and budgeting in Cambodia. Until recently, educational financing took the form of emergency budgets and was limited to government planning for teacher salaries and costs of examinations. There has been a general lack of coordination between provinces and the…

  18. Challenges of Adopting the Use of Technology in Less Developed Countries: The Case of Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jayson W.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on Everett Rogers's theory of the diffusion of innovations, this article identifies the barriers, challenges, and successes in the adoption of technology training by teacher trainers in Cambodia. The analysis was based on data collected from an open-ended survey, face-to-face interviews, and document analysis. Findings reveal that the…

  19. Height, Zinc and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Schoolchildren: A Study in Cuba and Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D.; D’Haese, Patrick C.; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E.; Junco Díaz, Raquel; Angel Núńez, Fidel; Rojas Rivero, Lázara; Bonet Gorbea, Mariano; Doak, Colleen M.; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Wieringa, Frank T.; Polman, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:25903454

  20. Dengue Incidence in Urban and Rural Cambodia: Results from Population-Based Active Fever Surveillance, 2006

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Dengue Incidence in Urban and Rural Cambodia: Results from Population-Based Active Fever Cham, we conducted community-based active dengue fever surveillance among the 0-to-19­year age group combined with weekly home visits to identify persons with fever. An investigation team visited families

  1. Indochinese Refugee Experience. Refugees from Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia in Nova Scotia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngo, Xuong, Comp.; Guay, Marcel, Ed.

    Firsthand accounts by refugees from Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam, telling how they escaped from Indochina and how they are adjusting to life in Canada (and particularly Nova Scotia), form the greater part of this book. Most of the accounts are by Vietnamese. Information is also provided on the history of the Canadian refugee program, and on the…

  2. Vernaculars in Literacy and Basic Education in Cambodia, Laos and Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosonen, Kimmo

    2005-01-01

    Three Southeast Asian polities, Cambodia, Laos and Thailand share much of their geography, history, culture, religion and language. Not all speakers of more than 100 languages spoken in the area have a sufficient knowledge of the respective national languages, Khmer, Lao and Thai. Yet, for the most part, the national languages are the only…

  3. State of Cybersecurity and the Roadmap to Secure Cyber Community in Cambodia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sopheak Cheang; Sinawong Sang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents background information and the progress of the government effort on Cyber Security in Cambodia. Firstly, this study establishes a framework to assess the current effort of Cambodian government on cybersecurity. Secondly, the results of the assessment are used to develop policy implication, serving as roadmap to secure national online community. Furthermore, this paper discusses the process to

  4. Characteristics of tuberculosis patients at intake in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The tuberculosis register is a critical data source for the information system of national tuberculosis control programs. From the information in the tuberculosis case register, it is possible to extend the standard analysis of age and sex characteristics among sputum smear-positive cases to all tuberculosis case categories. National tuberculosis programs might utilize such information to identify problems related to referral and access to diagnosis and treatment. Objectives Based on the electronic database we created, our objectives were to provide a detailed description of age and sex characteristics of tuberculosis patients at registration and to provide a comparison of age-specific sex characteristics among incident and prevalent sputum smear-positive cases. Methods A representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2005 was selected in Cambodia, two provinces in China and Viet Nam. Age and sex characteristics of cases in the three separate prevalence surveys in the three jurisdictions (Cambodia: year 2002; China: year 2000; and Viet Nam: year 2006-2007) were obtained for comparison. Results A total 37,635 patients had been registered during the period in the selected units in the three countries. Cases were more frequently male in all three countries with 53%, 71%, and 69% in Cambodia, China, and Viet Nam, respectively. The ratios of the female-to-male odds in the notification system to that in the prevalence survey in smear-positive cases in Cambodia, China and Viet Nam were 2.1, 0.9, and 1.8, respectively. Because of the small proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis registered in China, we limited the analysis on age and sex distribution for extrapulmonary cases to Cambodia and Viet Nam. The proportion with extrapulmonary tuberculosis among all cases was 18.5% in Cambodia and 15.7% in Viet Nam, decreasing in frequency with increasing age. Conclusions Characteristics of patients greatly differed between countries and between patient categories. In Cambodia and Viet Nam, efforts should be made for improved case-finding of sputum smear-positive tuberculosis among males. PMID:21605382

  5. Farm-level bureaucrats in action (and inaction) : the distribution of veterinary services in Laos and Cambodia

    E-print Network

    Ballard, Brett M

    2005-01-01

    In this study, I analyze several dimensions of the institutional environment that govern contractual exchange between veterinary service providers and farmers in Laos and Cambodia. I hypothesize that the negotiation, ...

  6. Transpiration characteristics of a rubber plantation in central Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Tateishi, Makiko; Lim, Tiva K; Mudd, Ryan G; Ziegler, Alan D; Giambelluca, Thomas W; Yin, Song

    2014-03-01

    The rapid and widespread expansion of rubber plantations in Southeast Asia necessitates a greater understanding of tree physiology and the impacts of water consumption on local hydrology. Sap flow measurements were used to study the intra- and inter-annual variations in transpiration rate (Et) in a rubber stand in the low-elevation plain of central Cambodia. Mean stand sap flux density (JS) indicates that rubber trees actively transpire in the rainy season, but become inactive in the dry season. A sharp, brief drop in JS occurred simultaneously with leaf shedding in the middle of the dry season in January. Although the annual maxima of JS were approximately the same in the two study years, the maximum daily stand Et of ?2.0 mm day(-1) in 2010 increased to ?2.4 mm day(-1) in 2011. Canopy-level stomatal response was well explained by changes in solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit, soil moisture availability, leaf area, and stem diameter. Rubber trees had a relatively small potential to transpire at the beginning of the study period, compared with average diffuse-porous species. After 2 years of growth in stem diameter, transpiration potential was comparable to other species. The sensitivity of canopy conductance (gc) to atmospheric drought indicates isohydric behavior of rubber trees. Modeling also predicted a relatively small sensitivity of gc to the soil moisture deficit and a rapid decrease in gc under extreme drought conditions. However, annual observations suggest the possibility of a change in leaf characteristics with tree maturity and/or initiation of latex tapping. The estimated annual stand Et was 469 mm year(-1) in 2010, increasing to 658 mm year(-1) in 2011. Diagnostic analysis using the derived gc model showed that inter-annual change in stand Et in the rapidly growing young rubber stand was determined mainly by tree growth rate, not by differences in air and soil variables in the surrounding environment. Future research should focus on the potentially broad applicability of the relationship between Et and tree size as well as environmental factors at stands different in terms of clonal type and age. PMID:24646689

  7. Radar Image with Color as Height, Old Khmer Road, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows the Old Khmer Road (Inrdratataka-Bakheng causeway) in Cambodia extending from the 9th Century A.D. capitol city of Hariharalaya in the lower right portion of the image to the later 10th Century AD capital of Yasodharapura. This was located in the vicinity of Phnom Bakheng (not shown in image). The Old Road is believed to be more than 1000 years old. Its precise role and destination within the 'new' city at Angkor is still being studied by archeologists. But wherever it ended, it not only offered an immense processional way for the King to move between old and new capitols, it also linked the two areas, widening the territorial base of the Khmer King. Finally, in the past and today, the Old Road managed the waters of the floodplain. It acted as a long barrage or dam for not only the natural streams of the area but also for the changes brought to the local hydrology by Khmer population growth.

    The image was acquired by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR). Image brightness is from the P-band (68 cm wavelength) radar backscatter, which is a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back towards the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color represents 20 m of elevation change, that is going from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again corresponds to 20 m of elevation change. Image dimensions are approximately 3.4 km by 3.5 km with a pixel spacing of 5 m. North is at top.

    AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR mode, AIRSAR collects radar interferometry data from two spatially separated antennas (2.6 meters, or 8.5 feet). Information from the two antennas is used to form radar backscatter imagery and to generate highly accurate elevation data. Built, operated and managed by JPL, AIRSAR is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise program. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Water-Borne Diseases and Extreme Weather Events in Cambodia: Review of Impacts and Implications of Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Grace I.; McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Yoonhee; Hashizume, Masahiro; Iddings, Steven; Chan, Vibol

    2014-01-01

    Cambodia is prone to extreme weather events, especially floods, droughts and typhoons. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of such events. The Cambodian population is highly vulnerable to the impacts of these events due to poverty; malnutrition; agricultural dependence; settlements in flood-prone areas, and public health, governance and technological limitations. Yet little is known about the health impacts of extreme weather events in Cambodia. Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap. A literature review of the health impacts of floods, droughts and typhoons in Cambodia was conducted, with regional and global information reviewed where Cambodia-specific literature was lacking. Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. A time-series analysis under quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the association between floods and diarrhoeal disease incidence in Cambodian children between 2001 and 2012 in 16 Cambodian provinces. Floods were significantly associated with increased diarrhoeal disease in two provinces, while the analysis conducted suggested a possible protective effect from toilets and piped water. Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia. PMID:25546280

  9. Molecular characterization of sympatrically distributed Neotricula aperta-like snails in the Mekong River, Kratie, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chennan; Saijuntha, Weerachai; Kirinoki, Masashi; Hayashi, Naoko; Chigusa, Yuichi; Muth, Sinuon; Meng, Chuor Char; Ai, Yingchun; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2014-06-18

    Abstract Fifty-six samples of Neotricula aperta-like snails were collected from six locations in Cambodia. Their mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) sequences were examined using haplotype network and neighbor-joining (NJ) tree analysis. Twenty-seven haplotypes (H1-H27) were observed and were divided into two different groups/lineages. Of 27, 17 haplotypes (H11-H27) were clustered with the reference samples of the ?-race N. aperta. The remaining 10 haplotypes (H1-H10) were clustered in a separate group/lineage, differing from the reference samples of the ?-, ?-, and ?-race N. aperta, suggesting a new lineage belonging the genus Neotricula. Our results show that both the ?-race and a new lineage were sympatrically present approximately 60?km upstream of the Mekong River near the Kratie port, Cambodia. Further morphological and molecular studies are required to confirm the taxonomic status of this new, unidentified lineage. PMID:24938095

  10. Assessing arsenic intake from groundwater and rice by residents in Prey Veng province, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kongkea; Phan, Samrach; Heng, Savoeun; Huoy, Laingshun; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2014-02-01

    We investigated total daily intake of As by residents in Prey Veng province in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. Groundwater (n = 11), rice (n = 11) and fingernail (n = 23) samples were randomly collected from the households and analyzed for total As by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Calculation indicated that daily dose of inorganic As was greater than the lower limits on the benchmark dose for a 0.5% increased incidence of lung cancer (BMDL0.5 equals to 3.0 ?g d(-1) kg(-1)body wt.). Moreover, positive correlation between As in fingernail and daily dose of As from groundwater and rice and total daily dose of As were found. These results suggest that the Prey Veng residents are exposed to As in groundwater. As in rice is an additional source which is attributable to high As accumulation in human bodies in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. PMID:24231403

  11. Community and School-Based Health Education for Dengue Control in Rural Cambodia: A Process Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Khun, Sokrin; Manderson, Lenore

    2007-01-01

    Dengue fever continues to be a major public health problem in Cambodia, with significant impact on children. Health education is a major means for prevention and control of the National Dengue Control Program (NDCP), and is delivered to communities and in schools. Drawing on data collected in 2003–2004 as part of an ethnographic study conducted in eastern Cambodia, we explore the approaches used in health education and their effectiveness to control dengue. Community health education is provided through health centre outreach activities and campaigns of the NDCP, but is not systematically evaluated, is under-funded and delivered irregularly; school-based education is restricted in terms of time and lacks follow-up in terms of practical activities for prevention and control. As a result, adherence is partial. We suggest the need for sustained routine education for dengue prevention and control, and the need for approaches to ensure the translation of knowledge into practice. PMID:18160981

  12. Pfmdr1 copy number and arteminisin derivatives combination therapy failure in falciparum malaria in Cambodia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pharath Lim; Alisa P Alker; Nimol Khim; Naman K Shah; Sandra Incardona; Socheat Doung; Poravuth Yi; Denis Mey Bouth; Christiane Bouchier; Odile Mercereau Puijalon; Steven R Meshnick; Chansuda Wongsrichanalai; Thierry Fandeur; Jacques Le Bras; Pascal Ringwald; Frédéric Ariey

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The combination of artesunate and mefloquine was introduced as the national first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Cambodia in 2000. However, recent clinical trials performed at the Thai-Cambodian border have pointed to the declining efficacy of both artesunate-mefloquine and artemether-lumefantrine. Since pfmdr1 modulates susceptibility to mefloquine and artemisinin derivatives, the aim of this study was to assess the

  13. Complete genomic sequence and phylogenetic relatedness of hepatitis B virus isolates in Cambodia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tran Thien Tuan Huy; Amadou Alpha Sall; Jean Marc Reynes; Kenji Abe

    2008-01-01

    Although it is known that Cambodia is one of the high endemic area of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, molecular characterization\\u000a of HBV circulating in this country has not been reported. In this study, pre-S gene of HBV from 12 Cambodian patients was\\u000a sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis based on the pre-S gene sequence revealed that 8 out of 12 isolates (66.7%)

  14. Assessment of management of direct seeded rice production under different water conditions in Cambodia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Ikeda; Akihiko Kamoshita; Junko Yamagishi; Makara Ouk; Bunna Lor

    2008-01-01

    In order to assess direct seeding of rice technology to cope with future agricultural labor shortage in Cambodia, agronomic\\u000a experiments were conducted in 2005 and 2006 to compare direct seeding with transplanting under three water conditions (non-flooded,\\u000a shallow flooded, and deep flooded conditions) with\\/without weed control by herbicides (bentazone and cyhalofop-butyl) for\\u000a two Cambodian rice varieties (shorter stature and early

  15. Management of a clinical and surgical centre in rural Cambodia (2006-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Borghese, L.; Biancardi, F.; Gavioli, B.; Valenti, L.; Masellis, A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The activities of the Bambino Gesů Paediatric Clinical and Surgical Centre Takeo in Cambodia started in May 2006, after the signature of a formal agreement between the Royal Government of Cambodia and the hospital. The paediatric centre is currently composed of an out-patients section with diagnostic ultrasound facilities and an obstetrics and gynaecology section, 3 consulting rooms, 20 beds for clinical activities, 13 beds for surgery, 7 beds for the paediatric intensive care unit, 2 dressing rooms, 1 out-patients sterile section, a library for off- and on-line consultation, a playroom and laundry facilities, and an administration office. For the last five years its activity has neen steadily on the increase, and the local population are beginning to look on the Centre as a full-scale local and regional referral hospital. From the 190 cases handled in 2006, the Centre increased to 669 surgical procedures in 2010 and 341 in the first four months of 2011, with good prospects of exceeding 1000 operations before the end of 2012. Takeo Centre also developed a Mobile Clinic Project to assist children directly in rural areas lacking health facilities. Today the Centre is a new reality in Cambodia's healthcare system. PMID:22639561

  16. Mental health services in Cambodia, challenges and opportunities in a post-conflict setting.

    PubMed

    Jegannathan, Bhoomikumar; Kullgren, Gunnar; Deva, Parameshvara

    2015-02-01

    Cambodia had suffered enormously due to war and internecine conflict during the latter half of the twentieth century, more so during the Vietnam War. Total collapse of education and health systems during the Pol Pot era continues to be a challenge for developing the necessary infrastructure and human resources to provide basic minimum mental health care which is compounded by the prevailing cultural belief and stigma over mental, neurological and substance abuse disorders (MNSDs). The mental health research and services in Cambodia had been predominantly 'trauma focused', a legacy of war, and there is a need to move toward epidemiologically sound public health oriented mental health policy and service development. Integrating mental health program with primary health care services with specifically stated minimum package of activities at primary level and complementary package of activities at secondary level is an opportunity to meet the needs and rights of persons with mental, neurological and substance abuse disorders (PWMNSDs) in Cambodia, provided there is mental health leadership, government commitment and political will. PMID:25563073

  17. Use of a Text Message-Based Pharmacovigilance Tool in Cambodia: Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Sophie; Goutard, Flavie; Nguon, Kunthy

    2013-01-01

    Background There is no functional pharmacovigilance system in Cambodia to our knowledge. Mobile phone–based tools, such as short message service (SMS) text messages, are increasingly used for surveillance purposes. Objective To pilot-test the FrontlineSMS mobile phone–based tool for notification of adverse events, using Cambodia’s only International Vaccination Center at the Institut Pasteur du Cambodge as a field site. Methods People receiving vaccinations, aged over 18 years, and who owned a cell phone were recruited in the study following informed consent. The names and mobile phone numbers of the participants interviewed were entered each day into the FrontlineSMS software. Two days after being vaccinated, participants received an automatically generated SMS text message asking whether any adverse events had occurred. Their SMS reply was number-coded and exported from the software daily to an Excel spreadsheet and examined before being saved. If the participant replied with a code for a severe adverse event (8 or 9), they were automatically advised to consult the nearest doctor. Results The active surveillance study was conducted over 72 days in the spring of 2012. Patients agreed to be asked by SMS text message whether unwanted events had occurred after vaccination. Of 1331 persons aged over 18 years referred to the vaccination unit, 184 (13.8%) were asked and agreed to participate. When texted for clinical status 48 hours after vaccination, 52 (28.3%) participants did not reply, 101 (54.9%) sent an immediate SMS reply, and 31 (16.8%) sent an SMS reply after additional prompting. Of the initial 184 participants, 132 (71.7%) replied. These 132 participants received 135 vaccine doses and 109 (82.6%) reported no adverse events, whereas 23 (17.4%) reported adverse events, all benign. Conclusions Notification using an SMS-based text message system is already used in Cambodia for syndromic surveillance in health centers and reporting by health care workers. Our results show that such tools can also be useful for notification by patients or health users in Cambodia, especially in an urban setting. PMID:23591700

  18. What Are Effective Components of In-Service Teacher Training? A Study Examining Teacher Trainers' Perceptions of the Components of a Training Programme in Mathematics Education in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Jane

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses an in-service education project, financed by the Belgium Technical Cooperation, to improve the quality of mathematics teaching in 138 primary and lower secondary schools in Cambodia. The project design drew on recent research in developing countries and prior experience of training programmes in Cambodia. The…

  19. Review of Climate Change and Water-Related Diseases in Cambodia and Findings From Stakeholder Knowledge Assessments.

    PubMed

    McIver, Lachlan J; Chan, Vibol S; Bowen, Kathyrn J; Iddings, Steven N; Hero, Kol; Raingsey, Piseth P

    2014-11-10

    This project aims to increase the resilience of Cambodian communities to the health risks posed by climate change-related impacts on water-related diseases. There are a number of water-related diseases that are present in Cambodia and are likely to be susceptible to climate change. These include diarrheal diseases, typhoid fever, leptospirosis, melioidosis, viral hepatitis, and schistosomiasis. Certain subsectors of Cambodia's population may be more vulnerable than others with respect to climate change impacts on water and health, including agricultural workers and residents of flood-and drought-prone areas. The current level of understanding on the part of health professionals and other key stakeholders in Cambodia regarding the risks posed by climate change on water-sensitive diseases is relatively low. Strategies by which this understanding might be strengthened are suggested. PMID:25388662

  20. Gendered Motivations, Sociocultural Constraints, and Psychobehavioral Consequences of Transnational Partnerships in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Hoefinger, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Global flows of people, information and capital have created transnational spaces in Cambodia. Within those spaces exists the formation of complex and multilayered interpersonal relationships between people attempting to capitalize on the opportunities created by these flows. The purpose of this article is to describe these transnational relationships, namely between young women employed in the entertainment sectors in Phnom Penh, and their western male partners, while highlighting the racialized and gendered motivations of the global actors, the inevitable sociocultural conflicts/constraints/ misunderstandings that arise within the partnerships, and the resulting challenges and psychobehavioral consequences experienced by the mobile and differentiated individuals involved in these postcolonial relational formations. PMID:25221438

  1. Emerging infectious diseases and public health policy: insights from Cambodia, Hong Kong and Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Burgos, S; Ear, S

    2015-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases affect the health of animal and human populations, but the impact goes beyond health as it extends to political, economic, social and environmental domains, as well as inter-state relations. Deeper understanding of these impacts aids public health authorities in their duties of protection and improvement of the health of their communities, promotion of healthy practices and research on disease, injury and threat prevention and mitigation. This empirical essay gathers insights from Cambodia, Hong Kong and Indonesia as they attempt to design and implement control and surveillance systems against avian influenza - an infectious disease. PMID:23551938

  2. High Prevalence and Spatial Distribution of Strongyloides stercoralis in Rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Forrer, Armelle; Hattendorf, Jan; Marti, Hanspeter; Duong, Socheat; Vounatsou, Penelope; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background The threadworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, endemic in tropical and temperate climates, is a neglected tropical disease. Its diagnosis requires specific methods, and accurate information on its geographic distribution and global burden are lacking. We predicted prevalence, using Bayesian geostatistical modeling, and determined risk factors in northern Cambodia. Methods From February to June 2010, we performed a cross-sectional study among 2,396 participants from 60 villages in Preah Vihear Province, northern Cambodia. Two stool specimens per participant were examined using Koga agar plate culture and the Baermann method for detecting S. stercoralis infection. Environmental data was linked to parasitological and questionnaire data by location. Bayesian mixed logistic models were used to explore the spatial correlation of S. stercoralis infection risk. Bayesian Kriging was employed to predict risk at non-surveyed locations. Principal Findings Of the 2,396 participants, 44.7% were infected with S. stercoralis. Of 1,071 strongyloidiasis cases, 339 (31.6%) were among schoolchildren and 425 (39.7%) were found in individuals under 16 years. The incidence of S. stercoralis infection statistically increased with age. Infection among male participants was significantly higher than among females (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4–2.0; P<0.001). Participants who defecated in latrines were infected significantly less than those who did not (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4–0.8; P?=?0.001). Strongyloidiasis cases would be reduced by 39% if all participants defecated in latrines. Incidence of S. stercoralis infections did not show a strong tendency toward spatial clustering in this province. The risk of infection significantly decreased with increasing rainfall and soil organic carbon content, and increased in areas with rice fields. Conclusions/Significance Prevalence of S. stercoralis in rural Cambodia is very high and school-aged children and adults over 45 years were the most at risk for infection. Lack of access to adequate treatment for chronic uncomplicated strongyloidiasis is an urgent issue in Cambodia. We would expect to see similar prevalence rates elsewhere in Southeast Asia and other tropical resource poor countries. PMID:24921627

  3. Cardiologist in the shadow of Angkor Wat: A medical mission to Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In a medical mission to Cambodia, our team of doctors, dentists, and nurses saw over 1000 patients during 4 days of clinics. The most common cardiovascular problems were hypertension (11%) and heart murmurs (3%). Obesity and a history of diabetes were very rare. Unlike the cardiac patients I typically see in my Atlanta office, the Cambodians were trim and muscular from their predominantly farming and, less often, construction jobs. They are a gentle, seemingly happy people, appreciative of whatever limited medical help we could offer. Tuberculosis was the most prevalent serious illness noted. PMID:24688208

  4. The Killing Fields on TV: A Critical Analysis of Network Coverage of Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ted J., III; Grassmick, David E.

    In an effort to determine the nature of American network television news coverage of the Khmer Rouge rule in Cambodia, a study examined the television evening news from April 16, 1975, the date on which the Lon Nol government first offered to capitulate to the Khmer Rouge, through January 8, 1979, when news of the fall of Phnom Penh to the…

  5. Essay Review of "Education and the Politics of Language: Hegemony and Pragmatism in Cambodia, 1979-1989," by Thomas Clayton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Vincent

    2001-01-01

    Reviews a book that reports on educational objectives and operations during the 10-year Vietnamese occupation of Cambodia, drawing on current developments in the theory of hegemonic relations. Suggests that the book's focus on linguistic policy in education has implications for the role of language in client-donor international-aid relationships.…

  6. What Makes the Difference? An Analysis of a Reading Intervention Programme Implemented in Rural Schools in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Jane; Gravelle, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    This article compares the existing single-strategy approach towards the teaching of early literacy in schools in rural Cambodia with a multiple-strategy approach introduced as part of a reading intervention programme. Classroom observations, questionnaires and in-depth interviews with teachers were used to explore teachers' practices and…

  7. Poverty, user fees and ability to pay for health care for children with suspected dengue in rural Cambodia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sokrin Khun; Lenore Manderson

    2008-01-01

    User fees were introduced in public health facilities in Cambodia in 1997 in order to inject funds into the health system to enhance the quality of services. Because of inadequate health insurance, a social safety net scheme was introduced to ensure that all people were able to attend the health facilities. However, continuing high rates of hospitalization and mortality from

  8. Issues and Techniques in Translating Scientific Terms from English to Khmer for a University-Level Text in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Cassie; Oliviera, Alandeom W.; Curry, Alastair; Buck, Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Teachers and students spend much time interacting with written resources such as textbooks, tests, or worksheets during classroom instruction. What if no text is available, however, in the language of the learners? This case study describes the processes and techniques adopted by two university lecturers in Cambodia, as they translated an L1…

  9. Report of the Training Workshop on the Evaluation of Asian Educational Credentials (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Indonesia, Korea).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dremuk, Richard, Ed.

    This report was planned to facilitate the task of college admissions officers of American educational institutions in the evaluation of foreign credentials. The educational systems of Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Indonesia, Korea, and Thailand are examined in depth and include discussions of each country's educational history and educational…

  10. ARSENIC REMOVAL AND ECOLOGICALLY SAFE CONTAINMENT OF ARSENIC-WASTE: A SUSTAINABLE SOLUTION FOR ARSENIC CRISIS IN CAMBODIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    An appalling degree of arsenic contamination in groundwater has affected more than a million people in wide region of Mekong delta flood plain in Cambodia. Arsenic is by far the most toxic species of all naturally occurring groundwater contaminants and disposal of removed arse...

  11. The Six Thinking Hat Model--A Tool for Participation in Community Development, the Experience of an NGO in Cambodia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, S.

    1996-01-01

    A nongovernmental organization involved in community development in Cambodia adapted De Bono's six thinking hat model to build staff capacity and develop a framework for open-ended conversations. It proved useful for comprehensive analysis of problems and preventing conflicts. (SK)

  12. Local Drinking Water Filters Reduce Diarrheal Disease in Cambodia: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of the Ceramic Water Purifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe Brown; Mark D. Sobsey; Dana Loomis

    A randomized, controlled intervention trial of two household-scale drinking water filters was conducted in a rural village in Cambodia. After collecting four weeks of baseline data on household water quality, diarrheal disease, and other data related to water use and handling practices, households were randomly assigned to one of three groups of 60 households: those receiving a ceramic water purifier

  13. Arsenic in hair and nails of individuals exposed to arsenic-rich groundwaters in Kandal province, Cambodia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew G. Gault; Helen. A. L. Rowland; John M. Charnock; Roy A. Wogelius; Inma Gomez-Morilla; Sovathana Vong; Moniphea Leng; Sopheap Samreth; Mickey L. Sampson; David A. Polya

    2008-01-01

    The health implications of the consumption of high arsenic groundwater in Bangladesh and West Bengal are well-documented, however, little is known about the level of arsenic exposure elsewhere in Southeast Asia, where widespread exploitation of groundwater resources is less well established. We measured the arsenic concentrations of nail and hair samples collected from residents of Kandal province, Cambodia, an area

  14. Distortions and Dichotomies in Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities in Cambodia in the Context of Globalisation and International Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyanpur, Maya

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the consequences of transferring technical information on disability and inclusive education from the North to the South within the context of international development. Based on data from the author's experiences as a US-trained Indian international consultant in Cambodia, it analyses how problems with translation and…

  15. Deployment of dual-sensor ALIS for humanitarian demining in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.; Takahashi, K.

    2013-06-01

    We are in the process of developing a high-resolution landmine scanning system "ALIS" which produces horizontal slices of the shallow subsurface for visualization of buried explosives and inert clutter. As many AP mines contain minimum amounts of metal, metal detectors need to be combined with a complimentary subsurface imaging sensor. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is widely accepted for subsurface sensing in the fields of geology, archaeology and utility detection. The demining application requires real-time imaging results with centimetre resolution in a highly portable package. The key requirement for sharp images of the subsurface is the precise tracking of the geophysical sensor(s) during data collection. We should also notice that GPR system is a very wide band radar system, and equivalent to UWB radar, which has recently been developed for short-range high-accuracy radar. We are testing simplified but effective signal processing for imaging mines. We are currently testing a dual sensor ALIS which is a realtime sensor tracking system based on a CCD camera and image processing. In this paper we introduce the GPR systems which we have developed for detection of buried antipersonnel mines and small size explosives. ALIS has been deployed in Cambodia since 2009 and detected more than 70 mines in mine fields, and returned more than 13ha cleaned fields to local farmers. We also report the current status of ALIS in Cambodia.

  16. Zoonotic Trematode Metacercariae in Fish from Phnom Penh and Pursat, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S.; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Socheat, Duong

    2014-01-01

    A survey was performed to investigate the infection status of freshwater fish with zoonotic trematode metacercariae in Phnom Penh and Pursat Province, Cambodia. All collected fish with ice were transferred to our laboratory and examined using the artificial digestion method. In fish from Phnom Penh, 2 kinds of metacercariae (Opisthorchis viverrini and Haplorchis yokogawai) were detected. O. viverrini metacercariae were positive in 37 (50.0%) of 74 fish in 11 species (average no. metacercariae/fish, 18.6). H. yokogawai metacercariae were detected in 23 (57.5%) of 40 fish in 5 species (average no. metacercariae/fish, 21.0). In fish from Pursat Province, 5 kinds of metacercariae (O. viverrini, H. yokogawai, Haplorchis pumilio, Centrocestus formosanus, and Procerovum sp.) were detected; O. viverrini metacercariae (n=3) in 2 fish species (Henicorhynchus lineatus and Puntioplites falcifer), H. yokogawai metacercariae (n=51) in 1 species (P. falcifer), H. pumilio metacercariae (n=476) in 2 species (H. lineatus and Pristolepis fasciata), C. formosanus metacercariae (n=1) in 1 species (H. lineatus), and Procerovum sp. metacercariae (n=63) in 1 species (Anabas testudineus). From the above results, it has been confirmed that various freshwater fish play the role of a second intermediate host for zoonotic trematodes (O. viverrini, H. yokogawai, H. pumilio, C. formosanus, and Procerovum sp.) in Cambodia. PMID:24623879

  17. Zoonotic trematode metacercariae in fish from Phnom Penh and Pursat, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Socheat, Duong

    2014-02-01

    A survey was performed to investigate the infection status of freshwater fish with zoonotic trematode metacercariae in Phnom Penh and Pursat Province, Cambodia. All collected fish with ice were transferred to our laboratory and examined using the artificial digestion method. In fish from Phnom Penh, 2 kinds of metacercariae (Opisthorchis viverrini and Haplorchis yokogawai) were detected. O. viverrini metacercariae were positive in 37 (50.0%) of 74 fish in 11 species (average no. metacercariae/fish, 18.6). H. yokogawai metacercariae were detected in 23 (57.5%) of 40 fish in 5 species (average no. metacercariae/fish, 21.0). In fish from Pursat Province, 5 kinds of metacercariae (O. viverrini, H. yokogawai, Haplorchis pumilio, Centrocestus formosanus, and Procerovum sp.) were detected; O. viverrini metacercariae (n=3) in 2 fish species (Henicorhynchus lineatus and Puntioplites falcifer), H. yokogawai metacercariae (n=51) in 1 species (P. falcifer), H. pumilio metacercariae (n=476) in 2 species (H. lineatus and Pristolepis fasciata), C. formosanus metacercariae (n=1) in 1 species (H. lineatus), and Procerovum sp. metacercariae (n=63) in 1 species (Anabas testudineus). From the above results, it has been confirmed that various freshwater fish play the role of a second intermediate host for zoonotic trematodes (O. viverrini, H. yokogawai, H. pumilio, C. formosanus, and Procerovum sp.) in Cambodia. PMID:24623879

  18. High Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini Infection in a Riparian Population in Takeo Province, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Shin, Eun-Hee; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S.; Lee, Dong-Min; Park, Keunhee; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Lee, Yoon-Hee; Woo, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Ji-Hwa; Kang, Sin-Il; Cha, Jae-Ku; Lee, Keon-Hoon; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2012-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini infection was found to be highly prevalent in 3 riverside villages (Ang Svay Chek A, B, and C) of the Prey Kabas District, Takeo Province. This area is located in the southern part of Cambodia, where the recovery of adult O. viverrini worms was recently reported. From May 2006 until May 2010, fecal examinations were performed on a total of 1,799 villagers using the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. In the 3 villages, the overall positive rate for helminth eggs ranged from 51.7 to 59.0% (av. 57.4%), and the percentage positive for O. viverrini was 46.4-50.6% (47.5%). Other helminths detected included hookworms (13.2%), echinostomes (2.9%), Trichuris trichiura (1.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.6%), and Taenia spp. (0.06%). The prevalence of O. viverrini eggs appeared to reflect a lower infection in younger individuals (<20 years) than in the adult population (>20 years). Men (50.4%) revealed a significantly higher (P=0.02) prevalence than women (44.3%). The Ang Svay Chek villages of the Prey Kabas District, Takeo Province, Cambodia have been confirmed to be a highly endemic area for human O. viverrini infection. PMID:22711932

  19. Molecular epidemiological investigation of velogenic Newcastle disease viruses from village chickens in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kang-Seuk; Kye, Soo-Jeong; Kim, Ji-Ye; Damasco, Vanessa R; Sorn, San; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Choi, Jun-Gu; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Kwang-Il; Song, Byung-Min; Lee, Hee-Soo

    2013-10-01

    Three isolates of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were isolated from tracheal samples of dead village chickens in two provinces (Phnom Penh and Kampong Cham) in Cambodia during 2011-2012. All of these Cambodian NDV isolates were categorized as velogenic pathotype, based on in vivo pathogenicity tests and F cleavage site motif sequence ((112)RRRKRF(117)). The phylogenetic analysis and the evolutionary distances based on the sequences of the F gene revealed that all the three field isolates of NDV from Cambodia form a distinct cluster (VIIh) together with three Indonesian strains and were assigned to the genotype VII within the class II. Further phylogenetic analysis based on the hyper-variable region of the F gene revealed that some of NDV strains from Malaysia since the mid-2000s were also classified into the VIIh virus. This indicates that the VIIh NDVs are spreading through Southeast Asia. The present investigation, therefore, emphasizes the importance of further surveillance of NDV in neighboring countries as well as throughout Southeast Asia to contain further spreading of these VIIh viruses. PMID:23764918

  20. Arsenic concentration in rice, fish, meat and vegetables in Cambodia: a preliminary risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Sheng; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Chen, Zhuo-Jia; Man, Yu-Bon; Du, Jun; Xing, Guang-Hua; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Mohamed Yasin, Mohamed Salleh; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2013-12-01

    To assess arsenic contaminations and its possible adverse health effects, food samples were collected from Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham in Cambodia. The highest and the lowest concentrations were observed in fish (mean 2,832 ng g(-1), ww) collected from Kandal province and cattle stomach (1.86 ± 1.10 ng g(-1), ww) collected from Kratie, respectively. The daily intake of arsenic via food consumption was 604, 9.70 and 136 ?g day(-1) in Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham, respectively. The arsenic dietary intake in Kandal ranked No. 1 among all the 17 compared countries or regions. Fish consumption contributed the greatest proportion of total arsenic daily intake in Kandal (about 63.0 %) and Kampong Cham (about 69.8 %). It is revealed to be a much more important exposure pathway than drinking water for residents in Kampong Cham. The results of risk assessment suggested that the residents in Cambodia, particularly for people in Kandal province, suffer high public health risks due to consuming arsenic-contaminated food. PMID:23728998

  1. Two clustered cases of confirmed influenza A(H5N1) virus infection, Cambodia, 2011.

    PubMed

    Chea, N; Yi, S D; Rith, S; Seng, H; Ieng, V; Penh, C; Mardy, S; Laurent, D; Richner, B; Sok, T; Ly, S; Kitsutani, P; Asgari, N; Roces, M C; Buchy, P; Tarantola, A

    2014-01-01

    In February 2011, a mother and her child from Banteay Meanchey Province, Cambodia, were diagnosed, postmortem, with avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection. A field investigation was conducted by teams from the Cambodian Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization and the Institut Pasteur in Cambodia. Nasopharyngeal, throat and serum specimens collected from 11 household or three neighbour contacts including two suspect cases tested negative by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for A(H5N1). Follow-up sera from the 11 household contacts also tested negative for A(H5N1) antibodies. Twenty-six HCW who were exposed to the cases without taking adequate personal protective measures self-monitored and none developed symptoms within the two following weeks. An unknown number of passengers travelling with the cases on a minibus while they were symptomatic could not be traced but no clusters of severe respiratory illnesses were detected through the Cambodian surveillance systems in the two weeks after that. The likely cause of the fatal infection in the mother and the child was common-source exposure in Preah Sdach District, Prey Veng Province. Human-to-human transmission of A(H5N1) virus was unlikely but genetic susceptibility is suspected. Clusters of A(H5N1) virus infection should be systematically investigated to rule out any human-to-human transmission. PMID:24993554

  2. Reduced Artemisinin Susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Ring Stages in Western Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Khim, Nimol; Chim, Pheaktra; Kim, Saorin; Ke, Sopheakvatey; Kloeung, Nimol; Chy, Sophy; Duong, Socheat; Leang, Rithea; Ringwald, Pascal; Dondorp, Arjen M.; Tripura, Rupam; Benoit-Vical, Françoise; Berry, Antoine; Gorgette, Olivier; Ariey, Frédéric; Barale, Jean-Christophe; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2013-01-01

    The declining efficacy of artemisinin derivatives against Plasmodium falciparum in western Cambodia is a major concern. The knowledge gap in the understanding of the mechanisms involved hampers designing monitoring tools. Here, we culture-adapted 20 isolates from Pailin and Ratanakiri (areas of artemisinin resistance and susceptibility in western and eastern Cambodia, respectively) and studied their in vitro response to dihydroartemisinin. No significant difference between the two sets of isolates was observed in the classical isotopic test. However, a 6-h pulse exposure to 700 nM dihydroartemisinin (ring-stage survival assay -RSA]) revealed a clear-cut geographic dichotomy. The survival rate of exposed ring-stage parasites (ring stages) was 17-fold higher in isolates from Pailin (median, 13.5%) than in those from Ratanakiri (median, 0.8%), while exposed mature stages were equally and highly susceptible (0.6% and 0.7%, respectively). Ring stages survived drug exposure by cell cycle arrest and resumed growth upon drug withdrawal. The reduced susceptibility to artemisinin in Pailin appears to be associated with an altered in vitro phenotype of ring stages from Pailin in the RSA. PMID:23208708

  3. Epidemiological and Virological Characteristics of Influenza Viruses Circulating in Cambodia from 2009 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Sovann; Heng, Seng; Vong, Sirenda; Kitsutani, Paul; Ieng, Vannra; Tarantola, Arnaud; Ly, Sowath; Sar, Borann; Chea, Nora; Sokhal, Buth; Barr, Ian; Kelso, Anne; Horwood, Paul F.; Timmermans, Ans; Hurt, Aeron; Lon, Chanthap; Saunders, David; Ung, Sam An; Asgari, Nima; Roces, Maria Concepcion; Touch, Sok; Komadina, Naomi; Buchy, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Background The Cambodian National Influenza Center (NIC) monitored and characterized circulating influenza strains from 2009 to 2011. Methodology/Principal Findings Sentinel and study sites collected nasopharyngeal specimens for diagnostic detection, virus isolation, antigenic characterization, sequencing and antiviral susceptibility analysis from patients who fulfilled case definitions for influenza-like illness, acute lower respiratory infections and event-based surveillance. Each year in Cambodia, influenza viruses were detected mainly from June to November, during the rainy season. Antigenic analysis show that A/H1N1pdm09 isolates belonged to the A/California/7/2009-like group. Circulating A/H3N2 strains were A/Brisbane/10/2007-like in 2009 before drifting to A/Perth/16/2009-like in 2010 and 2011. The Cambodian influenza B isolates from 2009 to 2011 all belonged to the B/Victoria lineage represented by the vaccine strains B/Brisbane/60/2008 and B/Malaysia/2506/2004. Sequences of the M2 gene obtained from representative 2009–2011 A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm09 strains all contained the S31N mutation associated with adamantanes resistance except for one A/H1N1pdm09 strain isolated in 2011 that lacked this mutation. No reduction in the susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibitors was observed among the influenza viruses circulating from 2009 to 2011. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that A/H3N2 strains clustered each year to a distinct group while most A/H1N1pdm09 isolates belonged to the S203T clade. Conclusions/Significance In Cambodia, from 2009 to 2011, influenza activity occurred throughout the year with peak seasonality during the rainy season from June to November. Seasonal influenza epidemics were due to multiple genetically distinct viruses, even though all of the isolates were antigenically similar to the reference vaccine strains. The drug susceptibility profile of Cambodian influenza strains revealed that neuraminidase inhibitors would be the drug of choice for influenza treatment and chemoprophylaxis in Cambodia, as adamantanes are no longer expected to be effective. PMID:25340711

  4. Ex vivo drug sensitivity profiles of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Cambodia and Thailand, 2005 to 2010, determined by a histidine-rich protein-2 assay

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In vitro drug susceptibility assay of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates processed “immediate ex vivo” (IEV), without culture adaption, and tested using histidine-rich protein-2 (HRP-2) detection as an assay, is an expedient way to track drug resistance. Methods From 2005 to 2010, a HRP-2 in vitro assay assessed 451 P. falciparum field isolates obtained from subjects with malaria in western and northern Cambodia, and eastern Thailand, processed IEV, for 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) against seven anti-malarial drugs, including artesunate (AS), dihydroartemisinin (DHA), and piperaquine. Results In western Cambodia, from 2006 to 2010, geometric mean (GM) IC50 values for chloroquine, mefloquine, quinine, AS, DHA, and lumefantrine increased. In northern Cambodia, from 2009–2010, GM IC50 values for most drugs approximated the highest western Cambodia GM IC50 values in 2009 or 2010. Conclusions Western Cambodia is associated with sustained reductions in anti-malarial drug susceptibility, including the artemisinins, with possible emergence, or spread, to northern Cambodia. This potential public health crisis supports continued in vitro drug IC50 monitoring of P. falciparum isolates at key locations in the region. PMID:22694953

  5. Biomedical subjectivities and reproductive assumptions in the CAMELIA clinical trial in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Petitet, Pascale Hancart

    2014-01-01

    The inclusion of women in clinical trials has raised a variety of ethical and practical issues in their implementation. In the recent CAMELIA clinical trial in Cambodia, the inclusion criteria included a negative pregnancy test and signature of the consent form confirming commitment to double contraceptive use as patients were given drugs contra-indicated in case of pregnancy. But despite precautions and the requirement stated in the informed consent form, 19 out of 236 enrolled women became pregnant during the trial. The current paper describes the frictions and subjectivities that emerge as new medical technologies travel to resource-poor settings--and more specifically, how trial researchers, health workers, and research subjects involved in the CAMELIA trial negotiate the injunction to avoid pregnancy while using a teratogenic drug. PMID:25175297

  6. Tuberculosis case-finding in Cambodia: analysis of case notification data, 2000 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Furphy, Valérie Burrus; Kobayashi, Miwako; Nishikiori, Nobuyuki; Eang, Mao Tan; Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad

    2015-01-01

    The routine tuberculosis (TB) surveillance system in Cambodia has been strengthened under the National TB Programme (NTP). This paper provides an overview of the TB surveillance data for Cambodia at the national level for the period 2000 to 2013 and at the subnational level for 2013. The proportion of the total population that were screened for TB rose from 0.4% in 2001 to 1.1% in 2013, while the smear-positivity rate decreased from 28.9% to 8.1% in the same period. The total number of notified TB cases increased steadily from 2000; this has stabilized in recent years with 39 055 cases notified in 2013. The proportion of all TB cases that were smear-positive decreased from 78% in 2000 to 36% in 2013. Case notification rates (CNRs) for all forms of TB and new smear-positive TB in 2013 were 261 and 94 per 100 000 population, respectively. Higher CNRs were found in the north-western and south-eastern parts of the country and were higher for males especially in older age groups. The increase in TB screening, decline in the smear-positive rate and decline in notified smear-positive TB cases likely reflect a long-term positive impact of the NTP. A negative correlation between the proportion of the population screened and the smear-positivity rate at the subnational level helped identify where to find undiagnosed cases. Subnational differences in case notification of the elderly and in children provide more specific targets for case-finding and further encourage strategic resource allocation. PMID:25960919

  7. Removing arsenic from groundwater in Cambodia using high performance iron adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Kang, Y; Takeda, R; Nada, A; Thavarith, L; Tang, S; Nuki, K; Sakurai, K

    2014-09-01

    In Cambodia, groundwater has been contaminated with arsenic, and purification of the water is an urgent issue. From 2010 to 2012, an international collaborative project between Japan and Cambodia for developing arsenic-removing technology from well water was conducted and supported by the foundation of New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Japan. Quality of well water was surveyed in Kandal, Prey Veng, and Kampong Cham Provinces, and a monitoring trial of the arsenic removal equipment using our patented amorphous iron (hydr)oxide adsorbent was performed. Of the 37 wells surveyed, arsenic concentration of 24 exceeded the Cambodian guideline value (50 ?g L(-1)), and those of 27 exceeded the WHO guideline for drinking water (10 ?g L(-1)). Levels of arsenic were extremely high in some wells (>1,000-6,000 ?g L(-1)), suggesting that arsenic pollution of groundwater is serious in these areas. Based on the survey results, 16 arsenic removal equipments were installed in six schools, three temples, two health centers, four private houses, and one commune office. Over 10 months of monitoring, the average arsenic concentrations of the treated water were between 0 and 10 ?g L(-1) at four locations, 10-50 ?g L(-1) at eight locations, and >50 ?g L(-1) at four locations. The arsenic removal rate ranged in 83.1-99.7%, with an average of 93.8%, indicating that the arsenic removal equipment greatly lower the risk of arsenic exposure to the residents. Results of the field trial showed that As concentration of the treated water could be reduced to <10 µg L(-1) by managing the As removal equipment properly, suggesting that the amorphous iron (hydr)oxide adsorbent has high adsorbing capacity for As not only in the laboratory environment but also in the field condition. This is one of the succeeding As removal techniques that could reduce As concentration of water below the WHO guideline value for As in situ. PMID:24894910

  8. Tropical tree water use under seasonal waterlogging and drought in central Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Tateishi, Makiko; Komatsu, Hikaru; Ma, Vuthy; Kajisa, Tsuyoshi; Sokh, Heng; Mizoue, Nobuya; Kumagai, Tomo'omi

    2014-07-01

    In central Cambodia, rapid growing non-endemic species are planted for future timber production. However, less is understood about the impact of the introduction of non-endemic species on the transpiration characteristics of the forest, which has been composed of native species that adapted to the highly seasonal environments. Sap flux of two native and one non-endemic tree species in central Cambodia was measured to reveal its seasonal trends and variability in the Monsoon Asia region. Measurements were carried out in a 10- to 15-year-old forest in the dry and rainy seasons that were defined by differing rainfall patterns. The seasonal trend in depth to water table differed from that of rainfall; groundwater table depth reached zero late in the rainy season and increased gradually after the onset of the dry season. The ratio of sap flux to an equilibrium evaporation condition of the native species, Popel (Shorea roxburghii), showed a sharp decline at the end of the dry season, whereas that of a non-endemic species, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), decreased in the mid rainy season while Tbeng (Dipterocarpus obtusifolius) did not show a clear trend. The ratio of sap flux to an equilibrium evaporation was negatively correlated with the depth to water table in Popel, but was positively correlated in eucalyptus, possibly because of the negative effects of flooding. In addition to the large seasonal variation, intra-species variation in sap flux was also large and was a major controlling factor for tree-level water uptake at this young forest site in both dry and rainy seasons. In conclusion, the transpiration characteristics of this forest were species-specific and were controlled more by the fluctuating depths to groundwater rather than the onset of the rainy/dry seasons defined by rainfall events.

  9. Circumstances around weapon injury in Cambodia after departure of a peacekeeping force: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Meddings, David R; O’Connor, Stephanie M

    1999-01-01

    Objective To examine the circumstances surrounding weapon injury and combatant status of those injured by weapons. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Northwestern Cambodia after departure of United Nations peacekeeping force. Subjects 863 people admitted to hospital for weapon injuries over 12 months. Main outcome measures Annual incidence of weapon injury by time period; proportions of injuries inflicted as a result of interfactional combat (combat injuries) and outside such combat (non-combat injuries) by combatant status and weapon type. Results The annual incidence of weapon injuries was higher than the rate observed before the peacekeeping operation. 30% of weapon injuries occurred in contexts other than interfactional combat. Most commonly these were firearm injuries inflicted intentionally on civilians. Civilians accounted for 71% of those with non-combat injuries, 42% of those with combat related injuries, and 51% of those with weapon injuries of either type. Conclusions The incidence of weapon injuries remained high when the disarmament component of a peacekeeping operation achieved only limited success. Furthermore, injuries occurring outside the context of interfactional combat accounted for a substantial proportion of all weapon injuries, were experienced disproportionately by civilians, and were most likely to entail the intentional use of a firearm against a civilian. Key messagesThe study took place in Cambodia after a United Nations peacekeeping operation that achieved only limited success in disarmamentA substantial proportion of weapon injuries was inflicted in contexts unrelated to interfactional combatThese injuries were most commonly firearm injuries inflicted intentionally on civiliansWidespread availability of weapons can facilitate social violence PMID:10445922

  10. ARH in Cambodia (Phnom Penh and Sihanoukville municipalities and Battambang and Kampong Cham provinces). RAS/98/P12.

    PubMed

    1999-06-01

    In Cambodia, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, through the Reproductive Health (RH) Association of Cambodia, seeks to help strengthen the national capacity to deliver RH services and high-quality RH information, education and communication (IEC) materials for adolescents in four project areas. It also aims to increase the utilization of RH services by young people aged 12-25 years. Its strategies include providing back-up IEC services and specialist technical inputs to the production of radio shows, and sharing the family life education curriculum as a resource. The main activities of the project consist of: 1) meeting with stakeholders to encourage community participation and carrying out needs assessment; 2) organizing adolescent reproductive health services and providing special clinic facilities; 3) setting up of youth club activities and mobilizing, training and supporting youth volunteers to provide outreach, peer education and referrals to clinic services; and 4) training and disseminating IEC materials. PMID:12322654

  11. The village/commune safety policy and HIV prevention efforts among key affected populations in Cambodia: finding a balance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on “cleaning the streets”, has created difficulties for HIV prevention programs attempting to implement programs that work with key affected populations including female sex workers and people who inject drugs. The implementation of the policy has forced HIV program implementers, the UN and various government counterparts to explore and develop collaborative ways of delivering HIV prevention services within this difficult environment. The following case study explores some of these efforts and highlights the promising development of a Police Community Partnership Initiative that it is hoped will find a meaningful balance between the Village/Commune Safety Policy and HIV prevention efforts with key affected populations in Cambodia. PMID:22770267

  12. Microbial Community Analysis of Fresh and Old Microbial Biofilms on Bayon Temple Sandstone of Angkor Thom, Cambodia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wensheng Lan; Hui Li; Wei-Dong Wang; Yoko Katayama; Ji-Dong Gu

    2010-01-01

    The temples of Angkor monuments including Angkor Thom and Bayon in Cambodia and surrounding countries were exclusively constructed\\u000a using sandstone. They are severely threatened by biodeterioration caused by active growth of different microorganisms on the\\u000a sandstone surfaces, but knowledge on the microbial community and composition of the biofilms on the sandstone is not available\\u000a from this region. This study investigated

  13. Is importing second-hand products a good thing? The cases of computers and tires in Cambodia

    SciTech Connect

    Chanthy, Lay, E-mail: Lay.Chanthy@ait.ac.th; Nitivattananon, Vilas, E-mail: vilasn@ait.ac.t

    2011-04-15

    Is importing second-hand products (SHPs) good for Cambodia? To answer this question, one must seriously consider environmental and social effects. The main objective of this study is to identify and assess the economic, social, and environmental impacts of imported SHPs to determine whether or not Cambodia benefits. Imported second-hand computers (SHPCs) and second-hand tires (SHTs) were selected as cases for the study. The study used a scaling checklist to identify significant impacts of these two imported items. Significant impacts were ranked and rated into a single value (score) for integration. Integrated impact assessment showed that imported SHPCs create a very small positive impact (+ 0.1 of + 5) and imported SHTs generate a large negative impact (- 2.83 of - 5). These scores are mainly the result of environmental impact, predominantly waste issues. Thus, current imports of SHPCs and SHTs do not really benefit Cambodia, but instead cause serious environmental problems from their waste issues. The import serves as a channel to transfer waste into developing countries.

  14. Injections, Cocktails and Diviners: Therapeutic Flexibility in the Context of Malaria Elimination and Drug Resistance in Northeast Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Gryseels, Charlotte; Uk, Sambunny; Erhart, Annette; Gerrets, René; Sluydts, Vincent; Durnez, Lies; Muela Ribera, Joan; Hausmann Muela, Susanna; Menard, Didier; Heng, Somony; Sochantha, Tho; D’Alessandro, Umberto; Coosemans, Marc; Peeters Grietens, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Background Adherence to effective malaria medication is extremely important in the context of Cambodia’s elimination targets and drug resistance containment. Although the public sector health facilities are accessible to the local ethnic minorities of Ratanakiri province (Northeast Cambodia), their illness itineraries often lead them to private pharmacies selling “cocktails” and artemether injections, or to local diviners prescribing animal sacrifices to appease the spirits. Methods The research design consisted of a mixed methods study, combining qualitative (in-depth interviews and participant observation) and quantitative methods (household and cross-sectional survey). Results Three broad options for malaria treatment were identified: i) the public sector; ii) the private sector; iii) traditional treatment based on divination and ceremonial sacrifice. Treatment choice was influenced by the availability of treatment and provider, perceived side effects and efficacy of treatments, perceived etiology of symptoms, and patient-health provider encounters. Moreover, treatment paths proved to be highly flexible, changing mostly in relation to the perceived efficacy of a chosen treatment. Conclusions Despite good availability of anti-malarial treatment in the public health sector, attendance remained low due to both structural and human behavioral factors. The common use and under-dosage of anti-malaria monotherapy in the private sector (single-dose injections, single-day drug cocktails) represents a threat not only for individual case management, but also for the regional plan of drug resistance containment and malaria elimination. PMID:24244678

  15. Human H5N1 influenza infections in Cambodia 2005–2011: case series and cost-of-illness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Southeast Asia has been identified as a potential epicentre of emerging diseases with pandemic capacity, including highly pathogenic influenza. Cambodia in particular has the potential for high rates of avoidable deaths from pandemic influenza due to large gaps in health system resources. This study seeks to better understand the course and cost-of-illness for cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Cambodia. Methods We studied the 18 laboratory-confirmed cases of avian influenza subtype H5N1 identified in Cambodia between January 2005 and August 2011. Medical records for all patients were reviewed to extract information on patient characteristics, travel to hospital, time to admission, diagnostic testing, treatment and disease outcomes. Further data related to costs was collected through interviews with key informants at district and provincial hospitals, the Ministry of Health and non-governmental organisations. An ingredient-based approach was used to estimate the total economic cost for each study patient. Costing was conducted from a societal perspective and included both financial and opportunity costs to the patient or carer. Sensitivity analysis was undertaken to evaluate potential change or variation in the cost-of-illness. Results Of the 18 patients studied, 11 (61%) were under the age of 18 years. The majority of patients (16, 89%) died, eight (44%) within 24 hours of hospital admission. There was an average delay of seven days between symptom onset and hospitalisation with patients travelling an average of 148 kilometres (8-476 km) to the admitting hospital. Five patients were treated with oseltamivir of whom two received the recommended dose. For the 16 patients who received all their treatment in Cambodia the average per patient cost of H5N1 influenza illness was US$300 of which 85.0% comprised direct medical provider costs, including diagnostic testing (41.2%), pharmaceuticals (28.4%), hospitalisation (10.4%), oxygen (4.4%) and outpatient consultations (0.6%). Patient or family costs were US$45 per patient (15.0%) of total economic cost. Conclusion Cases of avian influenza in Cambodia were characterised by delays in hospitalisation, deficiencies in some aspects of treatment and a high fatality rate. The costs associated with medical care, particularly diagnostic testing and pharmaceutical therapy, were major contributors to the relatively high cost-of-illness. PMID:23738818

  16. Improving government health services through contract management: a case from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Soeters, Robert; Griffiths, Fred

    2003-03-01

    Most government health facilities in Cambodia perform poorly, due to lack of funds, inadequate management and inefficient use of resources, but mostly due to poor motivation of staff. This paper describes contracting as a possible tool for Ministries of Health to improve health service delivery more rapidly than the more traditional reform approaches. In Cambodia, the Ministry of Health started an experiment with contracting in eight districts, covering 1 million people. Health care management in five districts was sub-contracted to private sector operators, and their results were compared with three control districts. Both internal and external reviews showed that after 3 years of implementation, the utilization of health services in the contracted districts improved significantly, in comparison with the control districts. There was adequate competition in awarding the contracts. A Ministry of Health Project Co-ordinating Unit measured the performance of the contractors, and contributed pro-actively. There was no evidence of rent-seeking practices by either the contracting agency or the contractors. This paper describes in more detail the successes and failures in one of the contracted districts, where HealthNet International applied the contracting approach. Despite significantly increased official user fees, constituting 16% of recurrent costs, the utilization of services was equally increased. Patients thought the fees were reasonable because they were still lower than the fees demanded if government health workers charged informally. They also thought that the services were of better quality than in the unregulated private sector. Another important result was that combining strict monitoring with performance-based incentives demonstrates a decrease in total family health expenditure of some 40% from US dollars 18 to US dollars 11 per capita per year. Innovative and decisive management proved to be essential, which is more likely to be achieved by a contracted manager than by regular government managers with life-long employment. This paper discusses how the contractor addressed the deeply rooted problems of informal private activities of government health workers. The NGO district management experimented with two management systems: first by individual contracts with health workers, and secondly by sub-contracting directly with the health centre chiefs and hospital directors. A reason for concern is that poli-pharmacy and excessive use of injectables continued. Also, the participation of the central level of the Ministry of Health was positive in the contracting process, but the role and participation of the provincial level of the Ministry was more tentative. PMID:12582110

  17. Estimation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice field with rice straw management in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Vibol, S; Towprayoon, S

    2010-02-01

    To estimate the greenhouse gas emissions from paddy fields of Cambodia, the methodology of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines, IPCC coefficients, and emission factors from the experiment in Thailand and another country were used. Total area under rice cultivation during the years 2005-2006 was 2,048,360 ha in the first crop season and 298,529 ha in the second crop season. The emission of methane from stubble incorporation with manure plus fertilizer application areas in the first crop season was estimated to be 192,783.74 ton higher than stubble with manure, stubble with fertilizer, and stubble without fertilizer areas. The fields with stubble burning emitted the highest emission of methane (75,771.29 ton) followed by stubble burning with manure (22,251.08 ton), stubble burning with fertilizer (13,213.27 ton), and stubble burning with fertilizer application areas (3,222.22 ton). The total emission of methane from rice field in Cambodia for the years 2005-2006 was approximately 342,649.26 ton (342.65 Gg) in the first crop season and 36,838.88 ton (36.84 Gg) in the second crop season. During the first crop season in the years 2005-2006, Battambang province emitted the highest amount of CH(4) (38,764.48 ton) and, in the second crop season during the years 2005-2006, the highest emission (8,262.34 ton) was found in Takeo province (8,262.34 ton). Nitrous oxide emission was between 2.70 and 1,047.92 ton in the first crop season and it ranged from 0 to 244.90 ton in the second crop season. Total nitrous oxide emission from paddy rice field was estimated to be 9,026.28 ton in the first crop season and 1,091.93 ton in the second crop season. Larger area under cultivation is responsible for higher emission of methane and nitrous oxide. Total emission of nitrous oxide by using IPCC default emission coefficient was approximately 2,328.85 ton. The total global warming potential of Cambodian paddy rice soil is 11,723,217.03 ton (11,723 Gg) equivalents of CO(2). PMID:19259777

  18. Neurobehavioral effects of arsenic exposure among secondary school children in the Kandal Province, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Vibol, Sao; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Sarmani, Sukiman

    2015-02-01

    The research was carried out at 3 study sites with varying groundwater arsenic (As) levels in the Kandal Province of Cambodia. Kampong Kong Commune was chosen as a highly contaminated site (300-500?g/L), Svay Romiet Commune was chosen as a moderately contaminated site (50-300?g/L) and Anlong Romiet Commune was chosen as a control site. Neurobehavioral tests on the 3 exposure groups were conducted using a modified WHO neurobehavioral core test battery. Seven neurobehavioral tests including digit symbol, digit span, Santa Ana manual dexterity, Benton visual retention, pursuit aiming, trail making and simple reaction time were applied. Children's hair samples were also collected to investigate the influence of hair As levels on the neurobehavioral test scores. The results from the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses of hair samples showed that hair As levels at the 3 study sites were significantly different (p<0.001), whereby hair samples from the highly contaminated site (n=157) had a median hair As level of 0.93?g/g, while the moderately contaminated site (n=151) had a median hair As level of 0.22?g/g, and the control site (n=214) had a median hair As level of 0.08?g/g. There were significant differences among the 3 study sites for all the neurobehavioral tests scores, except for digit span (backward) test. Multiple linear regression clearly shows a positive significant influence of hair As levels on all the neurobehavioral test scores, except for digit span (backward) test, after controlling for hair lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd). Children with high hair As levels experienced 1.57-4.67 times greater risk of having lower neurobehavioral test scores compared to those with low hair As levels, after adjusting for hair Pb, Mn and Cd levels and BMI status. In conclusion, arsenic-exposed school children from the Kandal Province of Cambodia with a median hair As level of 0.93µg/g among those from the highly contaminated study site, showed clear evidence of neurobehavioral effects. PMID:25601736

  19. Selling sex in unsafe spaces: sex work risk environments in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The risk environment framework provides a valuable but under-utilised heuristic for understanding environmental vulnerability to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers. Brothels have been shown to be safer than street-based sex work, with higher rates of consistent condom use and lower HIV prevalence. While entertainment venues are also assumed to be safer than street-based sex work, few studies have examined environmental influences on vulnerability to HIV in this context. Methods As part of the Young Women's Health Study, a prospective observational study of young women (15-29 years) engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, we conducted in-depth interviews (n = 33) to explore vulnerability to HIV/STI and related harms. Interviews were conducted in Khmer by trained interviewers, transcribed and translated into English and analysed for thematic content. Results The intensification of anti-prostitution and anti-trafficking efforts in Cambodia has increased the number of women working in entertainment venues and on the street. Our results confirm that street-based sex work places women at risk of HIV/STI infection and identify significant environmental risks related to entertainment-based sex work, including limited access to condoms and alcohol-related intoxication. Our data also indicate that exposure to violence and interactions with the police are mediated by the settings in which sex is sold. In particular, transacting sex in environments such as guest houses where there is little or no oversight in the form of peer or managerial support or protection, may increase vulnerability to HIV/STI. Conclusions Entertainment venues may also provide a high risk environment for sex work. Our results indicate that strategies designed to address HIV prevention among brothel-based FSWs in Cambodia have not translated well to street and entertainment-based sex work venues in which increasing numbers of women are working. There is an urgent need for targeted interventions, supported by legal and policy reforms, designed to reduce the environmental risks of sex work in these settings. Future research should seek to investigate sex work venues as risk environments, explore the role of different business models in mediating these environments, and identify and quantify exposure to risk in different occupational settings. PMID:22099449

  20. A comprehensive archaeological map of the world's largest preindustrial settlement complex at Angkor, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Evans, Damian; Pottier, Christophe; Fletcher, Roland; Hensley, Scott; Tapley, Ian; Milne, Anthony; Barbetti, Michael

    2007-09-01

    The great medieval settlement of Angkor in Cambodia [9th-16th centuries Common Era (CE)] has for many years been understood as a "hydraulic city," an urban complex defined, sustained, and ultimately overwhelmed by a complex water management network. Since the 1980s that view has been disputed, but the debate has remained unresolved because of insufficient data on the landscape beyond the great temples: the broader context of the monumental remains was only partially understood and had not been adequately mapped. Since the 1990s, French, Australian, and Cambodian teams have sought to address this empirical deficit through archaeological mapping projects by using traditional methods such as ground survey in conjunction with advanced radar remote-sensing applications in partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Here we present a major outcome of that research: a comprehensive archaeological map of greater Angkor, covering nearly 3,000 km2, prepared by the Greater Angkor Project (GAP). The map reveals a vast, low-density settlement landscape integrated by an elaborate water management network covering>1,000 km2, the most extensive urban complex of the preindustrial world. It is now clear that anthropogenic changes to the landscape were both extensive and substantial enough to have created grave challenges to the long-term viability of the settlement. PMID:17717084

  1. Using social network analysis to evaluate health-related adaptation decision-making in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Kathryn J; Alexander, Damon; Miller, Fiona; Dany, Va

    2014-02-01

    Climate change adaptation in the health sector requires decisions across sectors, levels of government, and organisations. The networks that link these different institutions, and the relationships among people within these networks, are therefore critical influences on the nature of adaptive responses to climate change in the health sector. This study uses social network research to identify key organisational players engaged in developing health-related adaptation activities in Cambodia. It finds that strong partnerships are reported as developing across sectors and different types of organisations in relation to the health risks from climate change. Government ministries are influential organisations, whereas donors, development banks and non-government organisations do not appear to be as influential in the development of adaptation policy in the health sector. Finally, the study highlights the importance of informal partnerships (or 'shadow networks') in the context of climate change adaptation policy and activities. The health governance 'map' in relation to health and climate change adaptation that is developed in this paper is a novel way of identifying organisations that are perceived as key agents in the decision-making process, and it holds substantial benefits for both understanding and intervening in a broad range of climate change-related policy problems where collaboration is paramount for successful outcomes. PMID:24487452

  2. Adult tobacco cessation in Cambodia: II. Determinants of intent to quit.

    PubMed

    Tonstad, Serena; Job, Jayakaran S; Batech, Michael; Yel, Daravuth; Kheam, They; Singh, Pramil N

    2013-09-01

    Identifying determinants of intent to quit may aid the design of antitobacco programs and promote effective tobacco control policies. In a nationwide survey in Cambodia, two thirds of tobacco smokers and 45% of female smokeless tobacco users planned to stop in the future. Multivariate determinants of intent in 2279 male smokers were age <37 years, age at initiation ? 18 years, Cham versus Khmer ethnicity (odds ratio [OR] = 6.93; 95% confidence interval[CI] = 1.38-34.89), longer education, and professional occupation. In 1188 female smokeless tobacco users, age <25 years, age at initiation ? 18 years, and tuberculosis (OR = 3.26; 95% CI = 1.61-6.61) were associated with intent. In female smokers (n = 321), age 18 to 25 years at initiation was associated with intent. In male smokers and female smokeless tobacco users, perceived physical advantages of tobacco were inversely associated with intent. These findings underscore the importance of policies and interventions to delay initiation and promote cessation in young people and counteract perceived physical benefits. PMID:22865720

  3. Microbiological effectiveness of locally produced ceramic filters for drinking water treatment in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joe; Sobsey, Mark D

    2010-03-01

    Low-cost options for the treatment of drinking water at the household level are being explored by the Cambodian government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in Cambodia, where many lack access to improved drinking water sources and diarrhoeal diseases are the most prevalent cause of death in children under 5 years of age. The ceramic water purifier (CWP), a locally produced, low-cost ceramic filter, is now being implemented by several NGOs, and an estimated 100,000+households in the country now use them for drinking water treatment. Two candidate filters were tested for the reduction of bacterial and viral surrogates for waterborne pathogens using representative Cambodian drinking water sources (rainwater and surface water) spiked with Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Results indicate that filters were capable of reducing key microbes in the laboratory with mean reductions of E. coli of approximately 99% and mean reduction of bacteriophages of 90-99% over >600 litres throughput. Increased effectiveness was not observed in filters with an AgNO3 amendment. At under US$10 per filter, locally produced ceramic filters may be a promising option for drinking water treatment and safe storage at the household level. PMID:20009242

  4. Biodiversity conservation and resource tenure regimes: a case study from northeast Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Baird, Ian G; Dearden, Philip

    2003-11-01

    The management of tropical protected areas is a contentious issue in resource management and often leads to an unproductive polarization of viewpoints supporting either "protectionist" or "sustainable development" paradigms. This paper argues for a context-driven approach whereby effective management requires inputs from both paradigms in different situations. A key element of context is understanding long-practiced resource tenures and their ability to meet future conservation and livelihood goals. Different types of tenure arrangements are often required for different resources. This approach is illustrated by analysis of Virachey National Park in NE Cambodia. This park encompasses part of the ancestral territory of ethnic Brao people, who rely upon swidden agriculture, fish, terrestrial wildlife, and various nontimber forest products (NTFPs) for their livelihoods. These people have developed a mix of resource tenure regimes to promote sustainable use and to maximize local benefits. In the face of contemporary pressures, some of these traditional approaches are effective, while others are not. The paper suggests avenues for building on long-established management practices of the Brao to achieve park management goals while enhancing the welfare of the Brao people. A mix of private ownership, common property management, and central government involvement may be required to maximize benefits to local people and ensure long-term protection of biodiversity. PMID:15015693

  5. Reaching out and reaching up - developing a low cost drug treatment system in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cambodia, confronted by the spread of drug misuse among young people, requested support from international agencies to develop a drug treatment programme in 2000. The initial plan developed by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime was to set up a number of conventional drug treatment centres in urban areas. During the planning phase, however, the project was redesigned as a community based outreach programme. Ten Community Counselling Teams have been formed and trained in pilot areas, and within the first year of operation 462 drug and alcohol users contacted. Comprising former drug users, family members affected by drug use and health care staff, they have drug scene credibility, local knowledge and connectivity, and a rudimentary level of medical competence. Crucially, they enjoy the support of village elders, who are involved in the planning and reporting stages. While the Community Counselling Teams with their basic training in addiction counselling are in no position as yet to either provide or refer clients to treatment, they can provide brief interventions, organise self help groups, and most importantly provide an alternative to law enforcement. By taking a development centred approach, with emphasis on community, empowerment and inclusion, it provides a constructive and inclusive alternative to medical approaches and the compulsory drug treatment centres. The paper is based on an evaluation involving interviews with a range of stakeholders and a review of project documents. PMID:22410105

  6. Evidence of an ‘invitation’ effect in feeding sylvatic Stegomyia albopicta from Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Orientation of haematophagous insects towards a potential host is largely mediated by kairomones that, in some groups or species may include chemicals produced during feeding by the insects themselves, the so called ‘invitation’ effect. Methods The ‘invitation’ effect in blood-feeding diurnally active Stegomyia albopicta was investigated over 33 days in secondary forest in Mondolkiri Province, Cambodia. Two human volunteers sitting inside a shelter collected mosquitoes and noted where and when they landed. A 10% emanator of a synthetic pyrethroid with high vapour action was in use on alternate days. Results Overall, 2726 mosquitoes were collected, 1654 of which had the landing site recorded. The heads of the volunteers were the locations with the highest density of landings per surface area whilst the knees and elbows accounted for most of the landings received on the arms and legs. Landings recorded within three minutes of each other on a collector were about 2.5 times more likely to be on the same body part than on a random body part, weighted for landing site preference. This preference did not vary with collector or pyrethroid. Conclusions The ‘invitation’ effect may be due to a semio-chemical produced early in the feeding process. Incorporation of such a chemical into traps designed to control this important vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses might potentially improve their attractiveness. PMID:25015104

  7. Treatment coverage survey after a school-based mass distribution of mebendazole: Kampot Province, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Chesnaye, Nicholas; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong; Koporc, Kim; Mathieu, Els

    2011-04-01

    In efforts to reduce the global burden of soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections in school age children (SAC, 6-14 years old), Children Without Worms donates mebendazole to 8 countries with high prevalence of STH infections. Cambodia's national deworming program currently targets SAC through bi-annual school-based distributions of a single dose of mebendazole. A 30-cluster household survey was conducted in the rural province Kampot, to validate mebendazole treatment coverage in SAC and to assess the level of improved water supply and sanitation. Bi-annual primary school-based distributions proved to be an effective strategy in reaching school attending SAC, with treatment coverage rates between 84.1% and 88.8%. However, significantly lower rates (23.3-48.8%) were seen among SAC not enrolled in primary schools. Often members of the most marginalized families of the community, they are particularly at risk of STH infection. Methods to reach these children need to be explored to avoid treatment inequities. PMID:21238424

  8. Drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in a national referral hospital, Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Genevieve; Bulifon, Sophie; Breysse, Serge; Daneth, Thol; Bonnet, Maryline; Hurtado, Northan; Molfino, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective There are no recent data on the prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR TB) in Cambodia. We aim to describe TB drug resistance amongst adults with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection in a national referral hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Design Between 22 November 2007 and 30 November 2009, clinical specimens from HIV-infected patients suspected of having TB underwent routine microscopy, Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture, and drug susceptibility testing. Laboratory and clinical data were collected for patients with positive M. tuberculosis cultures. Results M. tuberculosis was cultured from 236 HIV-infected patients. Resistance to any first-line TB drug occurred in 34.7% of patients; 8.1% had multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB). The proportion of MDR TB amongst new patients and previously treated patients was 3.7 and 28.9%, respectively (p<0.001). The diagnosis of MDR TB was made after death in 15.8% of patients; in total 26.3% of patients with MDR TB died. The diagnosis of TB was established by culture of extra-pulmonary specimens in 23.6% of cases. Conclusions There is significant resistance to first-line TB drugs amongst new and previously treated TB–HIV co-infected patients in Phnom Penh. These data suggest that the prevalence of DR TB in Cambodia may be higher than previously recognised, particularly amongst HIV-infected patients. Additional prevalence studies are needed. This study also illustrates the feasibility and utility of analysis of non-respiratory specimens in the diagnosis of TB, even in low-resource settings, and suggests that extra-pulmonary specimens should be included in TB diagnostic algorithms. PMID:25623609

  9. Mapping and Characterizing Selected Canopy Tree Species at the Angkor World Heritage Site in Cambodia Using Aerial Data

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Minerva; Evans, Damian; Tan, Boun Suy; Nin, Chan Samean

    2015-01-01

    At present, there is very limited information on the ecology, distribution, and structure of Cambodia’s tree species to warrant suitable conservation measures. The aim of this study was to assess various methods of analysis of aerial imagery for characterization of the forest mensuration variables (i.e., tree height and crown width) of selected tree species found in the forested region around the temples of Angkor Thom, Cambodia. Object-based image analysis (OBIA) was used (using multiresolution segmentation) to delineate individual tree crowns from very-high-resolution (VHR) aerial imagery and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Crown width and tree height values that were extracted using multiresolution segmentation showed a high level of congruence with field-measured values of the trees (Spearman’s rho 0.782 and 0.589, respectively). Individual tree crowns that were delineated from aerial imagery using multiresolution segmentation had a high level of segmentation accuracy (69.22%), whereas tree crowns delineated using watershed segmentation underestimated the field-measured tree crown widths. Both spectral angle mapper (SAM) and maximum likelihood (ML) classifications were applied to the aerial imagery for mapping of selected tree species. The latter was found to be more suitable for tree species classification. Individual tree species were identified with high accuracy. Inclusion of textural information further improved species identification, albeit marginally. Our findings suggest that VHR aerial imagery, in conjunction with OBIA-based segmentation methods (such as multiresolution segmentation) and supervised classification techniques are useful for tree species mapping and for studies of the forest mensuration variables. PMID:25902148

  10. Angkor site monitoring and evaluation by radar remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fulong; Jiang, Aihui; Ishwaran, Natarajan

    2014-11-01

    Angkor, in the northern province of Siem Reap, Cambodia, is one of the most important world heritage sites of Southeast Asia. Seasonal flood and ground sinking are two representative hazards in Angkor site. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing has played an important role for the Angkor site monitoring and management. In this study, 46 scenes of TerraSAR data acquired in the span of February, 2011 to December, 2013 were used for the time series analysis and hazard evaluation; that is, two-fold classification for flood area extracting and Multi-Temporal SAR Interferometry (MT-InSAR) for ground subsidence monitoring. For the flood investigation, the original Single Look Complex (SLC) TerraSAR-X data were transferred into amplitude images. Water features in dry and flood seasons were firstly extracted using a proposed mixed-threshold approach based on the backscattering; and then for the correlation analysis between water features and the precipitation in seasonally and annually. Using the MT-InSAR method, the ground subsidence was derived with values ranging from -50 to +12 mm/yr in the observation period of February, 2011 to June, 2013. It is clear that the displacement on the Angkor site was evident, implying the necessity of continuous monitoring.

  11. Monitoring of biophysical parameters of cashew plants in Cambodia using ALOS/PALSAR data.

    PubMed

    Avtar, Ram; Takeuchi, Wataru; Sawada, Haruo

    2013-02-01

    An accurate estimation of a plant's age is required for the prediction of yield and management practices. This study demonstrates the relationship between backscattering properties (?°) of Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) dual polarimetric data with cashew plants' biophysical parameters (height, age, crown diameter, diameter at breast height, basal area, tree density, and biomass) in Cambodia. PALSAR ?° has shown a positive correlation with the biophysical parameters of cashew plants. The value of ?° increases with the age of cashew plants. At a young stage, the cashew plants show a higher rate of an increase in ?° compared to that at the mature stage. The ?° horizontal polarization transmitted and vertical received (HV) shows higher sensitivity to the plant's growth than ?° horizontal polarization transmitted and received (HH). High backscattering and low variations were observed at mature stage (8-12 years) of cashew plantation. Saturation in backscattering has shown from the age of about 13 years. The validation results indicate strong coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.86 and 0.88) for PALSAR-predicted age and biomass of cashew plants with root mean square error = 1.8 years and 16.3 t/ha for age and biomass, respectively. The correlations of ?° (HH) with biophysical parameters observed in the dry season were better than those of the rainy season because soil moisture interferes with backscattering in the rainy season. Biomass accumulation rate of cashew plants has been predicted that would be useful for selection of plants species to enhance carbon sequestration. This study provides an insight to use PALSAR for the monitoring of growth stages of plants at the regional level. PMID:22628102

  12. Prediction of contamination potential of groundwater arsenic in Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand using artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung Hwa; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Kim, Joon Ha

    2011-11-01

    The arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater has increasingly been recognized as a major global issue of concern. As groundwater resources are one of most important freshwater sources for water supplies in Southeast Asian countries, it is important to investigate the spatial distribution of As contamination and evaluate the health risk of As for these countries. The detection of As contamination in groundwater resources, however, can create a substantial labor and cost burden for Southeast Asian countries. Therefore, modeling approaches for As concentration using conventional on-site measurement data can be an alternative to quantify the As contamination. The objective of this study is to evaluate the predictive performance of four different models; specifically, multiple linear regression (MLR), principal component regression (PCR), artificial neural network (ANN), and the combination of principal components and an artificial neural network (PC-ANN) in the prediction of As concentration, and to provide assessment tools for Southeast Asian countries including Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand. The modeling results show that the prediction accuracy of PC-ANN (Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients: 0.98 (traning step) and 0.71 (validation step)) is superior among the four different models. This finding can be explained by the fact that the PC-ANN not only solves the problem of collinearity of input variables, but also reflects the presence of high variability in observed As concentrations. We expect that the model developed in this work can be used to predict As concentrations using conventional water quality data obtained from on-site measurements, and can further provide reliable and predictive information for public health management policies. PMID:21917287

  13. Late Quaternary floodplain development along the Stung Sen River in the Lower Mekong Basin, Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagumo, Naoko; Sugai, Toshihiko; Kubo, Sumiko

    2013-09-01

    The Stung Sen River, the biggest tributary to Lake Tonle Sap in the Lower Mekong Basin in Cambodia, is characterized by large seasonal changes of water discharge under the Asian monsoon climate and seasonal changes in water level that reach at least 7 m and are controlled by the water level of the lake. The Stung Sen River floodplain consists of two geomorphic units: meander belt along the river channel and backmarsh. Coupled observations of outcrops along the river channel and arrays of sediment cores across the floodplain north of Kampong Chheuteal village and Kampong Thom City, c. 150 km and c. 70 km, respectively, reveal that floodplain environmental changes at c. 11 ka were possibly associated with the Holocene onset of the southeast Asian monsoon and probably with the emergence of Lake Tonle Sap. These observations also show that the present backmarsh-meander belt system was established about 5.5 ka along with the unique Mekong-Tonle Sap connection, characterized by a reversal in flow direction during the monsoon season. The meander belt materials are replaced as the river channel shifts on a decadal to centennial timescale. Backmarsh sediments at sites Kampong Chheuteal and Kampong Thom had a constant accumulation rate of about 0.5 mm/y during the Holocene, contrasting with rates of 0.1 mm/y during the late Pleistocene. At around 11 ka, a sand layer was deposited over all of the valley around Kampong Chheuteal, while wetlands enlarged around Kampong Thom, probably because of increased rainfall triggered by an enhancement of the Asian summer monsoon. This 11 ka horizon has since been covered by clayey sediments keeping pace with the accumulation of lacustrine sediments in Lake Tonle Sap.

  14. Quaternary Morphodynamics for two large rivers: the Fly River, PNG, and the Mekong River, Cambodia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, R. E.; Lauer, J. W.; Darby, S. E.; Goni, M. A.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2014-12-01

    During glacial marine transgressions, sediment & carbon are deposited due to the infilling of lowland fluvial systems, material that is then largely removed during ensuing regressions. Measuring & modelling these processes would help quantify the amount, timing, & preservation of these materials, providing insight into the morphodynamics of lowland fluvial systems in response to sea level change. We investigated the infilling dynamics of the Fly and Strickland Rivers, Papua New Guinea. Field data include: 14C dated deep cores recording base level evolution over the Holocene, sonar imaging of floodbasin stratigraphy, and the observations of blocked valley lakes and weathered erosional remnants from LGM conditions. Similar research was conducted on the Mekong River, Cambodia, where we have imaged basin fill stratigraphy and recorded the extent of blocked valley lakes. Such field data provide tantalizing empirical glimpses into the landscapes & flux buffering exhibited by large tropical rivers during glacial-interglacial transitions. We upscale our observations by modelling river system evolution, employing a GpU Lowland Landscape Evolution Model (GULLEM) to predict the evolution of the entire basin. A novel & powerful (>10 Tflops on an inexpensive computer) simulator, GULLEM models morphodynamics and estimates the accommodation space subsequently infilled during marine transgressions by representing a range of geomorphic processes, including: river & tributary incision, non-linear diffusion, sea level and isostatic change, hydraulic geometry, tectonic deformation, sediment production, transport & deposition, & tracking of the resulting stratigraphy. GULLEM's vectorized approach allows for massively parallel operation on GPUs (Graphics Processing Unit), making it practical to model coupled fluvial-landscape evolution for complex lowland river systems over large temporal and spatial scales. Our combined approach affords estimates for the timing and budgets of sediment and carbon storage in Fly and Mekong River floodplains in response to sea level rise. This presentation will provide insights (& animations) illustrating river morphodynamics & resulting landscapes formed during the transgressions from glacial maximums to high-stand conditions. [Image: Fly River modelled during LGM

  15. “What do kids know”: A survey of 420 Grade 5 students in Cambodia on their knowledge of burn prevention and first-aid treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marvin Hsiao; Brian Tsai; Harrison Jo; Manuel Gomez; James G. Gollogly; Massey Beveridge

    2007-01-01

    IntroductionCambodia is a developing country of 13 million people where there are an estimated 20,000 burns and 2000 burn deaths annually. Two thirds of the burns occur to children under the age of 10 years. The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge of burn prevention and first aid for burns in Grade 5 Cambodian school children, as

  16. Situation Report--Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua & New Guinea, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti, Tonga.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in fourteen foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua and New Guines, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti (French Polynesia), and Tonga. Information is provided under two…

  17. PALSAR 50 m mosaic data based national level biomass estimation in Cambodia for implementation of REDD+ mechanism.

    PubMed

    Avtar, Ram; Suzuki, Rikie; Takeuchi, Wataru; Sawada, Haruo

    2013-01-01

    Tropical countries like Cambodia require information about forest biomass for successful implementation of climate change mitigation mechanism related to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). This study investigated the potential of Phased Array-type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar Fine Beam Dual (PALSAR FBD) 50 m mosaic data to estimate Above Ground Biomass (AGB) in Cambodia. AGB was estimated using a bottom-up approach based on field measured biomass and backscattering (?(o)) properties of PALSAR data. The relationship between the PALSAR ?(o) HV and HH/HV with field measured biomass was strong with R(2)?=?0.67 and 0.56, respectively. PALSAR estimated AGB show good results in deciduous forests because of less saturation as compared to dense evergreen forests. The validation results showed a high coefficient of determination R(2)?=?0.61 with RMSE ?=?21 Mg/ha using values up to 200 Mg/ha biomass. There were some uncertainties because of the uncertainty in the field based measurement and saturation of PALSAR data. AGB map of Cambodian forests could be useful for the implementation of forest management practices for REDD+ assessment and policies implementation at the national level. PMID:24116012

  18. Molecular epidemiology of Blastocystis in pigs and their in-contact humans in Southeast Queensland, Australia, and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenqi; Owen, Helen; Traub, Rebecca J; Cuttell, Leigh; Inpankaew, Tawin; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2014-07-14

    Blastocystis, an intestinal protist commonly found in humans and animals worldwide, has been implicated by some as a causative agent in irritable bowel syndrome in humans. In pigs, infection with Blastocystis is commonly reported, with most pigs shown to harbour subtypes (ST) 1 or 5, suggesting that these animals are potentially natural hosts for Blastocystis. Although ST5 is considered rare in humans, it has been reported to be a potential zoonosis from pigs in rural China. To test these hypotheses, we conducted molecular analysis of faecal samples from pigs and in-contact humans from commercial intensive piggeries in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia, and a village in rural Cambodia. The prevalence of Blastocystis in SEQ and Cambodian pigs was 76.7% and 45.2%, respectively, with all positive pigs harbouring ST5. It appears likely that pigs are natural hosts of Blastocystis with a high prevalence of ST5 that is presumably the pig-adapted ST in these regions. Amongst the SEQ piggery staff, 83.3% were Blastocystis carriers in contrast to only 55.2% of Cambodian villagers. The predominant STs found in humans were STs 1, 2 (Cambodia only) and 3. Interestingly, ST5 which is usually rare in humans was present in the SEQ piggery staff but not in the Cambodian villagers. We conclude that in intensive piggeries, close contact between pigs and their handlers may increase the risks of zoonotic transmission of Blastocystis. PMID:24785292

  19. Effects of logging and recruitment on community phylogenetic structure in 32 permanent forest plots of Kampong Thom, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Hironori; Kajisa, Tsuyoshi; Tagane, Shuichiro; Mase, Keiko; Chhang, Phourin; Samreth, Vanna; Ma, Vuthy; Sokh, Heng; Ichihashi, Ryuji; Onoda, Yusuke; Mizoue, Nobuya; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2015-02-19

    Ecological communities including tropical rainforest are rapidly changing under various disturbances caused by increasing human activities. Recently in Cambodia, illegal logging and clear-felling for agriculture have been increasing. Here, we study the effects of logging, mortality and recruitment of plot trees on phylogenetic community structure in 32 plots in Kampong Thom, Cambodia. Each plot was 0.25 ha; 28 plots were established in primary evergreen forests and four were established in secondary dry deciduous forests. Measurements were made in 1998, 2000, 2004 and 2010, and logging, recruitment and mortality of each tree were recorded. We estimated phylogeny using rbcL and matK gene sequences and quantified phylogenetic ? and ? diversity. Within communities, logging decreased phylogenetic diversity, and increased overall phylogenetic clustering and terminal phylogenetic evenness. Between communities, logging increased phylogenetic similarity between evergreen and deciduous plots. On the other hand, recruitment had opposite effects both within and between communities. The observed patterns can be explained by environmental homogenization under logging. Logging is biased to particular species and larger diameter at breast height, and forest patrol has been effective in decreasing logging. PMID:25561669

  20. System-level factors as predictors of adherence to clinical appointment schedules in antiretroviral therapy in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Daigle, Gary T; Jolly, Pauline E; Chamot, Eric A M; Ehiri, John; Zhang, Kui; Khan, Edward; Sou, Sanith

    2015-07-01

    Adherence to clinical appointment schedules by patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is necessary for the prevention of medication interruptions, viral rebound, and the development of drug resistance. An observational study conducted in 2010, Enablers and Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in Cambodia, sought to identify factors that predict on-time clinical appointment attendance by patients on ART. Clinical data, including appointment attendance across five consecutive visits, were collected from hospital records on a random sample of ART patients at government referral hospitals (RHs) in Battambang Province, Cambodia. Interviews were conducted to obtain quantitative information from patients on their experiences of support services provided by local NGOs and RHs. This information was used to identify ART patient care and support system factors that could potentially enable patients to adhere to clinical appointment schedules. These factors included adherence counseling, support groups, home-based care (HBC) services, and support provided for transportation to ART appointments. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to assess relationships between system variables and the ART appointment adherence outcome. Of the 289 study participants, 20.4% had missed at least one of the five appointments in the study period. The hospital source of ART services, participation in a hospital-based support group, receiving a loan from a microfinance institution, and the frequency of adherence counseling were found to be associated with ART appointment adherence. No significant associations were found between other support system factors such as HBC, transportation support, food/monetary support, and appointment adherence. PMID:25803006

  1. Testimony ceremonies in Asia: Integrating spirituality in testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Agger, Inger; Igreja, Victor; Kiehle, Rachel; Polatin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the therapeutic implications of including culturally adapted spiritual ceremonies in the process of testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Data were collected through an action research process with Asian mental health and human rights organizations, during which the testimonial method was reconceptualized and modified to include four sessions. In the first two sessions, community workers assist survivors in the writing of their testimony, which is their narrative about the human rights violations they have suffered. In the third session, survivors participate in an honour ceremony in which they are presented with their testimony documents. In the fourth session, the community workers meet with the survivors for a reevaluation of their well-being. The honour ceremonies developed during the action research process came to employ different kinds of symbolic language at each site: human rights (India), religious/Catholic (Sri Lanka), religious/Buddhist (Cambodia), and religious/Moslem (Philippines). They all used embodied spirituality in various forms, incorporating singing, dancing, and religious purification rituals in a collective gathering. We suggest that these types of ceremonies may facilitate an individual’s capacity to contain and integrate traumatic memories, promote restorative self-awareness, and engage community support. Additional research is needed to determine the method’s applicability in other sociopolitical contexts governed by more Western-oriented medical traditions. PMID:22637721

  2. Breastfeeding Trends in Cambodia, and the Increased Use of Breast-Milk Substitute—Why Is It a Danger?

    PubMed Central

    Prak, Sophonneary; Iuell Dahl, Miriam; Oeurn, Sam; Conkle, Joel; Wise, Aaron; Laillou, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional analysis of the Cambodia Demographic Health Surveys from 2000, 2005 and 2010 was conducted to observe the national trends in infant and young child feeding practices. The results showed that rates of exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged 0–5.9 months have increased substantially since 2000, concurrent with an increase in the rates of early initiation of breastfeeding and a reduction in the giving of pre-lacteal feeds. However, the proportion of infants being fed with breast-milk substitutes (BMS) during 0–5.9 months doubled in 5 years (3.4% to 7.0%) from 2000 to 2005, but then did not increase from 2005, likely due to extensive public health campaigns on exclusive breastfeeding. BMS use increased among children aged 6–23.9 months from 2000 to 2010 (4.8% to 9.3%). 26.1% of women delivering in a private clinic provided their child with breast-milk substitute at 0–5.9 months, which is five times more than women delivering in the public sector (5.1%), and the greatest increase in bottle use happened among the urban poor (5.8% to 21.7%). These findings are discussed with reference to the increased supply and marketing of BMS that is occurring in Cambodia. PMID:25054552

  3. Breastfeeding trends in Cambodia, and the increased use of breast-milk substitute-why is it a danger?

    PubMed

    Prak, Sophonneary; Dahl, Miriam Iuell; Oeurn, Sam; Conkle, Joel; Wise, Aaron; Laillou, Arnaud

    2014-07-01

    A cross-sectional analysis of the Cambodia Demographic Health Surveys from 2000, 2005 and 2010 was conducted to observe the national trends in infant and young child feeding practices. The results showed that rates of exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged 0-5.9 months have increased substantially since 2000, concurrent with an increase in the rates of early initiation of breastfeeding and a reduction in the giving of pre-lacteal feeds. However, the proportion of infants being fed with breast-milk substitutes (BMS) during 0-5.9 months doubled in 5 years (3.4% to 7.0%) from 2000 to 2005, but then did not increase from 2005, likely due to extensive public health campaigns on exclusive breastfeeding. BMS use increased among children aged 6-23.9 months from 2000 to 2010 (4.8% to 9.3%). 26.1% of women delivering in a private clinic provided their child with breast-milk substitute at 0-5.9 months, which is five times more than women delivering in the public sector (5.1%), and the greatest increase in bottle use happened among the urban poor (5.8% to 21.7%). These findings are discussed with reference to the increased supply and marketing of BMS that is occurring in Cambodia. PMID:25054552

  4. Although only recently reopened, Angkor Wat already facing growing pains

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Grinnell, Max

    2006-01-01

    Tourism official proposes elephant ban at Angkorhttp://english.people.com.cn/200609/20/eng20060920_304606.htmlAPSARA [Macromedia Flash Player]http://www.autoriteapsara.org/Is Angkor Wat too touristy?http://travel.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,18409-2363554,00.htmlGreat Buildings Online: Angkor Wathttp://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Angkor_Wat.htmlInteractive Map of World Heritage Properties [Macromedia Flash Player]http://whc.unesco.org/en/mapCambodia Posthttp://www.cambodiajournal.com/Rulers have long sought to create lasting landmarks through grand buildings and public works projects, and Angkor Wat is certainly one of the most well known places in South East Asia, if not the entire world. Initially built in the early 12th century, the temple and its surrounding grounds have long been popular tourist destinations, and they have survived a number of potential threats, including the long civil war in Cambodia that engulfed the entire country and the region for several decades. However, another threat is looming that could have even more dire consequences, namely the arrival of millions of tourists. Tourism officials recently reported that close to two million tourists will visit the temples this year, and almost 500,000 of them will arrive in November and December. In the town of Siem Reap, which serves as the gateway to the Angkor complex, the bureau chief of the townâ??s tourism department remarked that â??There are too many people, and itâ??s difficult to supply and feed them.â?ť The situation is also rather complex due to the fact that Cambodia as a whole is heavily reliant on tourism, and a number of government officials are hard pressed to reign in this booming sector of the nationâ??s economy. In the meantime, there are plans in place to improve the local infrastructure problems around Siem Reap, but it remains to be seen what sustainable measures might need to be taken to ensure the integrity of these important elements of the historical and cultural landscape.The first link will take users to piece on the issues raised by increased tourism around Angkor Wat from the Christian Science Monitorâ??s Adam Piore. The second link leads to a news story from the Peopleâ??s Daily Online that talks about the proposal offered by one tourism official which would ban elephants from the grounds. The third link leads to the website of the APSARA agency, which is responsible for providing stewardship of the buildings and the grounds. Here, visitor can learn about the areaâ??s history and art, and see maps of each monument. The fourth link whisks users away to a piece in the Sunday Times that offers some expert advice (along with the observations of other tourists) about whether or not Angkor Wat has become â??too touristyâ?ť. The fifth link leads to the entry from Great Buildings Online on Angkor Wat, which includes some basic history of the complex, along with a number of aerial photographs. The sixth link leads to the interactive map of World Heritage properties. Finally, the last link leads to a nice site that culls news stories about Cambodia and the region into one nice package for visitors who would like to stay abreast of ongoing events in the area.

  5. Epilepsy in Cambodia–Treatment Aspects and Policy Implications: A Population-Based Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, Devender; Chea, Kimly; Hun, Chamroeun; Chan, Vichea; Huc, Pierre; Chan, Samleng; Sebbag, Robert; Gérard, Daniel; Dumas, Michel; Oum, Sophal; Druet-Cabanac, Michel; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We tested two treatment strategies to determine: treatment (a) prognosis (seizure frequency, mortality, suicide, and complications), (b) safety and adherence of treatment, (c) self-reported satisfaction with treatment and self-reported productivity, and policy aspects (a) number of required tablets for universal treatment (NRT), (b) cost of management, (c) manpower-gap and requirements for scaling-up of epilepsy care. Methods We performed a random-cluster survey (N?=?16510) and identified 96 cases (?1 year of age) in 24 villages. They were screened by using a validated instrument and diagnosed by the neurologists. International guidelines were used for defining and classifying epilepsy. All were given phenobarbital or valproate (cost-free) in two manners patient’s door-steps (March 2009-March 2010, primary-treatment-period, PTP) and treatment through health-centers (March 2010-June 2011, treatment-continuation-period, TCP). The emphasis was to start on a minimum dosage and regime, without any polytherapy, according to the age of the recipients. No titration was done. Seizure-frequency was monthly and self-reported. Results The number of seizures reduced from 12.6 (pre-treatment) to 1.2 (end of PTP), following which there was an increase to 3.4 (end of TCP). Between start of PTP and end of TCP, >60.0% became and remained seizure-free. During TCP, ?26.0% went to health centers to collect their treatment. Complications reduced from 12.5% to 4.2% between start and end of PTP and increased to 17.2% between start and end of TCP. Adverse events reduced from 46.8% to 16.6% between start and end of PTP. Nearly 33 million phenobarbital 100 mg tablets are needed in Cambodia. Conclusions Epilepsy responded sufficiently well to the conventional treatment, even when taken at a minimal dosage and a simple daily regimen, without any polytherapy. This is yet another confirmation that it is possible to substantially reduce direct burden of epilepsy through means that are currently available to us. PMID:24040345

  6. Little evidence of subclinical avian influenza virus infections among rural villagers in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Gray, Gregory C; Krueger, Whitney S; Chum, Channimol; Putnam, Shannon D; Wierzba, Thomas F; Heil, Gary L; Anderson, Benjamin D; Yasuda, Chadwick Y; Williams, Maya; Kasper, Matthew R; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Blair, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, 800 adults living within rural Kampong Cham Province, Cambodia were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. After enrollment, participants were contacted weekly for 24 months to identify acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI). Follow-up sera were collected at 12 and 24 months. A transmission substudy was also conducted among the family contacts of cohort members reporting ILI who were influenza A positive. Samples were assessed using serological or molecular techniques looking for evidence of infection with human and avian influenza viruses. Over 24 months, 438 ILI investigations among 284 cohort members were conducted. One cohort member was hospitalized with a H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus infection and withdrew from the study. Ninety-seven ILI cases (22.1%) were identified as influenza A virus infections by real-time RT-PCR; none yielded evidence for AIV. During the 2 years of follow-up, 21 participants (3.0%) had detectable antibody titers (? 1:10) against the studied AIVs: 1 against an avian-like A/Migratory duck/Hong Kong/MPS180/2003(H4N6), 3 against an avian-like A/Teal/Hong Kong/w312/97(H6N1), 9 (3 of which had detectible antibody titers at both 12- and 24-month follow-up) against an avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), 6 (1 detected at both 12- and 24-month follow-up) against an avian-like A/Duck/Memphis/546/74(H11N9), and 2 against an avian-like A/Duck/Alberta/60/76(H12N5). With the exception of the one hospitalized cohort member with H5N1 infection, no other symptomatic avian influenza infections were detected among the cohort. Serological evidence for subclinical infections was sparse with only one subject showing a 4-fold rise in microneutralization titer over time against AvH12N5. In summary, despite conducting this closely monitored cohort study in a region enzootic for H5N1 HPAI, we were unable to detect subclinical avian influenza infections, suggesting either that these infections are rare or that our assays are insensitive at detecting them. PMID:24819948

  7. A community-based education trial to improve backyard poultry biosecurity in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Conan, Anne; Ponsich, Aurélia; Luce Goutard, Flavie; Khiev, Ratana; Tarantola, Arnaud; Sorn, San; Vong, Sirenda

    2013-03-01

    The emergence and spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 has caused substantial poultry-related economic losses and public health concerns in relation to a potential pandemic. While biosecurity measures for commercial poultry industry are of the highest standards, these measures are difficult to implement and often unaffordable for backyard poultry farming, particularly in tropical and low-income settings. We designed a feasible biosecurity intervention to improve flock hygiene in Cambodia, - based on community hygiene, cleaning of poultry flock areas and human and poultry movement control. We conducted a cluster randomized and controlled intervention trial in 18 villages in Takeo province to evaluate improvements in biosecurity-related knowledge and practices. The intervention relied on community involvement and community education using special information dissemination tools. We trained village teams (VT) to assist villagers in implementing the intervention using a cascade training approach, in which a few individuals were trained, who in turn trained a larger group of people. During the 14 month follow up, we conducted observational and interview-based surveys (baseline vs. final surveys, VT supervision visits, monitoring surveys) to assess VTs' motivation, intervention messages dissemination and the implementation of recommended measures. Most of villagers (95%, confidence interval: 87.8-100.0%) in intervention villages received general information about how to raise poultry. Farmers in intervention villages reported to have made more changes (?1 biosecurity related practice during the study period) compared with that of control villages (70.0% (260/372) vs. 22.6% (85/377), p value<0.01). When observing biosecurity-related practices in intervention villages, overall scores increased significantly (p<0.05). Practices such as use of quarantine cages for new and sick birds, limitation of people movement in backyards and waste management reached high scores during the 15-months period within five of the nine intervention villages. Cascade training managed to reach out to almost all villagers and significantly influence changes in biosecurity practices in the community. However, further follow-ups are needed to assess whether practices-related changes persist over a longer period of time. PMID:23262213

  8. Diagnosis, Treatment and Risk Factors of Strongyloides stercoralis in Schoolchildren in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Marti, Hanspeter; Sayasone, Somphou; Duong, Socheat; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide, an estimated 30 to 100 million people are infected with Strongyloides stercoralis, a soil-transmitted helminth. Information on the parasite is scarce in most settings. In semi-rural Cambodia, we determined infection rates and risk factors; compared two diagnostic methods (Koga agar plate [KAP] culture and Baermann technique) for detecting S. stercoralis infections, using a multiple stool examination approach; and assessed efficacy of ivermectin treatment. Methods/Principal Findings We performed a cross-sectional study in 458 children from four primary schools in semi-rural villages in Kandal province, using three diagnostic procedures (Kato-Katz, KAP culture and Baermann technique) on three stool samples. Infected children were treated with ivermectin (100 µg/kg/day for two days) and re-examined three weeks after treatment. Hookworm, S. stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, and small trematode eggs were most prevalent, with 24.4% of children being infected with S. stercoralis. The sensitivity of KAP culture and Baermann technique was 88.4% and 75.0%, respectively and their negative predictive values were 96.4% and 92.5%, respectively. The cumulative prevalence of S. stercoralis increased from 18.6% to 24.4%, after analyzing three stool samples, which was close to the modeled ‘true’ prevalence of 24.8%. Children who reported defecating in latrines were significantly less infected with S. stercoralis than those who did not use latrines (p<0.001). Itchy skin and diarrhea were significantly associated with S. stercoralis infection. The cure rate of ivermectin was 98.3%. Conclusions/Significance S. stercoralis infection is highly prevalent among semi-rural Cambodian schoolchildren. The sensitivity of KAP culture is higher than that of the Baermann technique. In the absence of a “gold standard”, analysis of multiple stool samples by different diagnostic methods is required to achieve a satisfactory level of sensitivity. Almost three-quarters of the infections could have been avoided by proper sanitation. Ivermectin is highly efficacious against S. stercoralis but prohibitive costs render the drug inaccessible to most Cambodians. PMID:23409200

  9. Patterns of ecosystem metabolism in the Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia with links to capture fisheries.

    PubMed

    Holtgrieve, Gordon W; Arias, Mauricio E; Irvine, Kim N; Lamberts, Dirk; Ward, Eric J; Kummu, Matti; Koponen, Jorma; Sarkkula, Juha; Richey, Jeffrey E

    2013-01-01

    The Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia is a dynamic flood-pulsed ecosystem that annually increases its surface area from roughly 2,500 km(2) to over 12,500 km(2) driven by seasonal flooding from the Mekong River. This flooding is thought to structure many of the critical ecological processes, including aquatic primary and secondary productivity. The lake also has a large fishery that supports the livelihoods of nearly 2 million people. We used a state-space oxygen mass balance model and continuous dissolved oxygen measurements from four locations to provide the first estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) for the Tonle Sap. GPP averaged 4.1±2.3 g O2 m(-3) d(-1) with minimal differences among sites. There was a negative correlation between monthly GPP and lake level (r?=?0.45) and positive correlation with turbidity (r?=?0.65). ER averaged 24.9±20.0 g O2 m(-3) d(-1) but had greater than six-fold variation among sites and minimal seasonal change. Repeated hypoxia was observed at most sampling sites along with persistent net heterotrophy (GPP

  10. Improvement in smallholder farmer knowledge of cattle production, health and biosecurity in Southern Cambodia between 2008 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Nampanya, S; Suon, S; Rast, L; Windsor, P A

    2012-04-01

    Farmer knowledge surveys were conducted in 2008 and 2010 in Cambodia to evaluate the impact of a research project studying interventions that can improve cattle production and health, including biosecurity and practices relating to risks of transmission of transboundary diseases. The project hypothesis is that by increasing the value of smallholder-owned large ruminants through nutritional interventions and improved marketing, knowledge-based interventions including risk management for infectious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) can be implemented into a more sustainable pathway for rural development. Between 2008 and 2010, significant improvements in farmer knowledge and attitudes were recorded in three villages in three provinces of southern Cambodia. This was achieved through participatory 'applied field research', 'on the job' training plus 'formal' training programmes. No cases of FMD were recorded during the study period in the 'high-intervention' (HI) villages despite the common occurrence of the disease in a nearby 'low-intervention' and many other villages in the three provinces. Whilst it is likely that protection of these villages from FMD infection was from increasing the herd immunity by vaccination, it could also have been partly because of a decrease in risk behaviours by farmers as a result of their increasing knowledge of biosecurity. The research indicates that smallholder farmers are motivated by nutritional interventions that improve the value of their cattle 'bank' and offer better marketing opportunities. This provides a more receptive environment for introduction of disease risk management for infectious and other production limiting diseases, best implemented for smallholder farmers in Cambodia by intensive training programmes. In lieu of a widespread public awareness programme to deliver mass education of smallholder farmers in disease prevention and biosecurity, livestock development projects in South-East Asia should be encouraged to include training in disease risk management as an important intervention if the current momentum for trade in large ruminant livestock and large ruminant meat is to continue to progress and contribute to addressing global food security concerns. PMID:21791034

  11. Reap around the State: "Best of Reap" Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Learning Resources Unit.

    This booklet presents selected activities from elementary, middle, junior high, and senior high schools In Indiana, intended to encourage students to read. It offers ideas for 11 community activities (including guest readers, nursing home reading, and a young author celebration), 14 continuous activities (such as the great book graffiti wall and…

  12. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Bhumiratana, Adisak; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Maneekan, Pannamas; Koyadun, Surachart

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR) malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world's most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders. PMID:23865048

  13. Quality of antimalarials at the epicenter of antimalarial drug resistance: results from an overt and mystery client survey in cambodia.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Shunmay; Lawford, Harriet L S; Tabernero, Patricia; Nguon, Chea; van Wyk, Albert; Malik, Naiela; DeSousa, Mikhael; Rada, Ouk; Boravann, Mam; Dwivedi, Prabha; Hostetler, Dana M; Swamidoss, Isabel; Green, Michael D; Fernandez, Facundo M; Kaur, Harparkash

    2015-06-01

    Widespread availability of monotherapies and falsified antimalarials is thought to have contributed to the historical development of multidrug-resistant malaria in Cambodia. This study aimed to document the quality of artemisinin-containing antimalarials (ACAs) and to compare two methods of collecting antimalarials from drug outlets: through open surveyors and mystery clients (MCs). Few oral artemisinin-based monotherapies and no suspected falsified medicines were found. All 291 samples contained the stated active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of which 69% were considered good quality by chemical analysis. Overall, medicine quality did not differ by collection method, although open surveyors were less likely to obtain oral artemisinin-based monotherapies than MCs. The results are an encouraging indication of the positive impact of the country's efforts to tackle falsified antimalarials and artemisinin-based monotherapies. However, poor-quality medicines remain an ongoing challenge that demands sustained political will and investment of human and financial resources. PMID:25897063

  14. Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Sputum using Selective Enrichment Broth and Ashdown's Medium at Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Nhem, Somary; Letchford, Joanne; Meas, Chea; Thann, Sovanndeth; McLaughlin, James C; Baron, Ellen Jo; West, T Eoin

    2014-01-01

    Melioidosis infection, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is increasingly reported in Cambodia. We hypothesized that implementation of an enhanced sputum testing protocol in a provincial hospital diagnostic microbiology laboratory would increase detection of B. pseudomallei. We tested 241 sputum specimens that were deemed acceptable for culture, comparing culture in selective enrichment broth followed by sub-culture on Ashdown's medium to standard culture methods. Two specimens (0.8%) were positive for B. pseudomallei using the enhanced protocol whereas one specimen (0.4%) was positive using standard methods. These findings demonstrate that B. pseudomallei is rarely detected in sputum at this hospital. The low frequency of B. pseudomallei in sputum specimens precludes drawing any conclusions about the relative benefits of an enhanced sputum testing protocol at this site. Promoting clinician awareness of the infection and encouraging utilization of diagnostic microbiology services are likely to be important factors in facilitating identification of melioidosis. PMID:25717370

  15. Assessing mixed trace elements in groundwater and their health risk of residents living in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kongkea; Phan, Samrach; Huoy, Laingshun; Suy, Bunseang; Wong, Ming Hung; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Mohamed Yasin, Mohamed Salleh; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the potential contamination of trace elements in shallow Cambodian groundwater. Groundwater and hair samples were collected from three provinces in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia and analyzed by ICP-MS. Groundwater from Kandal (n = 46) and Kraite (n = 12) were enriched in As, Mn, Ba and Fe whereas none of tube wells in Kampong Cham (n = 18) had trace elements higher than Cambodian permissible limits. Risk computations indicated that 98.7% and 12.4% of residents in the study areas of Kandal (n = 297) and Kratie (n = 89) were at risk of non-carcinogenic effects from exposure to multiple elements, yet none were at risk in Kampong Cham (n = 184). Arsenic contributed 99.5%, 60.3% and 84.2% of the aggregate risk in Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham, respectively. Sustainable and appropriate treatment technologies must therefore be implemented in order for Cambodian groundwater to be used as potable water. PMID:23906558

  16. Migrant beer promoters' experiences accessing reproductive health care in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam: lessons for planners and providers.

    PubMed

    Webber, Gail C; Spitzer, Denise L; Somrongthong, Ratana; Dat, Truong Cong; Kounnavongsa, Somphone

    2015-03-01

    Migrant beer promoters in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam were surveyed to determine their experiences in accessing reproductive health care services in the cities of Phnom Penh, Vientiane, Bangkok, and Hanoi. A total of 7 health care institutions were chosen as popular with migrant beer promoters. Staff at these institutions provided information on the institution, and 390 beer promoters were surveyed about their experiences while accessing services. There were discrepancies between findings from the staff interviews and the experiences of the beer promoters. In general, the migrant women were satisfied with the cost, location, friendliness of the health care providers, and knowledge and skills of the providers. They were less positive about confidentiality and waiting times, though many still agreed that these were not an issue. Health care planners and providers should take note of the issues affecting access to reproductive health care services for migrant women when they design and implement services. PMID:22743859

  17. The dental caries experience, oral hygiene and dietary practices of preschool children of factory workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Todd, R V; Durward, C S; Chot, C; So, P K; Im, P

    1994-09-01

    Two hundred and thirty-seven children attending four Ministry of Industry nursery schools in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, were examined. Dental caries experience, oral cleanliness and soft tissue abnormalities were determined. 149 mothers of these children were interviewed and information was gathered about infant-feeding practices, weaning age, diet after weaning, toothbrushing and dental attendance. Dental caries experience was high, and only 36% of children aged 1-4 years and 4% of those aged 5-6 years were caries free. Only 15% of mothers reported bottle-feeding, but 70% of these used sweetened canned milk in the bottle. Oral hygiene was rated as poor in 80% of children and only 10% were reported to use a toothbrush. 43% of children were reported to have experienced toothache, but only 5% had been to a dentist. PMID:7811672

  18. Quality of Antimalarials at the Epicenter of Antimalarial Drug Resistance: Results from an Overt and Mystery Client Survey in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Shunmay; Lawford, Harriet L. S.; Tabernero, Patricia; Nguon, Chea; van Wyk, Albert; Malik, Naiela; DeSousa, Mikhael; Rada, Ouk; Boravann, Mam; Dwivedi, Prabha; Hostetler, Dana M.; Swamidoss, Isabel; Green, Michael D.; Fernandez, Facundo M.; Kaur, Harparkash

    2015-01-01

    Widespread availability of monotherapies and falsified antimalarials is thought to have contributed to the historical development of multidrug-resistant malaria in Cambodia. This study aimed to document the quality of artemisinin-containing antimalarials (ACAs) and to compare two methods of collecting antimalarials from drug outlets: through open surveyors and mystery clients (MCs). Few oral artemisinin-based monotherapies and no suspected falsified medicines were found. All 291 samples contained the stated active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of which 69% were considered good quality by chemical analysis. Overall, medicine quality did not differ by collection method, although open surveyors were less likely to obtain oral artemisinin-based monotherapies than MCs. The results are an encouraging indication of the positive impact of the country's efforts to tackle falsified antimalarials and artemisinin-based monotherapies. However, poor-quality medicines remain an ongoing challenge that demands sustained political will and investment of human and financial resources. PMID:25897063

  19. Comparison of health-seeking behaviour between poor and better-off people after health sector reform in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, S; Mey, V; Wakai, S

    2004-01-01

    This study compared health-seeking behaviour between poor and better-off people after health sector reform in Cambodia. The survey was conducted in the Prek Dach Health Centre coverage area, which is located in South-east Cambodia. The study population consisted of 257 housewives of reproductive age, selected at random. Data were collected through household surveys with a structured questionnaire. Data collected included socio-demographic information on the housewives, as well as episodes of illness of family members within 30 days prior to the survey. Two indicators, the floor area of living space and a rating scale on asset ownership, were used to identify poor and very poor people. When a family member became ill, subjects most often used home remedies as a first step, followed by self-medication. Subsequently, people used self-medication or the private health sector. Very poor people used the health centre more often than better-off people as a first step. For the second step, use of the health centre was also high among the poor compared with better-off people, although the difference was not statistically significant. Keeping the treatment fees low and abolishing informal fees maintained the affordability of health-centre services for the poor. However, this benefit diminished quickly with distance from the health centre. The significant difference between poor and better-off people disappeared for villages situated more than 2 km from the health centre. Thus, the health centre in the studied area was shown to be effective in providing primary health care to the economically disadvantaged, but only within a limited geographic area. PMID:14643624

  20. Identifying conservation successes, failures and future opportunities; assessing recovery potential of wild ungulates and tigers in Eastern Cambodia.

    PubMed

    O'Kelly, Hannah J; Evans, Tom D; Stokes, Emma J; Clements, Tom J; Dara, An; Gately, Mark; Menghor, Nut; Pollard, Edward H B; Soriyun, Men; Walston, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Conservation investment, particularly for charismatic and wide-ranging large mammal species, needs to be evidence-based. Despite the prevalence of this theme within the literature, examples of robust data being generated to guide conservation policy and funding decisions are rare. We present the first published case-study of tiger conservation in Indochina, from a site where an evidence-based approach has been implemented for this iconic predator and its prey. Despite the persistence of extensive areas of habitat, Indochina's tiger and ungulate prey populations are widely supposed to have precipitously declined in recent decades. The Seima Protection Forest (SPF), and broader Eastern Plains Landscape, was identified in 2000 as representing Cambodia's best hope for tiger recovery; reflected in its designation as a Global Priority Tiger Conservation Landscape. Since 2005 distance sampling, camera-trapping and detection-dog surveys have been employed to assess the recovery potential of ungulate and tiger populations in SPF. Our results show that while conservation efforts have ensured that small but regionally significant populations of larger ungulates persist, and density trends in smaller ungulates are stable, overall ungulate populations remain well below theoretical carrying capacity. Extensive field surveys failed to yield any evidence of tiger, and we contend that there is no longer a resident population within the SPF. This local extirpation is believed to be primarily attributable to two decades of intensive hunting; but importantly, prey densities are also currently below the level necessary to support a viable tiger population. Based on these results and similar findings from neighbouring sites, Eastern Cambodia does not currently constitute a Tiger Source Site nor meet the criteria of a Global Priority Tiger Landscape. However, SPF retains global importance for many other elements of biodiversity. It retains high regional importance for ungulate populations and potentially in the future for Indochinese tigers, given adequate prey and protection. PMID:23077476

  1. Arsenic contamination in the food chain and its risk assessment of populations residing in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Heng, Savoeun; Phan, Samrach; Huoy, Laingshun; Wong, Ming Hung; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2013-11-15

    In the present study, we investigated the potential arsenic exposure of Cambodian residents from their daily food consumption. Environmental and ecological samples such as paddy soils, paddy rice (unhusked), staple rice (uncooked and cooked), fish and vegetables were collected from Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham provinces in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. After acid-digestion, digestates were chemically analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results revealed that the means of total arsenic concentration ([As]tot) in paddy soils and paddy rice from Kandal were significantly higher than those from Kampong Cham province (t-test, p<0.05). Moreover, a significant positive correlation between the [As]tot in paddy soils and paddy rice was found (r(14) = 0.826, p<0.01). Calculations of arsenic intake from food consumption indicated that the upper end of the range of the daily dose of inorganic arsenic for Kandal residents (0.089-8.386 ?g d(-1) kg(-1) body wt.) was greater than the lower limits on the benchmark dose for a 0.5% increased incidence of lung cancer (BMDL0.5 is equal to 3.0 ?g d(-1) kg(-1) body wt.). The present study suggests that the residents in Kandal are at risk of arsenic intake from their daily food consumption. However, the residents in Kratie and Kampong Cham provinces are less likely to be exposed to arsenic through their daily dietary intake. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report estimating the daily intake and daily dose of inorganic arsenic from food consumption in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. PMID:22818591

  2. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Oral Artesunate Monotherapy in Patients with Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Western Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Khemawoot, Phisit; Vanachayangkul, Pattaraporn; Siripokasupkul, Raveewan; Bethell, Delia; Tyner, Stuart; Se, Youry; Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Chanthap, Lon; Lin, Jessica; Timmermans, Ans; Socheat, Doung; Ringwald, Pascal; Noedl, Harald; Smith, Bryan; Fukuda, Mark; Teja-isavadharm, Paktiya

    2012-01-01

    Artemisinin-resistant malaria along the Thailand-Cambodian border is an important public health concern, yet mechanisms of drug action and their contributions to the development of resistance are poorly understood. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral artesunate monotherapy were explored in a dose-ranging trial in an area of emerging artesunate resistance in western Cambodia. We enrolled 143 evaluable subjects with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in an open label study of directly observed artesunate monotherapy at 3 dose levels (2, 4, and 6 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 7 days at Tasanh Health Center, Tasanh, Cambodia. Clinical outcomes were similar among the 3 groups. Wide variability in artesunate and dihydroartemisinin concentrations in plasma was observed. No significant dose-effect or concentration-effect relationships between pharmacokinetic (PK) and parasite clearance parameters were observed, though baseline parasitemia was modestly correlated with increased parasite clearance times. The overall parasite clearance times were prolonged compared with the clearance times in a previous study at this site in 2006 to 2007, but this did not persist when the evaluation was limited to subjects with a comparable artesunate dose (4 mg/kg/day) and baseline parasitemia from the two studies. Reduced plasma drug levels with higher presentation parasitemias, previously hypothesized to result from partitioning into infected red blood cells, was not observed in this population with uncomplicated malaria. Neither in vitro parasite susceptibility nor plasma drug concentrations appeared to have a direct relationship with the pharmacodynamic (PD) effects of oral artesunate on malaria parasites. While direct concentration-effect relationships were not found, it remains possible that a population PK modeling approach that allows modeling of greater dose separation might discern more-subtle relationships. PMID:22869581

  3. From reaching every district to reaching every community: analysis and response to the challenge of equity in immunization in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Chan Soeung, Sann; Grundy, John; Duncan, Richard; Thor, Rasoka; Bilous, Julian B

    2013-01-01

    Background An international review of the Cambodian Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 2010 and other data show that despite immunization coverage increases and vaccine preventable diseases incidence reductions, inequities in access to immunization services exist. Utilizing immunization and health systems literature, analysis of global health databases and the EPI review findings, this paper examines the characteristics of immunization access and outcome inequities, and describes proposed longer-term strategic and operational responses to these problems. Findings The national programme has evolved from earlier central and provincial level planning to strengthening routine immunization coverage through the District level ‘Reaching Every District Strategy’. However, despite remarkable improvements, the review found over 20% of children surveyed were not fully immunized, primarily from communities where inequities of both access and impact persist. These inequities relate mainly to socio-economic exposures including wealth and education level, population mobility and ethnicity. To address these problems, a shift in strategic and operational response is proposed that will include (a) a re-focus of planning on facility level to detect disadvantaged communities, (b) establishment of monitoring systems to provide detailed information on community access and utilization, (c) development of communication strategies and health networks that enable providers to adjust service delivery according to the needs of vulnerable populations, and (d) securing financial, management and political commitment for ‘reaching every community’. Conclusions For Cambodia to achieve its immunization equity objectives and disease reduction goals, a shift of emphasis to health centre and community is needed. This approach will maximize the benefits of new vaccine introduction in the coming ‘Decade of Vaccines’, plus potentially extend the reach of other life-saving maternal and child health interventions to the socially disadvantaged, both in Cambodia and in other countries with a similar level of development. PMID:23048124

  4. Validation of satellite precipitation product GSMaP/NRT with ground rain gauges in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, Kumiko; Ohta, Tetsu; Koike, Toshio

    2014-05-01

    The Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation Near Real Time data (GSMaP/NRT) is one of the satellite precipitation datasets which is produced by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency with time resolution of 1 hour and spatial resolution of 0.1 degrees. Since it is published approximately 4 hours after the observation, it is expected to contribute to the early warning of floods and water resource management in developing countries as well which have poor ground observation network. Our target area, Cambodia in the Indochina Peninsula, is one of such countries. However, there had been few ground rain gauges so that it had been impossible to validate GSMaP/NRT. Thus, the accuracy of GSMaP/NRT in this area had been unclear. One of the major characteristics of this area is that it has a vast lake area with water surface temperature of more than 30 degrees all year round. With this lake surface, it has been relieved that a unique local atmospheric circulation and its associated precipitation occur in this area. In order to validate the rainfall amount in this area, we rehabilitated and newly installed rain gauges. As a result, we have 34 automatic rain-gauges now and data is available from September 2009. Using this data as well as hourly rainfall amount from GSMaP/NRT and brightness temperature (TB) from Multi-functional Transport Satellite Infrared 1 channel (MTSAT/IR1), we analyzed the error tendency of the GSMaP/NRT product. The analysis showed that the relationship between rain gauges and GSMaP/NRT were very poor. Especially, strong rainfall events in full-monsoon season over land with 208K < TB < 253K and those in post-monsoon season over the lake with TB < 208K were very much underestimated by GSMaP/NRT. The results suggest that it is still difficult to use GSMaP/NRT data for hydrological applications to get soil moisture distribution and river discharge in this area, especially at small river basins. In addition, although many rainfall events were produced by GSMaP/NRT when TB < 208K in full-monsoon season, almost no rainfall were actually recorded by rain gauges. Most of the rainfall events in full-monsoon season were found to be occurred under TB > 208K, sometimes even TB > 273K, but rainfalls with TB > 253K were poorly captured by GSMaP/NRT. When we take 720-hour (~1-month) -moving-average, post-monsoon rainfall with 253K < TB < 273K over and around the lake has almost linear relationship between the two and the slope is about 1. This tendency can be used to assess the available water resources and grasp the climatological characteristics.

  5. Reaping Recruits On-Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Gary K.; Simpson, George

    2001-01-01

    A consortium of St. Louis-area school districts, college career officers, and consultants developed an online teacher and administrator recruitment/job-application system that has gone statewide and is being used by nine other states. Next is a nationwide job bank to help districts recruit educators. (MLH)

  6. Evidence of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Multidrug Resistance to Artemisinin and Piperaquine in Western Cambodia: Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine Open-Label Multicenter Clinical Assessment.

    PubMed

    Leang, Rithea; Taylor, Walter R J; Bouth, Denis Mey; Song, Lijiang; Tarning, Joel; Char, Meng Chuor; Kim, Saorin; Witkowski, Benoit; Duru, Valentine; Domergue, Anais; Khim, Nimol; Ringwald, Pascal; Menard, Didier

    2015-08-01

    Western Cambodia is recognized as the epicenter of Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance. Recent reports of the efficacy of dihydroartemisinin (DHA)-piperaquine (PP), the latest of the artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) recommended by the WHO, have prompted further investigations. The clinical efficacy of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in uncomplicated falciparum malaria was assessed in western and eastern Cambodia over 42 days. Day 7 plasma piperaquine concentrations were measured and day 0 isolates tested for in vitro susceptibilities to piperaquine and mefloquine, polymorphisms in the K13 gene, and the copy number of the Pfmdr-1 gene. A total of 425 patients were recruited in 2011 to 2013. The proportion of patients with recrudescent infections was significantly higher in western (15.4%) than in eastern (2.5%) Cambodia (P <10(-3)). Day 7 plasma PP concentrations and median 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of PP were independent of treatment outcomes, in contrast to median mefloquine IC50, which were found to be lower for isolates from patients with recrudescent infections (18.7 versus 39.7 nM; P = 0.005). The most significant risk factor associated with DHA-PP treatment failure was infection by parasites carrying the K13 mutant allele (odds ratio [OR], 17.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1 to 308; P = 0.04). Our data show evidence of P. falciparum resistance to PP in western Cambodia, an area of widespread artemisinin resistance. New therapeutic strategies, such as the use of triple ACTs, are urgently needed and must be tested. (This study has been registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry under registration no. ACTRN12614000344695.). PMID:26014949

  7. Evaluating the efficiency of participatory epidemiology to estimate the incidence and impacts of foot-and-mouth disease among livestock owners in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Bellet, C; Vergne, T; Grosbois, V; Holl, D; Roger, F; Goutard, F

    2012-07-01

    The economic and social impacts of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) for livestock owners of developed countries have been extensively documented over the past few years. In developing countries such as Cambodia, this evaluation is often lacking due to the scarcity of accurate data. In the present study, we used a range of participatory tools to infer farmers' knowledge and perception, and the relative incidence of FMD from January 2009 to June 2010 in fifty-one villages of Svay Rieng province, Cambodia. In addition, the detection of non-structural protein at village level was used to cross-validate the results from the participatory epidemiology (PE) study. A quantitative assessment using Bayesian modeling was carried out to assess the ability of PE to retrospectively determine the FMD-infected status of a village in Cambodia. Our study shows that even if FMD is ranked second in the list of priority diseases, livestock owners did not see any benefit in reporting it since the disease entailed low direct losses. The average clinical incidence rates at individual level for cattle-buffaloes and pigs in infected villages were assessed by proportional piling at 18% and 11%, respectively for the year 2009. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of PE study were estimated at 87%, 30%, 51% and 74%, respectively. This approach seems to largely overestimate the presence of the disease but proves useful in evaluating the impact of FMD at household level and in understanding the reasons for not reporting it. This information may be important in establishing well-adapted disease prevention and control strategies in Cambodia. PMID:22487753

  8. Comparison of the Leaf Area Index (LAI) of Two Types of Dipterocarp Forest on the West Bank of the Mekong River, Cambodia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eriko Ito; Saret Khorn; Sopheap Lim; Sopheavuth Pol; Bora Tith; Phearak Pith; Akihiro Tani; Mamoru Kanzaki; Takayuki Kaneko; Youichirou Okuda; Naoki Kabeya; Tatsuhiko Nobuhiro; Makoto Araki

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a key biophysical variable in most process-based models of forest ecosystems and water cycles. We\\u000a compared the LAI of two types of tropical seasonal forest in Kampong Thom Province, Cambodia. The two forest types are extremes\\u000a of crown-cover density, i.e., closed dry evergreen forest (DEF) and open dry deciduous forest (DDF), suggesting marked spatial\\u000a variation

  9. AIDS-Related Stigma and Mental Disorders among People Living with HIV: A Cross-Sectional Study in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Siyan; Chhoun, Pheak; Suong, Samedy; Thin, Kouland; Brody, Carinne; Tuot, Sovannary

    2015-01-01

    Background AIDS-related stigma and mental disorders are the most common conditions in people living with HIV (PLHIV). We therefore conducted this study to examine the association of AIDS-related stigma and discrimination with mental disorders among PLHIV in Cambodia. Methods A two-stage cluster sampling method was used to select 1,003 adult PLHIV from six provinces. The People Living with HIV Stigma Index was used to measure stigma and discrimination, and a short version of general health questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to measure mental disorders. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results The reported experiences of discrimination in communities in the past 12 months ranged from 0.8% for reports of being denied health services to 42.3% for being aware of being gossiped about. Internal stigma was also common ranging from 2.8% for avoiding going to a local clinic and/or hospital to 59.6% for deciding not to have (more) children. The proportions of PLHIV who reported fear of stigma and discrimination ranged from 13.9% for fear of being physically assaulted to 34.5% for fear of being gossiped about. The mean score of GHQ-12 was 3.2 (SD = 2.4). After controlling for several potential confounders, higher levels of mental disorders (GHQ-12? 4) remained significantly associated with higher levels of experiences of stigma and discrimination in family and communities (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.4–2.6), higher levels of internal stigma (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2–2.3), and higher levels of fear of stigma and discrimination in family and communities (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1–2.2). Conclusions AIDS-related stigma and discrimination among PLHIV in Cambodia are common and may have potential impacts on their mental health conditions. These findings indicate a need for community-based interventions to reduce stigma and discrimination in the general public and to help PLHIV to cope with this situation. PMID:25806534

  10. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Toxocara vitulorum Infections in Buffalo and Cattle Calves in Three Provinces of Central Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Dorny, Pierre; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Stoliaroff, Valérie; Sothy, Meas; Chea, Rortana; Chea, Bunthon; Sourloing, Hor; Samuth, Sum; Kong, Seth; Nguong, Koemseang; Sorn, San; Holl, Davun; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence and associated risk factors of Toxocara vitulorum infection in buffalo and cattle calves was studied in 3 provinces in central Cambodia. Fecal samples were collected from 517 calves between the age of 1-15 weeks and processed for nematode egg counts by a modified McMaster method. A total of 64 calves were found to excrete T. vitulorum eggs in their feces (12.4%; 95% exact CI: 9.7-15.5). The mean fecal egg count was 2,798 EPG (SD=16,351; range=0-224,400). A multivariable generalized linear mixed model showed higher odds of T. vitulorum infection for buffalo versus cattle, for animals aged 4-8 weeks versus younger and older ones, and for animals with strongyle infection. There was no association with fecal consistency. Farmers should be aware of the potential impact of T. vitulorum , and treat their calves at the age of 2-3 weeks with anthelmintics such as benzimidazoles or pyrantel. PMID:25925178

  11. A matter of good taste: Investigating preferences for in-house water treatment in peri-urban communities in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeuland, M. A.; Orgill, J.; Brown, J.; Shaheed, A.

    2012-12-01

    It is commonly argued that low demand for in-house water treatment technologies is not simply due to their cost, but also results from their other unfavorable features, notably distaste or convenience problems. This research considers household preferences for in-house water treatment in two peri-urban communes around Phnom Penh, Cambodia, with a particular focus on taste. In an effort to measure sensitivity to taste problems, respondents from more than 900 households were given water samples treated with randomly assigned levels of chlorine, as well as a bottled water placebo, and were asked to compare their favorite samples with their existing drinking water source. Households were also asked to complete a series of conjoint tasks in which they selected their preferred drinking water alternative among options that varied in terms of cost, taste, effectiveness against diarrheal disease and quantity of water treated. Our findings suggest that households do perceive distaste for water treated with chlorine products, and that taste is an important feature of their selection of water treatment alternatives. Better understanding of the taste preferences of households in communities without access to safe water is thus critical to interventions seeking to promote in-house water treatment.

  12. Ground Water Modeling Of Arsenic Contaminated Sandy Aquifer With Response To Transient River Levels, Mekong Delta, Cambodia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, S.; Polizzotto, M.; Sampson, M.; Fendor, S.; Benner, S.

    2006-12-01

    The sandy aquifer of Mekong River Delta in Cambodia is a primary drinking water source and contains elevated concentrations of dissolved arsenic (15-1300?g/L), a common problem of Southeast Asia. Both hydraulic heads and dissolved arsenic concentrations vary temporally with respect to transient hydraulic head of the Mekong River, suggesting that groundwater flow plays a potentially important role in arsenic mobilization/transportation. The river fluctuates annually 5 to 8 m, with the highest levels in mid-September due to upstream monsoonal rains and Himalayan snowmelt and the lowest levels in mid-May to early June. The hydraulic gradient between the river and adjacent aquifer changes direction biannually; when the river is rising the gradient is from the river to the aquifer, when the river is falling the gradient is from the aquifer towards the river. In contrast, wetlands overlying the aquifer exhibit time varying head change of 2.5 to 3m annually due to local rain from late September to early October and an apparent limited hydraulic connection to aquifer. Numerical modeling (using MODFLOW) is able to reproduce the aquifer head distribution by transiently altering the river boundary condition, supporting the hypothesis that the temporal variations in observed hydraulic head are primarily driven by the seasonal river fluctuations. The modeling also supports the conclusion that the observed dampening of water level fluctuations in the distal part of the study area is due to increasing distance from the Mekong River.

  13. ‘Plue plun’ male, ‘kath klei’ female: gender differences in suicidal behavior as expressed by young people in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Jegannathan, Bhoomikumar; Dahlblom, Kjerstin; Kullgren, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Few studies from low- and middle-income countries use qualitative methodology to explore suicidal behavior among young people. In Cambodia, young people face the challenge of rapidly changing times and are vulnerable for suicidal behavior as revealed by research in transitional economies. This study seeks to gain a deeper understanding of the suicidal phenomena from a gender, psychosocial and cultural perspective. Six focus-group discussions were conducted among boys and girls, aged 15–19 years, in two secondary schools in a suburban area close to Phnom Penh, the capital city. The data was analyzed using thematic analysis approach. The participants highlighted the gender difference in suicidal behavior by describing the suicide-prone, acting-out male as ‘plue plun’, while suicide-prone females were described as caught in constricted, tunneled-thinking behavior, expressed as ‘kath klei’. Parental attitude and family environment were also pointed out as the chief causes of discontent and there was a strong wish on the part of young people to find space for modern values within the traditional family. The young people's awareness of their challenges in everyday life suggests that school-based programs to prevent suicidal behavior ought to be gender-sensitive and peer-focused. PMID:24999370

  14. Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Symptoms of Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Aquatic Farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming; Jřrs, Erik; Petersen, Jřrgen Holm; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02–1.28). The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22–0.91). These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes. PMID:21234245

  15. Microbial Community Analysis of Fresh and Old Microbial Biofilms on Bayon Temple Sandstone of Angkor Thom, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Wensheng; Li, Hui; Wang, Wei-Dong; Katayama, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    The temples of Angkor monuments including Angkor Thom and Bayon in Cambodia and surrounding countries were exclusively constructed using sandstone. They are severely threatened by biodeterioration caused by active growth of different microorganisms on the sandstone surfaces, but knowledge on the microbial community and composition of the biofilms on the sandstone is not available from this region. This study investigated the microbial community diversity by examining the fresh and old biofilms of the biodeteriorated bas-relief wall surfaces of the Bayon Temple by analysis of 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequences. The results showed that the retrieved sequences were clustered in 11 bacterial, 11 eukaryotic and two archaeal divisions with disparate communities (Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria; Alveolata, Fungi, Metazoa, Viridiplantae; Crenarchaeote, and Euyarchaeota). A comparison of the microbial communities between the fresh and old biofilms revealed that the bacterial community of old biofilm was very similar to the newly formed fresh biofilm in terms of bacterial composition, but the eukaryotic communities were distinctly different between these two. This information has important implications for understanding the formation process and development of the microbial diversity on the sandstone surfaces, and furthermore to the relationship between the extent of biodeterioration and succession of microbial communities on sandstone in tropic region. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00248-010-9707-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20593173

  16. Condom negotiation across different relationship types by young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Lisa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Couture, Marie-Claude; Kien, Serey Phal; Stein, Ellen; Bates, Anna Juong; Sansothy, Neth; Page, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Cambodia's 100% Condom Use Programme is credited with an increase in consistent condom use in commercial sexual interactions and a decrease in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). There has been little improvement in condom use between FSWs and non-commercial partners, prompting calls for more innovative approaches to increasing condom use in these relationships. To understand why condoms are used or not used in sexual interactions involving FSWs, we examined condom negotiation across different types of relationships. We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with young (15 to 29 years) women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh. There was an important interplay between the meanings of condom use and the meanings of women's relationships. Commercial relationships were characterised as inherently risky and necessitated condom use. Despite a similar lack of sexual fidelity, sweetheart relationships were rarely construed as risky and typically did not involve condom use. Husbands and wives constructed their sexual interactions with each other differently, making agreement on condom use difficult. The lack of improvement in condom use in FSWs' non-commercial sexual relationships needs to be understood in relation to both sex work and the broader Cambodian sexual culture within which these relationships are embedded. PMID:23432108

  17. Protocol for REducing Anti-Psychotic use in residential care-Huntington Disease (REAP-HD): a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial of a multifaceted intervention for health professionals

    PubMed Central

    Loy, Clement T; Hayen, Andrew; McKinnon, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Antipsychotics are commonly used for management of behavioural symptoms in dementia, among people in residential care. This continues to occur despite their modest effectiveness, potential harms including increased risk of death and stroke, and absence of detrimental effect when people with dementia were randomised to antipsychotic withdrawal. This study aims to test the hypothesis that the multifaceted REducing Anti-Psychotic use in residential care-Huntington Disease (REAP-HD) programme is more effective than standard staff education (SSE) in reducing antipsychotic use for people with HD in residential care facilities (RCF). Methods and analysis this is a cluster randomised controlled trial with blinded outcome assessment. The study population is healthcare professionals looking after people with HD in individual RCF, in the state of New South Wales. Each RCF will be centrally randomised to the REAP-HD programme or the comparator, SSE. Blinded outcome assessment will be performed by examining drug charts and using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Q (NPI-Q). Primary outcome is the proportion of people with HD who have had a reduction in antipsychotic use 4?months after the intervention. Secondary outcome measures are (1) change in severity of behavioural symptoms, as measured by the NPI-Q at 4?months (to ensure antipsychotic reduction has not lead to worsening behavioural symptoms), and (2) proportion of people with HD who have had a reduction in antipsychotic dosage at 4?months for each strategy, compared to 4?months prior to enrolment (to capture the possibility that both arms reduced antipsychotic use). Analysis will be by Intention-To-Treat and take into account the clustering. Recruitment is ongoing, as of July 2014. Ethics and dissemination This protocol has been approved by the Western Sydney Local Health District Human Research Ethics Committee, trial registration ACTRN12614000083695. Study results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publication in an anonymous manner. Trial registration number ACTRN12614000083695, the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. PMID:25468506

  18. Ex Vivo Drug Susceptibility Testing and Molecular Profiling of Clinical Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Cambodia from 2008 to 2013 Suggest Emerging Piperaquine Resistance.

    PubMed

    Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Saunders, David L; Sea, Darapiseth; Chanarat, Nitima; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Saingam, Piyaporn; Buathong, Nillawan; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Chann, Soklyda; Se, Youry; Yom, You; Heng, Thay Kheng; Kong, Nareth; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; Tangthongchaiwiriya, Kuntida; Jacob, Christopher; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Plowe, Christopher; Lin, Jessica T; Chuor, Char Meng; Prom, Satharath; Tyner, Stuart D; Gosi, Panita; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya; Lon, Chanthap; Lanteri, Charlotte A

    2015-08-01

    Cambodia's first-line artemisinin combination therapy, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ), is no longer sufficiently curative against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria at some Thai-Cambodian border regions. We report recent (2008 to 2013) drug resistance trends in 753 isolates from northern, western, and southern Cambodia by surveying for ex vivo drug susceptibility and molecular drug resistance markers to guide the selection of an effective alternative to DHA-PPQ. Over the last 3 study years, PPQ susceptibility declined dramatically (geomean 50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] increased from 12.8 to 29.6 nM), while mefloquine (MQ) sensitivity doubled (67.1 to 26 nM) in northern Cambodia. These changes in drug susceptibility were significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 gene (Pfmdr1) multiple copy isolates and coincided with the timing of replacing artesunate-mefloquine (AS-MQ) with DHA-PPQ as the first-line therapy. Widespread chloroquine resistance was suggested by all isolates being of the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene CVIET haplotype. Nearly all isolates collected from the most recent years had P. falciparum kelch13 mutations, indicative of artemisinin resistance. Ex vivo bioassay measurements of antimalarial activity in plasma indicated 20% of patients recently took antimalarials, and their plasma had activity (median of 49.8 nM DHA equivalents) suggestive of substantial in vivo drug pressure. Overall, our findings suggest DHA-PPQ failures are associated with emerging PPQ resistance in a background of artemisinin resistance. The observed connection between drug policy changes and significant reduction in PPQ susceptibility with mitigation of MQ resistance supports reintroduction of AS-MQ, in conjunction with monitoring of the P. falciparum mdr1 copy number, as a stop-gap measure in areas of DHA-PPQ failure. PMID:26014942

  19. Description and DNA barcoding of Crematogaster fraxatrix Forel, 1911 and two new closely related species from Cambodia and Indonesia (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hosoishi, Shingo; Ogata, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Crematogaster fraxatrix Forel, 1911 and two new species, C. chhangi sp. n. and C. simboloni sp. n., are described from Cambodia and Indonesia, respectively. DNA sequences were generated for C. fraxarix and the two newly described species using 3 amplications of two regions of the mitochondrial gene COI with a total of 1129 bp. The mean interspecific divergences are 9.4% and 23.5% for C. fraxatrix vs. C. chhangi, C. simboloni, respectively. DNA sequences reveal that C. simboloni is found to be genetically distinct from the other two species, but C. chhangi is not distinct from C. fraxatrix. PMID:24493965

  20. Arsenic in hair and nails of individuals exposed to arsenic-rich groundwaters in Kandal province, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Gault, Andrew G; Rowland, Helen A L; Charnock, John M; Wogelius, Roy A; Gomez-Morilla, Inma; Vong, Sovathana; Leng, Moniphea; Samreth, Sopheap; Sampson, Mickey L; Polya, David A

    2008-04-01

    The health implications of the consumption of high arsenic groundwater in Bangladesh and West Bengal are well-documented, however, little is known about the level of arsenic exposure elsewhere in Southeast Asia, where widespread exploitation of groundwater resources is less well established. We measured the arsenic concentrations of nail and hair samples collected from residents of Kandal province, Cambodia, an area recently identified to host arsenic-rich groundwaters, in order to evaluate the extent of arsenic exposure. Nail and hair arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.20 to 6.50 microg g(-1) (n=70) and 0.10 to 7.95 microg g(-1) (n=40), respectively, in many cases exceeding typical baseline levels. The arsenic content of the groundwater used for drinking water purposes (0.21-943 microg L(-1) (n=31)) was positively correlated with both nail (r=0.74, p<0.0001) and hair (r=0.86, p<0.0001) arsenic concentrations. In addition, the nail and hair samples collected from inhabitants using groundwater that exceeded the Cambodian drinking water legal limit of 50 microg L(-1) arsenic contained significantly more arsenic than those of individuals using groundwater containing <50 microg L(-1) arsenic. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy suggested that sulfur-coordinated arsenic was the dominant species in the bulk of the samples analysed, with additional varying degrees of As(III)-O character. Tentative linear least squares fitting of the XANES data pointed towards differences in the pattern of arsenic speciation between the nail and hair samples analysed, however, mismatches in sample and standard absorption peak intensity prevented us from unambiguously determining the arsenic species distribution. The good correlation with the groundwater arsenic concentration, allied with the relative ease of sampling such tissues, indicate that the arsenic content of hair and nail samples may be used as an effective biomarker of arsenic intake in this relatively recently exposed population. PMID:18234288

  1. The geomorphological characteristics of the Mekong River in northern Cambodia: A mixed bedrock-alluvial multi-channel network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkova, Liubov V.; Carling, Paul A.

    2012-04-01

    The controls on the development of channel morphology of bedrock-constrained rivers are poorly known. The relative importance of lithological and structural control on channel alignment and character in comparison with the role of hydraulic erosion of the substratum is unclear. In addition, bedrock rivers often have a variable sediment fill and can be described as mixed bedrock-alluvial systems. The Mekong River in northern Cambodia is an anastomosed mixed bedrock-alluvial channel, but little and poorly researched. In this paper information has been gathered from diverse literature sources; digital data sets showing topography, hydrology, geology and land cover; past aerial photographs; and maps. Such data, together with field survey, provide a clear picture of the Mekong River in this region. The channels may be classified into three types: primary, secondary, cross channels. The varying characteristics of these three help towards understanding the evolution of the modern Mekong. Similarly the two-fold classification of the islands reveals the relationship between island inundation characteristics and the annual monsoon flood cycle. The associated riparian vegetation ecotones include a rare and unusual seasonally-inundated forest. Spatial variations in lithology and structure, when combined with maps of river networks, reveals that the channel alignments locally reflect the geological factors that cause the regional topographical gradient. Fault-line constraints on the local slopes of the channel may induce backwater effects and consequent sedimentation patterns (alluvial overprints) or alternatively, steepening of the channels with concomitant reduction in sedimentation. These structural constraints, taken together, lead to the identification of a mixed bedrock-alluvial five-fold geomorphological zonation within the study area. The general absence of paleochannels, and terraces close to the modern river, indicates that the Mekong is laterally stable with a dominating channel that downcuts. Consequently, a flood surface of limited lateral extent constrains entire floods.

  2. Inter- and intra-annual variations of transpiration at a rubber stand in lowland of central Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Tateishi, Makiko; Tiva, Lim Khan; Mudd, Ryan; Giambelluca, Thomas; Song, Yin

    2013-04-01

    In Southeast Asia, rubber plantation is rapidly expanding, and thus understanding the level of water consumption and tree physiology is a matter of importance to know the impacts on the local hydrology. Intra- and inter-annual variations in transpiration rate (Et) at a rubber stand, growing in lowland of central Cambodia, were examined during two years based on sap flow measurements. As for seasonality, Et was generally large in the rainy season and small in the dry season, showing sharp short-time drop in synchronization with the shedding in late January. Daily stand Et was ~ 2.0 mm day-1 in 2010 and ~ 2.4 mm day-1 in 2011 at the maximum. An analysis of non-linear multiple regression for the canopy conductance (gc) in the two years showed that the stomatal response of rubber trees was well explained by the changes in solar radiation, vapour pressure deficit, soil moisture availability, leaf area, and tree diameter. Sensitivity of gc to the atmospheric drought indicates isohydric behavior of rubber trees, while the same analysis for each year showed possibility of change in leaf characteristics due to tree maturity and/or initiation of latex tapping. The best fit model also predicted relatively small sensitivity of gc to the soil moisture deficit and rapid decrease in gc under extreme drought conditions. Annual stand Et estimated with the gc obtained in the present analysis was 469 mm yr-1 in 2010, while it increased up to 658 mm yr-1 in 2011. To find out the most important environmental variables, we examined the effect of each variable by keeping the others unchanged. This hypothesis analysis showed that in the young rubber stand which were growing very rapidly, inter-annual change of stand Et was determined mainly by the tree growth rate, not by the change of surrounding environments in the air and the soil.

  3. Potential Use of School Absenteeism Record for Disease Surveillance in Developing Countries, Case Study in Rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Calvin K. Y.; Channarith, Hing; Cowling, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Disease surveillance allows prospective monitoring of patterns in disease incidence in the general community, specific institutions (e.g. hospitals, elderly care homes), and other important population subgroups. Surveillance activities are now routinely conducted in many developed countries and in certain easy-to-reach areas of the developing ones. However due to limited health resources, population in rural area that consisted of the most the vulnerable groups are not under surveillance. Cheaper alternative ways for disease surveillance were needed in resource-limited settings. Methods and Findings In this study, a syndromic surveillance system using disease specific absenteeism rates was established in 47 pre-schools with 1,417 students 3–6 y of age in a rural area of Kampot province, Cambodia. School absenteeism data were collected via short message service. Data collected between 1st January and 31st December 2012 was used for system evaluation for future potential use in larger scale. The system appeared to be feasible and acceptable in the rural study setting. Moderate correlation was found between rates of school absenteeism due to illness and the reference data on rates of attendance at health centers in persons <16 y (maximum cross-correlation coefficient?=?0.231 at lag?=??1 week). Conclusions School absenteeism data is pre-existing, easily accessible and requires minimum time and resources after initial development, and our results suggest that this system may be able to provide complementary data for disease surveillance, especially in resource limited settings where there is very little information on illnesses in the community and traditional surveillance systems are difficult to implement. An important next step is to validate the syndromic data with other forms of surveillance including laboratory data. PMID:24155907

  4. Ex Vivo Activity of Endoperoxide Antimalarials, Including Artemisone and Arterolane, against Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Lon, Chanthap; Saunders, David L.; Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Bathurst, Ian; Ding, Xavier C.; Tyner, Stuart D.

    2014-01-01

    Novel synthetic endoperoxides are being evaluated as new components of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) to treat artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. We conducted blinded ex vivo activity testing of fully synthetic (OZ78 and OZ277) and semisynthetic (artemisone, artemiside, artesunate, and dihydroartemisinin) endoperoxides in the histidine-rich protein 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against 200 P. falciparum isolates from areas of artemisinin-resistant malaria in western and northern Cambodia in 2009 and 2010. The order of potency and geometric mean (GM) 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) were as follows: artemisone (2.40 nM) > artesunate (8.49 nM) > dihydroartemisinin (11.26 nM) > artemiside (15.28 nM) > OZ277 (31.25 nM) > OZ78 (755.27 nM). Ex vivo activities of test endoperoxides positively correlated with dihydroartemisinin and artesunate. The isolates were over 2-fold less susceptible to dihydroartemisinin than the artemisinin-sensitive P. falciparum W2 clone and showed sensitivity comparable to those with test endoperoxides and artesunate, with isolate/W2 IC50 susceptibility ratios of <2.0. All isolates had P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter mutations, with negative correlations in sensitivity to endoperoxides and chloroquine. The activities of endoperoxides (artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, OZ277, and artemisone) significantly correlated with that of the ACT partner drug, mefloquine. Isolates had mutations associated with clinical resistance to mefloquine, with 35% prevalence of P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1) amplification and 84.5% occurrence of the pfmdr1 Y184F mutation. GM IC50s for mefloquine, lumefantrine, and endoperoxides (artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, OZ277, OZ78, and artemisone) correlated with pfmdr1 copy number. Given that current ACTs are failing potentially from reduced sensitivity to artemisinins and partner drugs, newly identified mutations associated with artemisinin resistance reported in the literature and pfmdr1 mutations should be examined for their combined contributions to emerging ACT resistance. PMID:25049252

  5. Impacts on rural livelihoods in Cambodia following adoption of best practice health and husbandry interventions by smallholder cattle farmers.

    PubMed

    Young, J R; O'Reilly, R A; Ashley, K; Suon, S; Leoung, I V; Windsor, P A; Bush, R D

    2014-08-01

    To better understand how smallholder farmers whom own the majority of Cambodian cattle can contribute to efforts to address food security needs in the Mekong region, a five-year research project investigating methods to improve cattle health and husbandry practices was conducted. Cattle production in Cambodia is constrained by transboundary animal diseases (TADs) including foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) plus poor nutrition, reproduction and marketing knowledge. The project worked in six villages in Kandal, Takeo and Kampong Cham province during 2007-12. Farmers from three 'high intervention' (HI) villages incrementally received a participatory extension programme that included FMD and HS vaccination, forage development and husbandry training. Evaluation of project impacts on livelihoods was facilitated by comparison with three 'low intervention' (LI) villages where farmers received vaccinations only. Results of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) and socio-economic surveys conducted in 2012 of 120 participating farmers identified that farmer knowledge in the HI project sites exceeded LI sites on the topics of biosecurity, internal parasites, nutrition and reproduction. HI farmers adopted biosecurity practices including a willingness to vaccinate for FMD and HS at their own cost, separate sick from healthy cattle, grow and feed forages and displayed awareness of the benefits of building fattening pens. HI farmers that grew forages observed time savings exceeding two hours per day each for men, women and children, enabling expansion of farm enterprises, secondary employment and children's schooling. Logistic regression analysis revealed that farmers in the HI group significantly increased annual household income (P < 0.001), with 53% reporting an increase of 100% or more. We conclude that improving smallholder KAP of cattle health and production can lead to improved livelihoods. This strategy should be of interest to policymakers, donors, researchers and extension workers interested in addressing TAD control, food insecurity and rural poverty in Southeast Asia. PMID:24393407

  6. What health service support do families need for optimal breastfeeding? An in-depth exploration of young infant feeding practices in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Bazzano, Alessandra N; Oberhelman, Richard A; Potts, Kaitlin Storck; Taub, Leah D; Var, Chivorn

    2015-01-01

    Background Appropriate and timely breastfeeding practices markedly improve lifelong health outcomes for newborns, children, and mothers. Exclusive breastfeeding is reported to be widely practiced in Cambodia, and important progress has been made toward achieving improved child health outcomes, but newborn mortality has been slow to reduce and breastfeeding practices remain suboptimal. Methods Formative research was conducted in Takeo province, Cambodia to describe the practical, cultural, and social factors underlying current breastfeeding behaviors to inform the design of a newborn survival intervention that may improve breastfeeding. In-depth interviews, observations, a collection of visual media, and focus groups were employed to gather qualitative data. Results The results revealed knowledge and practice gaps in behavior that likely contribute to breastfeeding barriers, particularly in the areas of infant latch, milk production, feeding frequency, and the use of breast milk substitutes. The predominant theme identified in the research was a dearth of detailed information, advice, and counseling for mothers beyond the message to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months. Conclusion Future newborn survival interventions and postnatal care counseling in this area must go beyond the exclusive breastfeeding message. To achieve further impact, it will be necessary to disseminate comprehensive and locally appropriate information on breastfeeding and to improve counseling in order to support successful breastfeeding and to contribute to population-level health gains. PMID:25733931

  7. Toward a typology of health-related informal credit: an exploration of borrowing practices for paying for health care by the poor in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Borrowing money is a common strategy to cope with health care costs. The impact of borrowing on households can be severe, leading to indebtedness and further impoverishment. However, the available literature on borrowing practices for health is limited. We explore borrowing practices for paying for health care by the poor in Cambodia and provide a typology, associated conditions, and the extent of the phenomenon. Methods In addition to a semi-structured literature review, in-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of 47 households with health-related debt and 19 managers of formal or informal credit schemes. Results A large proportion of Cambodians, especially the poor, resort to borrowing to meet the cost of health care. Because of limited cash flow and access to formal creditors, the majority take out loans with high interest rates from informal money lenders. The most common type of informal credit is locally known as Changkar and consists of five kinds of loans: short-term loans, medium-term loans, seasonal loans, loans for an unspecified period, and loans with repayment in labour, each with different lending and repayment conditions and interest rates. Conclusion This study suggests the importance of informal credit for coping with the cost of treatment and its potentially negative impact on the livelihood of Cambodian people. We provide directions for further studies on financial protection interventions to mitigate harmful borrowing practices to pay for health care in Cambodia. PMID:23134845

  8. Orthogonius species and diversity in Thailand (Coleoptera, Caraboidea, Orthogoniini), a result from the TIGER project

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Mingyi; Deuve, Thierry; Felix, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The carabid genus Orthogonius MacLeay is treated, based mainly on materials collected in Thailand through the TIGER project (the Thailand Inventory Group for Entomological Research). Among 290 specimens, 20 species are identified in total, 10 of them are new species: Orthogonius taghavianae sp. n. (Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park), Orthogonius coomanioides sp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius similaris sp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Loei: Phu Kradueng National Park), Orthogonius setosopalpiger sp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius gracililamella sp. n. (Loei: Phu Kradueng National Park; Chaiyaphum: Tat Tone National Park), Orthogonius pseudochaudoiri sp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park), Orthogonius constrictus sp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius pinophilus sp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius vari sp. n. (Cambodia: Siem Reap; Thailand: Ubon Ratchathani: Pha Taem National Park; Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park) and Orthogonius variabilis sp. n. (Thailand: Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park; Phetchabun: Nam Nao National Park; China: Yunnan). In addition, Orthogonius mouhoti Chaudoir, 1871 and Orthogonius kirirom Tian & Deuve, 2008 are recorded in Thailand for the first time. In total, 30 species of Orthogonius have been recorded from Thailand, indicating that Thailand holds one of the richest Orthogonius faunas in the world. A provisional key to all Thai species is provided. A majority of Thai Orthogonius species are endemic. Among the ten national parks in which orthogonine beetles were collected, Thung Salaeng Luang holds the richest fauna, including 16 species. PMID:22328852

  9. Field Trial Evaluation of the Performances of Point-of-Care Tests for Screening G6PD Deficiency in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Chy, Sophy; Canier, Lydie; Kerleguer, Alexandra; Tor, Pety; Chuor, Char Meng; Kheng, Sim; Siv, Sovannaroth; Kachur, Patrick S.; Taylor, Walter R. J.; Hwang, Jimee; Menard, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Background User-friendly, accurate, point-of-care rapid tests to detect glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd) are urgently needed at peripheral level to safely recommend primaquine for malaria elimination. Methods The CareStart G6PD RDT (AccessBio, New Jersey, USA), a novel rapid diagnostic test and the most commonly used test, the fluorescent spot test (FST) were assessed against the quantitatively measured G6PD enzyme activity for detecting G6PDd. Subjects were healthy males and non-pregnant females aged 18 years or older residing in six villages in Pailin Province, western Cambodia. Findings Of the 938 subjects recruited, 74 (7.9%) were severe and moderately severe G6PD deficient (enzyme activity <30%), mostly in male population; population median G6PD activity was 12.0 UI/g Hb. The performances of the CareStart G6PD RDT and the FST, according to different cut-off values used to define G6PDd were very similar. For the detection of severe and moderately severe G6PDd (enzyme activity <30%, <3.6 UI/g Hb) in males and females, sensitivity and negative (normal status) predictive value were 100% for both point-of-care tools. When the G6PDd cut-off value increased (from <40% to <60%), the sensitivity for both PoCs decreased: 93.3% to 71.7% (CareStart G6PD RDT, p?=?10?6) and 95.5% to 73.2% (FST, p?=?10?6) while the specificity for both PoCs remained similar: 97.4% to 98.3% (CareStart G6PD RDT, p?=?0.23) and 98.7% to 99.6% (FST, p?=?0.06). The cut-off values for classifying individuals as normal were 4.0 UI/g Hb and 4.3 UI/g Hb for the CareStart G6PD RDT and the FST, respectively. Conclusions The CareStart G6PD RDT reliably detected moderate and severe G6PD deficient individuals (enzyme activity <30%), suggesting that this novel point-of-care is a promising tool for tailoring appropriate primaquine treatment for malaria elimination by excluding individuals with severe G6PDd for primaquine treatment. PMID:25541721

  10. “Souls of the ancestor that knock us out” and other tales. A qualitative study to identify demand-side factors influencing malaria case management in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Appropriate case management of suspected malaria in Cambodia is critical given anti-malarial drug resistance in the region. Improving diagnosis and the use of recommended malarial treatments is a challenge in Cambodia where self-treatment and usage of drug cocktails is widespread, a notable difference from malaria treatment seeking in other countries. This qualitative study adds to the limited evidence base on Cambodian practices, aiming to understand the demand-side factors influencing treatment-seeking behaviour, including the types of home treatments, perceptions of cocktail medicines and reasons for diagnostic testing. The findings may help guide intervention design. Methods The study used in-depth interviews (IDIs) (N?=?16) and focus group discussions (FGDs) (N?=?12) with Cambodian adults from malaria-endemic areas who had experienced malaria fever in the previous two weeks. Data were analysed using NVivo software. Results Findings suggest that Cambodians initially treat suspected malaria at home with home remedies and traditional medicines. When seeking treatment outside the home, respondents frequently reported receiving a cocktail of medicines from trusted providers. Cocktails are perceived as less expensive and more effective than full-course, pre-packaged medicines. Barriers to diagnostic testing include a belief in the ability to self-diagnose based on symptoms, cost and reliance on providers to recommend a test. Factors that facilitate testing include recommendation by trusted providers and a belief that anti-malarial treatment for illnesses other than malaria can be harmful. Conclusions Treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria in Cambodia is complex, driven by cultural norms, practicalities and episode-related factors. Effective malaria treatment programmes will benefit from interventions and communication materials that leverage these demand-side factors, promoting prompt visits to facilities for suspected malaria and challenging patients’ misconceptions about the effectiveness of cocktails. Given the importance of the patient-provider interaction and the pivotal role that providers play in ensuring the delivery of appropriate malaria care, future research and interventions should also focus on the supply side factors influencing provider behaviour. PMID:23039260

  11. Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Sputum using Selective Enrichment Broth and Ashdown’s Medium at Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Nhem, Somary; Letchford, Joanne; Meas, Chea; Thann, Sovanndeth; McLaughlin, James C.; Baron, Ellen Jo; West, T. Eoin

    2014-01-01

    Melioidosis infection, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is increasingly reported in Cambodia. We hypothesized that implementation of an enhanced sputum testing protocol in a provincial hospital diagnostic microbiology laboratory would increase detection of B. pseudomallei. We tested 241 sputum specimens that were deemed acceptable for culture, comparing culture in selective enrichment broth followed by sub-culture on Ashdown’s medium to standard culture methods. Two specimens (0.8%) were positive for B. pseudomallei using the enhanced protocol whereas one specimen (0.4%) was positive using standard methods. These findings demonstrate that B. pseudomallei is rarely detected in sputum at this hospital. The low frequency of B. pseudomallei in sputum specimens precludes drawing any conclusions about the relative benefits of an enhanced sputum testing protocol at this site. Promoting clinician awareness of the infection and encouraging utilization of diagnostic microbiology services are likely to be important factors in facilitating identification of melioidosis. PMID:25717370

  12. Poultry movement networks in Cambodia: implications for surveillance and control of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI/H5N1).

    PubMed

    Van Kerkhove, Maria D; Vong, Sirenda; Guitian, Javier; Holl, Davun; Mangtani, Punam; San, Sorn; Ghani, Azra C

    2009-10-23

    Movement of poultry through markets is potentially important in the circulation and spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza. However little is understood about poultry market chains in Cambodia. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 715 rural villagers, 123 rural, peri-urban and urban market sellers and 139 middlemen from six provinces and Phnom Penh, to evaluate live poultry movement and trading practices. Direct trade links with Thailand and Vietnam were identified via middlemen and market sellers. Most poultry movement occurs via middlemen into Phnom Penh making live bird wet markets in Phnom Penh a potential hub for the spread of H5N1 and ideal for surveillance and control. PMID:19840671

  13. Development of the Khao Khwang Fold and Thrust Belt: Implications for the geodynamic setting of Thailand and Cambodia during the Indosinian Orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, C. K.; Ampaiwan, P.; Thanudamrong, S.; Kuenphan, N.; Warren, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Indosinian Orogeny in Thailand is often viewed as having developed between strongly linear terranes, which today trend approximately N-S. The terranes were subsequently disrupted by later tectonics, particularly NW-SE trending Cenozoic strike-slip faults. The ENE-WSW to NE-SW striking thrusts and folds in the Khao Khwang Platform area of the Saraburi Group on the SW margin of the Indochina Terrane are not easily explained in the context of this traditional view. Reversal of the clockwise rotation shown to have affected the block north of the Mae Ping Fault zone only enhances the E-W orientation of structures in the fold and thrust belt, and moves the belt further east towards Cambodia. One solution for the trend that fits better with regional understanding from hydrocarbon exploration of the Khorat Plateau is that the Indochina Terrane was actually a series of continental blocks, separated by Permian rifting. During the Early Triassic the early stages of collision (South China-Cathaysian Terrane collision with Vietnam Indochina) resulted in the amalgamation of disparate blocks that now form the Indochina Terrane by closure along the rifts. At the same time or following on from the collision there was closure of the back-arc area between Indochina and the Sukhothai zone. The rift basins, were thrusted and inverted during the early stages of the Indosinian orogeny, and only underwent minor reactivated when later Sibumasu collided with Sukhothai Zone-Indochina Terrane margin during the Late Triassic. The scenario described above requires the presence of a (minor) E-W trending suture in NW Cambodia. Evidence for this suture is suggested by the presence of Permo-Triassic calc-alkaline volcanism.

  14. Virological Failure and HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations among Naive and Antiretroviral Pre-Treated Patients Entering the ESTHER Program of Calmette Hospital in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Limsreng, Setha; Him, Sovanvatey; Nouhin, Janin; Hak, Chanroeurn; Srun, Chanvatey; Viretto, Gerald; Ouk, Vara; Delfraissy, Jean Francois; Ségéral, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In resource limited settings, patients entering an antiretroviral therapy (ART) program comprise ART naive and ART pre-treated patients who may show differential virological outcomes. Methods This retrospective study, conducted in 2010–2012 in the HIV clinic of Calmette Hospital located in Phnom Penh (Cambodia) assessed virological failure (VF) rates and patterns of drug resistance of naive and pre-treated patients. Naive and ART pre-treated patients were included when a Viral Load (VL) was performed during the first year of ART for naive subjects or at the first consultation for pre-treated individuals. Patients showing Virological failure (VF) (>1,000 copies/ml) underwent HIV DR genotyping testing. Interpretation of drug resistance mutations was done according to 2013 version 23 ANRS algorithms. Results On a total of 209 patients, 164 (78.4%) were naive and 45 (21.5%) were ART pre-treated. Their median initial CD4 counts were 74 cells/mm3 (IQR: 30–194) and 279 cells/mm3 (IQR: 103–455) (p<0.001), respectively. Twenty seven patients (12.9%) exhibited VF (95% CI: 8.6–18.2%), including 10 naive (10/164, 6.0%) and 17 pre-treated (17/45, 37.8%) patients (p<0.001). Among these viremic patients, twenty-two (81.4%) were sequenced in reverse transcriptase and protease coding regions. Overall, 19 (86.3%) harbored ?1 drug resistance mutations (DRMs) whereas 3 (all belonging to pre-treated patients) harbored wild-types viruses. The most frequent DRMs were M184V (86.3%), K103N (45.5%) and thymidine analog mutations (TAMs) (40.9%). Two (13.3%) pre-treated patients harbored viruses that showed a multi-nucleos(t)ide resistance including Q151M, K65R, E33A/D, E44A/D mutations. Conclusion In Cambodia, VF rates were low for naive patients but the emergence of DRMs to NNRTI and 3TC occurred relatively quickly in this subgroup. In pre-treated patients, VF rates were much higher and TAMs were relatively common. HIV genotypic assays before ART initiation and for ART pre-treated patients infection should be considered as well. PMID:25166019

  15. Reaping the Benefits of Parent Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haakmat, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Martha Haakmat writes in this article that in some ways she understands why parents might have a harder time understanding why Montessori is education at its best, especially as their children progress past preschool. Haakmat goes on to say that the learning path at Montessori schools is more proactive. Montessori schools ask that parents partner…

  16. ASSESSMENT OF REAP-UPWARD BOUND.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LANG, MELVIN; HOPP, LAURENCE

    THE IMPACT OF AN UPWARD BOUND (UB) PROGRAM ON THE ATTITUDES, MOTIVATION, AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS WITH COLLEGE POTENTIAL IS EVALUATED. THE PROGRAM IS ONE OF THE 21 UB PROGRAMS RANDOMLY SELECTED FOR INTENSIVE STUDY. AT RUTGERS UB STUDENTS' ATTITUDES AND MOTIVATION TOWARD COLLEGE GOALS, SELF-EVALUATION AND SELF-ESTEEM,…

  17. Gathering Security Metrics and Reaping the Rewards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the importance of using objective measurement to manage security improvements and to steer an information security program. It outlines the best way to design and produce a comprehensive security metrics program. It also describes how to leverage that effort within an organization to achieve improved decision-making, to increase visibility, to perform benchmark comparisons, and to demonstrate

  18. Reaping the Systemic Benefits of Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chokshi, Sonal; Fernandez, Clea

    2005-01-01

    Most readers of the Kappan will know that lesson study is a Japanese approach to teacher professional development that has recently become popular in the U.S. Indeed, lesson study activity has been spreading rapidly for several years and continues to proliferate today. However, to date, most of the discussion and research about U.S.-based lesson…

  19. Reap Dividends with Stock Market Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duprey, Larry

    1994-01-01

    By bringing some of the excitement of the stock market to the classroom, teachers can encourage students to learn about the financial world, read the newspaper, work cooperatively, and practice working with money and fractions. The article explains how to get students started and offers some advanced strategies. (SM)

  20. Elevated levels of iron in groundwater in Prey Veng province in Cambodia: a possible factor contributing to high iron stores in women.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Murphy, Heather M; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; Vercauteren, Suzanne M; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Porter, Keith; Kroeun, Hou; Eath, Many; McLean, Judy; Green, Timothy J

    2015-06-01

    Iron is a natural element found in food, water and soil and is essential for human health. Our aim was to determine the levels of iron and 25 other metals and trace elements in groundwater from 22 households in Prey Veng, Cambodia. Water analyses were conducted using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and optical emission spectrometry. Compared to the 2011 World Health Organization guidelines for drinking water quality, aluminum, iron and manganese exceeded maximum levels (in 4.5, 72.7 and 40.9% of samples, respectively). Compared to the 2004 Cambodian drinking water quality standards, iron and manganese exceeded maximum levels (in 59.1 and 36.4% of samples, respectively). We found no evidence of arsenic contamination. Guidelines for iron were established primarily for esthetic reasons (e.g. taste), whereas other metals and elements have adverse effects associated with toxicity. Iron in groundwater ranged from 134 to 5,200 ?g/L (mean ?1,422 ?g/L). Based on a daily consumption of 3 L groundwater, this equates to ?0.4-15.6 mg iron (mean ?4.3 mg/day), which may be contributing to high iron stores and the low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in Prey Veng women. Elevated levels of manganese in groundwater are a concern and warrant further investigation. PMID:26042988

  1. Validity of measures of pain and symptoms in HIV/AIDS infected households in resources poor settings: results from the Dominican Republic and Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Gregory; Wolf, R Cameron; Morineau, Guy; Harding, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Background HIV/AIDS treatment programs are currently being mounted in many developing nations that include palliative care services. While measures of palliative care have been developed and validated for resource rich settings, very little work exists to support an understanding of measurement for Africa, Latin America or Asia. Methods This study investigates the construct validity of measures of reported pain, pain control, symptoms and symptom control in areas with high HIV-infected prevalence in Dominican Republic and Cambodia Measures were adapted from the POS (Palliative Outcome Scale). Households were selected through purposive sampling from networks of people living with HIV/AIDS. Consistencies in patterns in the data were tested used Chi Square and Mantel Haenszel tests. Results The sample persons who reported chronic illness were much more likely to report pain and symptoms compared to those not chronically ill. When controlling for the degrees of pain, pain control did not differ between the chronically ill and non-chronically ill using a Mantel Haenszel test in both countries. Similar results were found for reported symptoms and symptom control for the Dominican Republic. These findings broadly support the construct validity of an adapted version of the POS in these two less developed countries. Conclusion The results of the study suggest that the selected measures can usefully be incorporated into population-based surveys and evaluation tools needed to monitor palliative care and used in settings with high HIV/AIDS prevalence. PMID:16549003

  2. Simulation of Canopy CO2/H2O Fluxes for a Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) Plantation in Central Cambodia: The Effect of the Regular Spacing of Planted Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Mudd, Ryan; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Liu, Wen; Giambelluca, Thomas; Kobayashi, N.; Lim, Tiva Khan; Jomura, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Huang, Maoyi; Chen, Qi; Ziegler, Alan; Yin, Song

    2013-09-10

    We developed a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model applicable to simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes from the canopies of rubber plantations, which are characterized by distinct canopy clumping produced by regular spacing of plantation trees. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers it is replacing. Describing the biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations via SVAT modeling is therefore essential to understanding the impacts on environmental processes. The regular spacing of plantation trees creates a peculiar canopy structure that is not well represented in most SVAT models, which generally assumes a non-uniform spacing of vegetation. Herein we develop a SVAT model applicable to rubber plantation and an evaluation method for its canopy structure, and examine how the peculiar canopy structure of rubber plantations affects canopy CO2 and H2O exchanges. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to account for intensive canopy clumping in order to reproduce observed rubber plantation fluxes. These results suggest a potentially optimal spacing of rubber trees to produce high productivity and water use efficiency.

  3. Identification of molecular markers associated with alteration of receptor-binding specificity in a novel genotype of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses detected in Cambodia in 2013.

    PubMed

    Rith, Sareth; Davis, C Todd; Duong, Veasna; Sar, Borann; Horm, Srey Viseth; Chin, Savuth; Ly, Sovann; Laurent, Denis; Richner, Beat; Oboho, Ikwo; Jang, Yunho; Davis, William; Thor, Sharmi; Balish, Amanda; Iuliano, A Danielle; Sorn, San; Holl, Davun; Sok, Touch; Seng, Heng; Tarantola, Arnaud; Tsuyuoka, Reiko; Parry, Amy; Chea, Nora; Allal, Lotfi; Kitsutani, Paul; Warren, Dora; Prouty, Michael; Horwood, Paul; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Lindstrom, Stephen; Villanueva, Julie; Donis, Ruben; Cox, Nancy; Buchy, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    Human infections with influenza A(H5N1) virus in Cambodia increased sharply during 2013. Molecular characterization of viruses detected in clinical specimens from human cases revealed the presence of mutations associated with the alteration of receptor-binding specificity (K189R, Q222L) and respiratory droplet transmission in ferrets (N220K with Q222L). Discovery of quasispecies at position 222 (Q/L), in addition to the absence of the mutations in poultry/environmental samples, suggested that the mutations occurred during human infection and did not transmit further. PMID:25210193

  4. Identification of Molecular Markers Associated with Alteration of Receptor-Binding Specificity in a Novel Genotype of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses Detected in Cambodia in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Rith, Sareth; Davis, C. Todd; Duong, Veasna; Sar, Borann; Horm, Srey Viseth; Chin, Savuth; Ly, Sovann; Laurent, Denis; Richner, Beat; Oboho, Ikwo; Jang, Yunho; Davis, William; Thor, Sharmi; Balish, Amanda; Iuliano, A. Danielle; Sorn, San; Holl, Davun; Sok, Touch; Seng, Heng; Tarantola, Arnaud; Tsuyuoka, Reiko; Parry, Amy; Chea, Nora; Allal, Lotfi; Kitsutani, Paul; Warren, Dora; Prouty, Michael; Horwood, Paul; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Lindstrom, Stephen; Villanueva, Julie; Donis, Ruben; Cox, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Human infections with influenza A(H5N1) virus in Cambodia increased sharply during 2013. Molecular characterization of viruses detected in clinical specimens from human cases revealed the presence of mutations associated with the alteration of receptor-binding specificity (K189R, Q222L) and respiratory droplet transmission in ferrets (N220K with Q222L). Discovery of quasispecies at position 222 (Q/L), in addition to the absence of the mutations in poultry/environmental samples, suggested that the mutations occurred during human infection and did not transmit further. PMID:25210193

  5. The social determinants of health and health service access: an in depth study in four poor communities in Phnom Penh Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing urbanization and population density, and persisting inequities in health outcomes across socioeconomic groupings have raised concerns internationally regarding the health of the urban poor. These concerns are also evident in Cambodia, which prompted the design of a study to identify and describe the main barriers to access to health services by the poor in the capital city, Phnom Penh. Sources and Methods Main sources of data were through a household survey, followed by in-depth qualitative interviews with mothers, local authorities and health centre workers in four very poor communities in Phnom Penh. Main findings Despite low incomes and education levels, the study communities have moderate levels of access to services for curative and preventive care. However, qualitative findings demonstrate that households contextualize poor health and health access in terms of their daily living conditions, particularly in relation to environmental conditions and social insecurity. The interactions of low education, poor living conditions and high food costs in the context of low and irregular incomes reinforce a pattern of “living from moment to moment” and results in a cycle of disadvantage and ill health in these communities. There were three main factors that put poor communities at a health disadvantage; these are the everyday living conditions of communities, social and economic inequality and the extent to which a society assesses and acts on inequities in their health care access. Conclusions In order to improve access to health and health services for the urban poor, expansion of public health functions and capacities will be required, including building partnerships between health providers, municipal authorities and civil society. PMID:22900888

  6. A child feeding index is superior to WHO IYCF indicators in explaining length-for-age Z-scores of young children in rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Reinbott, Anika; Kuchenbecker, Judith; Herrmann, Johannes; Jordan, Irmgard; Muehlhoff, Ellen; Kevanna, Ou; Krawinkel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate young child feeding practices are influenced by a multitude of factors which affect growth and development. A combination of indicators is needed to explain the role of complementary feeding practices in growth retardation. Methods: A cross-sectional nutrition baseline survey was conducted in rural Cambodia in September 2012. Villages in pre-selected communes were randomly selected using stunting as a primary indicator. Data were collected from 803 randomly selected households with children aged 6–23 months, based on a standardised questionnaire and on length/height and weight measurements of mother and child. WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators [minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF), minimum acceptable diet (MAD)] and a child feeding index (CFI) were created. The latter consisted of five components: breastfeeding, use of bottle, dietary diversity, food frequency and meal frequency which were adjusted for three age groups: 6–8, 9–11 and 12–23 months. The highest possible score was 10. Associations between length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ) and WHO indicators or CFI were explored. Results: Mean (SD) LAZ was ?1.25 (1.14) (n ?=? 801). Mean (range) CFI was 6.7 (1–10) (n ?=? 797). Mean CFI was highest in the 9–11-months age group (7.93) and lowest for those aged 12–23 months (5.96). None of the WHO IYCF indicators was associated with LAZ, whereas CFI showed significant association with LAZ (P < 0.01). The association between higher CFI scores and LAZ became weaker as age increased. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to include a wide range of information in the analysis in order to understand the association between appropriate infant feeding practices and child growth. PMID:25226288

  7. Acute lower respiratory infections in ?5 year -old hospitalized patients in Cambodia, a low-income tropical country: clinical characteristics and pathogenic etiology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few data exist on viral and bacterial etiology of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in ?5 year –old persons in the tropics. Methods We conducted active surveillance of community-acquired ALRI in two hospitals in Cambodia, a low-income tropical country. Patients were tested for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) by direct sputum examination, other bacteria by blood and/or sputum cultures, and respiratory viruses using molecular techniques on nasopharyngeal/throat swabs. Pulmonologists reviewed clinical/laboratory data and interpreted chest X-rays (CXR) to confirm ALRI. Results Between April 2007 - December 2009, 1,904 patients aged ?5 years were admitted with acute pneumonia (50.4%), lung sequelae-associated ALRI (24.3%), isolated pleural effusions (8.9%) or normal CXR-related ALRI (17.1%); 61 (3.2%) died during hospitalization. The two former diagnoses were predominantly due to bacterial etiologies while viral detection was more frequent in the two latter diagnoses. AFB-positive accounted for 25.6% of acute pneumonia. Of the positive cultures (16.8%), abscess-prone Gram-negative bacteria (39.6%) and Haemophilus influenzae (38.0%) were most frequent, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (17.7%). Of the identified viruses, the three most common viruses included rhinoviruses (49.5%), respiratory syncytial virus (17.7%) and influenza viruses (12.1%) regardless of the diagnostic groups. Wheezing was associated with viral identification (31.9% vs. 13.8%, p?

  8. Element concentrations in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.), fish and sediment from a wetland production system that receives wastewater from Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Marcussen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Holm, Peter E

    2009-01-01

    The Cheung Ek Lake, which is located south of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, receives most of the industrial and domestic wastewater that is produced in the city. The lake is used for fishing and production of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk). Concentrations of 35 elements were determined in water spinach and sediment that were collected along transects of two wastewater inlets in the lake, at the lake outlet, and in a non-wastewater exposed pond. Elevated concentrations of the potentially toxic elements (PTEs) Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn were found in the water spinach and sediment samples collected near the wastewater inlets. The highest determined PTE concentrations in water spinach were, in mg kg(- 1) fresh weight (f.w.), As 0.19, Cd 0.022, Cu 2.95, Fe 251, Pb 0.206 and Zn 9.08. For an adult person in Phnom Penh, the maximum intake of PTEs from consumption of water spinach harvested near the wastewater inlets amounts to 5.7% As, 1.4% Cd, 0.4% Cu, 20.5% Fe, 3.8% Pb and 0.6% Zn of the maximum tolerable intake set by the Codex Alimentarious Commission. Arsenic, Cd and Pb concentrations in the liver, skin, and muscle of three fish species caught in the lake were below or near the detection limits, except for a high accumulation of the three elements in the skin of the blackskin catfish. In conclusion, the consumption of water spinach and fish from Cheung Ek Lake constitutes a low food safety risk with respect to PTEs. PMID:19085597

  9. Efficacy of Two versus Three-Day Regimens of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for Uncomplicated Malaria in Military Personnel in Northern Cambodia: An Open-Label Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vanachayangkul, Pattaraporn; So, Mary; Sea, Darapiseth; Se, Youry; Gosi, Panita; Lanteri, Charlotte; Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Chann, Soklyda; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; Buathong, Nillawan; Nou, Samon; Walsh, Douglas S.; Tyner, Stuart D.; Juliano, Jonathan J.; Lin, Jessica; Spring, Michele; Bethell, Delia; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Tang, Douglas; Chuor, Char Meng; Satharath, Prom; Saunders, David

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Emerging antimalarial drug resistance in mobile populations remains a significant public health concern. We compared two regimens of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in military and civilians on the Thai-Cambodian border to evaluate national treatment policy. Methods Efficacy and safety of two and three-day regimens of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine were compared as a nested open-label evaluation within a malaria cohort study in 222 otherwise healthy volunteers (18% malaria-infected at baseline). The first 80 volunteers with slide-confirmed Plasmodium falciparum or vivax malaria were randomized 1:1 to receive either regimen (total dose 360mg dihydroartemisinin and 2880mg piperaquine) and followed weekly for up to 6 months. The primary endpoint was malaria recurrence by day 42. Volunteers with vivax infection received primaquine at study discharge with six months follow-up. Results Eighty patients (60 vivax, 15 falciparum, and 5 mixed) were randomized to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. Intention-to-treat all-species efficacy at Day 42 was 85% for the two-day regimen (95% CI 69–94) and 90% for the three-day regimen (95% CI 75–97). PCR-adjusted falciparum efficacy was 75% in both groups with nearly half (45%) still parasitemic at Day 3. Plasma piperaquine levels were comparable to prior published reports, but on the day of recrudescence were below measurable in vitro piperaquine IC50 levels in all falciparum treatment failures. Conclusions In the brief period since introduction of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, there is early evidence suggesting declining efficacy relative to previous reports. Parasite IC50 levels in excess of plasma piperaquine levels seen only in treatment failures raises concern for clinically significant piperaquine resistance in Cambodia. These findings warrant improved monitoring of clinical outcomes and follow-up, given few available alternative drugs. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01280162 PMID:24667662

  10. Quantifying changes in flooding and habitats in the Tonle Sap Lake (Cambodia) caused by water infrastructure development and climate change in the Mekong Basin.

    PubMed

    Arias, Mauricio E; Cochrane, Thomas A; Piman, Thanapon; Kummu, Matti; Caruso, Brian S; Killeen, Timothy J

    2012-12-15

    The economic value of the Tonle Sap Lake Floodplain to Cambodia is arguably among the highest provided to a nation by a single ecosystem around the world. Nonetheless, the Mekong River Basin is changing rapidly due to accelerating water infrastructure development (hydropower, irrigation, flood control, and water supply) and climate change, bringing considerable modifications to the flood pulse of the Tonle Sap Lake in the foreseeable future. This paper presents research conducted to determine how the historical flooding regime, together with human action, influenced landscape patterns of habitats in the Tonle Sap Lake, and how these habitats might shift as a result of hydrological changes. Maps of water depth, annual flood duration, and flood frequency were created for recent historical hydrological conditions and for simulated future scenarios of water infrastructure development and climate change. Relationships were then established between the historical flood maps and land cover, and these were subsequently applied to assess potential changes to habitat cover in future decades. Five habitat groups were clearly distinguishable based on flood regime, physiognomic patterns, and human activity: (1) Open water, flooded for 12 months in an average hydrological year; (2) Gallery forest, with flood duration of 9 months annually; (3) Seasonally flooded habitats, flooded 5-8 months and dominated by shrublands and grasslands; (4) transitional habitats, flooded 1-5 months and dominated by abandoned agricultural fields, receding rice/floating rice, and lowland grasslands; and (5) Rainfed habitats, flooded up to 1 month and consisting mainly of wet season rice fields and village crops. It was found that water infrastructure development could increase the area of open water (+18 to +21%) and the area of rainfed habitats (+10 to +14%), while reducing the area covered with seasonally flooded habitats (-13 to -22%) and gallery forest (-75 to -83%). Habitat cover shifts as a result of climate change include a net increase of open water (2-21%), as well as a reduction of rainfed habitats by 2-5% and seasonally flooded habitats by 5-11%. Findings from this study will help guide on-going and future conservation and restoration efforts throughout this unique and critical ecosystem. PMID:22877742

  11. Biomarker validation of recent unprotected sexual intercourse in a prospective study of young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Jennifer L.; Couture, Marie-Claude; Stein, Ellen S.; Sansothy, Neth; Maher, Lisa; Page, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Summary A study of female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia found self-reported condom use to be of questionable validity, particularly among amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) users and those with multiple partners. Background Accurate measurement of unprotected sex is essential in HIV prevention research. Since 2001, the 100% Condom Use Program targeting female sex workers (FSW) has been a central element of the Cambodian National HIV/AIDS Strategy. We sought to assess the validity of self-reported condom use using the rapid prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test among Cambodian FSW. Methods From 2009 to 2010 we enrolled 183 FSW in Phnom Penh in a prospective study of HIV risk behavior. PSA test results from the OneStep ABAcard® were compared to self-reported condom use in the past 48 hours at quarterly follow-up visits. Results Among women positive for seminal fluid at the first follow-up visit, 42% reported only protected sex or no sex in the detection period. Discordant results were more likely among brothel and street-based FSW vs. entertainment (56% vs. 17%), recent (last 3 months) ATS users (53% vs. 20%), and those with >5 partners in the past month (58% vs. 13%). In multivariable regression models, positive PSA results were associated with recent ATS use (Adjusted Risk Ratio (ARR) = 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.1 – 2.2), having a non-paying last sex partner (ARR=1.7; CI:1.2 – 2.5), and sex work venue (ARR=3.0; CI:1.4 – 6.5). Correspondingly, women with a non-paying last sex partner were more likely to report unprotected sex (ARR=1.5; CI:1.1 – 2.2), but no associations were found with sex work venue or ATS use. Conclusions Results confirm the questionable validity of self-reported condom use among FSW. The PSA biomarker assay is an important monitoring tool in HIV/STI research including prevention trials. PMID:23680902

  12. Development of a real-time hydrological cycle - rice growth coupled simulation system as a tool for farmers' decision making in an ungauged basin in Cambodia for the better agricultural water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, K.; Ohta, T.; Yasukawa, M.; Koike, T.; Kitsuregawa, M.; Homma, K.

    2013-12-01

    The entire country of Cambodia depends on agriculture for its economy. Rice is the staple food, making it the major agricultural product (roughly 80% of total national production). The target area of this study is western Cambodia, where rice production is the greatest in the country and most land is rainfed. Since most farmers rely only on their (non-science-based) experience, they would not adjust to changing rainfall and degraded water resources under climate change, so food security in the region would be seriously threatened (Monichoth et al., 2013). Under this condition, irrigation master plans are being considered by several ODA projects. This study aims to contribute to the design of such irrigation plans through the development of a real-time hydrological cycle - rice growth coupled simulation system. The purpose of the development of this system is to support decision making 1) for determining the necessary agricultural water resources and 2) for allocating limited water resources to various sectors. Rice growing condition as affected by water stress due to the water shortage is supposed to be shown for both of the cases with and without irrigation for several rainfall patterns. A dynamically coupled model of a distributed hydrological model (WEB-DHM., Wang et al., 2009) and a rice growth model (SIMRIW-rainfed, Homma et al., 2009) has been developed with a simple irrigation model. The target basin, a small basin in western Cambodia, is basically an ungauged basin and the model was validated by soil moisture, LAI, dry matter production of the rice crop, and rice yield, using both intensive field observation and satellite observations. Calibrating hourly satellite precipitation dataset (GSMaP/NRT) using ground rain gauges, hydrological cycle (soil moisture at three layers, river discharge, irrigatable water amount, water level of each paddy field, water demand of each paddy field, etc.) and rice growth (LAI, developmental index of the rice crop, dry matter production of the rice crop, etc.) are being calculated on near real time basis and opened to the Cambodian governmental staff by a website with only 5-hour delay. This system enables the Cambodian local government to virtually experience the effectiveness of irrigation and to get qualitative information for the examination on whether or how much they will investigate for irrigation.

  13. Direct comparison of the histidine-rich protein-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests in Plasmodium falciparum reference clones and fresh ex vivo field isolates from Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Performance of the histidine-rich protein-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR Green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests were directly compared using Plasmodium falciparum reference strains and fresh ex vivo isolates from Cambodia against a panel of standard anti-malarials. The objective was to determine which of these two common assays is more appropriate for studying drug susceptibility of “immediate ex vivo” (IEV) isolates, analysed without culture adaption, in a region of relatively low malaria transmission. Methods Using the HRP-2 and MSF methods, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against a panel of malaria drugs were determined for P. falciparum reference clones (W2, D6, 3D7 and K1) and 41 IEV clinical isolates from an area of multidrug resistance in Cambodia. Comparison of the IC50 values from the two methods was made using Wilcoxon matched pair tests and Pearson’s correlation. The lower limit of parasitaemia detection for both methods was determined for reference clones and IEV isolates. Since human white blood cell (WBC) DNA in clinical samples is known to reduce MSF assay sensitivity, SYBR Green I fluorescence linearity of P. falciparum samples spiked with WBCs was evaluated to assess the relative degree to which MSF sensitivity is reduced in clinical samples. Results IC50 values correlated well between the HRP-2 and MSF methods when testing either P. falciparum reference clones or IEV isolates against 4-aminoquinolines (chloroquine, piperaquine and quinine) and the quinoline methanol mefloquine (Pearson r?=?0.85-0.99 for reference clones and 0.56-0.84 for IEV isolates), whereas a weaker IC50 value correlation between methods was noted when testing artemisinins against reference clones and lack of correlation when testing IEV isolates. The HRP-2 ELISA produced a higher overall success rate (90% for producing IC50 best-fit sigmoidal curves), relative to only a 40% success rate for the MSF assay, when evaluating ex vivo Cambodian isolates. Reduced sensitivity of the MSF assay is likely due to an interference of WBCs in clinical samples. Conclusions For clinical samples not depleted of WBCs, HRP-2 ELISA is superior to the MSF assay at evaluating fresh P. falciparum field isolates with low parasitaemia (<0.2%) generally observed in Southeast Asia. PMID:23849006

  14. Reap what you sow: harvesting the deep Web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norm Medeiros

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the growth of the invisible Web, and efforts underway to make its contents more accessible. Dynamic Web publishing is described. The Open Archives Metadata Harvesting Protocol is reviewed, as are projects related to OCLC’s implementation of the Open Archives Initiative. Recent Dublin Core activities are reported.

  15. Drug packaging in 2013: small changes would reap big benefits.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Drug packaging is important both in protecting and informing patients. Some improvements were made in 2013, but many of the products examined by Prescrire still had poor-quality or even dangerous packaging. Problem packaging is a major concern for patients who are more vulnerable to adverse effects, particularly children and pregnant women. Several problems were noted with products intended for self-medication (umbrella brands), oral solutions sold with dosing devices, and injectable drugs. Looking back at 20 years of Red Cards that Prescrire has issued to products with dangerous packaging reveals several improvements, but too many dangers persist. Urgent action needs to be taken by regulatory agencies and drug companies: patient leaflets must be more explicit with regard to adverse effects, especially those of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs during pregnancy; accidental ingestion by children must be prevented; and companies must design safer dosing devices. Healthcare professionals and patients must remain vigilant and report all packaging issues to the relevant authorities. PMID:24926522

  16. Boys, masculinity and school violence: reaping what we sow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandy White Watson

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the author explores the relationship between masculinity and violence. She begins by pointing out that although all of the recent school shootings in the US have been perpetrated by boys, very few are associating the acts with the gender of the offenders. Perhaps this connection is not made because society is so conditioned to the fact that

  17. Marketing your nursing product line: reaping the benefits.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J E; Arvidson, A C; Costa, L L; Hekhuis, F M; Lennox, L A; Marshall, S B; Moran, M J

    1987-11-01

    Survival in today's cost-conscious, competitive health care scene depends on strategic business skills, marketing, and product line management. As a major contributor to the delivery of health care, nursing practice must now include an orientation toward business with definable products. The authors discuss their success in developing a product line that results in professional growth, improved nurse recruitment and retention, and a greater competitive edge in the health care arena. PMID:3668673

  18. Hydrological change: reaping prosperity and pain in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunin, F. X.; Smith, C. J.; Denmead, O. T.

    2007-01-01

    The adage: “There is no such thing as a free lunch”, is relevant to land-use hydrology in Australia. Changes in land use to achieve greater productivity of food and fibre may have an adverse effect on the water balance and hence on the natural resource capital of a catchment. An altered regime of catchment outflow accompanies those land-use changes which, together with land degradation, impairs available water resources in quantity and quality and threatens enterprise sustainability, notwithstanding the initial improvement in productivity. Central to any hydrological change is an altered pattern of seasonal and annual water use by vegetation that has become modified in function with an amended transpiration fraction of daily evapotranspiration. In Australia, since measurement of evapotranspiration became feasible, the hydrological consequences of changes in land use have been determined, allowing the benefits in terms of plant productivity achieved through enhanced water use efficiency to be weighed against changed catchment outflows, diminished in either quantity or quality. Four case studies are presented as examples of ecological and hydrological changes: two deal with the upland forest environment and two with arable lowlands. In an upland eucalypt forest, following wildfire with subsequent regeneration from natural seedling establishment, substantial reduction in water yield occurred throughout a 50-year period of succession in the even-aged stand. In comparison, the effect of converting eucalypt forest to pine plantations was less detrimental to the yield of water from the catchments, with substantial growth increases over 30 years. In the lowlands, agricultural productivity, both as annual pasture and as crop, far exceeds that of natural perennial grassland and woodland. This increase in productivity comes not so much from any change to the yield of total water outflow but at the expense of water quality, compromised with increased material transport in suspension and solution resulting from accelerated erosion in association with outbreaks of soil salinity and acidity. The present study is aimed at optimising management to give plant production outcomes that ensure environmental protection through resource conservation. In the uplands, harvesting of water is the dominant consideration so that conservative management with limited plant productivity is sought. In the lowlands, the objective is to devise novel ecosystems with profitable plant production that exercises due control on outflow in maintaining the chemical and physical integrity of the edaphic environment.

  19. Are Universities Reaping the Available Benefits Internship Programs Offer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weible, Rick

    2010-01-01

    Many research studies have examined the benefits student internships offer students and employers, but few looked at the benefits internships might lend to educational institutions. A survey instrument was developed and sent to 619 deans of all U.S. business programs. In all, 29% replied. The results indicate some institutions are gaining the…

  20. REAP: Re-engineering Assessment Practices in Scottish Higher Education

    E-print Network

    Azzopardi, Leif

    and Milligan, i Nicol, D, J. & Macfarlane-Dick (2006), Formative assessment and self-regulated learning in first-year modules to enhance the development of learner self- regulation and the skills required students to develop as self-regulating learners they must be given a more active role in assessment

  1. Group Proposal Vietnam-Cambodia tour

    E-print Network

    Sorin, Eric J.

    experiences for both individuals and groups. Our mission is to promote sustainable social, environmental in Itinerary · Tips and Gratuities Itinerary Day 1: Arrival On arrival at Hanoi Ni Bŕi International airport

  2. Education Reforms in Cambodia: Issues and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the key issues and concerns in the Cambodian government's efforts to implement three priority education policies for 2006-2010: ensure equitable access to education; increase quality and efficiency of the education services; and promote institutional development and capacity building for decentralisation. This paper identifies…

  3. Restoring coastal plants to improve global carbon storage: reaping what we sow.

    PubMed

    Irving, Andrew D; Connell, Sean D; Russell, Bayden D

    2011-01-01

    Long-term carbon capture and storage (CCS) is currently considered a viable strategy for mitigating rising levels of atmospheric CO(2) and associated impacts of global climate change. Until recently, the significant below-ground CCS capacity of coastal vegetation such as seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangroves has largely gone unrecognized in models of global carbon transfer. However, this reservoir of natural, free, and sustainable carbon storage potential is increasingly jeopardized by alarming trends in coastal habitat loss, totalling 30-50% of global abundance over the last century alone. Human intervention to restore lost habitats is a potentially powerful solution to improve natural rates of global CCS, but data suggest this approach is unlikely to substantially improve long-term CCS unless current restoration efforts are increased to an industrial scale. Failure to do so raises the question of whether resources currently used for expensive and time-consuming restoration projects would be more wisely invested in arresting further habitat loss and encouraging natural recovery. PMID:21479244

  4. Digging a Vegetarian Diet: Plant-Based Eating Can Reap Rewards

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eat more healthy foods. Others have religious or economic reasons or are concerned about animal welfare. “Vegetarian ... Alan Defibaugh (illustrations), Bonnie Tabasko and Harrison Wein. Attention Editors: Reprint our articles and illustrations in your ...

  5. Reaping the Rewards of Radical Change: A New Agenda for Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagin, Claire M.; Lynaugh, Joan E.

    1992-01-01

    A plan for revising nursing education proposes (1) direct transfer linkage to improve associate/bachelor's degree articulation; (2) partnerships for student transfer between junior and senior colleges; and (3) a terminal nurse associate program to prepare for long-term nursing home care. (SK)

  6. (Almost) Word for Word: As Voice Recognition Programs Improve, Students Reap the Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Voice recognition software is hardly new--attempts at capturing spoken words and turning them into written text have been available to consumers for about two decades. But what was once an expensive and highly unreliable tool has made great strides in recent years, perhaps most recognized in programs such as Nuance's Dragon NaturallySpeaking…

  7. Reaping the Whirlwind: "The Wind that Shakes the Barley", Liberation and after in the Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Popular culture includes stories that define and justify the existence of groups and nations. Among those stories are creation accounts, especially stories of the forming of nations through struggles for liberation from oppression. The useful liberation myths are exemplified by two recent films: "V for Vendetta" and "Children of Men." Another…

  8. Reaping caregiver feelings of gain: The roles of socio-emotional support and mastery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yumi Shirai; Susan Silverberg Koerner; DenYelle Baete Kenyon

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Existing studies indicate that the presence of social support increases the likelihood of caregivers experiencing feelings of gain from caregiving; however, researchers have not yet investigated the mechanism through which social support is linked to caregiver feelings of gain. Informed by Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory, the present study investigated whether a sense of caregiving mastery serves as a key

  9. System Change through Community Schools: District Leaders Cite the Benefits They Are Reaping through External Partnering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Martin J.; Cady, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Since 1962, the National Center for Community Education and the Coalition for Community Schools (NCCE) has been promoting community schools by providing leadership development, training and technical assistance. The Coalition is an alliance of 170 national, state and local organizations that promotes community schools as the most effective vehicle…

  10. A blueprint for transformational organisational change in higher education: REAP as a case study

    E-print Network

    Williamson, John

    and learning facilitated by information and communication technologies (ICT). One definition of transformation. Transforming Higher Education through Technology-Enhanced Learning ed. J.T.Mayes Introduction In this chapter and Nicol, 2006: Nicol and Draper, 2008) we discussed innovation at the level of course redesign. Here we

  11. Weed 'Em and Reap: The Art of Weeding to Avoid Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Today media centers provide students the opportunity to learn and explore subjects of their interest in depth. The media center is the largest classroom in the school providing service to every student and every teacher in all curricular areas. The library should be a place to encourage students' interests and a place to broaden their horizons by…

  12. Precision Agriculture. Reaping the Benefits of Technological Growth. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Joel F.

    1998-01-01

    Technological innovations have revolutionized farming. Using precision farming techniques, farmers get an accurate picture of a field's attributes, such as soil properties, yield rates, and crop characteristics through the use of Differential Global Positioning Satellite hardware. (JOW)

  13. Introducing the GRACEnet/REAP data contribution, discovery and retrieval system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Difficulties in accessing high quality data on trace gas fluxes and performance of bioenergy/bio-product feedstocks limit the ability of researchers and others to address environmental impacts of agriculture and the potential to produce feedstocks. To address those needs, the GRACEnet (Greenhouse ga...

  14. David Nicol d.j.nicol@strath.ac.uk See www.reap.ac.uk

    E-print Network

    Azzopardi, Leif

    and self-assessment in learning 3. Deliver high quality feedback to students: that enables them to self principles are about feedback and the development of independence or learner self-regulation (empowerment and Teaching in Higher Education, 1, 3-31. Nicol, D, J. & Macfarlane-Dick (2006), Formative assessment and self-regulated

  15. Explaining Recent Connecticut Bank Failures: Did Managerial Inefficiency Play a Role

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    to examine events in 1991 and 1992. We adopt data envelopment analysis to derive measures of managerial and Siems (1993), and Barr, Seiford, and Siems (1993) suggest the use of data envelopment analysis (DEA

  16. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Pulmonary melioidosis in Cambodia

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and outcomes. Methods: We characterized cases of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) that were identified from acute septicemia to chronic localized abscess while most infections with B. pseudomallei frequency, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation and body temperature. B. pseudomallei was detected in sputum

  17. THE PHOENIX POPULATION: DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS AND REBOUND IN CAMBODIA*

    PubMed Central

    HEUVELINE, PATRICK; POCH, BUNNAK

    2014-01-01

    The study of mortality crises provides an unusual and valuable perspective on the relationship between mortality and fertility changes, a relationship that has puzzled demographers for decades. In this article, we combine nationally representative survey and demographic-surveillance system data to study fertility trends around the time of the Khmer Rouge (KR) regime, under which 25% of the Cambodian population died. We present the first quantitative evidence to date that attests to a one-third decline of fertility during this regime, followed by a substantial “baby boom” after the fall of the KR. Further analyses reveal that the fertility rebound was produced not only by a two-year marriage bubble but also by a surge in marital fertility that remained for nearly a decade above its precrisis level. Our results illustrate the potential influence of mortality on fertility, which may be more difficult to identify for more gradual mortality declines. To the extent that until recently, Cambodian fertility appears to fit natural fertility patterns, our findings also reinforce meaning of this core paradigm of demographic analysis. In July 1978, a youth named Korb, bound hand and foot, arrived at a Pol Pot regime extermination camp. The local security chief, “Comrade Uncle An,” was handed the following note: Formerly this person was normal in character. Then, over about ten days, he went crazy. […] If many people come in, first he begins to whistle, and then he sings the following rhyme out loud: O! Khmers with black blood Now the eight-year Buddhist prophecy is being fulfilled. Vietnam is the elder brother Kampuchea is the younger. If we do not follow the Vietnamese as our elder brothers There will be nothing left of the Khmer this time but ashes.(Kiernan and Boua 1982:363) PMID:17583312

  18. REAP is an apprenticeship experience designed for highly motivated, first-year students in the Honors Program. The REAP experience will provide a fast-track for talented students, enabling them to explore topics of interest,

    E-print Network

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    . Kjung Jae Jeong, Chemical Engineering Topic: Innate Immune Response to Novel Bactericidal Surface Engineering Topic: Design of Vanadium Oxide Nanostructure for Electrochemical Capacitor Applications Katherine, and Biomedical Sciences Topic: The Flavor of Animal Life: Molecular Cloning and Expression of an Evolutionary

  19. One-to-One in Alaska: In the Remote Alaskan Interior, Students are Reaping the Benefits of Laptop Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Each school, district, or state has a unique set of circumstances and obstacles to deal with in implementing a one-to-one laptop program. That is especially true of Denali Borough School District in Alaska. Located in the Alaskan interior, it encompasses Denali National Park (with North America's tallest mountain), covers more than 12,000 square…

  20. Bilingual Toddlers Reap the Language They Sow: Ethnic Minority Toddlers' Childcare Attendance Increases Maternal Host Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevoo, Marielle J. L.; Mesman, Judi; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Pieper, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the development and correlates of language use in bilingual Turkish-Dutch immigrant mothers and their toddlers. In this short-term longitudinal study 87 mothers completed questionnaires on their Dutch and Turkish language use, ethnic identity and use of childcare. Observational data were obtained for maternal supportive…

  1. “You Reap What You Plant”: Social Networks in the Arab World—The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Harrigan

    2009-01-01

    Summary The aim of this paper is threefold. First, to describe the general evolution of bonding and bridging social capital in Jordan. Second, to explore the role of state policies in affecting the various forms of social capital. Finally, to analyze how poverty and economic reform influence the extent and nature of social capital. Social networks, a crucial element of

  2. Digitization and the Creation of Virtual Libraries: The Princeton University Image Card Catalog--Reaping the Benefits of Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henthorne, Eileen

    1995-01-01

    Describes a project at the Princeton University libraries that converted the pre-1981 public card catalog, using digital imaging and optical character recognition technology, to fully tagged and indexed records of text in MARC format that are available on an online database and will be added to the online catalog. (LRW)

  3. They Can Hear You Now: Increasing Clarity in Speech and Instructional Media Reaps Big Dividends for Both Students and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few decades, school teachers have been embracing a number of electronic technologies for use in the classroom. Computers are now prevalent; overhead projectors are being replaced with dynamic teaching tools such as data projection, electronic whiteboards, and video media. One key technology is just beginning to catch up to the…

  4. You Reap What You Sow: Parental Investment in Language Learning and Its Reflection in a Seven-Year-Old's World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Servet

    2007-01-01

    According to the 2000 Census, 329 different languages, including English, are spoken in the United States today. With the increasing number of immigrant and international groups, a number of topics such as language learning, language loss and maintenance, and bilingual education have started to follow an important line of investigation in the past…

  5. The challenge of assessing social dimensions of avoided deforestation: Examples from Cambodia

    SciTech Connect

    Pasgaard, M., E-mail: mase@life.ku.dk

    2013-01-15

    Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD +) has moved to the central stage of the climate change debate by being promoted as a significant, cheap, and quick win-win strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and thereby mitigate climate change. In order to be successful in reducing emissions while providing the projected social and environmental co-benefits, REDD + needs to overcome key challenges of insecure forest tenure and inequity in the distribution of benefits. Such challenges threaten to affect the livelihoods and well-being in the local communities and in turn the effectiveness of REDD+. While REDD + programs will affect the participating communities, there is limited knowledge as to what social impacts these projects may bring to the local population. Similarly, assessment of these social dimensions has received little attention until recently, and is consequently out of sync with the realities of REDD + projects. The present paper aims to shed light on the methodological and contextual challenges in the assessment of the social dimensions of REDD+. Some of the main social concerns of REDD + are outlined with an emphasis on the uniqueness and complexity of REDD + interventions. Recently proposed approaches to assess social impacts in REDD + are critically assessed in terms of the diversity of frameworks proposed, choice of social indicators, and data collection requirements. Specifically, these methodological implications are further discussed in the light of the social dimensions and the prescribed regulations of REDD + in a Cambodian context. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insecure tenure and inequitable benefit sharing are main social concerns in REDD +. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two guides to social assessments in REDD + are critically reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mismatch between social assessment requirements and the reality of REDD + is analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete, topical examples from Cambodian REDD + are used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Support the claim to add qualitative assessment of social dimensions in REDD +.

  6. Environmental Factors and WASH Practices in the Perinatal Period in Cambodia: Implications for Newborn Health

    PubMed Central

    Bazzano, Alessandra N.; Oberhelman, Richard A.; Potts, Kaitlin Storck; Gordon, Anastasia; Var, Chivorn

    2015-01-01

    Infection contributes to a significant proportion of neonatal death and disability worldwide, with the major burden occurring in the first week of life. Environmental conditions and gaps in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices may contribute to the risk of infection, particularly in settings where health centers are expanding to meet the growing demand for skilled care at birth and homes do not have adequate access to water and sanitation. A qualitative approach was used to understand the environmental context for infection prevention and control (IPC) and WASH associated behaviors in health centers where women give birth, and in homes of newborns, in a rural Cambodian province. Structured observations and focus group discussions revealed important gaps in optimal practices, and both structural and social barriers to maintaining IPC during delivery and post-partum. Solutions are available to address the issues identified, and tackling these could result in marked environmental improvement for quality of care and neonatal outcomes. Water, sanitation and hygiene in home and health center environments are likely to be important contributors to health and should be addressed in strategies to improve neonatal survival. PMID:25711360

  7. Money for something? Investigating the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation interventions in the Northern Plains of Cambodia

    E-print Network

    Clements, Thomas

    2013-04-16

    !...........................................................................................................................................!61!Factors&affecting&Household&Poverty&Status&and&Rice&Harvests&.......................................................&61!Effect&of&Protected&Areas&on&Household&Poverty&and&Agricultural&Productivity&..............................&64! Table... !Vihear!Protected!Forest!REDD+! Reducing!emissions!from!deforestation!and!forest!degradation!in!developing!countries;!and!the!role!of!conservation,!sustainable!management!of!forests!and!enhancement!of!forest!carbon!stocks!in!developing!countries.!TEEB! The...

  8. The Distribution of Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Cambodia: Gaps and Thresholds in Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngo, Federick J.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing teacher quality is a major objective of recent Cambodian education policy. In mathematics education literature, pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has emerged as a critical component of teacher quality that is strongly linked to student achievement. In this study I use data from a large survey of Cambodian schools to investigate the…

  9. Land-lake breezes at low latitudes: The case of Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, Kumiko; Koike, Toshio

    2013-07-01

    Tonle Sap Lake is the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia. During the postmonsoon season, a small linear cloud system has been observed over this lake in early morning, while the sky above the surrounding land is clear. Although this cloud system is apparently generated by land breezes, previous studies on land-lake (sea) circulation have suggested that environmental factors at low latitudes inhibit development of nocturnal land breezes. In this study, we investigate the mechanism of these early morning clouds through numerical simulation. The simulations show a linear updraft system over the lake, forming along the southwest lakeshore around 22:00 and moving northeast to the middle of the lake. The heavier air mass from the land meets the extraordinarily warm and humid air mass over the lake, triggering updrafts under the conditionally convective instability. The characteristic high surface water temperature was favorable for generation of the land breeze and updraft systems. That high surface water temperature of the lake is produced by the tropical climate along with efficient energy absorption because of the shallowness of the water body. This unique feature can generate a clear nocturnal land breeze circulation accompanying a migrating updraft system over the lake despite its low latitude.

  10. e-Learning in Higher Education Makes Its Debut in Cambodia: The Provincial Business Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdon, Buenafe R.; Ninomiya, Seishi; Raab, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    Developing countries face a number of challenges in their efforts to compete successfully in the new global economy. Perhaps the most critical resource needed to achieve these goals is trained human capital. While many developing countries are trying to address this need through traditional means, this may not be the most effective or efficient…

  11. Paradigm and Paradox: Education for All and the Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyanpur, Maya

    2011-01-01

    In keeping with international guidelines and to meet the target of Education for All (EFA) by 2015, the Cambodian government, with assistance from non-government and aid organisations, has instituted several initiatives towards including children with disabilities in the educational mainstream. This paper examines these efforts within the context…

  12. The Environmental Impact of Cambodia's Ancient City of Mahendraparvata (Phnom Kulen)

    PubMed Central

    Penny, Dan; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Tang, David; De Greef, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    The Khmer kingdom, whose capital was at Angkor from the 9th to the 14th-15th century, was founded in 802 by king Jayavarman II in a city called Mahandraparvata, on Phnom Kulen. Virtually nothing more is known of Mahandraparvata from the epigraphic sources, but systematic archaeological survey and excavation have identified an array of cultural features that point to a more extensive and enduring settlement than the historical record indicates. Recent remote sensing data have revolutionized our view, revealing the remains of a city with a complex and spatially extensive network of urban infrastructure. Here, we present a record of vegetation change and soil erosion from within that urban network, dating from the 8th century CE. Our findings indicate approximately 400 years of intensive land use, punctuated by discrete periods of intense erosion beginning in the mid 9th century and ending in the late 11th century. A marked change in water management practices is apparent from the 12th century CE, with implications for water supply to Angkor itself. This is the first indication that settlement on Mahendraparvata was not only extensive, but also intensive and enduring, with a marked environmental impact. PMID:24416206

  13. High prevalence of Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworm infections in humans, Cambodia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Schär, Fabian; Dalsgaard, Anders; Khieu, Virak; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Chhoun, Chamnan; Sok, Daream; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter; Traub, Rebecca J

    2014-06-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a hookworm of canids and felids in Asia, is becoming the second most common hookworm infecting humans. In 2012, we investigated the prevalence and infection dynamics of and risk factors for hookworm infections in humans and dogs in a rural Cambodian village. Over 57% of the population was infected with hookworms; of those, 52% harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. The greatest intensities of A. ceylanicum eggs were in persons 21-30 years of age. Over 90% of dogs also harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. Characterization of the cytochrome oxidase-1 gene divided isolates of A. ceylanicum hookworms into 2 groups, 1 containing isolates from humans only and the other a mix of isolates from humans and animals. We hypothesize that preventative chemotherapy in the absence of concurrent hygiene and animal health programs may be a factor leading to emergence of A. ceylanicum infections; thus, we advocate for a One Health approach to control this zoonosis. PMID:24865815

  14. Educating the Next Generation: Improving Teacher Quality in Cambodia. Directions in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Prateek; Fukao, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    This book diagnoses Cambodian teaching quality and presents policy options for reform. Through classroom observation, assessments of mathematics and pedagogical content knowledge, and surveys of teachers and school directors, it sheds light on content and instruction, interactions with school directors, instructional support systems, and the…

  15. Social cost of land mines in four countries: Afghanistan, Bosnia, Cambodia, and Mozambique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil Andersson; Cesar Palha da Sousa; Sergio Paredes

    1995-01-01

    abstractObjectives:To document the effects of land mines on the health and social conditions of communities in four affected countries.Design:A cross design of cluster survey and rapid appraisal methods including a household questionnaire and qualitative data from key informants, institutional reviews, and focus groups of survivors of landmines from the same communities.Setting:206 communities, 37 in Afghanistan, 66 in Bosnia, 38 in

  16. Towards effective emerging infectious disease surveillance: Cambodia, Indonesia, and NAMRU-2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophal Ear

    2011-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose international security threats because of their potential to inflict harm upon humans, crops, livestock, health infrastructure, and economies. The following questions stimulated the research described in this report: What infrastructure is necessary to enable EID surveillance in developing countries? What are the cultural, political, and economic challenges that are faced? Are there generalizations that may

  17. Parents and family members in the era of ART: evidence from Cambodia and Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Knodel; Sochanny Hak; Chandore Khuon; Dane So; John McAndrew

    2011-01-01

    Ensuring treatment adherence is critical for the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs in developing countries. Enlisting NGOs or persons living with HIV\\/AIDS (PLHA) group members as treatment supporters is one common strategy. Less attention is given to family members and especially older-age parents. Yet ART patients often live with other family members who are highly motivated to ensure treatment

  18. What International Aid Organizations Can Learn from International Adult Learning: Experiences from Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkvens, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many countries receive international support to strengthen professional capacity. The effect of these professional development activities (PDAs), however, is often negligible. This article provides useful insights on how international aid organizations could improve their PDAs, by describing an intervention developed and applied in…

  19. Parental Involvement and Students' Achievement in Cambodia: Focusing on Parental Resourcing of Public Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguon, Sokcheng

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the effect of parental involvement on students' achievement in a variety of contexts can provide valuable insights into how the relationship between parental involvement and students' achievement may depend on specific local contexts of education and family. Drawing on the theoretical perspectives derived from social capital model, this…

  20. Improving Adult Learning and Professional Development in a Post-Conflict Area: The Case of Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkvens, Jan B. Y.; Kalyanpur, Maya; Kuiper, Wilmad; Van den Akker, Jan

    2012-01-01

    All over the world, international development organizations try to increase professional capacity of local staff. These attempts are thought to fail because of financial constraints, but this is just part of the story. Professional development and adult learning theories approach learning from a western perspective, while many developing societies…

  1. Vedic Science Based Education and Nonverbal Intelligence: A Preliminary Longitudinal Study in Cambodia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, Lee C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study investigated the effects on students' nonverbal intelligence of implementing an approach to higher education based on Vedic science, developed by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and including transcendental meditation. The approach was implemented in two Cambodian universities and its effects assessed in 70 undergraduate students. An increase in…

  2. Selling sex in unsafe spaces: Sex work risk environments in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    E-print Network

    2011-01-01

    promotion of alcohol and heavy alcohol consumption by FSWs and clients, limited access to condoms andpromotion of alcohol, heavy alcohol and amphetamine type stimulant (ATS) consump- tion by FSWs and clients, limited access to condoms, and

  3. "Medicine in Cambodia during the Pol Pot Regime (1975-1979): Foreign and Cambodian Influences"

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    was completely transformed during the radical revolution where 1.7 million Cambodians perished ­ through I am indebted to Prof. Evelyn Ackerman who translated this paper from French into English. 2 and homogenize groups with differing ideological loyalties; this effort started in the 1950s and 1960s

  4. GENOCIDE PREVENTION: GENOCIDE EDUCATION PROJECT NATIONAL TEACHER TRAINING FOR LOWER AND UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOL OF CAMBODIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEAN PIAGET

    Piaget has been identified as a constructivist as well as an interactionist. His interest in cognitive development came from his interest in the origin of knowledge and his training in the natural sciences. Piaget was very interested in how children come to know and understand their world. He developed his cognitive theory by actually observing and studying children (some of

  5. Leaf-shedding phenology in tropical seasonal forests of Cambodia estimated from NOAA satellite images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eriko Ito; Makoto Araki; Akihiro Tani; Mamoru Kanzaki; Khorn Saret; Det Seila; Pith Phearak; Lim Sopheap; Pol Sopheavuth

    2007-01-01

    Forest seasonality is an important element to ecosystem functions. Eco-hydro models describing the Indochina bioregion under the seasonal tropical climate need regional phenological information about leaf dynamics. We examined the utility of remote sensing technology to leaf phenological research in Cambodian lowland forests. For this purpose, we aimed to detect any difference in leaf-shedding phenology between evergreen forests and deciduous

  6. Optimizing recycling in all of New York City's neighborhoods: Using GIS to develop the REAP index for improved recycling education, awareness, and participation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjorie J. Clarke; Juliana A. Maantay

    2006-01-01

    New York City's recycling program began in 1988 with scattered pilot programs to collect a restricted number of recyclable categories. Over time, the program was made more uniform in its implementation, was expanded citywide, and targeted more types of recyclables. Although Department of Sanitation surveys have shown that residents in all areas of the city have understood the requirements of

  7. Individual differences in lexical learning and use of a pronunciation feature in REAP, an intelligent tutoring system that teaches ESL vocabulary through reading new words in context

    E-print Network

    , an intelligent tutoring system that teaches ESL vocabulary through reading new words in context Carol Sisson they are given immediate feedback. All student actions are logged by the system and incorporated into the dynamic These pre-test results suggested that in the ESL classroom and in ev- eryday exposure to English, students

  8. Beating the Odds: Parents Choose to Expand Their Family--Despite the Risks--And Reap The Rewards of Their Strength in The Face of Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    In the fall of 1995, Cindy Cook and her husband were anxiously awaiting the arrival of their first child. They were thrilled, excited and a little nervous about this new person that would be changing their lives. During a routine ultrasound around the fourth month of pregnancy, doctors noticed the walls of the baby's heart appeared thickened.…

  9. As Ye Sow, So Shall Ye Reap: From Consultant to Collaborator in the Development of a Teacher Preparation Program in Lesotho.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Julia Johnson

    This paper reports on the author's 4-week consultation with faculty of the Lesotho National Teachers College as part of the Primary Education Project which provided technical assistance with issues of primary age schooling in the Kingdom of Lesotho. The consultant worked with 12 faculty members of the National Teachers College in a process that…

  10. Investments reap dividends for many universities, but access and quality of higher education across the United States continues to lag behind

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A number of noteworthy items related to the landscape of higher education found their way into major newspapers this week, including the announcement that Harvard University's endowment reported a 21.1 percent gain on its investments for the fiscal year 2004. This was the best performing year for Harvard's university fund since 2000, although the school also announced that the projected returns during the coming decade will be significantly lower than the past 10 years. Across the wide world of higher education throughout the United States, the news was not nearly as optimistic, at least in terms of access and affordability for those seeking higher education opportunities. A report issued this week from the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education on the state of higher education across the country noted that only three states (California, Utah, and Minnesota) scored higher than a "D" in terms of providing affordable options for attending college. The report essentially grades affordability by comparing net college costs with the average family income in each state, and by this measure, the Center has concluded that college is becoming less affordable in most states. Commenting on the report, David Breneman (dean of the Curry School of Education at the University of Virginia) remarked that "For at least another five to eight years we're looking at a real denial of opportunity." In conclusion, it should also be noted that the report also notes that the nation's high schools have improved over the past decade.The first link leads to an article on the spectacular performance by Harvard's endowment from this Wednesday's Boston Globe. The second link leads to a like-minded piece written by Alvin Powell of the Harvard News Office. The third link leads to a well-written piece in The Salt Lake Tribune that discusses the national affordable education report's comments on the state of Utah's higher education system. Visitors to the fourth link will find an article from The Sacramento Bee that discusses the generally fine performance of California's higher education system, but still offering the potential specter of increased tuition costs that may hinder efforts to increase accessibility and maintain affordability. The fifth link whisks visitors away to a piece from The Capital Times of Madison, Wisconsin, which discusses the ramifications of this national report throughout the state of Wisconsin, a place long lauded for its extensive and much-studied system of higher education. Finally, the last link leads to the homepage of the recently released National Report Card on Higher Education. Here visitors can view individual state reports, peruse a broad overview of national trends, and also compare states in terms of their overall performance during the past few years.

  11. How Can Social Enterprise Really Tackle Social Exclusion? A Comparative Study of Children's Welfare in the United Kingdom and Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyne, Isaac

    2008-01-01

    Social enterprise is being increasingly encouraged as a solution to social problems concerning social exclusion, child development and family welfare within both developed and developing countries. This article considers these policy contexts and two case studies of social enterprises that provide children's services in the United Kingdom and…

  12. e-Learning in Higher Education Makes Its Debut in Cambodia: Implications of the Provincial Business Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdon, Buenafe R.; Ninomiya, Seishi; Raab, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    Developing countries face a number of challenges in their efforts to compete successfully in the new global economy. Perhaps the most critical resource needed to achieve these goals is trained human capital. While many developing countries are trying to address this need through traditional means, this may not be the most effective or efficient…

  13. Water source and diarrhoeal disease risk in children under 5 years old in Cambodia: a prospective diary based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite claims that the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) targets on access to safe drinking water have been met, many 100 s of millions of people still have no access. The challenge remains how to provide these people and especially young children with safe drinking water. Method We report a longitudinal study designed to assess the effectiveness of an intervention based on provided treated drinking water in containers on self-reported diarrhoea in children. The intervention was “1001 fontaines pour demain” (1001 F) is a non-governmental not for profit organization (created in 2004 and based in Caluire, France) that helps local entrepreneurs treat package, and sell safe drinking water. Cases and controls were chosen at village and household level by propensity score matching Participants were visited twice a month over six months and asked to complete a diarrhoea health diary. Results In total 4275 follow-up visits were completed on 376 participants from 309 homes. Diarrhoea was reported in 20.4% of children on each visit, equating to an incidence rate estimate of 5.32 episodes per child per year (95% confidence interval =?4.97 to 5.69). Compared to those drinking 1001 F water, children drinking surface water were 33% (95% CI -1 to 17%), those drinking protected ground water were 62% (95% CI 19 to 120%) and those drinking other bottled water 57% (95% CI 15 to 114%) more likely to report diarrhoea. Children drinking harvested rainwater had similar rates of diarrhoea to Children drinking 1001 F water. Conclusion Our study suggests that 1001 F water provides a safer alternative to groundwater or surface water. Furthermore, our study raises serious concerns about the validity of assuming protected groundwater to be safe water for the purposes of assessing the MDG targets. By contrast our study provides addition evidence of the relative safety of rainwater harvesting. PMID:24321624

  14. Impact of the Provision of Safe Drinking Water on School Absence Rates in Cambodia: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Paul R.; Risebro, Helen; Yen, Marie; Lefebvre, Hélčne; Lo, Chay; Hartemann, Philippe; Longuet, Christophe; Jaquenoud, François

    2014-01-01

    Background Education is one of the most important drivers behind helping people in developing countries lift themselves out of poverty. However, even when schooling is available absenteeism rates can be high. Recently interest has focussed on whether or not WASH interventions can help reduce absenteeism in developing countries. However, none has focused exclusively on the role of drinking water provision. We report a study of the association between absenteeism and provision of treated water in containers into schools. Methods and Findings We undertook a quasi-experimental longitudinal study of absenteeism rates in 8 schools, 4 of which received one 20 L container of treated drinking water per day. The water had been treated by filtration and ultraviolet disinfection. Weekly absenteeism rates were compared across all schools using negative binomial model in generalized estimating equations. There was a strong association with provision of free water and reduced absenteeism (Incidence rate ratio?=?0.39 (95% Confidence Intervals 0.27–0.56)). However there was also a strong association with season (wet versus dry) and a significant interaction between receiving free water and season. In one of the intervention schools it was discovered that the water supplier was not fulfilling his contract and was not delivering sufficient water each week. In this school we showed a significant association between the number of water containers delivered each week and absenteeism (IRR?=?0.98 95%CI 0.96–1.00). Conclusion There appears to be a strong association between providing free safe drinking water and reduced absenteeism, though only in the dry season. The mechanism for this association is not clear but may in part be due to improved hydration leading to improved school experience for the children. PMID:24632573

  15. Crimes against Humanity at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia: Is a Connection with Armed Conflict Required?

    E-print Network

    Ford, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    reasons. When the Treaty of Versailles was signed in Junesupra note 43. The Treaty of Versailles had established inTreaty of Peace between the Allied and Associated Powers and Ger- many, concluded at Versailles

  16. Hydrographic survey of Chaktomuk, the confluence of the Mekong, Tonlé Sap, and Bassac Rivers near Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Densmore, Brenda K.; Wilson, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed hydrographic maps of Mekong, Tonlé Sap, and Bassac Rivers showing the riverbed elevations surveyed April 21–May 2, 2012, referenced to Ha Tien 1960 were produced. The surveyed area included a 2-km stretch of the Mekong River between the confluence with the Tonlé Sap and Bassac Rivers, and extended 4 km upstream and 3.6 km downstream from the 2,000-m confluence stretch of the Mekong River. In addition, 0.7 km of the Bassac River downstream and 3.5 km of the Tonlé Sap River (from the confluence to Chroy Changvar Bridge) upstream from their confluence with the Mekong River were surveyed. Riverbed features (such as dunes, shoals, and the effects of sediment mining, which were observed during data collection) are visible on the hydrographic maps. All surveys were completed at low annual water levels as referenced to nearby Mekong River Commission streamflow-gaging stations. Riverbed elevations surveyed ranged from 24.08 m below to 1.54 m above Ha Tien 1960.

  17. NAME CITY STATE COMPANY POSITION/SERVICES EMAIL PHONE Vu, Thuyhien Cambodia Homes of Love thuyhien@temple.edu

    E-print Network

    Cooper, Brenton G.

    Family Therapist, Clinical Social Worker adoption@peds.uab.edu (205) 638-6964 Hawkins, Amanda Birmingham@yahoo.com (406) 788-2897 Rosenfeld, Jennifer Phoenix AZ Childhelp/Private Practice Clinical Therapist jrosenfeld

  18. Philosophy with Children as an Exercise in "Parrhesia": An Account of a Philosophical Experiment with Children in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansieleghem, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The last few decades have seen a steady growth of interest in doing philosophy with children and young people in educational settings. Philosophy with children is increasingly offered as a solution to the problems associated with what is seen by many as a disoriented, cynical, indifferent and individualistic society. It represents for its…

  19. A comparison between biodiversity monitoring systems to improve natural resource management in Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve, Cambodia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophat Seak; Dietrich Schmidt-Vogt; Gopal B. Thapa

    2012-01-01

    The choice between professional and community-based methods for monitoring biodiversity and biological resources is largely dependent on the availability of resources. Professional methods are more expensive than community-based methods and are often not feasible in developing countries where technical and financial resources are limited. There is, therefore, a need to assess already existing or develop new simple, cost-effective approaches to

  20. This list includes a sampling of volunteer opportunities and organizations working in the environ-mental studies field. These opportunities may be suitable for students majoring or interested in

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    sustainable agriculture practices, preserve the diversity and safety of our food supply and address the food@wisc.edu) Research, Education, Action and Policy on Food Group (REAP) www.reapfoodgroup.org REAP is building a regional food system that is healthful, just, and both environmentally and economically sustainable. REAP

  1. This list includes a sampling of volunteer opportunities and organizations working in the field of agriculture. These opportunities may be suitable for students majoring or interested in these areas.

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    sustainable agriculture practices, preserve the diversity and safety of our food supply and address the food-9490 Research, Education, Action and Policy on Food Group (REAP) www.reapfoodgroup.org REAP is building a regional food system that is healthful, just, and both environmentally and economically sustainable. REAP

  2. Clinical and Virological Factors Influencing the Performance of a NS1 Antigen-Capture Assay and

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Pasteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 2 Paediatric Department, Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital, Kampong Cham patients hospitalized at the Kampong Cham hospital during the 2006 and 2007 dengue epidemics in Cambodia

  3. SHORT REPORT: EVALUATION OF A BOOSTED-P24 ANTIGEN ASSAY FOR THE EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF PEDIATRIC HIV-1 INFECTION IN CAMBODIA

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SHORT REPORT: EVALUATION OF A BOOSTED-P24 ANTIGEN ASSAY FOR THE EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF PEDIATRIC HIV-1 Abstract. Methods for early diagnosis of pediatric HIV-1 infection (DNA-polymerase chain reaction [PCR as a diagnosis tool for pediatric HIV infection with excellent sensitivities (88.7­100%) and specificities (94

  4. Seasonal variability in the composition of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) associated with suspended sediment transported by the Mekong River, Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, E. E.; Richey, J. E.; Truxal, L. T.; Keil, R. G.; Ingalls, A. E.

    2011-12-01

    The branched/isoprenoid tetraether (BIT) index has been proposed to be a proxy for the relative amounts of terrestrially verses marine-derived organic matter preserved in coastal sediments. To accurately interpret this index, it is first necessary to understand how this index and its constituents vary in non-marine environments, such as rivers and soils. As the composition of organic matter exported by tropical rivers can vary considerably between the dry and rainy seasons, we assessed the seasonal variability of the branched and isoprenoid GDGTs (glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers) associated with suspended sediment exported by the Mekong River. Our results demonstrate that the concentration (in ng/L) of crenarchaeol (GDGT IV), and branched GDGTs (GDGTs I, II, and III) was positively correlated with discharge and suspended sediment. When normalized to organic carbon (OC) content, dry-season values were consistently lower than rainy-season values for crenarchaeol (1.0 ± 0.6 vs. 4.1 ± 2.1 ng GDGT/mg OC) and branched (3.8 ± 1.5 vs. 16.8 ± 10.6 ng GDGT/mg OC) GDGTs. Low dry-season values were likely due to the dilution of GDGTs by phytoplankton production. The BIT index of suspended sediments ranged from 0.56 to 0.93 throughout the year, with a mean of 0.77. No seasonal trends were observed in this variability, nor was it correlated with bulk suspended sediment concentration or composition. These values are considerably lower than the theoretical terrestrial end-member of 1 due to the presence of crenarchaeol. Between 47 to 59% of the crenarchaeol associated with riverine suspended sediments was derived from intact polar groups bound to core GDGTs, whereas 48 to 65% of the branched GDGTs were intact. To further understand additional sources of GDGTs within the Mekong River catchment, we analyzed soil and sediment samples from rainforests, pastures, wetlands, river beds, and river banks during the rainy season. Anaerobic environments, such as wetlands and river bed sediments, consistently had the highest abundance of both branched GDGTs (between 34.8 to 212.5 ng/mg OC) and crenarchaeol (between 51.5 to 132.3 ng/mg OC), suggesting that these environments are especially important sources of GDGTs to river particles, and potentially to sediments preserved in marine environments. In conclusion, the high variability of the BIT index in Mekong River sediments suggests that it should be used in conjunction with other proxies of terrestrially-derived material to accurately interpret the origin of sediments preserved in coastal settings in the tropics.

  5. A comparative analysis of public social assistance systems in Belgium and Health Equity Funds in Cambodia: an overview of lessons learned

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart Criel; Wim Van Damme; Bruno Meessen; Por Ir

    2008-01-01

    Belgium has a solidly implemented multi-purposed public social assistance system that is the result of a long social and political history characterised by an evolution from charitable privately funded systems in the 19 th century to a publicly funded and operated social assistance system in the last quarter of the 20 th century. In a first part of this paper

  6. Sex workers self-organizing and empowerment : the experience of Women’s Network for Unity (WNU) in Cambodia : article produced as part of the KIC Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Womyn's Agenda for Change

    2007-01-01

    Many organizations that are working with sex workers have learned that it is ineffective to provide HIV and other health services to them if they do not consider – and address – sex workers’ work environments, where many cases of human rights violations can be found. Thus, they gradually move into rights-based activities. By reframing sex workers’ health as a

  7. EFFICACY OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ISRAELENSIS, VECTOBAC® WG AND DT, FORMULATIONS AGAINST DENGUE MOSQUITO VECTORS IN CEMENT POTABLE WATER JARS IN CAMBODIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    To Seth; Ngan Chantha; Doung Socheat

    This study reports the evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), a biologi- cal larvicide, in cement jars holding river, well and rain water. Two Bti formulations, VectoBac WG® and VectoBac DT®, were evaluated in a village in Phnom Penh. Thirty-one households with cement jars supporting the colonization of Ae.aegypti immatures were chosen. In each house 3 jars were aligned next

  8. The Jungle Cat Felis chaus in Indochina: a threatened population of a widespread and adaptable species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Duckworth; C. M. Poole; R. J. Tizard; J. L. Walston; R. J. Timmins

    2005-01-01

    The Jungle Cat Felis chaus is widespread in India and neighbouring countries but is known by only one historical specimen from Cambodia, Laos or Vietnam (Indochina), widely published as from Vietnam, but in fact from Cambodia. All but two of the recent Indochinese records come from extensive natural lowland habitat dominated by deciduous dipterocarp forest in northeast Cambodia. The species

  9. A Comparative Study between Japanese (Oita) and Cambodian OVOP Organizational Charts and the Three Elements of Sustainable Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sok Sopheaktra

    The private sector, public sector, and financial institutions have been needed to carry out the task of supporting the OVOP movement, As the National Committee for Promoting One Village One Product was only very recently established in Cambodia on January 27, 2006, and Cambodia is still lacking in experience in implementing this movement. As a result of this assistance, Cambodia

  10. UNIVERSIDADE DE LISBOA Faculdade de Cincias

    E-print Network

    Neves, Nuno

    IN SIEM SYSTEMS Pedro da Silva Dias Rodrigues DISSERTAÇĂO MESTRADO EM SEGURANÇA INFORMÁTICA 2013 #12 SYSTEMS Pedro da Silva Dias Rodrigues DISSERTAÇĂO Trabalho orientado pelo Prof. Doutor Nuno Fuentecilla parents and their unconditional support throughout my life. Pedro Rodrigues #12;ii #12;iii Dedicated

  11. Generalized Path Analysis and Generalized Simultaneous Equations Model for Recursive Systems with Responses of Mixed Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Tien-Lung; Shau, Wen-Yi; Hu, Fu-Chang

    2006-01-01

    This article generalizes linear path analysis (PA) and simultaneous equations models (SiEM) to deal with mixed responses of different types in a recursive or triangular system. An efficient instrumental variable (IV) method for estimating the structural coefficients of a 2-equation partially recursive generalized path analysis (GPA) model and…

  12. Alcohol consumption is controlled by angiotensin II1 BJOERN MAUL,2

    E-print Network

    Hoehe, Margret

    Alcohol consumption is controlled by angiotensin II1 BJOERN MAUL,2 WOLF-EBERHARD SIEMS, MARGRET R in alcohol-consuming behavior and investigated the alcohol intake of mice harboring a rat angiotensino- gen- ther explain the effects in the transgenic mice. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS 1. Alcohol consumption is directly

  13. COUNTABLE IRRESOLVABLE SPACES AND CARDINAL INVARIANTS

    E-print Network

    Hrusak, Michael

    by scat, and the family P(Q) \\ scat of scat-positive sets will be denoted by scat+ . Definition 2.1. A family R scat+ is called scattered-reaping, if for every X scat+ , there is a Y R such that Y X or X of a scattered-reaping family rscat = min{|R| : R scat+ (X sca

  14. Belize's Rural Education and Agriculture Programme: Some Factors that Have Contributed to Its Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Zellynne D.; Edmond, Daniel

    Belize (formerly British Honduras) has achieved a good deal of success with its Rural Education and Agriculture Programme (REAP). REAP was initiated in 1976 to create the attitudes and provide the skills necessary for rural youth to make meaningful contributions to the country's agricultural development. Initiated by an intraministerial and…

  15. Sustainable corn stover harvest strategies for Midwest agricultural landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To support emerging U.S. cellulosic bioenergy industries, 239 site-years of data from field studies at 36 sites in seven states were recently summarized in BioEnergy Research by the ARS Resilient Economic Agricultural Practices (REAP) team [formerly the Renewable Energy Assessment Project (REAP) tea...

  16. Personalization of Reading Passages Improves Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, Michael; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn; Callan, Jamie; Eskenazi, Maxine; Juffs, Alan; Wilson, Lois

    2010-01-01

    The REAP tutoring system provides individualized and adaptive English as a Second Language vocabulary practice. REAP can automatically personalize instruction by providing practice readings about topics that match interests as well as domain-based, cognitive objectives. While most previous research on motivation in intelligent tutoring…

  17. 98 VHDL: LENGUAJE PARA S INTESIS Y MODELADO DE CIRCUITOS c En una funcion, y siempre con caracter opcional e informativo, existe la posibilidad

    E-print Network

    Valencia, Universidad de

    98 VHDL: LENGUAJE PARA S â?? INTESIS Y MODELADO DE CIRCUITOS c RA­MA En una funciâ??on, y siempre con carâ??acter opcional e informativo, existe la posibilidad de declararla como PURE o IMPURE. Un funciâ??on pura es una funciâ??on que devuelve siem­ pre el mismo valor para unos parâ??ametros de entrada dados. Una

  18. The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Historical Documents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christopher Griffith

    Documents about the atomic boming of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. There are two sets of documents and reports. The first covers before the bombing and includes the scienctists petitions to prevent the bombing, the bombing order, and the Potsdam Declaration. The second covers the aftermath of the bombings. These documents include: White House Press Release on Hiroshima, Eyewitness Account of Atomic Bomb Over Nagasaki, Eyewitness Account of Hiroshima By Father John A. Siemes, and Truman's Reflections on the Atomic Bombings.

  19. Hiroshima-Remembered.com: Documents about the Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christopher Griffith

    Documents about the atomic boming of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These include: Potsdam Declaration, White House Press Release on Hiroshima, an Eyewitness Account of Atomic Bomb Over Nagasaki, Eyewitness Account of Hiroshima By Father John A. Siemes, The Voice of Hibakusha, The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District, The Yields of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki Nuclear Explosions , On My Participation In The Atom Bomb Project - Albert Einstein, and Truman's Reflections on the Atomic Bombings.

  20. The Struggle to Develop a "Research Culture" in a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    During the past 20 years, English language teaching and learning has grown phenomenally in Cambodia as the country has opened up to the outside world following more than two decades of civil war. As a result, the standard of English spoken today in Cambodia has also risen dramatically. One feature of this context of dynamic change has been the…

  1. Acculturation Difficulties of the Khmer in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Ellen

    The intent of this paper is to provide a historical and cultural overview of the Khmer refugee movement and to outline problems the refugees face upon resettlement in New York City. The paper begins by describing the land and people of Cambodia, the social structure of Khmer society, the role of Buddhism in that society, Cambodia's recent history,…

  2. Indochina Policy for the Next Administration. Report of the Strategy for Peace, US Foreign Policy Conference (29th, Warrenton, Virginia, October 13-15, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    Recommended guidelines for U.S. policy toward Cambodia, Vietnam, and Laos were developed by a bipartisan group of experts. General premises are stated first, followed by specific recommendations on how to assist in bringing about a settlement in Cambodia; how to pursue U.S. bilateral relations with Vietnam on refugees, the prisoner of war/missing…

  3. A widget library for creating policy-aware semantic Web applications

    E-print Network

    Hollenbach, James Dylan

    2010-01-01

    In order to truly reap the benefits of the Semantic Web, there must be adequate tools for writing Web applications that aggregate, view, and edit the widely varying data the Semantic Web makes available. As a step toward ...

  4. The Embedded Researcher Method for Involving Undergraduates in Research: New Data and Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Darrin L.; Kranz, Peter L.; Ferguson, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate research provides multiple educational advantages, and Hispanic students may reap particular benefits. The "embedded researcher" method avoids difficulties inherent in traditional apprenticeship models, providing meaningful research experience to multiple students within a standard didactic course structure while yielding…

  5. STATES OF SECRECY: AN INTRODUCTION Koen Vermeir and Dniel Margcsy

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and Justified and Hermetic Order of little men who think they can reap the secrets of the ancients for a couple emphasized the necessary openness of science in 1956 to argue against McCarthyist obsessions with government

  6. "Menopause and Midlife Deaf Health Talks

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    Rochester Recreation Club for the Deaf ("REAP") #12;Overview What is menopause? What are common symptoms If menopause symptoms are severe (very bad) then can consider these treatments: Hormone replacement therapy

  7. Jamaica's Policy Discourse in the Age of Globalization: Framing Education as (Private) Investment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel O. M. Brissett

    2010-01-01

    Driven by neo-liberal principles, globalization attempts to position education as the source of prosperity and a great social equalizer. As globalization intensifies, Jamaica is actively reforming its educational policies in order to reap the benefits of the new \\

  8. Jamaica's Policy Discourse in the Age of Globalization: Framing Education as (Private) Investment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel O. M. Brissett

    2010-01-01

    :Driven by neo-liberal principles, globalization attempts to position education as the source of prosperity and a great social equalizer. As globalization intensifies, Jamaica is actively reforming its educational policies in order to reap the benefits of the new \\

  9. At-Risk Boys' Self-Efficacy in A Summer Sports Camp 

    E-print Network

    Su, Xiaoxia

    2014-12-09

    Research has documented that summer sports camps can provide opportunities for social and physical benefits for at-risk boys who are often from low-income families and vulnerable to academic failure. However, whether these boys can reap...

  10. 78 FR 9357 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ...Rural Business-Cooperative Service Title: Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements...that established the Rural Energy for America Program (REAP...small businesses to purchase renewable energy systems and make energy...

  11. Spacecraft formation flight exploiting potential fields

    E-print Network

    Kong, Edmund Mun Choong, 1973-

    2002-01-01

    The potential benefits that can be reaped from a distributed satellite system have led to the proposal of several multi-spacecraft missions by both NASA and DoD. One such benefit is the reconfigurability of these ...

  12. 78 FR 26747 - Amendment to Notice of Funding Availability for the Rural Energy for America Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ...applications for funds available under the Rural Energy for America Program (REAP...Kelley Oehler, Branch Chief, USDA Rural Development, Energy Division, 1400 Independence...of Funding Availability for the Rural Energy for America Program,...

  13. Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project

    SciTech Connect

    Klasky, Hilda B [ORNL] [ORNL; Bass, Bennett Richard [ORNL] [ORNL; Williams, Paul T [ORNL] [ORNL; Phillips, Rick [ORNL] [ORNL; Erickson, Marjorie A [ORNL] [ORNL; Kirk, Mark T [ORNL] [ORNL; Stevens, Gary L [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project (REAP), which is being conducted by the Probabilistic Integrity Safety Assessment (PISA) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under funding from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission s (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, aims to provide an archival source of information about the effect of neutron radiation on the properties of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Specifically, this project is an effort to create an Internet-accessible RPV steel embrittlement database. The project s website, https://reap.ornl.gov, provides information in two forms: (1) a document archive with surveillance capsule(s) reports and related technical reports, in PDF format, for the 104 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States, with similar reports from other countries; and (2) a relational database archive with detailed information extracted from the reports. The REAP project focuses on data collected from surveillance capsule programs for light-water moderated, nuclear power reactor vessels operated in the United States, including data on Charpy V-notch energy testing results, tensile properties, composition, exposure temperatures, neutron flux (rate of irradiation damage), and fluence, (Fast Neutron Fluence a cumulative measure of irradiation for E>1 MeV). Additionally, REAP contains data from surveillance programs conducted in other countries. REAP is presently being extended to focus on embrittlement data analysis, as well. This paper summarizes the current status of the REAP database and highlights opportunities to access the data and to participate in the project.

  14. Princeton in the Nation's Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Lawrence

    1970-01-01

    Discusses why the dispatch of troops to Cambodia by the United States in April, 1970 moved politically moderate students and faculty at Princeton University to take anti-war measures considered constructive. (KG)

  15. 31 CFR 500.570 - Cambodian property unblocked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...570 Cambodian property unblocked. All transactions otherwise prohibited by this part which involve property in which Cambodia or a national thereof has an interest, other than property blocked in the name of the Exchange Support Fund for the...

  16. 15 CFR 768.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...attribute relevant to the purpose for which the control was placed on the item. Controlled countries. Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Cuba, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lithuania,...

  17. International Enrollment: Fall 2009 Latin Middle North

    E-print Network

    Prentiss, Mara

    the International Office. (2) Azerbaijan has historically been included in "Europe Other", but is included in "Asia: Afghanistan, Azerbaijan (2) , Bangladesh, Brunei, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Kazakhstan

  18. 2011 Korean Government Scholarship Program Guideline for International Students

    E-print Network

    Auckland, University of

    , Vietnam 1 72 Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Philippines, Vietnam 1 23 Algeria, Azerbaijan Mongolia, Philippines 3 5 Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Laos, Malaysia 2 12 Azerbaijan, Chinese Taipei

  19. 15 CFR 768.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...attribute relevant to the purpose for which the control was placed on the item. Controlled countries. Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Cuba, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lithuania,...

  20. 15 CFR 768.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...attribute relevant to the purpose for which the control was placed on the item. Controlled countries. Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Cuba, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lithuania,...

  1. If You, Your Parents, or Your Children Were Born in Any of These Places...

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Albania, Ban- gladesh, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bulgaria, Cambodia, China, Eastern Europe, Haiti, Ha- waii, India, Indonesia, Iran, ... person’s blood • sharing toothbrushes or razors • pre-chewing food for babies • biting • using unsterilized needles for ear- ...

  2. 48 CFR 52.212-3 - Offeror Representations and Certifications-Commercial Items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...FSG 88, Live Animals; (4) FSG 89, Food and Related Consumables; (5) FSC 9410...services that are used only to promote health or education; or (6) Have been voluntarily...Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Japan, China, Taiwan, Laos, Cambodia...

  3. Performance of "VIKIA Malaria Ag Pf/Pan" (IMACCESS), a new malaria rapid diagnostic test

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Performance of "VIKIA Malaria Ag Pf/Pan" (IMACCESS®), a new malaria rapid diagnostic test for detection of symptomatic malaria infections Monidarin Chou1, Email: cmonidarin, Phnom Penh, Cambodia 2 Malaria Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Phnom Penh

  4. a monthly publication of outreach and international affairs volume 2, issue 3

    E-print Network

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    dreamed of a career at the United Nations."As a teenager, I was interested in international relations such as transportation and farming inputs. Female students in Cambodia told us, `We have a brain, and we can use tractors

  5. A question of self-preservation: immunopathology in influenza virus infection

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    normally in the human population cause a debilitating, though generally transient, illness when a new strain emerges to which the global population has no immunity. Characteristically influenza viruses has continued to occur sporadically in Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia and Cambodia, although

  6. 19 CFR 4.75 - Incomplete manifest; incomplete export declarations; bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...manifest and all required shipper's export declarations have been filed with the port director: Albania Bulgaria Cambodia China, People's Republic of Cuba Czechoslovakia Estonia German Democratic Republic (Soviet Zone of Germany and...

  7. 12 CFR 1281.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent, including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam; (3) Black or African...

  8. 19 CFR 4.75 - Incomplete manifest; incomplete export declarations; bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...manifest and all required shipper's export declarations have been filed with the port director: Albania Bulgaria Cambodia China, People's Republic of Cuba Czechoslovakia Estonia German Democratic Republic (Soviet Zone of Germany and...

  9. Shelter Forum2014 2014 SHELTER FORUM

    E-print Network

    Botea, Adi

    Program Coordinator, Habitat for Humanity Cambodia `Rural and Urban Challenges in Land Security in Nepal' Mr Aruna Paul - Country Director, Habitat for Humanity Nepal 12:30-1:30 Lunch 1:30-2:20 Discussion

  10. 78 FR 24779 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Telemanagement Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ...Ltd. to China Communication Service Application and Solution Technology CO. Ltd, Beijing, PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA; Hello Axiata Company Ltd. to Latelz Co. Ltd. (Smart), Khan Chamkarmon, CAMBODIA; UPC Broadband Operations b.v. to...

  11. 1. Kyoto University Renmin University joint Research Center

    E-print Network

    Takada, Shoji

    Station 21. Laos Field Station 22. Makassar Field Station 23. Cambodia Field Station 24. Indonesia. African Anthropological and Biological Field Research Center 48. Kuala Sungai Danum Research Station 49

  12. Wind Power and the Clean Development Mechanism

    E-print Network

    : Cambodia, Philippines, Vietnam · Latin America: Bolivia, Ecuador, Guatemala · Middle East and North Africa Biogas Cement HFCs Geothermal EE Households Solar N2O Fugitive Tidal EE Service Transport Energy distrib

  13. 76 FR 63935 - Notification of the Removal of Conditions of Entry on Vessels Arriving From the Republic of Congo

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ...Cambodia, Cameroon, Comoros, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Equatorial Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Liberia, Madagascar, Sao Tome and Principe, Syria, Timor-Leste, and Venezuela. This notice is issued under authority of 46...

  14. 76 FR 18771 - Notification of the Removal of Conditions of Entry on Vessels Arriving From the Islamic Republic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ...Cambodia, Cameroon, Republic of the Congo, Cuba, Equatorial Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Liberia, Madagascar, Sao Tome and Principe, Syria, Timor-Leste, and Venezuela. This notice is issued under authority of 46...

  15. 77 FR 71608 - Notification of the Removal of Conditions of Entry on Vessels Arriving From the Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ...follows: Cambodia, Cameroon, Comoros, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Equatorial Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Iran, Liberia, Madagascar, Sao Tome and Principe, Syria, Timor-Leste, Venezuela, and Yemen. This current list is also available in the...

  16. 77 FR 53901 - Notification of the Imposition of Conditions of Entry for Certain Vessels Arriving to the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ...Cambodia, Cameroon, Comoros, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Equatorial Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Liberia, Madagascar, Sao Tome and Principe, Syria, Timor-Leste, Venezuela, and Yemen. This current list is also available in the...

  17. 76 FR 34277 - Sunshine Act; Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ...Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. 8. Finance Project--Israel. 9. Finance Project--Sub-Saharan Africa and North Africa. 10. Finance Project--Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania and Uganda. 11. Approval of March 10, 2011...

  18. 78 FR 60317 - Notice of Updates to the Department of Labor's List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ...removal of tobacco from Kazakhstan, charcoal from Namibia, and diamonds from Zimbabwe...Kazakhstan, diamonds from Zimbabwe, charcoal from Namibia, and salt from Cambodia...List. B. Research on Child Labor in Charcoal Production in Namibia In response...

  19. The Origin ofthe Graph in the Thai Script Michel Ferlus

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    as well as v (Ferlus 1993). This is due to the fact that the Indians who introduced Sanskrit cultule to anciant Cambodia pronounced Sanskrit ˙ as b but kept the two distinct in Sanskrit texts. WTen the Pallava

  20. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Article 5 Parties

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Darussalam Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo Congo Democratic Republic of Cook Islands Cost Rica Côte d'Ivoire Croatia Cuba...

  1. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 710 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China*** Colombia Comoros Congo (Republic of the) Cook Islands** Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Croatia Cuba...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Article 5 Parties

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Congo (Democratic Republic of), Cook Islands, Cost Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba,...

  3. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 745 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China* Colombia Comoros Congo (Democratic Republic of the) Congo (Republic of the) Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote...

  4. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 745 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China* Colombia Comoros Congo (Democratic Republic of the) Congo (Republic of the) Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote...

  5. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 745 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China* Colombia Comoros Congo (Democratic Republic of the) Congo (Republic of the) Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote...

  6. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 710 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China*** Colombia Comoros Congo (Republic of the) Cook Islands** Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Croatia Cuba...

  7. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 710 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China*** Colombia Comoros Congo (Republic of the) Cook Islands** Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Croatia Cuba...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Article 5 Parties

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Darussalam Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo Congo Democratic Republic of Cook Islands Cost Rica Côte d'Ivoire Croatia Cuba...

  9. 0 100 200 300 m HamburgMesse

    E-print Network

    Hamburg,.Universität

    -Siem ers-Al ee d l eN ue ensraße Rab t A ste gla is l r c mmtr Da o- damm t hn Ru schba e tz Hallrpla ps ß Bundesstraße 45 A2 8 Bundesstraße 53 A2 B4 B4 A2 A2 A2 A2 25 Jungiusstraße 11 30 Martin-Luther-King-Platz 2 29 Marseiller Straße 5 31 Martin-Luther-King-Platz 3 39 Papendamm 21 32 Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6 41

  10. Experimental study on mechanical behavior of fiber/matrix interface in metal matrix composite

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; Chiang, F.P. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Lab. for Experimental Mechanics Research

    1994-12-31

    The technique SIEM(Speckle Interferometry with Electron Microscopy) was employed to quantitatively measure the deformation on the fiber/matrix interface in SCS-6/Ti-6-4 composite at a microscale level. The displacement field within the fiber/matrix interphase zone was determined by in-situ observation with sensitivity of 0.003({micro}m). The macro-mechanical properties were compared with micro-mechanical behavior. It is shown that the strength in the interphase zone is weaker than the matrix tensile strength. The deformation process can be characterized by the uniform deformation, interface strain concentration and debond, and matrix plastic deformation.

  11. Mentoring Cambodian and Lao health professionals in tobacco control leadership and research skills

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, L Hyder; Job, J; Knutsen, S; Montgomery, S; Petersen, F; Rudatsikira, E; Singh, P

    2006-01-01

    Design The aim of the programme was to ultimately affect public health practice and policy in the Kingdom of Cambodia and Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) by training key health professionals to conduct tobacco control research. Setting Encouraged by the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, a global partnership formed to build effective leadership to develop and guide national tobacco control agendas. The partners were the Ministries of Health (Cambodia and Lao PDR), non?government organisations (Adventist Development and Relief Agency in Cambodia and Laos) and an academic institution (Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California, USA). Subjects 16 health professionals, 10 from Cambodia and 6 from Lao PDR, were selected by local advisory committees to enter a two?year, intensive tobacco research graduate certificate and research training programme. Intervention We developed a “Global Tobacco Control Methods” (GTCM) 28 unit certificate programme that was offered in five sessions from September 2003 to September 2005 at the National Institute of Public Health, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. As part of their coursework, the 16 trainees actively participated in the development and implementation of two research projects. In the first project, “Healthy Doc Healthy Patient” (HDHP), trainees adapted an existing, self?administered questionnaire designed to assess health practices and beliefs of medical students in Cambodia and Lao PDR. The second project involved the design of a national prevalence of tobacco use and health beliefs study in Cambodia using a multi?stage, cluster sample method. Trainees were sponsored to attend and present at international tobacco control conferences to enhance their awareness of the tobacco epidemic. Results As of September 2005, 14 trainees (8 from Cambodia and 6 from Lao PDR) completed the courses in the GTCM certificate programme. The HDHP study sampled four medical school classes (years 3, 4, 5 and 6) in both Cambodia (n??=??330, 71.1% response rate) and Lao PDR (n??=??386, 87.3% response rate). As part of the Cambodian adult tobacco prevalence study in Cambodia, 13?988 adults (ages ??18 years) were interviewed from all 22 provinces during the summer of 2005. Over the two years, more than half of the trainees participated substantially in local and regional tobacco control and research activities. Programme challenges included the trainees' limited English language and computer proficiency skills, both of which improved during the two years. Conclusions With the successful completion of the certificate programme, the remaining two years of the grant will be used to prepare the trainees for positions of leadership within their Ministries of Health and other agencies to implement effective tobacco control policies based on locally?derived research findings. PMID:16723675

  12. A study of freeway off-ramp design and operation 

    E-print Network

    Carvell, James Demus

    1966-01-01

    ?ey Pilning Locatioes. 5. Reit 4 (Telephone Off-Reap) . S. Rxit 7 (Myrtle Off Reap) Saainary Of f-Rasp S. Acceleration Noise Locations. 9. Woodridge Of f-gasp. 10. Typical Pr~s Proc yiha Study. 11. Speed Recorder . . ~ . ~ . . ~ . . ~ 12. Vehicle... AN STRIPING ~CURB CURB FIGURE 6- EXIT 7 (MYRTLE OFF-RAMP) FREE. WAY MEDIAN STRIPING CURB CURB FIGURE 7- SEMINARY OFF- RAMP , WAYSIDE BRATS BA DU EXIT 7 LOCA T IO N GRIGGS// I WOODRI DOE WOODRIDGE LO C ILT ION REVEILLE EXIT 7 LOCATION I SGN...

  13. Etiologies and Resistance Profiles of Bacterial Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Cambodian and Neighboring Countries’ Health Care Settings: A Systematic Review (1995 to 2012)

    PubMed Central

    Goyet, Sophie; Vlieghe, Erika; Kumar, Varun; Newell, Steven; Moore, Catrin E.; Bousfield, Rachel; Leang, Heng C.; Chuop, Sokheng; Thong, Phe; Rammaert, Blandine; Hem, Sopheak; van Griensven, Johan; Rachmat, Agus; Fassier, Thomas; Lim, Kruy; Tarantola, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Etiological data for Cambodia is scarce. We aimed to describe the main etiological agents causing CAP, and their resistance patterns in Cambodia and the greater Mekong region. Methods A review of bacterial etiologies of CAP and antimicrobial resistance in Cambodia and neighboring countries was conducted via: (1) a systematic review of published literature in all NCBI databases using Pubmed, Google scholar, EMBASE, the World Health Organization and the Cambodian Ministry of Health libraries; (2) a review of unpublished data from Cambodia provided by national and international stakeholders working at different tiers of the healthcare system. Results Twenty three articles and five data sources reported etiologies for 5919 CAP patients diagnosed between May 1995 and December 2012, including 1421 (24.0%), 3571 (60.3%) and 927 (15.7%) from Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam, respectively. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were the most common pathogens ranking among the five most prevalent in 12 and 10 studies, respectively. Gram-negative bacteria such as Burkholderia pseudomallei and Klebsiella pneumoniae were also frequently diagnosed, particularly in bacteremic CAP in Thai adults and Cambodian children. In Thailand and Vietnam, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae were frequently identified in settings using indirect laboratory testing. Conclusions Based on this analysis, CAP data in Cambodia seems to present etiological and resistance profiles comparable to those of neighboring countries. Findings have been shared with the national authorities upon the revision of the national therapeutic guidelines and were disseminated using a specially created website. PMID:24626053

  14. Europe as a convergence engine -- heterogeneity and investment opportunities in emerging Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandar Stojkov; Juan Zalduendo

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence that countries in emerging Europe reaped the benefits of international financial integration over the past 12 years by attracting sizeable foreign capital inflows and accelerating medium-term growth. But the aggregate pattern masks substantial heterogeneity across countries; namely, new European Union member states and the European Union candidate countries are different from the European Union neighborhood.

  15. The Promises and Perils of "Scientifically Based" Research for Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shealey, Monika Williams

    2006-01-01

    In this age of high-stakes testing and calls for more stringent measures of accountability, urban schools face a great deal of scrutiny. In fact, the direct benefactors of school reform remain the students most at risk for not reaping the benefits of reform rhetoric. Current legislation that propels the notion of "scientifically based research" to…

  16. Using GIS and GPS Technology as an Instructional Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broda, Herbert W.; Baxter, Ryan E.

    2003-01-01

    Passive students staring blankly at computer screens has been a worrisome image for many educators. Often they fear that technology can remove students from contact with the real world. Two technologies that have been in general use for many years, but are more recently appearing in the educational sector, provide the opportunity to reap the…

  17. Using GIS and GPS Technology as an Instructional Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broda, Herbert W.; Baxter, Ryan E.

    2002-01-01

    Describes Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS), two technologies that have been in general use for many years, but are more recently appearing in the educational sector, providing the opportunity to reap the benefits of technology while engaging young adolescents in an interactive environment. Discusses ways to…

  18. The Primary Review Response from the Wellcome Trust

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    that society can reap from science and technology have never been more important or 1 The Wellcome Trust (2005 crucial to enable young people to become active and informed citizens in a society where science and technology play a key part in shaping our lives. Science education has two different roles: providing initial

  19. Heterogeneity and Intensity of R&D Partnership in Italian Manufacturing Firms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca Berchicci

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years, firms have increasingly tapped into external sources of knowledge through research and development (R&D) collaborations and partnerships to sustain in- novation. By doing so, managers are challenged to deal efficiently with the diversity of external sources of knowledge to allow their firms to reap the benefits of innovative activities. By investigating a large-scale sample of

  20. Child Care: Who Benefits?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Buckingham

    • Arguments for the public funding of child care rest on the claim that it is a public good—that it provides benefits for the individual and for society, and that investment in child care will reap social and economic payoffs. Perhaps the most abiding and persuasive claim, and the focus of this paper, is that good child care is beneficial

  1. Phenylpropanolamine and Hemorrhagic Stroke in the Hemorrhagic Stroke Project: A Reappraisal in the Context of Science, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Law

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BYRON G. STIER; CHARLES H. HENNEKENS

    The report of the Hemorrhagic Stroke Project (HSP), a case-control study of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) was the primary reason that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requested that PPA-containing products voluntarily be withdrawn from the market. In subsequent litigation, scientific information emerged that was not available during the deliberations of the FDA and its advisory committee. Our reap- praisal leads

  2. Managing and sustaining a world of workplace diversity: the Accenture experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ismail Amla

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how Accenture's commitment to diversity is reaping benefits for the business and its people on a global and a local level. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The article explores global initiatives and leadership behaviors that demonstrate this commitment, as well as the experiences of individuals who benefit from them, in order to combine

  3. Best Practices for Managing Organizational Diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia A. Kreitz

    2008-01-01

    Organizations with increasingly diverse workforces and customer populations face challenges in reaping diversity’s benefits while managing its potentially disruptive effects. This article defines workplace diversity and identifies best practices supporting planned and positive diversity management. It explores how academic libraries can apply diversity management best practices and provides a reading list for leaders and human resource managers wishing to optimize

  4. A pragmatic and holistic approach to strategic formulation through adopting balanced scorecard, SWOT analysis and blue ocean strategy -- a case study of a consumer product manufacturer in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Koo; Hannah Koo; Lewis Luk

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a holistic approach to strategic formulation as practiced by a large consumer product manufacturer in China. This approach combines the application of a few powerful strategic tools to reap synergetic benefits. Innovative strategic approaches are regularly invented, introduced and adopted with mixed outcomes. It is important to be able to accurately, flexibly and systematically ascertain the internal

  5. Managing Government Exposure to Private Infrastructure Risks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Irwin; Michael Klein; Guillermo E. Perry; Mateen Thobani

    1999-01-01

    The privatization of infrastructure should lead to the development of new infrastructure, improvements in the operation of existing infrastructure, and a reduction in budgetary subsidies. Whether countries reap the full benefits of privatization, however, depends on how risks are allocated. If as is often the case in developing countries, governments assume risks that should be borne by investors, they may

  6. Friend or foe? A behavioral and stable isotopic investigation of an ant–plant symbiosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chadwick V. Tillberg

    2004-01-01

    In ant–plant symbioses, the behavior of ant inhabitants affects the nature of the interaction, ranging from mutualism to parasitism. Mutualistic species confer a benefit to the plant, while parasites reap the benefits of the interaction without reciprocating, potentially resulting in a negative impact on the host plant. Using the ant–plant symbiosis between Cordia alliodora and its ant inhabitants as a

  7. Resource Assessment and Tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various resource assessment strategies and tools are needed to ensure bioenergy feedstock materials are produced, harvested, and transported in a sustainable manner. This presentation highlights research accomplishments by the USDA-ARS Renewable Energy Assessment Project (REAP) team along with our u...

  8. Agricultural Extension in Kenya: Practice and Policy Lessons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milu Muyanga; Thomas S. Jayne

    2006-01-01

    A consensus exists that extension services, if functioning effectively, improve agricultural productivity through providing farmers with information that helps them to optimize their use of limited resources. Variations in management practices and husbandry skills among small farmers in Kenya are very great. Tremendous poverty-reducing benefits could be reaped by bringing the production costs of the most inefficient farmers to mean

  9. Financial Service of Wealth Management Banking: Balanced Scorecard Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng-Ru Wu; Chin-Tsai Lin; Pei-Hsuan Tsai

    2008-01-01

    Problem Statement: There are four main banking business sectors in Taiwan, involving the areas of consumer, corporate, wealth management, and investment banking. The wealth management banking sector is actively promoted for reaping a risk-free premium. In the proposed model, the dimensions of financial services for wealth management banks have been taken from four perspectives derived from balanced scorecard approach, viz.

  10. Evaluation of the Implementation of the Rural and Low-Income School Program: Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magill, Kathleen; Hallberg, Kelly; Hinojosa, Trisha; Reeves, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    The Rural and Low-Income School (RLIS) program is part of the Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) that was authorized under Title VI, Part B of the "Elementary and Secondary Act of 1965" ("ESEA"), as amended by the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001" ("NCLB"). The RLIS program provides additional funds to help rural districts serving…

  11. Evaluation of the Implementation of the Rural and Low-Income School (RLIS) Program: Interim Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magill, Kathleen; Reeves, Cynthia; Hallberg, Kelly; Hinojosa, Trisha

    2009-01-01

    The Rural and Low-Income School (RLIS) program is part of the Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) that was authorized under Title VI, Part B of the "Elementary and Secondary Act of 1965" ("ESEA"), as amended by the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001" ("NCLB"). The RLIS program provides additional funds to help rural districts serving…

  12. A pragmatic approach to traceability in food supply chains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. D. Nishantha; M. K. Wanniarachchige; S. N. Jehan

    2010-01-01

    Traceability systems have become vital within business organizations in enhancing the reliability of products while facilitating the management of the supply chains and production processes efficiently. Despite the potential of traceability systems to reap multifaceted benefits, most industries do not still feel traceability systems as a catalyst for financial gains, thus limit its use for facilitating compliance with mere legal

  13. Understanding the Capstone Experience through the Voices of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Patsy Tinsley

    2012-01-01

    The emphasis on engaging students in high-impact educational practices is increasing in higher education. Since its release in 2008, "High-Impact Educational Practices: What They Are, Who Has Access to Them, and Why They Matter" has been the go-to report for campuses seeking guidance to help their students "reap the full benefits--economic, civic,…

  14. Beyond the resource curse? Diamond mining, development and post-conflict reconstruction in Sierra Leone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy Maconachie; Tony Binns

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the so-called ‘resource curse’ syndrome has gained increasing currency. Growing evidence suggests that many African countries with significant natural wealth have actually reaped limited rewards, instead experiencing underdevelopment, corruption, political instability, and in some cases, violent conflict. In the small West African state of Sierra Leone, it has been suggested that diamonds played a key role in

  15. Security policy selection method of pipeline transportation based on analytic hierarchy process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han Li; Binghan Xu

    2005-01-01

    Due to various risk factors facing oil transportation through pipeline, many advanced technology have been devised to detect or eliminate the potential hazards. However, utilizing all the measures will be costly and in some case will not reap the desirable effects. Therefore the authors introduced the security policy selection method based on analytic hierarchy process. It will help operators to

  16. Commentary on "The 50th Anniversary of the Thayer Conference: Historical Perspectives and Accomplishments"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Having reaped the benefits of the Thayer Conference in my school psychology career, it is a pleasure to provide a comment about Dr. Fagan's article. I began my career as a master's-level school psychologist in the state of Wisconsin just prior to the passage of 94-142, now called IDEA. I am now a trainer of school psychologists at the doctoral…

  17. ORANGE. IDEAS. ORANGE. IDEAS.

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    of us reap the rewards. This brand book is a tool to help us be more consistent in what we say and how. ORANGE. IDEAS. ORANGE. IDEAS. ORANGE. IDEAS. ORANGE. IDEAS. WELCOME TO YOUR BRAND. HELLO Everything... #12;Reputation. We all tend to think of a brand as an attempt to sell something, whether it

  18. Tools for Teaching Content Literacy. [Flipchart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Reading and writing across content areas is emphasized in the standards and on high-stakes tests at the state and national level. As educators seek to incorporate content-area literacy into their teaching, they confront a maze of theories, instructional strategies, and acronyms like REAP and RAFT. Teachers who do work their way through the myriad…

  19. Social Inclusion and Reading: An Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christina; Akerman, Rodie

    2006-01-01

    Reading for pleasure is associated with numerous educational and social benefits. For example, it has been associated with increased reading attainment and writing ability, greater breadth of vocabulary and greater general knowledge (e.g. Cox and Guthrie, 2001). Children who read very little do not reap these benefits, and studies show that when…

  20. Trend Following Algorithms for Technical Trading in Stock Market

    E-print Network

    Si, Yain Whar "Lawrence"

    Trend Following Algorithms for Technical Trading in Stock Market Simon Fong, Jackie Tai, Yain Whar the trading strategies in an attempt to predict stock market prices for reaping profits. Efforts-- Trend following (TF) is a rule-based trading mechanism that taps on the movements of long-term market

  1. Political party use of radio and television in the 1960 campaign

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward C. Dreyer

    1964-01-01

    Although only about 1% of all broadcast revenues in 1960 could be attributed to time purchased for the Presidential election campaign, the total (close to $14 million) was enough to put a very?large dent into political party treasuries. At the same time, broadcasting stations and networks reaped a quadrennial bonanza. The following article describes and discusses the trends in party

  2. ***Summer classes can be hazardous to your financial health*** Before you finalize your schedule, you may want to consult a Counselor in our office. We

    E-print Network

    Maroncelli, Mark

    of Veterans Programs The Pennsylvania State University 325 Boucke Building University Park, PA 16802-5901 http only) PSU ID: (Ex. 9-xxxx-xxxx) ENROLLMENT STATUS Non-Degree Degree VA EDUCATIONAL BENEFITS Montgomery GI Bill: Active Duty (Chapter 30) Selected Reserves (Chapter 1606) REAP/Reserve Educational

  3. LiberalArts www.utexas.edu/cola

    E-print Network

    Texas at Austin, University of

    Randy L. Diehl #12;The College of Liberal Arts offers educational opportunties unparalleled by any Texas public university. Students receive a classic liberal arts education while reaping the benefits-based career education courses to· help students identify and capitalize on the strengths that Liberal Arts

  4. The alignment of Internet commercial operations with information technology with organisational operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. I. Lubbe

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade the Internet has taken off and organizations will reap its benefits. E-commerce will therefore emerge as an effective mode of creating new markets although managers still doubt the impact and profitability it has. Enabled by global telecommunication networks and the convergence of computing, telecom, entertainment, and publishing industries, e-commerce is complimenting (maybe replacing) traditional commerce. In

  5. Department of Veterans Affairs

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Weigang

    Department of Veterans Affairs APPLICATION FOR VA EDUCATION BENEFITS (VA FORM 22-1990) Use Assistance Program (REAP) chapter 1607 of title 10, U.S. Code · Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Program (VEAP) program on or before October 9, 1996, or you firs

  6. Intellectual Property and Higher Education: Challenges and Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dusen, Virgil

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual property has become a highly coveted asset that can potentially reap a financial windfall for the owner who exploits its utility. Higher education has focused on the discovery of new knowledge, which can translate into intellectual property, but legislation, higher education policy, and/or contractual engagement may dictate ownership…

  7. Evaluation of York County's

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Robert Michael

    on the Perry Preschool Project yielded benefits of $17 per dollar invested, resulting from higher student families to reap the benefits discussed herein. #12;3 Model Programs Amy Fowler Kinch and Lawrence J program listed is a support project for educators) reveal five areas of distinction: "commitment

  8. Publishing in Peril

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    University presses are more likely to give voice to stories that might not otherwise be told, such as those involving minority perspectives. But opportunities are shrinking. As extensions of their parent schools, academic presses rarely reap profits, experts say. Many rely on school subsidies to survive. Factor in substantial budget cuts to…

  9. Evolving software product lines with aspects: an empirical study on design stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo Figueiredo; Nélio Cacho; Cláudio Sant'anna; Mario Monteiro; Uirá Kulesza; Alessandro Garcia; Sérgio Soares; Fabiano Cutigi Ferrari; Safoora Khan; Fernando Castor Filho; Francisco Dantas

    2008-01-01

    Software product lines (SPLs) enable modular, large-scale reuse through a software architecture addressing multiple core and varying features. To reap the benefits of SPLs, their designs need to be stable. Design stability encompasses the sustenance of the product line's modularity properties in the presence of changes to both the core and varying features. It is usually assumed that aspect-oriented programming

  10. How To Conduct a Solid Community Survey on a Shoestring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Paul S.

    1973-01-01

    If a survey questionnaire is designed and worded effectively, volunteers can be used to conduct it. Apple Valley-Rosemount (Minnesota) found that volunteers need not be trained in interviewing techniques, and that the school board and administration can reap a wealth of high quality data and benefits not normally available with conventional, more…

  11. The energetic cost of locomotion: humans and primates compared to generalized endotherms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen L. Steudel-Numbers

    2003-01-01

    A wide range of selective pressures have been advanced as possible causes for the adoption of bipedalism in the hominin lineage. One suggestion has been that because modern human walking is relatively efficient compared to that of a typical quadruped, the ancestral quadruped may have reaped an energetic advantage when it walked on two legs. While it has become clear

  12. New York Taps into Israeli Institute's Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    A century after a New York banker donated $100,000 to help establish what would become the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, his hometown is reaping the benefits of his generosity. Last month the Technion, Israel's oldest university, and Cornell University won a closely watched competition to build an applied-sciences campus in New York…

  13. respirology Capital HealtH ReseaRCH focus Respirology researchers at Capital Health are finding ways to help people with lung disease

    E-print Network

    Dellaire, Graham

    . People with COPD reap rewards of exercise Fatigue and shortness of breath may lead some people with COPD ways to help people with lung disease breathe easier and live longer, more active, and satisfying lives. Teamwork paves the way to lung disease solutions For people with lung disease, the simple act of breathing

  14. Retrieval of Authentic Documents for Reader-Specific Lexical Practice Jonathan Brown

    E-print Network

    Eskenazi, Maxine

    practice of texts that stress core vocabulary, and vocabulary tests. They are intended to keep a student learning classrooms, all of the students are almost always reading the same text. Although students have student s abilities. In this paper, we describe REAP, a system designed to assign each student

  15. Most Common Activities in Pomona's Parks March 19, 2013

    E-print Network

    Young, Terence

    Most Common Activities in Pomona's Parks Brian Yee March 19, 2013 GEO-435 Professor Young #12;Since park is reaping the benefits of a place tended by municipal workers." This article showed me on the romantic aspects of the parks: "the play festivals which bring together young and old of all nationalities

  16. MARC and the Library Service Center: Automation at Bargain Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Karl M.

    Despite recent research and development in the field of library automation, libraries have been unable to reap the benefits promised by technology due to the high cost of building and maintaining their own computer-based systems. Time-sharing and disc mass storage devices will bring automation costs, if spread over a number of users, within the…

  17. Teaching "Beloved": Images of Transcendence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbaum, Vicky

    2002-01-01

    Bases the author's approach to the novel in the senior course on imagery and transcendence, investigating how characters live through devastation to find hope. Describes the use of water, tree, and animal imagery. Notes that the students, white and black, burdened by guilt and questions, sometimes read this as a reassurance that you reap what you…

  18. Children's Art Show: An Educational Family Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakerlis, Julienne

    2007-01-01

    In a time of seemingly rampant budget cuts in the arts in school systems throughout the country, a children's art show reaps many rewards. It can strengthen family-school relationships and community ties and stimulate questions and comments about the benefits of art and its significance in the development of young children. In this photo essay of…

  19. HOW TO GET INVOLVED Volunteering Does a Body Good

    E-print Network

    Hardy, Christopher R.

    a quadriplegic at age 11 when she was struck by a car while walking home from her first day of ju- nior high healthwise, volunteers reap physical and emotional benefits, including less stress and depression, and longer, mental health, and age. Ellison spends much of her time these days giving inspirational speeches

  20. Intra-alliance performance, control rights, and today's split of tomorrow's value

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tunji Adegbesan; Matthew J. Higgins

    2007-01-01

    Although the differential benefits reaped by individual partners are a major determinant of the performance impact of strategic alliances, previous analysis has faced methodological challenges. In response we propose a measure for relative value appropriation and an explicit theoretical framework for predicting its variation in terms of relative bargaining position. With a sample of 180 biotechnology R&D alliances, we are

  1. Deregulation of the Japanese Markets - Opportunities for the Edinburgh Investment Community 

    E-print Network

    Murray, H

    1997-01-01

    that entering into tie-ups with Japanese fund managers, are the preferred options for Edinburgh firms seeking to enter Japanese investment markets. A more pro-active and united approach by the Edinburgh financial community is required to ensure it reaps maximum...

  2. Beyond Grading: A Series of Rubrics for Science Learning in High School Biology Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Marcelle A.; Halverson, Kristy; Freyermuth, Sharyn; Clark, Catharine G.

    2011-01-01

    Rubrics are learning tools for students and teachers. They can be used to clarify learning goals, provide feedback, and improve critical thinking. Simply using a rubric to score student work, however, is not enough to achieve learning gains (NRC 2001). Using the rubric as a tool--not just a measuring stick--is the key to reaping the full benefits…

  3. The Effect of Motivation on Movement: A Study of Bradykinesia in Parkinson's Disease

    E-print Network

    Dayan, Peter

    electrical stimuli. The faster the subjects performed an action the more likely they were to win money (in money) and, unlike controls, do not speed up in the current trial having failed to win money faster to avoid aversive outcomes (painful electric shocks) than to reap rewarding outcomes (winning

  4. "Deaf Health Talk" Sponsored by a Grant Provided by the Center for Community Health

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    "Deaf Health Talk" Sponsored by a Grant Provided by the Center for Community Health In Collaboration with RRCD's R.E.A.P DHCC is a Community Partner of the NCDHR Topic: "Skin Cancer ­ What to Look Lyell Avenue, Rochester, NY 14606 We will talk about skin cancer and other types of skin lesions. We

  5. Bundling of Intellectual Capital within Human Resource Shared Services as a Mechanism to Create Value: Towards a Conceptual Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeroen Meijerink; Tanya Bondarouk; Jan Kees Looise

    2009-01-01

    Human Resource Shared Services (HRSS) are increasingly established to reap the benefits of both centralization and decentralization. Such benefits are to be expected, as HRSS centrally bundle intellectual capital and offer HR services that are adapted to the needs of clients and end-users. As a result, HRSS are believed to create value for end-users: employees, managers and HR professionals. Yet

  6. Improving the Relationship between Continuing Education Leadership and Marketing Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Jim

    2009-01-01

    In this economy, college and university continuing education units will not automatically reap the benefits of returning adult learners as in past recessions: this economy caused a drastic reduction of resources available to the workforce and for personal revenue. As a result of decreased personal income and workforce training funding, competition…

  7. Now That I Have It, What Can I Do with It?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon L. Holmes

    1999-01-01

    All JCE subscribers now have access to all areas of JCE Online. As a reader of the print Journal you may be wondering what benefits JCE Online offers you and how you can reap those benefits. Point your WWW browser at jchemed.chem.wisc.edu, login, and follow along. Keep in mind that the three benefits outlined below are those that directly benefit

  8. Role-Playing Games and Simulations for International Issues Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Sarah M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes criteria that instructors should be sensitive to when evaluating simulations or role-plays for use in international/comparative politics courses. The potential benefits and drawbacks to these interactive exercises are addressed as well as the special circumstances that must be taken into consideration to reap the full promise…

  9. CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION SPECIAL DISTRICTS HOSPITALS & PUBLIC CARE COLLEGES & UNIVERSITIES

    E-print Network

    EFFICIENT AND REAP BIG BENEFITS Energy costs are typically three to ten percent of annual operating expenses that implementing cost-effective energy efficiency projects reduces annual utility bills by an average of 20 percent! It is possible to reduce energy consumption sig- nificantly below that set by the state's minimum building

  10. Capitalizando en los cursos pequenos (Capitalizing on Small Class Size). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Jessica; Smith, Stuart C.

    This digest in Spanish examines school districts' efforts to reap the greatest benefit from smaller classes. Although the report discusses teaching strategies that are most effective in small classes, research has shown that teachers do not significantly change their teaching practices when they move from larger to smaller classes. Although…

  11. TRANSMISSION EFFECTS IN MARKET POWER ANALYSIS OF ELECTRICITY MARKETS

    E-print Network

    Gross, George

    the benefits of lower prices and innovation that competition can provide. Such benefits are not attainable when a player utilizing the electric transmission system may exercise such market power. This paper describers of this restructuring is to reap the benefits of lower prices and innovation resulting from the establishment

  12. Revue de presse ANGLAIS Semaine du 06 au 12 juin 2011

    E-print Network

    Rennes, Université de

    of the body hackers (By April Dembosky) : Silicon Valley's « bio hackers » believe monitoring data fromVille (By Naomi Alderman) : Aimed at older women and 'casual gamers', FarmVille has reaped a bumper crop of 60 million global users. No wonder Lady Gaga wants in. Courrier International n°1075 ­ 09 au 15 juin

  13. Economics of Scholarly Publishing: Exploring the Causes of Subscription Price Variations of Scholarly Journals in Business Subject-Specific Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lewis G.

    2011-01-01

    This empirical research investigates subscription price variations of scholarly journals in five business subject-specific areas using the semilogarithmic regression model. It has two main purposes. The first is to address the unsettled debate over whether or not and to what extent commercial publishers reap monopoly profits by overcharging…

  14. Law Enforcement and Emerging Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suman Kapur

    Throughout our history mankind has reaped great rewards from on-going technological progress. This trend will undoubtedly continue in the future. Nanotechnology, artificial intelligence, wireless LAN, Biosensors and other new technologies bring with them tremendous benefits that include advances in the standard of living, increases in human lifespan and prosperity unimagined in previous eras. At the same time they pose serious

  15. Volume203,number2,3 CHEMICAL PHYSICS LETTERS 19February1993 Transient grating spectroscopy of exciton sound waves

    E-print Network

    Mukamel, Shaul

    of exciton sound waves in dense exciton fluids Jan A. Leegwater and Shaul Mukamel Department of Chemistry to that of sound waves in an ordinary gas. A method to probe these motions using transient grating with strong pump density may disappear and reap- pear later. The physical mechanism is analogous to that of sound waves

  16. The Impact of Electronic Media on Faculty Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkhi, Reza; Williams, Paul

    2010-01-01

    With the proliferation of computer networks and the increased use of Internet-based applications, many forms of social interactions now take place in an on-line context through "Computer-Mediated Communication" (CMC). Many universities are now reaping the benefits of using CMC applications to collect data on student evaluations of faculty, rather…

  17. Effectiveness of Online Instruction: Differences in Measured Student Outcomes Online versus Face-to-Face Instruction at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langenhorst, Don G.

    2012-01-01

    There has been an exponential growth in online courses offered at the high school level but little evidence as to whether they are as effective as face-to-face courses. It has become critical to understand and evaluate the effectiveness of online education in order to reap the benefits and reduce the drawbacks of contrasting learning modes. The…

  18. Psychology, meaning and the challenges of longevity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. MacGregor

    2003-01-01

    Humankind has begun to reap one of the most valued harvests of its scientific and technological pursuits: a significant increase in human longevity. We now live longer than ever before, due in large part to advances in medicine and health care that provide those who have the opportunity to afford them a lifespan that for many approaches or exceeds the

  19. Aligning Diversity, Quality, and Equity: The Implications of Legal and Public Policy Developments for Promoting Racial Diversity in Graduate Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garces, Liliana M.

    2014-01-01

    Diversity today is considered central to the capacity of postsecondary institutions to thrive in an increasingly multiracial and multiethnic society. However, as universities take steps to reap the educational benefits of racial and ethnic diversity, legal decisions and state laws increasingly restrict the tools these institutions have…

  20. Task Groups in the School Setting: Promoting Children's Social and Emotional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Velsor, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Through social and emotional learning (SEL), individuals develop skill in negotiating relationships successfully and expressing emotions appropriately. The socially and emotionally intelligent child reaps benefits in school and later life. Counselors are best qualified to promote children's SEL and the task group in the classroom provides an…

  1. Normalizing Source Code Vocabulary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawn J. Lawrie; David Binkley; Christopher Morrell

    2010-01-01

    Information Retrieval (IR) based tools complement traditional static and dynamic analysis tools by exploiting the natural language found within a program's text. Tools incorporating IR have tackled problems, such as feature location, that previously required considerable human effort. However, to reap the full benefit of IR-based techniques, the language used across all software artifacts (e.g., requirement and design documents, test

  2. Financing the Public Schools. A Search for Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Delta Kappa, Bloomington, IN. Commission on Alternative Designs for Funding Education.

    Equity must be viewed in terms of the pupils to be served in the schools, the citizens who support the schools, and general society which reaps the benefits from the public schools. Various sections of this pamphlet address themselves to the philosophical bases of the public schools, some of the directions provided by the courts, current financing…

  3. How can we build enough physical activity into our busy lives, and

    E-print Network

    Garfunkel, Eric

    in order to reap the maximum health benefits? The following tips can help ramp up your physical activity the exercise bike or treadmill in a convenient place where you are likely to use it. Use a TV, iPod, or book Butter 7 · Keep a spare pair of sneakers in your car, or under your desk at work, so

  4. This convergence may lead to the widespread introduction

    E-print Network

    Nigay, Laurence

    . However, reaping the benefits of ubiquitous perception will require consideration of human abilities in HCI seek a seamless bridge between physical and electronic bits. Wellner's Digital Desk [12] and Fitzmaurice's Bricks [6] illustrate this trend. In the Digital Desk, physical office tools such as paper

  5. Synthetic Social Relationships for Computational Entities

    E-print Network

    Tomlinson, Bill

    Humans and many other animals form long term social relationships with each other. These relationships form social relationships like those formed by animals could reap many of the benefits of sociality to form social relationships like those formed by animals? · How can people participate in and direct

  6. To learn more about AT&T Fleet Management Solutions, visit www.att.com/fleet-management or have us contact you.

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Kathleen

    and increase company profitability are always goals. But, to reach those goals, companies must determine what understand how a location-based application can help companies with remote workers, remote assets or fleets Thousands of companies are already reaping the benefits of location-based applications. This guide

  7. Strategic Financial Innovation in Segmented Markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohit Rahi; Jean-Pierre Zigrand

    2009-01-01

    We study an equilibrium model with restricted investor participation in which strategic arbitrageurs reap profits by exploiting mispricings across different market segments. We endogenize the asset structure as the outcome of a security design game played by the arbitrageurs. The equilibrium asset structure depends realistically upon considerations such as depth and gains from trade. It is neither complete nor socially

  8. An exploration of vehicle-terrain interaction in IR synthetic scenes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa G. Gonda; David M. Less; David R. Filbee; Erik S. Polsen; Timothy Edwards

    2003-01-01

    IR synthetic scene fidelity improves with each leap ahead in computing capability. Military training, in particular, is reaping the benefits from each improvement in rendering fidelity and speed. However, in order for these synthetic scenes to be useful for signature virtual prototyping or laboratory observer trials, a particularly challenging aspect still needs to be addressed. Synthetic scenes need to have

  9. Volume 14, Number 2 28 February 2013

    E-print Network

    Emile-Geay, Julien

    Informatics: Data management, preservation, rescue; 1914 Informatics: Data mining. Received 6 August 2012 the published body of scien- tific knowledge. For science to effectively function, and for society to reap are now publicly available through online databases like the International Tree Ring Data Bank [ITRDB

  10. Climate change: impacts and adaptation in England's woodlands

    E-print Network

    Climate change: impacts and adaptation in England's woodlands The changing climate presents associated with climate change, and the likely impact on trees, silviculture and forest operations that increase resilience whatever climate change brings, or that are likely to reap the greatest rewards

  11. Engaging Adjunct and Full-Time Faculty in Student Success Innovation. Cutting Edge Series. No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Agenda, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Community colleges are facing tough challenges, and engaging faculty members--both full-time and adjunct--in the hard work of meeting these challenges is critical. Colleges can reap major benefits from meaningful engagement with faculty, yet many institutions find it difficult to do. In partnership with Achieving the Dream: Community Colleges…

  12. Striae at St. Mullin's Cave, County Kilkenny, southern Ireland: their origin and chronological significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mc Cabe, A. M.

    1998-05-01

    At St. Mullin's Cave, County Kilkenny, Ireland, erosional marks on an exposure of Devonian Old Red Sandstone conglomerate record north to south ice flow. The site occurs within the so-called area of `older drift' south of the southern Ireland end-moraine (S.I.E.M.). Projecting quartzite cobbles are planated by glacial erosion forming an accordant upper surface. Well preserved striae (alignment 350/355 to 170/175°) are present on each planated clast ( n=15). An irregular surface (cm deep) is developed on the finer matrix between clasts and records post-striation mechanical weathering. The striae form a co-linear texture with striae recorded from other sites in Counties Kilkenny and Waterford, and document ice flow southward onto the continental shelf. Although the age of the striae is problematical their relationships to other known glacigenic events in southern Ireland suggest formation by ice flow early in the last glacial cycle.

  13. Fisheries production in Southeast Asian Farmer Managed Aquatic Systems (FMAS) II. Diversity of aquatic resources and management impacts on catch rates

    E-print Network

    Lorenzen, Kai

    and 17 in Vietnam. Fish accounted for the largest share of SRS by weight in all areas but frogs, snails, indicating an underlying difference in abundance. This positive effect is likely attributable to lower on catch rates in the SRS-dominated FMAS of Cambodia and Thailand. Ponds in Vietnamese FMAS were managed

  14. 31 CFR 500.410 - Currency, coins, and postage and other stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...and postage and other stamps issued by North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam are merchandise of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin subject to § 500.204(a)(1). [41 FR 16554, Apr....

  15. Early Learning and Development Standards in East Asia and the Pacific: Experiences from Eight Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyahara, Junko; Meyers, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses how countries in UNICEF's East Asia and Pacific Region (EAPR) have engaged in the Early Learning and Development Standards (ELDS) process. ELDS has been developed by the governments of Cambodia, China, Fiji, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam over the last 3 years with technical and financial support from…

  16. Student Achievement and Education System Performance in a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jeffery H.; Chinna, Ung; Hok, Ung Ngo; Tinon, Souer; Veasna, Meung; Nissay, Put

    2012-01-01

    The global spread of national assessment testing activities, and the growing pressure to move beyond basic measures of participation in educational monitoring, means that student achievement measures are likely to become increasingly relevant indicators of systemic progress in the developing world. Using data from the CESSP project in Cambodia,…

  17. I Am All about the Future World: Cambodian Children's Views on Their Status as Orphans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emond, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    The dominant representation of children living in majority world orphanages highlights their vulnerability and fragility. However, little is known about their lived experiences of orphanage care and their perspectives on being regarded as "orphans". This article draws on data from a pilot project undertaken in one orphanage in Cambodia to…

  18. 12 OCTOBER 2012 VOL 338 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org192 edited by Jennifer Sills

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    represent a serious threat to public health and a serious conservation problem for sustaining biodiver- sity Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Environment has reduced investment by 31% with respect to 2011.As, Cambodia, and Myanmar to China (2). Over a 10-year period,Vietnamese authorities have confiscated over 180

  19. The State of the World's Children 2002 THE STATE OF

    E-print Network

    de Groen, Pieter

    , their anxieties about family health and growing enough food. They congratulated the baby's parents has suffered through lack of food or immunization and their mental development through poor health, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Canada, Chile, China, Comoros, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Ecuador

  20. John Thomson: Photojournalist in Asia, 1862-1872.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Elliott S.

    John Thomson was a nineteenth-century British photojournalist who used the wet-plate process to illustrate his explorations of eastern and Southeast Asia. His travels from 1862 to 1872 took him to the following places, among others: Ceylon, Cambodia, Singapore, Thailand, Saigon, Siam, mainland China, and Taiwan. Thomson chose to use the wet-plate…

  1. Evaluation of the proficiency of trained non-laboratory health staffs and laboratory technicians using a rapid and simple HIV antibody test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koum Kanal; Thai Leang Chou; Ly Sovann; Yasuo Morikawa; Yumi Mukoyama; Kazuhiro Kakimoto

    2005-01-01

    In Cambodia, nearly half of pregnant women attend antenatal care (ANC), which is an entry point of services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). However, most of ANC services are provided in health centres or fields, where laboratory services by technicians are not available. In this study, those voluntary confidential counselling and testing (VCCT) counsellors involved in PMTCT

  2. Chromosome evolution in the subtribe Bovina (Mammalia, Bovidae): The karyotype of the Cambodian banteng ( Bos javanicus birmanicus ) suggests that Robertsonian translocations are related to interspecific hybridization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Ropiquet; Michčle Gerbault-Seureau; Jane L. Deuve; Clément Gilbert; Eva Pagacova; Norin Chai; Jiri Rubes; Alexandre Hassanin

    2008-01-01

    Three subspecies of banteng (Bos javanicus) have been described: B. j. javanicus in Java, B. j. lowi in Borneo, and B. j. birmanicus in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. In this paper we provide the first description of the karyotype of the\\u000a Cambodian banteng. The chromosomal complement of B. j. birmanicus differs from that of B. j. javanicus,

  3. Diversity of News: "Marginalizing" the Opposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Edward S.

    1985-01-01

    Offers case studies of the newspaper coverage of similar events--the strife in Cambodia and East Timor and elections in El Salvador and Nicaragua--to illustrate that a propaganda framework is frequently applicable to media coverage of important issues, resulting in a possible absence of diversity of opinion. (PD)

  4. At first, Elliot took an interest in Cuba.Then, Asia. He studied Mandarin Chinese, and

    E-print Network

    Mitchener, W. Garrett

    of five areas for a concentration, and the subject matter goes well beyond just politics or history in Cambodia andVietnam with four other students and a political science professor. "Every day we set off for careers in business, education, government and many other fields. Facts A semester or summer studying

  5. Early Childhood Care and Education and Other Family Policies and Programs in South-East Asia. Early Childhood and Family Policy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamerman, Sheila B.

    This report describes early childhood care and education (ECCE) and other family support policies and programs in seven southeast Asian countries: Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. The report draws primarily on background country reports prepared by officials in these countries to focus on the context in…

  6. 8 CFR 245.7 - Adjustment of status of certain Soviet and Indochinese parolees under the Foreign Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...adjustment. The benefits of this section shall only apply to an alien who: (1) Was a national of the Soviet Union, Vietnam, Laos, or Cambodia, and (2) Was inspected and granted parole into the United States during the period beginning on August...

  7. Language in Development Constrained: Three Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleby, Roslyn; Copley, Kath; Sithirajvongsa, Sisamone; Pennycook, Alastair

    2002-01-01

    Explores the political, ethical, and professional dilemmas faced by English-as-a-Second-Language professionals working in the context of Australian language aid projects in Laos, East Timor, and Cambodia. Illuminates how language aid practitioners have to deal with issues of language choice, ownership, and political context. (Author/VWL)

  8. Southeast Asian American Children: Not the "Model Minority"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, KaYing

    2004-01-01

    Although an impressive number of Americans whose ancestors are from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam ("Southeast Asian Americans") have achieved tremendous success in education, a disproportionate number have found it difficult to succeed academically. Yet their difficulties are largely invisible to policymakers, who tend to look only to the aggregate…

  9. COMPARATIVE CLINICAL TRIAL OF TWO-FIXED COMBINATIONS DIHYDROARTEMISININ-NAPTHOQUINE- TRIMETHOPRIM (DNP ® ) AND ARTEMETHER-LUMEFANTRINE (COARTEM ® \\/ RIAMET ® ) IN THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE UNCOMPLICATED FALCIPARUM MALARIA IN THAILAND

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Krudsood; K Chalermrut; C Pengruksa; S Srivilairit; U Silachamroon; S Treeprasertsuk; S Looareesuwan

    2003-01-01

    An open randomized comparison of two-fixed dose artemisinin derivative-containing com- bination regimens was conducted in adults with acute uncomplicated multidrug resistant falciparum malaria in Thailand. DNP ® , a combination of dihydroartemisinin with napthoquine and trimethoprim developed recently in China, has been evaluated in China, Vietnam, Cambodia and Thailand. This study was performed to compare the safety, tolerability and efficacy

  10. Health Status, Cognitive and Motor Development of Young Children Adopted from China, East Asia, and Russia across the First 6 Months after Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Seguin, Renee; Belhumeur, Celine; Germain, Patricia; Amyot, Isabelle; Jeliu, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    We compared health status, anthropometric and psychological development of 123 children adopted before 18 months of age from China, East Asia (Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, South Korea, Cambodia), and Eastern Europe (mostly Russia). Data were collected close to the time of arrival, and 3 and 6 months later. Anthropometric measures included weight,…

  11. Myth, Meaning and Mystery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2003-01-01

    Provides background information on the career of the artist, Allan Clark. Focuses on his sculpture titled "The King's Temptress" that was influenced by his visit to the Angkor Wat (Cambodia). Includes activities in visual arts, language arts, history, and social studies. (CMK)

  12. Ecology of pathogens Studies on pathogens in the environment have been initiated relatively recently at Texas State

    E-print Network

    Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    , Cambodia (Chanda Cheng): · Bacteria of the genus Salmonella, a large group of enteric bacteria are a large group of enteric bacteria with a broad range of hosts. Although not all cause disease, salmonellae such as fresh- or marine waters, estuarine environments, vegetables, compost, or soils and sediments

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Multiple introductions of highly pathogenic avian

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    in geese in Guangdong, China, and continues to circulate in the poultry population in many countries,3 those that are currently circulating are clades 1.1 (Cambodia and Vietnam); 2.1.3.2 (Indonesia); 2.2.1 (Egypt); 2.3.2.1 (Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Korea, Nepal and Vietnam); 2.3.4.2 (China); and 7

  14. Cambodian Early Adolescents' Academic Achievement: The Role of Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eng, Sothy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations of parents' cultural beliefs and attitudes with respect to fate, traditional gender roles, aspirations, and involvement in children's academic achievement in Cambodia. Based on Coleman's social capital theory, a good parent-child relationship enables children's school success because…

  15. The Effects of Faculty Behaviors on the Academic Achievement of First-Year Cambodian Urban University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heng, Kreng

    2014-01-01

    Research on the faculty impact on students' academic achievement has been disproportionately confined to the context of countries with developed higher education systems. Few studies have been undertaken in the developing world like Cambodia. This study employed hierarchical linear modeling to examine the relationships between faculty…

  16. Telling Their Stories: Women Construct/Instruct through Survival Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meagher, Eileen M.

    Malika Oufkir of Morocco recounts her story in "Stolen Lives." Loung Ung of Cambodia relates her story in "First, They Killed My Father." Susan McDougal of Arkansas, USA, tells her story in the aptly named, "The Woman Who Wouldn't Talk." This paper looks at the struggles of these three very different women from very different cultures, struggles…

  17. Addressing Livelihood Challenges Through Research

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    SRI LANKA C H I N A NEPAL BHUTAN PA K I S TA N M Y A N M A R T H A I L A N D LAOS CAMBODIA VIETNAM I N has demonstrated that global change has had a negative impact on marginalised people, espe- cially

  18. Averting Hunger and Food Insecurity in Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arsenio M. Balisacan

    2004-01-01

    Even so, the region still accounts for about 60 percent of the world's 1.1 billion poor. The proportion of underweight children in the region fell by only 4 percentage points (from 35 to 31 percent) between the early and late 1990s (ESCAP 2003). In Cambodia, Bangladesh, India, and Nepal, almost half of the children under five years are still moderately

  19. Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific -Sustainable Aquaculture Press release: Experts gather to save giant catfish

    E-print Network

    Lorenzen, Kai

    Centres in Asia-Pacific; the Mekong River Commission (MRC); the Food and Agriculture Organization; and the Fisheries Departments of Cambodia, Laos and Thailand. The project, which aims to develop a comprehensive of this photograph is available for download. Media contact Dr Kai Lorenzen Senior Lecturer in Aquatic Resource

  20. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (84th, Washington, DC, August 5-8, 2001). International Communication Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The International Communication section of the proceedings contains the following 15 selected papers: "'News Aid', the New Aid: A Case Study of Cambodia" (J. L. Clarke); "Development of Public and Private Broadcasting in Post-Communist Estonia: 1991-1996" (Max V. Grubb); "Revealing and Repenting South Korea's Vietnam Massacre: A Frame Analysis of…