Science.gov

Sample records for siem reap cambodia

  1. Soils under conservation agriculture with vegetables in Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Smallholder vegetable farmers in Siem Reap, Cambodia experienced declining crop productivity. It could be a result of a mixture of factors such as nutrient and pest problems and extreme weather events such as droughts and/or heavy rains. The no-till, continuous mulch and diverse species principles o...

  2. Intestinal Parasite Infections in Symptomatic Children Attending Hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Catrin E.; Nget, Phot; Saroeun, Mao; Kuong, Suy; Chanthou, Seng; Kumar, Varun; Bousfield, Rachel; Nader, Johanna; Bailey, J. Wendi; Beeching, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P.; Parry, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia. Methods In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected. Principal Findings We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range) age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2) years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3%) children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6%) and Giardia lamblia (11.2%). Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia. Conclusions/Significance This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation. PMID

  3. Dynamics of soil carbon, nitrogen and soil respiration in farmer’s field with conservation agriculture Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The years of intensive tillage in many countries, including Cambodia, have caused significant decline in agriculture’s natural resources that could threaten the future of agricultural production and sustainability worldwide. Long-term tillage system and site-specific crop management can affect chang...

  4. Soil carbon and soil respiration in conservation agriculture with vegetables in Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A balance between food production and environmental protection is required to sustainably feed a growing population. The resource saving concept of conservation agriculture aims to achieve this balance through implementing simultaneously three conservation practices; no-till, continuous soil cover, ...

  5. Genetic ancestries in northwest Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Black, M L; Dufall, K; Wise, C; Sullivan, S; Bittles, A H

    2006-01-01

    A survey of the genetic ancestry of 125 Cambodian children resident in Siem Reap province was undertaken, based on eight Y-chromosome binary polymorphisms and sequencing of the mtDNA HV1 region. The data indicated a largely East Asian paternal ancestry and a local Southeast Asian maternal ancestry. The presence of Y-chromosomes P* and R1al* was suggestive of a small but significant Indo-European male ancestral component, which probably reflects the history of Indian, and later European, influences on Cambodia. PMID:17381059

  6. HIV/AIDS, beersellers and critical community health psychology in Cambodia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Lubek, Ian; Lee, Helen; Kros, Sarath; Wong, Mee Lian; Van Merode, Tiny; Liu, James; McCreanor, Tim; Idema, Roel; Campbell, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This case study illustrates a participatory framework for confronting critical community health issues using 'grass-roots' research-guided community-defined interventions. Ongoing work in Cambodia has culturally adapted research, theory and practice for particular, local health-promotion responses to HIV/AIDS, alcohol abuse and other challenges in the community of Siem Reap. For resource-poor communities in Cambodia, we recycle such 'older' concepts as 'empowerment' and 'action research'. We re-imagine community health psychology, when confronted with 'critical', life-and-death issues, as adjusting its research and practices to local, particular ontological and epistemological urgencies of trauma, morbidity and mortality. PMID:24058105

  7. The value of intermittent point-prevalence surveys of healthcare-associated infections for evaluating infection control interventions at Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Stoesser, N; Emary, K; Soklin, S; Peng An, K; Sophal, S; Chhomrath, S; Day, NPJ; Limmathurotsakul, D; Nget, P; Pangnarith, Y; Sona, S; Kumar, V; Moore, CE; Chanpheaktra, N; Parry, CM

    2013-01-01

    Background There are limited data on the epidemiology of paediatric healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) and infection control in low-income countries. We describe the value of intermittent point-prevalence surveys for monitoring HCAI and evaluating infection control interventions in a Cambodian paediatric hospital. Methods Hospital-wide, point-prevalence surveys were performed monthly in 2011. Infection control interventions introduced during this period included a hand hygiene programme and a ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) care bundle. Results Overall HCAI prevalence was 13.8/100 patients at-risk, with a significant decline over time. The highest HCAI rates (50%) were observed in critical care; the majority of HCAIs were respiratory (61%). Klebsiella pneumoniae was most commonly isolated and antimicrobial resistance was widespread. Hand hygiene compliance doubled to 51.6%, and total VAP cases/1000 patient-ventilator days fell from 30 to 10. Conclusion Rates of HCAI were substantial in our institution, and antimicrobial resistance a major concern. Point-prevalence surveys are effective for HCAI surveillance, and in monitoring trends in response to infection control interventions. PMID:23418156

  8. Hepatitis E Virus in Cambodia: Prevalence among the General Population and Complete Genome Sequence of Genotype 4

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Hiroko; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Lim, Olline; Svay, Somana; Chuon, Channarena; Hok, Sirany; Do, Son Huy; Fujimoto, Mayumi; Akita, Tomoyuki; Goto, Noboru; Katayama, Keiko; Arai, Masahiro; Tanaka, Junko

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a growing public health problem in many countries. In this study, we investigated HEV seroprevalence among the general population in the Siem Reap province, Cambodia, and performed HEV genetic analysis with the aim to develop an HEV prevention strategy. This seroepidemiological cross-sectional study conducted from 2010 to 2014 included 868 participants from four different locations in Siem Reap province, Cambodia. They answered questionnaires and provided blood samples for the analysis of hepatitis virus infections. Among the participants (360 men and 508 women; age range, 7–90 years), the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was 18.4% (95% confidence interval: 15.9–21.0); HEV RNA was detected in two participants (0.23%) and was classified as genotype 3 and 4. Full-length genome of the genotype 4 isolate, CVS-Sie10, was sequenced; it contained 7,222 nucleotides and three ORFs and demonstrated high sequence identity with the swine China isolates swGX40 (95.57%), SS19 (94.37%), and swDQ (91.94%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that men, elderly people, and house workers were risk groups significantly associated with the positivity for anti-HEV IgG. This is the first report on the detection of HEV genotype 4 in humans in Cambodia and on the complete genome sequence of HEV genotype 4 from this country. Our study demonstrates that new HEV infection cases occur frequently among the general population in Cambodia, and effective preventive measures are required. PMID:26317620

  9. Hepatitis E Virus in Cambodia: Prevalence among the General Population and Complete Genome Sequence of Genotype 4.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroko; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Lim, Olline; Svay, Somana; Chuon, Channarena; Hok, Sirany; Do, Son Huy; Fujimoto, Mayumi; Akita, Tomoyuki; Goto, Noboru; Katayama, Keiko; Arai, Masahiro; Tanaka, Junko

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a growing public health problem in many countries. In this study, we investigated HEV seroprevalence among the general population in the Siem Reap province, Cambodia, and performed HEV genetic analysis with the aim to develop an HEV prevention strategy. This seroepidemiological cross-sectional study conducted from 2010 to 2014 included 868 participants from four different locations in Siem Reap province, Cambodia. They answered questionnaires and provided blood samples for the analysis of hepatitis virus infections. Among the participants (360 men and 508 women; age range, 7-90 years), the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was 18.4% (95% confidence interval: 15.9-21.0); HEV RNA was detected in two participants (0.23%) and was classified as genotype 3 and 4. Full-length genome of the genotype 4 isolate, CVS-Sie10, was sequenced; it contained 7,222 nucleotides and three ORFs and demonstrated high sequence identity with the swine China isolates swGX40 (95.57%), SS19 (94.37%), and swDQ (91.94%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that men, elderly people, and house workers were risk groups significantly associated with the positivity for anti-HEV IgG. This is the first report on the detection of HEV genotype 4 in humans in Cambodia and on the complete genome sequence of HEV genotype 4 from this country. Our study demonstrates that new HEV infection cases occur frequently among the general population in Cambodia, and effective preventive measures are required. PMID:26317620

  10. Cambodia.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    The population of Cambodia stood at 6.25 million in 1986, with an average annual growth rate of 2.1%. Life expectancy is presently 42 years for men and 44.9 years for women. The government is currently disputed between resistance groups and Vietnamese-installed authorities in Phnom Penh. No single authority controls the entire country. The urban population increased sharply during the 1970-75 war, but after seizing power the Khmer Rouge forced most urban residents to return to rural areas as peasants. Massive numbers of people were executed for political reasons or died of starvation and disease during the Khmer Rouge period and after the dislocations caused by the Vietnamese invasion: an estimated 1.5-3 million people are estimated to have died out of a 1975 population of 7.3 million. The resistance forces have grown in size and effectiveness since 1985 and now challenge Vietnam's position in Cambodia. The Cambodian economy, badly damaged by the war and the Khmer Rouge regime, has only slowly begun to recover. Per capita gross national product (GNP) is estimated at less than US$100. The food situation remains precarious, with shortages of rice, meat, vegetables, sugar, flour, and dairy products. Extensive damage to the country's irrigation system, on which rice production depends, has only begun to be repaired. Basic services such as electricity and water are erratic. Although literacy and primary education campaigns have achieved success, health conditions remain poor. PMID:12177940

  11. Angkor, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This is an image of the area around the city of Angkor, Cambodia. The city houses an ancient complex of more than 60 temples dating back to the 9th century. The principal complex, Angkor Wat, is the bright square just left of the center of the image. It is surrounded by a reservoir that appears in this image as a thick black line. The larger bright square above Angkor Wat is another temple complex called Angkor Thom. Archeologists studying this image believe the blue-purple area slightly north of Angkor Thom may be previously undiscovered structures. In the lower right is a bright rectangle surrounded by a dark reservoir, which houses the temple complex Chau Srei Vibol. In its heyday, Angkor had a population of 1 million residents and was the spiritual center for the Khmer people until it was abandoned in the 15th century. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on the 15th orbit of the space shuttle Endeavour on September 30, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 55 kilometers by 85 kilometers (34 miles by 53 miles) that is centered at 13.43 degrees north latitude and 103.9 degrees east longitude. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). The body of water in the south-southwest corner is Tonle Sap, Cambodia's great central lake. The urban area at the lower left of the image is the present-day town of Siem Reap. The adjoining lines are both modern and ancient roads and the remains of Angkor's vast canal system that was used for both irrigation and transportation. The large black rectangles are ancient reservoirs. Today the Angkor complex is hidden beneath a dense rainforest canopy, making it difficult for researchers on the ground to study

  12. Urinary antibiotic activity in paediatric patients attending an outpatient department in north-western Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Emary, Katherine R W; Carter, Michael J; Pol, Sreymom; Sona, Soeng; Kumar, Varun; Day, Nicholas P J; Parry, Christopher M; Moore, Catrin E

    2015-01-01

    Objective Antibiotic resistance is a prominent public and global health concern. We investigated antibiotic use in children by determining the proportion of unselected children with antibacterial activity in their urine attending a paediatric outpatient department in Siem Reap, Cambodia. Methods Caregiver reports of medication history and presence of possible infection symptoms were collected in addition to urine samples. Urine antibiotic activity was estimated by exposing bacteria to urine specimens, including assessment against multiresistant bacteria previously isolated from patients in the hospital (a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a multiresistant Salmonella typhi and an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolate). Results Medication information and urine were collected from 775 children. Caregivers reported medication use in 69.0% of children in the preceding 48 h. 31.7% samples showed antibacterial activity; 16.3% showed activity against a local multiresistant organism. No specimens demonstrated activity against an ESBL-producing E. coli. Conclusions Antibiotics are widely used in the community setting in Cambodia. Parents are often ill-informed about drugs given to treat their children. Increasing the regulation and training of private pharmacies in Cambodia may be necessary. Regional surveillance of antibiotic use and resistance is also essential in devising preventive strategies against further development of antibiotic resistance, which would have both local and global consequences. PMID:25324202

  13. Prevalence of intestinal helminths among inhabitants of Cambodia (2006-2011).

    PubMed

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia. PMID:25548418

  14. Prevalence of Intestinal Helminths among Inhabitants of Cambodia (2006-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S.; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia. PMID:25548418

  15. The enduring mental health impact of mass violence: A community comparison study of Cambodian civilians living in Cambodia and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Mollica, Richard F; Brooks, Robert; Tor, Svang; Lopes-Cardozo, Barbara; Silove, Derrick

    2016-01-01

    Background No population-based studies have directly compared the long-term health and mental health outcomes of conflict- versus non-conflict-affected communities from the same ethnic background. Aims To identify and compare levels of psychiatric morbidity between a traumatized and non-traumatized civilian community; to investigate the long-term impact of mass violence. Methods Double-stratified community surveys in Siem Reap and Surin provinces were conducted by highly qualified Cambodian interviewers using culturally validated survey instruments with known psychometric properties. These included Cambodian versions of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Medical Outcome Study Short Form. Results Siem Reap and Surin respondents experienced 12,266 and 621 major trauma events, respectively; 745 (76.2%) Siem Reap respondents and six (0.6%) Surin respondents reported torture events; 499 (49.5%) Siem Reap respondents and 203 (19.7%) Surin respondents met the clinical threshold for depression (OR 4.01, 95% CI 3.29–4.88); 204 (20.6%) Siem Reap respondents and 23 (2.2%) Surin respondents met the clinical threshold for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (OR 11.39, 95% CI 7.3–17.7).The MOS physical disability was higher in Siem Reap versus Surin respondents (74 (7.5%) vs 13 (1.3%), χ2 = 47.4 df = 1, p < .001). Health status was poorest among Siem Reap respondents when compared with Surin respondents (mean score 1.59 vs 0.59, respectively; t = 19.85 df = 2018, p < .001). Path analysis reveals that recent and past extreme violence are associated with the health and mental health status of the Siem Reap community. Conclusion After 25 years, the Khmer civilian population that experienced the Pol Pot genocide continues to suffer psychiatric morbidity and poor health. PMID:23396287

  16. Qualitative understanding of an international learning experience: what Australian undergraduate nurses and midwives said about a Cambodia placement?

    PubMed

    Tuckett, Anthony; Crompton, Peta

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study is to report the experiences of three groups of Australian undergraduate nursing and midwifery students undertaking an international learning experience in Cambodia. Relying on an interpretative research design using qualitative content analysis, data were drawn from a sub-group of undergraduate third-year bachelor and dual degree nursing/midwifery students at a Queensland university, Australia. Students from a clinical placement in Siem Reap, Cambodia for a 4-week period in the January of 2010-2012 completed a formal expression of interest, and at three time intervals a questionnaire comprising open-ended questions. The evaluation by the undergraduate nursing/midwifery students of the clinical experience in Cambodia is understood through two core themes: global citizen/better citizen, personal/professional development. The findings have implications for university curriculum developers interested in the internationalization of nursing and midwifery programmes to ensure students are well equipped to practice in diverse multicultural and global health systems. PMID:24713009

  17. The Molecular and Spatial Epidemiology of Typhoid Fever in Rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Pham Thanh, Duy; Thompson, Corinne N; Rabaa, Maia A; Sona, Soeng; Sopheary, Sun; Kumar, Varun; Moore, Catrin; Tran Vu Thieu, Nga; Wijedoru, Lalith; Holt, Kathryn E; Wong, Vanessa; Pickard, Derek; Thwaites, Guy E; Day, Nicholas; Dougan, Gordon; Turner, Paul; Parry, Christopher M; Baker, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    Typhoid fever, caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi, is an endemic cause of febrile disease in Cambodia. The aim of this study was to better understand the epidemiology of pediatric typhoid fever in Cambodia. We accessed routine blood culture data from Angkor Hospital for Children (AHC) in Siem Reap province between 2007 and 2014, and performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) on the isolated bacteria to characterize the S. Typhi population. The resulting phylogenetic information was combined with conventional epidemiological approaches to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of S. Typhi and population-level risk factors for reported disease. During the study period, there were 262 cases of typhoid within a 100 km radius of AHC, with a median patient age of 8.2 years (IQR: 5.1-11.5 years). The majority of infections occurred during the rainy season, and commune incidences as high as 11.36/1,000 in children aged <15 years were observed over the study period. A population-based risk factor analysis found that access to water within households and increasing distance from Tonle Sap Lake were protective. Spatial mapping and WGS provided additional resolution for these findings, and confirmed that proximity to the lake was associated with discrete spatiotemporal disease clusters. We confirmed the dominance of MDR H58 S. Typhi in this population, and found substantial evidence of diversification (at least seven sublineages) within this single lineage. We conclude that there is a substantial burden of pediatric typhoid fever in rural communes in Cambodia. Our data provide a platform for additional population-based typhoid fever studies in this location, and suggest that this would be a suitable setting in which to introduce a school-based vaccination programme with Vi conjugate vaccines. PMID:27331909

  18. The Molecular and Spatial Epidemiology of Typhoid Fever in Rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Rabaa, Maia A; Sona, Soeng; Sopheary, Sun; Kumar, Varun; Moore, Catrin; Tran Vu Thieu, Nga; Wijedoru, Lalith; Holt, Kathryn E.; Wong, Vanessa; Pickard, Derek; Thwaites, Guy E.; Day, Nicholas; Dougan, Gordon; Turner, Paul; Parry, Christopher M.; Baker, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Typhoid fever, caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi, is an endemic cause of febrile disease in Cambodia. The aim of this study was to better understand the epidemiology of pediatric typhoid fever in Cambodia. We accessed routine blood culture data from Angkor Hospital for Children (AHC) in Siem Reap province between 2007 and 2014, and performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) on the isolated bacteria to characterize the S. Typhi population. The resulting phylogenetic information was combined with conventional epidemiological approaches to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of S. Typhi and population-level risk factors for reported disease. During the study period, there were 262 cases of typhoid within a 100 km radius of AHC, with a median patient age of 8.2 years (IQR: 5.1–11.5 years). The majority of infections occurred during the rainy season, and commune incidences as high as 11.36/1,000 in children aged <15 years were observed over the study period. A population-based risk factor analysis found that access to water within households and increasing distance from Tonle Sap Lake were protective. Spatial mapping and WGS provided additional resolution for these findings, and confirmed that proximity to the lake was associated with discrete spatiotemporal disease clusters. We confirmed the dominance of MDR H58 S. Typhi in this population, and found substantial evidence of diversification (at least seven sublineages) within this single lineage. We conclude that there is a substantial burden of pediatric typhoid fever in rural communes in Cambodia. Our data provide a platform for additional population-based typhoid fever studies in this location, and suggest that this would be a suitable setting in which to introduce a school-based vaccination programme with Vi conjugate vaccines. PMID:27331909

  19. Factors associated with induced abortion among female entertainment workers: a cross-sectional study in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Siyan; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Pal, Khuondyla; Tith, Khimuy; Brody, Carinne

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore risk factors associated with induced abortion among sexually active female entertainment workers (FEWs) in Cambodia. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Phnom Penh and Siem Reap, Cambodia. Participants This study included 556 FEWs aged 18–47 years randomly selected from entertainment establishments in the two cities in 2014 using a two-stage cluster sampling method. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Primary outcome measure History of induced abortion during the time working as a FEW. Results Of the total sample, 45.6% reported currently using a contraceptive method with condom (42.4%) being the most common method, followed by pills (25.6%). One-fourth (25%) of the respondents reported having been pregnant at least once, and 21.4% reported having at least one induced abortion during the time working as a FEW. After controlling for other covariates in a multivariate logistic regression model, FEWs with a history of induced abortion remained significantly more likely to be currently working in a karaoke bar (AOR=1.75, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.78), to have worked longer as a FEW (AOR=1.42, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.43), to have had a greater number of sexual partners in the past 12 months (AOR=1.86, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.54), to be currently using a contraceptive method (AOR=1.52, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.29), to be able to find condoms when they needed them (AOR=2.03, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.82), and to report inconsistent condom use with non-commercial partners in the past 3 months (AOR=1.62, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.44). Conclusions This study highlights the high rates of unwanted pregnancies that ended in induced abortions among FEWs in Cambodia. Access of FEWs to quality sexual and reproductive healthcare services is deemed a high priority. Integrated interventions to improve sexual and reproductive health among these vulnerable women should be tailored to reach the most-at-risk groups. PMID:26231754

  20. HIV Prevalence and Risks Associated with HIV Infection among Transgender Individuals in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Ngak, Song; Srean, Chhim; Sansothy, Neth; Mills, Stephen; Ferradini, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recognizing transgender individuals have a high risk of HIV acquisition, and to inform policies and programming, we conducted an HIV prevalence and risk behaviors survey among transgender individuals in Cambodia. Methods Cross-sectional survey using a respondent driven sampling method with self-administered audio-computer assisted interviews. HIV testing was performed prior to the questionnaire with results available immediately after. Eligible participants were ≥18 years, identified as male at birth and self-identified/expressed as a different gender, and reported having sex with at least one male partner in past year. From six major urban centers of Cambodia, 891 transgender individuals were recruited. Results The majority of the 891 participants self-identified as third gender or female (94.5%), were young (median age 23, IQR [20–27]), had secondary education or higher (80.5%), not married (89.7%), and employed (90.2%). The majority had first sex before 18 years (66.8%), with a male (79.9%), 37.9% having been paid or paying for this first sex. The rate of HIV positivity among participants was found to be 4.15%. Consistent condom use with male and female partners was low with all partner types, but particularly low with male partners when paying for sex (20.3%). The majority of participants reported having experienced discrimination in their lifetime (54.8%) and 30.3% had been assaulted. Multivariate analysis revealed that older age (adjusted OR = 14.73 [4.20, 51.67] for age 35–44 and adjusted OR = 7.63 [2.55, 22.81] for age 30–34), only having a primary school education or no schooling at all (adjusted OR = 2.62 [1.18, 5.80], being a resident of Siem Reap (adjusted OR = 7.44 [2.37,23.29], receiving payment at first sex (adjusted OR = 2.26 [1.00, 5.11], having sex during/after using drugs (adjusted OR = 2.90 [1.09,7.73]), inconsistent condom use during last anal sex (adjusted OR = 3.84 [1.58, 9.33]), and reporting low self-esteem (adjusted OR

  1. MECHANICAL TESTING OF EPON SU-8 WITH SIEM

    SciTech Connect

    CHANG,S.; WARREN,J.; CHIANG,F.P.

    2000-06-08

    High aspect ratio structures are often present in MEMS devices and EPON SU-8 is often used to produce such structures because of its low cost. It is essential to know the mechanical properties of SU-8 for producing reliable MEMS products. However, the mechanical properties of SU-8 may depend on the manufacturing process and the size of the structure, which is in the micron domain. Hence, one needs to test specimens that are similar in size to MEMS structures to determine if the mechanical properties change with processing protocol. In this work, the authors applied the newly developed technique SIEM (Speckle Interferometry with Electron Microscopy) to the determination of SU-8's mechanical properties.

  2. Factors Associated with Inconsistent Condom Use among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Siyan; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Pal, Khuondyla; Tith, Khimuy; Brody, Carinne

    2015-01-01

    Background Compared to the general population, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at greater risk for HIV and less understood due to their more hidden and stigmatized nature. Moreover, the discrepancy in findings in the literature merits further investigations in MSM populations from different cultures and settings. We therefore conducted this study to explore factors associated with inconsistent condom use among high-risk MSM in Cambodia. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 among 367 MSM randomly selected from Battembang and Siem Reap using a two-stage cluster sampling method. A structured questionnaire was used for face-to-face interviews to collect information on characteristics of respondents, HIV testing history, self-perception of HIV risk, substance use, sexual behaviors, mental disorders, and HIV knowledge. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors independently associated with inconsistent condom use. Results On average, 62.3% of respondents reported that they always used condoms over the past three months. The rates varied with types of sexual partners; the proportion of respondents who reported always using condoms was 55.1%, 64.2%, 75.9%, 73.0%, 78.1%, and 70.3%, for sexual partners who were girlfriends, boyfriends, female sex workers, male sex workers, female clients, or male clients, respectively. After adjustment, inconsistent condom use was significantly associated with age of ≥25 (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.09–2.86), self-rated quality of life as good or very good (AOR = 4.37, 95% CI = 1.79–5.67), self-perception of higher HIV risk compared to the general population (AOR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.35–4.17), illicit drug use in the past three months (AOR = 5.76, 95% CI = 1.65–10.09), and reported consistent lubricant use when selling anal sex to men in the past three months (AOR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.07–8.12). Conclusions We found risky sexual behaviors to be considerably high among MSM in this

  3. Reaping benefits from intellectual capital.

    PubMed

    Weston, Marla J; Estrada, Nicolette A; Carrington, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The wealth and value of organizations are increasingly based on intellectual capital. Although acquiring talented individuals and investing in employee learning adds value to the organization, reaping the benefits of intellectual capital involves translating the wisdom of employees into reusable and sustained actions. This requires a culture that creates employee commitment, encourages learning, fosters sharing, and involves employees in decision making. An infrastructure to recognize and embed promising and best practices through social networks, evidence-based practice, customization of innovations, and use of information technology results in increased productivity, stronger financial performance, better patient outcomes, and greater employee and customer satisfaction. PMID:17198112

  4. Global update: Cambodia.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993 in Cambodia, the number of blood donors who tested seropositive for HIV multiplied by 10. During March-December 1993, 30 of 4000 (0.75%) blood donors were HIV positive. These same 30 were among 91 HIV-positive cases reported to the World Health Organization [WHO] office in Phnom Penh in the last 9 months of 1992. As Cambodia attempts to recover from many years of political and social upheaval, the recent repatriation of 370,000 Khmer refugees from Thailand intensifies the increasing AIDS threat. Thailand already has a relatively high HIV prevalence. The number of tourists and visiting business professionals is increasing, and 22,000 people from the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia have been assigned to positions countrywide. In 1991, WHO officials designed a 1-year short-term AIDS prevention program aimed at people practicing high-risk behavior and the health, education, and media sectors. It targeted mainly Phnom Penh residents, WHO and the UN Development Programme (UNDP) are helping the National AIDS Committee in designing a more comprehensive national plan. UNDP plans to give US$ 1 million to AIDS prevention efforts in Cambodia. 20-30% of people in Cambodia are not familiar with condoms. Government AIDS prevention efforts are intended for the general public, but they also are going to target high-risk areas, especially the provinces bordering Thailand and the pot of Kompong Som. The government is working on ways to work with the many health-centered nongovernmental organizations in Cambodia. Even though it is inundated with many other problems, the government recognizes the need to combat AIDS. PMID:12159246

  5. Regional update: Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Deva, M P; D'Souza, R; Sundram, S

    2009-10-01

    Cambodia is a developing south-east Asian country located in the fertile Mekong delta. Its recent past has been complicated by European colonialism and internal conflict. Health including mental health services are limited and sparse in regional and rural areas. Very constrained public mental health facilities and services are hampered by a shortage of a skilled workforce and insufficient training programs. The recent formation of the Mental Health Association of Cambodia promises to be a positive step forward in promoting mental health throughout the country. PMID:23051055

  6. Echoes of Ancient Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Nancy Click

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article chose Cambodia's Angkor temples as a jumping-off point for her students' exploration of printmaking. This article describes a lesson in which students used subjects, themes, and symbols that demonstrate knowledge of contexts, values, and aesthetics that communicate intended meaning in artworks.

  7. Continuous CS Analysis of Using the SIEM to Introduction to Computer Programming Education in the School of Engineering Evening Division at the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohi, Shinichi; Miyakawa, Osamu; Konno, Noriko

    In order to improve students’ motivation, the SIEM (School of Information Environment Method) which is the education method for the introduction of the computer programming education was developed. We focus on students’ motivation, and we have measured students’ motivation as the educational effects. After the SIEM was developed in the School of Information Environment, it applied to introduction to the computer programming education in the School of Engineering Evening Division at the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. It is effective for the improvement of students’ motivation. By adding the Customer Satisfaction Analysis to the SIEM Analysis, it was able to clarify the priority level of the SIEM assessment item. In this paper, we describe results of the Customer Satisfaction Analysis.

  8. Fires in Thailand and Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Many fires (red pixels) were seen burning across Thailand and Southern Cambodia on January 8, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. Almost the entire countries of Thailand (center) and Cambodia (lower right) were remarkably cloud-free in this true-color scene. Thailand is bordered by the countries of Myanmar to the west, Laos to the north and east, and Cambodia to the southeast. Thailand's capital city of Bangkok sits on its southern shore, where the Chao Phraya River flows into the large bay in the northern Gulf of Thailand. Moving eastward from Bangkok, one can see the Tonle Sap-Cambodia's largest inland body of water. Waters from the Tonle Sap flow southeastward and converge with the mighty Mekong River, just east of Phnom Penh, Cambodia's capital. The Mekong River defines much of the border between Thailand and Laos. The captal of Laos-Viangchan-is situated just across the Mekong from Thailand's northern border. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  9. ALIS deployment in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Kazunori

    2012-06-01

    Dual sensor is one of the most promising sensors for humanitarian demining operations. Conventional landmine detection depends on highly trained and focused human operators manually sweeping 1m2 plots with a metal detector and listening for characteristic audio signals indicating the presence of AP (Anti-personnel) landmines. In order to reduce the time of plodding detected objects, metal detectors need to be combined with a complimentary subsurface imaging sensor. i.e., GPR(Ground Penetrating Radar). The demining application requires real-time imaging results with centimetre resolution in a highly portable package. We are currently testing a dual sensor ALIS which is a real-time sensor tracking system based on a CCD camera and image processing. In this paper we introduce ALIS systems which we have developed for detection of buried antipersonnel mines and small size explosives. The performance of ALIS has been tested in Cambodia since 2009. More than 80 anti-personnel mines have been detected and removed from local agricultural area. ALIS has cleared more than 70,000 m2 area and returned it to local farmers.

  10. iREAP: Improving Reading, Writing, and Thinking in the Wired Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Anthony; Manzo, Ula; Albee, Julie Jackson

    2002-01-01

    Notes that the REAP system (Read, Encode, Annotate, Ponder) improves reading, writing, and thinking. Describes how the "i" in iREAP represents its currency and connection to Internet community building. Presents applications to help students internalize REAP "spectrum thinking," or thinking from different perspectives, so that it becomes a habit…

  11. Mental health care in Cambodia.

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, D. J.; van de Put, W. A.

    1999-01-01

    An effort is being made in Cambodia to involve grass-roots personnel in the integration of the care of the mentally ill into a broad framework of health services. This undertaking is examined with particular reference to the work of the Transcultural Psychosocial Organization. PMID:10212521

  12. Myths about AIDS in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Nariddh, M C

    1994-08-01

    HIV has been reported in the capital city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, as well as in the northwestern provinces of Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Pursat, and Kompong Chhnang. Unofficial reports indicate the presence of HIV in three northeastern provinces. According to World Health Organization data, 382 people were infected with HIV in Cambodia as of March 1994, but the national AIDS program estimates that 2000-4000 Cambodians may be HIV-seropositive. Small surveys in 1992 identified HIV infection rates to be 4.5% among patients of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and 9.2% among prostitutes. A seroprevalence rate of 4.3% was found in 1993 among clients of STD clinics and others requesting HIV testing. These rather marked levels of infection exist in Cambodia even though HIV was first identified in the country as recently as 1991 among screened blood from volunteer donors. By December 1993, the rate of positive results from blood donors had increased to 1.97%.; the rate of infection among blood donors is expected to double to approximately 4% in 1994. People in Cambodia variously believe that AIDS is nonexistent, AIDS is a problem of other countries, can be transmitted by mosquitoes, healthy people do not have AIDS, a cure exists for AIDS, AIDS can be contracted only from prostitutes, AIDS is the most severe state of syphilis, and AIDS is only a propaganda ploy of condom producers to market their products. It is therefore proving extremely difficult to convince people that AIDS is a truly threatening disease against which they should protect themselves, especially when symptoms are rarely present during the early stage of infection. Health education campaigns, videos, posters, and accurate reporting in the media will, however, help change minds and hopefully induce HIV-preventive behaviors. Of interest, the article notes that virtually every prostitute in Cambodia has at least two-three STDs. PMID:12345639

  13. Health care clinics in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Wollschlaeger, K

    1995-04-01

    Under the Pol Pot Khmer Rouge regime, most physicians with clinical experience were either killed or fled the country. The few practitioners who managed to survive were forced to hide their knowledge; much of that knowledge and experience is now lost. As part of a general process of national rehabilitation, Cambodia has trained since the 1980s hundreds of physicians and physician assistants. There were 700 physicians, 1300 physician assistants, and 4000 nurses in the country by 1992. Problems do, however, remain with medical education in Cambodia. In particular, the medical texts and lectures are in French, a language which very few of the younger generation speak; instructional texts are designed to meet the needs of developing nations, not a rehabilitating one like Cambodia; emphasis is upon curative health care, hospitals, and vertical programs instead of primary and preventive health care; Cambodian physicians are used to a system based upon the division of patients by ability to pay instead of by age, disease, or need; corruption has grown as the cost of living has outstripped the level of official salaries; and there is neither professional contact, feedback, nor program evaluation within health care programs. The authors is a resident in obstetrics and gynecology at the University of Chicago who worked at two clinics during a stay in Phnom Penh. She recommends that instead of simply training more doctors, these training-related problems should be addressed, including a revision of the curriculum to include both primary health care medicine and psychiatry. Moreover, people in Cambodia need to be taught the importance of preventive health care, which should then reduce the number of visits to physicians. This process will be accomplished more effectively with the cooperation of physicians, the government, nongovernmental organizations, and international organizations associated with health care. PMID:7787486

  14. Critical Literacy in Elementary Education in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    In, Vichea

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on a quest for insights into the introduction and negotiation of critical literacy in elementary education in Cambodia, whose recent past was scarred by devastating conflicts and wars. In this study, critical education is seen as a key to avoiding the reproduction of an unwanted past and minimizing social injustice in Cambodia.…

  15. Revisiting Primary School Dropout in Rural Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    No, Fata; Sam, Chanphirun; Hirakawa, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on school dropout in Cambodia often used data from subjects after they already dropped out or statistics from education-related institutions. Using data from children in two rural provinces before they dropped out, this study examines four main factors in order to identify their influence on primary school dropout in Cambodia.…

  16. Evaluation of Flexibility Under "No Child Left Behind": Volume III--The Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP Flex)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Gayle S.; Amerikaner, Ary; Klasik, Daniel; Cohodes, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on flexibility provisions in the Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) provision of NCLB. Specifically, it addresses REAP Flex, a program that allows rural districts additional control over how to spend portions of their federal funding. REAP Flex is part of a series of NCLB flexibility initiatives aimed at rural schools.…

  17. "We don't forget the old rice pot when we get the new one": discourses on ideals and practices of women in contemporary Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Brickell, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on microlevel research with men and women of differing ages living in rural and urban Siem Reap (home to the global heritage and tourist site of Angkor), this article focuses on the key discourses and practices that men and women draw on to (de)stabilize putatively traditional ideals of Cambodian womanhood and to (re)situate them in the contemporary period. Mapping the complex ways that people represent, make sense of, and respond to prerevolutionary cultural norms of female behavior in a very different era (with particular, though not exclusive, attention paid to mobility and education), the article demonstrates how deeper ideological changes concerning women’s relationship to Khmer tradition will have to accompany the surface reordering of Cambodian gender relations if equality between women and men is to be achieved. Until then, the ideal woman in contemporary Cambodian society is ultimately one who can creatively negotiate and balance the multiple demands placed on her by society, family, and self. PMID:21114083

  18. Chemical sensitivity in symptomatic Cambodia veterans.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Erik W M A; Soetekouw, Patricia M M B; De Vries, Maaike; Scheepers, Paul T I; Bleijenberg, Gijs; van der Meer, Jos W M

    2003-12-01

    Following their participation in a United Nations peacekeeping operation in Cambodia (1992-1993), Dutch veterans complained of symptoms similar to those reported by Gulf War veterans. The authors conducted a matched case-control study to evaluate 76 symptomatic and 32 matched asymptomatic Cambodia veterans on the basis of data collected by postal questionnaire. The number of symptomatic veterans who reported having used insect repellants that contained N,N,-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) during the mission in Cambodia was significantly higher, compared with asymptomatic veterans. The percentage of veterans who reported feeling ill following brief exposures to chemicals such as paint or pesticides was equal in both groups, but the percentage was low compared with the results of other studies of Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome. The current study was limited by self-report and time delay (potential recall bias) between deployment to Cambodia and the time of survey. Nevertheless, the study results did not support the hypothesis that symptoms in the total group of Cambodia veterans could be related to Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome. PMID:15859508

  19. English in Cambodia: Changes and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Stephen H.; Bounchan, Suksiri

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports research undertaken at a prestigious university in Phnom Penh in late 2007. The views of lecturers who teach the BEd (TEFL) degree and their students were canvassed in relation to the status of English in Cambodia. The students completed a questionnaire probing their views on the notion of a Cambodian English, as well as their…

  20. Area Handbook for the KHMER Republic (Cambodia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Donald P.; And Others

    This handbook, one of a series designed to be useful to the military and others with an interest in foreign affairs, contains basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of Cambodia. There are four major sections to the handbook. Section one describes the general character of the society and examines…

  1. The Arts of Cambodia and Its Neighbors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, CA.

    This teacher's packet accompanies a slide presentation on the arts of Cambodia and those nations on the Indochina peninsula. The packet contains: (1) a slide list describing the art depicted on each slide with time period and dimensions of the piece; (2) an introductory essay describing the geography, people, religion, art and history of the area;…

  2. Marxist Educational Theory: Reflections in Cambodia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminsky, James S.

    1985-01-01

    It is proposed that Cambodia's recent government actions toward education and the educated are incongruous with the humanism of Marxist theory, and that Marxist educational theories fail because they are based on a general failure of knowledge demonstrated in Marxist ideology. (MSE)

  3. Migrant Interactions with Elderly Parents in Rural Cambodia and Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Zachary; Korinek, Kim; Knodel, John; Chayovan, Napaporn

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines interactions between older adults living in rural areas of Thailand and Cambodia and their adult children. Thai data come from the Survey of the Welfare of the Elderly (N = 3,202 older adults and 17,517 adult children). Cambodia data are from the Survey of the Elderly in Cambodia (N = 777 older adults and 3,751 adult children).…

  4. Harm reduction in Cambodia: a disconnect between policy and practice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In 2003 the Government of Cambodia officially began to recognise that harm reduction was an essential approach to preventing HIV among people who use drugs and their sexual partners. Several programs aiming to control and prevent HIV among drug users have been implemented in Cambodia, mostly in the capital, Phnom Penh. However, there have been ongoing tensions between law enforcement and harm reduction actors, despite several advocacy efforts targeting law enforcement. This study attempts to better understand the implementation of harm reduction in Cambodia and how the policy environment and harm reduction program implementation has intersected with the role of law enforcement officials in Cambodia. PMID:22770124

  5. UNTAC, CEAT, other international actions and the restoration of Cambodia`s forestry policy

    SciTech Connect

    Mareth, M.; Vanderstighelen, D.; Bann, C.; Ngongi, M.I.; Aertgeerts, R.; Eav, B.B.

    1995-03-01

    Although no verifiable hard data regarding the rate of nation-wide deforestation in Cambodia exists, it is understood that on account of increasing logging activities, uncontrolled forest fires, increased demand for agricultural land and fuel wood for charcoal production and other domestic usage, the rates of deforestation and the degradation of existing forests will continue to be on the rise if no effective policy and management plans are established soon. There now seems to be international recognition and acceptance of the fact that unless the impact of human activities are incorporated into forestry management plans, the problems of deforestation in the world`s poorest regions will continue unabated. The depletion of this natural resource brings about complex changes in the environment which results in such phenomenon as global warming. Sound forest policies and management practices are central to the global warming solution. Without these, human survival remains, potentially, threatened. An essential key to the development of such policies and management practices lies in the identification of the problems related to the forests. In this process of identification and subsequent concrete actions in restoring Cambodia`s forest policies and management practices, the Royal government of Cambodia has been assisted and supported by the international community through organizations and agencies. The examine and appraisal of such assistance and the strategies and efforts of the Royal Government of Cambodia, is the main theme of this paper.

  6. 31 CFR 500.565 - Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Vietnam and Cambodia. 500.565 Section 500.565 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. (a) The remittances specified in this section are authorized... relative is a national of Vietnam or Cambodia, is a resident of Vietnam, Cambodia, or a country to...

  7. A Multimedia Approach to ODL for Agricultural Training in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunfeld, Helena; Ng, Maria Lee Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Open distance learning (ODL) has long been an important option for formal and non-formal education (NFE) in most developed and developing countries, but less so in post-conflict countries, including Cambodia. However, in Cambodia there is now greater awareness that ODL can complement traditional face-to-face educational approaches, particularly as…

  8. Earthshots: Satellite images of environmental change – Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    From 1975 to 1978, Cambodia was ruled by the Khmer Rouge regime, which sought among other things to build a vast system of irrigation canals. These images show an area around Cambodia's capital city of Phnom Penh where such waterworks were built. Many areas east of the Mekong River show a gridwork of canals by 1985.

  9. Tradition, Modernity, and the Development of Education in Cambodia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, David M.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews Cambodia's educational development, characterized by a series of successive crises since the country's independence from France in 1953. Examines various approaches of development discourse to the educational crisis, and suggests that previous analyses of Cambodia's educational development have failed to recognize the tensions generated by…

  10. Introduction of ICT and Multimedia into Cambodia's Teacher Training Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dionys, David

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the integration of ICT in the teacher training centres of Cambodia. It focuses on the collaboration between the Teacher Training Department of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MoEYS) of Cambodia and VVOB (Flemish Association for Development Cooperation and Technical Assistance), which is aimed at improving ICT…

  11. Self-Assessment in the REAP Tutor: Knowledge, Interest, Motivation, & Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dela Rosa, Kevin; Eskenazi, Maxine

    2013-01-01

    Self-assessment questionnaires have long been used in tutoring systems to help researchers measure and evaluate various aspects of a student's performance during learning activities. In this paper, we chronicle the efforts made in the REAP project, a language tutor developed to teach vocabulary to ESL students through reading activities, to…

  12. Expand Children's Limits in Reading, Integrate REAP: Reading Experiences Associated with Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSibio, Robert A.; Parla, JoAnn

    The Reading Experiences Associated with Partners (REAP) approach to science combines reading process and product. Students work together sharing their ideas, interests, and knowledge. Results are recorded, and every effort is made to arrange the classrom so that it will aid students in meeting the task objectives. Children can be paired with a…

  13. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    Cambodia (now the Khmer Republic), in tropical, humid southeast Asia, has an area of 175,630 km and a population of about 5 million. The Mekong River, one of the world's largest rivers, flows through Cambodia. Also, the Tonle Sap (Grand Lac), a highly productive fresh-water lake, functions as a huge off-channel storage reservoir for flood flow of the Mekong River. Surfacewater discharge in streams and rivers of Cambodia is abundant during the wet season, mid-May through mid-November, when 85 percent of the precipitation falls, but is frequently deficient during the remainder of the year. Annual rainfall ranges from 1,370 mm in the central lowlands to more than 5,000 mm in the mountainous highlands. The mean annual temperature for the country is 27.5?C and the evaporation rate is high. During 1960-63, 1,103 holes were drilled in 16 of the 18 khets (provinces), of which 795 or approximately 72 percent, were productive wells at rates ranging from 1.1 to 2,967 l/min. The productive wells ranged in depth from 2 to 209.4 m and were 23.2 m deep on the average. Mr. Rasmussen ' studied the subsurface geology of Cambodia in considerable detail by examining drillers' logs and constructing nine geologic cross sections. The principal aquifer tapped by drilled wells in Cambodia is the Old Alluvium. In many places, however, dug wells and a few shallow drilled wells obtain water from the Young Alluvium. Sandstone of the Indosinias Formation yields moderate to small quantities of water to wells in a number of places. Also, wells tapping water-bearing basalt have a small to moderate yield. The quality of water is recorded in only a few analyses. The dissolved solids concentrations appear to be generally low so that the water is usable for most purposes without treatment. Some well waters, however, are high in iron and would have to be aerated and filtered before use. In this report, well records are tabulated, and the geology and hydrology is discussed by khets. The bulk of the

  14. Molecular Epidemiology of Hemoglobinopathies in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Munkongdee, Thongperm; Tanakulmas, Jatuporn; Butthep, Punnee; Winichagoon, Pranee; Main, Barbara; Yiannakis, Miriam; George, Joby; Devenish, Robyn; Fucharoen, Suthat; Svasti, Saovaros

    2016-06-01

    Determining the magnitude of the thalassemia problem in a country is important for implementing a national prevention and control program. In order to acquire accurate thalassemia prevalence data, the gene frequency of α- and β-thalassemia (α- and β-thal) in different regions of a country should be determined. The molecular basis of thalassemia in Cambodia was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques in a community-based cross-sectional survey of 1631 unrelated individuals from three regions, Battambang, Preah Vihear and Phnom Penh. Thalassemia mutations were detected in 62.7% of the three studied population of Cambodia. Hb E (HBB: c.79G > A) was the most common β-globin gene mutation with a frequency ranging from 0.139 to 0.331, while the most frequent α-globin gene mutation was the -α(3.7) (rightward) deletion (0.098-0.255). The other frequencies were 0.001-0.003 for β-thal, 0.008-0.011 for α-thal-1 (- -(SEA)), 0.003-0.008 for α-thal-2 [-α(4.2) (leftward deletion)], 0.021-0.044 for Hb Constant Spring (Hb CS, HBA2: c.427T > C) and 0.009-0.036 for Hb Paksé (HBA2: c.429A > T). A regional specific thalassemia gene frequency was observed. Preah Vihear had the highest prevalence of Hb E (55.9%), α-thal-2 (24.0%) and nondeletional α-thal (15.1%), whereas Phnom Penh had the lowest frequency of thalassemia genes. Interestingly, in Preah Vihear, the frequency of Hb Paksé was extremely high (0.036), almost equivalent to that of Hb CS (0.044). Our results indicate the importance of micromapping and epidemiology studies of thalassemia, which will assist in establishing the national prevention and control program in Cambodia. PMID:27117566

  15. Space Radar Image of Phnom Phen, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows the city of Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia. Phnom Penh lies at the confluence of the Mekong River and the Basak Sab. The city was originally established in 1434 to succeed Angkor Thom as capital of the Khmer Nation. Phnom Penh is the bright blue and orange area west of the rivers, near the center of the image. The red, light blue and purple colors indicate differences in vegetation height and structure. Radar images like this one are being used by archaeologists to investigate ruins in the Angkor area in northern Cambodia. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 15, 1994. The image is 27 kilometers by 27 kilometers (17 miles by 17 miles) and is centered at 11.5 degrees north latitude, 105.0 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  16. [Demography and society in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Cambodia].

    PubMed

    Nepote, J

    1979-01-01

    The author analyzes the demography of Cambodia in relation to social changes in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Three phases are examined: the opening of Cambodia to the outside world and the reversal of the demographic situation in the nineteenth century; modernization and accelerated population growth in the twentieth century up to 1970; and recent events, particularly political upheavals, and the new reversal of the demographic situation PMID:12279292

  17. Nipah virus in Lyle's flying foxes, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Reynes, Jean-Marc; Counor, Dorian; Ong, Sivuth; Faure, Caroline; Seng, Vansay; Molia, Sophie; Walston, Joe; Georges-Courbot, Marie Claude; Deubel, Vincent; Sarthou, Jean-Louis

    2005-07-01

    We conducted a survey in Cambodia in 2000 on henipavirus infection among several bat species, including flying foxes, and persons exposed to these animals. Among 1,072 bat serum samples tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, antibodies reactive to Nipah virus (NiV) antigen were detected only in Pteropus lylei species; Cynopterus sphinx, Hipposideros larvatus, Scotophilus kuhlii, Chaerephon plicata, Taphozous melanopogon, and T. theobaldi species were negative. Seroneutralization applied on a subset of 156 serum samples confirmed these results. None of the 8 human serum samples was NiV seropositive with the seroneutralization test. One virus isolate exhibiting cytopathic effect with syncytia was obtained from 769 urine samples collected at roosts of P. lylei specimens. Partial molecular characterization of this isolate demonstrated that it was closely related to NiV. These results strengthen the hypothesis that flying foxes could be the natural host of NiV. Surveillance of human cases should be implemented. PMID:16022778

  18. Analysis of Radar Images of Angkor, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Anthony; Hensley, Scott; Moore, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    During the 1996 AIRSAR Pacific Rim Deployment, data were collected over Angkor in Cambodia. The temples of Angkor date the succession of cities to the 9th-13th century AD, but little is known of its prehistoric habitation. A related area of archaeological debate has been the origin, spiritual meaning and use of the hydraulic constructions in the urban zone. The high resolution, multi-channel capability of AIRSAR, together with the unprecedentedly accurate topography provided by TOPSAR, offer identification and delineation of these features. Examples include previously unrecorded circular earthworks around circular village sites, detection of unrecorded earthwork dykes, reservoirs and canal features, and of temple sites located some distance from the main temple complex at Angkor.

  19. Cambodia: the women want justice and peace.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Refugees and internally displaced people are an unfortunate and inevitable consequence of war. Among these, women refugees are most vulnerable to sexual violence as they go through various stages of displacement. During the war in Cambodia, women refugees experienced sexual violence in the form of rape, gang rape, sexual exploitation, and forced prostitution. This report presents a summary of a testimony by Yi Leang Eng, a Cambodian woman refugee, on her experiences during the war. According to her, violations of rape happened inside and outside the refugee camps everyday, relegating the violence as a normal occurrence. In this regard, nongovernmental organizations and governments are urged to cooperate and insist that perpetrators of such crimes must be punished and such practices must be immediately stopped. In addition, the issue of supporting women survivors and ensuring that they are given justice should also be discussed. Moreover, for the women survivors themselves, the welfare of their families should be top priority. PMID:12179106

  20. Pulmonary melioidosis in Cambodia: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Melioidosis is a disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei and considered endemic in South-East Asia but remains poorly documented in Cambodia. We report the first series of hospitalized pulmonary melioidosis cases identified in Cambodia describing clinical characteristics and outcomes. Methods We characterized cases of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) that were identified through surveillance in two provincial hospitals. Severity was defined by systolic blood pressure, cardiac frequency, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation and body temperature. B. pseudomallei was detected in sputum or blood cultures and confirmed by API20NE gallery. We followed up these cases between 6 months and 2 years after hospital discharge to assess the cost-of-illness and long-term outcome. Results During April 2007 - January 2010, 39 ALRI cases had melioidosis, of which three aged ≤2 years; the median age was 46 years and 56.4% were males. A close contact with soil and water was identified in 30 patients (76.9%). Pneumonia was the main radiological feature (82.3%). Eleven patients were severe cases. Twenty-four (61.5%) patients died including 13 who died within 61 days after discharge. Of the deceased, 23 did not receive any antibiotics effective against B. pseudomallei. Effective drugs that were available did not include ceftazidime. Mean total illness-related costs was of US$65 (range $25-$5000). Almost two-thirds (61.5%) incurred debt and 28.2% sold land or other belongings to pay illness-related costs. Conclusions The observed high fatality rate is likely explained by the lack or limited access to efficient antibiotics and under-recognition of the disease among clinicians, which led to inappropriate therapy. PMID:21569563

  1. Collaborative Development of Anatomy Workshops for Medical and Dental Students in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Jennifer A.; Ivanusic, Jason J.; le Roux, Cara M.; Hatzopoulos, Kate; Gonsalvez, David; Hong, Someth; Durward, Callum

    2011-01-01

    After Phnom Penh was liberated from the Khmer Rouge in 1979, health science education in Cambodia had to be completely rebuilt. In this article, the authors report the results of a teaching collaboration between the University of Melbourne (Australia), the International University (Cambodia), and the University of Health Sciences (Cambodia). The…

  2. A Bibliographic Foray into Documents and Publications Relating to Peacekeeping in Cambodia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, MacGregor

    1996-01-01

    Examines the publications, documents, and other materials relating to peacekeeping in Cambodia. Focuses on the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia as a part in the development of the United Nations peacekeeping missions. Evaluates sources concerning operations within Cambodia. Identifies resources of international government…

  3. Building primary care practitioners' attitudes and confidence in mental health skills in a post-conflict society: a Cambodian example.

    PubMed

    Henderson, David C; Mollica, Richard F; Tor, Svang; Lavelle, James; Culhane, Melissa A; Hayden, Doug

    2005-08-01

    Our program attempted to integrate community mental health in primary care settings in Cambodia and to evaluate the effects of training on local providers. The training program underwent an extensive evaluation to determine its impact on the mental health knowledge, confidence in performing medical and psychiatric procedures, skills and attitudes of its trainees. One hundred four Cambodian primary care practitioners (PCPs) were trained in a primary care setting in Siem Reap, Cambodia, over a 2-year period. There was a significant improvement in PCPs' confidence in all clusters of medical and psychiatric procedures (counseling, medical evaluation, prescribing medications, psychiatric diagnosis, assessing risk for violence, traditional treatments, and treating trauma victims) comparing baseline to posttraining and baseline to 2-year follow-up (p < 0.05). Only confidence in prescribing psychotropic medications improved from posttraining to 2-year follow-up. This study supports the feasibility of training PCPs in a culturally effective manner in a postconflict society. PMID:16082300

  4. Reaping the benefits of an open systems approach: getting the commercial approach right

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Gavin; Dawe, Tony; Stubbs, Peter; Worthington, Olwen

    2016-05-01

    Critical to reaping the benefits of an Open System Approach within Defence, or any other sector, is the ability to design the appropriate commercial model (or framework). This paper reports on the development and testing of a commercial strategy decision support tool. The tool set comprises a number of elements, including a process model, and provides business intelligence insights into likely supplier behaviour. The tool has been developed by subject matter experts and has been tested with a number of UK Defence procurement teams. The paper will present the commercial model framework, the elements of the toolset and the results of testing.

  5. Avian influenza: the political economy of disease control in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Ear, Sophal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the wake of avian flu outbreaks in 2004, Cambodia received $45 million in commitments from international donors to help combat the spread of animal and human influenza, particularly avian influenza (H5N1). How countries leverage foreign aid to address the specific needs of donors and the endemic needs of the nation is a complex and nuanced issue throughout the developing world. Cambodia is a particularly compelling study in pandemic preparedness and the management of avian influenza because of its multilayered network of competing local, national, and global needs, and because the level of aid in Cambodia represents approximately $2.65 million per human case-a disproportionately high number when compared with neighbors Vietnam and Indonesia. This paper examines how the Cambodian government has made use of animal and human influenza funds to protect (or fail to protect) its citizens and the global community. It asks how effective donor and government responses were to combating avian influenza in Cambodia, and what improvements could be made at the local and international level to help prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. Based on original interviews, a field survey of policy stakeholders, and detailed examination of Cambodia's health infrastructure and policies, the findings illustrate that while pandemic preparedness has shown improvements since 2004, new outbreaks and human fatalities accelerated in 2011, and more work needs to be done to align the specific goals of funders with the endemic needs of developing nations. PMID:22702421

  6. The dilemmas of aid: Cambodia 1992-2002.

    PubMed

    Gollogly, L

    2002-09-01

    Cambodia is a small, poor, and sparsely-populated country between Vietnam and Thailand, which is making a slow recovery from a long history of conflict. 80% of its 11.4 million people live by subsistence farming; rice is their main crop. Infant mortality is 89.4/1000, and 12% of children die before the age of 5 years. Life expectancy is around 50 years, and about 45,000 Khmers (Cambodians) are missing at least one limb from a 30 year deposit of landmines and dumping unexploded ordinance. Despite a decade of concerted effort by the international community to improve Cambodia's prospects, disease and poverty still define life for most of the population. In April, 2002, I visited Cambodia for the fourth time in 10 years, to see how medical aid projects were faring in particular, and to assess whether the past decade of international aid and intervention has improved the provision of health care for Khmers. PMID:12241843

  7. How Does Science Learning Occur in the Classroom? Students' Perceptions of Science Instruction during the Implementation of REAPS Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Arizaga, Maria P.; Bahar, A. Kadir; Maker, C. June; Zimmerman, Robert; Pease, Randal

    2016-01-01

    In this qualitative study the researchers explored children's perceptions of their participation in a science class in which an elementary science curriculum, the Full Option Science System (FOSS), was combined with an innovative teaching model, Real Engagement in Active Problem Solving (REAPS). The children were capable of articulating views…

  8. Re-Orientations in Moral Education in Cambodia Since 1975

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, Cambodia has transitioned from a communist state to a liberal democracy following market economic practices. Transition in the political economy has, in turn, influenced education and, more specifically, moral education. In this article, I define moral education more broadly than many, as additionally dedicated to the preparation…

  9. The Teaching of Foreign Languages in Cambodia: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neau, Vira

    2003-01-01

    The teaching of foreign languages in Cambodia is examined in the light of its recent history. The paper describes the French colonial period, beginning in 1863, the emergence of the independent state under King Sihanouk (1953-70), the Khmer Republic (1970-75) and Democratic Kampuchea (1975-79), during which the infamous mass killings took place,…

  10. Academic Achievement among Adolescents in Cambodia: Does Caregiver Trauma Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eng, Sothy; Mulsow, Miriam; Cleveland, Harrington; Hart, Sybil L.

    2009-01-01

    How will hostilities occurring around today's world influence future generations in affected areas? Cambodia may be one place where this question can be answered, and academic achievement is one way to measure these effects. Cambodian adolescent/caregiver dyads (n=288) were examined for links between caregiver trauma history and adolescent…

  11. The Peoples and Cultures of Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Language and Orientation Resource Center.

    A handbook for those involved in Southeast Asian refugee assistance discusses some of the values and customs that refugee groups from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam may have in common and looks at the different countries and peoples of the region. A section on the shared values and customs of Indochinese refugees focuses on aspects of family life,…

  12. Seroepidemiology of Human Enterovirus 71 Infection among Children, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Paul F; Andronico, Alessio; Tarantola, Arnaud; Salje, Henrik; Duong, Veasna; Mey, Channa; Ly, Sovann; Dussart, Philippe; Cauchemez, Simon; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 is reported to have emerged in Cambodia in 2012; at least 54 children with severe encephalitis died during that outbreak. We used serum samples collected during 2000-2011 to show that the virus had been widespread in the country for at least a decade before the 2012 outbreak. PMID:26690000

  13. Strategies and Policies for Basic Education in Cambodia: Historical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dy, Sideth S.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the process of development and change in the state of education in Cambodia over four decades preceding the 1990 Jomtien World Conference on Education for All. The author argues that during the 1950s and 1960s, efforts to enhance basic education opportunities for all Cambodians were largely unsuccessful due to the lack of…

  14. Seroepidemiology of Human Enterovirus 71 Infection among Children, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, Paul F.; Andronico, Alessio; Tarantola, Arnaud; Salje, Henrik; Duong, Veasna; Mey, Channa; Ly, Sovann; Dussart, Philippe; Cauchemez, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 is reported to have emerged in Cambodia in 2012; at least 54 children with severe encephalitis died during that outbreak. We used serum samples collected during 2000–2011 to show that the virus had been widespread in the country for at least a decade before the 2012 outbreak. PMID:26690000

  15. Introducing the GRACEnet/REAP Data Contribution, Discovery, and Retrieval System.

    PubMed

    Del Grosso, S J; White, J W; Wilson, G; Vandenberg, B; Karlen, D L; Follett, R F; Johnson, J M F; Franzluebbers, A J; Archer, D W; Gollany, H T; Liebig, M A; Ascough, J; Reyes-Fox, M; Pellack, L; Starr, J; Barbour, N; Polumsky, R W; Gutwein, M; James, D

    2013-07-01

    Difficulties in accessing high-quality data on trace gas fluxes and performance of bioenergy/bioproduct feedstocks limit the ability of researchers and others to address environmental impacts of agriculture and the potential to produce feedstocks. To address those needs, the GRACEnet (Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network) and REAP (Renewable Energy Assessment Project) research programs were initiated by the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS). A major product of these programs is the creation of a database with greenhouse gas fluxes, soil carbon stocks, biomass yield, nutrient, and energy characteristics, and input data for modeling cropped and grazed systems. The data include site descriptors (e.g., weather, soil class, spatial attributes), experimental design (e.g., factors manipulated, measurements performed, plot layouts), management information (e.g., planting and harvesting schedules, fertilizer types and amounts, biomass harvested, grazing intensity), and measurements (e.g., soil C and N stocks, plant biomass amount and chemical composition). To promote standardization of data and ensure that experiments were fully described, sampling protocols and a spreadsheet-based data-entry template were developed. Data were first uploaded to a temporary database for checking and then were uploaded to the central database. A Web-accessible application allows for registered users to query and download data including measurement protocols. Separate portals have been provided for each project (GRACEnet and REAP) at nrrc.ars.usda.gov/slgracenet/#/Home and nrrc.ars.usda.gov/slreap/#/Home. The database architecture and data entry template have proven flexible and robust for describing a wide range of field experiments and thus appear suitable for other natural resource research projects. PMID:24216379

  16. Evaluation test of ALIS in Cambodia for humanitarian demining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki

    2010-04-01

    ALIS is a hand-held dual sensor developed by Tohoku University, Japan since 2002. Dual sensor is a general name of sensor for humanitarian demining, which are equipped with metal detector and GPR. ALIS is only one hand-held dual sensor, which can record the sensor position with sensor signals. Therefore, the data can be processed after data acquisition, and can increase the imaging capability. ALIS has been tested in some mine affected courtiers including Afghanistan (2004), Egypt(2005), Croatia(2006-) and Cambodia(2007-). Mine fields at each country has different conditions and soil types. Therefore testes at the real mine fields are very important. ALIS has detected more than 30 AP-Mines in evaluation test in Cambodia held in 2009.

  17. Microgomphus alani (Odonata, Gomphidae) sp. nov. from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Kosterin, Oleg E

    2016-01-01

    Microgomphus alani sp. nov. is described from two males from the coastal southwestern foothills of the Cardamom Mts. in southwestern Cambodia (type locality: Cambodia, Koh Kong Province, 17 km ENE of Koh Kong, 'Macromia Rivulet', 11°40'17'' N, 103°07'28'' E, 296 m a.s.l., 3 vi 2014, RMNH). The species is characterised by its small size (hindwing 21-23 mm), cerci with outer angulations, truncated apices and crescent-shaped inner arms sprouting from their middle and not reaching their apices, synthorax with two parallel black lateral stripes and dorsal and collar yellow stripes fused in 7-like manner. Probably females of the same species were earlier reported from Phrae Province in northern Thailand. PMID:27395135

  18. Prodasineura hoffmanni sp. nov. (Odonata, Platycnemididae, Disparoneurinae) from eastern Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Kosterin, Oleg E

    2015-01-01

    Prodasineura hoffmanni sp. nov. is described from Annamense Mountains in eastern Cambodia (holotype: Cambodia, Mondulkiri Province, 4.2 km SE of Dak Dam village, 12°23'10-18'' N 107°19'22-30'' E, 877-878 m asl, 14. VI. 2014, RMNH). The species has a blue pattern, and the male is characterised by medium-broad blue stripes on synthorax and blue colour at the end of the abdomen confined to a tiny spot on S9, dorsum of S10 and cerci. A female of P. doisuthepensis Hoess, 2007 is described. Based on original descriptions, the following synonymy is proposed: Prodasineura fujianensis Xu, 2006 = Prodasineura huai Zhou et Zhou, 2007, syn. n. PMID:26624197

  19. Ensuring Gender Equity in Education for All: Is Cambodia on Track?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velasco, Esther

    2004-01-01

    Gender-equity goals in Cambodia are intimately linked with socio-economic and cultural biases that are embedded in the very system of education and in the society as a whole. There are, however, strong indicators that the vicious cycle in Cambodia's education system could be broken, and here the commitment of key stakeholders and partnership modes…

  20. Becoming and Being Academic Women in Cambodia: Cultural and Other Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, T. W.; Nget, Sokhany; Am, Kunthy; Peou, Leakhna; You, Songly

    2015-01-01

    Cambodia's higher education is under development. This is the first study of the role of women teaching in a university in Cambodia. There has been many studies of academic women in western countries and these guided the 16 interviews in Khmer that were carried out by young female researchers, translated by them and then analysed with the…

  1. Enhancing Aid Effectiveness in Education through a Sector-Wide Approach in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattori, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Since 2001 the government of Cambodia has striven to advance policy-led education reform based on a sector-wide approach. This paper critically reviews the status and progress of Cambodia's education reform from the perspective of the aid's effectiveness. The paper looks at the performance of the sector reform in the three priority areas…

  2. Two Views of Education: Promoting Civic and Moral Values in Cambodia Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the Cambodian government's attempt to promote civic and moral values in Cambodia schools through the subject "Civics and Morals". The paper argues that the tensions and challenges associated with civic and moral education are linked to a fundamental difference between the traditional view of education in Cambodia, and the…

  3. The Problem of "Choice" and the Construction of the Demand for English in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses Cambodia as a case study to problematise the notion of choice in the spread of English. I explore specific historical contexts which were central to the construction of the demand for English and English language teaching (ELT) in Cambodia. The actions of a range of external agencies resulted in the close discursive articulation of…

  4. Is Something Better than Nothing? An Evaluation of Early Childhood Programs in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Nirmala; Sun, Jin; Pearson, Veronica; Pearson, Emma; Liu, Hongyun; Constas, Mark A.; Engle, Patrice L.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the relative effectiveness of home-based, community-based, and state-run early childhood programs across Cambodia. A total of 880 five-year-olds (55% girls) from 6 rural provinces in Cambodia attending State Preschools, Community Preschools, Home-Based Programs, or no programs were assessed twice using the Cambodian…

  5. Educational Policy Trajectories in an Era of Globalization: Singapore and Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    This paper critically discusses the educational policy trajectories of Singapore and Cambodia in an era of globalization. Drawing upon David Johnson's five metaphors to describe the historical and political forces that shape educational policy trajectories, the paper argues that Cambodia's current educational policy trajectory is characterized by…

  6. Highland Children's Education Project: A Pilot Project on Bilingual Education in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleborg, Jorn

    2005-01-01

    The report was produced by UNESCO in partnership with CARE International in Cambodia for the "Highland Children's Education Project" (HCEP) to show how bilingual primary education has been implemented among the Tampuen and Kreung ethnic minority groups in six remote villages in the northeastern province of Ratanakiri, Cambodia. Central to HCEP is…

  7. Educational Cooperation between Thailand and Cambodia: Outcomes on Human Development, International Understanding and Future Prospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kijtorntham, Wichuda; Ruangdej, Phumjit; Saisuwan, Chatchanog

    2015-01-01

    Thailand and Cambodia set up educational cooperation since 1996, before signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in the Promotion of Education in 2003. This research aimed to investigate outcomes of educational cooperation projects on Cambodia human development and international understanding, process of participatory learning and…

  8. "A Frog in a Well": The Exclusion of Disabled People from Work in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartrell, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Based on ethnographic research conducted in north-west Cambodia in 2000-2001, this paper examines why disabled people experience systematic marginalisation in the labour market. Although there are no official data on the relationship between disability and employment status in Cambodia, this research suggests that disabled people are more likely…

  9. Unsystematic Technology Adoption in Cambodia: Students' Perceptions of Computer and Internet Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jayson W.; Nash, John B.; Flora, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to understand how upper secondary school students in Cambodia perceive the use of computers and the Internet. Data were collected from students in three urban upper secondary schools (n = 1,137) in Cambodia using questionnaires. The data indicate that the more exposure a Cambodian student had to computers and the Internet…

  10. Iodized Salt in Cambodia: Trends from 2008 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Laillou, Arnaud; Mam, Borath; Oeurn, Sam; Chea, Chantum

    2015-01-01

    Though the consequences of nutritional iodine deficiency have been known for a long time, in Cambodia its elimination has only become a priority in the last 18 years. The Royal Government of Cambodia initiated the National Sub-Committee for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in 1996 to fight this problem. Using three different surveys providing information across all provinces, we examined the compliance of salt iodization in Cambodia over the last 6 years. Salt samples from the 24 provinces were collect at the household level in 2008 (n = 566) and 2011 (n = 1275) and at the market level in 2014 (n = 1862) and analysed through a wavelength spectrophotometer for iodine content. According to the samples collected, the median iodine content significantly dropped from 22 mg/kg (25th/75th percentile: 2/37 mg/kg) in 2011 to 0 mg/kg in 2014 (25th/75th percentile: 0/8.9 mg/kg) (p < 0.001). The proportion of non-iodized salt within our collected salt drastically increased from 22% in 2011 to 62% in 2014 (p < 0.001). Since the international organizations ceased to support the procurement of iodine, the prevalence of salt compliant with the Cambodian declined within our samples. To date, the current levels of iodine added to tested salt are unsatisfactory as 92% of those salts do not meet the government requirements (99.6% of the coarse salt and 82.4% of the fine salt). This inappropriate iodization could illustrate the lack of periodic monitoring and enforcement from government entities. Therefore, government quality inspection should be reinforced to reduce the quantity of salt not meeting the national requirement. PMID:26035245

  11. Water cycle observations in forest watersheds of Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, A.; Tamai, K.; Kabeya, N.; Shimizu, T.; Iida, S. I.

    2015-12-01

    The Lower Mekong River flows through Cambodia, where forests cover ~60% of the country and are believed to have a marked effect on the water cycle. These tropical seasonal forests in the Cambodian flat lands are very precious in the Indochinese Peninsula as few forests of this type remain. However, few hydrological observations have been conducted in these areas. In Cambodia, deciduous and evergreen forests make up 42% and 33% of the total forest area, respectively. We established experimental watersheds both in deciduous and evergreen forests containing meteorological observation towers in Cambodia and collected various observational data since 2003 (O'Krieng, deciduous forest watershed including a 30-m-high observation tower, 2,245 km2; Stung Chinit, evergreen forest watershed including a 60-m-high observation tower, 3,700 km2 including three small watersheds). The basic data from these sites included various kinds of information related to the composition of vegetation, soil characteristics, etc. Hydrologic data was collected and linked to the above data; the main hydrologic research results follow. The water budget for each watershed was determined using an observational rainfall and runoff dataset. The evapotranspiration rate in an evergreen forest was obtained using various observational methods including the Bowen energy-balance ratio and the bandpass eddy covariance method. The annual evapotranspiration of evergreen forests, estimated using the Bowen energy-balance ratio method and water balance, was about 1100-1200 mm, corresponding to 70-80% of annual rainfall. While considering the importance of the presence of evergreen forest, we conducted sap flow measurements to analyze the transpiration process that maintains water uptake through root systems that reach to depths exceeding 8 m. Characteristics of the evaporation from the forest floor that form an important element of the evaporation system were estimated in both evergreen and deciduous forests.

  12. Aetiology of meningitis in HIV-infected patients in a referral hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Chhin, S; Rozycki, G; Pugatch, D; Harwell, J I

    2004-01-01

    The HIV epidemic in Cambodia is one of the most extensive in Asia. Meningitis accounts for a substantial proportion of HIV-related morbidity and mortality in Cambodia. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify the clinical and spinal fluid characteristics of patients undergoing spinal tap at an AIDS referral hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia during a 16-month period. Of 932 charts reviewed, 89 met criteria for analysis. Overall mortality was 49.4%. Cryptococcus was the most commonly identified pathogen (83%), followed by mycobacteria (8%). No pathogen was identified in 9% of charts reviewed. In hospital mortality was similar in all groups. PMID:14769172

  13. Low Urinary Iodine Concentration among Mothers and Children in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Laillou, Arnaud; Sophonneary, Prak; Kuong, Khov; Hong, Rathavuth; Un, Samoeurn; Chamnan, Chhoun; Poirot, Etienne; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank

    2016-01-01

    A 2014 national assessment of salt iodization coverage in Cambodia found that 62% of samples were non-iodized, suggesting a significant decline in daily iodine intakes. The Cambodian Micronutrient Survey conducted in 2014 (CMNS-2014) permitted obtaining national data on urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) to assess iodine status and whether iodized salt use had an impact. Urine samples were collected from mothers (n = 736) and children (n = 950). The median UIC was 63 µg/L and 72 µg/L in mothers and children respectively. More than 60% of mothers and their children had a UIC < 100 µg/L, thereby indicating a serious public health problem. Iodine status was significantly lower among mothers and children living in rural areas, belonging to the poorest socioeconomic category, or living in a household not using iodized salt. The limited enforcement of the legislation for iodized salt has resulted in a major decrease in the prevalence of iodized salt, which in turn has compromised iodine status in Cambodia. It is essential for the government to enhance enforcement of the iodized salt legislation, and implement short term strategies, such as iodine supplementation, to prevent an increase of severe complications due to iodine deficiency in the Cambodian population. PMID:27058551

  14. Calming the mind: Healing after mass atrocity in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Agger, Inger

    2015-08-01

    After catastrophic events in which people's survival has been threatened, as happened during the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia 1975-1979, some continue to suffer from painful mental symptoms. Surveys carried out in Cambodia based on Western diagnostic categories have found a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms in the population. This study explored Cambodian approaches to healing trauma, examining the ways in which Cambodians appeal to elements of Buddhism in their efforts to calm their minds, situating this mode of coping in the context of broader Khmer Buddhist practice and understandings. Western psychology may have much to learn from local, contextualised methods of dealing with the aftermath of trauma, including Khmer understandings of distress and approaches to relief. Methods of assessment and treatment of distress cannot be transposed wholesale from one cultural setting to another but require considerable cultural adaptation. This kind of cultural interchange may give rise to innovative, hybrid discourses and methods that may have much to offer in the support of victims of organised violence. PMID:25653141

  15. Social meanings of adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Julian; Phlong, Pisith; Saphon, Vonthanak; Kaldor, John; Mean, Chhivun; Maher, Lisa

    2011-06-01

    Global expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes for people living with HIV is the largest public health undertaking to date. Antiretroviral therapy adherence drives individual and programme outcomes, yet little is known regarding the determinants of these behaviours. We investigated beliefs and practices associated with ART use in Cambodia. In-depth interviews were conducted during 2005 with 27 people living with HIV who were recruited using a theoretical sampling strategy and analysed in Khmer and English using an inductive approach to code data and identify themes. Limited access to ART generated a sense of ART as rare and precious, with access granted by doctors once patients proved themselves dependable. The social construction of ART use was strict, precise and modern with ritualistic preparation and dosing procedures. Experiences of life-saving efficacy in self and others built a deep sense of trust. For many, ART was simply equated to life. Antiretroviral therapy dosing was prioritized and supported by an ever-present sense of remembering, reminder devices and social networks. Healthcare workers set norms and provided various forms of adherence support. Antiretroviral therapy use in Cambodia is shaped by the relationship between individuals and social and healthcare networks that set, encourage and enforce precise norms of ART use. PMID:21516534

  16. Low Urinary Iodine Concentration among Mothers and Children in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Laillou, Arnaud; Sophonneary, Prak; Kuong, Khov; Hong, Rathavuth; Un, Samoeurn; Chamnan, Chhoun; Poirot, Etienne; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank

    2016-01-01

    A 2014 national assessment of salt iodization coverage in Cambodia found that 62% of samples were non-iodized, suggesting a significant decline in daily iodine intakes. The Cambodian Micronutrient Survey conducted in 2014 (CMNS-2014) permitted obtaining national data on urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) to assess iodine status and whether iodized salt use had an impact. Urine samples were collected from mothers (n = 736) and children (n = 950). The median UIC was 63 µg/L and 72 µg/L in mothers and children respectively. More than 60% of mothers and their children had a UIC < 100 µg/L, thereby indicating a serious public health problem. Iodine status was significantly lower among mothers and children living in rural areas, belonging to the poorest socioeconomic category, or living in a household not using iodized salt. The limited enforcement of the legislation for iodized salt has resulted in a major decrease in the prevalence of iodized salt, which in turn has compromised iodine status in Cambodia. It is essential for the government to enhance enforcement of the iodized salt legislation, and implement short term strategies, such as iodine supplementation, to prevent an increase of severe complications due to iodine deficiency in the Cambodian population. PMID:27058551

  17. Calming the mind: Healing after mass atrocity in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    After catastrophic events in which people’s survival has been threatened, as happened during the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia 1975–1979, some continue to suffer from painful mental symptoms. Surveys carried out in Cambodia based on Western diagnostic categories have found a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms in the population. This study explored Cambodian approaches to healing trauma, examining the ways in which Cambodians appeal to elements of Buddhism in their efforts to calm their minds, situating this mode of coping in the context of broader Khmer Buddhist practice and understandings. Western psychology may have much to learn from local, contextualised methods of dealing with the aftermath of trauma, including Khmer understandings of distress and approaches to relief. Methods of assessment and treatment of distress cannot be transposed wholesale from one cultural setting to another but require considerable cultural adaptation. This kind of cultural interchange may give rise to innovative, hybrid discourses and methods that may have much to offer in the support of victims of organised violence. PMID:25653141

  18. Rodent-borne hantaviruses in Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Blasdell, Kim; Cosson, Jean François; Chaval, Yannick; Herbreteau, Vincent; Douangboupha, Bounneuang; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Lundqvist, Ake; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Morand, Serge; Buchy, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    In order to evaluate the circulation of hantaviruses present in southeast Asia, a large scale survey of small mammal species was carried out at seven main sites in the region (Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Thailand). Small scale opportunistic trapping was also performed at an eighth site (Cambodia). Using a standard IFA test, IgG antibodies reacting to Hantaan virus antigens were detected at six sites. Antibody prevalence at each site varied from 0 to 5.6% with antibodies detected in several rodent species (Bandicota indica, B. savilei, Maxomys surifer, Mus caroli, M. cookii, Rattus exulans, R. nitidius, R. norvegicus, and R. tanezumi). When site seroprevalence was compared with site species richness, seropositive animals were found more frequently at sites with lower species richness. In order to confirm which hantavirus species were present, a subset of samples was also subjected to RT-PCR. Hantaviral RNA was detected at a single site from each country. Sequencing confirmed the presence of two hantavirus species, Thailand and Seoul viruses, including one sample (from Lao PDR) representing a highly divergent strain of Seoul virus. This is the first molecular evidence of hantavirus in Lao PDR and the first reported L segment sequence data for Thailand virus. PMID:22124701

  19. Comparative study between REAP 200 and FEP171 CAR with 50-kV raster e-beam system for sub-100-nm technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Ki-Ho; Lem, Homer Y.; Dean, Robert L.; Osborne, Stephen; Mueller, Mark; Abboud, Frank E.

    2003-08-01

    In this paper, a process established with a positive-tone chemically amplified resist (CAR) from TOK REAP200 and Fujifilm Arch FEP171 and 50kV MEBES system is discussed. This TOK resist is developed for raster scan 50 kV e-beam systems. It has high contrast, good coating characteristics, good dry etch selectivity, and high environmental stability. In the mask industries, the most popular positive tone CAR is FEP171, which is a high activation energy type CAR. REAP (Raster E-beam Advanced Process) 200 is low activation energy type and new acetal protecting polymer. In this study, we compared to these different type resists in terms of contrast, PAB and PEB latitude, resist profile, footing, T-topping, PED stability, LER, Global CDU (Critical Dimension Uniformity) and resolution. The REAP200 Resist obtained 75nm isolated lines and spaces, 90nm dense patterns with vertical profile, and a good stability of delay time.

  20. Cigarette smoking and tuberculosis in Cambodia: findings from a national sample

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cambodia has very high rates of tuberculosis and smoked tobacco use among adults. Efforts to control both tobacco use and tuberculosis in Cambodia need to be informed by nationally representative data. Our objective is to examine the relation between daily cigarette smoking and lifetime tuberculosis (TB) history in a national sample of adults in Cambodia. Methods In 2011, a multi-stage, cluster sample of 15,615 adults (ages 15 years and older) from all regions of Cambodia were administered the Global Adult Tobacco Survey by interviewers from the National Institute of Statistics of Cambodia. Results Our findings include: 1) among daily smokers, a significant positive relation between TB and number of cigarettes smoked per day (OR = 1.70 [95% CI 1.01, 2.87]) and pack-years of smoking (OR = 1.53 [95% CI 1.05, 2.25]) 2) a non-significant 58% increase in odds of ever having being diagnosed with TB among men who smoked manufactured cigarettes (OR = 1.58 [95% CI 0.97, 2.58]). Conclusion In Cambodia, manufactured cigarette smoking was associated with lifetime TB infection and the association was most evident among the heaviest smokers (> 1 pack per day, > 30 pack years). PMID:23537342

  1. Labor migration and mental health in Cambodia: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sarah R; Robinson, W Courtland; Chhim, Sotheara; Bass, Judith K

    2014-03-01

    Labor migration is thought to have significant mental and physical health impacts, given the risks for exploitation and abuse of migrant workers, particularly among those in semiskilled and unskilled positions, although empirical data are limited. This qualitative study, conducted in July 2010 in Banteay Meanchey Province, Cambodia, focused on psychosocial and mental health signs and symptoms associated with labor migration among Cambodian migrant workers to Thailand. Two qualitative methods identified a number of mental health problems faced by Cambodian migrant workers in Thailand, including the presence of anxiety and depression-like problems among this population, described in local terminology as pibak chet (sadness), keut chreun (thinking too much), and khval khvay khnong chet (worry in heart). Key informants revealed the extent to which psychosocial well-being is associated with conditions of poverty, including debt and lack of access to basic services. PMID:24566505

  2. Leptospira and Rodents in Cambodia: Environmental Determinants of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Svilena; Herbreteau, Vincent; Blasdell, Kim; Chaval, Yannick; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; Morand, Serge

    2012-01-01

    We investigated infection of rodents and shrews by Leptospira spp. in two localities of Cambodia (Veal Renh, Kaev Seima) and in four types of habitat (forests, non-flooded lands, lowland rain-fed paddy fields, houses) during the wet and the dry seasons. Habitat preference was common, and rodent and shrew species were found only in houses or in rain-fed paddy fields or in forests. Among 649 small mammals trapped belonging to 12 rodent species and 1 shrew species, 71 of 642 animals tested were carriers of Leptospira according to the 16S ribosomal RNA marker used. Rodent infection was higher in low-slope locations, corresponding to rain-fed paddy fields, especially in the rainy season and in Kaev Seima. Rodents (Rattus exulans) and shrews (Suncus murinus) inhabiting households showed significantly low levels of infections, whereas rodents living in and near to forests (shrubby wasteland, orchards) showed high levels of infection. PMID:22665613

  3. Multiple populations of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Miotto, Olivo; Almagro-Garcia, Jacob; Manske, Magnus; MacInnis, Bronwyn; Campino, Susana; Rockett, Kirk A; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Lim, Pharath; Suon, Seila; Sreng, Sokunthea; Anderson, Jennifer M; Duong, Socheat; Nguon, Chea; Chuor, Char Meng; Saunders, David; Se, Youry; Lon, Chantap; Fukuda, Mark M; Amenga-Etego, Lucas; Hodgson, Abraham VO; Asoala, Victor; Imwong, Mallika; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Nosten, Francois; Su, Xin-zhuan; Ringwald, Pascal; Ariey, Frédéric; Dolecek, Christiane; Hien, Tran Tinh; Boni, Maciej F; Thai, Cao Quang; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; Conway, David J; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Zongo, Issaka; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Alcock, Daniel; Drury, Eleanor; Auburn, Sarah; Koch, Oliver; Sanders, Mandy; Hubbart, Christina; Maslen, Gareth; Ruano-Rubio, Valentin; Jyothi, Dushyanth; Miles, Alistair; O’Brien, John; Gamble, Chris; Oyola, Samuel O; Rayner, Julian C; Newbold, Chris I; Berriman, Matthew; Spencer, Chris CA; McVean, Gilean; Day, Nicholas P; White, Nicholas J; Bethell, Delia; Dondorp, Arjen M; Plowe, Christopher V; Fairhurst, Rick M; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

    2013-01-01

    We describe an analysis of genome variation in 825 Plasmodium falciparum samples from Asia and Africa that reveals an unusual pattern of parasite population structure at the epicentre of artemisinin resistance in western Cambodia. Within this relatively small geographical area we have discovered several distinct but apparently sympatric parasite subpopulations with extremely high levels of genetic differentiation. Of particular interest are three subpopulations, all associated with clinical resistance to artemisinin, which have skewed allele frequency spectra and remarkably high levels of haplotype homozygosity, indicative of founder effects and recent population expansion. We provide a catalogue of SNPs that show high levels of differentiation in the artemisinin-resistant subpopulations, including codon variants in various transporter proteins and DNA mismatch repair proteins. These data provide a population genetic framework for investigating the biological origins of artemisinin resistance and for defining molecular markers to assist its elimination. PMID:23624527

  4. Bolstering medical education to enhance critical care capacity in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Albert, Tyler J; Fassier, Thomas; Chhuoy, Meng; Bounchan, Youttiroung; Tan, Sokhak; Ku, No; Chhor, Nareth; LoGerfo, James P; West, T Eoin

    2015-04-01

    The capacity to care for the critically ill has long been viewed as a fundamental element of established and comprehensive health care systems. Extending this capacity to health care systems in low- and middle-income countries is important given the burden of disease in these regions and the significance of critical care in overall health system strengthening. However, many practicalities of improving access and delivery of critical care in resource-limited settings have yet to be elucidated. We have initiated a program to build capacity for the care of critically ill patients in one low-income Southeast Asian country, Cambodia. We are leveraging existing international academic partnerships to enhance postgraduate critical care education in Cambodia. After conducting a needs assessment and literature review, we developed a three-step initiative targeting training in mechanical ventilation. First, we assessed and revised the current resident curriculum pertaining to mechanical ventilation. We addressed gaps in training, incorporated specific goals and learning objectives, and decreased the hours of lectures in favor of additional bedside training. Second, we are incorporating e-learning, e-teaching, and e-assessment into the curriculum, with both live, interactive and independent, self-paced online instruction. Third, we are developing a train-the-trainer program defined by bidirectional international faculty exchanges to provide hands-on, case-based, and bedside training to achieve competency-based outcomes. In targeting specific educational needs and a key population-the next generation of Cambodian intensivists-this carefully designed approach should address some existing gaps in the health care system and hopefully yield a lasting impact. PMID:25751194

  5. A review of the genus Cyana Walker, 1854 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae) from Cambodia, with description of new species.

    PubMed

    Bayarsaikhan, Ulziijargal; Bae, Yang-Seop

    2016-01-01

    Genus Cyana Walker, 1854, with 17 species in Cambodia, is reviewed. Among them, Cyana angkorensis Bayarsaikhan & Bae, sp. n. is described as new to science and 7 species are newly recorded from Cambodia. A key to the Cambodian species of the genus Cyana with illustrations of adults and genitalia is presented. PMID:27395140

  6. A Culture Under Siege: Post-Colonial Higher Education and Teacher Education in Cambodia from 1953 to 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Masson, Gildas; Fergusson, Lee C.

    1997-01-01

    Charts the 20-year rise and fall of higher education and teacher education in Cambodia beginning with political independence in 1953 and ending with the devastation wrought by the Khmer Rouge. Discusses the effects of political instability, civil war, and the Vietnam War on Cambodia's educational system. (MJP)

  7. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination for the Kingdom of Cambodia Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Cambodia Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, as amended Presidential Documents... Determination for the Kingdom of Cambodia Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, as... the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, as amended (12 U.S.C. 635(b)(2)(C)), I hereby determine that...

  8. Coping Methods: Personal and Community Resources Used among Cambodians in Cambodia and Cambodian-Americans in Lowell, Massachusetts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    pierSath, Chath

    This qualitative research assesses mental health resources from the perspective of providers in Cambodia and in Lowell, Massachusetts. The research documents culturally relevant coping strategies available to Cambodians for combating the effects of trauma and stress. Interviews were conducted with 11 caregivers in Cambodia and with 6 providers in…

  9. Time to unsuccessful tuberculosis treatment outcome, Cambodia, China, and Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Sokun, C.; Wei, C.; Lauritsen, J. M.; Rieder, H. L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency and characteristics of patients with unsuccessful tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Methods: Random selection of TB case registers among all treatment units in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam. The data of two calendar years were analyzed to assess unsuccessful outcomes and their time of occurrence. Results: Among the 33 309 TB patients, treatment was unsuccessful in respectively 10.1%, 3.0% and 9.1% of patients in Cambodia, China and Viet Nam. The risk of death was highest in Cambodia, higher among males than females, increased with age, and was more common among retreatment cases than new cases, and among patients with a high than a low sputum smear microscopy grade. Half of all deaths occurred in the first 2 months in Cambodia and within 11 weeks in China and Viet Nam. Median time to default was 3 months in Cambodia and Viet Nam, and about 2 months in China. Conclusions: Treatment was highly successful in the three study countries, with a low proportion of death and default. As the majority of defaulting occurs at the beginning of treatment, all countries should critically review their current policy of treatment support in this period. PMID:26392939

  10. Radar Image with Color as Height, Ancharn Kuy, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Ancharn Kuy, Cambodia, was taken by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR). The image depicts an area northwest of Angkor Wat. The radar has highlighted a number of circular village mounds in this region, many of which have a circular pattern of rice fields surrounding the slightly elevated site. Most of them have evidence of what seems to be pre-Angkor occupation, such as stone tools and potsherds. Most of them also have a group of five spirit posts, a pattern not found in other parts of Cambodia. The shape of the mound, the location in the midst of a ring of rice fields, the stone tools and the current practice of spirit veneration have revealed themselves through a unique 'marriage' of radar imaging, archaeological investigation, and anthropology.

    Ancharn Kuy is a small village adjacent to the road, with just this combination of features. The region gets slowly higher in elevation, something seen in the shift of color from yellow to blue as you move to the top of the image.

    The small dark rectangles are typical of the smaller water control devices employed in this area. While many of these in the center of Angkor are linked to temples of the 9th to 14th Century A.D., we cannot be sure of the construction date of these small village tanks. They may pre-date the temple complex, or they may have just been dug ten years ago!

    The image dimensions are approximately 4.75 by 4.3 kilometers (3 by 2.7 miles) with a pixel spacing of 5 meters (16.4 feet). North is at top. Image brightness is from the C-band (5.6 centimeters, or 2.2 inches) wavelength radar backscatter, which is a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color; that is going from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again; corresponds to 10 meters (32.8 feet) of elevation change.

    AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif

  11. Environmental arsenic epidemiology in the Mekong river basin of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kongkea; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2014-11-01

    We investigated relationship of arsenicosis symptoms with total blood arsenic (BAs) and serum albumin (SAlb) of residents in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. We found that arsenicosis patients had significantly higher BAs and lower SAlb than asymptomatic villagers (Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.01). Arsenicosis symptoms were found to be 76.4% (1.764 times) more likely to develop among individuals having an SAlb≤44.3gL(-1) than among those who had an SAlb>44.3gL(-1) (OR=1.764, 95% CI=0.999-3.114) and 117.6% (2.176 times) as likely to occur among those with BAs>5.73µgL(-1) than for those having BAs≤5.73µgL(-1) (OR=2.176, 95% CI=1.223-3.872). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation was also found between BAs and SAlb (rs (199)=-0.354, p<0.0001). As such, this study suggests that people with low SAlb and/or high BAs are likely to rapidly develop arsenicosis symptoms. PMID:25262072

  12. Evaluation of genetic variation among wild rice populations in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Orn, Chhourn; Shishido, Rieko; Akimoto, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Ryo; Htun, Than Myint; Nonomura, Ken-Ichi; Koide, Yohei; Sarom, Men; Vang, Seng; Sophany, Sakhan; Makara, Ouk; Ishii, Takashige

    2015-01-01

    A total of 448 samples in five natural populations of wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) were collected in Cambodia. They were examined using 12 SSR and two chloroplast markers to evaluate the degree of variation among populations and the genetic structure within populations. In the two annual populations, the number of plants with homozygous alleles at all 12 SSR loci were high (66.3% and 79.5%), suggesting that these plants propagate mainly through self-pollination. In the three perennial populations, no individuals had all homozygous genotypes, but redundant genotypes resulted from clonal propagation were observed. Percentages of the redundant genotypes were highly varied (3.6%, 29.2% and 86.0%). This may be due to the different stable levels of environmental conditions. As for chloroplast genome, most of the wild plants showed the same chloroplast types as most Indica-type cultivars have. However, plants with different chloroplast types were maintained, even in the same population. In tropical Asian countries, many wild rice populations were observed under similar ecological conditions examined in this study. Therefore, the present results concerning population structure will be important to further elucidate genetic features of wild rice, and will also give strong clues to utilize and conserve wild natural genetic resources. PMID:26719746

  13. Paleoenvironmental history of the West Baray, Angkor (Cambodia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Mary Beth; Hodell, David A.; Brenner, Mark; Chapman, Hazel J.; Curtis, Jason H.; Kenney, William F.; Kolata, Alan L.; Peterson, Larry C.

    2012-01-01

    Angkor (Cambodia) was the seat of the Khmer Empire from the 9th to 15th century AD. The site is noted for its monumental architecture and complex hydro-engineering systems, comprised of canals, moats, embankments, and large reservoirs, known as barays. We infer a 1,000-y, 14C-dated paleoenvironmental record from study of an approximately 2-m sediment core taken in the largest Khmer reservoir, the West Baray. The baray was utilized and managed from the time of construction in the early 11th century, through the 13th century. During that time, the West Baray received relatively high rates of detrital input. In the 14th century, linear sedimentation rates diminished by an order of magnitude, yielding a condensed section that correlates temporally with episodes of regional monsoon failure during the late 14th and early 15th century, recorded in tree ring records from Vietnam. Our results demonstrate that changes in the water management system were associated with the decline of the Angkorian kingdom during that period. By the 17th century, the West Baray again functioned as a limnetic system. Ecologic and sedimentologic changes over the last millennium, detected in the baray deposits, are attributed to shifts in regional-scale Khmer water management, evolving land use practices in the catchment, and regional climate change.

  14. Paleoenvironmental history of the West Baray, Angkor (Cambodia).

    PubMed

    Day, Mary Beth; Hodell, David A; Brenner, Mark; Chapman, Hazel J; Curtis, Jason H; Kenney, William F; Kolata, Alan L; Peterson, Larry C

    2012-01-24

    Angkor (Cambodia) was the seat of the Khmer Empire from the 9th to 15th century AD. The site is noted for its monumental architecture and complex hydro-engineering systems, comprised of canals, moats, embankments, and large reservoirs, known as barays. We infer a 1,000-y, (14)C-dated paleoenvironmental record from study of an approximately 2-m sediment core taken in the largest Khmer reservoir, the West Baray. The baray was utilized and managed from the time of construction in the early 11th century, through the 13th century. During that time, the West Baray received relatively high rates of detrital input. In the 14th century, linear sedimentation rates diminished by an order of magnitude, yielding a condensed section that correlates temporally with episodes of regional monsoon failure during the late 14th and early 15th century, recorded in tree ring records from Vietnam. Our results demonstrate that changes in the water management system were associated with the decline of the Angkorian kingdom during that period. By the 17th century, the West Baray again functioned as a limnetic system. Ecologic and sedimentologic changes over the last millennium, detected in the baray deposits, are attributed to shifts in regional-scale Khmer water management, evolving land use practices in the catchment, and regional climate change. PMID:22215582

  15. Douching practices among female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Tran, Ly T H; Ross, Michael W; Markham, Christine M

    2015-03-01

    Several studies indicate that douching has few benefits but numerous adverse health outcomes, including increased risk for sexually transmitted infections and HIV. No published study explores douching practices among Cambodian female sex workers. This report provides preliminary data about the prevalence and frequency of douching among female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Survey data were obtained from 81 female sex workers who were taken into custody due to engagement in commercial sex from March to June 2011. Results showed that 91% of participants douched. The mean numbers of times douched before sex and after sex per 10 sex episodes were 4.43 (SD = 3.87) and 4.63 (SD = 3.94), respectively. Half of the participants thought that douching could help to prevent sexually transmitted infections including HIV; 24% were unsure about this. Usually, douching after sex was associated with ever obtaining an HIV test (p = .012) and was marginally associated (although not statistically significant) with a higher average number of clients per week (p =. 063) and consistent condom use with clients (p = .053). This suggests that these practices may be related to individual perceptions of sexually transmitted infections/HIV risk or susceptibility. Given the commonness of douching and related misperceptions among Cambodian female sex workers, future studies and interventions are needed to prevent adverse health problems. PMID:24810219

  16. Increase in paratyphoid fever cases in Japanese travellers returning from Cambodia in 2013.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, T; Morita, M; Shimada, T; Izumiya, H; Kanayama, A; Oishi, K; Ohnishi, M; Sunagawa, T

    2016-02-01

    In 2013, an unusual increase of paratyphoid fever cases in travellers returning from Cambodia was reported in Japan. From December 2012 to September 2013, 18 cases of Salmonella Paratyphi A infection were identified. Microbiological analyses revealed that most isolates had the same clonal identity, although the epidemiological link between these cases remains unclear. It was inferred that the outbreak was caused by a common and persistent source in Cambodia that was likely to have continued during 2014. The information of surveillance and laboratory data from cases arising in travellers from countries with limited surveillance systems should be timely shared with the country of origin. PMID:26169980

  17. A new cavernicolous sand fly from Cambodia: Idiophlebotomus nicolegerae n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Loyer, Mathieu; Depaquit, Jérôme; Gay, Frédérick

    2016-03-01

    Cambodia is an area considered free of leishmaniasis and consequently little is known of its' phlebotomine sand fly fauna. Only six species of sand flies have previously been recorded: Sergentomyia barraudi, Sergentomyia pertubans, Sergentomyia bailyi, Sergentomyia silvatica, Sergentomyia khawi and Grassomyia indica and none belonging to the genus Phlebotomus. During an inventory carried out in Cambodia, we caught a new species, belonging to the genus Idiophlebotomus, in a cave. We describe the new species in this paper and also report three other new species for the country: Sergentomyia anodontis, Phlebotomus stantoni and Phlebotomus kiangsuensis. PMID:26655043

  18. Asiagomphus reinhardti sp. nov. (Odonata, Gomphidae) from eastern Cambodia and southern Laos.

    PubMed

    Kosterin, Oleg E; Yokoi, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    Asiagomphus reinhardti sp. nov. is described by two males from Annamense Mountains in eastern Cambodia (holotype: Cambodia, Mondulkiri Province, the left tributary of the main river downstream from Buu Sraa Waterfall, 12°34'01-19'' N 107°24'50''-25'03'' E, ca 450 m a.s.l., 15 vi 2014, RMNH) and southern Laos. The species is characterised by a large caudal lobe on S10 in males and a blunt medial lateroventral projection at cercus. PMID:27394611

  19. An Acinetobacter trimeric autotransporter adhesin reaped from cells exhibits its nonspecific stickiness via a highly stable 3D structure.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Shogo; Nakatani, Hajime; Iwasaki, Keita; Hori, Katsutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs), cell surface proteins of Gram-negative bacteria, mediate bacterial adhesion to host cells and extracellular matrix proteins. However, AtaA, a TAA in the nonpathogenic Acinetobacter sp. strain Tol 5, shows nonspecific, high adhesiveness to abiotic material surfaces as well as to biotic surfaces. AtaA is a homotrimer of polypeptides comprising 3,630 amino acids and forms long nanofibers; therefore, it is too large and structurally complex to be produced as a recombinant protein. In this study, we isolated AtaA's passenger domain (AtaA PSD), which is translocated to the cell surface through the C-terminal transmembrane domain and exhibits biological functions, using a new method. We introduced a protease recognition site and reaped AtaA nanofibers 225 nm in length from the cell surface through proteolytic cleavage with a specific protease. Biochemical and biophysical analyses of the purified native AtaA PSD revealed that it has a stable structure under alkaline and acidic conditions. Temperatures above 80 °C, which disrupted AtaA's higher-order structure but maintained the full-length AtaA polypeptide, inactivated AtaA's nonspecific adhesiveness, suggesting that the stickiness of AtaA requires its 3D structure. This finding refutes the widespread but vague speculation that large unfolded polypeptides readily stick to various surfaces. PMID:27305955

  20. An Acinetobacter trimeric autotransporter adhesin reaped from cells exhibits its nonspecific stickiness via a highly stable 3D structure

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, Shogo; Nakatani, Hajime; Iwasaki, Keita; Hori, Katsutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs), cell surface proteins of Gram-negative bacteria, mediate bacterial adhesion to host cells and extracellular matrix proteins. However, AtaA, a TAA in the nonpathogenic Acinetobacter sp. strain Tol 5, shows nonspecific, high adhesiveness to abiotic material surfaces as well as to biotic surfaces. AtaA is a homotrimer of polypeptides comprising 3,630 amino acids and forms long nanofibers; therefore, it is too large and structurally complex to be produced as a recombinant protein. In this study, we isolated AtaA’s passenger domain (AtaA PSD), which is translocated to the cell surface through the C-terminal transmembrane domain and exhibits biological functions, using a new method. We introduced a protease recognition site and reaped AtaA nanofibers 225 nm in length from the cell surface through proteolytic cleavage with a specific protease. Biochemical and biophysical analyses of the purified native AtaA PSD revealed that it has a stable structure under alkaline and acidic conditions. Temperatures above 80 °C, which disrupted AtaA’s higher-order structure but maintained the full-length AtaA polypeptide, inactivated AtaA’s nonspecific adhesiveness, suggesting that the stickiness of AtaA requires its 3D structure. This finding refutes the widespread but vague speculation that large unfolded polypeptides readily stick to various surfaces. PMID:27305955

  1. Dynamic of H5N1 virus in Cambodia and emergence of a novel endemic sub-clade.

    PubMed

    Sorn, San; Sok, Touch; Ly, Sovann; Rith, Sareth; Tung, Nguyen; Viari, Alain; Gavotte, Laurent; Holl, Davun; Seng, Heng; Asgari, Nima; Richner, Beat; Laurent, Denis; Chea, Nora; Duong, Veasna; Toyoda, Tetsuya; Yasuda, Chadwick Y; Kitsutani, Paul; Zhou, Paul; Bing, Sun; Deubel, Vincent; Donis, Ruben; Frutos, Roger; Buchy, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    In Cambodia, the first detection of HPAI H5N1 virus in birds occurred in January 2004 and since then there have been 33 outbreaks in poultry while 21 human cases were reported. The origin and dynamics of these epizootics in Cambodia remain unclear. In this work we used a range of bioinformatics methods to analyze the Cambodian virus sequences together with those from neighboring countries. Six HA lineages belonging to clades 1 and 1.1 were identified since 2004. Lineage 1 shares an ancestor with viruses from Thailand and disappeared after 2005, to be replaced by lineage 2 originating from Vietnam and then by lineage 3. The highly adapted lineage 4 was seen only in Cambodia. Lineage 5 is circulating both in Vietnam and Cambodia since 2008 and was probably introduced in Cambodia through unregistered transboundary poultry trade. Lineage 6 is endemic to Cambodia since 2010 and could be classified as a new clade according to WHO/OIE/FAO criteria for H5N1 virus nomenclature. We propose to name it clade 1.1A. There is a direct filiation of lineages 2 to 6 with a temporal evolution and geographic differentiation for lineages 4 and 6. By the end of 2011, two lineages, i.e. lineages 5 and 6, with different transmission paths cocirculate in Cambodia. The presence of lineage 6 only in Cambodia suggests the existence of a transmission specific to this country whereas the presence of lineage 5 in both Cambodia and Vietnam indicates a distinct way of circulation of infected poultry. PMID:22683363

  2. Minehound TM trials in Cambodia, Bosnia, and Angola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the trials of the MINEHOUND TM dual sensor, land mine detector carried out in Cambodia, Bosnia and Angola. MINEHOUND TM has been developed for use in humanitarian demining as a means of improving the efficiency of clearance operations. The trials were sponsored by the UK Department for International Development (DFID). ERA Technology Ltd conducted the trials, which were monitored by staff drawn from the countries participating in the International Test and Evaluation Programme (ITEP) for humanitarian de-mining. Experienced deminers from the Mines Advisory Group (MAG) and Norwegian Peoples Aid (NPA) used the pre-production units in live minefields. The objectives of the trial were: 1. To record information on the performance of MINEHOUND TM when used in a live minefield. 2. To determine the reduction in False Alarm Rate (FAR) that could be achieved using a dual sensor mine detector. The trials were conducted in three mine-affected countries for a period of eight weeks per country; the programme of trials ran from July 2005 to December 2005, with an additional smaller trial in late February 2006. The results of the trials showed that MINEHOUND TM achieved 100% detection of the mines encountered and an improvement in FAR of better than 5:1 compared with a basic metal detector. The trials enabled optimisation of the production design and clearly demonstrated that new technology can be brought to humanitarian clearance operations in a safe and controlled manner. As a result of the highly successful trials, Vallon and ERA will produce the MINEHOUND TM (Type number VMR1) starting in Q3 of 2006.

  3. Student Achievement and Education Policy in a Period of Rapid Expansion: Assessment Data Evidence from Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jeffery H.; Chinna, Ung; Nessay, Puth; Hok, Ung Ngo; Savoeun, Va; Tinon, Soeur; Veasna, Meung

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses student achievement and school quality in large samples of schools in Cambodia. Descriptive summaries of student proficiency levels in language and mathematics reveal large gaps between average performance in grades three and six. Given the near universal completion rates for grade three--and lower access to grade six--these…

  4. Learning to Read in Ratanakiri: A Case Study from Northeastern Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregerson, Marilyn J.

    2009-01-01

    In Ratanakiri province, northeastern Cambodia, the majority of the local people are native speakers of ethnic minority languages. Primarily subsistence farmers, they use their own language to communicate with others in their villages, and as they work in their rice fields. A baseline survey taken between 1996 and 1998 in five such villages showed…

  5. Reviewing the Role of Teachers in Achieving Education for All in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chae-Young; Rouse, Martyn

    2011-01-01

    Over the last 20 years education policies in Cambodia have been driven by the global Education for All (EFA) campaign and have resulted in a rapid increase in the rates of primary education enrolment. However, the increasing number of children enrolling in schools has not always translated into high rates of primary education completion. Against…

  6. Impact of School Readiness Program Interventions on Children's Learning in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Bredenberg, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the high repetition rates in early years of primary school, the government of Cambodia piloted a school readiness program (SRP) in the first two months of Grade 1 of primary school. This study examines whether such intervention has effects on students' immediate acquisition of school readiness skills as well as students' longer term…

  7. Building the New Cambodia: Educational Destruction and Construction under the Khmer Rouge, 1975-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the educational destruction and construction in Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia) under the Khmer Rouge regime. Explains that in constructing the Democratic Kampuchea education system the Khmer Rouge sought to harness the power of education to their agenda of egalitarian, self-reliant, and agrarian socialism. (CMK)

  8. Educational Financing and Budgeting in Cambodia. Financial Management of Education Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pheng, Duy; Sovonn, Hang; Soly, Yos

    This book contains a detailed description of the challenges faced by educational finance and budgeting in Cambodia. Until recently, educational financing took the form of emergency budgets and was limited to government planning for teacher salaries and costs of examinations. There has been a general lack of coordination between provinces and the…

  9. Pneumococcal Infection among Children before Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Claudia; Suy, Kuong; Soeng, Sona; Ly, Sokeng; Miliya, Thyl; Goldblatt, David; Day, Nicholas P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination of children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was initiated in Cambodia in 2015. To determine baseline data, we collected samples from children in 2013 and 2014. PCV13 serotypes accounted for 62.7% of colonizing organisms in outpatients and 88.4% of invasive pneumococci overall; multidrug resistance was common. Thus, effectiveness of vaccination should be high. PMID:26488597

  10. Height, Zinc and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Schoolchildren: A Study in Cuba and Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D.; D’Haese, Patrick C.; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E.; Junco Díaz, Raquel; Angel Núñez, Fidel; Rojas Rivero, Lázara; Bonet Gorbea, Mariano; Doak, Colleen M.; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Wieringa, Frank T.; Polman, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:25903454

  11. Development of Indicators for Educational Planning: Brazil, Cambodia, Estonia, Gambia, Lithuania, Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). International Inst. for Educational Planning.

    This publication presents the outcomes of a distance education course on development and dissemination of indicators used for educational planning. The course took place from November 2000 to February 2001 and was attended by representatives from the ministries of education of Brazil, Cambodia, Estonia, Gambia, Lithuania, and Thailand. The overall…

  12. Indochinese Refugee Experience. Refugees from Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia in Nova Scotia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngo, Xuong, Comp.; Guay, Marcel, Ed.

    Firsthand accounts by refugees from Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam, telling how they escaped from Indochina and how they are adjusting to life in Canada (and particularly Nova Scotia), form the greater part of this book. Most of the accounts are by Vietnamese. Information is also provided on the history of the Canadian refugee program, and on the…

  13. An Annotated Bibliography of Cambodia and Cambodian Refugees. Southeast Asian Refugee Studies Occasional Papers Number Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, John, Comp.

    This 578-entry annotated bibliography is intended for use by people who work with Cambodian refugees in the United States, as well as anyone interested in Cambodian history, politics, and culture. It consists primarily of books and journal articles on Cambodia and Cambodians available in the University of Minnesota library system or that are part…

  14. Multidrug-Resistant Shigella Infections in Patients with Diarrhea, Cambodia, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Poramathikul, Kamonporn; Chiek, Sivhour; Oransathid, Wilawan; Ruekit, Sirigade; Nobthai, Panida; Lurchachaiwong, Woradee; Serichantalergs, Oralak; Lon, Chanthap; Swierczewski, Brett

    2016-01-01

    We observed multidrug resistance in 10 (91%) of 11 Shigella isolates from a diarrheal surveillance study in Cambodia. One isolate was resistant to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins and showed decreased susceptibility to azithromycin. We found mutations in gyrA, parC, β-lactamase, and mphA genes. Multidrug resistance increases concern about shigellosis treatment options. PMID:27532684

  15. Challenges of Adopting the Use of Technology in Less Developed Countries: The Case of Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jayson W.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on Everett Rogers's theory of the diffusion of innovations, this article identifies the barriers, challenges, and successes in the adoption of technology training by teacher trainers in Cambodia. The analysis was based on data collected from an open-ended survey, face-to-face interviews, and document analysis. Findings reveal that the…

  16. Review of the genus Chrysoscota in Cambodia (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae), with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Bayarsaikhan, Ulziijargal; Bae, Yang-Seop

    2016-01-01

    The genus Chrysoscota Hampson, 1900 in Cambodia is reviewed, with description of a new species, Chrysoscota kimsuni Bayarsaikhan & Bae, sp. n. is described as new to sciences, and C. cotriangulata Holloway, 2001 is reported as new for the country. Illustrations of adults and male and female genitalia are provided for both species, with a checklist of the genus Chrysoscota. PMID:27615854

  17. Cambodia: Summary Report. The Impact of Informal School Fees. Asia-South Pacific Education Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Sylvia

    2007-01-01

    A prior study of costs of education in Cambodia was undertaken by Mark Bray in 1999. In his study he suggests that: "... the scale of dropout from Cambodian primary schools has been demonstrated to be high. Costs appear to be an important factor for many households when making decisions to withdraw their children from school." In that study,…

  18. The Ethics of Survival: Teaching the Traditional Arts to Disadvantaged Children in Post-Conflict Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallio, Alexis A.; Westerlund, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Cambodia's recent history of conflict and political instability has resulted in a recognized need to recover, regenerate, preserve and protect the nation's cultural heritage. Many education programmes catering for disadvantaged youth have implemented traditional Khmer music and dance lessons, suggesting that these programmes share the…

  19. Situation Reports--Brasil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in six foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Brazil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background…

  20. Distance Education Policy and Public Awareness in Cambodia, Laos, and Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuth, Doung; Than, Chhuon Chan; Phanousith, Somphone; Phissamay, Phonpasit; Tai, Tran Thi

    2007-01-01

    The current project brings together academic and governmental specialists from Cambodia, Laos, and Viet Nam (CLV), in a collaborative study of the prospects for distance education (DE) in those countries. The study's overall objectives are to: (1) survey and take stock of existing educational scenarios and problems in CLV; (2) document the…

  1. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren: a study in Cuba and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D; D'Haese, Patrick C; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E; Díaz, Raquel Junco; Núñez, Fidel Angel; Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Gorbea, Mariano Bonet; Doak, Colleen M; Ponce, Maiza Campos; Wieringa, Frank T; Polman, Katja

    2015-04-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:25903454

  2. Student Transition from Primary to Lower Secondary School in Cambodia: Narrative Insights into Complex Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Zimmermann, Thomas; Sitha, Chhinh; Williams, James H.; Kitamura, Yuto

    2014-01-01

    This article has three purposes. First, it presents findings from a study of student retention and dropout in Cambodia, as pupils transition from primary to lower secondary school. Second, it aims to understand from an in-depth, emic perspective the dynamics of this process and the challenges that individual families and their students face around…

  3. Disability and Democracy in Cambodia: An Integrative Approach to Community Building and Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zook, Darren C.

    2010-01-01

    The political framework through which the various communities of disabled persons in Cambodia advocate for and claim their rights is complex and confusing. Both governmental and non-governmental actors engage this political framework through the mobilization of persons from the various disabled communities, competing in the civic sphere through…

  4. Vernaculars in Literacy and Basic Education in Cambodia, Laos and Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosonen, Kimmo

    2005-01-01

    Three Southeast Asian polities, Cambodia, Laos and Thailand share much of their geography, history, culture, religion and language. Not all speakers of more than 100 languages spoken in the area have a sufficient knowledge of the respective national languages, Khmer, Lao and Thai. Yet, for the most part, the national languages are the only…

  5. Perinatal consumption of thiamine-fortified fish sauce in rural Cambodia. A randomized clinical trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamine deficiency, is a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where thiamine-poor white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamine intake reduces breast milk thiamine placing breastfed infants at risk of beriberi. The objective wa...

  6. Perinatal consumption of thiamin-fortified fish sauce in rural Cambodia: a randomized controlled efficacy trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Importance: Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamin deficiency, remains a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where B-vitamin poor, polished white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamin intake reduces breast milk thiamin concentrations, placing breastfed infa...

  7. Multidrug-Resistant Shigella Infections in Patients with Diarrhea, Cambodia, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Poramathikul, Kamonporn; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Chiek, Sivhour; Oransathid, Wilawan; Ruekit, Sirigade; Nobthai, Panida; Lurchachaiwong, Woradee; Serichantalergs, Oralak; Lon, Chanthap; Swierczewski, Brett

    2016-09-01

    We observed multidrug resistance in 10 (91%) of 11 Shigella isolates from a diarrheal surveillance study in Cambodia. One isolate was resistant to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins and showed decreased susceptibility to azithromycin. We found mutations in gyrA, parC, β-lactamase, and mphA genes. Multidrug resistance increases concern about shigellosis treatment options. PMID:27532684

  8. Pneumococcal Infection among Children before Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Turner, Paul; Turner, Claudia; Suy, Kuong; Soeng, Sona; Ly, Sokeng; Miliya, Thyl; Goldblatt, David; Day, Nicholas P J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccination of children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was initiated in Cambodia in 2015. To determine baseline data, we collected samples from children in 2013 and 2014. PCV13 serotypes accounted for 62.7% of colonizing organisms in outpatients and 88.4% of invasive pneumococci overall; multidrug resistance was common. Thus, effectiveness of vaccination should be high. PMID:26488597

  9. Human Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viral Pathogens in Border Areas of Western Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Ilin; Samon, Nou; Uthaimongkol, Nichapat; Klungthong, Chonticha; Manasatienkij, Wudtichai; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Tyner, Stuart D.; Rith, Sareth; Horm, Viseth Srey; Jarman, Richard G.; Bethell, Delia; Chanarat, Nitima; Pavlin, Julie; Wongstitwilairoong, Tippa; Saingam, Piyaporn; El, But Sam; Fukuda, Mark M.; Touch, Sok; Sovann, Ly; Fernandez, Stefan; Buchy, Philippe; Chanthap, Lon; Saunders, David

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about circulation of influenza and other respiratory viruses in remote populations along the Thai-Cambodia border in western Cambodia. We screened 586 outpatients (median age 5, range 1–77) presenting with influenza-like-illness (ILI) at 4 sentinel sites in western Cambodia between May 2010 and December 2012. Real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT) PCR for influenza was performed on combined nasal and throat specimens followed by viral culture, antigenic analysis, antiviral susceptibility testing and full genome sequencing for phylogenetic analysis. ILI-specimens negative for influenza were cultured, followed by rRT-PCR for enterovirus and rhinovirus (EV/RV) and EV71. Influenza was found in 168 cases (29%) and occurred almost exclusively in the rainy season from June to November. Isolated influenza strains had close antigenic and phylogenetic relationships, matching vaccine and circulating strains found elsewhere in Cambodia. Influenza vaccination coverage was low (<20%). Western Cambodian H1N1(2009) isolate genomes were more closely related to 10 earlier Cambodia isolates (94.4% genome conservation) than to 13 Thai isolates (75.9% genome conservation), despite sharing the majority of the amino acid changes with the Thai references. Most genes showed signatures of purifying selection. Viral culture detected only adenovirus (5.7%) and parainfluenza virus (3.8%), while non-polio enteroviruses (10.3%) were detected among 164 culture-negative samples including coxsackievirus A4, A6, A8, A9, A12, B3, B4 and echovirus E6 and E9 using nested RT-PCR methods. A single specimen of EV71 was found. Despite proximity to Thailand, influenza epidemiology of these western Cambodian isolates followed patterns observed elsewhere in Cambodia, continuing to support current vaccine and treatment recommendations from the Cambodian National Influenza Center. Amino acid mutations at non-epitope sites, particularly hemagglutinin genes, require further investigation in light

  10. Human Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viral Pathogens in Border Areas of Western Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Ans; Melendrez, Melanie C; Se, Youry; Chuang, Ilin; Samon, Nou; Uthaimongkol, Nichapat; Klungthong, Chonticha; Manasatienkij, Wudtichai; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Tyner, Stuart D; Rith, Sareth; Horm, Viseth Srey; Jarman, Richard G; Bethell, Delia; Chanarat, Nitima; Pavlin, Julie; Wongstitwilairoong, Tippa; Saingam, Piyaporn; El, But Sam; Fukuda, Mark M; Touch, Sok; Sovann, Ly; Fernandez, Stefan; Buchy, Philippe; Chanthap, Lon; Saunders, David

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about circulation of influenza and other respiratory viruses in remote populations along the Thai-Cambodia border in western Cambodia. We screened 586 outpatients (median age 5, range 1-77) presenting with influenza-like-illness (ILI) at 4 sentinel sites in western Cambodia between May 2010 and December 2012. Real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT) PCR for influenza was performed on combined nasal and throat specimens followed by viral culture, antigenic analysis, antiviral susceptibility testing and full genome sequencing for phylogenetic analysis. ILI-specimens negative for influenza were cultured, followed by rRT-PCR for enterovirus and rhinovirus (EV/RV) and EV71. Influenza was found in 168 cases (29%) and occurred almost exclusively in the rainy season from June to November. Isolated influenza strains had close antigenic and phylogenetic relationships, matching vaccine and circulating strains found elsewhere in Cambodia. Influenza vaccination coverage was low (<20%). Western Cambodian H1N1(2009) isolate genomes were more closely related to 10 earlier Cambodia isolates (94.4% genome conservation) than to 13 Thai isolates (75.9% genome conservation), despite sharing the majority of the amino acid changes with the Thai references. Most genes showed signatures of purifying selection. Viral culture detected only adenovirus (5.7%) and parainfluenza virus (3.8%), while non-polio enteroviruses (10.3%) were detected among 164 culture-negative samples including coxsackievirus A4, A6, A8, A9, A12, B3, B4 and echovirus E6 and E9 using nested RT-PCR methods. A single specimen of EV71 was found. Despite proximity to Thailand, influenza epidemiology of these western Cambodian isolates followed patterns observed elsewhere in Cambodia, continuing to support current vaccine and treatment recommendations from the Cambodian National Influenza Center. Amino acid mutations at non-epitope sites, particularly hemagglutinin genes, require further investigation in light

  11. The effects of duration of exposure to the REAPS model in developing students' general creativity and creative problem solving in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhusaini, Abdulnasser Alashaal F.

    The Real Engagement in Active Problem Solving (REAPS) model was developed in 2004 by C. June Maker and colleagues as an intervention for gifted students to develop creative problem solving ability through the use of real-world problems. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the REAPS model on developing students' general creativity and creative problem solving in science with two durations as independent variables. The long duration of the REAPS model implementation lasted five academic quarters or approximately 10 months; the short duration lasted two quarters or approximately four months. The dependent variables were students' general creativity and creative problem solving in science. The second purpose of the study was to explore which aspects of creative problem solving (i.e., generating ideas, generating different types of ideas, generating original ideas, adding details to ideas, generating ideas with social impact, finding problems, generating and elaborating on solutions, and classifying elements) were most affected by the long duration of the intervention. The REAPS model in conjunction with Amabile's (1983; 1996) model of creative performance provided the theoretical framework for this study. The study was conducted using data from the Project of Differentiation for Diverse Learners in Regular Classrooms (i.e., the Australian Project) in which one public elementary school in the eastern region of Australia cooperated with the DISCOVER research team at the University of Arizona. All students in the school from first to sixth grade participated in the study. The total sample was 360 students, of which 115 were exposed to a long duration and 245 to a short duration of the REAPS model. The principal investigators used a quasi-experimental research design in which all students in the school received the treatment for different durations. Students in both groups completed pre- and posttests using the Test of Creative Thinking

  12. Transpiration characteristics of a rubber plantation in central Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Tateishi, Makiko; Lim, Tiva K; Mudd, Ryan G; Ziegler, Alan D; Giambelluca, Thomas W; Yin, Song

    2014-03-01

    The rapid and widespread expansion of rubber plantations in Southeast Asia necessitates a greater understanding of tree physiology and the impacts of water consumption on local hydrology. Sap flow measurements were used to study the intra- and inter-annual variations in transpiration rate (Et) in a rubber stand in the low-elevation plain of central Cambodia. Mean stand sap flux density (JS) indicates that rubber trees actively transpire in the rainy season, but become inactive in the dry season. A sharp, brief drop in JS occurred simultaneously with leaf shedding in the middle of the dry season in January. Although the annual maxima of JS were approximately the same in the two study years, the maximum daily stand Et of ∼2.0 mm day(-1) in 2010 increased to ∼2.4 mm day(-1) in 2011. Canopy-level stomatal response was well explained by changes in solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit, soil moisture availability, leaf area, and stem diameter. Rubber trees had a relatively small potential to transpire at the beginning of the study period, compared with average diffuse-porous species. After 2 years of growth in stem diameter, transpiration potential was comparable to other species. The sensitivity of canopy conductance (gc) to atmospheric drought indicates isohydric behavior of rubber trees. Modeling also predicted a relatively small sensitivity of gc to the soil moisture deficit and a rapid decrease in gc under extreme drought conditions. However, annual observations suggest the possibility of a change in leaf characteristics with tree maturity and/or initiation of latex tapping. The estimated annual stand Et was 469 mm year(-1) in 2010, increasing to 658 mm year(-1) in 2011. Diagnostic analysis using the derived gc model showed that inter-annual change in stand Et in the rapidly growing young rubber stand was determined mainly by tree growth rate, not by differences in air and soil variables in the surrounding environment. Future research should focus on the

  13. Radar Image with Color as Height, Old Khmer Road, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows the Old Khmer Road (Inrdratataka-Bakheng causeway) in Cambodia extending from the 9th Century A.D. capitol city of Hariharalaya in the lower right portion of the image to the later 10th Century AD capital of Yasodharapura. This was located in the vicinity of Phnom Bakheng (not shown in image). The Old Road is believed to be more than 1000 years old. Its precise role and destination within the 'new' city at Angkor is still being studied by archeologists. But wherever it ended, it not only offered an immense processional way for the King to move between old and new capitols, it also linked the two areas, widening the territorial base of the Khmer King. Finally, in the past and today, the Old Road managed the waters of the floodplain. It acted as a long barrage or dam for not only the natural streams of the area but also for the changes brought to the local hydrology by Khmer population growth.

    The image was acquired by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR). Image brightness is from the P-band (68 cm wavelength) radar backscatter, which is a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back towards the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color represents 20 m of elevation change, that is going from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again corresponds to 20 m of elevation change. Image dimensions are approximately 3.4 km by 3.5 km with a pixel spacing of 5 m. North is at top.

    AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR mode, AIRSAR collects radar interferometry data from two spatially separated antennas (2.6 meters, or 8.5 feet). Information from the two antennas is used to form radar backscatter imagery and to generate highly accurate elevation data. Built, operated and managed by JPL, AIRSAR is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise program. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Radar Image with Color as Height, Sman Teng, Temple, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Cambodia's Angkor region, taken by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), reveals a temple (upper-right) not depicted on early 19th Century French archeological survey maps and American topographic maps. The temple, known as 'Sman Teng,' was known to the local Khmer people, but had remained unknown to historians due to the remoteness of its location. The temple is thought to date to the 11th Century: the heyday of Angkor. It is an important indicator of the strategic and natural resource contributions of the area northwest of the capitol, to the urban center of Angkor. Sman Teng, the name designating one of the many types of rice enjoyed by the Khmer, was 'discovered' by a scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., working in collaboration with an archaeological expert on the Angkor region. Analysis of this remote area was a true collaboration of archaeology and technology. Locating the temple of Sman Teng required the skills of scientists trained to spot the types of topographic anomalies that only radar can reveal.

    This image, with a pixel spacing of 5 meters (16.4 feet), depicts an area of approximately 5 by 4.7 kilometers (3.1 by 2.9 miles). North is at top. Image brightness is from the P-band (68 centimeters, or 26.8 inches) wavelength radar backscatter, a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color represents 25 meters (82 feet) of elevation change, so going from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again corresponds to 25 meters (82 feet) of elevation change.

    AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR mode, AIRSAR collects radar interferometry data from two spatially separated antennas (2.6 meters, or 8.5 feet). Information from the two antennas is used to form radar backscatter imagery and to generate highly accurate elevation data

  15. Water-borne diseases and extreme weather events in Cambodia: review of impacts and implications of climate change.

    PubMed

    Davies, Grace I; McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Yoonhee; Hashizume, Masahiro; Iddings, Steven; Chan, Vibol

    2015-01-01

    Cambodia is prone to extreme weather events, especially floods, droughts and typhoons. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of such events. The Cambodian population is highly vulnerable to the impacts of these events due to poverty; malnutrition; agricultural dependence; settlements in flood-prone areas, and public health, governance and technological limitations. Yet little is known about the health impacts of extreme weather events in Cambodia. Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap. A literature review of the health impacts of floods, droughts and typhoons in Cambodia was conducted, with regional and global information reviewed where Cambodia-specific literature was lacking. Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. A time-series analysis under quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the association between floods and diarrhoeal disease incidence in Cambodian children between 2001 and 2012 in 16 Cambodian provinces. Floods were significantly associated with increased diarrhoeal disease in two provinces, while the analysis conducted suggested a possible protective effect from toilets and piped water. Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia. PMID:25546280

  16. Water-Borne Diseases and Extreme Weather Events in Cambodia: Review of Impacts and Implications of Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Grace I.; McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Yoonhee; Hashizume, Masahiro; Iddings, Steven; Chan, Vibol

    2014-01-01

    Cambodia is prone to extreme weather events, especially floods, droughts and typhoons. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of such events. The Cambodian population is highly vulnerable to the impacts of these events due to poverty; malnutrition; agricultural dependence; settlements in flood-prone areas, and public health, governance and technological limitations. Yet little is known about the health impacts of extreme weather events in Cambodia. Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap. A literature review of the health impacts of floods, droughts and typhoons in Cambodia was conducted, with regional and global information reviewed where Cambodia-specific literature was lacking. Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. A time-series analysis under quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the association between floods and diarrhoeal disease incidence in Cambodian children between 2001 and 2012 in 16 Cambodian provinces. Floods were significantly associated with increased diarrhoeal disease in two provinces, while the analysis conducted suggested a possible protective effect from toilets and piped water. Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia. PMID:25546280

  17. Radar Image with Color as Height, Lovea, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Lovea, Cambodia, was acquired by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR). Lovea, the roughly circular feature in the middle-right of the image, rises some 5 meters (16.4 feet) above the surrounding terrain. Lovea is larger than many of the other mound sites with a diameter of greater than 300 meters (984.3 feet). However, it is one of a number highlighted by the radar imagery. The present-day village of Lovea does not occupy all of the elevated area. However, at the center of the mound is an ancient spirit post honoring the legendary founder of the village. The mound is surrounded by earthworks and has vestiges of additional curvilinear features. Today, as in the past, these harnessed water during the rainy season, and conserved it during the long dry months of the year.

    The village of Lovea located on the mound was established in pre-Khmer times, probably before 500 A.D. In the lower left portion of the image is a large trapeng and square moat. These are good examples of construction during the historical 9th to 14th Century A.D. Khmer period; construction that honored and protected earlier circular villages. This suggests a cultural and technical continuity between prehistoric circular villages and the immense urban site of Angkor. This connection is one of the significant finds generated by NASA's radar imaging of Angkor. It shows that the city of Angkor was a particularly Khmer construction. The temple forms and water management structures of Angkor were the result of pre-existing Khmer beliefs and methods of water management.

    Image dimensions are approximately 6.3 by 4.7 kilometers (3.9 by 2.9 miles). North is at top. Image brightness is from the C-band (5.6 centimeters, or 2.2 inches wavelength) radar backscatter, which is a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color represents 20 meters (65.6 feet) of elevation change; that is, going

  18. Radar Image with Color as Height, Hariharalaya, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hariharalaya, the ancient 9th Century A.D. capitol of the Khmer in Cambodia, is shown in the upper center portion of this NASA Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) image. The image was acquired during the 1996 PACRIM mission with AIRSAR operating in the TOPSAR mode. At the center of the image is the terraced sandstone temple mountain of the King Indravarman, the Bakong. The smaller enclosed rectangular feature just to the north is Preah Ko. Further to the south are more rectangular features, temples and water reservoirs attributed to other kings in the earlier part of the 9th Century A.D. and maybe even earlier. Just visible at the top on the image is a long linear feature that forms the southern border of the immense water reservoir, at the center of which is the Lolei temple. The city was the first capitol of the Khmer after the 802 A.D. ceremony consecrating the king as 'Devaraja'. This usually translated as 'god who was king' or 'king who was god'. In the next century, the center of power shifted to the northwest, to the area known today as Angkor.

    Thus this early capital is unique both in being the first after the historical 'founding' of the Khmer Empire, and for being inhabited for a relatively short time. Although kings returned from Angkor in the 11th and 12th Centuries A.D. to build the temple known as the Lolei and to construct the tower in the center of Bakong, the city of Hariharalaya remained on the perimeter of royal power. It was revered, however, as part of a longstanding and important custom of ancestral veneration. This manifested itself in a complex set of rituals honoring one's forebears--also ensuring legitimacy for one's claim to the throne. So behind this seemingly simple patterning of rectangles on the radar image lies many layers of history, ritual and meaning for the Khmer people, past and present.

    Image dimensions are approximately 6 by 4.8 kilometers (3.7 by 3 miles) with a pixel spacing of 5 meters (16.4 feet). North is at

  19. Infectious Etiologies of Acute Febrile Illness among Patients Seeking Health Care in South-Central Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, Matthew R.; Blair, Patrick J.; Touch, Sok; Sokhal, Buth; Yasuda, Chadwick Y.; Williams, Maya; Richards, Allen L.; Burgess, Timothy H.; Wierzba, Thomas F.; Putnam, Shannon D.

    2012-01-01

    The agents of human febrile illness can vary by region and country suggesting that diagnosis, treatment, and control programs need to be based on a methodical evaluation of area-specific etiologies. From December 2006 to December 2009, 9,997 individuals presenting with acute febrile illness at nine health care clinics in south-central Cambodia were enrolled in a study to elucidate the etiologies. Upon enrollment, respiratory specimens, whole blood, and serum were collected. Testing was performed for viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. Etiologies were identified in 38.0% of patients. Influenza was the most frequent pathogen, followed by dengue, malaria, and bacterial pathogens isolated from blood culture. In addition, 3.5% of enrolled patients were infected with more than one pathogen. Our data provide the first systematic assessment of the etiologies of acute febrile illness in south-central Cambodia. Data from syndromic-based surveillance studies can help guide public health responses in developing nations. PMID:22302857

  20. HIV transmission from husbands to wives in Cambodia: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yang, Youngran; Lewis, Frances Marcus; Kraushaar, Daniel L

    2013-01-01

    HIV transmission in Cambodia has declined considerably in recent years, yet new incidents of HIV transmission within marital relationships have increased. Evidence suggests that the cause of this is transmission from HIV-positive men to their HIV-negative spouses. The objective of this paper is to develop an evidence-based model of HIV transmission from husbands to wives in Cambodia in a context of culture and society, drawing from the published literature. A critical analysis of peer reviewed literature, professional papers, policy reports and reference books identified four plausible factors influencing inter-spousal HIV transmission: (1) a hierarchical male-dominated society, (2) husbands' involvement with sex workers, (3) cultural values concerning the ideal Khmer woman and (4) unprotected sex between an HIV-infected husband and his uninfected wife. This evidence-based explanatory model can be used to inform future culturally appropriate HIV-education and prevention programmes. PMID:23701215

  1. Toward modeling regionally specific human security using GIS: case study Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Owen, Taylor; Slaymaker, Olav

    2005-08-01

    A new methodology for measuring human security is presented. The three stages of the methodology are: i) threat assessment, ii) data collection and organization, and iii) data visualization and analysis, using Geographic Information Systems. Results from a Cambodia case study are highlighted. The United Nations Development Program's notion of human security, which gives equal weight to economic, health, food, political, personal, and environmental factors, is used. Country-specific threats in each category are determined, and local, spatially referenced data are collected. In this paper, poverty, dengue fever, and tuberculosis are used as examples of the analytic process. Regions of Cambodia exposed to all three of these threats ("hot spots") are located, and spatial correlation between poverty, dengue fever, and tuberculosis is calculated. The methodology i) advances a broad concept of human security, ii) will potentially assist policy and decision makers, and iii) identifies research questions that cannot be resolved using single-sector analysis. PMID:16201215

  2. Key issues relating to decentralization at the provincial level of health management in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Men, Bunnan; Grundy, John; Cane, Jeff; Rasmey, Lon Chan; An, Nguon Sim; Soeung, Sann Chan; Jenkinson, Karl; Boreland, Marian; Maynard, Jim; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2005-01-01

    The following study was conducted as part of a review of management systems at a Provincial Health Department (Kampong Cham Province) and a National Health Programme (National Immunization Program) in 2002-2003 in Cambodia. The aim of this paper is to identify, analyse and recommend those management system factors that are critical to the success of health management performance, with a particular focus on provincial management. The review has identified critical success factors associated with health management performance at the sub-national level that include a stronger role for effective human resource management in health sector reform, elevation of the status of planning in senior level management, and the development of a more comprehensive and transparent finance system. These success factors will position the provincial level of health management to respond more effectively to the reform challenges of administrative de-concentration and political decentralization that are currently underway across a range of government sectors in Cambodia. PMID:15799454

  3. Community and School-Based Health Education for Dengue Control in Rural Cambodia: A Process Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Khun, Sokrin; Manderson, Lenore

    2007-01-01

    Dengue fever continues to be a major public health problem in Cambodia, with significant impact on children. Health education is a major means for prevention and control of the National Dengue Control Program (NDCP), and is delivered to communities and in schools. Drawing on data collected in 2003–2004 as part of an ethnographic study conducted in eastern Cambodia, we explore the approaches used in health education and their effectiveness to control dengue. Community health education is provided through health centre outreach activities and campaigns of the NDCP, but is not systematically evaluated, is under-funded and delivered irregularly; school-based education is restricted in terms of time and lacks follow-up in terms of practical activities for prevention and control. As a result, adherence is partial. We suggest the need for sustained routine education for dengue prevention and control, and the need for approaches to ensure the translation of knowledge into practice. PMID:18160981

  4. Resistance, rupture and repetition: Civil society strategies against intimate partner violence in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Lilja, Mona; Baaz, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a new interpretation of the 'resistance' carried out by local civil society organisations in Cambodia against intimate partner violence (IPV). In this, the paper explores the nexus between 'rupture', 'resistance' and 'repetition' and concludes that different 'repetitions' can contribute to acts of violence while simultaneously creating possibilities for resisting IPV. In regard to the latter, the concept of 'rupture' is investigated as a performative politics through which organisations try to disrupt the 'repetitions' of violent masculinities. Furthermore, it is argued that the importance of 'repetitions' and the concept of time should be acknowledged. The French criminal defence lawyer Jacques Vergès' understanding of 'rupture' and the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze's notions of 'repetition' inform the analysis. To exemplify our discussion and findings, the paper embraces stories of a number of civil society workers who facilitate various men's groups in Cambodia in order to negotiate the practice of IPV. PMID:25599422

  5. Burma and Cambodia: Human Rights, Social Disruption, and the Spread of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Beyrer

    1998-01-01

    The debate around the issues raised by HIV/AIDS and human rights has largely focused on the protection from rights violations of individuals or groups affected by the disease. The relationship between political and social conditions where human rights abuses are frequent and the spread of HIV infection has been less studied. Two countries in Southeast Asia, Burma and Cambodia, are currently undergoing serious and uncontrolled epidemics of HIV; both are marked by political cultures of state violence and corruption, chronic civil war and insurgency, and widespread human rights violations. This article attempts to investigate associations between rapid HIV spread and political and social crises, using Burma and Cambodia as case studies. The climate and context of rights abuses are seen as significant factors of national vulnerability to the epidemic spread of HIV/AIDS. PMID:10347369

  6. REAP Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Gosar, Paul A. [R-AZ-4

    2013-11-20

    01/09/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Rotating Responsibility Reaps Rewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Barbara; Schullery, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    Describes a process used for group assignments in a business communication course which holds all group members accountable by using a structure of rotating responsibility. Discusses selecting assignments and implementing the process, noting how this structure requires equivalent advance preparation from all members and provides opportunities for…

  8. The impact of a livelihood program on depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Mayumi; Yi, Siyan; Tuot, Sovannary; Suong, Samedy; Sron, Samrithea; Shibanuma, Akira; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychological and social problems are major concerns in this era of successful antiretroviral therapy. Although livelihood programs have been implemented extensively to improve the daily living conditions of people living with HIV in Cambodia, no studies have yet investigated the impacts of these programs on the mental health of this vulnerable population. Therefore, we examined the impact of a livelihood program on depressive symptoms and associated factors among people living with HIV in Cambodia. Design A quasi-experimental, nonequivalent comparison group study was conducted in six provinces of Cambodia in 2014. Data were collected from an intervention group comprising 357 people living with HIV who had participated in the livelihood program and a comparison group comprising 328 people living with HIV who had not participated in this program. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to examine the association between livelihood-program participation and depressive symptoms as measured by the depressive symptoms subscale of the 25-item Cambodian version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. A propensity score matching was used to examine the effect of the livelihood program on depressive symptoms while controlling for selection bias. Results Overall, 56.0% and 62.7% of the participants in the intervention and comparison groups, respectively, met the Hopkins Symptom Checklist threshold for depressive symptoms. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the participants in the intervention group had significantly lower odds of having depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.52–0.88). The analysis from propensity score matching indicated that the livelihood program helped mitigate depressive symptoms among the participants in the intervention group (T=−1.99). Conclusions The livelihood program appeared to help mitigate the burden of depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in Cambodia. Thus

  9. Evidence of two distinct phylogenetic lineages of dog rabies virus circulating in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Mey, Channa; Metlin, Artem; Duong, Veasna; Ong, Sivuth; In, Sotheary; Horwood, Paul F; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Bourhy, Hervé; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    This first extensive retrospective study of the molecular epidemiology of dog rabies in Cambodia included 149 rabies virus (RABV) entire nucleoprotein sequences obtained from 1998-2011. The sequences were analyzed in conjunction with RABVs from other Asian countries. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed the South-East Asian phylogenetic clade comprising viruses from Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos and Myanmar. The present study represents the first attempt to classify the phylogenetic lineages inside this clade, resulting in the confirmation that all the Cambodian viruses belonged to the South-East Asian (SEA) clade. Three distinct phylogenetic lineages in the region were established with the majority of viruses from Cambodia closely related to viruses from Thailand, Laos and Vietnam, forming the geographically widespread phylogenetic lineage SEA1. A South-East Asian lineage SEA2 comprised two viruses from Cambodia was identified, which shared a common ancestor with RABVs originating from Laos. Viruses from Myanmar formed separate phylogenetic lineages within the major SEA clade. Bayesian molecular clock analysis suggested that the time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of all Cambodian RABVs dated to around 1950. The TMRCA of the Cambodian SEA1 lineage was around 1964 and that of the SEA2 lineage was around 1953. The results identified three phylogenetically distinct and geographically separated lineages inside the earlier identified major SEA clade, covering at least five countries in the region. A greater understanding of the molecular epidemiology of rabies in South-East Asia is an important step to monitor progress on the efforts to control canine rabies in the region. PMID:26705238

  10. Mental health services in Cambodia, challenges and opportunities in a post-conflict setting.

    PubMed

    Jegannathan, Bhoomikumar; Kullgren, Gunnar; Deva, Parameshvara

    2015-02-01

    Cambodia had suffered enormously due to war and internecine conflict during the latter half of the twentieth century, more so during the Vietnam War. Total collapse of education and health systems during the Pol Pot era continues to be a challenge for developing the necessary infrastructure and human resources to provide basic minimum mental health care which is compounded by the prevailing cultural belief and stigma over mental, neurological and substance abuse disorders (MNSDs). The mental health research and services in Cambodia had been predominantly 'trauma focused', a legacy of war, and there is a need to move toward epidemiologically sound public health oriented mental health policy and service development. Integrating mental health program with primary health care services with specifically stated minimum package of activities at primary level and complementary package of activities at secondary level is an opportunity to meet the needs and rights of persons with mental, neurological and substance abuse disorders (PWMNSDs) in Cambodia, provided there is mental health leadership, government commitment and political will. PMID:25563073

  11. Identification of multidrug resistance in previously treated tuberculosis patients: a mixed methods study in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Royce, S; Khann, S; Yadav, RP; Mao, ET; Cattamanchi, A; Sam, S; Handley, MA

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Setting Previously treated tuberculosis (TB) patients are a priority for drug susceptibility testing (DST) to identify cases with multidrug resistance (MDR). In Cambodia, a recent study found that only one-third of smear-positive previously treated patients had DST results. Objective To quantify the gaps in detecting MDR in previously treated TB patients in Cambodia, and describe health workers’ perspectives on barriers, facilitators and potential interventions. Design We analyzed case notifications in Cambodia (2004–2012) and conducted semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders Results The proportion of previously treated notifications varied significantly across provinces 2010–12, in the context of longer term trends of decreasing relapse and increasing “other” retreatment notifications. Correct classification of patients’ TB treatment history and ensuring specimens from previously-treated patients are collected and reach the laboratory could nearly double the number of detected MDR-TB cases. Identified barriers include patients’ reluctance to disclose and staff difficulty eliciting treatment history, partly due to availability of streptomycin only in hospitals. Facilitators include trained health workers, collection of sputum for DST even if previously treated patients are not taking streptomycin, streamlining sputum transportation and promptly reporting results. Conclusion Improved monitoring, supportive supervision, and correctly classifying previously treated patients are essential for improving detection of MDR-TB. PMID:25299861

  12. Correlates of household food insecurity and low dietary diversity in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Christine M; McLean, Judy; Kroeun, Hou; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Lynd, Larry D; Green, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify correlates of household food insecurity and poor dietary diversity in rural Cambodia. Trained interviewers administered a survey to 900 households in four rural districts of Prey Veng Province, Cambodia. The Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) and Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) were used to assess household food insecurity and dietary diversity. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to identify independent correlates of household food insecurity and poor dietary diversity (HDDSCambodia, the prevalence of any degree of household food insecurity was very high and dietary diversity was generally low. Interventions to improve food security and dietary diversity should encompass income-generating activities and be targeted toward the poorest households. PMID:26693758

  13. Development and Implementation of Cornerstone Documents to Support Nursing Practice in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Henker, Richard; Prak, Manila; Koy, Virya

    2015-05-01

    Cornerstone, or guiding documents, for nursing and healthcare support the profession of nursing throughout the world. This article describes the impact of the civil war and instability in Cambodia that led to poverty and destruction of the healthcare system and provides a brief overview of nursing in Cambodia today. Since the 1990s, the Cambodian healthcare system has been recovering from war. Nurses have been transitioning from task oriented roles to more sophisticated roles that incorporate the nursing process. In addition to significant changes in nursing education and other advances in the healthcare system during the last five years, the Ministry of Health (MoH) has strongly encouraged the development of cornerstone documents to guide nursing practice for patient care provided in Cambodia. Standards and competencies have been developed based on the American Nurses Association (ANA) template for Scope and Standards of Practice. Cornerstone documents for nursing that have been implemented by the MoH, many at the Angkor Hospital for Children, include evidence based protocols, the nursing process framework, the Code of Ethics for Nurses and development of the Scope of Practice and Standards of Care for Cambodian Nurses. PMID:26882424

  14. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khun, Vuthy; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong

    2016-01-01

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia.

  15. Knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. Cambodia's monks, nuns fill gap for AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    1997-12-01

    The UN has reported that Cambodia has one of Asia's most serious HIV epidemics, with 100,000-120,000 of the country's 10.5 million people infected with HIV and up to 1 million more people to be potentially infected over the next 10 years. Cambodia has the fastest growing HIV/AIDS epidemic in the region. The country's resources, however, are inadequate and health facilities have been unable to keep up with the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS. Poverty, lack of education, widespread prostitution, limited condom use, and a social breakdown after years of war have all contributed to the problem. 50% of adult men regularly have sex with prostitutes, but they see no need to practice safer sex if a woman looks healthy. Furthermore, little professional and family care is available for the infected and sick. While doctors are few and far between in Cambodia, almost every community has a religious institution and many religious leaders are wiling to help people with AIDS. People in the religious community such as Buddhist monks and the Sisters of Charity help people mainly through counseling, encouragement to keep on living, and accommodating those who have no place else to go. PMID:12293293

  16. What Are Effective Components of In-Service Teacher Training? A Study Examining Teacher Trainers' Perceptions of the Components of a Training Programme in Mathematics Education in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Jane

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses an in-service education project, financed by the Belgium Technical Cooperation, to improve the quality of mathematics teaching in 138 primary and lower secondary schools in Cambodia. The project design drew on recent research in developing countries and prior experience of training programmes in Cambodia. The…

  17. Distribution of selected healthcare resources for influenza pandemic response in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Human influenza infection poses a serious public health threat in Cambodia, a country at risk for the emergence and spread of novel influenza viruses with pandemic potential. Prior pandemics demonstrated the adverse impact of influenza on poor communities in developing countries. Investigation of healthcare resource distribution can inform decisions regarding resource mobilization and investment for pandemic mitigation. Methods A health facility survey performed across Cambodia obtained data on availability of healthcare resources important for pandemic influenza response. Focusing on five key resources considered most necessary for treating severe influenza (inpatient beds, doctors, nurses, oseltamivir, and ventilators), resource distributions were analyzed at the Operational District (OD) and Province levels, refining data analysis from earlier studies. Resources were stratified by respondent type (hospital vs. District Health Office [DHO]). A summary index of distribution inequality was calculated using the Gini coefficient. Indices for local spatial autocorrelation were measured at the OD level using geographical information system (GIS) analysis. Finally, a potential link between socioeconomic status and resource distribution was explored by mapping resource densities against poverty rates. Results Gini coefficient calculation revealed variable inequality in distribution of the five key resources at the Province and OD levels. A greater percentage of the population resides in areas of relative under-supply (28.5%) than over-supply (21.3%). Areas with more resources per capita showed significant clustering in central Cambodia while areas with fewer resources clustered in the northern and western provinces. Hospital-based inpatient beds, doctors, and nurses were most heavily concentrated in areas of the country with the lowest poverty rates; however, beds and nurses in Non-Hospital Medical Facilities (NHMF) showed increasing concentrations at higher

  18. Review of Climate Change and Water-Related Diseases in Cambodia and Findings From Stakeholder Knowledge Assessments.

    PubMed

    McIver, Lachlan J; Chan, Vibol S; Bowen, Kathyrn J; Iddings, Steven N; Hero, Kol; Raingsey, Piseth P

    2016-03-01

    This project aims to increase the resilience of Cambodian communities to the health risks posed by climate change-related impacts on water-related diseases. There are a number of water-related diseases that are present in Cambodia and are likely to be susceptible to climate change. These include diarrheal diseases, typhoid fever, leptospirosis, melioidosis, viral hepatitis, and schistosomiasis. Certain subsectors of Cambodia's population may be more vulnerable than others with respect to climate change impacts on water and health, including agricultural workers and residents of flood-and drought-prone areas. The current level of understanding on the part of health professionals and other key stakeholders in Cambodia regarding the risks posed by climate change on water-sensitive diseases is relatively low. Strategies by which this understanding might be strengthened are suggested. PMID:25388662

  19. Respondent-driven sampling on the Thailand-Cambodia border. I. Can malaria cases be contained in mobile migrant workers?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reliable information on mobility patterns of migrants is a crucial part of the strategy to contain the spread of artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites in South-East Asia, and may also be helpful to efforts to address other public health problems for migrants and members of host communities. In order to limit the spread of malarial drug resistance, the malaria prevention and control programme will need to devise strategies to reach cross-border and mobile migrant populations. Methodology The Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method was used to survey migrant workers from Cambodia and Myanmar, both registered and undocumented, in three Thai provinces on the Thailand-Cambodia border in close proximity to areas with documented artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites. 1,719 participants (828 Cambodian and 891 Myanmar migrants) were recruited. Subpopulations of migrant workers were analysed using the Thailand Ministry of Health classification based on length of residence in Thailand of greater than six months (long-term, or M1) or less than six months (short-term, or M2). Key information collected on the structured questionnaire included patterns of mobility and migration, demographic characteristics, treatment-seeking behaviours, and knowledge, perceptions, and practices about malaria. Results Workers from Cambodia came from provinces across Cambodia, and 22% of Cambodian M1 and 72% of Cambodian M2 migrants had been in Cambodia in the last three months. Less than 6% returned with a frequency of greater than once per month. Of migrants from Cambodia, 32% of M1 and 68% of M2 were planning to return, and named provinces across Cambodia as their likely next destinations. Most workers from Myanmar came from Mon state (86%), had never returned to Myanmar (85%), and only 4% stated plans to return. Conclusion Information on migratory patterns of migrants from Myanmar and Cambodia along the malaria endemic Thailand-Cambodian border within the artemisinin resistance

  20. A cross-sectional investigation of the quality of selected medicines in Cambodia in 2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Access to good-quality medicines in many countries is largely hindered by the rampant circulation of spurious/falsely labeled/falsified/counterfeit (SFFC) and substandard medicines. In 2006, the Ministry of Health of Cambodia, in collaboration with Kanazawa University, Japan, initiated a project to combat SFFC medicines. Methods To assess the quality of medicines and prevalence of SFFC medicines among selected products, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in Cambodia. Cefixime, omeprazole, co-trimoxazole, clarithromycin, and sildenafil were selected as candidate medicines. These medicines were purchased from private community drug outlets in the capital, Phnom Penh, and Svay Rieng and Kandal provinces through a stratified random sampling scheme in July 2010. Results In total, 325 medicine samples were collected from 111 drug outlets. Non-licensed outlets were more commonly encountered in rural than in urban areas (p < 0.01). Of all the samples, 93.5% were registered and 80% were foreign products. Samples without registration numbers were found more frequently among foreign-manufactured products than in domestic ones (p < 0.01). According to pharmacopeial analytical results, 14.5%, 4.6%, and 24.6% of the samples were unacceptable in quantity, content uniformity, and dissolution test, respectively. All the ultimately unacceptable samples in the content uniformity tests were of foreign origin. Following authenticity investigations conducted with the respective manufacturers and medicine regulatory authorities, an unregistered product of cefixime collected from a pharmacy was confirmed as an SFFC medicine. However, the sample was acceptable in quantity, content uniformity, and dissolution test. Conclusions The results of this survey indicate that medicine counterfeiting is not limited to essential medicines in Cambodia: newer-generation medicines are also targeted. Concerted efforts by both domestic and foreign manufacturers, wholesalers

  1. Acute Undifferentiated Febrile Illness in Rural Cambodia: A 3-Year Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Tara C.; Siv, Sovannaroth; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Fleischmann, Erna; Ariey, Frédéric; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; González, Iveth J.; Christophel, Eva-Maria; Abdur, Rashid; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Bell, David; Menard, Didier

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, malaria control has been successfully implemented in Cambodia, leading to a substantial decrease in reported cases. Wide-spread use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has revealed a large burden of malaria-negative fever cases, for which no clinical management guidelines exist at peripheral level health facilities. As a first step towards developing such guidelines, a 3-year cross-sectional prospective observational study was designed to investigate the causes of acute malaria-negative febrile illness in Cambodia. From January 2008 to December 2010, 1193 febrile patients and 282 non-febrile individuals were recruited from three health centers in eastern and western Cambodia. Malaria RDTs and routine clinical examination were performed on site by health center staff. Venous samples and nasopharyngeal throat swabs were collected and analysed by molecular diagnostic tests. Blood cultures and blood smears were also taken from all febrile individuals. Molecular testing was applied for malaria parasites, Leptospira, Rickettsia, O. tsutsugamushi, Dengue- and Influenza virus. At least one pathogen was identified in 73.3% (874/1193) of febrile patient samples. Most frequent pathogens detected were P. vivax (33.4%), P. falciparum (26.5%), pathogenic Leptospira (9.4%), Influenza viruses (8.9%), Dengue viruses (6.3%), O. tsutsugamushi (3.9%), Rickettsia (0.2%), and P. knowlesi (0.1%). In the control group, a potential pathogen was identified in 40.4%, most commonly malaria parasites and Leptospira. Clinic-based diagnosis of malaria RDT-negative cases was poorly predictive for pathogen and appropriate treatment. Additional investigations are needed to understand their impact on clinical disease and epidemiology, and the possible role of therapies such as doxycycline, since many of these pathogens were seen in non-febrile subjects. PMID:24755844

  2. The prevalence and associated factors for prehypertension and hypertension in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vinay; LoGerfo, James P; Raingsey, Prak Piseth; Fitzpatrick, Annette L

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypertension is strongly associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes and was the leading modifiable associated factor for global disease burden in 2010. Analysis of modifiable associated factors will be important to those concerned with mitigating the adverse effects of hypertension. We studied factors associated with hypertension in adults aged 25–64 years of age in Cambodia in order to help develop strategies for planned new initiatives for prevention and control of hypertension. Methods Using data from a nationwide survey in Cambodia assessing the prevalence of associated factors for non-communicable disease in 2010 (WHO STEPs survey), 5017 participants between the ages of 25 and 64 years were included in a secondary analysis of the prevalence and predictors of hypertension. Results The prevalence of prehypertension in this sample was approximately double that of overall hypertension (27.9% vs 15.3%). Male sex, increasing age and known cardiovascular associated factors, including higher Body Mass Index (BMI), dyslipidaemia, impaired fasting glycaemia, and abdominal obesity were all associated with an increased prevalence of hypertension. In multivariate models, increasing age was the strongest associated factor for hypertension (OR 8.79, 95% CI (5.43 to 14.2)), whereas, higher BMI was the primary associated factor associated with prehypertension (OR 3.27, 95% CI 2.21 to 4.82). Conclusions Modifiable cardiovascular-associated factors are strongly correlated with prehypertension and hypertension in Cambodia, and may be a focus of public health and primary care strategies to mitigate subsequent ischaemic heart disease and stroke. A national strategy aimed at increased screening and adherence to medical therapy is a necessary first step to reduce burden of disease and related morbidities. PMID:27326148

  3. Current status of arsenic exposure and social implication in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kongkea; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Huoy, Laingshun; Phan, Samrach; Se, Soknim; Capon, Anthony Guy; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the current status of arsenic exposure in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia, field interview along with urine sample collection was conducted in the arsenic-affected area of Kandal Province, Cambodia. Urine samples were analyzed for total arsenic concentrations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. As a result, arsenicosis patients (n = 127) had As in urine (UAs) ranging from 3.76 to 373 µg L(-1) (mean = 78.7 ± 69.8 µg L(-1); median = 60.2 µg L(-1)). Asymptomatic villagers (n = 108) had UAs ranging from 5.93 to 312 µg L(-1) (mean = 73.0 ± 52.2 µg L(-1); median = 60.5 µg L(-1)). About 24.7 % of all participants had UAs greater than 100 µg L(-1) which indicated a recent arsenic exposure. A survey found that females and adults were more likely to be diagnosed with skin sign of arsenicosis than males and children, respectively. Education level, age, gender, groundwater drinking period, residence time in the village and amount of water drunk per day may influence the incidence of skin signs of arsenicosis. This study suggests that residents in Kandal study area are currently at risk of arsenic although some mitigation has been implemented. More commitment should be made to address this public health concern in rural Cambodia. PMID:26298061

  4. Dietary exposure and human risk assessment of phthalate esters based on total diet study in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Li, Han-Han; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Yasin, Mohamed Salleh Mohamed; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-10-01

    Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of human to phthalates are limited. In this study, to assess the daily intakes of phthalate esters and the possible adverse health impacts, different food samples were collected from three areas of Cambodia, one of the poorest countries in the world. The ∑phthalate ester concentrations in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal provinces ranged from 0.05 to 2.34 (median 0.88) μgg(-1), 0.19-1.65 (median 0.86) μgg(-1) and 0.24-3.05 (median 0.59) μgg(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively. Di-2-Ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the predominant compounds among all foodstuffs. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of phthalate esters for the general population in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal was 34.3, 35.6 and 35.8μgkg(-1) bw d(-1), respectively. The dietary daily intake of DEHP, benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal were below the tolerable daily intakes (TDI) imposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and reference doses (RfD) imposed by The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Rice contributed the greatest quantity of DEHP to the daily intake in Cambodia so may deserve further exploration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the occurrence and the daily intakes of phthalate esters in Cambodia. PMID:27372065

  5. Exploring referral systems for injured patients in low-income countries: a case study from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Shinji; Saint, Saly; Sann, Sary; Ichikawa, Masao; Kimura, Akio; Eng, Lycheng; Yoshida, Katsumi

    2010-07-01

    Injury is a growing public health concern worldwide. Since severe injuries require urgent treatment, involving smooth, timely patient referral between facilities, strengthening of the referral system would reduce injury mortality. Smooth referral consists of identification of severe cases, organization of transportation, communication between facilities and prompt care at the receiving facility. This study examined these components of referral of injured patients in a representative sample of health centres (HCs) and referral hospitals (RHs) in Cambodia. We analysed data from a survey carried out in 80 HCs and 17 RHs by interview or mailed questionnaire from December 2006 to April 2007. Collected information on referral included the presence of referral guidelines for injured patients, distance of referral, commonly used transportation and its cost, communication with receiving facilities, and fast-tracking at receiving facilities. Formal referral systems were not functioning well in some areas (insufficient communication and underutilization of ambulances), and informal systems were frequently involved (patient transfer by taxi or referral by community volunteers, and treatment by traditional healers) but were not fully integrated into the referral network (traditional healers seldom referred patients to public facilities). The referral distance was long for most of the surveyed facilities and transportation costs were high when transferring from remote areas, even by ambulance. This study identified the weaknesses and strengths of the emergency referral system in Cambodia. Streamlining referral mechanisms will require organization of each component of the referral mechanism by strengthening the existing system and mobilizing local resources, which would allow Cambodia to develop an efficient system at reasonable cost, though it may differ from Western models. Guidelines including these components along with training and supervision, and expansion of the system to

  6. Beliefs About Tobacco, Health, and Addiction Among Adults in Cambodia: Findings from a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yel, Daravuth; Bui, Anthony; Job, Jayakaran S.; Knutsen, Synnove; Singh, Pramil N.

    2012-01-01

    There remains a very high rate of smoked and smokeless tobacco use in the Western Pacific Region. The most recent findings from national adult tobacco surveys indicate that very few daily users of tobacco intend to quit tobacco use. In Cambodia, a nation that is predominantly Buddhist, faith-based tobacco control programs have been implemented where, under the fifth precept of Buddhism that proscribes addictive behaviors, monks were encouraged to quit tobacco and temples have been declared smoke-free. In the present study, we included items on a large national tobacco survey to examine the relation between beliefs (faith-based, other) about tobacco, health, and addiction among adults (18 years and older). In a stratified, multistage cluster sample (n = 13,988) of all provinces of Cambodia, we found that (1) 88–93% believe that Buddhist monks should not use tobacco, buy tobacco, or be offered tobacco during a religious ceremony; (2) 86–93% believe that the Wat (temple) should be a smoke-free area; (3) 93–95% believe that tobacco is addictive in the same way as habits (opium, gambling, alcohol) listed under the fifth precept of Buddhism; and (4) those who do not use tobacco are significantly more likely to cite a Buddhist principle as part of their anti-tobacco beliefs. These data indicate that anti-tobacco sentiments are highly prevalent in the Buddhist belief system of Cambodian adults and are especially evident among non-users of tobacco. Our findings indicate that faith-based initiatives could be an effective part of anti-tobacco campaigns in Cambodia. PMID:21948146

  7. Reference values of hematology, biochemistry, and blood type in cynomolgus monkeys from cambodia origin

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kangmoo; Chang, Jaejin; Lee, Min-Jae; Wang, Seungsu; In, Kimhong; Galano-tan, Wilhelm C; Jun, Sanghun; Cho, Kahee; Hwang, Yong-Hwa; Kim, Sung-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys as nonhuman primates are valuable animal models because they have a high level of human gene homology. There are many reference values for hematology and biochemistry of Cynomolgus monkeys that are needed for proper clinical diagnosis and biomedical research conduct. The body weight information and blood type are also key success factors in allogeneic or xenogeneic models. Moreover, the biological parameters could be different according to the origin of the Cynomolgus monkey. However, there are limited references provided, especially of Cambodia origin. In this study, we measured average body weight of 2,518 Cynomolgus monkeys and analyzed hematology and serum biochemistry using 119 males, and determined blood types in 642 monkeys with Cambodia origin. The average body weight of male Cynomolgus monkeys were 2.56±0.345 kg and female group was 2.43±0.330 kg at the age from 2 to 3 years. The male group showed relatively sharp increased average body weight from the 3 to 4 age period compared to the female group. In hematology and biochemistry, it was found that most of the data was similar when compared to other references even though some results showed differences. The ABO blood type result showed that type A, B, AB, and O was approximately 15.6, 33.3, 44.2, and 6.9%, respectively. The main blood type in this facility was B and AB. These biological background references of Cambodia origin could be used to provide important information to researchers who are using them in their biomedical research. PMID:27051442

  8. Cardiologist in the shadow of Angkor Wat: A medical mission to Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In a medical mission to Cambodia, our team of doctors, dentists, and nurses saw over 1000 patients during 4 days of clinics. The most common cardiovascular problems were hypertension (11%) and heart murmurs (3%). Obesity and a history of diabetes were very rare. Unlike the cardiac patients I typically see in my Atlanta office, the Cambodians were trim and muscular from their predominantly farming and, less often, construction jobs. They are a gentle, seemingly happy people, appreciative of whatever limited medical help we could offer. Tuberculosis was the most prevalent serious illness noted. PMID:24688208

  9. Structural vulnerability, disability, and access to nongovernmental organization services in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Gartrell, Alexandra; Hoban, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recognition that people with disability are among the poorest and most marginalized, breaking the disability-poverty cycle has proven challenging. Although UN agencies, most donors, and nongovernmental organizations have disability and development policies, many programs perpetuate disability-based discrimination. Little research examines why such programs fail to achieve sustained livelihood improvement for people with disability. Findings from this study that explored the experience of disability in Cambodia suggest that programs must explicitly address social and cultural norms and power relations. Recommendations for inclusive practice are presented. Listening to the voices of people with disability is the crucial first step. PMID:23879427

  10. High Prevalence and Spatial Distribution of Strongyloides stercoralis in Rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Forrer, Armelle; Hattendorf, Jan; Marti, Hanspeter; Duong, Socheat; Vounatsou, Penelope; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background The threadworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, endemic in tropical and temperate climates, is a neglected tropical disease. Its diagnosis requires specific methods, and accurate information on its geographic distribution and global burden are lacking. We predicted prevalence, using Bayesian geostatistical modeling, and determined risk factors in northern Cambodia. Methods From February to June 2010, we performed a cross-sectional study among 2,396 participants from 60 villages in Preah Vihear Province, northern Cambodia. Two stool specimens per participant were examined using Koga agar plate culture and the Baermann method for detecting S. stercoralis infection. Environmental data was linked to parasitological and questionnaire data by location. Bayesian mixed logistic models were used to explore the spatial correlation of S. stercoralis infection risk. Bayesian Kriging was employed to predict risk at non-surveyed locations. Principal Findings Of the 2,396 participants, 44.7% were infected with S. stercoralis. Of 1,071 strongyloidiasis cases, 339 (31.6%) were among schoolchildren and 425 (39.7%) were found in individuals under 16 years. The incidence of S. stercoralis infection statistically increased with age. Infection among male participants was significantly higher than among females (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4–2.0; P<0.001). Participants who defecated in latrines were infected significantly less than those who did not (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4–0.8; P = 0.001). Strongyloidiasis cases would be reduced by 39% if all participants defecated in latrines. Incidence of S. stercoralis infections did not show a strong tendency toward spatial clustering in this province. The risk of infection significantly decreased with increasing rainfall and soil organic carbon content, and increased in areas with rice fields. Conclusions/Significance Prevalence of S. stercoralis in rural Cambodia is very high and school-aged children and adults over 45 years were the most at

  11. DO MARRIAGES FORGET THEIR PAST? MARITAL STABILITY IN POST–KHMER ROUGE CAMBODIA*

    PubMed Central

    HEUVELINE, PATRICK; POCH, BUNNAK

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of three main destabilizing factors on marital stability in Cambodia: the radical reformation of marriage under the Khmers Rouges (KR); the imbalanced gender ratio among marriageable adults resulting from gendered mortality during the KR regime; and, after decades of isolation from the West, a period of rapid social change. Although there is evidence of declining marital stability in the most recent period, marriages contracted under the KR appear as stable as adjacent marriage cohorts. These findings suggest that the conditions under which spouses were initially paired matter less for marital stability than does their contemporaneous environment. PMID:16579210

  12. Reduced polymorphism in the Kelch propeller domain in Plasmodium vivax isolates from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Popovici, Jean; Kao, Sokheng; Eal, Leanghor; Bin, Sophalai; Kim, Saorin; Ménard, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphism in the ortholog gene of the Plasmodium falciparum K13 gene was investigated in Plasmodium vivax isolates collected in Cambodia. All of them were Sal-1 wild-type alleles except two (2/284, 0.7%), and P. vivax K12 polymorphism was reduced compared to that of the P. falciparum K13 gene. Both mutant allele isolates had the same nonsynonymous mutation at codon 552 (V552I) and were from Ratanak Kiri province. These preliminary data should encourage additional studies for associating artemisinin or chloroquine resistance and K12 polymorphism. PMID:25385109

  13. Reduced Polymorphism in the Kelch Propeller Domain in Plasmodium vivax Isolates from Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Popovici, Jean; Kao, Sokheng; Eal, Leanghor; Bin, Sophalai; Kim, Saorin

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphism in the ortholog gene of the Plasmodium falciparum K13 gene was investigated in Plasmodium vivax isolates collected in Cambodia. All of them were Sal-1 wild-type alleles except two (2/284, 0.7%), and P. vivax K12 polymorphism was reduced compared to that of the P. falciparum K13 gene. Both mutant allele isolates had the same nonsynonymous mutation at codon 552 (V552I) and were from Ratanak Kiri province. These preliminary data should encourage additional studies for associating artemisinin or chloroquine resistance and K12 polymorphism. PMID:25385109

  14. Gendered Motivations, Sociocultural Constraints, and Psychobehavioral Consequences of Transnational Partnerships in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Hoefinger, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Global flows of people, information and capital have created transnational spaces in Cambodia. Within those spaces exists the formation of complex and multilayered interpersonal relationships between people attempting to capitalize on the opportunities created by these flows. The purpose of this article is to describe these transnational relationships, namely between young women employed in the entertainment sectors in Phnom Penh, and their western male partners, while highlighting the racialized and gendered motivations of the global actors, the inevitable sociocultural conflicts/constraints/ misunderstandings that arise within the partnerships, and the resulting challenges and psychobehavioral consequences experienced by the mobile and differentiated individuals involved in these postcolonial relational formations. PMID:25221438

  15. Parental styles in second generation effects of genocide stemming from the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Field, Nigel P; Om, Chariya; Kim, Thida; Vorn, Sin

    2011-11-01

    This study examined the impact of parental styles on second generation effects of trauma among adolescent offspring of survivors of the Khmer Rouge (KR) genocide in Cambodia. Two hundred high school students completed measures addressing their parents' trauma stemming from the KR regime, parental styles (role reversing, overprotective), depression and anxiety. Parents' role reversing parental style and mothers' overprotective parenting were shown to mediate the impact of their trauma symptoms on the child's depression and anxiety. The implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22011103

  16. Gendered Motivations, Sociocultural Constraints, and Psychobehavioral Consequences of Transnational Partnerships in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Hoefinger, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Global flows of people, information and capital have created transnational spaces in Cambodia. Within those spaces exists the formation of complex and multilayered interpersonal relationships between people attempting to capitalize on the opportunities created by these flows. The purpose of this article is to describe these transnational relationships, namely between young women employed in the entertainment sectors in Phnom Penh, and their western male partners, while highlighting the racialized and gendered motivations of the global actors, the inevitable sociocultural conflicts/constraints/ misunderstandings that arise within the partnerships, and the resulting challenges and psychobehavioral consequences experienced by the mobile and differentiated individuals involved in these postcolonial relational formations. PMID:25221438

  17. What Makes the Difference? An Analysis of a Reading Intervention Programme Implemented in Rural Schools in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Jane; Gravelle, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    This article compares the existing single-strategy approach towards the teaching of early literacy in schools in rural Cambodia with a multiple-strategy approach introduced as part of a reading intervention programme. Classroom observations, questionnaires and in-depth interviews with teachers were used to explore teachers' practices and…

  18. Issues and Techniques in Translating Scientific Terms from English to Khmer for a University-Level Text in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Cassie; Oliviera, Alandeom W.; Curry, Alastair; Buck, Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Teachers and students spend much time interacting with written resources such as textbooks, tests, or worksheets during classroom instruction. What if no text is available, however, in the language of the learners? This case study describes the processes and techniques adopted by two university lecturers in Cambodia, as they translated an L1…

  19. Private Tutoring and Mass Schooling in East Asia: Reflections of Inequality in Japan, South Korea, and Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Walter

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines private tutoring systems in three East Asian countries (Japan, South Korea, and Cambodia) with the purpose of examining the relationship between those systems and formal education systems. The study of private tutoring systems in each nation can be used to reveal the inadequacies of the formal education system in meeting the…

  20. ARSENIC REMOVAL AND ECOLOGICALLY SAFE CONTAINMENT OF ARSENIC-WASTE: A SUSTAINABLE SOLUTION FOR ARSENIC CRISIS IN CAMBODIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    An appalling degree of arsenic contamination in groundwater has affected more than a million people in wide region of Mekong delta flood plain in Cambodia. Arsenic is by far the most toxic species of all naturally occurring groundwater contaminants and disposal of removed arse...

  1. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Outbreak in Captive Wild Birds and Cats, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Nick; Ong, Sivuth; Gaidet, Nicolas; Hunt, Matt; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Sorn, San; Peiris, Malik; Van der Werf, Sylvie; Reynes, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    From December 2003 through January 2004, the Phnom Tamao Wildlife Rescue Centre, Cambodia, was affected by the highly pathogenic influenza virus (H5N1). Birds from 26 species died. Influenza virus subtype H5N1 was detected in 6 of 7 species tested. Cats from 5 of 7 species were probably infected; none died. PMID:19239769

  2. The Killing Fields on TV: A Critical Analysis of Network Coverage of Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ted J., III; Grassmick, David E.

    In an effort to determine the nature of American network television news coverage of the Khmer Rouge rule in Cambodia, a study examined the television evening news from April 16, 1975, the date on which the Lon Nol government first offered to capitulate to the Khmer Rouge, through January 8, 1979, when news of the fall of Phnom Penh to the…

  3. Distortions and Dichotomies in Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities in Cambodia in the Context of Globalisation and International Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyanpur, Maya

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the consequences of transferring technical information on disability and inclusive education from the North to the South within the context of international development. Based on data from the author's experiences as a US-trained Indian international consultant in Cambodia, it analyses how problems with translation and…

  4. Trauma and Poor Mental Health in Relation to Economic Status: The Case of Cambodia 35 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Jarl, Johan; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Chak, Thida; Sunbaunat, Ka; Larsson, Charlotte A

    2015-01-01

    Background Cambodia is one of the poorest countries in south-east Asia and is still emerging from the events of the Khmer Rouge reign. It has been suggested that the atrocities experienced by the Cambodian population can explain why Cambodia continues to lag behind its neighbours in economic outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is an association between exposure to past trauma and/or current poor mental health and current economic status in Cambodia. Method A newly conducted survey performed in two regions (north-west and south-east Cambodia) collected information on trauma exposure, psychiatric symptoms, self-rated health outcomes and socio-economic information for 3200 persons aged 18–60. Economic outcomes were measured as household debt and poverty status and whether the respondent was economically inactive. All models were analysed using logistic regression. Results No association was found between high exposure to conflict-related or civilian trauma and any economic outcomes save for a negative association between civilian trauma and poverty in the south-east. Current post-traumatic stress was related solely to poverty status. All other measures of current mental health status, however, were found to be strongly negatively associated with all measures of economic status. Thus, mental health interventions could potentially be utilised in poverty reduction strategies, but greater efficacy is likely to be achieved by targeting current mental health status rather than previous trauma exposure. PMID:26301591

  5. Reevaluating the Relationship between Education and Child Labour Using the Capabilities Approach: Policy and Implications for Inequality in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluttz, Jenalee

    2015-01-01

    Cambodia has experienced rapid economic growth in the last two decades, improving living standards and diminishing poverty. Unfortunately, it has failed to do so evenly. Growth within the country has widened the gap between rich and poor and exacerbated the rural/urban divide. This inequality is mirrored in the school system. Inequality within the…

  6. The Pastoral Care and Challenges of the People from Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Discusses responses of the Catholic church to the special needs of Indochinese refugees in the United States. Reviews the influence of Catholicism in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, and describes activities of itinerant ministries to Catholic refugee communities across the U.S. The church's mission must be openness and hospitality toward newcomers.…

  7. Report of the Training Workshop on the Evaluation of Asian Educational Credentials (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Indonesia, Korea).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dremuk, Richard, Ed.

    This report was planned to facilitate the task of college admissions officers of American educational institutions in the evaluation of foreign credentials. The educational systems of Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Indonesia, Korea, and Thailand are examined in depth and include discussions of each country's educational history and educational…

  8. Essay Review of "Education and the Politics of Language: Hegemony and Pragmatism in Cambodia, 1979-1989," by Thomas Clayton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Vincent

    2001-01-01

    Reviews a book that reports on educational objectives and operations during the 10-year Vietnamese occupation of Cambodia, drawing on current developments in the theory of hegemonic relations. Suggests that the book's focus on linguistic policy in education has implications for the role of language in client-donor international-aid relationships.…

  9. Effectiveness of Bilingual Education in Cambodia: A Longitudinal Comparative Case Study of Ethnic Minority Children in Bilingual and Monolingual Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Scott; Watt, Ron; Frawley, Jack

    2015-01-01

    There is little research in the developing countries of South East Asia on the effectiveness of bilingual education programmes that use first language instruction for ethnic minority children. This study investigated the effectiveness of a bilingual education programme involving ethnic minority children in Cambodia by comparing their performance…

  10. The genus Danielithosia Dubatolov & Kishida, 2012 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae) in Cambodia, with description of one new species.

    PubMed

    Bayarsaikhan, Ulziijargal; Dubatolov, Vladimir V; Bae, Yang-Seop

    2015-01-01

    Although the arctiine fauna of Cambodia remains poorly known, considerable progress has been made over the last seven years (Bucsek, 2012; Cerny & Pinratana, 2009; Bae et al., 2012; Dubatolov, 2012, 2013; Dubatolov et al., 2012, 2013). The genus Danielithosia (Arctiinae) was established by Dubatolov and Kishida (2012), with the type species Tigrioides aureolata Daniel, 1954 from Fujian, Sichuan, and Zhejiang, China. To date, this genus comprises 11 species in the world, most of which are distributed in the Palaearctic and Oriental Regions (Dubatolov, 2013). The genus Danielithosia can be recognized by the following characters: sacculus with a characteristic broadening subapically; juxta long, with a long sclerotized bifurcated process apically (Dubatolov et al., 2012). In Cambodia, only one species, D. hoenei Dubatolov, 2013, has been reported (Dubatolov, 2013), and we here describe one new species from Cambodia. Terminology in this paper follows Dubatolov et al. (2012), and the specimens used in this study are deposited in the collection of Incheon National University (INU), on indefinite loan from Cambodia. PMID:26249460

  11. Changing patterns of forest malaria among the mobile adult male population in Chumkiri District, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Dysoley, Lek; Kaneko, Akira; Eto, Hideaki; Mita, Toshihiro; Socheat, Doung; Börkman, Anders; Kobayakawa, Takatoshi

    2008-06-01

    Forest malaria remains a major problem in many parts of Southeast Asia and South America. In Cambodia, where a significant reduction of malaria morbidity and mortality has been observed in the last 20 years, the forest malaria situation was studied in Chumkiri District by analysing the available passive case detection data and conducting malariometric (n=1018) and questionnaire surveys (n=374) in four forest-fringe villages. There has been a decreasing trend of malaria incidence from 2001. Plasmodium falciparum was highly predominant and P. vivax was rare. The nearby-forest villages showed significantly higher parasite rates than the far-from-forest villages (9.0% vs. 1.2%, p<0.01). Malaria was highly restricted to the male adults but was nearly non-existent in other accompanying family members, including small children and females. Low income and working in forests were strongly associated with the malaria risk. Our results suggest that transmission has greatly reduced in forest-fringe villages, but remains active in forests, which is primarily maintained between the forest vector Anopheles dirus and ethnic minority inhabitants. Specific interventions directed to these previously neglected in-forest inhabitants to protect themselves and male adult villagers during their forest activities are necessary to achieve an ultimate goal of malaria elimination from Cambodia. PMID:18471797

  12. Closing the irrigation deficit in Cambodia: Implications for transboundary impacts on groundwater and Mekong River flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erban, Laura E.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2016-04-01

    Rice production in Cambodia, essential to food security and exports, is largely limited to the wet season. The vast majority (96%) of land planted with rice during the wet season remains fallow during the dry season. This is in large part due to lack of irrigation capacity, increases in which would entail significant consequences for Cambodia and Vietnam, located downstream on the Mekong River. Here we quantify the extent of the dry season "deficit" area in the Cambodian Mekong River catchment, using a recent agricultural survey and our analysis of MODIS satellite data. Irrigation of this land for rice production would require a volume of water up to 31% of dry season Mekong River flow to Vietnam. However, the two countries share an aquifer system in the Mekong Delta, where irrigation demand is increasingly met by groundwater. We estimate expansion rates of groundwater-irrigated land to be >10% per year in the Cambodian Delta using LANDSAT satellite data and simulate the effects of future expansion on groundwater levels over a 25-year period. If groundwater irrigation continues to expand at current rates, the water table will drop below the lift limit of suction pump wells, used for domestic supply by >1.5 million people, throughout much of the area within 15 years. Extensive groundwater irrigation jeopardizes access for shallow domestic water supply wells, raises the costs of pumping for all groundwater users, and may exacerbate arsenic contamination and land subsidence that are already widespread hazards in the region.

  13. Accelerated deforestation driven by large-scale land acquisitions in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Kyle Frankel; Yu, Kailiang; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Pichdara, Lonn; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2015-10-01

    Investment in agricultural land in the developing world has rapidly increased in the past two decades. In Cambodia, there has been a surge in economic land concessions, in which long-term leases are provided to foreign and domestic investors for economic development. More than two million hectares have been leased so far, sparking debate over the consequences for local communities and the environment. Here we combined official records of concession locations with a high-resolution data set of changes in forest cover to quantify the contribution of land concessions to deforestation between 2000 and 2012. We used covariate matching to control for variables other than classification as a concession that may influence forest loss. Nearly half of the area where concessions were granted between 2000 and 2012 was forested in 2000; this area then represented 12.4% of forest land cover in Cambodia. Within concessions, the annual rate of forest loss was between 29% and 105% higher than in comparable land areas outside concessions. Most of the deforestation within concessions occurred after the contract date, and whether an investor was domestic or foreign had no effect on deforestation rates. We conclude that land acquisitions can act as powerful drivers of deforestation.

  14. Deployment of dual-sensor ALIS for humanitarian demining in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.; Takahashi, K.

    2013-06-01

    We are in the process of developing a high-resolution landmine scanning system "ALIS" which produces horizontal slices of the shallow subsurface for visualization of buried explosives and inert clutter. As many AP mines contain minimum amounts of metal, metal detectors need to be combined with a complimentary subsurface imaging sensor. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is widely accepted for subsurface sensing in the fields of geology, archaeology and utility detection. The demining application requires real-time imaging results with centimetre resolution in a highly portable package. The key requirement for sharp images of the subsurface is the precise tracking of the geophysical sensor(s) during data collection. We should also notice that GPR system is a very wide band radar system, and equivalent to UWB radar, which has recently been developed for short-range high-accuracy radar. We are testing simplified but effective signal processing for imaging mines. We are currently testing a dual sensor ALIS which is a realtime sensor tracking system based on a CCD camera and image processing. In this paper we introduce the GPR systems which we have developed for detection of buried antipersonnel mines and small size explosives. ALIS has been deployed in Cambodia since 2009 and detected more than 70 mines in mine fields, and returned more than 13ha cleaned fields to local farmers. We also report the current status of ALIS in Cambodia.

  15. Subsurface Imaging by UWB Radar: Application to Humanitarian Demining in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been widely used applications which include detection of subsurface facilities, concrete inspection and archaeology. Among these applications, humanitarian demining is still difficult task. Since 2002, we have developed a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor ALIS. ALIS is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR, and it has a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. ALIS can process the data and is used for image re-construction by migration processing. ALIS is the only one mine detection system in the world which can visualize the GPR image by hand scanning. We found that the migration processing can reduce the clutter and gives us clear images of buried mines. After several tests of ALIS in mine affected courtiers, operation of ALIS in mine fields in Cambodia started in summer 2009. Two sets of ALIS have been operated in Cambodia and more than 77 antipersonnel mines have been detected and 137,000m2 farmland was cleaned.

  16. Health seeking and access to care for children with suspected dengue in Cambodia: An ethnographic study

    PubMed Central

    Khun, Sokrin; Manderson, Lenore

    2007-01-01

    Background The continuing contribution of dengue fever to the hospitalization and deaths in hospital of infants and small children in Cambodia is associated with delays in presentation for medical attention, diagnosis and appropriate care. It is important to identify the reasons that influence these delays, in order to develop appropriate interventions to redress the impact of dengue. Methods Data on health seeking were collected during an ethnographic study conducted in two villages in the eastern province of Kampong Cham, Cambodia in 2004. Interviews were conducted with mothers whose children had been infected with suspected dengue fever, or who had been sick for other reasons, in 2003 and 2004. Results Women selected a therapeutic option based on perceptions of the severity of the child's condition, confidence in the particular modality, service or practitioner, and affordability of the therapy. While they knew what type of health care was required, poverty in combination with limited availability and perceptions of the poor quality of care at village health centers and public referral hospitals deterred them from doing so. Women initially used home remedies, then sought advice from public and private providers, shifting from one sector to another in a pragmatic response to the child's illness. Conclusion The lack of availability of financial resources for poor people and their continuing lack of confidence in the care provided by government centres combine to delay help seeking and inappropriate treatment of children sick with dengue. PMID:17892564

  17. Genetic diversity and lineage dynamic of dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1) in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Duong, Veasna; Simmons, Cameron; Gavotte, Laurent; Viari, Alain; Ong, Sivuth; Chantha, Ngan; Lennon, Niall J; Birren, Bruce W; Vong, Sirenda; Farrar, Jeremy J; Henn, Matthew R; Deubel, Vincent; Frutos, Roger; Buchy, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    In Cambodia, dengue virus (DENV) was first isolated in 1963 and has become endemic with peak epidemic during raining season. Since 2000, the Dengue National Control Program has reported from 10,000 to 40,000 cases per year with fatality rates ranging from 0.7 to 1.7. All four dengue serotypes are found circulating in Cambodia with alternative predominance of serotypes DENV-2 and DENV-3. The DENV-1 represents from 5% to 20% of all circulating viruses, depending upon the year. In this work, 79 clinical strains of DENV-1 were isolated between 2000 and 2009 and their genome fully sequenced. Four distinct lineages with different dynamics were identified. The main evolutionary drive was negative selective pressure but each lineage was characterized by the presence of specific mutations acquired through evolution. Coexistence, extinction and replacement of lineages occurred over the 10-year period. Lineages 1, 2 and 3 were all detected since 2000-2002 and disappeared in 2003, 2004-2005 and 2007, respectively. Lineages 1 and 2 displayed different dynamics. Lineage 1 was very diverse whereas lineage 2 was very homogeneous. Lineage 4 which derived from lineage 3 in 2003 remained the only one at the end of the sampling period in 2008-2009 owing to a selective sweep. The lineages dynamic of DENV-1 viruses and consequences for molecular epidemiology are discussed. PMID:21757030

  18. Reduced artemisinin susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum ring stages in western Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Benoit; Khim, Nimol; Chim, Pheaktra; Kim, Saorin; Ke, Sopheakvatey; Kloeung, Nimol; Chy, Sophy; Duong, Socheat; Leang, Rithea; Ringwald, Pascal; Dondorp, Arjen M; Tripura, Rupam; Benoit-Vical, Françoise; Berry, Antoine; Gorgette, Olivier; Ariey, Frédéric; Barale, Jean-Christophe; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Menard, Didier

    2013-02-01

    The declining efficacy of artemisinin derivatives against Plasmodium falciparum in western Cambodia is a major concern. The knowledge gap in the understanding of the mechanisms involved hampers designing monitoring tools. Here, we culture-adapted 20 isolates from Pailin and Ratanakiri (areas of artemisinin resistance and susceptibility in western and eastern Cambodia, respectively) and studied their in vitro response to dihydroartemisinin. No significant difference between the two sets of isolates was observed in the classical isotopic test. However, a 6-h pulse exposure to 700 nM dihydroartemisinin (ring-stage survival assay -RSA]) revealed a clear-cut geographic dichotomy. The survival rate of exposed ring-stage parasites (ring stages) was 17-fold higher in isolates from Pailin (median, 13.5%) than in those from Ratanakiri (median, 0.8%), while exposed mature stages were equally and highly susceptible (0.6% and 0.7%, respectively). Ring stages survived drug exposure by cell cycle arrest and resumed growth upon drug withdrawal. The reduced susceptibility to artemisinin in Pailin appears to be associated with an altered in vitro phenotype of ring stages from Pailin in the RSA. PMID:23208708

  19. Forest plunder in Southeast Asia: an environmental security nexus in Burma and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Talbott, K; Brown, M

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the cycle of conversion, consumption, and corruption that undermines the environment and civil society in Cambodia and Burma (Myanmar). In these countries, forests are declining in patterns similar to other Southeast Asian deforestation. Illegal logging, prostitution, and heroin trafficking constitute the bulk of Cambodia's shadow economy. Revenues are used to provide financial support for political causes and build the private wealth of the elite. Major political and guerilla groups and the Cambodian military have been major beneficiaries of logging revenue, supported private sector forestry in many military zones, and facilitated logging and trade. About 40% of land goes to forest concessions granted to Southeast Asian companies, and revenues bypass the regular state budget. In Burma, the cease fire agreements in the early 1990s, led to remote border area forests being opened up to large, nonsustainable commercial timber mining. Land was divided into ethnic and government controlled areas. Timber profits were funneled into a business owned by members of the new ruling force, the SLORC, and used to launder drug exports and profits. Trading partners include Thailand, and most recently, China. It is speculated that deforested areas are replanted with opium poppies, and trade routes carry timber and heroin. The unregulated logging industry and the lack of financial accounting of the timber trade undermine the structures of civil society and good governance. Forest policies appear progressive but are in reality unenforced. Politics and agreements in both countries are closely tied to deforestation issues. PMID:12321720

  20. Improving immunization equity through a public-private partnership in Cambodia.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, J. Brad; Bhushan, Indu

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects on immunization equity of the large-scale contracting of primary health-care services in rural areas of Cambodia. METHODS: Data were obtained pre-intervention and post-intervention from a large-scale quasi-experiment in contracting with nongovernmental organizations to provide primary health care in nine rural districts of Cambodia between 1999 and mid-2001. Coverage targets and equity targets for all primary health-care services, including immunization of children, were explicitly included in the contracts awarded in five of nine rural districts which together have a population of over 1.25 million people. The remaining four districts used the traditional government model for providing services and were given identical targets. FINDINGS: After the 2.5 years of the trial, bivariate and multivariate analyses of the results suggested that although there was a substantial increase in the proportion of children who were fully immunized in all districts, children in the poorest 50% of households in the districts served by contractors were more likely to be fully immunized than poor children living in similar circumstances in districts using the government's model, all other things being equal. CONCLUSION: The contracting approach described in this paper suggests a means of moving towards a more equitable distribution of immunization services in developing countries. PMID:15628203

  1. A new species of Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from Vietnam and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Stuart, Bryan L; Neang, Thy; Hoang, Huy D; Dau, Vinh Q; Nguyen, Tao T; Emmett, David A

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new, medium-sized Leptolalax species from the Kon Tum Plateau of Vietnam and adjacent Cambodia. Leptolalax isos sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of an absence of distinct dark brown/black dorsolateral markings; toes with rudimentary webbing, wide lateral dermal fringes in males and weak or absent lateral dermal fringes in females; most males with wide lateral dermal fringes on Finger II, a body size of 23.7-27.9 mm in 38 adult males and 28.6-31.5 mm in 9 adult females, near immaculate white chest and belly; absence of white speckling on the dorsum; and a call consisting of 2-3 notes with a dominant frequency of 5.9-6.2 kHz (at 22.4-22.8º C). Uncorrected sequence divergences between L. isos sp. nov. and all homologous 16S rRNA sequences available are >10%. At present, the new species is known from montane evergreen forest between ~650-1100 m elevation in northeastern Cambodia and central Vietnam. Habitat within the range of the new species is threatened by deforestation and upstream hydroelectric dams. PMID:26624626

  2. Fairness of utilizing health care facilities and out-of-pocket payment burden: evidence from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Koustuv; Aremu, Olatunde

    2013-05-01

    Catastrophic spending on health care through out-of-pocket payment is a huge problem in most low- and middle-income countries all over the world. The collapse of health systems and poverty have resulted in the proliferation of the private health sector in Cambodia, but very few studies have examined the fairness in ease of utilization of these services based on mode of payment. This study examined the utilization of health services for sickness or injury and identified its relationship with people's ability to pay for treatment seeking at various instances. Based on cross-sectional data from the Cambodian 2007 Demographic and Health Survey, the economic index estimated through principal component analysis and Lorenz curve was used to quantify the degree of fairness and equality in utilization and payment burden among the respondents. A distinct level of fairness was found in health care utilization and out-of-pocket payments. Specifically, use of private health care facilities and over-the-counter remedies dominate, and out-of-pocket payments cut across all socioeconomic strata. As many countries in low- and middle-income regions, and most importantly those in transition such as Cambodia, are repositioning their health systems, efforts should be made towards maintaining equitable access through adoption of finance mechanisms that make utilization of health care services fair and equitable. PMID:22958391

  3. Seroprevalence of bovine immunodeficiency virus and bovine leukemia virus in draught animals in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Meas, S; Ohashi, K; Tum, S; Chhin, M; Te, K; Miura, K; Sugimoto, C; Onuma, M

    2000-07-01

    Since bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), known as bovine lentivirus, has been detected in dairy and beef cattle in various countries around the world, a prevalence study of antibodies to BIV and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was conducted in draught animals in five provinces in Cambodia, where protozoan parasite infections were suspected in some animals. To clarify the status of draught animals including Haryana, Brahman, mixed-breed, local breed cattle and muscle water buffaloes, a total of 544 cattle and 42 buffaloes were tested, and 26.3 and 16.7%, respectively, were found positive for anti-BIV p26 antibodies determined by Western blotting. There were 5.3% positive for anti-BLV antibodies detected by immunodiffusion test among the cattle, but no reactors among buffaloes and no dual infection for both BIV and BLV was determined in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from BIV-seropositive cattle were found to have BIV-provirus DNA, as detected by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent Southern blot hybridization. This is the first evidence for the presence of BIV and BLV infections in draught animals in tropical countries such as Cambodia. This wide distribution of BIV suggests its association with problems in animal health as reported worldwide, and that a primary BIV infection can predispose death of affected animals by other aggressive pathogens or stresses. PMID:10945301

  4. Access to artemisinin combination therapy for malaria in remote areas of Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Shunmay; Van Damme, Wim; Socheat, Doung; White, Nicholas J; Mills, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Background Malaria-endemic countries are switching antimalarial drug policy to artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) and the global community are considering the setting up of a global subsidy mechanism in order to make them accessible and affordable. However, specific interventions may be needed to reach remote at-risk communities and to ensure that they are used appropriately. This analysis documents the coverage with ACTs versus artemisinin monotherapies, and the effectiveness of malaria outreach teams (MOTs) and Village Malaria Workers (VMWs) in increasing access to appropriate diagnosis and treatment with ACTs in Cambodia, the first country to switch national antimalarial drug policy to an ACT of artesunate and mefloquine (A+M) in 2000. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in three different types of intervention area: with VMWs, MOTs and no specific interventions. Individuals with a history of fever in the last three weeks were included in the study and completed a questionnaire on their treatment seeking and drug usage behaviour. Blood was taken for a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and data on the household socio-economic status were also obtained. Results In areas without specific interventions, only 17% (42/251) of respondents received a biological diagnosis, 8% (17/206) of respondents who received modern drug did so from a public health facility, and only 8% of them (17/210) received A+M. Worryingly, 78% (102/131) of all artemisinin use in these areas was as a monotherapy. However, both the VMW scheme and MOT scheme significantly increased the likelihood of being seen by a trained provider (Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR) of 148 and 4 respectively) and of receiving A+M (AORs of 2.7 and 7.7 respectively). Conclusion The coverage rates of appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria were disappointingly low and the use of artemisinin monotherapy alarmingly high. This reflects the fragmented nature of Cambodia's health system in remote areas and the

  5. Geostatistical modelling of soil-transmitted helminth infection in Cambodia: do socioeconomic factors improve predictions?

    PubMed

    Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Odermatt, Peter; Biedermann, Patricia; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Muth, Sinuon; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections are intimately connected with poverty. Yet, there is a paucity of using socioeconomic proxies in spatially explicit risk profiling. We compiled household-level socioeconomic data pertaining to sanitation, drinking-water, education and nutrition from readily available Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and World Health Surveys for Cambodia and aggregated the data at village level. We conducted a systematic review to identify parasitological surveys and made every effort possible to extract, georeference and upload the data in the open source Global Neglected Tropical Diseases database. Bayesian geostatistical models were employed to spatially align the village-aggregated socioeconomic predictors with the soil-transmitted helminth infection data. The risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection was predicted at a grid of 1×1km covering Cambodia. Additionally, two separate individual-level spatial analyses were carried out, for Takeo and Preah Vihear provinces, to assess and quantify the association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and socioeconomic indicators at an individual level. Overall, we obtained socioeconomic proxies from 1624 locations across the country. Surveys focussing on soil-transmitted helminth infections were extracted from 16 sources reporting data from 238 unique locations. We found that the risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection from 2000 onwards was considerably lower than in surveys conducted earlier. Population-adjusted prevalences for school-aged children from 2000 onwards were 28.7% for hookworm, 1.5% for Ascaris lumbricoides and 0.9% for Trichuris trichiura. Surprisingly, at the country-wide analyses, we did not find any significant association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and village-aggregated socioeconomic proxies. Based also on the individual-level analyses we conclude that socioeconomic proxies might not be good predictors at an

  6. Determinants of Child Malnutrition and Infant and Young Child Feeding Approaches in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Reinbott, Anika; Jordan, Irmgard

    2016-01-01

    Women's diets often decrease with regard to amounts per meal and day as well as diversity if a household's access to food is limited. The result is a monotonous diet that, in particular, negatively affects women's nutritional status during pregnancy and lactation and, thus, the infant. The infant's diet is of utmost importance, as it needs to meet the nutrient requirements especially during the first 2 years of life, a critical window for the child's healthy development. In Cambodia, infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices are poor. Preparation of a special complementary meal in addition to breast milk feeds for children aged 6-23 months is often not a common habit. Instead, children eat watery, plain rice porridges that do not meet the nutrient requirements at this young age. A lack of adequate caring practices such as responsive feeding exacerbates the risk of malnutrition. Caregivers are often unaware of the importance of nutrition during the first 2 years of life regarding its effects on children's growth. In 2012, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) was started in two provinces of northern Cambodia: Oddar Meanchey and Preah Vihear. To contribute to reducing child mortality by addressing malnutrition among children 6-23 months of age, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) implemented a nutrition-sensitive agriculture project with nutrition-specific actions, i.e. a nutrition education intervention was embedded in a food security project. Wealth, a child's age, and maternal education were identified as determinants of a child's dietary diversity. The older the child and/or the wealthier the household, the more diverse the child's diet. Maternal education was positively associated with the child's dietary diversity. Household dietary diversity was significantly associated with child dietary diversity in a model including group, child's age, maternal education, and wealth as confounders. The RCT also showed that a 2- to 3-month

  7. Epidemiological and Virological Characteristics of Influenza Viruses Circulating in Cambodia from 2009 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Sovann; Heng, Seng; Vong, Sirenda; Kitsutani, Paul; Ieng, Vannra; Tarantola, Arnaud; Ly, Sowath; Sar, Borann; Chea, Nora; Sokhal, Buth; Barr, Ian; Kelso, Anne; Horwood, Paul F.; Timmermans, Ans; Hurt, Aeron; Lon, Chanthap; Saunders, David; Ung, Sam An; Asgari, Nima; Roces, Maria Concepcion; Touch, Sok; Komadina, Naomi; Buchy, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Background The Cambodian National Influenza Center (NIC) monitored and characterized circulating influenza strains from 2009 to 2011. Methodology/Principal Findings Sentinel and study sites collected nasopharyngeal specimens for diagnostic detection, virus isolation, antigenic characterization, sequencing and antiviral susceptibility analysis from patients who fulfilled case definitions for influenza-like illness, acute lower respiratory infections and event-based surveillance. Each year in Cambodia, influenza viruses were detected mainly from June to November, during the rainy season. Antigenic analysis show that A/H1N1pdm09 isolates belonged to the A/California/7/2009-like group. Circulating A/H3N2 strains were A/Brisbane/10/2007-like in 2009 before drifting to A/Perth/16/2009-like in 2010 and 2011. The Cambodian influenza B isolates from 2009 to 2011 all belonged to the B/Victoria lineage represented by the vaccine strains B/Brisbane/60/2008 and B/Malaysia/2506/2004. Sequences of the M2 gene obtained from representative 2009–2011 A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm09 strains all contained the S31N mutation associated with adamantanes resistance except for one A/H1N1pdm09 strain isolated in 2011 that lacked this mutation. No reduction in the susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibitors was observed among the influenza viruses circulating from 2009 to 2011. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that A/H3N2 strains clustered each year to a distinct group while most A/H1N1pdm09 isolates belonged to the S203T clade. Conclusions/Significance In Cambodia, from 2009 to 2011, influenza activity occurred throughout the year with peak seasonality during the rainy season from June to November. Seasonal influenza epidemics were due to multiple genetically distinct viruses, even though all of the isolates were antigenically similar to the reference vaccine strains. The drug susceptibility profile of Cambodian influenza strains revealed that neuraminidase inhibitors would be the drug of choice for

  8. Achieving universal access and moving towards elimination of new HIV infections in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Vun, Mean Chhi; Fujita, Masami; Rathavy, Tung; Eang, Mao Tang; Sopheap, Seng; Sovannarith, Samreth; Chhorvann, Chhea; Vanthy, Ly; Sopheap, Oum; Welle, Emily; Ferradini, Laurent; Sedtha, Chin; Bunna, Sok; Verbruggen, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the mid-1990s, Cambodia faced one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in Asia. For its achievement in reversing this trend, and achieving universal access to HIV treatment, the country received a United Nations millennium development goal award in 2010. This article reviews Cambodia’s response to HIV over the past two decades and discusses its current efforts towards elimination of new HIV infections. Methods A literature review of published and unpublished documents, including programme data and presentations, was conducted. Results and discussion Cambodia classifies its response to one of the most serious HIV epidemics in Asia into three phases. In Phase I (1991–2000), when adult HIV prevalence peaked at 1.7% and incidence exceeded 20,000 cases, a nationwide HIV prevention programme targeted brothel-based sex work. Voluntary confidential counselling and testing and home-based care were introduced, and peer support groups of people living with HIV emerged. Phase II (2001–2011) observed a steady decline in adult prevalence to 0.8% and incidence to 1600 cases by 2011, and was characterized by: expanding antiretroviral treatment (coverage reaching more than 80%) and continuum of care; linking with tuberculosis and maternal and child health services; accelerated prevention among key populations, including entertainment establishment-based sex workers, men having sex with men, transgender persons, and people who inject drugs; engagement of health workers to deliver quality services; and strengthening health service delivery systems. The third phase (2012–2020) aims to attain zero new infections by 2020 through: sharpening responses to key populations at higher risk; maximizing access to community and facility-based testing and retention in prevention and care; and accelerating the transition from vertical approaches to linked/integrated approaches. Conclusions Cambodia has tailored its prevention strategy to its own epidemic, established

  9. Crop Species Recognition and Discrimination Paddy-Rice from Reaped-Fields by the Radar Vegetation Index (rvi) of ALOS-2/PALSAR2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The Japanese ALOS-2 satellite was launched on May 24th, 2014. It has the L-band SAR, PALSAR-2. Kim,Y. and van Zyl, J.J. proposed a kind of Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) as RVI = 8 * σ0hv / (σ0hh + σ0vv + 2* σ0hv) by L-band full-polarimetric radar data. Kim, Y. and Jackson, T.J., et al. applied the equation into rice and soybean by multi-frequency polarimetric scatterometer above 4.16 meters from the ground. Their report showed the L-band was the most promising wave length for estimating LAI and NDVI from RVI. The author tried to apply the analysis to the actual paddy field areas, both Inashiki region and Miyagi region in the eastern main island, "Honshu", areas of Japan by ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 full-polarimetry data in the summer season, the main crop growing time, of 2015. Judging from conventional methods, it will be possible to discriminate paddy rice growing fields from reaped fields or the other crops growing fields by the PALSAR-2 data. But the RVI value is vaguely related to such land use or biomass at the present preliminary experiment. The continuous research by the additional PALSAR-2 full-polarimetry data should be desired.

  10. When social networking is not working: individuals with low self-esteem recognize but do not reap the benefits of self-disclosure on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Forest, Amanda L; Wood, Joanne V

    2012-03-01

    The popular media have publicized the idea that social networking Web sites (e.g., Facebook) may enrich the interpersonal lives of people who struggle to make social connections. The opportunity that such sites provide for self-disclosure-a necessary component in the development of intimacy--could be especially beneficial for people with low self-esteem, who are normally hesitant to self-disclose and who have difficulty maintaining satisfying relationships. We suspected that posting on Facebook would reduce the perceived riskiness of self-disclosure, thus encouraging people with low self-esteem to express themselves more openly. In three studies, we examined whether such individuals see Facebook as a safe and appealing medium for self-disclosure, and whether their actual Facebook posts enabled them to reap social rewards. We found that although people with low self-esteem considered Facebook an appealing venue for self-disclosure, the low positivity and high negativity of their disclosures elicited undesirable responses from other people. PMID:22318997

  11. Financial protection of patients through compensation of providers: the impact of Health Equity Funds in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gabriela; Ir, Por; Men, Chean R; O'Donnell, Owen; van Doorslaer, Eddy

    2013-12-01

    Public providers have no financial incentive to respect their legal obligation to exempt the poor from user fees. Health Equity Funds (HEFs) aim to make exemptions effective by giving NGOs responsibility for assessing eligibility and compensating providers for lost revenue. We use the geographic spread of HEFs over time in Cambodia to identify their impact on out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. Among households with some OOP payment, HEFs reduce the amount paid by 35%, on average. The effect is larger for households that are poorer and mainly use public health care. Reimbursement of providers through a government operated scheme also reduces household OOP payments but the effect is not as well targeted on the poor. Both compensation models raise household non-medical consumption but have no impact on health-related debt. HEFs reduce the probability of primarily seeking care in the private sector. PMID:24189447

  12. Characterizing HIV epidemiology in stable couples in Cambodia, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and India.

    PubMed

    Chemaitelly, H; Abu-Raddad, L J

    2016-01-01

    Using a set of statistical methods and HIV mathematical models applied on nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey data, we characterized HIV serodiscordancy patterns and HIV transmission dynamics in stable couples (SCs) in four countries: Cambodia, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and India. The majority of SCs affected by HIV were serodiscordant, and about a third of HIV-infected persons had uninfected partners. Overall, nearly two-thirds of HIV infections occurred in individuals in SCs, but only about half of these infections were due to transmissions within serodiscordant couples. The majority of HIV incidence in the population occurred through extra-partner encounters in SCs. There is similarity in HIV epidemiology in SCs between these countries and countries in sub-Saharan Africa, despite the difference in scale of epidemics. It appears that HIV epidemiology in SCs may share similar patterns globally, possibly because it is a natural 'spillover' effect of HIV dynamics in high-risk populations. PMID:25916602

  13. Stakeholder management for conservation projects: a case study of Ream National Park, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    De Lopez, T T

    2001-07-01

    The paper gives an account of the development and implementation of a stakeholder management framework at Ream National Park, Cambodia. Firstly, the concept of stakeholder is reviewed in management and in conservation literatures. Secondly, the context in which the stakeholder framework was implemented is described. Thirdly, a five-step methodological framework is suggested: (1) stakeholder analysis, (2) stakeholder mapping, (3) development of generic strategies and workplan, (4) presentation of the workplan to stakeholders, and (5) implementation of the workplan. This framework classifies stakeholders according to their level of influence on the project and their potential for the conservation of natural resources. In a situation characterized by conflicting claims on natural resources, park authorities were able to successfully develop specific strategies for the management of stakeholders. The conclusion discusses the implications of the Ream experience and the generalization of the framework to other protected areas. PMID:11437000

  14. Climate as a contributing factor in the demise of Angkor, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Brendan M.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Penny, Daniel; Fletcher, Roland; Cook, Edward R.; Sano, Masaki; Nam, Le Canh; Wichienkeeo, Aroonrut; Minh, Ton That; Hong, Truong Mai

    2010-01-01

    The “hydraulic city” of Angkor, the capitol of the Khmer Empire in Cambodia, experienced decades-long drought interspersed with intense monsoons in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries that, in combination with other factors, contributed to its eventual demise. The climatic evidence comes from a seven-and-a-half century robust hydroclimate reconstruction from tropical southern Vietnamese tree rings. The Angkor droughts were of a duration and severity that would have impacted the sprawling city’s water supply and agricultural productivity, while high-magnitude monsoon years damaged its water control infrastructure. Hydroclimate variability for this region is strongly and inversely correlated with tropical Pacific sea surface temperature, indicating that a warm Pacific and El Niño events induce drought at interannual and interdecadal time scales, and that low-frequency variations of tropical Pacific climate can exert significant influence over Southeast Asian climate and society. PMID:20351244

  15. The tyranny of taste: the case of organic rice in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Thavat, Maylee

    2011-01-01

    Fair-trade and organic products are often sold at price premiums justified by smaller production volumes that are associated with greater social and environmental responsibility. The consumption of these products confers on the consumer a greater sense of morality – and usually a claim to better taste. This paper tells the story of attempts to promote organic/fair-trade rice production by de facto organic Cambodian farmers for export to North American and European markets in order to assist poor farmers to trade their way out of poverty. It demonstrates that instead of promoting sustainable agriculture and fair trade between developed and developing markets, organic/fair-trade projects may impose First World consumer ideals and tastes that are out of step with the larger realities of agrarian transition in Cambodia and the wider region of developing Southeast Asia. PMID:22216476

  16. The international trade in toxic waste: the case of Sihanoukville, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Hess, J; Frumkin, H

    2000-01-01

    In December 1998, 2,700 metric tons of industrial waste containing high levels of mercury and other metals and possibly other toxic compounds were shipped illegally from Taiwan to Sihanoukville, Cambodia. There the waste was unloaded and transferred to a nearby inland dumpsite. An estimated 2,000 Sihanoukville residents were exposed to the waste occupationally or environmentally, and at least six deaths and hundreds of injuries have been associated with the incident. The authors describe the human exposures and associated morbidity and mortality, recount the medical and public health response, and consider the issues complicating epidemiologic analysis of the incident. They also consider the major issues highlighted by the incident, including the trade in toxic waste between developed and less developed countries, the factors that shape emergency public health responses in resource-poor environments, and the importance of prevention and preparedness in containing emergencies in developing countries. PMID:11114126

  17. Khmer dental and medical students' knowledge about the betel quid chewing habit in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Reichart, P A; Schmidtberg, W; Scheifele, C

    1997-08-01

    95 of 144 questionnaires submitted by volunteer Khmer medical and dental students on the betel quid chewing habit in Cambodia were evaluated (58 medical, 37 dental). Questions related to the composition of the betel quid, the physiological and oral effects as well as traditional and sociological aspects. Statistical tests showed that there were differences between dental and medical students, particularly relating to the knowledge about oral effects. While 81.1% of dental students knew that betel quid chewing causes oral cancer, only 31.0% of the medical students were adequately informed. Similarly, 51.4% of the dental students knew about the relation between betel quid chewing and submucous fibrosis compared to 8.6% of the medical students (P < 0.001). In contrast, only 18.9% of the dental students thought that betel quid chewing strengthens the gum, while 56.9% of the medical students believed that betel quid chewing would have this effect (P < 0.001). The answers also showed that students do not indulge in the betel quid habit. The decline of the betel quid chewing habit was also indicated by the fact that while 5.3% of students had parents chewing betel quid, in contrast 40% of students reported grandparents with this habit. There are deficiencies of knowledge about the most important effects of betel quid chewing, particularly in medical students. Since both medical and dental students will in their future professional life have an enormous impact on health and health education, it seems justified that the dental and medical curricula should focus on these traditional habits. Proper health education starting in the dental and medical school is warranted in Cambodia and probably also in other South and Southeast Asian countries where the betel quid chewing habit is prevalent so as ultimately to improve public knowledge on the oral and other effects of this habit. PMID:9567917

  18. Tropical tree water use under seasonal waterlogging and drought in central Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Tateishi, Makiko; Komatsu, Hikaru; Ma, Vuthy; Kajisa, Tsuyoshi; Sokh, Heng; Mizoue, Nobuya; Kumagai, Tomo'omi

    2014-07-01

    In central Cambodia, rapid growing non-endemic species are planted for future timber production. However, less is understood about the impact of the introduction of non-endemic species on the transpiration characteristics of the forest, which has been composed of native species that adapted to the highly seasonal environments. Sap flux of two native and one non-endemic tree species in central Cambodia was measured to reveal its seasonal trends and variability in the Monsoon Asia region. Measurements were carried out in a 10- to 15-year-old forest in the dry and rainy seasons that were defined by differing rainfall patterns. The seasonal trend in depth to water table differed from that of rainfall; groundwater table depth reached zero late in the rainy season and increased gradually after the onset of the dry season. The ratio of sap flux to an equilibrium evaporation condition of the native species, Popel (Shorea roxburghii), showed a sharp decline at the end of the dry season, whereas that of a non-endemic species, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), decreased in the mid rainy season while Tbeng (Dipterocarpus obtusifolius) did not show a clear trend. The ratio of sap flux to an equilibrium evaporation was negatively correlated with the depth to water table in Popel, but was positively correlated in eucalyptus, possibly because of the negative effects of flooding. In addition to the large seasonal variation, intra-species variation in sap flux was also large and was a major controlling factor for tree-level water uptake at this young forest site in both dry and rainy seasons. In conclusion, the transpiration characteristics of this forest were species-specific and were controlled more by the fluctuating depths to groundwater rather than the onset of the rainy/dry seasons defined by rainfall events.

  19. Women's nutrient intakes and food-related knowledge in rural Kandal province, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Lauren J; Summerlee, Alastair J S; Dewey, Cate E; Hak, Chantharith; Hall, Ann; Charles, Christopher V

    2014-01-01

    In Cambodia, both anaemia and vitamin A deficiency are serious health problems. Despite this, few comprehensive nutritional surveys have been completed to date. This study evaluates the adequacy of iron and vitamin A intakes, as well as women's nutritional knowledge in rural Kandal province. Twenty-four hour recalls, pile sort activities, socioeconomic surveys, focus groups, and market surveys were carried out with 67 women from 5 villages in rural Kandal Province. Ninety seven percent of women did not meet their daily-recommended intake of iron, while 70% did not meet their daily-recommended intake of vitamin A. Although many women consume vitamin A-rich and iron rich-foods daily, they do not consume large enough quantities of these foods. Results suggest that both the cost of foods as well as the extent of health knowledge is linked to nutritional practice. Most animal-source iron and vitamin A-rich foods are considered expensive; however, small fish, and several plant-source vitamin A-rich foods are inexpensive and easy to access. Despite health education, food restrictions lead some healthy foods to be considered to be harmful to women. Ultimately, this study demonstrates the importance of developing comprehensive nutritional interventions in Cambodia. Health programming must provide women with not only suggestions to include low-cost nutrient-rich foods, but also advise them about the quantities that are likely to have an impact on nutritional status. Programs should take a community-based, inter-sectoral approach that simultaneously combines culturally informed health education with initiatives that combat poverty and increase access to nutrient rich foods. PMID:24901096

  20. Assessment of hand hygiene compliance after hand hygiene education among health care workers in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Sansam, Sim; Yamamoto, Eiko; Srun, Sok; Sinath, Yin; Moniborin, Mey; Bun Sim, Kheang; Reyer, Joshua A.; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Health care-associated infection (HCAI) is the most frequent adverse event for hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is a simple and effective solution to protect patients from HCAI. This study aimed to introduce hand hygiene to health care workers based on the World Health Organization guideline for reducing HCAI in Cambodia and to assess their behavioral patterns on hand hygiene. All health care workers at Kampong Cham provincial hospital had lectures and practice on hand hygiene in January 2012. The surveys for hand hygiene compliance (HHC) were performed after 6 months, 1 year and 2 years, respectively. The number of surgical site infections (SSI) was counted in 2011 and 2014. Our analysis used the data of 58 workers, who were observed at all three points, although 139 workers were observed during the study period. The average of HHC at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years were 62.37%, 85.76% and 80.36%, respectively. The improved group (HHC 2 years/1 year≧1) had 32 workers, whereas the worsened group (HHC 2 years/1 year<1) had 26. There was a significant difference in departments of the two groups (P=0.011) but not in sex, age or occupations. The improved group had more workers of General (31.2% vs. 19.2%), Surgical (25.0% vs. 11.5%) and Infection (21.9% vs. 11.5%) categories compared to the worsened group. The incidence of SSI was improved from 32.26% in 2011 to 0.97% in 2014. Our results suggest that the education and the survey on hand hygiene are effective for reducing HCAI in Cambodia. PMID:27303102

  1. Survey of smallholder beef cattle production systems in different agro-ecological zones of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Samkol, Pok; Sath, Keo; Patel, Mikaela; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Holtenius, Kjell

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cambodia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 360 households in the four AEZs: I, the Great Lake Floodplain; II, the Mekong Floodplain; III, the Coastal and IV, the Plateau/Mountainous. In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3.7 (SD = 2.4), but the majority of households raised 1-3 animals. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and 'cut-and-carry' natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs. The body condition score of all cattle types was 3.2 (SD = 0.8), except for cows in lactation that were 1.8. Major constraints to cattle production in AEZs I, II and III were lack of quality feed resources, capital for cattle production and concerns on breed quality, whereas in AEZ IV, diseases were identified as the main constraint. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia. PMID:26055891

  2. A Novel Experimental Apparatus (PDL) and Its Application in Higher Education in Japan and Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sou, K.; Kato, T.; Oto, K.; Sakurai, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Omosa, E.; Tozaki, K.

    2010-07-01

    Low cost and attractive equipment for use in experimental higher physics education has been desired by teachers, especially those in developing world. A system of novel experimental apparatus named Personal Desk Lab (PDL) was developed [1]. Each apparatus is miniaturized to one-fifth of the conventional one or less, and built on a steel plate; therefore, it is portable and can be used on a classroom desk. Each set is constructed by some parts divided according to their functions, and some of the parts are used in a number of experiments; which saves material, cost, and storage space. All parts are designed to be easy to make, maintain and repair. Almost all apparatus are battery driven [2]. After ICPE 2006, we have improved the system continuously; consequently, the experimental themes cover the field of mechanics, electromagnetism and optics. The number of these themes in use exceeds ten. The performance of PDL has been tested at Chiba University, Japan and Royal University of Phnom Penh (RUPP), Cambodia. In Chiba University, physics education with PDL is currently conducted individually to 80(max.) students in a classroom at the same time, and to more than 900 students per year. Experiment class using PDL in Cambodia started on October 2008 with 120 students of physics department, RUPP. They were divided into three classes, and conducted four experimental themes in pairs. The advantages confirmed from the practices at two universities are as follows: (1) the use of PDL arouses learner's interest, promotes their deep understanding extensively, and inspires to learn further; and (2) costs for introduction and running of PDL system are fairly small compared to the traditional one. Furthermore, the instruction for distant learners having PDL on each hand was conducted successfully through internet.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of Strongyloides stercoralis in Takeo Province, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis, the most neglected helminth, affects an estimated 30-100 million people worldwide. Information on S. stercoralis infection is scarce in tropical and sub-tropical resource poor countries, including Cambodia. We determined S. stercoralis infection prevalence and risk factors for infection in the general population in Southern Cambodia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and April 2011 among 2,861 participants living in 60 villages of Takeo province, using Koga-agar plate culture, the Baermann technique and the Kato-Katz technique on a single stool sample. Results Eight intestinal helminth species were diagnosed. Hookworm (31.4%) and S. stercoralis (21.0%) occurred most frequently. Prevalence of S. stercoralis infection increased with age. In all age groups a higher prevalence was found among males than among females (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4 – 2.0; P < 0.001). Participants who had a latrine at home were significantly less frequently infected with S. stercoralis than those who did not (OR: 0.7; 95% CI: 0.4 – 0.8; P = 0.003). Muscle pain (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0 – 1.6; P = 0.028) and urticaria (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1 – 1.8; P = 0.001) were significantly associated with S. stercoralis infection. Conclusions S. stercoralis is highly prevalent among the general Cambodian population and should no longer be neglected. Access to adequate diagnosis and treatment is urgently needed. PMID:24886763

  4. Development of a participatory tool for the evaluation of Village Animal Health Workers in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Calba, Clementine; Ponsich, Aurelia; Nam, Sophorn; Collineau, Lucie; Min, Sophoan; Thonnat, Jerome; Goutard, Flavie Luce

    2014-06-01

    In countries with a lack of primary care systems, health workers are of crucial importance to improving the delivery of health and animal health services at community level. But somehow they are rarely evaluated and usually with a top-down approach. This is the case in Cambodia, where thousands of Village Animal Health Workers (VAHWs) have been trained by the government, and where no standardized evaluation tool is available to accurately assess the situation. Based on methodology developed by the French NGO Agronomes et Vétérinaires Sans Frontières (AVSF) in Madagascar for farmers' association evaluation, we developed our own participatory methods to collect information about the VAHW context and build a criteria grid for their evaluation. In this framework, several participatory approaches were used such as problem trees, semi-structured interviews, pair-wise ranking and focus groups. The grid was built with the help of relevant stakeholders involved in the animal health system in Cambodia in order to (i) identify VAHW functions; (ii) set up criteria and associated questionnaires, and (iii) score the grid with all the stakeholders. The tool was divided into five categories of evaluation criteria: sustainability, treatment, production, vaccination and disease reporting. Our approach looked at local indicators of success developed and used by VAHWs themselves, which should lead to better acceptability of evaluation. This method gave priority to dialog aiming to engage decision makers and other stakeholders in a mutual learning process and could be applied in other countries to develop trust between health workers and official service representatives as well as to foster corrective action after evaluation. PMID:24583141

  5. Tobacco use among adults in Cambodia: evidence for a tobacco epidemic among women

    PubMed Central

    Yel, Daravuth; Sin, Sovann; Khieng, Sothy; Lopez, Jaime; Job, Jayakaran; Ferry, Linda; Knutsen, Synnove

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify the demographic characteristics of current tobacco users in Cambodia, particularly women, and to explore the reasons for current tobacco use in demographic subgroups of the Cambodian population. Methods We used a stratified three-stage cluster sample of 13 988 adults aged 18 years and older from all provinces in 2005–2006. Participants completed an interviewer-administered survey that contained items on all forms of tobacco use and on health and lifestyle variables. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to identify demographic predictors of tobacco use. Findings Cigarette smoking occurred among 48.0% of men and 3.6% of women. We estimated that 560 482 women (95% confidence interval, CI: 504 783 to 616 180) currently chewed tobacco (typically as a component of betel quid) and that the prevalence more than doubles with each decade of adulthood up to the point that about half of all older women chew tobacco. Both men and women cited the influence of older relatives as their primary reason for starting to use tobacco. About one out of five rural women who used chewing tobacco started their habit for relief from morning sickness. The highest prevalence of chewing tobacco among women was seen among midwives (67.9%) and traditional healers (47.2%). High rates (66.8%) of cigarette and pipe tobacco use occurred among ethnic minorities who represent hill tribes found throughout south-east Asia. Conclusion The tobacco epidemic in Cambodia extends far beyond cigarette smoking in men. Tobacco control that focuses only on cigarettes will not address the health burden from smokeless tobacco use in women that may be an integral part of cultural, familial, and traditional medicine practices. PMID:20454481

  6. Assessment of hand hygiene compliance after hand hygiene education among health care workers in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Sansam, Sim; Yamamoto, Eiko; Srun, Sok; Sinath, Yin; Moniborin, Mey; Bun Sim, Kheang; Reyer, Joshua A; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-05-01

    Health care-associated infection (HCAI) is the most frequent adverse event for hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is a simple and effective solution to protect patients from HCAI. This study aimed to introduce hand hygiene to health care workers based on the World Health Organization guideline for reducing HCAI in Cambodia and to assess their behavioral patterns on hand hygiene. All health care workers at Kampong Cham provincial hospital had lectures and practice on hand hygiene in January 2012. The surveys for hand hygiene compliance (HHC) were performed after 6 months, 1 year and 2 years, respectively. The number of surgical site infections (SSI) was counted in 2011 and 2014. Our analysis used the data of 58 workers, who were observed at all three points, although 139 workers were observed during the study period. The average of HHC at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years were 62.37%, 85.76% and 80.36%, respectively. The improved group (HHC 2 years/1 year≧1) had 32 workers, whereas the worsened group (HHC 2 years/1 year<1) had 26. There was a significant difference in departments of the two groups (P=0.011) but not in sex, age or occupations. The improved group had more workers of General (31.2% vs. 19.2%), Surgical (25.0% vs. 11.5%) and Infection (21.9% vs. 11.5%) categories compared to the worsened group. The incidence of SSI was improved from 32.26% in 2011 to 0.97% in 2014. Our results suggest that the education and the survey on hand hygiene are effective for reducing HCAI in Cambodia. PMID:27303102

  7. The last man standing is the most resistant: eliminating artemisinin-resistant malaria in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Maude, Richard J; Pontavornpinyo, Wirichada; Saralamba, Sompob; Aguas, Ricardo; Yeung, Shunmay; Dondorp, Arjen M; Day, Nicholas PJ; White, Nicholas J; White, Lisa J

    2009-01-01

    Background Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is now the recommended first-line treatment for falciparum malaria throughout the world. Initiatives to eliminate malaria are critically dependent on its efficacy. There is recent worrying evidence that artemisinin resistance has arisen on the Thai-Cambodian border. Urgent containment interventions are planned and about to be executed. Mathematical modeling approaches to intervention design are now integrated into the field of malaria epidemiology and control. The use of such an approach to investigate the likely effectiveness of different containment measures with the ultimate aim of eliminating artemisinin-resistant malaria is described. Methods A population dynamic mathematical modeling framework was developed to explore the relative effectiveness of a variety of containment interventions in eliminating artemisinin-resistant malaria in western Cambodia. Results The most effective intervention to eliminate artemisinin-resistant malaria was a switch of treatment from artemisinin monotherapy to ACT (mean time to elimination 3.42 years (95% CI 3.32–3.60 years). However, with this approach it is predicted that elimination of artemisinin-resistant malaria using ACT can be achieved only by elimination of all malaria. This is because the various forms of ACT are more effective against infections with artemisinin-sensitive parasites, leaving the more resistant infections as an increasing proportion of the dwindling parasite population. Conclusion Containment of artemisinin-resistant malaria can be achieved by elimination of malaria from western Cambodia using ACT. The "last man standing" is the most resistant and thus this strategy must be sustained until elimination is truly achieved. PMID:19228438

  8. Negotiation for safer sex among married women in Cambodia: the role of women's autonomy.

    PubMed

    Ung, Mengieng; Boateng, Godfred O; Armah, Frederick A; Amoyaw, Jonathan A; Luginaah, Isaac; Kuuire, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Negotiating safer sex among married women has been identified as an important determinant of vulnerability or resilience to new HIV infections. Using the Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey data of 2010, this paper examined negotiation for safer sex among 11,218 married women in the context of Cambodia's highly touted reduction in HIV/AIDS prevalence. The results from a complementary log-log regression model indicate that wealthier and highly educated married women were more likely to report that they can refuse sexual intercourse and ask their husbands to use a condom. Interestingly, while women who were fully involved in decision-making on their own health care were 19% more likely to refuse sex, they were 14% less likely to be able to ask their husbands to use a condom, compared with their counterparts who were not involved in this decision-making. Women who were partially involved in decision-making on family visits were 17% less likely to be able to ask their husbands to use a condom compared with those who were not involved. In this context, involvement in decision-making may have translated into trust and risk compensation. Those who believed in HIV transmission myths were less likely to negotiate safer sex relative to their counterparts who did not hold such myths to be true. Women's ability to negotiate for safer sex is, therefore, a function of their autonomy in terms of their full participation in decision-making in health care, household expenditure and mobility. Policy implications of the capacity of women to negotiate for safer sex are delineated. PMID:23517629

  9. Unfitness to stand trial decision-making in the extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian; Karagiannakis, Magda

    2014-06-01

    In the small number of trials for matters such as genocide and crimes against humanity that have taken place before the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, by 2014 three occasions had arisen in which the fitness of the accused persons to participate in their trials had become contentious. This is hardly surprising given that the key period of Khmer Rouge government occurred a very long while ago--between 1975 and 1979. The accused persons are all aged. In two instances, the Trial Chamber of the Courts of its own motion sought expert evaluations of the accused persons' fitness to stand trial and, promptly, upon receipt of such reports, determined them to be fit by reference to criteria utilised by the Appeal Chamber of the International Criminal Court for the Former Yugoslavia (the ICTY). In the other instance an accused person, leng Thirith, was found unfit to stand trial and a range of important issues was traversed as to the measures that can properly be taken to try to render a person fit for trial and how legitimate the imposition of detention for that purpose is, and then how legitimate encroachments on a person's civil liberties are to monitor them if there is only a remote possibility that their mental state might improve. It is likely that the balance adopted by the Supreme Court Chamber in the Courts of Cambodia in making significant efforts to render an accused person fit for trial and then in continuing to monitor their mental state when such efforts do not bear fruit, instead of simply releasing them back into the community, will stand as an important precedent for future occasions under international criminal law when issues of fitness to stand trial and how they should be handled arise. PMID:25087364

  10. A new species of wolf snake (Colubridae: Lycodon Fitzinger, 1826) from Phnom Samkos Wildlife Sanctuary, Cardamom Mountains, southwest Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Neang, Thy; Hartmann, Timo; Hun, Seiha; Souter, Nicholas J; Furey, Neil M

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the genus Lycodon Fitzinger, 1826 is described from the Cardamom Mountains of southwest Cambodia. Lycodon zoosvictoriae distinctly differs from all other species of Lycodon in Southeast Asia by a combination of its morphometric characters and unique coloration. The new species has 17 dorsal scales at midbody; 2+2 temporals; 8 supralabials; 10 infralabials; loreal separated from internasal and orbit; 213 ventrals; 85 subcaudals; pale tan brown ground color; irregular dark brown blotches on anterior part, 31 transverse blotches on posterior part of body and 26 blotches on tail. Given its submontane type locality, the new species could prove to be endemic to the Cardamom Mountains of southwest Cambodia and probably Southeast Thailand. PMID:24943413

  11. The village/commune safety policy and HIV prevention efforts among key affected populations in Cambodia: finding a balance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on “cleaning the streets”, has created difficulties for HIV prevention programs attempting to implement programs that work with key affected populations including female sex workers and people who inject drugs. The implementation of the policy has forced HIV program implementers, the UN and various government counterparts to explore and develop collaborative ways of delivering HIV prevention services within this difficult environment. The following case study explores some of these efforts and highlights the promising development of a Police Community Partnership Initiative that it is hoped will find a meaningful balance between the Village/Commune Safety Policy and HIV prevention efforts with key affected populations in Cambodia. PMID:22770267

  12. The village/commune safety policy and HIV prevention efforts among key affected populations in Cambodia: finding a balance.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Nick; Leang, Supheap; Chheng, Kannarath; Weissman, Amy; Shaw, Graham; Crofts, Nick

    2012-01-01

    The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on "cleaning the streets", has created difficulties for HIV prevention programs attempting to implement programs that work with key affected populations including female sex workers and people who inject drugs. The implementation of the policy has forced HIV program implementers, the UN and various government counterparts to explore and develop collaborative ways of delivering HIV prevention services within this difficult environment. The following case study explores some of these efforts and highlights the promising development of a Police Community Partnership Initiative that it is hoped will find a meaningful balance between the Village/Commune Safety Policy and HIV prevention efforts with key affected populations in Cambodia. PMID:22770267

  13. Angkor site monitoring and evaluation by radar remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fulong; Jiang, Aihui; Ishwaran, Natarajan

    2014-11-01

    Angkor, in the northern province of Siem Reap, Cambodia, is one of the most important world heritage sites of Southeast Asia. Seasonal flood and ground sinking are two representative hazards in Angkor site. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing has played an important role for the Angkor site monitoring and management. In this study, 46 scenes of TerraSAR data acquired in the span of February, 2011 to December, 2013 were used for the time series analysis and hazard evaluation; that is, two-fold classification for flood area extracting and Multi-Temporal SAR Interferometry (MT-InSAR) for ground subsidence monitoring. For the flood investigation, the original Single Look Complex (SLC) TerraSAR-X data were transferred into amplitude images. Water features in dry and flood seasons were firstly extracted using a proposed mixed-threshold approach based on the backscattering; and then for the correlation analysis between water features and the precipitation in seasonally and annually. Using the MT-InSAR method, the ground subsidence was derived with values ranging from -50 to +12 mm/yr in the observation period of February, 2011 to June, 2013. It is clear that the displacement on the Angkor site was evident, implying the necessity of continuous monitoring.

  14. Point-of-sale promotion of breastmilk substitutes and commercially produced complementary foods in Cambodia, Nepal, Senegal and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Champeny, Mary; Pereira, Catherine; Sweet, Lara; Khin, Mengkheang; Ndiaye Coly, Aminata; Sy Gueye, Ndeye Yaga; Adhikary, Indu; Dhungel, Shrid; Makafu, Cecilia; Zehner, Elizabeth; Huffman, Sandra L

    2016-04-01

    In order to assess the prevalence of point-of-sale promotions of infant and young child feeding products in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Kathmandu Valley, Nepal; Dakar Department, Senegal; and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, approximately 30 retail stores per site, 121 in total, were visited. Promotional activity for breastmilk substitutes (BMS) and commercially produced complementary foods in each site were recorded. Point-of-sale promotion of BMS occurred in approximately one-third of sampled stores in Phnom Penh and Dakar Department but in 3.2% and 6.7% of stores in Kathmandu Valley and Dar es Salaam, respectively. Promotion of commercially produced complementary foods was highly prevalent in Dakar Department with half of stores having at least one promotion, while promotions for these products occurred in 10% or less of stores in the other three sites. While promotion of BMS in stores is legal in Senegal, it is prohibited in Cambodia without prior permission of the Ministry of Health/Ministry of Information and prohibited in both Nepal and Tanzania. Strengthening legislation in Senegal and enforcing regulations in Cambodia could help to prevent such promotion that can negatively affect breastfeeding practices. Key messages Even in countries such as Cambodia, Nepal and Tanzania where point-of-sale promotion is restricted, promotions of BMS were observed (in nearly one-third of stores in Phnom Penh and less than 10% in Dar es Salaam and Kathmandu). Limited promotion of commercially produced complementary foods was evident (less than 10% of stores had a promotion for such foods), except in Dakar Department, where promotions were found in half of stores. Efforts are needed to strengthen monitoring, regulation and enforcement of restrictions on the promotion of BMS. Manufacturers and distributors should take responsibility for compliance with national regulations and global policies pertaining to the promotion of breastmilk substitutes. PMID:27061961

  15. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Karakochuk, Crystal D.; Michaux, Kristina D.; Chai, Tze L.; Chan, Benny B.; Whitfield, Kyly C.; Barr, Susan I.; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18–45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100–199 and 150–249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  16. Infant and Young Child Feces Management and Enabling Products for Their Hygienic Collection, Transport, and Disposal in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Miller-Petrie, Molly K; Voigt, Lindsay; McLennan, Lyn; Cairncross, Sandy; Jenkins, Marion W

    2016-02-01

    In Cambodia, children's feces are rarely disposed of in an improved sanitation facility. This study examines current practices and the role that enabling products may play in increasing hygienic management of infant and young child (IYC) feces in households with access to improved sanitation. A survey was conducted with the primary caregiver of a child under 5 years of age in 130 homes with an improved latrine in 21 villages across two provinces in Cambodia. Two focus group discussions per province were conducted after the survey to obtain caregiver feedback on new enabling products for hygienic management. Among caregivers, 63% reported child feces disposal in an improved latrine but only 36% reported doing so consistently. Besides child age, years of latrine ownership, caregiver age, consistency of adult latrine use, and presence of child feces management tools in the latrine were associated with hygienic disposal. The youngest caretakers with the newest latrines and youngest children were least likely to dispose of IYC feces hygienically, representing a key target group for interventions to improve hygienic disposal in Cambodia. Reusable diapers, child-friendly potties, and possibly latrine seats, that offer child safety, time and cost savings, and easy disposal and cleaning could potentially facilitate hygienic disposal for these ages. PMID:26598568

  17. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  18. Infant and Young Child Feces Management and Enabling Products for Their Hygienic Collection, Transport, and Disposal in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Miller-Petrie, Molly K.; Voigt, Lindsay; McLennan, Lyn; Cairncross, Sandy; Jenkins, Marion W.

    2016-01-01

    In Cambodia, children's feces are rarely disposed of in an improved sanitation facility. This study examines current practices and the role that enabling products may play in increasing hygienic management of infant and young child (IYC) feces in households with access to improved sanitation. A survey was conducted with the primary caregiver of a child under 5 years of age in 130 homes with an improved latrine in 21 villages across two provinces in Cambodia. Two focus group discussions per province were conducted after the survey to obtain caregiver feedback on new enabling products for hygienic management. Among caregivers, 63% reported child feces disposal in an improved latrine but only 36% reported doing so consistently. Besides child age, years of latrine ownership, caregiver age, consistency of adult latrine use, and presence of child feces management tools in the latrine were associated with hygienic disposal. The youngest caretakers with the newest latrines and youngest children were least likely to dispose of IYC feces hygienically, representing a key target group for interventions to improve hygienic disposal in Cambodia. Reusable diapers, child-friendly potties, and possibly latrine seats, that offer child safety, time and cost savings, and easy disposal and cleaning could potentially facilitate hygienic disposal for these ages. PMID:26598568

  19. Is importing second-hand products a good thing? The cases of computers and tires in Cambodia

    SciTech Connect

    Chanthy, Lay Nitivattananon, Vilas

    2011-04-15

    Is importing second-hand products (SHPs) good for Cambodia? To answer this question, one must seriously consider environmental and social effects. The main objective of this study is to identify and assess the economic, social, and environmental impacts of imported SHPs to determine whether or not Cambodia benefits. Imported second-hand computers (SHPCs) and second-hand tires (SHTs) were selected as cases for the study. The study used a scaling checklist to identify significant impacts of these two imported items. Significant impacts were ranked and rated into a single value (score) for integration. Integrated impact assessment showed that imported SHPCs create a very small positive impact (+ 0.1 of + 5) and imported SHTs generate a large negative impact (- 2.83 of - 5). These scores are mainly the result of environmental impact, predominantly waste issues. Thus, current imports of SHPCs and SHTs do not really benefit Cambodia, but instead cause serious environmental problems from their waste issues. The import serves as a channel to transfer waste into developing countries.

  20. High Mobility and Low Use of Malaria Preventive Measures Among the Jarai Male Youth Along the Cambodia-Vietnam Border.

    PubMed

    Gryseels, Charlotte; Peeters Grietens, Koen; Dierickx, Susan; Xuan, Xa Nguyen; Uk, Sambunny; Bannister-Tyrrell, Melanie; Trienekens, Suzan; Ribera, Joan Muela; Hausmann-Muela, Susanna; Gerrets, René; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Erhart, Annette

    2015-10-01

    Malaria control along the Vietnam-Cambodia border presents a challenge for both countries' malaria elimination targets as the region is forested, inhabited by ethnic minority populations, and potentially characterized by early and outdoor malaria transmission. A mixed methods study assessed the vulnerability to malaria among the Jarai population living on both sides of the border in the provinces of Ratanakiri (Cambodia) and Gia Lai (Vietnam). A qualitative study generated preliminary hypotheses that were quantified in two surveys, one targeting youth (N = 498) and the other household leaders (N = 449). Jarai male youth, especially in Cambodia, had lower uptake of preventive measures (57.4%) and more often stayed overnight in the deep forest (35.8%) compared with the female youth and the adult population. Among male youth, a high-risk subgroup was identified that regularly slept at friends' homes or outdoors, who had fewer bed nets (32.5%) that were torn more often (77.8%). The vulnerability of Jarai youth to malaria could be attributed to the transitional character of youth itself, implying less fixed sleeping arrangements in nonpermanent spaces or non-bed sites. Additional tools such as long-lasting hammock nets could be suitable as they are in line with current practices. PMID:26283747

  1. Human H5N1 influenza infections in Cambodia 2005–2011: case series and cost-of-illness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Southeast Asia has been identified as a potential epicentre of emerging diseases with pandemic capacity, including highly pathogenic influenza. Cambodia in particular has the potential for high rates of avoidable deaths from pandemic influenza due to large gaps in health system resources. This study seeks to better understand the course and cost-of-illness for cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Cambodia. Methods We studied the 18 laboratory-confirmed cases of avian influenza subtype H5N1 identified in Cambodia between January 2005 and August 2011. Medical records for all patients were reviewed to extract information on patient characteristics, travel to hospital, time to admission, diagnostic testing, treatment and disease outcomes. Further data related to costs was collected through interviews with key informants at district and provincial hospitals, the Ministry of Health and non-governmental organisations. An ingredient-based approach was used to estimate the total economic cost for each study patient. Costing was conducted from a societal perspective and included both financial and opportunity costs to the patient or carer. Sensitivity analysis was undertaken to evaluate potential change or variation in the cost-of-illness. Results Of the 18 patients studied, 11 (61%) were under the age of 18 years. The majority of patients (16, 89%) died, eight (44%) within 24 hours of hospital admission. There was an average delay of seven days between symptom onset and hospitalisation with patients travelling an average of 148 kilometres (8-476 km) to the admitting hospital. Five patients were treated with oseltamivir of whom two received the recommended dose. For the 16 patients who received all their treatment in Cambodia the average per patient cost of H5N1 influenza illness was US$300 of which 85.0% comprised direct medical provider costs, including diagnostic testing (41.2%), pharmaceuticals (28.4%), hospitalisation (10.4%), oxygen (4.4%) and

  2. Social cost of land mines in four countries: Afghanistan, Bosnia, Cambodia, and Mozambique.

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, N.; da Sousa, C. P.; Paredes, S.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To document the effects of land mines on the health and social conditions of communities in four affected countries. DESIGN--A cross design of cluster survey and rapid appraisal methods including a household questionnaire and qualitative data from key informants, institutional reviews, and focus groups of survivors of land mines from the same communities. SETTING--206 communities, 37 in Afghanistan, 66 in Bosnia, 38 in Cambodia, and 65 in Mozambique. SUBJECTS--174,489 people living in 32,904 households in the selected communities. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Effects of land mines on food security, residence, livestock, and land use; risk factors: extent of individual land mine injuries; physical, psychological, social, and economic costs of injuries during medical care and rehabilitation. RESULTS--Between 25% and 87% of households had daily activities affected by land mines. Based on expected production without the mines, agricultural production could increase by 88-200% in different regions of Afghanistan, 11% in Bosnia, 135% in Cambodia, and 3.6% in Mozambique. A total of 54,554 animals was lost because of land mines, with a minimum cash value of $6.5m, or nearly $200 per household. Overall, 6% of households (1964) reported a land mine victim; a third of victims died in the blast. One in 10 of the victims was a child. The most frequent activities associated with land mine incidents were agricultural or pastoral, except in Bosnia where more than half resulted from military activities, usually during patrols. Incidences have more than doubled between 1980-3 and 1990-3, excluding the incidents in Bosnia. Some 22% of victims (455/2100) were from households reporting attempts to remove land mines; in these households there was a greatly increased risk of injury (odds ratio 4.2 and risk difference 19% across the four countries). Lethality of the mines varied; in Bosnia each blast killed an average of 0.54 people and injured 1.4, whereas in Mozambique each blast

  3. Characteristics of bedrock-alluvial anastomosed rivers: the Mekong River in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkova, Liubov. V.; Carling, Paul. A.

    2010-05-01

    The Mekong River is the 12th largest river in the world in terms of its length and mean annual discharge and yet it is poorly investigated. In the north eastern regions of Cambodia the Mekong River develops a multichannel pattern. It is characterised by a complex of intersecting bedrock channels, well vegetated alluvial and seasonally inundated islands, various types of sand bars, numerous bedrock exposures, rapids, waterfalls and deep bedrock pools which can be classified as a large mixed bedrock-alluvial anastomosed river of a tropical monsoonal climate zone. In order to complete a portrait of the river at the high level of details new data on morphology, geology and sediments were obtained during field surveys of a 120 km river section in Cambodia and combined with information from published literature and interpretation of available remote sensing images. This process has enabled to update and clarify knowledge on morphology of observed islands and floodplain, comprehensive geology and tectonic structures, hydrological regime and land cover. Complex analyses of the collected data have distinguished several geomorphological zones accordingly to frequency of morphological elements, the planview configuration of channels and vertical profile characteristics. The occurrence of each zone is a subject of variable controlling factors such as local topography, channel gradient, structural and tectonic elements and intercalating geological units. Evolution of the channel pattern has been considered at both short- and long term time scales. Historical cartographic and remote sensing materials were applied to determine planform channel changes over the last 50 years revealing the channels stability and cases of occasional, local erosion and deposition. The channel network was extracted from vector layers to examine channels and islands width and length parameters, bifurcation angles at the upstream end of islands and to obtain main channel network indices such as braiding

  4. Neurobehavioral effects of arsenic exposure among secondary school children in the Kandal Province, Cambodia

    SciTech Connect

    Vibol, Sao; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Sarmani, Sukiman

    2015-02-15

    The research was carried out at 3 study sites with varying groundwater arsenic (As) levels in the Kandal Province of Cambodia. Kampong Kong Commune was chosen as a highly contaminated site (300–500 μg/L), Svay Romiet Commune was chosen as a moderately contaminated site (50–300 μg/L) and Anlong Romiet Commune was chosen as a control site. Neurobehavioral tests on the 3 exposure groups were conducted using a modified WHO neurobehavioral core test battery. Seven neurobehavioral tests including digit symbol, digit span, Santa Ana manual dexterity, Benton visual retention, pursuit aiming, trail making and simple reaction time were applied. Children's hair samples were also collected to investigate the influence of hair As levels on the neurobehavioral test scores. The results from the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses of hair samples showed that hair As levels at the 3 study sites were significantly different (p<0.001), whereby hair samples from the highly contaminated site (n=157) had a median hair As level of 0.93 μg/g, while the moderately contaminated site (n=151) had a median hair As level of 0.22 μg/g, and the control site (n=214) had a median hair As level of 0.08 μg/g. There were significant differences among the 3 study sites for all the neurobehavioral tests scores, except for digit span (backward) test. Multiple linear regression clearly shows a positive significant influence of hair As levels on all the neurobehavioral test scores, except for digit span (backward) test, after controlling for hair lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd). Children with high hair As levels experienced 1.57–4.67 times greater risk of having lower neurobehavioral test scores compared to those with low hair As levels, after adjusting for hair Pb, Mn and Cd levels and BMI status. In conclusion, arsenic-exposed school children from the Kandal Province of Cambodia with a median hair As level of 0.93 µg/g among those from the highly

  5. Selling sex in unsafe spaces: sex work risk environments in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The risk environment framework provides a valuable but under-utilised heuristic for understanding environmental vulnerability to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers. Brothels have been shown to be safer than street-based sex work, with higher rates of consistent condom use and lower HIV prevalence. While entertainment venues are also assumed to be safer than street-based sex work, few studies have examined environmental influences on vulnerability to HIV in this context. Methods As part of the Young Women's Health Study, a prospective observational study of young women (15-29 years) engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, we conducted in-depth interviews (n = 33) to explore vulnerability to HIV/STI and related harms. Interviews were conducted in Khmer by trained interviewers, transcribed and translated into English and analysed for thematic content. Results The intensification of anti-prostitution and anti-trafficking efforts in Cambodia has increased the number of women working in entertainment venues and on the street. Our results confirm that street-based sex work places women at risk of HIV/STI infection and identify significant environmental risks related to entertainment-based sex work, including limited access to condoms and alcohol-related intoxication. Our data also indicate that exposure to violence and interactions with the police are mediated by the settings in which sex is sold. In particular, transacting sex in environments such as guest houses where there is little or no oversight in the form of peer or managerial support or protection, may increase vulnerability to HIV/STI. Conclusions Entertainment venues may also provide a high risk environment for sex work. Our results indicate that strategies designed to address HIV prevention among brothel-based FSWs in Cambodia have not translated well to street and entertainment-based sex work venues in which increasing numbers of women are working. There is an urgent

  6. Indiscriminate Fisheries: Understanding the Foodweb of the Great Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, L.; Kaufman, L.

    2014-12-01

    Indiscriminate fisheries target multiple species with multiple gear types. In contrast to well-studied, industrialized single-species, single-gear fisheries, little theory and little but growing literature on practice exists for indiscriminate fisheries. Indiscriminate fisheries are disproportionately important in low-income countries, providing most of the animal protein intake in countries such as Cambodia and Bangladesh. Indiscriminate fisheries may be either freshwater or marine, but here we focus on what may be the largest freshwater indiscriminate fishery in the world. Cambodia's freshwater fishery stands out because it provides the majority of animal protein to over 3 million people living in poverty. The fishery of the Tonle Sap lake is one of the largest, if not the largest contributor to this freshwater fish take, and is perhaps the largest freshwater fishery in the world. In contrast to its importance, very little is known about the foodweb ecology of this system, or how community management which now governs the entire fishery, interacts with biological and physical factors such as climate change.The foodweb of the Tonle Sap has changed dramatically due to high fishing pressure. A system that once harbored giant catfish, barbs and stingrays is now dominated by fish under 20cm in length. The simplification of the system may not have reduced its productivity. Theory of indiscriminate fisheries suggests that r-selected species may be favored and that biomass available for harvest may be maximized, while being more sensitive to environmental fluctuations such as climate change due to food web simplification. The r-selection and size predictions of theory have been confirmed by observations of the Tonle Sap. Early model results suggest sensitivity to environmental stochasticity. The interaction of these ecological changes with social systems will be tested in the Tonle Sap. Fisheries management across the lake has been transferred to community management

  7. Neurobehavioral effects of arsenic exposure among secondary school children in the Kandal Province, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Vibol, Sao; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Sarmani, Sukiman

    2015-02-01

    The research was carried out at 3 study sites with varying groundwater arsenic (As) levels in the Kandal Province of Cambodia. Kampong Kong Commune was chosen as a highly contaminated site (300-500μg/L), Svay Romiet Commune was chosen as a moderately contaminated site (50-300μg/L) and Anlong Romiet Commune was chosen as a control site. Neurobehavioral tests on the 3 exposure groups were conducted using a modified WHO neurobehavioral core test battery. Seven neurobehavioral tests including digit symbol, digit span, Santa Ana manual dexterity, Benton visual retention, pursuit aiming, trail making and simple reaction time were applied. Children's hair samples were also collected to investigate the influence of hair As levels on the neurobehavioral test scores. The results from the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses of hair samples showed that hair As levels at the 3 study sites were significantly different (p<0.001), whereby hair samples from the highly contaminated site (n=157) had a median hair As level of 0.93μg/g, while the moderately contaminated site (n=151) had a median hair As level of 0.22μg/g, and the control site (n=214) had a median hair As level of 0.08μg/g. There were significant differences among the 3 study sites for all the neurobehavioral tests scores, except for digit span (backward) test. Multiple linear regression clearly shows a positive significant influence of hair As levels on all the neurobehavioral test scores, except for digit span (backward) test, after controlling for hair lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd). Children with high hair As levels experienced 1.57-4.67 times greater risk of having lower neurobehavioral test scores compared to those with low hair As levels, after adjusting for hair Pb, Mn and Cd levels and BMI status. In conclusion, arsenic-exposed school children from the Kandal Province of Cambodia with a median hair As level of 0.93µg/g among those from the highly contaminated study

  8. Klebsiella pneumoniae related community-acquired acute lower respiratory infections in Cambodia: Clinical characteristics and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In many Asian countries, Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is the second pathogen responsible for community-acquired pneumonia. Yet, very little is known about KP etiology in ALRI in Cambodia, a country that has one of the weakest medical infrastructures in the region. We present here the first clinico-radiological description of KP community-acquired ALRI in hospitalized Cambodian patients. Methods Through ALRI surveillance in two provincial hospitals, KP was isolated from sputum and blood cultures, and identified by API20E gallery from patients ≥ 5 years-old with fever and respiratory symptoms onset ≤14 days. Antibiotics susceptibility testing was provided systematically to clinicians when bacteria were isolated. We collected patients' clinical, radiological and microbiological data and their outcome 3 months after discharge. We also compared KP-related with other bacteria-related ALRI to determine risk factors for KP infection. Results From April 2007 to December 2009, 2315 ALRI patients ≥ 5 years-old were enrolled including 587 whose bacterial etiology could be assigned. Of these, 47 (8.0%) had KP infection; their median age was 55 years and 68.1% were females. Reported prior medication was high (42.5%). Patients' chest radiographs showed pneumonia (61.3% including 39% that were necrotizing), preexisting parenchyma lesions (29.5%) and pleural effusions alone (4.5%) and normal parenchyma (4.5%). Five patients had severe conditions on admission and one patient died during hospitalization. Of the 39 patients that were hospital discharged, 14 died including 12 within 1 month after discharge. Only 13 patients (28%) received an appropriate antibiotherapy. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) - producing strains were found in 8 (17.0%) patients. Female gender (Odds ratio (OR) 2.1; p = 0.04) and diabetes mellitus (OR 3.1; p = 0.03) were independent risk factors for KP-related ALRI. Conclusions KP ALRI in Cambodia has high fatality rate, are more

  9. Estimation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice field with rice straw management in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Vibol, S; Towprayoon, S

    2010-02-01

    To estimate the greenhouse gas emissions from paddy fields of Cambodia, the methodology of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines, IPCC coefficients, and emission factors from the experiment in Thailand and another country were used. Total area under rice cultivation during the years 2005-2006 was 2,048,360 ha in the first crop season and 298,529 ha in the second crop season. The emission of methane from stubble incorporation with manure plus fertilizer application areas in the first crop season was estimated to be 192,783.74 ton higher than stubble with manure, stubble with fertilizer, and stubble without fertilizer areas. The fields with stubble burning emitted the highest emission of methane (75,771.29 ton) followed by stubble burning with manure (22,251.08 ton), stubble burning with fertilizer (13,213.27 ton), and stubble burning with fertilizer application areas (3,222.22 ton). The total emission of methane from rice field in Cambodia for the years 2005-2006 was approximately 342,649.26 ton (342.65 Gg) in the first crop season and 36,838.88 ton (36.84 Gg) in the second crop season. During the first crop season in the years 2005-2006, Battambang province emitted the highest amount of CH(4) (38,764.48 ton) and, in the second crop season during the years 2005-2006, the highest emission (8,262.34 ton) was found in Takeo province (8,262.34 ton). Nitrous oxide emission was between 2.70 and 1,047.92 ton in the first crop season and it ranged from 0 to 244.90 ton in the second crop season. Total nitrous oxide emission from paddy rice field was estimated to be 9,026.28 ton in the first crop season and 1,091.93 ton in the second crop season. Larger area under cultivation is responsible for higher emission of methane and nitrous oxide. Total emission of nitrous oxide by using IPCC default emission coefficient was approximately 2,328.85 ton. The total global warming potential of Cambodian paddy rice soil is 11,723,217.03 ton (11,723 Gg

  10. Removing arsenic from groundwater in Cambodia using high performance iron adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Kang, Y; Takeda, R; Nada, A; Thavarith, L; Tang, S; Nuki, K; Sakurai, K

    2014-09-01

    In Cambodia, groundwater has been contaminated with arsenic, and purification of the water is an urgent issue. From 2010 to 2012, an international collaborative project between Japan and Cambodia for developing arsenic-removing technology from well water was conducted and supported by the foundation of New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Japan. Quality of well water was surveyed in Kandal, Prey Veng, and Kampong Cham Provinces, and a monitoring trial of the arsenic removal equipment using our patented amorphous iron (hydr)oxide adsorbent was performed. Of the 37 wells surveyed, arsenic concentration of 24 exceeded the Cambodian guideline value (50 μg L(-1)), and those of 27 exceeded the WHO guideline for drinking water (10 μg L(-1)). Levels of arsenic were extremely high in some wells (>1,000-6,000 μg L(-1)), suggesting that arsenic pollution of groundwater is serious in these areas. Based on the survey results, 16 arsenic removal equipments were installed in six schools, three temples, two health centers, four private houses, and one commune office. Over 10 months of monitoring, the average arsenic concentrations of the treated water were between 0 and 10 μg L(-1) at four locations, 10-50 μg L(-1) at eight locations, and >50 μg L(-1) at four locations. The arsenic removal rate ranged in 83.1-99.7%, with an average of 93.8%, indicating that the arsenic removal equipment greatly lower the risk of arsenic exposure to the residents. Results of the field trial showed that As concentration of the treated water could be reduced to <10 µg L(-1) by managing the As removal equipment properly, suggesting that the amorphous iron (hydr)oxide adsorbent has high adsorbing capacity for As not only in the laboratory environment but also in the field condition. This is one of the succeeding As removal techniques that could reduce As concentration of water below the WHO guideline value for As in situ. PMID:24894910

  11. Improving government health services through contract management: a case from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Soeters, Robert; Griffiths, Fred

    2003-03-01

    Most government health facilities in Cambodia perform poorly, due to lack of funds, inadequate management and inefficient use of resources, but mostly due to poor motivation of staff. This paper describes contracting as a possible tool for Ministries of Health to improve health service delivery more rapidly than the more traditional reform approaches. In Cambodia, the Ministry of Health started an experiment with contracting in eight districts, covering 1 million people. Health care management in five districts was sub-contracted to private sector operators, and their results were compared with three control districts. Both internal and external reviews showed that after 3 years of implementation, the utilization of health services in the contracted districts improved significantly, in comparison with the control districts. There was adequate competition in awarding the contracts. A Ministry of Health Project Co-ordinating Unit measured the performance of the contractors, and contributed pro-actively. There was no evidence of rent-seeking practices by either the contracting agency or the contractors. This paper describes in more detail the successes and failures in one of the contracted districts, where HealthNet International applied the contracting approach. Despite significantly increased official user fees, constituting 16% of recurrent costs, the utilization of services was equally increased. Patients thought the fees were reasonable because they were still lower than the fees demanded if government health workers charged informally. They also thought that the services were of better quality than in the unregulated private sector. Another important result was that combining strict monitoring with performance-based incentives demonstrates a decrease in total family health expenditure of some 40% from US dollars 18 to US dollars 11 per capita per year. Innovative and decisive management proved to be essential, which is more likely to be achieved by a contracted

  12. Reap around the State: "Best of Reap" Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Learning Resources Unit.

    This booklet presents selected activities from elementary, middle, junior high, and senior high schools In Indiana, intended to encourage students to read. It offers ideas for 11 community activities (including guest readers, nursing home reading, and a young author celebration), 14 continuous activities (such as the great book graffiti wall and…

  13. World Malaria Day 2016 in the Kingdom of Cambodia: high-level governmental support embodies the WHO call for "political will to end malaria".

    PubMed

    Canavati, Sara E; Quintero, Cesia E; Bou, Thavrin; Khieu, Virak; Leang, Rithea; Lek, Dysoley; Ly, Po; Muth, Sinuon; Lim, Kim Seng; Tuseo, Luciano; Yok, Sovann; Yung, Kunthearith; Richards, Jack S; Rekol, Huy

    2016-01-01

    On World Malaria Day 2016, The Kingdom of Cambodia's National celebrations served as a prime of example of how political will is currently being exercised in Cambodia through high-level governmental support for malaria elimination. The main country event was well-planned and coordinated by the National Programme for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control (CNM), and included key contributions from high-ranking political figures, such as His Excellency (H.E) Mam Bun Heng (Minister of Health), and H.E. Keut Sothea (Governor of Pailin Province). There were more than 1000 attendees, ranging from Village Malaria Workers and high school students to CNM's director and other officials in Pailin Province, Western Cambodia. A strong inter-sectoral participation included attendances from the Ministry of Education and high-level representatives of the Cambodian Armed Forces, as well as Malaria Partners like the World Health Organization. PMID:27251357

  14. High Prevalence of Antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative Colonization in Hospitalized Cambodian Infants

    PubMed Central

    Pol, Sreymom; Soeng, Sona; Sar, Poda; Neou, Leakhena; Chea, Phal; Day, Nicholas PJ; Cooper, Ben S.; Turner, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative infections are a significant cause of mortality in young infants. We aimed to determine characteristics of, and risk factors for, colonization and invasive infection caused by 3rd generation cephalosporin (3GC) or carbapenem-resistant organisms in outborn infants admitted to a neonatal unit (NU) in Cambodia. Methods: During the first year of operation, patients admitted to the Angkor Hospital for Children NU, Siem Reap, Cambodia, underwent rectal swabbing on admission and twice weekly until discharge. Swabs were taken also from 7 environmental sites. Swabs were cultured to identify 3GC or carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter sp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: The study included 333 infants with a median age at NU admission of 10 days (range, 0–43). Colonization by ≥1 3GC-resistant organism was detected in 85.9% (286/333). Admission swabs were collected in 289 infants: 61.9% were colonized by a 3GC-resistant organism at the time of admission, and a further 23.2% were colonized during hospitalization, at a median of 4 days [95% confidence interval: 3–5]. Probiotic treatment (hazard ratio: 0.58; 95% confidence interval: 0.35–0.98) was associated with delayed colonization. Colonization by a carbapenem-resistant organism occurred in 25 (7.5%) infants. Six infants had NU-associated K. pneumoniae bacteremia; phenotypically identical colonizing strains were found in 3 infants. Environmental colonization occurred early. Conclusions: Colonization by antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative organisms occurred early in hospitalized Cambodian infants and was associated with subsequent invasive infection. Trials of potential interventions such as probiotics are needed. PMID:27124686

  15. Characterisation of Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolated from Cambodian Children between 2007 – 2012

    PubMed Central

    Giess, Adam; Soeng, Sona; Sar, Poda; Kumar, Varun; Nhoung, Pheakdey; Bousfield, Rachel; Turner, Paul; Stoesser, Nicole; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Parry, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) was introduced in Cambodia in January 2015. There are limited data concerning the common serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Knowledge of the circulating pneumococcal serotypes is important to monitor epidemiological changes before and after vaccine implementation. Methods All episodes of IPD defined by the isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae from blood, cerebrospinal fluid or other sterile site in Cambodian children admitted to the Angkor Hospital for Children in Siem Reap, Northwestern Cambodia, between 1st January 2007 and 1st July 2012 were retrospectively studied. Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates that could be retrieved underwent phenotypic typing and whole genome sequencing. Results There were 90 Cambodian children hospitalized with IPD with a median (IQR) age of 2.3 years (0.9–6.2). The case fatality was 15.6% (95% CI 8–23). Of 50 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates available for further testing, 46% were penicillin non-susceptible and 8% were ceftriaxone non-susceptible, 78% were cotrimoxazole resistant, 30% were erythromycin resistant and 30% chloramphenicol resistant. There were no significant changes in resistance levels over the five-year period. The most common serotypes were 1 (11/50; 22%), 23F (8/50; 16%), 14 (6/50; 12%), 5 (5/50; 10%) and 19A (3/50; 6%). Coverage by PCV7, PCV10 and PCV13 was 44%, 76% and 92% respectively. We identified novel multilocus sequence types and resistotypes using whole genome sequencing. Conclusions This study suggests IPD is an important disease in Cambodian children and can have a significant mortality. PCV13 coverage of the serotypes determined in studied strains was high and consistent with another recent study. The phenotypic resistance patterns observed were similar to other regional studies. The use of whole genome sequencing in the present study provides additional typing and resistance information together with the description of novel

  16. Microbiological effectiveness of locally produced ceramic filters for drinking water treatment in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joe; Sobsey, Mark D

    2010-03-01

    Low-cost options for the treatment of drinking water at the household level are being explored by the Cambodian government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in Cambodia, where many lack access to improved drinking water sources and diarrhoeal diseases are the most prevalent cause of death in children under 5 years of age. The ceramic water purifier (CWP), a locally produced, low-cost ceramic filter, is now being implemented by several NGOs, and an estimated 100,000+households in the country now use them for drinking water treatment. Two candidate filters were tested for the reduction of bacterial and viral surrogates for waterborne pathogens using representative Cambodian drinking water sources (rainwater and surface water) spiked with Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Results indicate that filters were capable of reducing key microbes in the laboratory with mean reductions of E. coli of approximately 99% and mean reduction of bacteriophages of 90-99% over >600 litres throughput. Increased effectiveness was not observed in filters with an AgNO3 amendment. At under US$10 per filter, locally produced ceramic filters may be a promising option for drinking water treatment and safe storage at the household level. PMID:20009242

  17. Persistent Inequalities in Child Undernutrition in Cambodia from 2000 until Today.

    PubMed

    Greffeuille, Valérie; Sophonneary, Prak; Laillou, Arnaud; Gauthier, Ludovic; Hong, Rathmony; Hong, Rathavuth; Poirot, Etienne; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine; Wieringa, Frank; Berger, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The study assessed the trends of nutritional status of children under age five in Cambodia over four DHS surveys from 2000 to 2014 and the contribution of socioeconomic and demographic factors to its changes. Undernutrition was a public health problem in all surveys. Despite consistent improvement over the years, stunting still affected 32.5% of children in 2014. Wasting prevalence did not improve since 2005 and affected 9.6% of children under five in 2014. Low wealth and mother education; and rural residence contributed to undernutrition. In 2014; wealth status was the main socioeconomic factor associated with undernutrition and the nutritional status of children was strongly related to that of their mothers. Anemia prevalence was high and after a decrease between 2000 and 2005 remained at 45%. The prevalence of overweight was less than 10% and did not change over the years despite an increasing trend in the richest households of urban areas. Persistent inequalities in child undernutrition call for action, giving priority to the most vulnerable households to ensure availability and access to nutrient-rich foods for women and children through nutrition-sensitive and nutrition-specific programs. The recent increase of overweight in the richest populations must also be considered in Cambodian health policies. PMID:27196924

  18. A comprehensive archaeological map of the world's largest preindustrial settlement complex at Angkor, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Evans, Damian; Pottier, Christophe; Fletcher, Roland; Hensley, Scott; Tapley, Ian; Milne, Anthony; Barbetti, Michael

    2007-09-01

    The great medieval settlement of Angkor in Cambodia [9th-16th centuries Common Era (CE)] has for many years been understood as a "hydraulic city," an urban complex defined, sustained, and ultimately overwhelmed by a complex water management network. Since the 1980s that view has been disputed, but the debate has remained unresolved because of insufficient data on the landscape beyond the great temples: the broader context of the monumental remains was only partially understood and had not been adequately mapped. Since the 1990s, French, Australian, and Cambodian teams have sought to address this empirical deficit through archaeological mapping projects by using traditional methods such as ground survey in conjunction with advanced radar remote-sensing applications in partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Here we present a major outcome of that research: a comprehensive archaeological map of greater Angkor, covering nearly 3,000 km2, prepared by the Greater Angkor Project (GAP). The map reveals a vast, low-density settlement landscape integrated by an elaborate water management network covering>1,000 km2, the most extensive urban complex of the preindustrial world. It is now clear that anthropogenic changes to the landscape were both extensive and substantial enough to have created grave challenges to the long-term viability of the settlement. PMID:17717084

  19. A comprehensive archaeological map of the world's largest preindustrial settlement complex at Angkor, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Damian; Pottier, Christophe; Fletcher, Roland; Hensley, Scott; Tapley, Ian; Milne, Anthony; Barbetti, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The great medieval settlement of Angkor in Cambodia [9th–16th centuries Common Era (CE)] has for many years been understood as a “hydraulic city,” an urban complex defined, sustained, and ultimately overwhelmed by a complex water management network. Since the 1980s that view has been disputed, but the debate has remained unresolved because of insufficient data on the landscape beyond the great temples: the broader context of the monumental remains was only partially understood and had not been adequately mapped. Since the 1990s, French, Australian, and Cambodian teams have sought to address this empirical deficit through archaeological mapping projects by using traditional methods such as ground survey in conjunction with advanced radar remote-sensing applications in partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Here we present a major outcome of that research: a comprehensive archaeological map of greater Angkor, covering nearly 3,000 km2, prepared by the Greater Angkor Project (GAP). The map reveals a vast, low-density settlement landscape integrated by an elaborate water management network covering >1,000 km2, the most extensive urban complex of the preindustrial world. It is now clear that anthropogenic changes to the landscape were both extensive and substantial enough to have created grave challenges to the long-term viability of the settlement. PMID:17717084

  20. Mixed impact of Xpert® MTB/RIF on tuberculosis diagnosis in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Moore, B. K.; Kyle, R. P.; Eng, B.; Nong, K.; Pevzner, E. S.; Eam, K. K.; Eang, M. T.; Killam, W. P.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: National Tuberculosis (TB) Program sites in northwest Cambodia. Objective: To evaluate the impact of Xpert® MTB/RIF at point of care (POC) as compared to non-POC sites on the diagnostic evaluation of people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) with TB symptoms and patients with possible multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB. Design: Observational cohort of patients undergoing routine diagnostic evaluation for TB following the rollout of Xpert. Results: Between October 2011 and June 2013, 431 of 822 (52%) PLHIV with TB symptoms and 240/493 (49%) patients with possible MDR-TB underwent Xpert. Xpert was more likely to be performed when available as POC. A smaller proportion of PLHIV at POC sites were diagnosed with TB than at non-POC sites; however, at POC sites, a higher proportion of those diagnosed with TB were bacteriologically positive. There was poor agreement between Xpert and other tests such as smear microscopy and culture. Overall, the evaluation of patients with possible MDR-TB increased following Xpert rollout, yet for patients confirmed as having drug resistance on drug susceptibility testing, only 46% had rifampin resistance that would be identified with Xpert. Conclusion: Although utilization of Xpert was low, it may have contributed to an increase in evaluations for possible MDR-TB and a decline in empiric treatment for PLHIV when available as POC. PMID:27358807

  1. Persistent Inequalities in Child Undernutrition in Cambodia from 2000 until Today

    PubMed Central

    Greffeuille, Valérie; Sophonneary, Prak; Laillou, Arnaud; Gauthier, Ludovic; Hong, Rathmony; Hong, Rathavuth; Poirot, Etienne; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine; Wieringa, Frank; Berger, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The study assessed the trends of nutritional status of children under age five in Cambodia over four DHS surveys from 2000 to 2014 and the contribution of socioeconomic and demographic factors to its changes. Undernutrition was a public health problem in all surveys. Despite consistent improvement over the years, stunting still affected 32.5% of children in 2014. Wasting prevalence did not improve since 2005 and affected 9.6% of children under five in 2014. Low wealth and mother education; and rural residence contributed to undernutrition. In 2014; wealth status was the main socioeconomic factor associated with undernutrition and the nutritional status of children was strongly related to that of their mothers. Anemia prevalence was high and after a decrease between 2000 and 2005 remained at 45%. The prevalence of overweight was less than 10% and did not change over the years despite an increasing trend in the richest households of urban areas. Persistent inequalities in child undernutrition call for action, giving priority to the most vulnerable households to ensure availability and access to nutrient-rich foods for women and children through nutrition-sensitive and nutrition-specific programs. The recent increase of overweight in the richest populations must also be considered in Cambodian health policies. PMID:27196924

  2. Biodiversity Monitoring at the Tonle Sap Lake of Cambodia: A Comparative Assessment of Local Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seak, Sophat; Schmidt-Vogt, Dietrich; Thapa, Gopal B.

    2012-10-01

    This paper assesses local biodiversity monitoring methods practiced in the Tonle Sap Lake of Cambodia. For the assessment we used the following criteria: methodological rigor, perceived cost, ease of use (user friendliness), compatibility with existing activities, and effectiveness of intervention. Constraints and opportunities for execution of the methods were also considered. Information was collected by use of: (1) key informant interview, (2) focus group discussion, and (3) researcher's observation. The monitoring methods for fish, birds, reptiles, mammals and vegetation practiced in the research area have their unique characteristics of generating data on biodiversity and biological resources. Most of the methods, however, serve the purpose of monitoring biological resources rather than biodiversity. There is potential that the information gained through local monitoring methods can provide input for long-term management and strategic planning. In order to realize this potential, the local monitoring methods should be better integrated with each other, adjusted to existing norms and regulations, and institutionalized within community-based organization structures.

  3. Characterizing Types of Human Mobility to Inform Differential and Targeted Malaria Elimination Strategies in Northeast Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Peeters Grietens, Koen; Gryseels, Charlotte; Dierickx, Susan; Bannister-Tyrrell, Melanie; Trienekens, Suzan; Uk, Sambunny; Phoeuk, Pisen; Suon, Sokha; Set, Srun; Gerrets, René; Hoibak, Sarah; Muela Ribera, Joan; Hausmann-Muela, Susanna; Tho, Sochantha; Durnez, Lies; Sluydts, Vincent; d’Alessandro, Umberto; Coosemans, Marc; Erhart, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Human population movements currently challenge malaria elimination in low transmission foci in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Using a mixed-methods design, combining ethnography (n = 410 interviews), malariometric data (n = 4996) and population surveys (n = 824 indigenous populations; n = 704 Khmer migrants) malaria vulnerability among different types of mobile populations was researched in the remote province of Ratanakiri, Cambodia. Different structural types of human mobility were identified, showing differential risk and vulnerability. Among local indigenous populations, access to malaria testing and treatment through the VMW-system and LLIN coverage was high but control strategies failed to account for forest farmers’ prolonged stays at forest farms/fields (61% during rainy season), increasing their exposure (p = 0.002). The Khmer migrants, with low acquired immunity, active on plantations and mines, represented a fundamentally different group not reached by LLIN-distribution campaigns since they were largely unregistered (79%) and unaware of the local VMW-system (95%) due to poor social integration. Khmer migrants therefore require control strategies including active detection, registration and immediate access to malaria prevention and control tools from which they are currently excluded. In conclusion, different types of mobility require different malaria elimination strategies. Targeting mobility without an in-depth understanding of malaria risk in each group challenges further progress towards elimination. PMID:26593245

  4. Social network analysis of cattle movement in Kampong Cham, Kampong Speu and Takeo, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Poolkhet, C; Kasemsuwan, S; Seng, S; Keartha, C; Sokmao, C; Shin, M; Kalpravidh, W; Hinrichs, J

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to provide insight the network of cattle movement in Kampong Cham, Kampong Speu and Takeo, Cambodia. A cross-sectional study was carried out from July 2014 to August 2014, using questionnaires. It was implemented with 435 interviewees (24.4%, 24.6% and 51.0% from Kampong Cham, Kampong Speu and Takeo, respectively) using one-step snowball sampling. The findings suggest that the key players in all three provinces are producers who raise their cattle as backyard animals. In all three provinces the key players in spreading disease are probably the middlemen, collectors, brokers or traders. The network of cattle movement is presented as a strong component of varying size in each location. In this network we found three cut-points in both Kampong Cham and Kampong Speu. The network in each province indicates a random pattern of node distribution. The results of our study are useful to relevant authorities and researchers to understand the spread of infectious diseases into different areas. The middlemen, collectors, brokers and traders need to be controlled as first priority in order to reduce the magnitude of the spread of disease. PMID:27012718

  5. Adult tobacco cessation in Cambodia: I. Determinants of quitting tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Tonstad, Serena; Job, Jayakaran S; Batech, Michael; Yel, Daravuth; Kheam, They; Singh, Pramil N

    2013-09-01

    This study determined factors associated with quitting tobacco in Cambodia, a country with a high prevalence of men who smoke and women who use smokeless tobacco. As part of a nationwide survey, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 5145 current and 447 former tobacco users who had quit for ≥ 2 years. Determinants of quitting in multivariate analyses were age >48 years, age at initiation >25 years, ≥ 7 years of education, income ≥ 1 US dollar per day, professional (odds ratio [OR] = 2.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27-5.01) or labor (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.10-3.56) occupations, and heart disease (OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.10, 3.42). Smokeless tobacco users were 10-fold less likely to quit (OR = 0.10; 95% = CI 0.05-0.20) than smokers. In conclusion, tobacco cessation among Cambodians was lower than in nations with decades of comprehensive tobacco control policies. Tobacco cessation programs and policies should include all forms of tobacco and target young to middle-aged users before onset of disease and premature death. PMID:22815309

  6. Care providers' needs and perspectives on suffering and care in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Laura; Mollica, Richard F; Douglas Kelley, Susan; Tor, Svang; Halilovic, Majda

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study aimed to obtain insight into field-level care providers' views on suffering and healing as well as existing obstacles and needs related to providing care to their clients. This research provides a "snapshot" for a better understanding of existing care systems in two post-conflict settings. By identifying existing approaches to care and the needs of the care provider community, this research might be useful in guiding psychosocial assistance programming in post-conflict settings. Utilizing a semi-structured questionnaire, 45 care providers were interviewed, including local health care practitioners, traditional/ spiritual healers, and humanitarian relief workers, in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Cambodia. This study found that the majority of care providers in both settings perceived poverty and violence as significant causes and consequences of human suffering and, at the same time, felt ill-equipped in addressing these issues and related problems. Other issues that hindered these healers in providing care included: limited government/institutional support; lack of training; material resources and funding. Study findings point to a new framework for developing effective interventions and the need for further emphasis on supporting care providers in their work, and most specifically, in identifying and responding to poverty and violence. PMID:23331393

  7. The epidemiology of pediatric bone and joint infections in Cambodia, 2007-11.

    PubMed

    Stoesser, Nicole; Pocock, Joanna; Moore, Catrin E; Soeng, Sona; Hor, PutChhat; Sar, Poda; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Day, Nicholas; Kumar, Varun; Khan, Sophy; Sar, Vuthy; Parry, Christopher M

    2013-02-01

    There are limited data on osteoarticular infections from resource-limited settings in Asia. A retrospective study of patients presenting to the Angkor Hospital for Children, Cambodia, January 2007-July 2011, identified 81 cases (28% monoarticular septic arthritis, 51% single-limb osteomyelitis and 15% multisite infections). The incidence was 13.8/100 000 hospital attendances. The median age was 7.3 years, with a male/female ratio of 1.9:1; 35% presented within 5 days of symptom onset (median 7 days). Staphylococcus aureus was cultured in 29 (36%) cases (52% of culture-positive cases); one isolate was methicillin-resistant (MRSA). Median duration of antimicrobial treatment was 29 days (interquartile range 21-43); rates of surgical intervention were 96%, and 46% of children had sequelae, with one fatality. In this setting osteoarticular infections are relatively common with high rates of surgical intervention and sequelae. Staphylococcus aureus is the commonest culturable cause, but methicillin-resistant S. aureus is not a major problem, unlike in other Asian centers. PMID:22977206

  8. Rehabilitating health services in Cambodia: the challenge of coordination in chronic political emergencies.

    PubMed

    Lanjouw, S; Macrae, J; Zwi, A B

    1999-09-01

    The end of the Cold War brought with it opportunities to resolve a number of conflicts around the world, including those in Angola, Cambodia, El Salvador and Mozambique. International political efforts to negotiate peace in these countries were accompanied by significant aid programmes ostensibly designed to redress the worst effects of conflict and to contribute to the consolidation of peace. Such periods of political transition, and associated aid inflows, constitute an opportunity to improve health services in countries whose health indicators have been among the worst in the world and where access to basic health services is significantly diminished by war. This paper analyzes the particular constraints to effective coordination of health sector aid in situations of 'post'-conflict transition. These include: the uncertain legitimacy and competence of state structures; donor choice of implementing channels; and actions by national and international political actors which served to undermine coordination mechanisms in order to further their respective agendas. These obstacles hindered efforts by health professionals to establish an effective coordination regime, for example, through NGO mapping and the establishment of aid coordinating committees at national and provincial levels. These technical measures were unable to address the basic constitutional question of who had the authority to determine the distribution of scarce resources during a period of transition in political authority. The peculiar difficulties of establishing effective coordination mechanisms are important to address if the long-term effectiveness of rehabilitation aid is to be enhanced. PMID:10621240

  9. Risk aversion, time preference and health production: theory and empirical evidence from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    This paper quantifies the relationship between risk aversion and discount rates on the one hand and height and weight on the other. It studies this link in the context of poor households in Cambodia. Evidence is based on an original dataset that contains both experimental measures of risk taking and impatience along with anthropometric measurements of children and adults. The aim of the paper is to (i) explore the importance of risk and time preferences in explaining undernutrition and (ii) compare the evidence stemming from poor households to strikingly similar findings from industrialized countries. It uses an inter-generational approach to explain observed correlations in adults and children that is inspired by the height premium on labor markets. Parents can invest in the health capital of their child to increase future earnings and their consumption when old: better nutrition during infancy translates into better human capital and better wages, and ultimately better financial means to take care of elderly parents. However this investment is subject to considerable uncertainty, since parents neither perfectly foresee economic conditions when the child starts earning nor fully observe the ability to transform nutritional investments into long-term health capital. As a result, risk taking households have taller and heavier children. Conversely, impatience does not affect child health. In the case of adults, only weight and the body mass index (BMI), but not height, are positively and moderately correlated with risk taking and impatience. PMID:25589376

  10. Strongyloides stercoralis infection and re-infection in a cohort of children in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Khieu, Virak; Hattendorf, Jan; Schär, Fabian; Marti, Hanspeter; Char, Meng Chuor; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Information on Strongyloides stercoralis re-infection after ivermectin treatment is scarce in S. stercoralis endemic countries. In semi-rural Cambodia, we determined S. stercoralis infection and re-infection rates among schoolchildren, two years after ivermectin treatment (2×100 μg/kg PO, 24 h apart). The study was conducted among 484 children from four primary schools in semi-rural villages in Kandal province from 2009 to 2011, using Koga agar plate culture and the Baermann method on two stool samples per child. Complete data were available for 302 participants. We observed infections in 24.2% and 22.5% of the children at baseline and at follow-up, respectively. At baseline, 73 children were treated for S. stercoralis infection. At follow-up, one-third of those treated for S. stercoralis infection had been reinfected, while 19.6% of the 229 healthy children (at baseline) had been newly infected with S. stercoralis. Possession of shoes and defecation in toilet were negatively associated with S. stercoralis infection at follow-up. Infection and re-infection rates of S. stercoralis among schoolchildren are considerably high. However, 68.5% of infected children remained free of infection for at least two years. A large-scale cohort study is required to understand age-specific infection and re-infection dynamics in endemic countries. PMID:24970767

  11. Reaching out and reaching up - developing a low cost drug treatment system in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cambodia, confronted by the spread of drug misuse among young people, requested support from international agencies to develop a drug treatment programme in 2000. The initial plan developed by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime was to set up a number of conventional drug treatment centres in urban areas. During the planning phase, however, the project was redesigned as a community based outreach programme. Ten Community Counselling Teams have been formed and trained in pilot areas, and within the first year of operation 462 drug and alcohol users contacted. Comprising former drug users, family members affected by drug use and health care staff, they have drug scene credibility, local knowledge and connectivity, and a rudimentary level of medical competence. Crucially, they enjoy the support of village elders, who are involved in the planning and reporting stages. While the Community Counselling Teams with their basic training in addiction counselling are in no position as yet to either provide or refer clients to treatment, they can provide brief interventions, organise self help groups, and most importantly provide an alternative to law enforcement. By taking a development centred approach, with emphasis on community, empowerment and inclusion, it provides a constructive and inclusive alternative to medical approaches and the compulsory drug treatment centres. The paper is based on an evaluation involving interviews with a range of stakeholders and a review of project documents. PMID:22410105

  12. Using social network analysis to evaluate health-related adaptation decision-making in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Kathryn J; Alexander, Damon; Miller, Fiona; Dany, Va

    2014-02-01

    Climate change adaptation in the health sector requires decisions across sectors, levels of government, and organisations. The networks that link these different institutions, and the relationships among people within these networks, are therefore critical influences on the nature of adaptive responses to climate change in the health sector. This study uses social network research to identify key organisational players engaged in developing health-related adaptation activities in Cambodia. It finds that strong partnerships are reported as developing across sectors and different types of organisations in relation to the health risks from climate change. Government ministries are influential organisations, whereas donors, development banks and non-government organisations do not appear to be as influential in the development of adaptation policy in the health sector. Finally, the study highlights the importance of informal partnerships (or 'shadow networks') in the context of climate change adaptation policy and activities. The health governance 'map' in relation to health and climate change adaptation that is developed in this paper is a novel way of identifying organisations that are perceived as key agents in the decision-making process, and it holds substantial benefits for both understanding and intervening in a broad range of climate change-related policy problems where collaboration is paramount for successful outcomes. PMID:24487452

  13. Poverty, economic growth, deprivation, and water: the cases of Cambodia and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Varis, Olli

    2008-05-01

    Poverty reduction decorates all development agendas, but the complexity of the poverty issue is too often hidden behind simplistic indicators and development goals. Here, a closer look is taken at the concepts of "deprivation" and "vulnerability" as outcomes of poverty. Deprivation leads typically to social exclusion and marginalization; such groups are particularly weak in getting themselves out of poverty by "self-help," and economic growth does not trickle down to these people. When looking at the connections between poverty reduction and economic growth, special emphasis should be put on the differences between modern and more traditional sectors: development of the modern sector should not marginalize and exclude those dependent on more traditional livelihoods. Two case studies--The Tonle Sap area, Cambodia, and the Mekong Delta, Vietnam--reveal that investment in education, empowerment of small-scale entrepreneurship and other means of microeconomic environment, along with good governance, infrastructure, and income distribution can ensure that economic growth includes the poorer echelons of society. PMID:18595279

  14. Arsenic Concentrations in Rice and Associated Health Risks Along the Upper Mekong Delta, Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barragan, L.; Seyfferth, A.; Fendorf, S.

    2011-12-01

    The consumption of arsenic contaminated food, such as rice, can be a significant portion of daily arsenic exposure, even for populations already exposed through drinking water. While arsenic contamination of rice grains has been documented in parts of Southern Asia, (e.g. Bangladesh), little research has been conducted on arsenic contamination of Cambodian-grown rice. We collected rice plant samples at various locations within the upper Mekong River Delta near Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and we analyzed total arsenic concentrations in plant digests of grains, husk, and straw. In addition, we used CaCl2-, DTPA-, and oxalate-extractable arsenic to define plant-available soil pools. We found variability of arsenic concentration in the plants, with grain arsenic ranging from 0.046 to 0.214 μg g-1; other researchers have shown that concentrations higher than 0.1 μg g-1 could be a concern for human health. Although more extensive sampling is needed to assess the risk of arsenic exposure from rice consumption on a country-wide basis, our work clearly illustrates the risk within regions of the Mekong Delta.

  15. Using Social Network Analysis to Evaluate Health-Related Adaptation Decision-Making in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Kathryn J.; Alexander, Damon; Miller, Fiona; Dany, Va

    2014-01-01

    Climate change adaptation in the health sector requires decisions across sectors, levels of government, and organisations. The networks that link these different institutions, and the relationships among people within these networks, are therefore critical influences on the nature of adaptive responses to climate change in the health sector. This study uses social network research to identify key organisational players engaged in developing health-related adaptation activities in Cambodia. It finds that strong partnerships are reported as developing across sectors and different types of organisations in relation to the health risks from climate change. Government ministries are influential organisations, whereas donors, development banks and non-government organisations do not appear to be as influential in the development of adaptation policy in the health sector. Finally, the study highlights the importance of informal partnerships (or ‘shadow networks’) in the context of climate change adaptation policy and activities. The health governance ‘map’ in relation to health and climate change adaptation that is developed in this paper is a novel way of identifying organisations that are perceived as key agents in the decision-making process, and it holds substantial benefits for both understanding and intervening in a broad range of climate change-related policy problems where collaboration is paramount for successful outcomes. PMID:24487452

  16. Evidence of an ‘invitation’ effect in feeding sylvatic Stegomyia albopicta from Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Orientation of haematophagous insects towards a potential host is largely mediated by kairomones that, in some groups or species may include chemicals produced during feeding by the insects themselves, the so called ‘invitation’ effect. Methods The ‘invitation’ effect in blood-feeding diurnally active Stegomyia albopicta was investigated over 33 days in secondary forest in Mondolkiri Province, Cambodia. Two human volunteers sitting inside a shelter collected mosquitoes and noted where and when they landed. A 10% emanator of a synthetic pyrethroid with high vapour action was in use on alternate days. Results Overall, 2726 mosquitoes were collected, 1654 of which had the landing site recorded. The heads of the volunteers were the locations with the highest density of landings per surface area whilst the knees and elbows accounted for most of the landings received on the arms and legs. Landings recorded within three minutes of each other on a collector were about 2.5 times more likely to be on the same body part than on a random body part, weighted for landing site preference. This preference did not vary with collector or pyrethroid. Conclusions The ‘invitation’ effect may be due to a semio-chemical produced early in the feeding process. Incorporation of such a chemical into traps designed to control this important vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses might potentially improve their attractiveness. PMID:25015104

  17. Building the capacity of nursing professionals in Cambodia: Insights from a bridging programme for faculty development.

    PubMed

    Koto-Shimada, Kyoko; Yanagisawa, Satoko; Boonyanurak, Puangrat; Fujita, Noriko

    2016-04-01

    To upgrade nursing instruction capacity in Cambodia, two bridging programmes were opened for the Bachelor of Science in Nursing simultaneously in-country and out-of-country (Thailand). A descriptive qualitative study was conducted to assess effectiveness of both programmes jointly and to explore needs concerning the further development of nursing education. This study included interviews with 34 current or previous programme participants (nursing instructors or hospital preceptors) and 10 managers of collaborating institutions. New learning content, personal outcomes, challenges and obstacles and future needs were qualitatively coded to create categories and subcategories of data. Findings show that programme participants were most influenced by the new content areas (e.g. nursing theory and professionalism), active teaching-learning strategies and the full-time educational immersion afforded by the out-of-country programme. Programme participants who had returned to their workplaces also identified on-going needs for employing new active teaching-learning approaches, curriculum revision, national standardization of nursing curricula and improvements in the teaching-learning infrastructure. Another outcome of this study is the development of a theoretical model for Nursing Capacity Building in Developing Countries that describes the need for intermediate and long-term planning as well as using both Bottom-Up and Edge-Pulling strategies. PMID:27184699

  18. Sibling care, school performance, and depression among adolescent caretakers in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Yi, Siyan; Poudel, Krishna C; Yasuoka, Junko; Palmer, Paula H; Yi, Songky; Yanagisawa, Satoko; Jimba, Masamine

    2012-06-01

    In many resource-poor countries, home-based care for young children is crucial. Yet little has been known about the negative impacts of sibling caretaking on mental health conditions of adolescent student caretakers. This study explored associations between sibling caretaking, school performance, and depression among 1943 students randomly selected from 11 junior high and high schools in Cambodia. The Asian Adolescent Depression Scale was used to measure depressive symptoms. In bivariate analyses, we used χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and t-test or one-way analysis of variance for continuous variables. Multiple linear regression models were then constructed. Of total, 60.1% of our participants took care of their younger sibling(s) regularly during the past one year. The number of siblings under their care ranged from one to nine, and the time they spent for sibling care ranged from one to 10h per day. After adjustment, increased levels of depressive symptoms remained significantly associated among boys with sibling caretaking (p<0.001), as well as poor school performance (p=0.001) and perceived likelihood of dropping out of school in the near future (p=0.002). Among girls, increased levels of depressive symptoms retained their significant association with sibling caretaking (p<0.001); also poor school performance (p<0.001). Sibling care responsibility might have negative impact on school performance and the mental health condition of adolescent caretakers. PMID:22813655

  19. Parental styles in the intergenerational transmission of trauma stemming from the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Field, Nigel P; Muong, Sophear; Sochanvimean, Vannavuth

    2013-10-01

    The impact of parental styles in intergenerational transmission of trauma among mothers who survived the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia, in power from 1975 to 1979, and their teenaged children was examined in 2 studies. In Study 1, 46 Cambodian female high school students and their mothers were recruited. Each daughter completed anxiety and depression measures as well as assessment of her mother's role-reversing, overprotective, and rejecting parental styles, whereas the mothers completed measures of their trauma exposure during the Khmer Rouge regime and PTSD symptoms. In support of trauma transmission, the mother's PTSD symptoms were predictive of her daughter's anxiety. Moreover, the mother's role-reversing parental style was shown to mediate the relationship between her own and her daughter's symptoms. In support of their generalizability, the results were replicated in Study 2 in a Cambodian-American refugee sample comparing 15 mental health treatment-seeking mothers and their teenaged children with 17 nontreatment-seeking mother-child pairs. The implications of the findings within the larger literature on intergenerational trauma transmission stemming from genocide are discussed. PMID:24164520

  20. Municipal solid waste management in Phnom Penh, capital city of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Seng, Bunrith; Kaneko, Hidehiro; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) for both technical and regulatory arrangements in the municipality of Phnom Penh (MPP), Cambodia. Problems with the current MSWM are identified, and challenges and recommendations for future improvement are also given in this paper. MPP is a small city with a total area of approximately 374 km(2) and an urban population of about 1.3 million in 2008. For the last 14 years, average annual municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in MPP has increased rapidly from 0.136 million tons in 1995 to 0.361 million tons in 2008. The gross generation rate of MSW per capita was 0.74 kg day(-1). However, the per capita household waste generation was 0.487 kg day(- 1). At 63.3%, food waste is the predominant portion of generated waste, followed by plastics (15.5%), grass and wood (6.8%), and paper and cardboard (6.4%). The remaining waste, including metals, glass, rubber/leather, textiles, and ceramic/ stone, accounted for less than 3%. Waste recycling through informal sectors is very active; recycled waste accounted for about 9.3% of all waste generated in 2003. Currently, the overall technical arrangement, including storage and discharge, collection and transport, and disposal, is still in poor condition, which leads to environmental and health risks. These problems should be solved by improving legislation, environmental education, solid waste management facilities, and management of the waste scavengers. PMID:20813763

  1. Characterizing Types of Human Mobility to Inform Differential and Targeted Malaria Elimination Strategies in Northeast Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Peeters Grietens, Koen; Gryseels, Charlotte; Dierickx, Susan; Bannister-Tyrrell, Melanie; Trienekens, Suzan; Uk, Sambunny; Phoeuk, Pisen; Suon, Sokha; Set, Srun; Gerrets, René; Hoibak, Sarah; Muela Ribera, Joan; Hausmann-Muela, Susanna; Tho, Sochantha; Durnez, Lies; Sluydts, Vincent; d'Alessandro, Umberto; Coosemans, Marc; Erhart, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Human population movements currently challenge malaria elimination in low transmission foci in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Using a mixed-methods design, combining ethnography (n = 410 interviews), malariometric data (n = 4996) and population surveys (n = 824 indigenous populations; n = 704 Khmer migrants) malaria vulnerability among different types of mobile populations was researched in the remote province of Ratanakiri, Cambodia. Different structural types of human mobility were identified, showing differential risk and vulnerability. Among local indigenous populations, access to malaria testing and treatment through the VMW-system and LLIN coverage was high but control strategies failed to account for forest farmers' prolonged stays at forest farms/fields (61% during rainy season), increasing their exposure (p = 0.002). The Khmer migrants, with low acquired immunity, active on plantations and mines, represented a fundamentally different group not reached by LLIN-distribution campaigns since they were largely unregistered (79%) and unaware of the local VMW-system (95%) due to poor social integration. Khmer migrants therefore require control strategies including active detection, registration and immediate access to malaria prevention and control tools from which they are currently excluded. In conclusion, different types of mobility require different malaria elimination strategies. Targeting mobility without an in-depth understanding of malaria risk in each group challenges further progress towards elimination. PMID:26593245

  2. Leaf gas exchange traits of domestic and exotic tree species in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazawa, Y.; Tateishi, M.; Kumagai, T.; Otsuki, K.

    2009-12-01

    In forests under the management by community villagers, exotic tree species with rapid growth rate are introduced in wide range of Cambodia. To evaluate the influence of the introduction on the forest gas exchange and water budget, we investigated the leaf gas exchange traits of two domestic (Dipterocarpus obtusifolius and Shorea roxburghii) and exotic tree species (Acasia auriculiformis and Eucalyptus camadilansis). We sampled shoots of each species and measured the leaf gas exchange traits (photosynthetic rates under different CO2 concentrations, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance) (6 leaves x 3 trees x 4 species). We carried out this measurement at 2 months intervals for a year from the beginning of rainy season and compared the obtained traits among species. Light saturated rate of net photosynthesis was higher in E. camadilansis but did not differ among other species both in rainy and dry seasons. Seasonal patter in photosynthetic traits was not obvious. Each species changed stomatal conductance in response to changes in environmental conditions. The response was more sensitive than reported values. In this presentation, we show details about the basic information about the leaf-level gas exchange traits, which are required to run soil- vegetation - atmosphere transfer model.

  3. Initial loss of productive days and income among women seeking induced abortion in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Potdar, Rukmini; Fetters, Tamara; Phirun, Lam

    2008-01-01

    The study describes the loss of productive time and income related to abortion care and care-seeking among 110 women presenting at public and private sector abortion providers in Cambodia. Data were collected through women's exit interviews, and descriptive analysis was used to examine lost time and income against a number of explanatory variables, such as gestational age of pregnancy, type of abortion provider and facility, type of uterine evacuation procedure, number of health visits, and the woman's occupation. Results indicate that lost time and earnings increase with the number of visits to obtain the termination, gestational age, and selection of a private physician or non-governmental organization clinic. Lost time and earnings also vary by the woman's type of employment. The study underscores the need for safer, accessible, and more affordable abortion services in order to ensure that these services are available for all women. Even in the Cambodian context, where abortion is unrestricted during the first trimester of pregnancy, the study findings show that the process of searching for and obtaining high-quality abortion care was unnecessarily complicated and costly to women and their household members. PMID:18308261

  4. The effect of long-lasting insecticidal water container covers on field populations of Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Seng, Chang Moh; Setha, To; Nealon, Joshua; Chantha, Ngan; Socheat, Doung; Nathan, Michael B

    2008-12-01

    Dengue in Cambodia is mainly transmitted by Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes that primarily breed in large, concrete jars (> or =200 liters) used for the storage of water for domestic use. Following a preliminary risk assessment, long-lasting insecticidal netting (LN) treated with deltamethrin was incorporated into the design of the covers for these jars. Their effect on immature and adult female populations of Ae. aegypti in six villages in a peri-urban area of Cambodia were compared with populations in six nearby control villages before and for 22 weeks after distribution of the jar covers. There were significantly fewer pupae per house in intervention villages than in control villages (6.6 and 31.9, respectively, p<0.01). Fewer pupae were recovered from intervention houses than from control houses at every post-intervention assessment. Two weeks after the intervention, the average number of indoor resting female Ae. aegypti per house in the intervention villages had declined approximately three-fold, whereas in the controls there was only a slight reduction (16%). The magnitude of the difference between the two areas diminished over time, which contact bioassays confirmed was likely due to a gradual reduction of insecticidal effect of the jar covers. In the study area, insecticide-treated covers for large concrete water storage jars were efficacious for controlling Ae. aegypti in the protected water jars and with a demonstrable effect on adult densities and survival. Further studies of this targeted container strategy in Cambodia, and elsewhere, are recommended. However, improvements in technology that would extend the duration of insecticidal effectiveness of LN materials may be needed for the development of cost-effective public health applications. PMID:19263854

  5. Effect of a mobile phone-based intervention on post-abortion contraception: a randomized controlled trial in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Thoai D; Gold, Judy; Edwards, Phil; Vannak, Uk; Sokhey, Ly; Machiyama, Kazuyo; Slaymaker, Emma; Warnock, Ruby; McCarthy, Ona; Free, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effect of a mobile phone-based intervention (mHealth) on post-abortion contraception use by women in Cambodia. Methods The Mobile Technology for Improved Family Planning (MOTIF) study involved women who sought safe abortion services at four Marie Stopes International clinics in Cambodia. We randomly allocated 249 women to a mobile phone-based intervention, which comprised six automated, interactive voice messages with counsellor phone support, as required, whereas 251 women were allocated to a control group receiving standard care. The primary outcome was the self-reported use of an effective contraceptive method, 4 and 12 months after an abortion. Findings Data on effective contraceptive use were available for 431 (86%) participants at 4 months and 328 (66%) at 12 months. Significantly more women in the intervention than the control group reported effective contraception use at 4 months (64% versus 46%, respectively; relative risk, RR: 1.39; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.17–1.66) but not at 12 months (50% versus 43%, respectively; RR: 1.16; 95% CI: 0.92–1.47). However, significantly more women in the intervention group reported using a long-acting contraceptive method at both follow-up times. There was no significant difference between the groups in repeat pregnancies or abortions at 4 or 12 months. Conclusion Adding a mobile phone-based intervention to abortion care services in Cambodia had a short-term effect on the overall use of any effective contraception, while the use of long-acting contraceptive methods lasted throughout the study period. PMID:26668436

  6. Spatial epidemiology and climatic predictors of paediatric dengue infections captured via sentinel site surveillance, Phnom Penh Cambodia 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue is a major contributor to morbidity in children aged twelve and below throughout Cambodia; the 2012 epidemic season was the most severe in the country since 2007, with more than 42,000 reported (suspect or confirmed) cases. Methods We report basic epidemiological characteristics in a series of 701 patients at the National Paediatric Hospital in Cambodia, recruited during a prospective clinical study (2011–2012). To more fully explore this cohort, we examined climatic factors using multivariate negative binomial models and spatial clustering of cases using spatial scan statistics to place the clinical study within a larger epidemiological framework. Results We identify statistically significant spatial clusters at the urban village scale, and find that the key climatic predictors of increasing cases are weekly minimum temperature, median relative humidity, but find a negative association with rainfall maximum, all at lag times of 1–6 weeks, with significant effects extending to 10 weeks. Conclusions Our results identify clustering of infections at the neighbourhood scale, suggesting points for targeted interventions, and we find that the complex interactions of vectors and climatic conditions in this setting may be best captured by rising minimum temperature, and median (as opposed to mean) relative humidity, with complex and limited effects from rainfall. These results suggest that real-time cluster detection during epidemics should be considered in Cambodia, and that improvements in weather data reporting could benefit national control programs by allow greater prioritization of limited health resources to both vulnerable populations and time periods of greatest risk. Finally, these results add to the increasing body of knowledge suggesting complex interactions between climate and dengue cases that require further targeted research. PMID:24972712

  7. DETECTION OF PUTATIVE ANTIMALARIAL-RESISTANT PLASMODIUM VIVAX IN ANOPHELES VECTORS AT THAILAND-CAMBODIA AND THAILAND-MYANMAR BORDERS.

    PubMed

    Rattaprasert, Pongruj; Chaksangchaichot, Panee; Wihokhoen, Benchawan; Suparach, Nutjaree; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa

    2016-03-01

    Monitoring of multidrug-resistant (MDR)falciparum and vivax malaria has recently been included in the Global Plan for Artemisinin Resistance Containment (GPARC) of the Greater Mekong Sub-region, particularly at the Thailand-Cambodia and Thailand-Myanmar borders. In parallel to GPARC, monitoring MDR malaria parasites in anopheline vectors is an ideal augment to entomological surveillance. Employing Plasmodium- and species-specific nested PCR techniques, only P. vivax was detected in 3/109 salivary gland DNA extracts of anopheline vectors collected during a rainy season between 24-26 August 2009 and 22-24 September 2009 and a dry season between 29-31 December 2009 and 16-18 January 2010. Indoor and out- door resting mosquitoes were collected in Thong Pha Phum District, Kanchanaburi Province (border of Thailand-Myanmar) and Bo Rai District, Trat Province (border of Thailand-Cambodia): one sample from Anopheles dirus at the Thailand-Cambodia border and two samples from An. aconitus from Thailand-Myanmar border isolate. Nucleotide sequencing of dihydrofolate reductase gene revealed the presence in all three samples of four mutations known to cause high resistance to antifolate pyrimethamine, but no mutations were found in multidrug resistance transporter 1 gene that are associated with (falciparum) resistance to quinoline antimalarials. Such findings indicate the potential usefulness of this approach in monitoring the prevalence of drug-resistant malaria parasites in geographically regions prone to the development of drug resistance and where screening of human population at risk poses logistical and ethical problems. Keywords: Anopheles spp, Plasmodium vivax, antimalarial resistance, Greater Mekong Sub-region, nested PCR, vector surveillance PMID:27244954

  8. Drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in a national referral hospital, Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Genevieve; Bulifon, Sophie; Breysse, Serge; Daneth, Thol; Bonnet, Maryline; Hurtado, Northan; Molfino, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective There are no recent data on the prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR TB) in Cambodia. We aim to describe TB drug resistance amongst adults with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection in a national referral hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Design Between 22 November 2007 and 30 November 2009, clinical specimens from HIV-infected patients suspected of having TB underwent routine microscopy, Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture, and drug susceptibility testing. Laboratory and clinical data were collected for patients with positive M. tuberculosis cultures. Results M. tuberculosis was cultured from 236 HIV-infected patients. Resistance to any first-line TB drug occurred in 34.7% of patients; 8.1% had multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB). The proportion of MDR TB amongst new patients and previously treated patients was 3.7 and 28.9%, respectively (p<0.001). The diagnosis of MDR TB was made after death in 15.8% of patients; in total 26.3% of patients with MDR TB died. The diagnosis of TB was established by culture of extra-pulmonary specimens in 23.6% of cases. Conclusions There is significant resistance to first-line TB drugs amongst new and previously treated TB–HIV co-infected patients in Phnom Penh. These data suggest that the prevalence of DR TB in Cambodia may be higher than previously recognised, particularly amongst HIV-infected patients. Additional prevalence studies are needed. This study also illustrates the feasibility and utility of analysis of non-respiratory specimens in the diagnosis of TB, even in low-resource settings, and suggests that extra-pulmonary specimens should be included in TB diagnostic algorithms. PMID:25623609

  9. Combining Statistical Tools and Ecological Assessments in the Study of Biodeterioration Patterns of Stone Temples in Angkor (Cambodia).

    PubMed

    Caneva, G; Bartoli, F; Savo, V; Futagami, Y; Strona, G

    2016-01-01

    Biodeterioration is a major problem for the conservation of cultural heritage materials. We provide a new and original approach to analyzing changes in patterns of colonization (Biodeterioration patterns, BPs) by biological agents responsible for the deterioration of outdoor stone materials. Here we analyzed BPs of four Khmer temples in Angkor (Cambodia) exposed to variable environmental conditions, using qualitative ecological assessments and statistical approaches. The statistical analyses supported the findings obtained with the qualitative approach. Both approaches provided additional information not otherwise available using one single method. Our results indicate that studies on biodeterioration can benefit from integrating diverse methods so that conservation efforts might become more precise and effective. PMID:27597658

  10. Combining Statistical Tools and Ecological Assessments in the Study of Biodeterioration Patterns of Stone Temples in Angkor (Cambodia)

    PubMed Central

    Caneva, G.; Bartoli, F.; Savo, V.; Futagami, Y.; Strona, G.

    2016-01-01

    Biodeterioration is a major problem for the conservation of cultural heritage materials. We provide a new and original approach to analyzing changes in patterns of colonization (Biodeterioration patterns, BPs) by biological agents responsible for the deterioration of outdoor stone materials. Here we analyzed BPs of four Khmer temples in Angkor (Cambodia) exposed to variable environmental conditions, using qualitative ecological assessments and statistical approaches. The statistical analyses supported the findings obtained with the qualitative approach. Both approaches provided additional information not otherwise available using one single method. Our results indicate that studies on biodeterioration can benefit from integrating diverse methods so that conservation efforts might become more precise and effective. PMID:27597658

  11. Quaternary Morphodynamics for two large rivers: the Fly River, PNG, and the Mekong River, Cambodia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, R. E.; Lauer, J. W.; Darby, S. E.; Goni, M. A.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2014-12-01

    During glacial marine transgressions, sediment & carbon are deposited due to the infilling of lowland fluvial systems, material that is then largely removed during ensuing regressions. Measuring & modelling these processes would help quantify the amount, timing, & preservation of these materials, providing insight into the morphodynamics of lowland fluvial systems in response to sea level change. We investigated the infilling dynamics of the Fly and Strickland Rivers, Papua New Guinea. Field data include: 14C dated deep cores recording base level evolution over the Holocene, sonar imaging of floodbasin stratigraphy, and the observations of blocked valley lakes and weathered erosional remnants from LGM conditions. Similar research was conducted on the Mekong River, Cambodia, where we have imaged basin fill stratigraphy and recorded the extent of blocked valley lakes. Such field data provide tantalizing empirical glimpses into the landscapes & flux buffering exhibited by large tropical rivers during glacial-interglacial transitions. We upscale our observations by modelling river system evolution, employing a GpU Lowland Landscape Evolution Model (GULLEM) to predict the evolution of the entire basin. A novel & powerful (>10 Tflops on an inexpensive computer) simulator, GULLEM models morphodynamics and estimates the accommodation space subsequently infilled during marine transgressions by representing a range of geomorphic processes, including: river & tributary incision, non-linear diffusion, sea level and isostatic change, hydraulic geometry, tectonic deformation, sediment production, transport & deposition, & tracking of the resulting stratigraphy. GULLEM's vectorized approach allows for massively parallel operation on GPUs (Graphics Processing Unit), making it practical to model coupled fluvial-landscape evolution for complex lowland river systems over large temporal and spatial scales. Our combined approach affords estimates for the timing and budgets of sediment

  12. An Efficient Acoustic Density Estimation Method with Human Detectors Applied to Gibbons in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Kidney, Darren; Rawson, Benjamin M.; Borchers, David L.; Stevenson, Ben C.; Marques, Tiago A.; Thomas, Len

    2016-01-01

    Some animal species are hard to see but easy to hear. Standard visual methods for estimating population density for such species are often ineffective or inefficient, but methods based on passive acoustics show more promise. We develop spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) methods for territorial vocalising species, in which humans act as an acoustic detector array. We use SECR and estimated bearing data from a single-occasion acoustic survey of a gibbon population in northeastern Cambodia to estimate the density of calling groups. The properties of the estimator are assessed using a simulation study, in which a variety of survey designs are also investigated. We then present a new form of the SECR likelihood for multi-occasion data which accounts for the stochastic availability of animals. In the context of gibbon surveys this allows model-based estimation of the proportion of groups that produce territorial vocalisations on a given day, thereby enabling the density of groups, instead of the density of calling groups, to be estimated. We illustrate the performance of this new estimator by simulation. We show that it is possible to estimate density reliably from human acoustic detections of visually cryptic species using SECR methods. For gibbon surveys we also show that incorporating observers’ estimates of bearings to detected groups substantially improves estimator performance. Using the new form of the SECR likelihood we demonstrate that estimates of availability, in addition to population density and detection function parameters, can be obtained from multi-occasion data, and that the detection function parameters are not confounded with the availability parameter. This acoustic SECR method provides a means of obtaining reliable density estimates for territorial vocalising species. It is also efficient in terms of data requirements since since it only requires routine survey data. We anticipate that the low-tech field requirements will make this method

  13. Intravaginal Practices in Female Sex Workers in Cambodia: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Tran, Ly Thi-Hai; Hor, Leng Bun; Scheurer, Michael E; Vidrine, Damon J; Markham, Christine M

    2016-05-01

    Intravaginal practices (IVPs) are associated with several adverse health outcomes, including HIV infection. However, few studies have examined this topic in Asian cultures, particularly in female sex workers (FSWs). This theory-based qualitative study aimed to describe the IVPs and to identify salient determinants of these practices in FSWs in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. We conducted in-depth interviews using open-ended questions with 30 FSWs in July-August 2014. We analyzed data using thematic content analysis, with thematic codes based on the constructs of the theory of planned behavior. The results showed that the most common IVP was a combination of intravaginal washing and wiping, to which we refer as intravaginal cleansing. There was a clear and close connection between IVP and sex work. Perceived benefits of intravaginal cleansing were numerous, while the perceived risks were few. As a result, the attitude toward intravaginal cleansing was favorable. A common misperception of benefit was that intravaginal cleansing could prevent sexually transmitted infections. Local physicians considerably influenced the subjective norm related to IVP. Intention to quit IVPs was suboptimal. In conclusion, the psychological factors associated with IVPs in FSWs were somewhat different from those in the general population of Cambodian women and women in other countries. Behavioral beliefs, attitude, and subjective norms appeared salient and important factors in IVPs. Interventions aimed at reducing IVPs should target these constructs as well as the sex-work-associated economic motives. Local physicians may be an agent to change IVP and an effective channel to deliver interventions. PMID:26742508

  14. Assessment of Flood Disaster Impacts in Cambodia: Implications for Rapid Disaster Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahamed, Aakash; Bolten, John; Doyle, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Disaster monitoring systems can provide near real time estimates of population and infrastructure affected by sudden onset natural hazards. This information is useful to decision makers allocating lifesaving resources following disaster events. Floods are the world's most common and devastating disasters (UN, 2004; Doocy et al., 2013), and are particularly frequent and severe in the developing countries of Southeast Asia (Long and Trong, 2001; Jonkman, 2005; Kahn, 2005; Stromberg, 2007; Kirsch et al., 2012). Climate change, a strong regional monsoon, and widespread hydropower construction contribute to a complex and unpredictable regional hydrodynamic regime. As such, there is a critical need for novel techniques to assess flood impacts to population and infrastructure with haste during and following flood events in order to enable governments and agencies to optimize response efforts following disasters. Here, we build on methods to determine regional flood extent in near real time and develop systems that automatically quantify the socioeconomic impacts of flooding in Cambodia. Software developed on cloud based, distributed processing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is used to demonstrate spatial and numerical estimates of population, households, roadways, schools, hospitals, airports, agriculture and fish catch affected by severe monsoon flooding occurring in the Cambodian portion of Lower Mekong River Basin in 2011. Results show modest agreement with government and agency estimates. Maps and statistics generated from the system are intended to complement on the ground efforts and bridge information gaps to decision makers. The system is open source, flexible, and can be applied to other disasters (e.g. earthquakes, droughts, landslides) in various geographic regions.

  15. TOBACCO AND ALCOHOL USE AMONG CHRONIC DISEASE PATIENTS IN CAMBODIA, MYANMAR AND VIETNAM.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use and to determine the factors associated with tobacco and alcohol use among chronic disease patients in Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4,803 adult chronic disease patients (mean age 49.3 years; SD=16.5) recruited systematically from health facilities. Fifteen point five percent of those studied were current smokers, 14.5% current smokeless tobacco users, 20.7% daily tobacco users (smokers or smokeless tobacco), 9.3% problem drinkers and 4.1% both daily tobacco users and problem drinkers. Having been diagnosed with hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), liver disease, and dyslipidemia were positively associated with daily tobacco use; liver disease, gout and other musculoskeletal conditions, kidney disease, and dyslipidemia were positively associated with problem drinking. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, socio-demographics (being male, older age, lower education, coming from Myanmar, being single, divorced or widowed, rural residence and part-time employed), problem drinking and having two or more chronic health conditions were associated with daily tobacco use. Socio-demographics (being male, younger age, coming from Vietnam, being married or cohabiting), daily tobacco use and not having depressive symptoms were found to be associated with problem drinking. High prevalences of daily tobacco use and problem drinking were found among chronic disease patients and several socio-demographic, disease specific, and other health risk behavior factors were identified which can guide substance use intervention programs for this population. PMID:27405138

  16. Prediction of contamination potential of groundwater arsenic in Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand using artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung Hwa; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Kim, Joon Ha

    2011-11-01

    The arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater has increasingly been recognized as a major global issue of concern. As groundwater resources are one of most important freshwater sources for water supplies in Southeast Asian countries, it is important to investigate the spatial distribution of As contamination and evaluate the health risk of As for these countries. The detection of As contamination in groundwater resources, however, can create a substantial labor and cost burden for Southeast Asian countries. Therefore, modeling approaches for As concentration using conventional on-site measurement data can be an alternative to quantify the As contamination. The objective of this study is to evaluate the predictive performance of four different models; specifically, multiple linear regression (MLR), principal component regression (PCR), artificial neural network (ANN), and the combination of principal components and an artificial neural network (PC-ANN) in the prediction of As concentration, and to provide assessment tools for Southeast Asian countries including Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand. The modeling results show that the prediction accuracy of PC-ANN (Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients: 0.98 (traning step) and 0.71 (validation step)) is superior among the four different models. This finding can be explained by the fact that the PC-ANN not only solves the problem of collinearity of input variables, but also reflects the presence of high variability in observed As concentrations. We expect that the model developed in this work can be used to predict As concentrations using conventional water quality data obtained from on-site measurements, and can further provide reliable and predictive information for public health management policies. PMID:21917287

  17. Linking Hydrologic Drivers to Arsenic Contamination in Asia, Results From a Field Site in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, S. G.; Polizzotto, M. L.; Kocar, B. D.; Sampson, M.; Fendorf, S.

    2008-12-01

    Attempts to resolve the specific release mechanisms associated with arsenic contamination on the deltas of Asia have been hampered, especially in Bangladesh, by the difficulty of linking geochemical mechanisms with hydrologic drivers. At an arsenic-contaminated (100-1200 ug/L) aquifer in Cambodia, where pumping for irrigation is limited and the hydrologic system is much less complex than in Bangladesh, we have developed a conceptual model of arsenic behavior that integrates the system hydrology and depositional history, providing strong evidence that arsenic release is sensitive to human activities. Specifically, the hydrogeologic regime is dominated by seasonally-variable head gradients between the river and adjacent wetland basins but the net annual flow is from the wetlands downwards into the aquifer (0.04-0.4 m/a) followed by discharge to the river (1-13 m/a). These flow rates produce aquifer residence times on the order of 100-1000 years. When coupled with elevated concentrations throughout the aquifer, this indicates that arsenic contamination predates recent human activities. Within this flow regime, it is possible to track spatial changes in arsenic concentrations along specific flow lines: The greatest increases in dissolved arsenic concentrations (150 ug/L/m) occur in shallow sediments along the first 2-10 m of the flow path, consistent with the depth at which reducing conditions are no longer seasonally disrupted by fluctuating water levels. Estimates of arsenic delivery to the wetlands by flood deposition (1,300,000 kg/a) are of a similar magnitude to the estimated flux, via groundwater, out of the aquifer (1,000,000 kg/a), indicating that arsenic delivery, release, and transport are in approximate steady-state. Given the dependency of arsenic release and transport on hydrologic drivers, human activities that alter the hydrology (inclusive of pumping for irrigation, soil excavation, and upstream river damming) will likely also alter arsenic behavior.

  18. Monitoring of biophysical parameters of cashew plants in Cambodia using ALOS/PALSAR data.

    PubMed

    Avtar, Ram; Takeuchi, Wataru; Sawada, Haruo

    2013-02-01

    An accurate estimation of a plant's age is required for the prediction of yield and management practices. This study demonstrates the relationship between backscattering properties (σ°) of Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) dual polarimetric data with cashew plants' biophysical parameters (height, age, crown diameter, diameter at breast height, basal area, tree density, and biomass) in Cambodia. PALSAR σ° has shown a positive correlation with the biophysical parameters of cashew plants. The value of σ° increases with the age of cashew plants. At a young stage, the cashew plants show a higher rate of an increase in σ° compared to that at the mature stage. The σ° horizontal polarization transmitted and vertical received (HV) shows higher sensitivity to the plant's growth than σ° horizontal polarization transmitted and received (HH). High backscattering and low variations were observed at mature stage (8-12 years) of cashew plantation. Saturation in backscattering has shown from the age of about 13 years. The validation results indicate strong coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.86 and 0.88) for PALSAR-predicted age and biomass of cashew plants with root mean square error = 1.8 years and 16.3 t/ha for age and biomass, respectively. The correlations of σ° (HH) with biophysical parameters observed in the dry season were better than those of the rainy season because soil moisture interferes with backscattering in the rainy season. Biomass accumulation rate of cashew plants has been predicted that would be useful for selection of plants species to enhance carbon sequestration. This study provides an insight to use PALSAR for the monitoring of growth stages of plants at the regional level. PMID:22628102

  19. An Efficient Acoustic Density Estimation Method with Human Detectors Applied to Gibbons in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Kidney, Darren; Rawson, Benjamin M; Borchers, David L; Stevenson, Ben C; Marques, Tiago A; Thomas, Len

    2016-01-01

    Some animal species are hard to see but easy to hear. Standard visual methods for estimating population density for such species are often ineffective or inefficient, but methods based on passive acoustics show more promise. We develop spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) methods for territorial vocalising species, in which humans act as an acoustic detector array. We use SECR and estimated bearing data from a single-occasion acoustic survey of a gibbon population in northeastern Cambodia to estimate the density of calling groups. The properties of the estimator are assessed using a simulation study, in which a variety of survey designs are also investigated. We then present a new form of the SECR likelihood for multi-occasion data which accounts for the stochastic availability of animals. In the context of gibbon surveys this allows model-based estimation of the proportion of groups that produce territorial vocalisations on a given day, thereby enabling the density of groups, instead of the density of calling groups, to be estimated. We illustrate the performance of this new estimator by simulation. We show that it is possible to estimate density reliably from human acoustic detections of visually cryptic species using SECR methods. For gibbon surveys we also show that incorporating observers' estimates of bearings to detected groups substantially improves estimator performance. Using the new form of the SECR likelihood we demonstrate that estimates of availability, in addition to population density and detection function parameters, can be obtained from multi-occasion data, and that the detection function parameters are not confounded with the availability parameter. This acoustic SECR method provides a means of obtaining reliable density estimates for territorial vocalising species. It is also efficient in terms of data requirements since since it only requires routine survey data. We anticipate that the low-tech field requirements will make this method

  20. Quality of pharmaceutical items available from drugstores in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Daravuth; Plianbangchang, Pinyupa; Visavarungroj, Nuwat; Rujivipat, Soravoot

    2004-09-01

    Drugstores and drug outlets are the main sources of care for the majority of Cambodian citizens because of the availability of drugs, short waiting time, and ability to control the cost of treatment. Unfortunately, no enforcement of pharmacy regulations and little consumer and drugstore personnel education contribute to a potential harmful unregulated drug market resulting in high costs and prolonged illness. No study has looked at the quality of over-the-counter drugs, which would have the highest impact on the people. In this study, we were interested in exploring the quality of commonly used pharmaceutical items available from drugstores in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, using uncoated aspirin tablets as a case study. Factors relating to quality of the drug were also examined. This study was conducted by means of drug fishing method to obtain uncoated aspirin tablet samples from 96 drugstores in Phnom Penh. The quality of the samples was examined in six aspects: percent label amount, weight variation, hardness, percent friability, disintegration time, and dissolution rate. We found that only seven (7.3%) of the total 96 samples passed all six quality criteria. Dissolution test appeared to be the most critical step in determining aspirin quality. Factors that were statistically related to the quality of the sample were type of packaging. All the drugs that passed the six criteria were in bottles. Source of the medications was also significantly related to their quality. Among seven samples that passed the test, six were from Vietnam. Our study revealed that the quality of uncoated aspirin tablets was a serious problem. The vast majority of the samples did not meet the standard requirements. Type of packaging and source of medications were related to the quality of samples. This study has important implications for the Cambodian government regarding the control of the quality of pharmaceutical items available in drugstores. PMID:15689098

  1. First Direct Dating for the Construction and Modification of the Baphuon Temple Mountain in Angkor, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Stéphanie; Hendrickson, Mitch; Delqué-Kolic, Emmanuelle; Vega, Enrique; Dillmann, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Architecture represents key evidence of dynastic practice and change in the archaeological world. Chronologies for many important buildings and sequences, including the iconic temples of medieval Angkor in Cambodia, are based solely on indirect associations from inscriptions and architectural styles. The Baphuon temple, one of the last major buildings in Angkor without textual or scientifically-derived chronological evidence, is crucial both for the context and date of its construction and the period when its western façade was modified into a unique, gigantic Reclining Buddha. Its construction was part of a major dynastic change and florescence of the Hindu-Mahayana Buddhist state and the modification is the key evidence of Theravada Buddhist power after Angkor's decline in the 15th century. Using a newly-developed approach based on AMS radiocarbon dating to directly date four iron crampons integrated into the structure we present the first direct evidence for the history of the Baphuon. Comprehensive study of ferrous elements shows that both construction and modification were critically earlier than expected. The Baphuon can now be considered as the major temple associated with the imperial reformations and territorial consolidation of Suryavarman I (1010-1050 AD) for whom no previous building to legitimize his reign could be identified. The Theravada Buddhist modification is a hundred years prior to the conventional 16th century estimation and is not associated with renewed use of Angkor. Instead it relates to the enigmatic Ayutthayan occupation of Angkor in the 1430s and 40s during a major period of climatic instability. Accurately dating iron with relatively low carbon content is a decisive step to test long-standing assumptions about architectural histories and political processes for states that incorporated iron into buildings (e.g., Ancient Greece, medieval India). Furthermore, this new approach has the potential to revise chronologies related to iron

  2. The Socioeconomic Impacts of Clinically Diagnosed Haemorrhagic Septicaemia on Smallholder Large Ruminant Farmers in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, M; Young, J R; Suon, S; Bush, R D; Windsor, P A

    2015-10-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute fatal infectious disease of mainly cattle and buffalo and outbreaks occur commonly in Cambodia. Disease outbreak reports were examined to select five villages from three provinces for a retrospective investigation of HS epidemiology and socioeconomic impact on smallholders, with an aim of identifying potential benefits from improving disease prevention through biosecurity and vaccination. The Village Animal Health Worker (VAHW) or Chief in each village and 66 affected smallholders were surveyed. At the village level, 24% of all households were affected with an estimated mean village herd morbidity of 10.1% and mortality of 28.8%. Affected farmers reported HS disease morbidity and mortality at 42.7% and 63.6% respectively. Buffalo had a higher morbidity (OR = 2.3; P = 0.003) and mortality (OR = 6.9; P < 0.001) compared with cattle, and unvaccinated large ruminants a higher morbidity (OR = 2.9; P = 0.001). The financial impact varied depending on whether the animal survived, provision of treatment, draught replacement and lost secondary income. The mean cost per affected household was USD 952.50 based on ownership of five large ruminants. The impact per affected animal was USD 375.00, reducing the pre-disease value by 66.1%. A partial budget revealed an overwhelming incentive for farmers to practice biannual vaccination, with a net benefit of USD 951.58 per household based on an annual disease incidence rate of 1. Sensitivity analysis showed that a net benefit of USD 32.42 remained based on an outbreak every 20 years. This study indicates HS can cause a catastrophic financial shock to smallholders and remains a critical constraint to improving large ruminant productivity and profitability. Addressing HS disease control requires a focus on improving smallholder farmer knowledge of biosecurity and vaccination and should be priority to stakeholders interested in addressing regional food insecurity and poverty reduction. PMID

  3. First Direct Dating for the Construction and Modification of the Baphuon Temple Mountain in Angkor, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, Stéphanie; Hendrickson, Mitch; Delqué-Kolic, Emmanuelle; Vega, Enrique; Dillmann, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Architecture represents key evidence of dynastic practice and change in the archaeological world. Chronologies for many important buildings and sequences, including the iconic temples of medieval Angkor in Cambodia, are based solely on indirect associations from inscriptions and architectural styles. The Baphuon temple, one of the last major buildings in Angkor without textual or scientifically-derived chronological evidence, is crucial both for the context and date of its construction and the period when its western façade was modified into a unique, gigantic Reclining Buddha. Its construction was part of a major dynastic change and florescence of the Hindu-Mahayana Buddhist state and the modification is the key evidence of Theravada Buddhist power after Angkor's decline in the 15th century. Using a newly-developed approach based on AMS radiocarbon dating to directly date four iron crampons integrated into the structure we present the first direct evidence for the history of the Baphuon. Comprehensive study of ferrous elements shows that both construction and modification were critically earlier than expected. The Baphuon can now be considered as the major temple associated with the imperial reformations and territorial consolidation of Suryavarman I (1010–1050 AD) for whom no previous building to legitimize his reign could be identified. The Theravada Buddhist modification is a hundred years prior to the conventional 16th century estimation and is not associated with renewed use of Angkor. Instead it relates to the enigmatic Ayutthayan occupation of Angkor in the 1430s and 40s during a major period of climatic instability. Accurately dating iron with relatively low carbon content is a decisive step to test long-standing assumptions about architectural histories and political processes for states that incorporated iron into buildings (e.g., Ancient Greece, medieval India). Furthermore, this new approach has the potential to revise chronologies related to iron

  4. Consumption of animal source foods and dietary diversity reduce stunting in children in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in children is a major public health concern. This study aimed to determine the association between dietary diversity and stunting, underweight, wasting, and diarrhea and that between consumption of each specific food group and these nutritional and health outcomes among children. Methods A nationally representative household survey of 6209 children aged 12 to 59 months was conducted in Cambodia. We examined the consumption of food in the 24 hours before the survey and stunting, underweight, wasting, and diarrhea that had occurred in the preceding 2 weeks. A food variety score (ranging from 0 to 9) was calculated to represent dietary diversity. Results Stunting was negatively associated with dietary diversity (adjusted odd ratios [ORadj] 0.95, 95% confident interval [CI] 0.91-0.99, P = 0.01) after adjusting for socioeconomic and geographical factors. Consumption of animal source foods was associated with reduced risk of stunting (ORadj 0.69, 95% CI 0.54-0.89, P < 0.01) and underweight (ORadj 0.74, 95% CI 0.57-0.96, P = 0.03). On the other hand, the higher risk of diarrhea was significantly associated with consumption of milk products (ORadj 1.46, 95% CI 1.10-1.92, P = 0.02) and it was significantly pronounced among children from the poorer households (ORadj 1.85, 95% CI 1.17-2.93, P < 0.01). Conclusions Consumption of a diverse diet was associated with a reduction in stunting. In addition to dietary diversity, animal source food was a protective factor of stunting and underweight. Consumption of milk products was associated with an increase in the risk of diarrhea, particularly among the poorer households. Both dietary diversity and specific food types are important considerations of dietary recommendation. PMID:23866682

  5. National Malaria Prevalence in Cambodia: Microscopy Versus Polymerase Chain Reaction Estimates.

    PubMed

    Lek, Dysoley; Popovici, Jean; Ariey, Frederic; Vinjamuri, Seshu Babu; Meek, Sylvia; Bruce, Jan; Taylor, Walter R J; Socheat, Duong; Menard, Didier; Rogers, William O

    2016-09-01

    Accurate information regarding malaria prevalence at national level is required to design and assess malaria control/elimination efforts. Although many comparisons of microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods have been conducted, there is little published literature covering such comparisons in southeast Asia especially at the national level. Both microscopic examination and PCR detection were performed on blood films and dried blood spots samples collected from 8,067 individuals enrolled in a nationwide, stratified, multistage, cluster sampling malaria prevalence survey conducted in Cambodia in 2007. The overall malaria prevalence and prevalence rates of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and Plasmodium malariae infections estimated by microscopy (N = 8,067) were 2.74% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.39-3.12%), 1.81% (95% CI: 1.53-2.13%), 1.14% (95% CI: 0.92-1.40%), and 0.01% (95% CI: 0.003-0.07%), respectively. The overall malaria prevalence based on PCR detection (N = 7,718) was almost 2.5-fold higher (6.31%, 95% CI: 5.76-6.89%, P < 0.00001). This difference was significantly more pronounced for P. falciparum (4.40%, 95% CI: 3.95-4.90%, P < 0.00001) compared with P. vivax (1.89%, 95% CI: 1.60-2.22%, P < 0.001) and P. malariae infections (0.22%, 95% CI: 0.13-0.35%, P < 0.0001). The significant proportion of microscopy-negative but PCR-positive individuals (289/7,491, 3.85%) suggest microscopic examination frequently underestimated malaria infections and that active case detection based on microscopy may miss a significant reservoir of infection, especially in low-transmission settings. PMID:27402511

  6. Nesting phenology and clutch characteristics of captive Siamese crocodiles (Crocodylus siamensis) in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Platt, Steven G; Monyrath, Vuthy; Sovannara, Heng; Kheng, Long; Rainwater, Thomas R

    2012-01-01

    The Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) is considered one of the least studied and most critically endangered crocodilians in the world. Although few wild populations remain, more than 700,000 C. siamensis are held on commercial crocodile farms in Southeast Asia. Despite conservation concerns, many aspects of C. siamensis life history remain poorly known, particularly with regards to its reproductive biology. We studied nesting phenology, clutch characteristics, and other aspects of C. siamensis reproductive biology on crocodile farms in Cambodia during 2000 and 2001. Oviposition among captive crocodiles began in February and continued into early June. The mean (±1 SD) oviposition date based on pooled data from 2000 and 2001 was 5 April ± 24 days. Mean oviposition date differed significantly between 2000 and 2001, possibly as a result of annual variability among nesting cues. The mean incubation period was 72 ± 3 days and eggs hatched from 5 May to 18 August. Mean clutch size (25.0 ± 8.8 eggs; n = 183) differed significantly between years, possibly resulting from the >2.5-fold increase in sample size during 2001. There was no correlation between clutch size and oviposition date during either 2000 or 2001. A single female produced two clutches during 2001, complimenting previous reports of double-clutching among C. siamensis. The mean length and width of 515 eggs were 78.2 ± 4.9 and 48.1 ± 2.5 mm, respectively; mean egg mass was 90.8 ± 16.5 g (n = 471). One unpipped egg contained a set of twins. PMID:23027550

  7. Whose Education Policies in Aid-Receiving Countries? A Critical Discourse Analysis of Quality and Normative Transfer through Cambodia and Laos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Critical discourse analysis of policy contexts and documents has been employed in this research to analyze the role of language in promoting normative positions affecting the quality of education in Cambodia and Laos. The article examines the ways institutional normative influences at multiple levels within the Education for All (EFA) program have…

  8. Rebirth of the Learning Tradition: A Case Study on the Achievements of Education for All in Cambodia. Mid-Decade Review of Progress towards Education for All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasertsri, Supote

    This report describes and analyzes the efforts and achievements made in Cambodia during the past 16 years with a special focus on developments after the United Nations organized election in 1993. During this process UNESCO played a small but important part in the reconstruction of education, freedom of expression (through the training of…

  9. Situation Report--Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua & New Guinea, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti, Tonga.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in fourteen foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua and New Guines, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti (French Polynesia), and Tonga. Information is provided under two…

  10. Pathways of Thriving and Resilience: Growth Responses to Adversity and Trauma in Two Cambodian Communities: A Comparative Study between Lowell, Massachusetts and Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Cheryl D.

    This qualitative study investigated individual, contextual, and cultural factors that promote trauma-related resilience and positive growth among Cambodian survivors of the Pol Pot regime who reside in Phnom Penh, Cambodia and Lowell, Massachusetts. A thriving paradigm framed semi-structured interviews that were conducted with 21 Cambodians in…

  11. Testimony ceremonies in Asia: integrating spirituality in testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Agger, Inger; Igreja, Victor; Kiehle, Rachel; Polatin, Peter

    2012-07-01

    This study explores the therapeutic implications of including culturally adapted spiritual ceremonies in the process of testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Data were collected through an action research process with Asian mental health and human rights organizations, during which the testimonial method was reconceptualized and modified to include four sessions. In the first two sessions, community workers assist survivors in the writing of their testimony, which is their narrative about the human rights violations they have suffered. In the third session, survivors participate in an honour ceremony in which they are presented with their testimony documents. In the fourth session, the community workers meet with the survivors for a reevaluation of their well-being. The honour ceremonies developed during the action research process came to employ different kinds of symbolic language at each site: human rights (India), religious/Catholic (Sri Lanka), religious/Buddhist (Cambodia), and religious/Moslem (Philippines). They all used embodied spirituality in various forms, incorporating singing, dancing, and religious purification rituals in a collective gathering. We suggest that these types of ceremonies may facilitate an individual's capacity to contain and integrate traumatic memories, promote restorative self-awareness, and engage community support. Additional research is needed to determine the method's applicability in other sociopolitical contexts governed by more Western-oriented medical traditions. PMID:22637721

  12. The Economic Burden of Malnutrition in Pregnant Women and Children under 5 Years of Age in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Silo, Sok; Laillou, Arnaud; Wieringa, Frank; Hong, Rathamony; Hong, Rathavuth; Poirot, Etienne; Bagriansky, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is locked in a vicious cycle of increased mortality, poor health, impaired cognitive development, slow physical growth, reduced learning capacity, inferior performance, and ultimately lower adult work performance and productivity. The consensus of global scientific evidence indicates that lowering the rates of malnutrition will be an indispensable component of any successful program to raise the quality of human capital and resources. This study used a "consequence model" to apply the coefficient risk-deficit on economic losses, established in the global scientific literature, to Cambodian health, demographic, and economic data to develop a national estimate of the value of economic losses due to malnutrition. The impact of the indicators of malnutrition analyzed represent a burden to the national economy of Cambodia estimated at 266 million USD annually (1.7% of GDP). Stunting is reducing the Cambodian economic output by more than 120 million USD, and iodine deficiency disorders alone by 57 million USD. This economic burden is too high in view of Cambodia's efforts to drive economic development. The government should rapidly expand a range of low-cost effective nutrition interventions to break the current cycle of increased mortality, poor health and ultimately lower work performance, productivity, and earnings. PMID:27187462

  13. Tetanus Immunity among Women Aged 15 to 39 Years in Cambodia: a National Population-Based Serosurvey, 2012.

    PubMed

    Scobie, Heather M; Mao, Bunsoth; Buth, Sokhal; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A; Sørensen, Charlotte; Kannarath, Chheng; Jenks, M Harley; Moss, Delynn M; Priest, Jeffrey W; Soeung, Sann Chan; Deming, Michael S; Lammie, Patrick J; Gregory, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    To monitor progress toward maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination (MNTE) in Cambodia, we conducted a nationwide serosurvey of tetanus immunity in 2012. Multistage cluster sampling was used to select 2,154 women aged 15 to 39 years. Tetanus toxoid antibodies in serum samples were measured by gold-standard double-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAE) and a novel multiplex bead assay (MBA). Antibody concentrations of ≥0.01 IU/ml by DAE or the equivalent for MBA were considered seroprotective. Estimated tetanus seroprotection was 88% (95% confidence interval [CI], 86 to 89%); 64% (95% CI, 61 to 67%) of women had antibody levels of ≥1.0 IU/ml. Seroprotection was significantly lower (P < 0.001) among women aged 15 to 19 years (63%) and 20 to 24 years (87%) than among those aged ≥25 years (96%), among nulliparous women than among parous women (71 versus 97%), and among those living in the western region than among those living in other regions (82 versus 89%). The MBA showed high sensitivity (99% [95% CI, 98 to 99%]) and specificity (92% [95% CI, 88 to 95%]) compared with DAE. Findings were compatible with MNTE in Cambodia (≥80% protection). Tetanus immunity gaps should be addressed through strengthened routine immunization and targeted vaccination campaigns. Incorporating tetanus testing in national serosurveys using MBAs, which can measure immunity to multiple pathogens simultaneously, may be beneficial for monitoring MNTE. PMID:27053629

  14. Issues in access to safe drinking water and basic hygiene for persons with physical disabilities in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Marin; Pann, Mala; Cantwell, Ray; Moore, Spencer

    2014-12-01

    An estimated 1.6 million people die from diarrheal diseases each year due to lack of access to safe water and sanitation, and persons with physical disabilities face additional barriers. In Cambodia, approximately 5% of the population is disabled, presenting substantial obstacles in accessing these basic services. The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to identify the challenges facing persons with physical disabilities in accessing safe household water and basic hygiene in rural Cambodia; and, second, to use these results to generate policy and practice recommendations for the water and sanitation hygiene sector implementing water treatment system interventions in rural settings. Fifteen field interviews were conducted with persons with physical disabilities. Thematic analysis was used to identify six main themes. The results indicated that environmental barriers to access were greater in the workplace than household settings and those persons with disabilities had greater awareness about safe drinking water compared to basic hygiene. Additionally, lack of physical strength, distance to water, and lack of financial means were noted as common access barriers. The findings support ongoing research and offer insight into the particular challenges facing persons with physical disabilities in rural areas in accessing safe drinking water and basic hygiene. PMID:25473998

  15. Rollout of Xpert® MTB/RIF in Northwest Cambodia for the diagnosis of tuberculosis among PLHA

    PubMed Central

    Auld, S. C.; Killam, W. P.; Eng, B.; Nong, K.; Pevzner, E. C.; Eam, K. K.; Eang, M. T.; Warren, D.; Whitehead, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe the implementation and utilization of the Xpert® MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) among people living with the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS, PLHA) in Cambodia. Design: Following the rollout of Xpert, an evaluation was conducted in four provinces of Cambodia from March to December 2012 to determine the utilization, performance, and turnaround time (TAT) of Xpert among PLHA. Data were collected from paper-based patient registers. Results: Of 497 PLHA with a positive TB symptom screen, 357 (72%) were tested with smear microscopy, and 250 (50%) with Xpert; 25 (10%) PLHA tested with Xpert were positive for TB and none were rifampicin-resistant. The utilization of Xpert increased from 23% to 75%, with a median TAT of 1 day. Across districts, utilization ranged from zero to 85%, while the TAT ranged from zero to 22 days. Conclusion: While early data show increasing utilization of Xpert for PLHA with a positive symptom screen, most patients underwent smear microscopy as an initial diagnostic test. Training delays and challenges associated with specimen referral may have contributed to variability in Xpert uptake and TAT, particularly for sites without onsite Xpert testing. Enhanced programmatic support, particularly for specimen referral and results reporting, may facilitate appropriate utilization. PMID:26400699

  16. Testimony ceremonies in Asia: Integrating spirituality in testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Agger, Inger; Igreja, Victor; Kiehle, Rachel; Polatin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the therapeutic implications of including culturally adapted spiritual ceremonies in the process of testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Data were collected through an action research process with Asian mental health and human rights organizations, during which the testimonial method was reconceptualized and modified to include four sessions. In the first two sessions, community workers assist survivors in the writing of their testimony, which is their narrative about the human rights violations they have suffered. In the third session, survivors participate in an honour ceremony in which they are presented with their testimony documents. In the fourth session, the community workers meet with the survivors for a reevaluation of their well-being. The honour ceremonies developed during the action research process came to employ different kinds of symbolic language at each site: human rights (India), religious/Catholic (Sri Lanka), religious/Buddhist (Cambodia), and religious/Moslem (Philippines). They all used embodied spirituality in various forms, incorporating singing, dancing, and religious purification rituals in a collective gathering. We suggest that these types of ceremonies may facilitate an individual’s capacity to contain and integrate traumatic memories, promote restorative self-awareness, and engage community support. Additional research is needed to determine the method’s applicability in other sociopolitical contexts governed by more Western-oriented medical traditions. PMID:22637721

  17. Trends and barriers to HIV testing among tuberculosis patients in Prey Kabas operational district, Takeo province, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Samrith, Wannak; Rahman, Mahbubur; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2015-03-01

    Data for this study were obtained from 2375 tuberculosis (TB) patients registered during 2007-2009 and 43 health providers to examine the trend of TB patient referral for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) testing and to investigate provider-associated barriers to the referral in Prey Kabas operational district, Takeo province, Cambodia. Referral rate for HIV testing was 4.4% (30/684) in 2007, 15.4% (116/751) in 2008, and 30.1% (283/940) in 2009, with a significant upward trend over the period of time (P = .009). The main barriers perceived by health providers were poor knowledge about TB/HIV, lack of communication skills, absence of any target plan for TB patient referral for HIV testing, and fear associated with informing positive test results to the TB patients and the associated stigma. Strategies to raise awareness about HIV/AIDS/TB among TB patients and their providers may improve the current state of low referral and its barriers in Cambodia. PMID:22593219

  18. Arsenic concentrations in paddy soil and rice and health implications for major rice-growing regions of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Seyfferth, Angelia L; McCurdy, Sarah; Schaefer, Michael V; Fendorf, Scott

    2014-05-01

    Despite the global importance of As in rice, research has primarily focused on Bangladesh, India, China, and the United States with limited attention given to other countries. Owing to both indigenous As within the soil and the possible increases arising from the onset of irrigation with groundwater, an assessment of As in rice within Cambodia is needed, which offers a "base-case" comparison against sediments of similar origin that comprise rice paddy soils where As-contaminated water is used for irrigation (e.g., Bangladesh). Here, we evaluated the As content of rice from five provinces (Kandal, Prey Veng, Battambang, Banteay Meanchey, and Kampong Thom) in the rice-growing regions of Cambodia and coupled that data to soil-chemical factors based on extractions of paddy soil collected and processed under anoxic conditions. At total soil As concentrations ranging 0.8 to 18 μg g(-1), total grain As concentrations averaged 0.2 μg g(-1) and ranged from 0.1 to 0.37 with Banteay Meanchey rice having significantly higher values than Prey Veng rice. Overall, soil-extractable concentrations of As, Fe, P, and Si and total As were poor predictors of grain As concentrations. While biogeochemical factors leading to reduction of As(V)-bearing Fe(III) oxides are likely most important for predicting plant-available As, husk and straw As concentrations were the most significant predictors of grain-As levels among our measured parameters. PMID:24712677

  19. Poverty, user fees and ability to pay for health care for children with suspected dengue in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Khun, Sokrin; Manderson, Lenore

    2008-01-01

    User fees were introduced in public health facilities in Cambodia in 1997 in order to inject funds into the health system to enhance the quality of services. Because of inadequate health insurance, a social safety net scheme was introduced to ensure that all people were able to attend the health facilities. However, continuing high rates of hospitalization and mortality from dengue fever among infants and children reflect the difficulties that women continue to face in finding sufficient cash in cases of medical emergency, resulting in delays in diagnosis and treatment. In this article, drawing on in-depth interviews conducted with mothers of children infected with dengue in eastern Cambodia, we illustrate the profound economic consequences for households when a child is ill. The direct costs for health care and medical services, and added indirect costs, deterred poor women from presenting with sick children. Those who eventually sought care often had to finance health spending through out-of-pocket payments and loans, or sold property, goods or labour to meet the costs. Costs were often catastrophic, exacerbating the extreme poverty of those least able to afford it. PMID:18439268

  20. PALSAR 50 m mosaic data based national level biomass estimation in Cambodia for implementation of REDD+ mechanism.

    PubMed

    Avtar, Ram; Suzuki, Rikie; Takeuchi, Wataru; Sawada, Haruo

    2013-01-01

    Tropical countries like Cambodia require information about forest biomass for successful implementation of climate change mitigation mechanism related to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). This study investigated the potential of Phased Array-type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar Fine Beam Dual (PALSAR FBD) 50 m mosaic data to estimate Above Ground Biomass (AGB) in Cambodia. AGB was estimated using a bottom-up approach based on field measured biomass and backscattering (σ(o)) properties of PALSAR data. The relationship between the PALSAR σ(o) HV and HH/HV with field measured biomass was strong with R(2) = 0.67 and 0.56, respectively. PALSAR estimated AGB show good results in deciduous forests because of less saturation as compared to dense evergreen forests. The validation results showed a high coefficient of determination R(2) = 0.61 with RMSE  = 21 Mg/ha using values up to 200 Mg/ha biomass. There were some uncertainties because of the uncertainty in the field based measurement and saturation of PALSAR data. AGB map of Cambodian forests could be useful for the implementation of forest management practices for REDD+ assessment and policies implementation at the national level. PMID:24116012

  1. Effects of logging and recruitment on community phylogenetic structure in 32 permanent forest plots of Kampong Thom, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Hironori; Kajisa, Tsuyoshi; Tagane, Shuichiro; Mase, Keiko; Chhang, Phourin; Samreth, Vanna; Ma, Vuthy; Sokh, Heng; Ichihashi, Ryuji; Onoda, Yusuke; Mizoue, Nobuya; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2015-02-19

    Ecological communities including tropical rainforest are rapidly changing under various disturbances caused by increasing human activities. Recently in Cambodia, illegal logging and clear-felling for agriculture have been increasing. Here, we study the effects of logging, mortality and recruitment of plot trees on phylogenetic community structure in 32 plots in Kampong Thom, Cambodia. Each plot was 0.25 ha; 28 plots were established in primary evergreen forests and four were established in secondary dry deciduous forests. Measurements were made in 1998, 2000, 2004 and 2010, and logging, recruitment and mortality of each tree were recorded. We estimated phylogeny using rbcL and matK gene sequences and quantified phylogenetic α and β diversity. Within communities, logging decreased phylogenetic diversity, and increased overall phylogenetic clustering and terminal phylogenetic evenness. Between communities, logging increased phylogenetic similarity between evergreen and deciduous plots. On the other hand, recruitment had opposite effects both within and between communities. The observed patterns can be explained by environmental homogenization under logging. Logging is biased to particular species and larger diameter at breast height, and forest patrol has been effective in decreasing logging. PMID:25561669

  2. Cluster of HIV Infections Attributed to Unsafe Injection Practices--Cambodia, December 1, 2014-February 28, 2015.

    PubMed

    Vun, Mean Chhi; Galang, Romeo R; Fujita, Masami; Killam, William; Gokhale, Runa; Pitman, John; Selenic, Dejana; Mam, Sovatha; Mom, Chandara; Fontenille, Didier; Rouet, Francois; Vonthanak, Saphonn

    2016-02-19

    In December 2014, local health authorities in Battambang province in northwest Cambodia reported 30 cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a rural commune (district subdivision) where only four cases had been reported during the preceding year. The majority of cases occurred in residents of Roka commune. The Cambodian National Center for HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), Dermatology and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (NCHADS) investigated the outbreak in collaboration with the University of Health Sciences in Phnom Penh and members of the Roka Cluster Investigation Team. By February 28, 2015, NCHADS had confirmed 242 cases of HIV infection among the 8,893 commune residents, an infection rate of 2.7%. Molecular investigation of the HIV strains present in this outbreak indicated that the majority of cases were linked to a single HIV strain that spread quickly within this community. An NCHADS case-control study identified medical injections and infusions as the most likely modes of transmission. In response to this outbreak, the Government of Cambodia has taken measures to encourage safe injection practices by licensed medical professionals, ban unlicensed medical practitioners, increase local capacity for HIV testing and counseling, and expand access to HIV treatment in Battambang province. Measures to reduce the demand for unnecessary medical injections and the provision of unsafe injections are needed. Estimates of national HIV incidence and prevalence might need to be adjusted to account for unsafe injection as a risk exposure. PMID:26890340

  3. PALSAR 50 m Mosaic Data Based National Level Biomass Estimation in Cambodia for Implementation of REDD+ Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Avtar, Ram; Suzuki, Rikie; Takeuchi, Wataru; Sawada, Haruo

    2013-01-01

    Tropical countries like Cambodia require information about forest biomass for successful implementation of climate change mitigation mechanism related to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). This study investigated the potential of Phased Array-type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar Fine Beam Dual (PALSAR FBD) 50 m mosaic data to estimate Above Ground Biomass (AGB) in Cambodia. AGB was estimated using a bottom-up approach based on field measured biomass and backscattering (σo) properties of PALSAR data. The relationship between the PALSAR σo HV and HH/HV with field measured biomass was strong with R2 = 0.67 and 0.56, respectively. PALSAR estimated AGB show good results in deciduous forests because of less saturation as compared to dense evergreen forests. The validation results showed a high coefficient of determination R2 = 0.61 with RMSE  = 21 Mg/ha using values up to 200 Mg/ha biomass. There were some uncertainties because of the uncertainty in the field based measurement and saturation of PALSAR data. AGB map of Cambodian forests could be useful for the implementation of forest management practices for REDD+ assessment and policies implementation at the national level. PMID:24116012

  4. Breastfeeding trends in Cambodia, and the increased use of breast-milk substitute-why is it a danger?

    PubMed

    Prak, Sophonneary; Dahl, Miriam Iuell; Oeurn, Sam; Conkle, Joel; Wise, Aaron; Laillou, Arnaud

    2014-07-01

    A cross-sectional analysis of the Cambodia Demographic Health Surveys from 2000, 2005 and 2010 was conducted to observe the national trends in infant and young child feeding practices. The results showed that rates of exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged 0-5.9 months have increased substantially since 2000, concurrent with an increase in the rates of early initiation of breastfeeding and a reduction in the giving of pre-lacteal feeds. However, the proportion of infants being fed with breast-milk substitutes (BMS) during 0-5.9 months doubled in 5 years (3.4% to 7.0%) from 2000 to 2005, but then did not increase from 2005, likely due to extensive public health campaigns on exclusive breastfeeding. BMS use increased among children aged 6-23.9 months from 2000 to 2010 (4.8% to 9.3%). 26.1% of women delivering in a private clinic provided their child with breast-milk substitute at 0-5.9 months, which is five times more than women delivering in the public sector (5.1%), and the greatest increase in bottle use happened among the urban poor (5.8% to 21.7%). These findings are discussed with reference to the increased supply and marketing of BMS that is occurring in Cambodia. PMID:25054552

  5. System-level factors as predictors of adherence to clinical appointment schedules in antiretroviral therapy in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Daigle, Gary T; Jolly, Pauline E; Chamot, Eric A M; Ehiri, John; Zhang, Kui; Khan, Edward; Sou, Sanith

    2015-01-01

    Adherence to clinical appointment schedules by patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is necessary for the prevention of medication interruptions, viral rebound, and the development of drug resistance. An observational study conducted in 2010, Enablers and Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in Cambodia, sought to identify factors that predict on-time clinical appointment attendance by patients on ART. Clinical data, including appointment attendance across five consecutive visits, were collected from hospital records on a random sample of ART patients at government referral hospitals (RHs) in Battambang Province, Cambodia. Interviews were conducted to obtain quantitative information from patients on their experiences of support services provided by local NGOs and RHs. This information was used to identify ART patient care and support system factors that could potentially enable patients to adhere to clinical appointment schedules. These factors included adherence counseling, support groups, home-based care (HBC) services, and support provided for transportation to ART appointments. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to assess relationships between system variables and the ART appointment adherence outcome. Of the 289 study participants, 20.4% had missed at least one of the five appointments in the study period. The hospital source of ART services, participation in a hospital-based support group, receiving a loan from a microfinance institution, and the frequency of adherence counseling were found to be associated with ART appointment adherence. No significant associations were found between other support system factors such as HBC, transportation support, food/monetary support, and appointment adherence. PMID:25803006

  6. Effects of logging and recruitment on community phylogenetic structure in 32 permanent forest plots of Kampong Thom, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, Hironori; Kajisa, Tsuyoshi; Tagane, Shuichiro; Mase, Keiko; Chhang, Phourin; Samreth, Vanna; Ma, Vuthy; Sokh, Heng; Ichihashi, Ryuji; Onoda, Yusuke; Mizoue, Nobuya; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2015-01-01

    Ecological communities including tropical rainforest are rapidly changing under various disturbances caused by increasing human activities. Recently in Cambodia, illegal logging and clear-felling for agriculture have been increasing. Here, we study the effects of logging, mortality and recruitment of plot trees on phylogenetic community structure in 32 plots in Kampong Thom, Cambodia. Each plot was 0.25 ha; 28 plots were established in primary evergreen forests and four were established in secondary dry deciduous forests. Measurements were made in 1998, 2000, 2004 and 2010, and logging, recruitment and mortality of each tree were recorded. We estimated phylogeny using rbcL and matK gene sequences and quantified phylogenetic α and β diversity. Within communities, logging decreased phylogenetic diversity, and increased overall phylogenetic clustering and terminal phylogenetic evenness. Between communities, logging increased phylogenetic similarity between evergreen and deciduous plots. On the other hand, recruitment had opposite effects both within and between communities. The observed patterns can be explained by environmental homogenization under logging. Logging is biased to particular species and larger diameter at breast height, and forest patrol has been effective in decreasing logging. PMID:25561669

  7. Ivermectin Treatment and Sanitation Effectively Reduce Strongyloides stercoralis Infection Risk in Rural Communities in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Forrer, Armelle; Khieu, Virak; Schindler, Christian; Schär, Fabian; Marti, Hanspeter; Char, Meng Chuor; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Strongyloides stercoralis is the only soil-transmitted helminth with the ability to replicate within its host, leading to long-lasting and potentially fatal infections. It is ubiquitous and its worldwide prevalence has recently been estimated to be at least half that of hookworm. Information on the epidemiology of S. stercoralis remains scarce and modalities for its large-scale control are yet to be determined. Methodology/Principal Findings A community-based two-year cohort study was conducted among the general population in a rural province in North Cambodia. At each survey, participants infected with S. stercoralis were treated with a single oral dose of ivermectin (200μg/kg BW). Diagnosis was performed using a combination of the Baermann method and Koga agar plate culture on two stool samples. The cohort included participants from eight villages who were either positive or negative for S. stercoralis at baseline. Mixed logistic regression models were employed to assess risk factors for S. stercoralis infection at baseline and re-infection at follow-up. A total of 3,096 participants were examined at baseline, revealing a S. stercoralis prevalence of 33.1%. Of these participants, 1,269 were followed-up over two years. Re-infection and infection rates among positive and negative participants at baseline were 14.4% and 9.6% at the first and 11.0% and 11.5% at the second follow-up, respectively. At follow-up, all age groups were at similar risk of acquiring an infection, while infection risk significantly decreased with increasing village sanitation coverage. Conclusions/Significance Chemotherapy-based control of S. stercoralis is feasible and highly beneficial, particularly in combination with improved sanitation. The impact of community-based ivermectin treatment on S. stercoralis was high, with over 85% of villagers remaining negative one year after treatment. The integration of S. stercoralis into existing STH control programs should be considered

  8. Patterns of Ecosystem Metabolism in the Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia with Links to Capture Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Holtgrieve, Gordon W.; Arias, Mauricio E.; Irvine, Kim N.; Lamberts, Dirk; Ward, Eric J.; Kummu, Matti; Koponen, Jorma; Sarkkula, Juha; Richey, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    The Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia is a dynamic flood-pulsed ecosystem that annually increases its surface area from roughly 2,500 km2 to over 12,500 km2 driven by seasonal flooding from the Mekong River. This flooding is thought to structure many of the critical ecological processes, including aquatic primary and secondary productivity. The lake also has a large fishery that supports the livelihoods of nearly 2 million people. We used a state-space oxygen mass balance model and continuous dissolved oxygen measurements from four locations to provide the first estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) for the Tonle Sap. GPP averaged 4.1±2.3 g O2 m−3 d−1 with minimal differences among sites. There was a negative correlation between monthly GPP and lake level (r = 0.45) and positive correlation with turbidity (r = 0.65). ER averaged 24.9±20.0 g O2 m−3 d−1 but had greater than six-fold variation among sites and minimal seasonal change. Repeated hypoxia was observed at most sampling sites along with persistent net heterotrophy (GPP

  9. Seasonal Influences on Ground-Surface Water Interactions in an Arsenic-Affected Aquifer in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, L. A.; Magnone, D.; Van Dongen, B.; Bryant, C.; Boyce, A.; Ballentine, C. J.; Polya, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Millions of people in South and Southeast Asia consume drinking water daily which contains dangerous levels of arsenic exceeding health-based recommendations [1]. A key control on arsenic mobilization in aquifers in these areas has been controversially identified as the interaction of 'labile' organic matter contained in surface waters with groundwaters and sediments at depth [2-4], which may trigger the release of arsenic from the solid- to aqueous-phase via reductive dissolution of iron-(hyr)oxide minerals [5]. In a field site in Kandal Province, Cambodia, which is an arsenic-affected area typical to others in the region, there are strong seasonal patterns in groundwater flow direction, which are closely related to monsoonal rains [6] and may contribute to arsenic release in this aquifer. The aim of this study is to explore the implications of the high susceptibility of this aquifer system to seasonal changes on potential ground-surface water interactions. The main objectives are to (i) identify key zones where there are likely ground-surface water interactions, (ii) assess the seasonal impact of such interactions and (iii) quantify the influence of interactions using geochemical parameters (such as As, Fe, NO3, NH4, 14C, 3T/3He, δ18O, δ2H). Identifying the zones, magnitude and seasonal influence of ground-surface water interactions elucidates new information regarding potential locations/pathways of arsenic mobilization and/or transport in affected aquifers and may be important for water management strategies in affected areas. This research is supported by NERC (NE/J023833/1) to DP, BvD and CJB and a NERC PhD studentship (NE/L501591/1) to DM. References: [1] World Health Organization, 2008. [2] Charlet & Polya (2006), Elements, 2, 91-96. [3] Harvey et al. (2002), Science, 298, 1602-1606. [4] Lawson et al. (2013), Env. Sci. Technol. 47, 7085 - 7094. [5] Islam et al. (2004), Nature, 430, 68-71. [6] Benner et al. (2008) Appl. Geochem. 23(11), 3072 - 3087.

  10. Diagnosis, Treatment and Risk Factors of Strongyloides stercoralis in Schoolchildren in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Marti, Hanspeter; Sayasone, Somphou; Duong, Socheat; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide, an estimated 30 to 100 million people are infected with Strongyloides stercoralis, a soil-transmitted helminth. Information on the parasite is scarce in most settings. In semi-rural Cambodia, we determined infection rates and risk factors; compared two diagnostic methods (Koga agar plate [KAP] culture and Baermann technique) for detecting S. stercoralis infections, using a multiple stool examination approach; and assessed efficacy of ivermectin treatment. Methods/Principal Findings We performed a cross-sectional study in 458 children from four primary schools in semi-rural villages in Kandal province, using three diagnostic procedures (Kato-Katz, KAP culture and Baermann technique) on three stool samples. Infected children were treated with ivermectin (100 µg/kg/day for two days) and re-examined three weeks after treatment. Hookworm, S. stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, and small trematode eggs were most prevalent, with 24.4% of children being infected with S. stercoralis. The sensitivity of KAP culture and Baermann technique was 88.4% and 75.0%, respectively and their negative predictive values were 96.4% and 92.5%, respectively. The cumulative prevalence of S. stercoralis increased from 18.6% to 24.4%, after analyzing three stool samples, which was close to the modeled ‘true’ prevalence of 24.8%. Children who reported defecating in latrines were significantly less infected with S. stercoralis than those who did not use latrines (p<0.001). Itchy skin and diarrhea were significantly associated with S. stercoralis infection. The cure rate of ivermectin was 98.3%. Conclusions/Significance S. stercoralis infection is highly prevalent among semi-rural Cambodian schoolchildren. The sensitivity of KAP culture is higher than that of the Baermann technique. In the absence of a “gold standard”, analysis of multiple stool samples by different diagnostic methods is required to achieve a satisfactory level of sensitivity. Almost three-quarters of

  11. How Do Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) Plantations Cope with Seasonal Drought in Northern Thailand and Central Cambodia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, T.; Giambelluca, T. W.

    2014-12-01

    Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantaitons are rapidly expanding throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially changing the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with the traditional land covers they are replacing. We have conducted eddy flux measurements in two rubber plantation sites: Som Sanuk (SS), located northern Thailand; and Cambodian Rubber Research Institute (CRRI), central Cambodia. We used combination of actual evapotranspiration (ET) flux measurements and an inversed version of a simple 2-layer ET model for estimating the mean canopy stomatal conductances (gs), which is among the most effective measures for describing the exchange characteristics. It is demonstrated how each studied rubber plantation copes with each strong seasonal drought via tree water use strategies. Potential tree water use deficit (precipitation (P) - potential evaporation (ET_POT)) for each season (i.e., December-February: DJF, March-May: MAM, June-August: JJA, and September-November: SON) revealed in which season and how the water use should be controlled. We found that in the season when actual tree water use deficit (P - ET) was negative (DJF and MAM), the deficit was compensated with soil water from the previous season at a depth of 0-2 m at the Thailand site, and from a depth of 0-3 m at CRRI. Two ecophysiological parameters, the reference value of gs (gsref) and the sensitivity of gs to atmospheric demand (m), as well as their proportionality (m/gsref), were derived from the logarithmic response curve of gs to vapor pressure deficit (D) for each season and each site. In both sites, gsref and m appeared to be less in DJF and MAM than each in the other three month periods (seasons). On average in a whole year, m/gsref was less than 0.6 at SS and almost 0.6 at the CRRI site, suggesting that there was less sufficient stomatal regulation at SS, where there might be little risk of water stress-induced hydraulic failure because of much

  12. Hydrogeologic reconnaissance of the Mekong Delta in South Vietnam and Cambodia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Henry R.

    1978-01-01

    The present report describes the results of a hydrogeologic reconnaissance in the Mekong Delta region by the writer, a hydrogeologist of the U.S. Geological Survey, while on assignment as an adviser to the Vietnamese Directorate of Water Supply from October 1968 to April 1970 under the auspices of the U.s. Agency for International Development. The delta of the Mekong River, comprising an area of about 70,000 square kilometres in South Vietnam and Cambodia, is an almost featureless plain rising gradually from sea level to about 5 metres above sea level at its apex 300 kilometres inland. Most of the shallow ground water in the Holocene Alluvium of the delta in Vietnam is brackish or saline down to depths of 50 to 100 metres. Moreover, in the Dong Thap Mu?oi (Plain of Reeds) the shallow ground water is alum-bearing. Locally, however, perched bodies of fresh ground water occur in ancient beach and dune ridges and are tapped by shallow dug wells or pits for village and domestic water supply. The Old Alluvium beneath the lower delta contains freshwater in some areas, notably in the Ca Mau Peninsula and adjacent areas, in the viciniy of Bau Xau near Saigon, and in the Tinh Long An area. Elsewhere in the lower delta both the Holocene and Old Alluvium may contain brackish or saline water from the land surface to depths of as much as 568 metres, as for example in Tinh Vinh Binh. Ground water in the outcrop area of Old Alluvium northwest of Saigon is generally fresh and potable, but high iron and low pH are locally troublesome. Although considerable exploratory drilling for ground water down to depths of as much as 568 metres has already been completed, large areas of the delta remain yet to be explored before full development of the ground-water potential can be realized. With careful development and controlled management to avoid saltwater contamination, however, it is estimated that freshwater aquifers could provide approximately 80 percent of existing needs for village

  13. Patterns of ecosystem metabolism in the Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia with links to capture fisheries.

    PubMed

    Holtgrieve, Gordon W; Arias, Mauricio E; Irvine, Kim N; Lamberts, Dirk; Ward, Eric J; Kummu, Matti; Koponen, Jorma; Sarkkula, Juha; Richey, Jeffrey E

    2013-01-01

    The Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia is a dynamic flood-pulsed ecosystem that annually increases its surface area from roughly 2,500 km(2) to over 12,500 km(2) driven by seasonal flooding from the Mekong River. This flooding is thought to structure many of the critical ecological processes, including aquatic primary and secondary productivity. The lake also has a large fishery that supports the livelihoods of nearly 2 million people. We used a state-space oxygen mass balance model and continuous dissolved oxygen measurements from four locations to provide the first estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) for the Tonle Sap. GPP averaged 4.1±2.3 g O2 m(-3) d(-1) with minimal differences among sites. There was a negative correlation between monthly GPP and lake level (r = 0.45) and positive correlation with turbidity (r = 0.65). ER averaged 24.9±20.0 g O2 m(-3) d(-1) but had greater than six-fold variation among sites and minimal seasonal change. Repeated hypoxia was observed at most sampling sites along with persistent net heterotrophy (GPP

  14. Increased Case Notification through Active Case Finding of Tuberculosis among Household and Neighbourhood Contacts in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Fukushi; Eang, Mao Tan; Nishikiori, Nobuyuki; Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, there has been growing evidence that suggests the effectiveness of active case finding (ACF) for tuberculosis (TB) in high-risk populations. However, the evidence is still insufficient as to whether ACF increases case notification beyond what is reported in the routine passive case finding (PCF). In Cambodia, National TB Control Programme has conducted nationwide ACF with Xpert MTB/RIF that retrospectively targeted household and neighbourhood contacts alongside routine PCF. This study aims to investigate the impact of ACF on case notifications during and after the intervention period. Methods Using a quasi-experimental cluster randomized design with intervention and control arms, we compared TB case notification during the one-year intervention period with historical baseline cases and trend-adjusted expected cases, and estimated additional cases notified during the intervention period (separately for Year 1 and Year 2 implementation). The proportion of change in case notification was compared between intervention and control districts for Year 1. The quarterly case notification data from all intervention districts were consolidated, aligning different implementation quarters, and separately analysed to explore the additionality. The effect of the intervention on the subsequent case notification during the post-intervention period was also assessed. Results In Year 1, as compared to expected cases, 1467 cases of all forms (18.5%) and 330 bacteriologically-confirmed cases (9.6%) were additionally notified in intervention districts, whereas case notification in control districts decreased by 2.4% and 2.3%, respectively. In Year 2, 2737 cases of all forms (44.3%) and 793 bacteriologically-confirmed cases (38%) were additionally notified as compared to expected cases. The proportions of increase in case notifications from baseline cases and expected cases to intervention period cases were consistently higher in intervention group than in control

  15. Transpiration by trees under seasonal water logging and drought in monsoon central Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazawa, Y.; Tateishi, M.; Kajisa, T.; Ma, V.; Heng, S.; Kumagai, T.; Mizoue, N.

    2012-04-01

    Cambodia is situated in the center of Indochina Peninsula and experiences severe drought for 5 months of dry season and subsequent rainy season. Around the Tonlesap Lake where both natural and secondary forests exist without intensive destruction by human activity, forest hydrology is characterized by seasonal water logging in mid rainy season. Tree- and stand-scale transpiration is thought to be influenced by the changing soil water conditions and trees' site-specific adaptation to the environment, but less is measured about transpiration and leaf ecophysiological traits in this region. The objectives of this study is to reveal the ecophysiology of the two native (Dipterocarpus obtusifolius and Shorea roxburghii) and two exotic species (Acacia auriculiformis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis) and to detect the effects of soil water conditions on day to week scale transpiration in mid rainy and dry season. Seasonal leaf-level photosynthesis measurements suggested that photosynthetic capacity (Vcmax25) showed no clear seasonal change in each species without clear interspecific variation. Two native species had stomatal control in response to the environment different from previous studies and showed stomatal conductance higher than most woody species in other seasonal tropical forests, suggesting the species- and site-specific adaptation to the easy access to the ground water. Sap flow rate per leaf area was expressed in two parameters: measured transpiration rate based on the continuous sap flow measurements (Esap) and modeled transpiration rate (Emod) using a multilayer model based on the measured data of atmospheric environments, radiation and the leaf ecophysiological traits. Esap was lower in rainy season than those in dry season, with short but pronounced drop near the end of the dry season, although Emod was higher in rainy season than in dry season. In dry season, Emod well fit the diurnal and day to day trend of Esap, suggesting that soil drought did not limit

  16. Little Evidence of Subclinical Avian Influenza Virus Infections among Rural Villagers in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Gregory C.; Krueger, Whitney S.; Chum, Channimol; Putnam, Shannon D.; Wierzba, Thomas F.; Heil, Gary L.; Anderson, Benjamin D.; Yasuda, Chadwick Y.; Williams, Maya; Kasper, Matthew R.; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Blair, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, 800 adults living within rural Kampong Cham Province, Cambodia were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. After enrollment, participants were contacted weekly for 24 months to identify acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI). Follow-up sera were collected at 12 and 24 months. A transmission substudy was also conducted among the family contacts of cohort members reporting ILI who were influenza A positive. Samples were assessed using serological or molecular techniques looking for evidence of infection with human and avian influenza viruses. Over 24 months, 438 ILI investigations among 284 cohort members were conducted. One cohort member was hospitalized with a H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus infection and withdrew from the study. Ninety-seven ILI cases (22.1%) were identified as influenza A virus infections by real-time RT-PCR; none yielded evidence for AIV. During the 2 years of follow-up, 21 participants (3.0%) had detectable antibody titers (≥1∶10) against the studied AIVs: 1 against an avian-like A/Migratory duck/Hong Kong/MPS180/2003(H4N6), 3 against an avian-like A/Teal/Hong Kong/w312/97(H6N1), 9 (3 of which had detectible antibody titers at both 12- and 24-month follow-up) against an avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), 6 (1 detected at both 12- and 24-month follow-up) against an avian-like A/Duck/Memphis/546/74(H11N9), and 2 against an avian-like A/Duck/Alberta/60/76(H12N5). With the exception of the one hospitalized cohort member with H5N1 infection, no other symptomatic avian influenza infections were detected among the cohort. Serological evidence for subclinical infections was sparse with only one subject showing a 4-fold rise in microneutralization titer over time against AvH12N5. In summary, despite conducting this closely monitored cohort study in a region enzootic for H5N1 HPAI, we were unable to detect subclinical avian influenza infections, suggesting either that these

  17. Factors associated with sex work among at-risk female youth in Cambodia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Brody, Carinne; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhea, Chhorvann; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Yi, Siyan

    2016-01-01

    In Cambodia, despite great achievements in reducing the prevalence of HIV in the general population, reducing new HIV infections among young at-risk women remains a challenge. This study was designed to examine the prevalence of risky behaviors of sexually active female youth in Cambodia and to explore risk factors associated with engagement in transactional sex. We surveyed sexually active female youth aged 10-24 enrolled at risk "hotspots" in eight provinces in Cambodia. We collected data on demographic factors, sexual behavior, and factors hypothesized to be associated with transactional sex. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associations between demographic and sexual behavior and transactional sex. Of the 280 respondents, the mean age was 21.2, and 48.1% had been paid for sex in the past year. After adjustment, at-risk females who were never have been married (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.65-6.97), have completed less than 6 years of school (AOR 3.26, 95% CI = 1.60-6.66), have 1 or more parents who had died (AOR 4.34, 95% CI = 2.00-9.38), be a heavy alcohol drinker (AOR 3.58, 95% CI = 1.78-7.18), have used a condom with their boyfriend during last sexual encounter (AOR 3.50, 95% CI = 1.68-7.32), and have ever had an HIV test (AOR 3.51, 95% CI = 1.68-7.32) were more likely to engage in sex work. Our findings suggest that prevention strategies for female youth at risk of engagement in sex work should include upstream structural interventions that aim to encourage girls' education and empowerment. In addition, tailored sex education and behavior change messaging about the risks of heavy drinking, condom use with romantic partners, and the importance of frequent HIV testing for at-risk youth and sex workers should be designed and delivered to youth currently engaging in sex work. PMID:26477781

  18. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Bhumiratana, Adisak; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Maneekan, Pannamas; Koyadun, Surachart

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR) malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world's most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders. PMID:23865048

  19. [Multiple and successive treatment failures in a patient infected by Plasmodium falciparum in Cambodia and treated by dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine].

    PubMed

    Witkowski, B; Khim, N; Kim, S; Domergue, A; Duru, V; Menard, D

    2016-05-01

    Cases of treatment failures following administration of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) remain rare in malaria endemic areas. In Cambodia, however, failures of these treatments are now commonly observed. Usually, these post-treatment recurrences occur only once and a second course of the same treatment is sufficient to cure patients.We describe here an atypical case of a Plasmodium falciparum-infected patient manifesting several malaria recrudescence episodes following dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (Eurartesim®) treatment. This case report illustrates the current issue of resistance to the latest generation of antimalarial drugs in Southeast Asia and highlights the difficulty in efficaciously fighting malaria in this region if new therapy remains unimplemented. PMID:27100863

  20. Migrant Beer Promoters’ Experiences Accessing Reproductive Health Care in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam: Lessons for Planners and Providers

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Gail C.; Spitzer, Denise L.; Somrongthong, Ratana; Dat, Truong Cong; Kounnavongsa, Somphone

    2014-01-01

    Migrant beer promoters in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam were surveyed to determine their experiences in accessing reproductive health care services in the cities of Phnom Penh, Vientiane, Bangkok, and Hanoi. A total of 7 health care institutions were chosen as popular with migrant beer promoters. Staff at these institutions provided information on the institution, and 390 beer promoters were surveyed about their experiences while accessing services. There were discrepancies between findings from the staff interviews and the experiences of the beer promoters. In general, the migrant women were satisfied with the cost, location, friendliness of the health care providers, and knowledge and skills of the providers. They were less positive about confidentiality and waiting times, though many still agreed that these were not an issue. Health care planners and providers should take note of the issues affecting access to reproductive health care services for migrant women when they design and implement services. PMID:22743859

  1. Simulation of a rubber plantation productivity in central Cambodia using the individual-based dynamic vegetation model SEIB-DGVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, T.; SATO, H.; Shinjiro, Ph. D., F.

    2013-12-01

    To provide a useful tool for building strategy of forest plantation management, we developed the Spatially Explicit Individual-Based (SEIB) Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) applicable to simulate productivity of tree plantations (SEIB-PP). Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers that are being replaced. Describing both primary and latex productivities in rubber plantations via SEIB-PP is, therefore, important to understanding the climatic impacts on productive processes. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia, and here, we show some examples of projections: the rubber plantation production under future climate change conditions.

  2. From subjects to relations: Bioethics and the articulation of postcolonial politics in the Cambodia Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jenna M

    2016-04-01

    Controversies about global clinical trials, particularly HIV trials, tend to be framed in terms of ethics. In this article, I explore debates about ethics in the Cambodia Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial, which was designed to test the safety and efficacy of tenofovir as a prevention for HIV infection. Bringing together studies of public participation in science with studies of bioethics, I show how activists around the Cambodian Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial circulated and provoked debates about standards of research ethics, as opposed to research methodology. This postcolonial bioethics was configured through the circulation of and debate about ethics guidelines, and historically and culturally specific relations of vulnerability and responsibility between foreigners and Cambodians and between Cambodian leaders and Cambodian subjects. I argue that this shift in the object of ethical concern, from the experimental human subject to the relation between subjects and researchers, illustrates how a postcolonial field of articulation reformulates classical bioethics. PMID:27263238

  3. Migrant beer promoters' experiences accessing reproductive health care in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam: lessons for planners and providers.

    PubMed

    Webber, Gail C; Spitzer, Denise L; Somrongthong, Ratana; Dat, Truong Cong; Kounnavongsa, Somphone

    2015-03-01

    Migrant beer promoters in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam were surveyed to determine their experiences in accessing reproductive health care services in the cities of Phnom Penh, Vientiane, Bangkok, and Hanoi. A total of 7 health care institutions were chosen as popular with migrant beer promoters. Staff at these institutions provided information on the institution, and 390 beer promoters were surveyed about their experiences while accessing services. There were discrepancies between findings from the staff interviews and the experiences of the beer promoters. In general, the migrant women were satisfied with the cost, location, friendliness of the health care providers, and knowledge and skills of the providers. They were less positive about confidentiality and waiting times, though many still agreed that these were not an issue. Health care planners and providers should take note of the issues affecting access to reproductive health care services for migrant women when they design and implement services. PMID:22743859

  4. Weekly iron and folic acid supplementation as a tool to reduce anemia among primary school children in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Longfils, Philippe; Heang, Ung Kim; Soeng, Hay; Sinuon, Muth

    2005-12-01

    The prevalence of anemia decreased from 62% to 12% and from 57% to 26% in children 5 to 11 years of age in two rural primary schools in Kampot Province, Cambodia, after oral weekly supplementation with iron-folic acid tablets for 20 weeks and with vitamin A and mebendazole twice per year. In 12- to 15-year-old children, success was less marked. The prevalence of hookworm infestation did not change, but the number of eggs in the stool decreased drastically. The intervention had no significant influence on stunting and wasting. An integrated community approach including mass deworming, health education, and multi-micronutrient supplementation was very effective in reducing anemia in Cambodian schoolchildren and should be adopted on a larger scale. PMID:16466090

  5. Quality of Antimalarials at the Epicenter of Antimalarial Drug Resistance: Results from an Overt and Mystery Client Survey in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Shunmay; Lawford, Harriet L. S.; Tabernero, Patricia; Nguon, Chea; van Wyk, Albert; Malik, Naiela; DeSousa, Mikhael; Rada, Ouk; Boravann, Mam; Dwivedi, Prabha; Hostetler, Dana M.; Swamidoss, Isabel; Green, Michael D.; Fernandez, Facundo M.; Kaur, Harparkash

    2015-01-01

    Widespread availability of monotherapies and falsified antimalarials is thought to have contributed to the historical development of multidrug-resistant malaria in Cambodia. This study aimed to document the quality of artemisinin-containing antimalarials (ACAs) and to compare two methods of collecting antimalarials from drug outlets: through open surveyors and mystery clients (MCs). Few oral artemisinin-based monotherapies and no suspected falsified medicines were found. All 291 samples contained the stated active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of which 69% were considered good quality by chemical analysis. Overall, medicine quality did not differ by collection method, although open surveyors were less likely to obtain oral artemisinin-based monotherapies than MCs. The results are an encouraging indication of the positive impact of the country's efforts to tackle falsified antimalarials and artemisinin-based monotherapies. However, poor-quality medicines remain an ongoing challenge that demands sustained political will and investment of human and financial resources. PMID:25897063

  6. Treatment of lower extremity injuries due to antipersonnel mines: blast resuscitation and victim assistance team experiences in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Parr, Reagan R; Providence, Bertram C; Burkhalter, William E; Smith, Allan C

    2003-07-01

    The two teams comprising the fiscal year 2001 Blast Resuscitation and Victim Assistance mission had the opportunity to learn from and practice mine injury treatment principles with experienced local and international war surgeons in Cambodia. Treatment principles were modifications of International Committee of the Red Cross recommendations. A total of 14 acute lower extremity mine injuries were treated. Surgery generally consisted of an open amputation or thorough irrigation and debridement using equipment readily available in any U.S. military field hospital. The surgical techniques will be described in detail. Delayed primary closure occurred 5 days later followed by prosthesis fitting (for amputees) in an International Committee of the Red Cross facility 12 weeks later. Other options and techniques will be discussed with an emphasis on applicability to U.S. military field surgery. PMID:12901462

  7. Pervasive promotion of breastmilk substitutes in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and high usage by mothers for infant and young child feeding.

    PubMed

    Pries, Alissa M; Huffman, Sandra L; Mengkheang, Khin; Kroeun, Hou; Champeny, Mary; Roberts, Margarette; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    In 2005, Cambodia passed the Sub-Decree on Marketing of Products for Infant and Young Child Feeding (no. 133) to regulate promotion of commercial infant and young child food products, including breastmilk substitutes. Helen Keller International assessed mothers' exposure to commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes and use of these products through a cross-sectional survey among 294 mothers of children less than 24 months of age. Eighty-six per cent of mothers reported observing commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes, 19.0% reported observing infant and young child food product brands/logos on health facility equipment and 18.4% reported receiving a recommendation from a health professional to use a breastmilk substitute. Consumption of breastmilk substitutes was high, occurring among 43.1% of children 0-5 months and 29.3% of children 6-23 months of age. Findings also indicated a need to improve breastfeeding practices among Phnom Penh mothers. Only 36.1% of infants 0-5 months of age were exclusively breastfed, and 12.5% of children 20-23 months of age were still breastfed. Children that received a breastmilk substitute as a prelacteal feed were 3.9 times more likely to be currently consuming a breastmilk substitute than those who did not. Despite restriction of commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes without government approval, occurrence of promotions is high and use is common among Phnom Penh mothers. In a country with high rates of child malnutrition and pervasive promotions in spite of restrictive national law, full implementation of Cambodia's Sub-Decree 133 is necessary, as are policies and interventions to support exclusive and continued breastfeeding. Key messages Despite prohibition without specific approval by the national government, companies are pervasively promoting breast-milk substitutes in Phnom Penh, particularly on television and at points of sale. Strengthened implementation and enforcement of Cambodia's subdecree 133

  8. Quality of antimalarials at the epicenter of antimalarial drug resistance: results from an overt and mystery client survey in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Shunmay; Lawford, Harriet L S; Tabernero, Patricia; Nguon, Chea; van Wyk, Albert; Malik, Naiela; DeSousa, Mikhael; Rada, Ouk; Boravann, Mam; Dwivedi, Prabha; Hostetler, Dana M; Swamidoss, Isabel; Green, Michael D; Fernandez, Facundo M; Kaur, Harparkash

    2015-06-01

    Widespread availability of monotherapies and falsified antimalarials is thought to have contributed to the historical development of multidrug-resistant malaria in Cambodia. This study aimed to document the quality of artemisinin-containing antimalarials (ACAs) and to compare two methods of collecting antimalarials from drug outlets: through open surveyors and mystery clients (MCs). Few oral artemisinin-based monotherapies and no suspected falsified medicines were found. All 291 samples contained the stated active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of which 69% were considered good quality by chemical analysis. Overall, medicine quality did not differ by collection method, although open surveyors were less likely to obtain oral artemisinin-based monotherapies than MCs. The results are an encouraging indication of the positive impact of the country's efforts to tackle falsified antimalarials and artemisinin-based monotherapies. However, poor-quality medicines remain an ongoing challenge that demands sustained political will and investment of human and financial resources. PMID:25897063

  9. From reaching every district to reaching every community: analysis and response to the challenge of equity in immunization in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Chan Soeung, Sann; Grundy, John; Duncan, Richard; Thor, Rasoka; Bilous, Julian B

    2013-01-01

    Background An international review of the Cambodian Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 2010 and other data show that despite immunization coverage increases and vaccine preventable diseases incidence reductions, inequities in access to immunization services exist. Utilizing immunization and health systems literature, analysis of global health databases and the EPI review findings, this paper examines the characteristics of immunization access and outcome inequities, and describes proposed longer-term strategic and operational responses to these problems. Findings The national programme has evolved from earlier central and provincial level planning to strengthening routine immunization coverage through the District level ‘Reaching Every District Strategy’. However, despite remarkable improvements, the review found over 20% of children surveyed were not fully immunized, primarily from communities where inequities of both access and impact persist. These inequities relate mainly to socio-economic exposures including wealth and education level, population mobility and ethnicity. To address these problems, a shift in strategic and operational response is proposed that will include (a) a re-focus of planning on facility level to detect disadvantaged communities, (b) establishment of monitoring systems to provide detailed information on community access and utilization, (c) development of communication strategies and health networks that enable providers to adjust service delivery according to the needs of vulnerable populations, and (d) securing financial, management and political commitment for ‘reaching every community’. Conclusions For Cambodia to achieve its immunization equity objectives and disease reduction goals, a shift of emphasis to health centre and community is needed. This approach will maximize the benefits of new vaccine introduction in the coming ‘Decade of Vaccines’, plus potentially extend the reach of other life-saving maternal

  10. From reaching every district to reaching every community: analysis and response to the challenge of equity in immunization in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Chan Soeung, Sann; Grundy, John; Duncan, Richard; Thor, Rasoka; Bilous, Julian B

    2013-08-01

    BACKGROUND An international review of the Cambodian Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 2010 and other data show that despite immunization coverage increases and vaccine preventable diseases incidence reductions, inequities in access to immunization services exist. Utilizing immunization and health systems literature, analysis of global health databases and the EPI review findings, this paper examines the characteristics of immunization access and outcome inequities, and describes proposed longer-term strategic and operational responses to these problems. Findings The national programme has evolved from earlier central and provincial level planning to strengthening routine immunization coverage through the District level 'Reaching Every District Strategy'. However, despite remarkable improvements, the review found over 20% of children surveyed were not fully immunized, primarily from communities where inequities of both access and impact persist. These inequities relate mainly to socio-economic exposures including wealth and education level, population mobility and ethnicity. To address these problems, a shift in strategic and operational response is proposed that will include (a) a re-focus of planning on facility level to detect disadvantaged communities, (b) establishment of monitoring systems to provide detailed information on community access and utilization, (c) development of communication strategies and health networks that enable providers to adjust service delivery according to the needs of vulnerable populations, and (d) securing financial, management and political commitment for 'reaching every community'. CONCLUSIONS For Cambodia to achieve its immunization equity objectives and disease reduction goals, a shift of emphasis to health centre and community is needed. This approach will maximize the benefits of new vaccine introduction in the coming 'Decade of Vaccines', plus potentially extend the reach of other life-saving maternal and child

  11. Arsenic contamination in the food chain and its risk assessment of populations residing in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Heng, Savoeun; Phan, Samrach; Huoy, Laingshun; Wong, Ming Hung; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2013-11-15

    In the present study, we investigated the potential arsenic exposure of Cambodian residents from their daily food consumption. Environmental and ecological samples such as paddy soils, paddy rice (unhusked), staple rice (uncooked and cooked), fish and vegetables were collected from Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham provinces in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. After acid-digestion, digestates were chemically analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results revealed that the means of total arsenic concentration ([As]tot) in paddy soils and paddy rice from Kandal were significantly higher than those from Kampong Cham province (t-test, p<0.05). Moreover, a significant positive correlation between the [As]tot in paddy soils and paddy rice was found (r(14) = 0.826, p<0.01). Calculations of arsenic intake from food consumption indicated that the upper end of the range of the daily dose of inorganic arsenic for Kandal residents (0.089-8.386 μg d(-1) kg(-1) body wt.) was greater than the lower limits on the benchmark dose for a 0.5% increased incidence of lung cancer (BMDL0.5 is equal to 3.0 μg d(-1) kg(-1) body wt.). The present study suggests that the residents in Kandal are at risk of arsenic intake from their daily food consumption. However, the residents in Kratie and Kampong Cham provinces are less likely to be exposed to arsenic through their daily dietary intake. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report estimating the daily intake and daily dose of inorganic arsenic from food consumption in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. PMID:22818591

  12. Identifying conservation successes, failures and future opportunities; assessing recovery potential of wild ungulates and tigers in Eastern Cambodia.

    PubMed

    O'Kelly, Hannah J; Evans, Tom D; Stokes, Emma J; Clements, Tom J; Dara, An; Gately, Mark; Menghor, Nut; Pollard, Edward H B; Soriyun, Men; Walston, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Conservation investment, particularly for charismatic and wide-ranging large mammal species, needs to be evidence-based. Despite the prevalence of this theme within the literature, examples of robust data being generated to guide conservation policy and funding decisions are rare. We present the first published case-study of tiger conservation in Indochina, from a site where an evidence-based approach has been implemented for this iconic predator and its prey. Despite the persistence of extensive areas of habitat, Indochina's tiger and ungulate prey populations are widely supposed to have precipitously declined in recent decades. The Seima Protection Forest (SPF), and broader Eastern Plains Landscape, was identified in 2000 as representing Cambodia's best hope for tiger recovery; reflected in its designation as a Global Priority Tiger Conservation Landscape. Since 2005 distance sampling, camera-trapping and detection-dog surveys have been employed to assess the recovery potential of ungulate and tiger populations in SPF. Our results show that while conservation efforts have ensured that small but regionally significant populations of larger ungulates persist, and density trends in smaller ungulates are stable, overall ungulate populations remain well below theoretical carrying capacity. Extensive field surveys failed to yield any evidence of tiger, and we contend that there is no longer a resident population within the SPF. This local extirpation is believed to be primarily attributable to two decades of intensive hunting; but importantly, prey densities are also currently below the level necessary to support a viable tiger population. Based on these results and similar findings from neighbouring sites, Eastern Cambodia does not currently constitute a Tiger Source Site nor meet the criteria of a Global Priority Tiger Landscape. However, SPF retains global importance for many other elements of biodiversity. It retains high regional importance for ungulate

  13. Intakes from non-breastmilk foods for stunted toddlers living in poor urban villages of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, are inadequate.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Victoria P; Cornwall, Janet; Jack, Susan; Gibson, Rosalind S

    2008-04-01

    In Cambodia, the energy and nutrient densities of the traditional rice-based complementary diets used for infant feeding are very low. Whether the adequacy improves after the first year of life is uncertain. Therefore, we examined the feeding practices and the energy and nutrient intakes from non-breastmilk foods (NBMFs) of two groups: partially breastfed (PBF) (n = 41) and non-breastfed (NBF) (n = 210) stunted toddlers aged 12-42 months from poor villages in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Intakes of NBMFs were estimated from 24-h recalls and a specially constructed Cambodian food composition table. All the toddlers were breastfed initially, but more than 50% received complementary foods before 6 months of age (mainly rice porridge). Many PBF toddlers received mixed feeding and were often bottle-fed diluted sweetened condensed milk. Unresponsive feeding was widespread. Inappropriate snacks, such as crisps, were the major source of energy, calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin A from NBMFs for the PBF group, and energy and iron for the NBF group. The snacks were often purchased and consumed without any adult supervision. For both groups, intakes of energy, calcium, iron and zinc were consistently below recommendations, as a result of the low micronutrient density of NBMFs and the small amounts fed per feeding. Increasing intakes of animal-source foods and dark-green and yellow fruits and vegetables would enhance micronutrient densities, although this may be neither feasible nor sufficient to overcome the existing deficits. Instead, the feasibility of micronutrient fortification of the rice-based diets of Cambodian toddlers should be explored. PMID:18336647

  14. Access to Treatment for Diabetes and Hypertension in Rural Cambodia: Performance of Existing Social Health Protection Schemes

    PubMed Central

    Bigdeli, Maryam; Jacobs, Bart; Men, Chean Rithy; Nilsen, Kristine; Van Damme, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-communicable diseases (NCD) pose challenges to Cambodia’s health system. Medicines for NCD are on the National Essential Medicines List but no clinical guidelines support their utilization. Two social health protection schemes aimed at the informal sector population exist (Health Equity Funds and Insurance) together with two disease-specific interventions (a Peer Educator Network and Chronic Diseases Clinics) targeted at NCD patients. This study examines performance of these various schemes in relation to NCD. Methods Cross-sectional household survey among 709 individuals self-reporting diabetes and/or hypertension in three geographical locations in rural Cambodia using a structured questionnaire investigating diagnostic and treatment pathways, health seeking behaviour, health expenditures, and financial coping mechanisms. Results Two third of respondents with NCD were female and 55% did not belong to any scheme. The majority (59%) were diagnosed in the private sector and only 56% were on allopathic treatment that was mainly sought in the private sector (49%). Outpatient treatment cost was higher in the private sector and when using multiple providers of care. The majority were indebted, 11% due to health-related expenses. Contrary to social health protection schemes, disease-specific interventions offered better access to allopathic treatment and provided medicines in accordance with NEML. Conclusion The benefit packages of existing social health protection schemes and services in the public health sector should be adjusted to cater for the needs of people living with NCD in rural Cambodia. Initiatives that offer active disease management strategies and promote patients and community participation appear more successful in increasing treatment adherence and decreasing the risk of financial hardship. PMID:26815916

  15. Mapping and characterizing selected canopy tree species at the Angkor World Heritage site in Cambodia using aerial data.

    PubMed

    Singh, Minerva; Evans, Damian; Tan, Boun Suy; Nin, Chan Samean

    2015-01-01

    At present, there is very limited information on the ecology, distribution, and structure of Cambodia's tree species to warrant suitable conservation measures. The aim of this study was to assess various methods of analysis of aerial imagery for characterization of the forest mensuration variables (i.e., tree height and crown width) of selected tree species found in the forested region around the temples of Angkor Thom, Cambodia. Object-based image analysis (OBIA) was used (using multiresolution segmentation) to delineate individual tree crowns from very-high-resolution (VHR) aerial imagery and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Crown width and tree height values that were extracted using multiresolution segmentation showed a high level of congruence with field-measured values of the trees (Spearman's rho 0.782 and 0.589, respectively). Individual tree crowns that were delineated from aerial imagery using multiresolution segmentation had a high level of segmentation accuracy (69.22%), whereas tree crowns delineated using watershed segmentation underestimated the field-measured tree crown widths. Both spectral angle mapper (SAM) and maximum likelihood (ML) classifications were applied to the aerial imagery for mapping of selected tree species. The latter was found to be more suitable for tree species classification. Individual tree species were identified with high accuracy. Inclusion of textural information further improved species identification, albeit marginally. Our findings suggest that VHR aerial imagery, in conjunction with OBIA-based segmentation methods (such as multiresolution segmentation) and supervised classification techniques are useful for tree species mapping and for studies of the forest mensuration variables. PMID:25902148

  16. Estimating the Burden of Leptospirosis among Febrile Subjects Aged below 20 Years in Kampong Cham Communities, Cambodia, 2007-2009

    PubMed Central

    Hem, Sopheak; Ly, Sowath; Votsi, Irene; Vogt, Florian; Asgari, Nima; Buchy, Philippe; Heng, Seiha; Picardeau, Mathieu; Sok, Touch; Ly, Sovann; Huy, Rekol; Guillard, Bertrand; Cauchemez, Simon; Tarantola, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is an emerging but neglected public health challenge in the Asia/Pacific Region with an annual incidence estimated at 10–100 per 100,000 population. No accurate data, however, are available for at-risk rural Cambodian communities. Method We conducted anonymous, unlinked testing for IgM antibodies to Leptospira spp. on paired sera of Cambodian patients <20 years of age between 2007–2009 collected through active, community-based surveillance for febrile illnesses in a convenience sample of 27 rural and semi-rural villages in four districts of Kampong Cham province, Cambodia. Leptospirosis testing was done on paired serological samples negative for Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya viruses after random selection. Convalescent samples found positive while initial samples were negative were considered as proof of acute infection. We then applied a mathematical model to estimate the risk of fever caused by leptospirosis, dengue or other causes in rural Cambodia. Results A total of 630 samples are coming from a randomly selected subset of 2358 samples. IgM positive were found on the convalescent serum sample, among which 100 (15.8%) samples were IgM negative on an earlier sample. Seventeen of these 100 seroconversions were confirmed using a Microagglutination Test. We estimated the probability of having a fever due to leptospirosis at 1. 03% (95% Credible Interval CI: 0. 95%–1. 22%) per semester. In comparison, this probability was 2. 61% (95% CI: 2. 55%, 2. 83%) for dengue and 17. 65% (95% CI: 17. 49%, 18. 08%) for other causes. Conclusion Our data from febrile cases aged below 20 years suggest that the burden of leptospirosis is high in rural Cambodian communities. This is especially true during the rainy season, even in the absence of identified epidemics. PMID:27043016

  17. National dengue surveillance in Cambodia 1980–2008: epidemiological and virological trends and the impact of vector control

    PubMed Central

    Huy, Rekol; Buchy, Philippe; Conan, Anne; Ngan, Chantha; Ong, Sivuth; Ali, Rabia; Duong, Veasna; Yit, Sunnara; Ung, Sophal; Te, Vantha; Chroeung, Norith; Pheaktra, Nguon Chan; Uok, Vithiea

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective Dengue has been reportable in Cambodia since 1980. Virological surveillance began in 2000 and sentinel surveillance was established at six hospitals in 2001. Currently, national surveillance comprises passive and active data collection and reporting on hospitalized children aged 0–15 years. This report summarizes surveillance data collected since 1980. Methods Crude data for 1980–2001 are presented, while data from 2002–2008 are used to describe disease trends and the effect of vector control interventions. Trends in dengue incidence were analysed using the Prais–Winsten generalized linear regression model for time series. Findings During 1980–2001, epidemics occurred in cycles of 3–4 years, with the cycles subsequently becoming less prominent. For 2002–2008 data, linear regression analysis detected no significant trend in the annual reported age-adjusted incidence of dengue (incidence range: 0.7–3.0 per 1000 population). The incidence declined in 2.7% of the 185 districts studied, was unchanged in 86.2% and increased in 9.6%. The age-specific incidence was highest in infants aged < 1 year and children aged 4–6 years. The incidence was higher during rainy seasons. All four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes were permanently in circulation, though the predominant serotype has alternated between DENV-3 and DENV-2 since 2000. Although larvicide has been distributed in 94 districts since 2002, logistic regression analysis showed no association between the intervention and dengue incidence. Conclusion The dengue burden remained high among young children in Cambodia, which reflects intense transmission. The national vector control programme appeared to have little impact on disease incidence. PMID:20865069

  18. Validation of satellite precipitation product GSMaP/NRT with ground rain gauges in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, Kumiko; Ohta, Tetsu; Koike, Toshio

    2014-05-01

    The Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation Near Real Time data (GSMaP/NRT) is one of the satellite precipitation datasets which is produced by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency with time resolution of 1 hour and spatial resolution of 0.1 degrees. Since it is published approximately 4 hours after the observation, it is expected to contribute to the early warning of floods and water resource management in developing countries as well which have poor ground observation network. Our target area, Cambodia in the Indochina Peninsula, is one of such countries. However, there had been few ground rain gauges so that it had been impossible to validate GSMaP/NRT. Thus, the accuracy of GSMaP/NRT in this area had been unclear. One of the major characteristics of this area is that it has a vast lake area with water surface temperature of more than 30 degrees all year round. With this lake surface, it has been relieved that a unique local atmospheric circulation and its associated precipitation occur in this area. In order to validate the rainfall amount in this area, we rehabilitated and newly installed rain gauges. As a result, we have 34 automatic rain-gauges now and data is available from September 2009. Using this data as well as hourly rainfall amount from GSMaP/NRT and brightness temperature (TB) from Multi-functional Transport Satellite Infrared 1 channel (MTSAT/IR1), we analyzed the error tendency of the GSMaP/NRT product. The analysis showed that the relationship between rain gauges and GSMaP/NRT were very poor. Especially, strong rainfall events in full-monsoon season over land with 208K < TB < 253K and those in post-monsoon season over the lake with TB < 208K were very much underestimated by GSMaP/NRT. The results suggest that it is still difficult to use GSMaP/NRT data for hydrological applications to get soil moisture distribution and river discharge in this area, especially at small river basins. In addition, although many rainfall events were produced by GSMa

  19. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. malaysiensis Broadly Overlap in Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia and Myanmar: A Molecular Survey of Larvae in Land Snails.

    PubMed

    Rodpai, Rutchanee; Intapan, Pewpan M; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sanpool, Oranuch; Sadaow, Lakkhana; Laymanivong, Sakhone; Aung, Win Papa; Phosuk, Issarapong; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2016-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic nematode parasite causing human eosinophilic meningitis (or meningoencephalitis) worldwide. A closely related species, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis, might also be a human pathogen. Larvae were obtained from land snails in Lao PDR, Cambodia, Myanmar and Thailand. We sequenced two nuclear gene regions (nuclear ribosomal ITS2 and SSU rRNA) and a portion of one mitochondrial gene (COI) from these larvae. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. malaysiensis were identified. This is the first report of the molecular identification of the two Angiostrongylus species in Lao PDR, Cambodia and Myanmar. The regional distributions of the two species broadly overlap. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred including data from Angiostrongylus species deposited in public databases. All the gene regions we sequenced have potential value in distinguishing between species of Angiostrongylus. The COI gene exhibited the greatest intraspecific variation in the study region (five haplotypes in A. cantonensis and four in A. malaysiensis) and might be suitable for more detailed phylogeographic studies. PMID:27513930

  20. Unsafe abortion as a birth control method: maternal mortality risks among unmarried cambodian migrant women on the Thai-Cambodia border.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Shalika; Hoban, Elizabeth; Nevill, Annemarie

    2012-11-01

    Reproductive health research and policies in Cambodia focus on safe motherhood programs particularly for married women, ignoring comprehensive fertility regulation programs for unmarried migrant women of reproductive age. Maternal mortality risks arising due to unsafe abortion methods practiced by unmarried Cambodian women, across the Thai-Cambodia border, can be considered as a public health emergency. Since Thailand has restrictive abortion laws, Cambodian migrant women who have irregular migration status in Thailand experimented with unsafe abortion methods that allowed them to terminate their pregnancies surreptitiously. Unmarried migrant women choose abortion as a preferred birth control method seeking repeat "unsafe" abortions instead of preventing conception. Drawing on the data collected through surveys, in-depth interviews, and document analysis in Chup Commune (pseudonym), Phnom Penh, and Bangkok, the authors describe the public health dimensions of maternal mortality risks faced by unmarried Cambodian migrant women due to various unsafe abortion methods employed as birth control methods. PMID:21551135

  1. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. malaysiensis Broadly Overlap in Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia and Myanmar: A Molecular Survey of Larvae in Land Snails

    PubMed Central

    Rodpai, Rutchanee; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sanpool, Oranuch; Sadaow, Lakkhana; Laymanivong, Sakhone; Aung, Win Papa; Phosuk, Issarapong; Laummaunwai, Porntip

    2016-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic nematode parasite causing human eosinophilic meningitis (or meningoencephalitis) worldwide. A closely related species, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis, might also be a human pathogen. Larvae were obtained from land snails in Lao PDR, Cambodia, Myanmar and Thailand. We sequenced two nuclear gene regions (nuclear ribosomal ITS2 and SSU rRNA) and a portion of one mitochondrial gene (COI) from these larvae. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. malaysiensis were identified. This is the first report of the molecular identification of the two Angiostrongylus species in Lao PDR, Cambodia and Myanmar. The regional distributions of the two species broadly overlap. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred including data from Angiostrongylus species deposited in public databases. All the gene regions we sequenced have potential value in distinguishing between species of Angiostrongylus. The COI gene exhibited the greatest intraspecific variation in the study region (five haplotypes in A. cantonensis and four in A. malaysiensis) and might be suitable for more detailed phylogeographic studies. PMID:27513930

  2. Evidence of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Multidrug Resistance to Artemisinin and Piperaquine in Western Cambodia: Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine Open-Label Multicenter Clinical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Leang, Rithea; Taylor, Walter R. J.; Bouth, Denis Mey; Song, Lijiang; Tarning, Joel; Char, Meng Chuor; Kim, Saorin; Witkowski, Benoit; Duru, Valentine; Domergue, Anais; Khim, Nimol

    2015-01-01

    Western Cambodia is recognized as the epicenter of Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance. Recent reports of the efficacy of dihydroartemisinin (DHA)-piperaquine (PP), the latest of the artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) recommended by the WHO, have prompted further investigations. The clinical efficacy of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in uncomplicated falciparum malaria was assessed in western and eastern Cambodia over 42 days. Day 7 plasma piperaquine concentrations were measured and day 0 isolates tested for in vitro susceptibilities to piperaquine and mefloquine, polymorphisms in the K13 gene, and the copy number of the Pfmdr-1 gene. A total of 425 patients were recruited in 2011 to 2013. The proportion of patients with recrudescent infections was significantly higher in western (15.4%) than in eastern (2.5%) Cambodia (P <10−3). Day 7 plasma PP concentrations and median 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of PP were independent of treatment outcomes, in contrast to median mefloquine IC50, which were found to be lower for isolates from patients with recrudescent infections (18.7 versus 39.7 nM; P = 0.005). The most significant risk factor associated with DHA-PP treatment failure was infection by parasites carrying the K13 mutant allele (odds ratio [OR], 17.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1 to 308; P = 0.04). Our data show evidence of P. falciparum resistance to PP in western Cambodia, an area of widespread artemisinin resistance. New therapeutic strategies, such as the use of triple ACTs, are urgently needed and must be tested. (This study has been registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry under registration no. ACTRN12614000344695.) PMID:26014949

  3. Elusive retributive justice in post-Khmer Rouge Cambodia: Challenges of using ECCC Victim Information Forms as a victim participatory rights mechanism.

    PubMed

    Nou, Leakhena

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the procedural challenges of using the Victim Information Forms (VIFs) to analyze survivors' experiences with the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC), commonly known as the Khmer Rouge Tribunal. The paper takes a systematic public/medical sociology approach to examining the VIF as a participatory rights mechanism for victims wishing to pursue justice for themselves and their loved ones who experienced the Khmer Rouge atrocities, torture, forced relocation, starvation, forced labor, rape, robbery, and other physical and psychological torment, firsthand. It provides the first comparative, critical analysis of both the original VIF and the revised form issued midway through the submission period; both forms appear as appendices to the paper. Conclusions are drawn and suggestions made by the researcher based on the firsthand collection and submission of the largest group of VIFs from any single source around the world (outside of Cambodia itself), as well as on support work with victims/survivors during the ECCC proceedings in Phnom Penh, Cambodia in 2013. PMID:26932130

  4. Quantitative assessment of a spatial multicriteria model for highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in Thailand, and application in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Mathilde C.; Goutard, Flavie L.; Roulleau, Floriane; Holl, Davun; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Roger, François L.; Tran, Annelise

    2016-01-01

    The Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 (HPAI) virus is now considered endemic in several Asian countries. In Cambodia, the virus has been circulating in the poultry population since 2004, with a dramatic effect on farmers’ livelihoods and public health. In Thailand, surveillance and control are still important to prevent any new H5N1 incursion. Risk mapping can contribute effectively to disease surveillance and control systems, but is a very challenging task in the absence of reliable disease data. In this work, we used spatial multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) to produce risk maps for HPAI H5N1 in poultry. We aimed to i) evaluate the performance of the MCDA approach to predict areas suitable for H5N1 based on a dataset from Thailand, comparing the predictive capacities of two sources of a priori knowledge (literature and experts), and ii) apply the best method to produce a risk map for H5N1 in poultry in Cambodia. Our results showed that the expert-based model had a very high predictive capacity in Thailand (AUC = 0.97). Applied in Cambodia, MCDA mapping made it possible to identify hotspots suitable for HPAI H5N1 in the Tonlé Sap watershed, around the cities of Battambang and Kampong Cham, and along the Vietnamese border. PMID:27489997

  5. Quantitative assessment of a spatial multicriteria model for highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in Thailand, and application in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Paul, Mathilde C; Goutard, Flavie L; Roulleau, Floriane; Holl, Davun; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Roger, François L; Tran, Annelise

    2016-01-01

    The Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 (HPAI) virus is now considered endemic in several Asian countries. In Cambodia, the virus has been circulating in the poultry population since 2004, with a dramatic effect on farmers' livelihoods and public health. In Thailand, surveillance and control are still important to prevent any new H5N1 incursion. Risk mapping can contribute effectively to disease surveillance and control systems, but is a very challenging task in the absence of reliable disease data. In this work, we used spatial multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) to produce risk maps for HPAI H5N1 in poultry. We aimed to i) evaluate the performance of the MCDA approach to predict areas suitable for H5N1 based on a dataset from Thailand, comparing the predictive capacities of two sources of a priori knowledge (literature and experts), and ii) apply the best method to produce a risk map for H5N1 in poultry in Cambodia. Our results showed that the expert-based model had a very high predictive capacity in Thailand (AUC = 0.97). Applied in Cambodia, MCDA mapping made it possible to identify hotspots suitable for HPAI H5N1 in the Tonlé Sap watershed, around the cities of Battambang and Kampong Cham, and along the Vietnamese border. PMID:27489997

  6. Frequency and patterns of contact with domestic poultry and potential risk of H5N1 transmission to humans living in rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Ly, Sowath; Holl, Davun; Guitian, Javier; Mangtani, Punam; Ghani, Azra C.; Vong, Sirenda

    2008-01-01

    Background  Since 2004, H5N1 outbreaks have been recurrent in domestic poultry and humans in Cambodia. To date, seven human cases (100% CFR) and 22 outbreaks in poultry have been confirmed. Household ownership of backyard poultry (FAO Sector 4 poultry production) in rural Cambodia is high. An understanding of the extent and frequency of poultry handing behaviors in these settings is necessary to assess the risk associated with different practices and to formulate sensible recommendations to mitigate this risk. We collected new data from six geographic regions to examine patterns of human contact with poultry among rural farmers in Cambodia and identify populations with the highest potential exposure to H5N1. Methods and Findings  A cross‐sectional survey was undertaken in which 3,600 backyard poultry owners from 115 randomly selected villages in six provinces throughout Cambodia were interviewed. Using risk assessment methods, patterns of contact with poultry as surrogate measures of exposure to H5N1 were used to generate risk indices of potential H5N1 transmission to different populations in contact with poultry. Estimates of human exposure risk for each study participant (n = 3600) were obtained by multiplying each reported practice with a transmission risk‐weighting factor and summing these over all practices reported by each individual. Exposure risk estimates were then examined stratified by age and gender. Subjects reported high contact with domestic poultry (chickens and ducks) through the daily care and food preparation practices, however contact patterns varied by gender and age. Males between the ages of 26‐40 reported practices of contact with poultry that give rise to the highest H5N1 transmission risk potential, followed closely by males between the ages of 16‐25. Overall, males had a higher exposure risk potential than females across all age groups (p < 0·001). Conclusions  Our results demonstrate that most of the population in

  7. Efficacy and Safety of Pyronaridine-Artesunate for Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Western Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Leang, Rithea; Canavati, Sara E; Khim, Nimol; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Borghini Fuhrer, Isabelle; Kim, Saorin; Denis, Mey Bouth; Heng, Pisal; Tol, Bunkea; Huy, Rekol; Duparc, Stephan; Dondorp, Arjen M; Menard, Didier; Ringwald, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    Pyronaridine-artesunate efficacy for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria was assessed in an area of artemisinin resistance in western Cambodia. This nonrandomized, single-arm, observational study was conducted between 2014 and 2015. Eligible patients were adults or children with microscopically confirmed P. falciparum infection and fever. Patients received pyronaridine-artesunate once daily for 3 days, dosed according to body weight. The primary outcome was an adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) on day 42, estimated by using Kaplan-Meier analysis, PCR adjusted to exclude reinfection. One hundred twenty-three patients were enrolled. Day 42 PCR-crude ACPRs were 87.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 79.7 to 92.6%) for the overall study, 89.8% (95% CI, 78.8 to 95.3%) for Pursat, and 82.1% (95% CI, 68.4 to 90.2%) for Pailin. Day 42 PCR-adjusted ACPRs were 87.9% (95% CI, 80.6 to 93.2%) for the overall study, 89.8% (95% CI, 78.8 to 95.3%) for Pursat, and 84.0% (95% CI, 70.6 to 91.7%) for Pailin (P = 0.353 by a log rank test). Day 28 PCR-crude and -adjusted ACPRs were 93.2% (95% CI, 82.9 to 97.4%) and 88.1% (95% CI, 75.3 to 94.5%) for Pursat and Pailin, respectively. A significantly lower proportion of patients achieved day 3 parasite clearance in Pailin (56.4% [95% CI, 43.9 to 69.6%]) than in Pursat (86.7% [95% CI, 76.8 to 93.8%]; P = 0.0019). Fever clearance was also extended at Pailin versus Pursat (P < 0.0001). Most patients (95.9% [116/121]) harbored P. falciparum kelch13 C580Y mutant parasites. Pyronaridine-artesunate was well tolerated; mild increases in hepatic transaminase levels were consistent with data from previous reports. Pyronaridine-artesunate efficacy was below the World Health Organization-recommended threshold at day 42 for medicines with a long half-life (90%) for first-line treatment of P. falciparum malaria in western Cambodia despite high efficacy elsewhere in Asia and Africa. (This study has been registered

  8. Socially-marketed rapid diagnostic tests and ACT in the private sector: ten years of experience in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Shunmay; Patouillard, Edith; Allen, Henrietta; Socheat, Duong

    2011-01-01

    Whilst some populations have recently experienced dramatic declines in malaria, the majority of those most at risk of Plasmodium falciparum malaria still lack access to effective treatment with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) and others are already facing parasites resistant to artemisinins.In this context, there is a crucial need to improve both access to and targeting of ACT through greater availability of good quality ACT and parasitological diagnosis. This is an issue of increasing urgency notably in the private commercial sector, which, in many countries, plays an important role in the provision of malaria treatment. The Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm) is a recent initiative that aims to increase the provision of affordable ACT in public, private and NGO sectors through a manufacturer-level subsidy. However, to date, there is little documented experience in the programmatic implementation of subsidized ACT in the private sector. Cambodia is in the unique position of having more than 10 years of experience not only in implementing subsidized ACT, but also rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) as part of a nationwide social marketing programme. The programme includes behaviour change communication and the training of private providers as well as the sale and distribution of Malarine, the recommended ACT, and Malacheck, the RDT. This paper describes and evaluates this experience by drawing on the results of household and provider surveys conducted since the start of the programme. The available evidence suggests that providers' and consumers' awareness of Malarine increased rapidly, but that of Malacheck much less so. In addition, improvements in ACT and RDT availability and uptake were relatively slow, particularly in more remote areas.The lack of standardization in the survey methods and the gaps in the data highlight the importance of establishing a clear system for monitoring and evaluation for similar initiatives. Despite these limitations, a

  9. AIDS-Related Stigma and Mental Disorders among People Living with HIV: A Cross-Sectional Study in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Siyan; Chhoun, Pheak; Suong, Samedy; Thin, Kouland; Brody, Carinne; Tuot, Sovannary

    2015-01-01

    Background AIDS-related stigma and mental disorders are the most common conditions in people living with HIV (PLHIV). We therefore conducted this study to examine the association of AIDS-related stigma and discrimination with mental disorders among PLHIV in Cambodia. Methods A two-stage cluster sampling method was used to select 1,003 adult PLHIV from six provinces. The People Living with HIV Stigma Index was used to measure stigma and discrimination, and a short version of general health questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to measure mental disorders. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results The reported experiences of discrimination in communities in the past 12 months ranged from 0.8% for reports of being denied health services to 42.3% for being aware of being gossiped about. Internal stigma was also common ranging from 2.8% for avoiding going to a local clinic and/or hospital to 59.6% for deciding not to have (more) children. The proportions of PLHIV who reported fear of stigma and discrimination ranged from 13.9% for fear of being physically assaulted to 34.5% for fear of being gossiped about. The mean score of GHQ-12 was 3.2 (SD = 2.4). After controlling for several potential confounders, higher levels of mental disorders (GHQ-12≥ 4) remained significantly associated with higher levels of experiences of stigma and discrimination in family and communities (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.4–2.6), higher levels of internal stigma (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2–2.3), and higher levels of fear of stigma and discrimination in family and communities (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1–2.2). Conclusions AIDS-related stigma and discrimination among PLHIV in Cambodia are common and may have potential impacts on their mental health conditions. These findings indicate a need for community-based interventions to reduce stigma and discrimination in the general public and to help PLHIV to cope with this situation. PMID:25806534

  10. Determining barriers to creating an enabling environment in Cambodia: results from a baseline study with key populations and police

    PubMed Central

    Schneiders, Mira L; Weissman, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cambodian law enforcement's limited acceptance of harm reduction has hindered HIV program effectiveness. With funding from the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, FHI 360 supported the Ministry of Interior to implement the Police Community Partnership Initiative (PCPI) in Cambodia's capital Phnom Penh. To guide this, FHI 360 conducted a baseline study examining police and key populations’ attitudes and practices towards one another, including fear and occurrence of arrest. Methods Between December 2012 and January 2013, a cross-sectional survey of 199 police post officers, 199 people who use drugs (PWUD) including people who inject drugs (PWID), 199 men who have sex with men (MSM), 200 transgender women (TGW) and 200 female entertainment workers (FEW) was conducted in five Phnom Penh districts. Eligible participants were ≥18 years, members of a key population from selected hotspots or police officers, deputy chiefs or chiefs. Results Key populations’ median age was 25 years (IQR: 22–30); 40% had completed only primary school. Police were male (99.5%), with median age 43 years (IQR: 30 to 47), and 45 and 25% high school and university completion rates, respectively. Key populations feared arrest for carrying needles and syringes (67%), condoms (23%) and 19% felt afraid to access health services. Close to 75% of police reported body searching and 58% arresting key populations in the past six months for using drugs (64%), selling or distributing drugs (36%) or being violent (13%). Self-reported arrests (23% PWUD, 6% MSM, 6% TGW, 12% FEW; p<0.05), being verbally threatened (45% PWUD, 21% MSM, 25% TGW, 27% FEW; p<0.001) and body searched (44% PWUD, 28% MSM, 23% TGW, 8% FEW; p<0.001) was significantly higher among PWUD than other key populations. The majority (94%) of police believed arrest was an appropriate solution to reduce HIV and drug use and reported selling sex (88%) and carrying needles and syringes (55%) as valid reasons for

  11. Local drinking water filters reduce diarrheal disease in Cambodia: a randomized, controlled trial of the ceramic water purifier.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joe; Sobsey, Mark D; Loomis, Dana

    2008-09-01

    A randomized, controlled intervention trial of two household-scale drinking water filters was conducted in a rural village in Cambodia. After collecting four weeks of baseline data on household water quality, diarrheal disease, and other data related to water use and handling practices, households were randomly assigned to one of three groups of 60 households: those receiving a ceramic water purifier (CWP), those receiving a second filter employing an iron-rich ceramic (CWP-Fe), and a control group receiving no intervention. Households were followed for 18 weeks post-baseline with biweekly follow-up. Households using either filter reported significantly less diarrheal disease during the study compared with a control group of households without filters as indicated by longitudinal prevalence ratios CWP: 0.51 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.41-0.63); CWP-Fe: 0.58 (95% CI: 0.47-0.71), an effect that was observed in all age groups and both sexes after controlling for clustering within households and within individuals over time. PMID:18784232

  12. Effects of the spatial repellent metofluthrin on landing rates of outdoor biting anophelines in Cambodia, Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Charlwood, J D; Nenhep, S; Protopopoff, N; Sovannaroth, S; Morgan, J C; Hemingway, J

    2016-06-01

    The emergence of artemisinin-resistant malaria in Southeast Asia is a major problem. The fact that many people become infected with malaria when they are outside has prompted the development of 'spatial' rather than topical repellents. The respective effects of one or four slow-release emanators of metofluthrin, a pyrethroid, were tested in Pailin, Pursat and Koh Kong, Cambodia. Numbers of mosquitoes counted in outdoor landing catches when one or four emanators were suspended close to the collector were compared with control collections. In Pailin, the effects of emanators on catches in Furvela tent traps and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps suspended underneath houses were also investigated. Rate ratios were used to determine differences. A total of 29 255 mosquitoes were collected over 2934 h of landing collections, 87 nights of tent trapping and 81 nights of light trap capture. In Pailin, landing rates were reduced by 48% by a single emanator and by 67% by four emanators (P < 0.001). Similar reductions were observed in the number of mosquitoes collected in tent traps and the number of anophelines only collected in light traps. Results were similar in Pursat, but, for unknown reasons, those in Koh Kong showed no difference between control and metofluthrin collections (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that although the product can produce a significant effect, it requires further improvement. PMID:26991881

  13. Bacterial Communities in Pigmented Biofilms Formed on the Sandstone Bas-Relief Walls of the Bayon Temple, Angkor Thom, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Kusumi, Asako; Li, Xianshu; Osuga, Yu; Kawashima, Arata; Gu, Ji-Dong; Nasu, Masao; Katayama, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    The Bayon temple in Angkor Thom, Cambodia has shown serious deterioration and is subject to the formation of various pigmented biofilms. Because biofilms are damaging the bas-reliefs, low reliefs engraved on the surface of sandstone, information about the microbial community within them is indispensable to control biofilm colonization. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of biofilm samples from the pigmented sandstone surfaces showed that the bacterial community members in the biofilms differed clearly from those in the air and had low sequence similarity to database sequences. Non-destructive sampling of biofilm revealed novel bacterial groups of predominantly Rubrobacter in salmon pink biofilm, Cyanobacteria in chrome green biofilm, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi in signal violet biofilm, Chloroflexi in black gray biofilm, and Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria, and Rubrobacter in blue green biofilm. Serial peeling-off of a thick biofilm by layers with adhesive sheets revealed a stratified structure: the blue–green biofilm, around which there was serious deterioration, was very rich in Cyanobacteria near the surface and Chloroflexi in deep layer below. Nitrate ion concentrations were high in the blue–green biofilm. The characteristic distribution of bacteria at different biofilm depths provides valuable information on not only the biofilm formation process but also the sandstone weathering process in the tropics. PMID:24334526

  14. Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Symptoms of Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Aquatic Farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming; Jørs, Erik; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02–1.28). The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22–0.91). These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes. PMID:21234245

  15. Injections, Cocktails and Diviners: Therapeutic Flexibility in the Context of Malaria Elimination and Drug Resistance in Northeast Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Gryseels, Charlotte; Uk, Sambunny; Erhart, Annette; Gerrets, René; Sluydts, Vincent; Durnez, Lies; Muela Ribera, Joan; Hausmann Muela, Susanna; Menard, Didier; Heng, Somony; Sochantha, Tho; D’Alessandro, Umberto; Coosemans, Marc; Peeters Grietens, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Background Adherence to effective malaria medication is extremely important in the context of Cambodia’s elimination targets and drug resistance containment. Although the public sector health facilities are accessible to the local ethnic minorities of Ratanakiri province (Northeast Cambodia), their illness itineraries often lead them to private pharmacies selling “cocktails” and artemether injections, or to local diviners prescribing animal sacrifices to appease the spirits. Methods The research design consisted of a mixed methods study, combining qualitative (in-depth interviews and participant observation) and quantitative methods (household and cross-sectional survey). Results Three broad options for malaria treatment were identified: i) the public sector; ii) the private sector; iii) traditional treatment based on divination and ceremonial sacrifice. Treatment choice was influenced by the availability of treatment and provider, perceived side effects and efficacy of treatments, perceived etiology of symptoms, and patient-health provider encounters. Moreover, treatment paths proved to be highly flexible, changing mostly in relation to the perceived efficacy of a chosen treatment. Conclusions Despite good availability of anti-malarial treatment in the public health sector, attendance remained low due to both structural and human behavioral factors. The common use and under-dosage of anti-malaria monotherapy in the private sector (single-dose injections, single-day drug cocktails) represents a threat not only for individual case management, but also for the regional plan of drug resistance containment and malaria elimination. PMID:24244678

  16. Impact of Performance-Based Financing in a Low-Resource Setting: A Decade of Experience in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Van de Poel, Ellen; Flores, Gabriela; Ir, Por; O'Donnell, Owen

    2016-06-01

    This paper exploits the geographic expansion of performance-based financing (PBF) in Cambodia over a decade to estimate its effect on the utilization of maternal and child health services. PBF is estimated to raise the proportion of births occurring in incentivized public health facilities by 7.5 percentage points (25%). A substantial part of this effect arises from switching the location of institutional births from private to public facilities; there is no significant impact on deliveries supervised by a skilled birth attendant, nor is there any significant effect on neonatal mortality, antenatal care and vaccination rates. The impact on births in public facilities is much greater if PBF is accompanied by maternity vouchers that cover user fees, but there is no significant effect among the poorest women. Heterogeneous effects across schemes differing in design suggest that maintaining management authority within a health district while giving explicit service targets to facilities is more effective in raising utilization than contracting management to a non-governmental organization while denying it full autonomy and leaving financial penalties vague. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26224021

  17. A matter of good taste: Investigating preferences for in-house water treatment in peri-urban communities in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeuland, M. A.; Orgill, J.; Brown, J.; Shaheed, A.

    2012-12-01

    It is commonly argued that low demand for in-house water treatment technologies is not simply due to their cost, but also results from their other unfavorable features, notably distaste or convenience problems. This research considers household preferences for in-house water treatment in two peri-urban communes around Phnom Penh, Cambodia, with a particular focus on taste. In an effort to measure sensitivity to taste problems, respondents from more than 900 households were given water samples treated with randomly assigned levels of chlorine, as well as a bottled water placebo, and were asked to compare their favorite samples with their existing drinking water source. Households were also asked to complete a series of conjoint tasks in which they selected their preferred drinking water alternative among options that varied in terms of cost, taste, effectiveness against diarrheal disease and quantity of water treated. Our findings suggest that households do perceive distaste for water treated with chlorine products, and that taste is an important feature of their selection of water treatment alternatives. Better understanding of the taste preferences of households in communities without access to safe water is thus critical to interventions seeking to promote in-house water treatment.

  18. Microbial Community Analysis of Fresh and Old Microbial Biofilms on Bayon Temple Sandstone of Angkor Thom, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Wensheng; Li, Hui; Wang, Wei-Dong; Katayama, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    The temples of Angkor monuments including Angkor Thom and Bayon in Cambodia and surrounding countries were exclusively constructed using sandstone. They are severely threatened by biodeterioration caused by active growth of different microorganisms on the sandstone surfaces, but knowledge on the microbial community and composition of the biofilms on the sandstone is not available from this region. This study investigated the microbial community diversity by examining the fresh and old biofilms of the biodeteriorated bas-relief wall surfaces of the Bayon Temple by analysis of 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequences. The results showed that the retrieved sequences were clustered in 11 bacterial, 11 eukaryotic and two archaeal divisions with disparate communities (Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria; Alveolata, Fungi, Metazoa, Viridiplantae; Crenarchaeote, and Euyarchaeota). A comparison of the microbial communities between the fresh and old biofilms revealed that the bacterial community of old biofilm was very similar to the newly formed fresh biofilm in terms of bacterial composition, but the eukaryotic communities were distinctly different between these two. This information has important implications for understanding the formation process and development of the microbial diversity on the sandstone surfaces, and furthermore to the relationship between the extent of biodeterioration and succession of microbial communities on sandstone in tropic region. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00248-010-9707-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20593173

  19. Estimating Suicide Rates in Developing Nations: A Low-Cost Newspaper Capture-Recapture Approach in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Harris, Keith M; Thandrayen, Joanne; Samphoas, Chien; Se, Pros; Lewchalermwongse, Boontriga; Ratanashevorn, Rattanakorn; Perry, Megan L; Britts, Choloe

    2016-04-01

    This study tested a low-cost method for estimating suicide rates in developing nations that lack adequate statistics. Data comprised reported suicides from Cambodia's 2 largest newspapers. Capture-recapture modeling estimated a suicide rate of 3.8/100 000 (95% CI = 2.5-6.7) for 2012. That compares to World Health Organization estimates of 1.3 to 9.4/100 000 and a Cambodian government estimate of 3.5/100 000. Suicide rates of males were twice that of females, and rates of those <40 years were twice that of those ≥40 years. Capture-recapture modeling with newspaper reports proved a reasonable method for estimating suicide rates for countries with inadequate official data. These methods are low-cost and can be applied to regions with at least 2 newspapers with overlapping reports. Means to further improve this approach are discussed. These methods are applicable to both recent and historical data, which can benefit epidemiological work, and may also be applicable to homicides and other statistics. PMID:26969636

  20. Frequent infection of Hylobates pileatus (pileated gibbon) with species-associated variants of hepatitis B virus in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Sall, A A; Starkman, S; Reynes, J M; Lay, S; Nhim, T; Hunt, M; Marx, N; Simmonds, P

    2005-02-01

    As well as being distributed widely in human populations, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections occur frequently in chimpanzee, gibbon and other ape populations in sub-Saharan Africa and South-East Asia. To investigate the frequency and genetic relationships of HBV infecting gibbons in Cambodia, pileated gibbons (Hylobates pileatus) that were originally wild-caught were screened for surface antigen. Twelve of 26 (46 %) were positive, of which 11 were positive for HBV DNA. Phylogenetic analysis of complete genome sequences revealed two distinct genetic groups in the gibbon/orangutan clade. Three were similar to previously described variants infecting H. pileatus in Thailand and eight formed a distinct clade, potentially representing distinct strains of HBV circulating in geographically separated populations in South-East Asia. Because of the ability of HBV to cross species barriers, large reservoirs of infection in gibbons may hamper ongoing attempts at permanent eradication of HBV infection from human populations in South-East Asia through immunization. PMID:15659752

  1. Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Sputum using Selective Enrichment Broth and Ashdown's Medium at Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Nhem, Somary; Letchford, Joanne; Meas, Chea; Thann, Sovanndeth; McLaughlin, James C; Baron, Ellen Jo; West, T Eoin

    2014-01-01

    Melioidosis, infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is increasingly reported in Cambodia. We hypothesized that implementation of an enhanced sputum testing protocol in a provincial hospital diagnostic microbiology laboratory would increase detection of B. pseudomallei. We tested 241 sputum specimens that were deemed acceptable for culture, comparing culture in selective enrichment broth followed by sub-culture on Ashdown's medium to standard culture methods. Two specimens (0.8%) were positive for B. pseudomallei using the enhanced protocol whereas one specimen (0.4%) was positive using standard methods. Given the low numbers of positive specimens, we could not conclusively determine the utility of the enhanced sputum testing protocol. However, the ramifications of identification of  B. pseudomallei are substantial, and the benefit of the enhanced testing protocol may be more apparent in patients selected based on risk factors and clinical presentation. Promoting clinician awareness of the infection and encouraging utilization of diagnostic microbiology services are also likely to be important factors in facilitating identification of melioidosis. PMID:25717370

  2. Bacterial communities in pigmented biofilms formed on the sandstone bas-relief walls of the Bayon Temple, Angkor Thom, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Kusumi, Asako; Li, Xianshu; Osuga, Yu; Kawashima, Arata; Gu, Ji-Dong; Nasu, Masao; Katayama, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    The Bayon temple in Angkor Thom, Cambodia has shown serious deterioration and is subject to the formation of various pigmented biofilms. Because biofilms are damaging the bas-reliefs, low reliefs engraved on the surface of sandstone, information about the microbial community within them is indispensable to control biofilm colonization. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of biofilm samples from the pigmented sandstone surfaces showed that the bacterial community members in the biofilms differed clearly from those in the air and had low sequence similarity to database sequences. Non-destructive sampling of biofilm revealed novel bacterial groups of predominantly Rubrobacter in salmon pink biofilm, Cyanobacteria in chrome green biofilm, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi in signal violet biofilm, Chloroflexi in black gray biofilm, and Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria, and Rubrobacter in blue green biofilm. Serial peeling-off of a thick biofilm by layers with adhesive sheets revealed a stratified structure: the blue-green biofilm, around which there was serious deterioration, was very rich in Cyanobacteria near the surface and Chloroflexi in deep layer below. Nitrate ion concentrations were high in the blue-green biofilm. The characteristic distribution of bacteria at different biofilm depths provides valuable information on not only the biofilm formation process but also the sandstone weathering process in the tropics. PMID:24334526

  3. A responsive evaluation of mental health treatment in Cambodia: Intentionally addressing poverty to increase cultural responsiveness in therapy.

    PubMed

    Seponski, Desiree M; Lewis, Denise C; Megginson, Maegan C

    2014-01-01

    Mental health issues are significant contributors to the global burden of disease with the highest incidence in resource poor countries; 90% of those in need of mental health treatment reside in low resource countries but receive only 10% of the world's resources. Cambodia, the eighth least developed country in the world, serves as one example of the need to address mental health concerns in low-income, resource poor countries. The current study utilises responsive evaluation methodology to explore how poverty-stricken Cambodian clients, therapists and supervisors experience Western models of therapy as culturally responsive to their unique needs. Quantitative and qualitative data were triangulated across multiple stakeholders using numerous methods including a focus group, interviews, surveys, case illustrations and live supervision observation and analysed using constant comparative analysis. Emerging findings suggest that poverty, material needs, therapy location and financial situations greatly impact the daily lives and mental health conditions of Cambodians and hinder clients' therapeutic progress. The local community needs and context of poverty greatly hinder clients' therapeutic progress in therapy treatment and when therapy does not directly address the culture of poverty, clients did not experience therapy as valuable despite some temporary decreases in mental health symptoms. PMID:25204750

  4. High use of commercial food products among infants and young children and promotions for these products in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Pries, Alissa M; Huffman, Sandra L; Mengkheang, Khin; Kroeun, Hou; Champeny, Mary; Roberts, Margarette; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Despite national improvements in child survival, 40% of Cambodian children less than 5 years of age are stunted. Commercially produced complementary foods could be nutritionally beneficial for young children in Cambodia if fortified and of optimal nutrient composition. However, other nutrient-poor commercially produced snack foods may be detrimental to young child feeding by displacing consumption of other nutritious foods. This study assessed consumption of commercial food products among infants and young children and their mothers' exposure to promotions for these products. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 294 mothers of children less than 24 months of age living in Phnom Penh. Of children 6-23 months of age, 55.0% consumed a commercially produced snack food product on the prior day, and 80.6% had consumed one in the prior week. Only 12 (5.4%) children 6-23 months of age had consumed a commercially produced complementary food. Almost all mothers (96.9%) had observed a promotion for a commercially produced snack food product, and 29.3% reported observation of a promotion for a commercial complementary food. Only one-third (32.9%) of children 6-23 months of age achieved a minimum acceptable diet. Findings indicate that there is a need to improve infant and young child feeding practices among children less than 24 months of age living in Phnom Penh. Nutritious options should be promoted, and consumption of unhealthy commercially produced snack food products should be discouraged. PMID:27061956

  5. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Toxocara vitulorum Infections in Buffalo and Cattle Calves in Three Provinces of Central Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Dorny, Pierre; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Stoliaroff, Valérie; Sothy, Meas; Chea, Rortana; Chea, Bunthon; Sourloing, Hor; Samuth, Sum; Kong, Seth; Nguong, Koemseang; Sorn, San; Holl, Davun; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and associated risk factors of Toxocara vitulorum infection in buffalo and cattle calves was studied in 3 provinces in central Cambodia. Fecal samples were collected from 517 calves between the age of 1-15 weeks and processed for nematode egg counts by a modified McMaster method. A total of 64 calves were found to excrete T. vitulorum eggs in their feces (12.4%; 95% exact CI: 9.7-15.5). The mean fecal egg count was 2,798 EPG (SD=16,351; range=0-224,400). A multivariable generalized linear mixed model showed higher odds of T. vitulorum infection for buffalo versus cattle, for animals aged 4-8 weeks versus younger and older ones, and for animals with strongyle infection. There was no association with fecal consistency. Farmers should be aware of the potential impact of T. vitulorum, and treat their calves at the age of 2-3 weeks with anthelmintics such as benzimidazoles or pyrantel. PMID:25925178

  6. Cost-effectiveness of a tuberculosis active case finding program targeting household and neighborhood contacts in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rajendra P; Nishikiori, Nobuyuki; Satha, Peou; Eang, Mao T; Lubell, Yoel

    2014-05-01

    In many high-risk populations, access to tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment is limited and pockets of high prevalence persist. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of an extensive active case finding program in areas of Cambodia where TB notifications and household poverty rates are highest and access to care is restricted. Thirty operational health districts with high TB incidence and household poverty were randomized into intervention and control groups. In intervention operational health districts, all household and symptomatic neighborhood contacts of registered TB patients of the past two years were encouraged to attend screening at mobile centers. In control districts, routine passive case finding activities continued. The program screened more than 35,000 household and neighborhood contacts and identified 810 bacteriologically confirmed cases. The cost-effectiveness analysis estimated that in these cases the reduction in mortality from 14% to 2% would result in a cost per daily adjusted life year averted of $330, suggesting that active case finding was highly cost-effective. PMID:24615134

  7. Incorporating Canopy Cover for Airborne-Derived Assessments of Forest Biomass in the Tropical Forests of Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Minerva; Evans, Damian; Coomes, David A.; Friess, Daniel A.; Suy Tan, Boun; Samean Nin, Chan

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the role of canopy cover in influencing above ground biomass (AGB) dynamics of an open canopied forest and evaluates the efficacy of individual-based and plot-scale height metrics in predicting AGB variation in the tropical forests of Angkor Thom, Cambodia. The AGB was modeled by including canopy cover from aerial imagery alongside with the two different canopy vertical height metrics derived from LiDAR; the plot average of maximum tree height (Max_CH) of individual trees, and the top of the canopy height (TCH). Two different statistical approaches, log-log ordinary least squares (OLS) and support vector regression (SVR), were used to model AGB variation in the study area. Ten different AGB models were developed using different combinations of airborne predictor variables. It was discovered that the inclusion of canopy cover estimates considerably improved the performance of AGB models for our study area. The most robust model was log-log OLS model comprising of canopy cover only (r = 0.87; RMSE = 42.8 Mg/ha). Other models that approximated field AGB closely included both Max_CH and canopy cover (r = 0.86, RMSE = 44.2 Mg/ha for SVR; and, r = 0.84, RMSE = 47.7 Mg/ha for log-log OLS). Hence, canopy cover should be included when modeling the AGB of open-canopied tropical forests. PMID:27176218

  8. 'Plue plun' male, 'kath klei' female: gender differences in suicidal behavior as expressed by young people in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Jegannathan, Bhoomikumar; Dahlblom, Kjerstin; Kullgren, Gunnar

    2014-09-01

    Few studies from low- and middle-income countries use qualitative methodology to explore suicidal behavior among young people. In Cambodia, young people face the challenge of rapidly changing times and are vulnerable for suicidal behavior as revealed by research in transitional economies. This study seeks to gain a deeper understanding of the suicidal phenomena from a gender, psychosocial and cultural perspective. Six focus-group discussions were conducted among boys and girls, aged 15-19 years, in two secondary schools in a suburban area close to Phnom Penh, the capital city. The data was analyzed using thematic analysis approach. The participants highlighted the gender difference in suicidal behavior by describing the suicide-prone, acting-out male as 'plue plun', while suicide-prone females were described as caught in constricted, tunneled-thinking behavior, expressed as 'kath klei'. Parental attitude and family environment were also pointed out as the chief causes of discontent and there was a strong wish on the part of young people to find space for modern values within the traditional family. The young people's awareness of their challenges in everyday life suggests that school-based programs to prevent suicidal behavior ought to be gender-sensitive and peer-focused. PMID:24999370

  9. Incorporating Canopy Cover for Airborne-Derived Assessments of Forest Biomass in the Tropical Forests of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Singh, Minerva; Evans, Damian; Coomes, David A; Friess, Daniel A; Suy Tan, Boun; Samean Nin, Chan

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the role of canopy cover in influencing above ground biomass (AGB) dynamics of an open canopied forest and evaluates the efficacy of individual-based and plot-scale height metrics in predicting AGB variation in the tropical forests of Angkor Thom, Cambodia. The AGB was modeled by including canopy cover from aerial imagery alongside with the two different canopy vertical height metrics derived from LiDAR; the plot average of maximum tree height (Max_CH) of individual trees, and the top of the canopy height (TCH). Two different statistical approaches, log-log ordinary least squares (OLS) and support vector regression (SVR), were used to model AGB variation in the study area. Ten different AGB models were developed using different combinations of airborne predictor variables. It was discovered that the inclusion of canopy cover estimates considerably improved the performance of AGB models for our study area. The most robust model was log-log OLS model comprising of canopy cover only (r = 0.87; RMSE = 42.8 Mg/ha). Other models that approximated field AGB closely included both Max_CH and canopy cover (r = 0.86, RMSE = 44.2 Mg/ha for SVR; and, r = 0.84, RMSE = 47.7 Mg/ha for log-log OLS). Hence, canopy cover should be included when modeling the AGB of open-canopied tropical forests. PMID:27176218

  10. Condom negotiation across different relationship types by young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Maher, Lisa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Couture, Marie-Claude; Kien, Serey Phal; Stein, Ellen; Bates, Anna Juong; Sansothy, Neth; Page, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Cambodia's 100% Condom Use Programme is credited with an increase in consistent condom use in commercial sexual interactions and a decrease in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). There has been little improvement in condom use between FSWs and non-commercial partners, prompting calls for more innovative approaches to increasing condom use in these relationships. To understand why condoms are used or not used in sexual interactions involving FSWs, we examined condom negotiation across different types of relationships. We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with young (15 to 29 years) women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh. There was an important interplay between the meanings of condom use and the meanings of women's relationships. Commercial relationships were characterised as inherently risky and necessitated condom use. Despite a similar lack of sexual fidelity, sweetheart relationships were rarely construed as risky and typically did not involve condom use. Husbands and wives constructed their sexual interactions with each other differently, making agreement on condom use difficult. The lack of improvement in condom use in FSWs' non-commercial sexual relationships needs to be understood in relation to both sex work and the broader Cambodian sexual culture within which these relationships are embedded. PMID:23432108

  11. Comparing the microbial risks associated with household drinking water supplies used in peri-urban communities of Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K; McBean, E; Shantz, A; Murphy, H M

    2015-03-01

    Most Cambodians lack access to a safe source of drinking water. Piped distribution systems are typically limited to major urban centers in Cambodia, and the remaining population relies on a variety of surface, rain, and groundwater sources. This study examines the household water supplies available to Phnom Penh's resettled peri-urban residents through a case-study approach of two communities. A quantitative microbial risk assessment is performed to assess the level of diarrheal disease risk faced by community members due to microbial contamination of drinking water. Risk levels found in this study exceed those associated with households consuming piped water. Filtered and boiled rain and tank water stored in a kettle, bucket/cooler, bucket with spigot or a 500 mL bottle were found to provide risk levels within one order-of-magnitude to the piped water available in Phnom Penh. Two primary concerns identified are the negation of the risk reductions gained by boiling due to prevailing poor storage practices and the use of highly contaminated source water. PMID:25719483

  12. Socio-economic improvements and health system strengthening of maternity care are contributing to maternal mortality reduction in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Liljestrand, Jerker; Sambath, Mean Reatanak

    2012-06-01

    Maternal mortality has been falling significantly in Cambodia since 2005 though it had been stagnant for at least 15 years before that. This paper analyzes the evolution of some major societal and health system factors based on recent national and international reports. The maternal mortality ratio fell from 472 per 100,000 live births in 2000-2005 to 206 in 2006-2010. Background factors have included peace and stability, economic growth and poverty reduction, improved primary education, especially for girls, improved roads, improved access to information on health and health services via TV, radio and cellphones, and increased ability to communicate with and within the health system. Specific health system improvements include a rapid increase in facility-based births and skilled birth attendance, notably investment in midwifery training and numbers of midwives providing antenatal care and deliveries within an expanding primary health care network, a monetary incentive for facility-based midwives for every live birth conducted, and an expanding system of health equity funds, making health care free of cost for poor people. Several major challenges remain, including post-partum care, family planning, prevention and treatment of breast and cervical cancer, and addressing sexual violence against women, which need the same priority attention as maternity care. PMID:22789083

  13. The Economic Burden of Malnutrition in Pregnant Women and Children under 5 Years of Age in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Silo, Sok; Laillou, Arnaud; Wieringa, Frank; Hong, Rathamony; Hong, Rathavuth; Poirot, Etienne; Bagriansky, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is locked in a vicious cycle of increased mortality, poor health, impaired cognitive development, slow physical growth, reduced learning capacity, inferior performance, and ultimately lower adult work performance and productivity. The consensus of global scientific evidence indicates that lowering the rates of malnutrition will be an indispensable component of any successful program to raise the quality of human capital and resources. This study used a “consequence model” to apply the coefficient risk-deficit on economic losses, established in the global scientific literature, to Cambodian health, demographic, and economic data to develop a national estimate of the value of economic losses due to malnutrition. The impact of the indicators of malnutrition analyzed represent a burden to the national economy of Cambodia estimated at 266 million USD annually (1.7% of GDP). Stunting is reducing the Cambodian economic output by more than 120 million USD, and iodine deficiency disorders alone by 57 million USD. This economic burden is too high in view of Cambodia’s efforts to drive economic development. The government should rapidly expand a range of low-cost effective nutrition interventions to break the current cycle of increased mortality, poor health and ultimately lower work performance, productivity, and earnings. PMID:27187462

  14. Ex Vivo Drug Susceptibility Testing and Molecular Profiling of Clinical Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Cambodia from 2008 to 2013 Suggest Emerging Piperaquine Resistance.

    PubMed

    Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Saunders, David L; Sea, Darapiseth; Chanarat, Nitima; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Saingam, Piyaporn; Buathong, Nillawan; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Chann, Soklyda; Se, Youry; Yom, You; Heng, Thay Kheng; Kong, Nareth; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; Tangthongchaiwiriya, Kuntida; Jacob, Christopher; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Plowe, Christopher; Lin, Jessica T; Chuor, Char Meng; Prom, Satharath; Tyner, Stuart D; Gosi, Panita; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya; Lon, Chanthap; Lanteri, Charlotte A

    2015-08-01

    Cambodia's first-line artemisinin combination therapy, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ), is no longer sufficiently curative against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria at some Thai-Cambodian border regions. We report recent (2008 to 2013) drug resistance trends in 753 isolates from northern, western, and southern Cambodia by surveying for ex vivo drug susceptibility and molecular drug resistance markers to guide the selection of an effective alternative to DHA-PPQ. Over the last 3 study years, PPQ susceptibility declined dramatically (geomean 50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] increased from 12.8 to 29.6 nM), while mefloquine (MQ) sensitivity doubled (67.1 to 26 nM) in northern Cambodia. These changes in drug susceptibility were significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 gene (Pfmdr1) multiple copy isolates and coincided with the timing of replacing artesunate-mefloquine (AS-MQ) with DHA-PPQ as the first-line therapy. Widespread chloroquine resistance was suggested by all isolates being of the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene CVIET haplotype. Nearly all isolates collected from the most recent years had P. falciparum kelch13 mutations, indicative of artemisinin resistance. Ex vivo bioassay measurements of antimalarial activity in plasma indicated 20% of patients recently took antimalarials, and their plasma had activity (median of 49.8 nM DHA equivalents) suggestive of substantial in vivo drug pressure. Overall, our findings suggest DHA-PPQ failures are associated with emerging PPQ resistance in a background of artemisinin resistance. The observed connection between drug policy changes and significant reduction in PPQ susceptibility with mitigation of MQ resistance supports reintroduction of AS-MQ, in conjunction with monitoring of the P. falciparum mdr1 copy number, as a stop-gap measure in areas of DHA-PPQ failure. PMID:26014942

  15. Ex Vivo Drug Susceptibility Testing and Molecular Profiling of Clinical Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Cambodia from 2008 to 2013 Suggest Emerging Piperaquine Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Saunders, David L.; Sea, Darapiseth; Chanarat, Nitima; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Saingam, Piyaporn; Buathong, Nillawan; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Chann, Soklyda; Se, Youry; Yom, You; Heng, Thay Kheng; Kong, Nareth; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; Tangthongchaiwiriya, Kuntida; Jacob, Christopher; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Plowe, Christopher; Lin, Jessica T.; Chuor, Char Meng; Prom, Satharath; Tyner, Stuart D.; Gosi, Panita; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya; Lon, Chanthap

    2015-01-01

    Cambodia's first-line artemisinin combination therapy, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ), is no longer sufficiently curative against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria at some Thai-Cambodian border regions. We report recent (2008 to 2013) drug resistance trends in 753 isolates from northern, western, and southern Cambodia by surveying for ex vivo drug susceptibility and molecular drug resistance markers to guide the selection of an effective alternative to DHA-PPQ. Over the last 3 study years, PPQ susceptibility declined dramatically (geomean 50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] increased from 12.8 to 29.6 nM), while mefloquine (MQ) sensitivity doubled (67.1 to 26 nM) in northern Cambodia. These changes in drug susceptibility were significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 gene (Pfmdr1) multiple copy isolates and coincided with the timing of replacing artesunate-mefloquine (AS-MQ) with DHA-PPQ as the first-line therapy. Widespread chloroquine resistance was suggested by all isolates being of the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene CVIET haplotype. Nearly all isolates collected from the most recent years had P. falciparum kelch13 mutations, indicative of artemisinin resistance. Ex vivo bioassay measurements of antimalarial activity in plasma indicated 20% of patients recently took antimalarials, and their plasma had activity (median of 49.8 nM DHA equivalents) suggestive of substantial in vivo drug pressure. Overall, our findings suggest DHA-PPQ failures are associated with emerging PPQ resistance in a background of artemisinin resistance. The observed connection between drug policy changes and significant reduction in PPQ susceptibility with mitigation of MQ resistance supports reintroduction of AS-MQ, in conjunction with monitoring of the P. falciparum mdr1 copy number, as a stop-gap measure in areas of DHA-PPQ failure. PMID:26014942

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of rabies prevention and dog bite injuries in urban and peri-urban provinces in Cambodia, 2009.

    PubMed

    Lunney, Meg; Fèvre, Sonia J S; Stiles, Enid; Ly, Sowath; San, Sorn; Vong, Sirenda

    2012-03-01

    Rabies remains a major public health issue despite the existence of well established prevention and treatment protocols. Knowledge and methods of practice were evaluated in an urban and peri-urban province of Cambodia (Phnom Penh and Kandal, respectively). The majority of respondents (93.2%; 233/250) had heard of the disease rabies, of whom only 77.3% (180/233) knew it was fatal to humans. In addition, only 51.9% (121/233) were aware of the vaccine for dogs. The proportion of the population that reported a dog bite (2004-2009) was similar for Phnom Penh and Kandal. Nearly one-half of all victims (37/75) sought treatment at the Institut Pasteur-Cambodia (IPC) clinic, followed by a private clinic (19/75), a hospital (6/75) and traditional medicine (4/75); 7 victims sought no treatment and 2 reported other. Overall, children aged <15 years reported a significantly greater proportion of dog bite victims than adults aged ≥15 years [10.0% (28/280) vs 4.4% (47/1059), respectively]. Nearly all dog owners agreed to pay for their dogs' vaccination (96.5%; 136/141) and to use a collar (94.3%; 133/141). Only 41.8% (59/141) and 51.8% (73/141) would pay to have their dogs spayed and neutered, respectively. Further community education on the prevention of rabies transmission is needed. Focusing on responsible dog ownership and the importance of both the prevention and immediate treatment following a dog bite is essential to reduce rabies infection in Cambodia. PMID:24030875

  17. Description and DNA barcoding of Crematogaster fraxatrix Forel, 1911 and two new closely related species from Cambodia and Indonesia (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Hosoishi, Shingo; Ogata, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Crematogaster fraxatrix Forel, 1911 and two new species, C. chhangi sp. n. and C. simboloni sp. n., are described from Cambodia and Indonesia, respectively. DNA sequences were generated for C. fraxarix and the two newly described species using 3 amplications of two regions of the mitochondrial gene COI with a total of 1129 bp. The mean interspecific divergences are 9.4% and 23.5% for C. fraxatrix vs. C. chhangi, C. simboloni, respectively. DNA sequences reveal that C. simboloni is found to be genetically distinct from the other two species, but C. chhangi is not distinct from C. fraxatrix. PMID:24493965

  18. Description and DNA barcoding of Crematogaster fraxatrix Forel, 1911 and two new closely related species from Cambodia and Indonesia (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hosoishi, Shingo; Ogata, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Crematogaster fraxatrix Forel, 1911 and two new species, C. chhangi sp. n. and C. simboloni sp. n., are described from Cambodia and Indonesia, respectively. DNA sequences were generated for C. fraxarix and the two newly described species using 3 amplications of two regions of the mitochondrial gene COI with a total of 1129 bp. The mean interspecific divergences are 9.4% and 23.5% for C. fraxatrix vs. C. chhangi, C. simboloni, respectively. DNA sequences reveal that C. simboloni is found to be genetically distinct from the other two species, but C. chhangi is not distinct from C. fraxatrix. PMID:24493965

  19. Evaluation of community-based systems for the surveillance of day three-positive Plasmodium falciparum cases in Western Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites is used as an operational indicator of potential artemisinin resistance. Effective community-based systems to detect P. falciparum cases remaining positive 72 hours after initiating treatment would be valuable for guiding case follow-up in areas of known resistance risk and for detecting areas of emerging resistance. Methods Systems incorporating existing networks of village malaria workers (VMWs) to monitor day three-positive P. falciparum cases were piloted in three provinces in western Cambodia. Quantitative and qualitative data were used to evaluate the wider feasibility and sustainability of community-based surveillance of day three-positive P. falciparum cases. Results Of 294 day-3 blood slides obtained across all sites (from 297 day-0 positives), 63 were positive for P. falciparum, an overall day-3 positivity rate of 21%. There were significant variations in the systems implemented by different partners. Full engagement of VMWs and health centre staff is critical. VMWs are responsible for a range of individual tasks including preparing blood slides on day-0, completing forms, administering directly observed therapy (DOT) on days 0–2, obtaining follow-up slides on day-3 and transporting slides and paperwork to their supervising health centre. When suitably motivated, unsalaried VMWs are willing and able to produce good quality blood smears and achieve very high rates of DOT and day-3 follow-up. Conclusions Community-based surveillance of day-3 P. falciparum cases is feasible, but highly intensive, and as such needs strong and continuous support, particularly supervision and training. The purpose and role of community-based day-3 surveillance should be assessed in the light of resource requirements; scaling-up would need to be systematic and targeted, based on clearly defined epidemiological criteria. To be truly comprehensive, the system would need to be extended beyond VMWs to other public

  20. Impacts on rural livelihoods in Cambodia following adoption of best practice health and husbandry interventions by smallholder cattle farmers.

    PubMed

    Young, J R; O'Reilly, R A; Ashley, K; Suon, S; Leoung, I V; Windsor, P A; Bush, R D

    2014-08-01

    To better understand how smallholder farmers whom own the majority of Cambodian cattle can contribute to efforts to address food security needs in the Mekong region, a five-year research project investigating methods to improve cattle health and husbandry practices was conducted. Cattle production in Cambodia is constrained by transboundary animal diseases (TADs) including foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) plus poor nutrition, reproduction and marketing knowledge. The project worked in six villages in Kandal, Takeo and Kampong Cham province during 2007-12. Farmers from three 'high intervention' (HI) villages incrementally received a participatory extension programme that included FMD and HS vaccination, forage development and husbandry training. Evaluation of project impacts on livelihoods was facilitated by comparison with three 'low intervention' (LI) villages where farmers received vaccinations only. Results of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) and socio-economic surveys conducted in 2012 of 120 participating farmers identified that farmer knowledge in the HI project sites exceeded LI sites on the topics of biosecurity, internal parasites, nutrition and reproduction. HI farmers adopted biosecurity practices including a willingness to vaccinate for FMD and HS at their own cost, separate sick from healthy cattle, grow and feed forages and displayed awareness of the benefits of building fattening pens. HI farmers that grew forages observed time savings exceeding two hours per day each for men, women and children, enabling expansion of farm enterprises, secondary employment and children's schooling. Logistic regression analysis revealed that farmers in the HI group significantly increased annual household income (P < 0.001), with 53% reporting an increase of 100% or more. We conclude that improving smallholder KAP of cattle health and production can lead to improved livelihoods. This strategy should be of interest to policymakers

  1. Ex Vivo Activity of Endoperoxide Antimalarials, Including Artemisone and Arterolane, against Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Lon, Chanthap; Saunders, David L.; Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Bathurst, Ian; Ding, Xavier C.; Tyner, Stuart D.

    2014-01-01

    Novel synthetic endoperoxides are being evaluated as new components of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) to treat artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. We conducted blinded ex vivo activity testing of fully synthetic (OZ78 and OZ277) and semisynthetic (artemisone, artemiside, artesunate, and dihydroartemisinin) endoperoxides in the histidine-rich protein 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against 200 P. falciparum isolates from areas of artemisinin-resistant malaria in western and northern Cambodia in 2009 and 2010. The order of potency and geometric mean (GM) 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) were as follows: artemisone (2.40 nM) > artesunate (8.49 nM) > dihydroartemisinin (11.26 nM) > artemiside (15.28 nM) > OZ277 (31.25 nM) > OZ78 (755.27 nM). Ex vivo activities of test endoperoxides positively correlated with dihydroartemisinin and artesunate. The isolates were over 2-fold less susceptible to dihydroartemisinin than the artemisinin-sensitive P. falciparum W2 clone and showed sensitivity comparable to those with test endoperoxides and artesunate, with isolate/W2 IC50 susceptibility ratios of <2.0. All isolates had P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter mutations, with negative correlations in sensitivity to endoperoxides and chloroquine. The activities of endoperoxides (artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, OZ277, and artemisone) significantly correlated with that of the ACT partner drug, mefloquine. Isolates had mutations associated with clinical resistance to mefloquine, with 35% prevalence of P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1) amplification and 84.5% occurrence of the pfmdr1 Y184F mutation. GM IC50s for mefloquine, lumefantrine, and endoperoxides (artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, OZ277, OZ78, and artemisone) correlated with pfmdr1 copy number. Given that current ACTs are failing potentially from reduced sensitivity to artemisinins and partner drugs, newly identified mutations associated with artemisinin resistance

  2. How to reach the poor? Surveillance in low-income countries, lessons from experiences in Cambodia and Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Goutard, F L; Binot, A; Duboz, R; Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Pedrono, M; Holl, D; Peyre, M I; Cappelle, J; Chevalier, V; Figuié, M; Molia, S; Roger, F L

    2015-06-01

    Surveillance of animal diseases in developing countries faces many constraints. Innovative tools and methods to enhance surveillance in remote and neglected areas should be defined, assessed and applied in close connection with local farmers, national stakeholders and international agencies. The authors performed a narrative synthesis of their own publications about surveillance in Madagascar and Cambodia. They analysed the data in light of their fieldwork experiences in the two countries' very challenging environments. The burden of animal and zoonotic diseases (e.g. avian influenza, African swine fever, Newcastle disease, Rift Valley fever) is huge in both countries which are among the poorest in the world. Being poor countries implies a lack of human and financial means to ensure effective surveillance of emerging and endemic diseases. Several recent projects have shown that new approaches can be proposed and tested in the field. Several advanced participatory approaches are promising and could be part of an innovative method for improving the dialogue among different actors in a surveillance system. Thus, participatory modelling, developed for natural resources management involving local stakeholders, could be applied to health management, including surveillance. Data transmission could benefit from the large mobile-phone coverage in these countries. Ecological studies and advances in the field of livestock surveillance should guide methods for enhancing wildlife monitoring and surveillance. Under the umbrella of the One Health paradigm, and in the framework of a risk-based surveillance concept, a combination of participatory methods and modern technologies could help to overcome the constraints present in low-income countries. These unconventional approaches should be merged in order to optimise surveillance of emerging and endemic diseases in challenging environments. PMID:25842000

  3. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-02-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households' ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. PMID:25492724

  4. Mapping and Characterizing Selected Canopy Tree Species at the Angkor World Heritage Site in Cambodia Using Aerial Data

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Minerva; Evans, Damian; Tan, Boun Suy; Nin, Chan Samean

    2015-01-01

    At present, there is very limited information on the ecology, distribution, and structure of Cambodia’s tree species to warrant suitable conservation measures. The aim of this study was to assess various methods of analysis of aerial imagery for characterization of the forest mensuration variables (i.e., tree height and crown width) of selected tree species found in the forested region around the temples of Angkor Thom, Cambodia. Object-based image analysis (OBIA) was used (using multiresolution segmentation) to delineate individual tree crowns from very-high-resolution (VHR) aerial imagery and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Crown width and tree height values that were extracted using multiresolution segmentation showed a high level of congruence with field-measured values of the trees (Spearman’s rho 0.782 and 0.589, respectively). Individual tree crowns that were delineated from aerial imagery using multiresolution segmentation had a high level of segmentation accuracy (69.22%), whereas tree crowns delineated using watershed segmentation underestimated the field-measured tree crown widths. Both spectral angle mapper (SAM) and maximum likelihood (ML) classifications were applied to the aerial imagery for mapping of selected tree species. The latter was found to be more suitable for tree species classification. Individual tree species were identified with high accuracy. Inclusion of textural information further improved species identification, albeit marginally. Our findings suggest that VHR aerial imagery, in conjunction with OBIA-based segmentation methods (such as multiresolution segmentation) and supervised classification techniques are useful for tree species mapping and for studies of the forest mensuration variables. PMID:25902148

  5. Mid- to Late Holocene (5-3 ka) Origin of the Modern Tonle Sap Lake System, Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, M.; Hodell, D. A.; Brenner, M.; Curtis, J. H.; Kamenov, G. D.; Peterson, L. C.; Guilderson, T. P.; Kolata, A. L.

    2008-12-01

    As Southeast Asia's largest lake, Tonle Sap plays a crucial role in Cambodia's culture and ecology. The lake provides a habitat for >500 fish species and is one of the most productive inland fisheries in the world. It is a vital protein source that nourishes Cambodians today and helped to sustain the ancient Angkorian Empire. The Mekong River plays a key role in driving the productivity of Tonle Sap by injecting nutrients into the lake during the annual flood pulse. The Mekong is linked to the lake today by the Tonle Sap River, which provides a pathway for monsoon floodwaters to flow into the lake during the region's rainy monsoon season. During the dry season, flow through the Tonle Sap River reverses, and the lake drains back into the Mekong. The history of the connection between the Tonle Sap and Mekong River remains uncertain. In order to determine the provenance of sediments in the Tonle Sap lake basin, we measured Sr and Nd isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr and ɛNd respectively) of a sediment core taken from the southeastern end of the lake. An upcore increase in 87Sr/86Sr and decrease in ɛNd towards isotopic values indicative of sediment input from the Mekong River suggests that the link between Tonle Sap and the Mekong River was established ~5-3 14C yr BP. The paleolimnological record may provide insight into the environmental conditions of Lake Tonle Sap Lake prior to its connection with the Mekong. The ancient lake may serve as an analog for a future Tonle Sap ecosystem in which the annual flood pulse, and associated nutrient input, is dampened or eliminated by damming of the Mekong River.

  6. Interspecies comparison of transpiration in Cambodia for the prediction of water use under the tropical monsoon climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tateishi, Makiko; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Tomo'Omi, Kumagai; Ma, Vuthy; Sokh, Heng; Mizoue, Nobuya

    2010-05-01

    Recently exotic fast-growing trees are planted in Southeast Asia, since economical profits of fast-growing tree plantations are expected. However, fast-growing species are also thought to consume more water than native species. There is concern these exotic species may influence water resources because of their large water consumption, especially during the dry season. In Cambodia there is a clear rainy season and extremely dry season with hardly any rainfall. Whether fast-growing trees adapt to such dry season and their effect on water resources is unconcern. To evaluate the impact of planting exotic trees, it is critical to know how much water these trees transpired and how they control water use under drought condition. To more thoroughly understand these processes, water flow was monitored in the stem of 4 species continuously using sap flux measurement to estimate transpiration of individual trees. For this experiment, we selected 6 trees of each species; two native species (Dipterocarpus obtusifolius and Shorea roxburghii) and 2 exotic species (Acacia auriculiformis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis). Meteorological observations were also conducted. All species had similar transpiration rates under the same environmental condition in the rainy season. Although there was a relationship between tree size and transpiration, difference among the tree species was not clear. That is to say, the difference of transpiration between small size trees and large trees was larger than interspecies variation in that period. From long-term observations, we found that transpiration of native and exotic species in the dry season show different responses to environmental conditions. While transpiration of A. auriculiformis slightly decreased during the dry season, the transpiration rate of S. roxburghii, a native species, remained high despite diminished groundwater at the end of the dry season. This result implies S. roxburghii develops deeper roots to access groundwater for

  7. Immunity to polio, measles and rubella in women of child-bearing age and estimated congenital rubella syndrome incidence, Cambodia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Mao, B; Chheng, K; Wannemuehler, K; Vynnycky, E; Buth, S; Soeung, S C; Reef, S; Weldon, W; Quick, L; Gregory, C J

    2015-07-01

    Significant gaps in immunity to polio, measles, and rubella may exist in adults in Cambodia and threaten vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) elimination and control goals, despite high childhood vaccination coverage. We conducted a nationwide serological survey during November-December 2012 of 2154 women aged 15-39 years to assess immunity to polio, measles, and rubella and to estimate congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) incidence. Measles and rubella antibodies were detected by IgG ELISA and polio antibodies by microneutralization testing. Age-structured catalytic models were fitted to rubella serological data to predict CRS cases. Overall, 29.8% of women lacked immunity to at least one poliovirus (PV); seroprevalence to PV1, PV2 and PV3 was 85.9%, 93.4% and 83.3%, respectively. Rubella and measles antibody seroprevalence was 73.3% and 95.9%, respectively. In the 15-19 years age group, 48.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 42.4-54.1] were susceptible to either PV1 or PV3, and 40.3% (95% CI 33.0-47.5) to rubella virus. Based on rubella antibody seroprevalence, we estimate that >600 infants are born with CRS in Cambodia annually. Significant numbers of Cambodian women are still susceptible to polio and rubella, especially those aged 15-19 years, emphasizing the need to include adults in VPD surveillance and a potential role for vaccination strategies targeted at adults. PMID:25373419

  8. Community-based use of the larvivorous fish Poecilia reticulata to control the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in domestic water storage containers in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Seng, Chang Moh; Setha, To; Nealon, Joshua; Socheat, Doung; Chantha, Ngan; Nathan, Michael B

    2008-06-01

    A community-based study of the distribution of larvivorous fish, Poecilia reticulata (common name: guppy), in water storage containers for dengue control was undertaken in 14 villages and approximately 1,000 households in Cambodia. Community volunteers reared guppies and distributed them in water jars and tanks in households for which they were responsible. A nearby control area received no intervention. One year after project commencement, 56.9% of eligible containers contained guppies and there was a 79.0% reduction in Aedes infestation in the intervention community compared with the control. Smaller or discarded containers unsuitable for guppy distribution in the intervention area also had 51% less infestation than those in the control area, suggesting a "community-wide" protective effect. In addition, there was less infestation in villages with higher rates of fish uptake, suggesting that the presence of fish was responsible for a reduction in Aedes infestation. This applied vector control model was well-accepted, effective, efficient, and shows promise as a sustainable community-based, non-insecticidal intervention for dengue vector control in large domestic water storage containers in rural Cambodia and elsewhere. PMID:18697316

  9. Population structure of wild musk shrews (Suncus murinus) in Asia based on mitochondrial DNA variation, with research in Cambodia and Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Kurachi, Megumi; Chau, Ba-Loc; Dang, Vu-Binh; Dorji, Tashi; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Nyunt, Maung Maung; Maeda, Yoshizane; Chhum-Phith, Loan; Namikawa, Takao; Yamagata, Takahiro

    2007-04-01

    The musk shrew (Suncus murinus) is a small mammalian species belonging to Insectivora. It is widely distributed in Asia. To identify the genetic relationship among wild musk shrew populations and examine its migration route, we investigated the populations of Cambodia and Bhutan by using mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and compared them with other Asian populations previously described. Four haplotypes were detected in Cambodia and eight in Bhutan. A total of 53 haplotypes were detected in Asia and were classified largely into two groups, the Continental and Island types, based on a minimum spanning network. From the distribution of mtDNA types in wild musk shrews, three major population groups are identified in Asia: South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Malay. It is suggested that the Malay population group was a mix of South and Southeast Asian population groups and that this was a contact area of the two groups. In addition, other contact areas between the South and Southeast Asian groups exist in Myanmar, but unlike the Malay, the Myanmar area was the border of these groups. PMID:17318375

  10. The boundaries of genocide: Quantifying the uncertainty of the death toll during the Pol Pot regime in Cambodia (1975-79).

    PubMed

    Heuveline, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The range of estimates of excess deaths under Pol Pot's rule of Cambodia (1975-79) is too wide to be useful: they range from under 1 to over 3 million, with the more plausible estimates still varying from 1 to 2 million. By stochastically reconstructing population dynamics in Cambodia from extant historical and demographic data, we produced interpretable distributions of the death toll and other demographic indicators. The resulting 95 per cent simulation interval (1.2-2.8 million excess deaths) demonstrates substantial uncertainty over the exact scale of mortality, yet it still excludes nearly half of the previous death-toll estimates. The 1.5-2.25 million interval contains 69 per cent of the simulations for the actual number of excess deaths, more than the wider (1-2 million) range of previous plausible estimates. The median value of 1.9 million excess deaths represents 21 per cent of the population at risk. Supplementary material for this article is available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00324728.2015.1045546. PMID:26218856

  11. Precise Visualization Method for Cultural Heritage-The Case of High-Resolution Read Relief Image Map Used for Study of Royal City of Angkor Thom, Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, T.; Shimoda, I.; Haraguchi, T.; Shimoda, M.

    2016-06-01

    To precisely visualize the Royal City of Angkor Thom, Cambodia, we used a new method in field of cultural heritage study. Read Relief Image Map (RRIM, Chiba et al., 2008) is a powerful method which has been used for geomorphological studies. In this study, using the LiDAR data conducted at the Angkor Archaeological Park in Cambodia in April 2012 (Evans et al., 2013), we visualized the Royal City of Angkor Thom and its vicinity (Shimoda et al., 2016). The RRIM provided a new visualization method of localizing, minute topographical changes in regions with large undulations over a wide area. It has proved to be effective in mapping, on a single wide-area map, the numerous buried remains that exist as comparable height differences or minute undulations measuring less than 1 meter in height, and provides a unique aerial view of their widespread distribution. Based on the RRIM map, past archaeological studies were referenced to reconstruct the layout of the water channel network system. Past studies revealed that a large number of ponds had been dug inside Angkor Thom. The RRIM expanded the investigation and revealed the existence of many ponds outside the royal capital indicating that a residential community had flourished outside the moat surrounded capital city.

  12. Conflicting Rights: How the Prohibition of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation Infringes the Right to Health of Female Sex Workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Maher, Lisa; Dixon, Thomas; Phlong, Pisith; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Stein, Ellen; Page, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    While repressive laws and policies in relation to sex work have the potential to undermine HIV prevention efforts, empirical research on their interface has been lacking. In 2008, Cambodia introduced antitrafficking legislation ostensibly designed to suppress human trafficking and sexual exploitation. Based on empirical research with female sex workers, this article examines the impact of the new law on vulnerability to HIV and other adverse health outcomes. Following the introduction of the law, sex workers reported being displaced to streets and guesthouses, impacting their ability to negotiate safe sex and increasing exposure to violence. Disruption of peer networks and associated mobility also reduced access to outreach, condoms, and health care. Our results are consistent with a growing body of research which associates the violation of sex workers' human rights with adverse public health outcomes. Despite the successes of the last decade, Cambodia's AIDS epidemic remains volatile and the current legal environment has the potential to undermine prevention efforts by promoting stigma and discrimination, impeding prevention uptake and coverage, and increasing infections. Legal and policy responses which seek to protect the rights of the sexually exploited should not infringe the right to health of sex workers. PMID:26204575

  13. What health service support do families need for optimal breastfeeding? An in-depth exploration of young infant feeding practices in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Bazzano, Alessandra N; Oberhelman, Richard A; Potts, Kaitlin Storck; Taub, Leah D; Var, Chivorn

    2015-01-01

    Background Appropriate and timely breastfeeding practices markedly improve lifelong health outcomes for newborns, children, and mothers. Exclusive breastfeeding is reported to be widely practiced in Cambodia, and important progress has been made toward achieving improved child health outcomes, but newborn mortality has been slow to reduce and breastfeeding practices remain suboptimal. Methods Formative research was conducted in Takeo province, Cambodia to describe the practical, cultural, and social factors underlying current breastfeeding behaviors to inform the design of a newborn survival intervention that may improve breastfeeding. In-depth interviews, observations, a collection of visual media, and focus groups were employed to gather qualitative data. Results The results revealed knowledge and practice gaps in behavior that likely contribute to breastfeeding barriers, particularly in the areas of infant latch, milk production, feeding frequency, and the use of breast milk substitutes. The predominant theme identified in the research was a dearth of detailed information, advice, and counseling for mothers beyond the message to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months. Conclusion Future newborn survival interventions and postnatal care counseling in this area must go beyond the exclusive breastfeeding message. To achieve further impact, it will be necessary to disseminate comprehensive and locally appropriate information on breastfeeding and to improve counseling in order to support successful breastfeeding and to contribute to population-level health gains. PMID:25733931

  14. Gamma-rays attenuation of zircons from Cambodia and South Africa at different energies: A new technique for identifying the origin of gemstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limkitjaroenporn, P.; Kaewkhao, J.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, the gamma-rays interaction properties of zircons from Cambodia and South Africa have been studied. The densities of Cambodian and South African's zircons are 4.6716±0.0040 g/cm3 and 4.5505±0.0018 g/cm3, respectively. The mass attenuation coefficient and the effective atomic number of gemstones were measured with the gamma-ray in energies range 223-662 keV using the Compton scattering technique. The mass attenuation coefficients of both zircons decreased with the increasing of gamma-rays energies. The different mass attenuation coefficients between the two zircons observed at gamma-ray energies below 400 keV are attributed to the differences in the photoelectric interaction. The effective atomic number of zircons was decreased with the increasing of gamma-ray energies and showed totally different values between the Cambodia and South Africa sources. The origins of the two zircons could be successfully identified by the method based on gamma-rays interaction with matter with advantage of being a non-destructive testing.

  15. High compliance randomized controlled field trial of solar disinfection of drinking water and its impact on childhood diarrhea in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Kevin G; Samaiyar, Priyajit; du Preez, Martella; Conroy, Ronán M

    2011-09-15

    Recent solar disinfection (SODIS) studies in Bolivia and South Africa have reported compliance rates below 35% resulting in no overall statistically significant benefit associated with disease rates. In this study, we report the results of a 1 year randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of SODIS of drinking water on the incidence of dysentery and nondysentery diarrhea among children of age 6 months to 5 years living in rural communities in Cambodia. We compared 426 children in 375 households using SODIS with 502 children in 407 households with no intervention. Study compliance was greater than 90% with only 5% of children having less than 10 months of follow-up and 2.3% having less than 6 months. Adjusted for water source type, children in the SODIS group had a reduced incidence of dysentery, with an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 0.50 (95% CI 0.27-0.93, p = 0.029). SODIS also had a protective effect against nondysentery diarrhea, with an IRR of 0.37 (95% CI 0.29-0.48, p < 0.001). This study suggests strongly that SODIS is an effective and culturally acceptable point-of-use water treatment method in the culture of rural Cambodia and may be of benefit among similar communities in neighboring South East Asian countries. PMID:21827166

  16. A prospective study on the incidence of dog bites and management in a rural Cambodian, rabies-endemic setting.

    PubMed

    Ponsich, Aurelia; Goutard, Flavie; Sorn, San; Tarantola, Arnaud

    2016-08-01

    Rabies circulates intensely in Cambodia, mainly affecting rural populations. We conducted a prospective study to estimate the baseline incidence of potentially infective dog bites in rural villages of Siem Reap province, Cambodia. The study was conducted in a convenience sample of 844 families totaling 1779 persons in four villages. The study collected data in a total of 802.3 person-years. Trained village health workers (VHW) exhaustively documented consecutive dog bites at the end of each month. Between May 15th and November 15th, 2011, a total of 40 attacks (43 bites; 1.07 bites per attack) were notified by 39 persons (50% female; one suffered two distinct incidents) to VHW. The all-age attack rate for bites over this 6-month period was 2.3% (CI95%: 1.7-3.1%), with a global incidence rate estimated at 4.84 bites/100 person-years (CI95%: 3.5-6.6). The mean age in bite victims was 20.8±18.9years (median 12.5; interquartile range 6-36; range 1-63). The dog was identified in 39 (97.5%) of cases, being the household dog in 9 (22.5%) of cases. Bites were classified as severe (WHO Category III-broken skin with bleeding) in 33 (82.5%) of cases with a severe dog bites incidence estimated at 4/100 person-years (CI95%: 2.8-5.6). The bites involved the hand or face in 1 (2.5%) case each (both Category III). In 20 incidents (50%), only rice was applied to the wounds. There were no suspected or confirmed human rabies deaths during the study period but one dog died after biting (2 others were lost to follow-up and 14 were put down by their owner). Our study documented an extremely high incidence of dog bites in of rural Cambodian adults and children. Adapted control policies for canine vaccination are urgently needed. PMID:27154585

  17. [Do reproductive health care practices create a risk of HIV, HVB, and HVC transmission? Case studies in Cambodia].

    PubMed

    Petitet, Pascale Hancart

    2010-01-01

    The processes involved in nosocomial transmission of HIV, HBV, and HCV nosocomial transmission have not been studied at a global level; little is known about them or about the underlying social and cultural logic that contributes to this transmission. Hospital hygiene has mainly been studied from a biological perspective until now. However, hospital hygiene is shaped by norms and sociocultural representations, and the increase or limitation of disease transmission always takes place within social relations. We need to analyse the practices related to hygiene from a cultural perspective, especially since norms are interpreted at the local level according to social and symbolic logic. Our paper aims to investigate these issues in the context of reproductive health care practices in Cambodia. We describe various perceptions, attitudes and roles of both medical and non-medical caregivers and show how they determine practices, as well as how sanitary, social and institutional contexts shape practices. Since 1995, public health institutions have provided contraceptive methods (condoms, oral or injectable contraceptives, contraceptive implants, intrauterine devices, and emergency contraception). Except for the free distribution of condoms, particularly by NGOs as part of HIV prevention programs, access to contraception is not free. Private clinics and local and international NGOs provide many of these services. Many women in both urban and rural areas seek reproductive health care in the informal sector, from caregivers who may or may not be trained. We thus wonder if these practices, as implemented in the formal and informal care sectors, create a risk for the transmission of HIV, HVB, and HVC. We analyse those issues in considering especially the injection of Depo-Provera, insertion of intrauterine devices, vaginal cleaning practices, and surgical abortion. This investigation of the sociocultural dimension of hygiene in the field of reproductive health care underlines

  18. Field Trial Evaluation of the Performances of Point-of-Care Tests for Screening G6PD Deficiency in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Chy, Sophy; Canier, Lydie; Kerleguer, Alexandra; Tor, Pety; Chuor, Char Meng; Kheng, Sim; Siv, Sovannaroth; Kachur, Patrick S.; Taylor, Walter R. J.; Hwang, Jimee; Menard, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Background User-friendly, accurate, point-of-care rapid tests to detect glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd) are urgently needed at peripheral level to safely recommend primaquine for malaria elimination. Methods The CareStart G6PD RDT (AccessBio, New Jersey, USA), a novel rapid diagnostic test and the most commonly used test, the fluorescent spot test (FST) were assessed against the quantitatively measured G6PD enzyme activity for detecting G6PDd. Subjects were healthy males and non-pregnant females aged 18 years or older residing in six villages in Pailin Province, western Cambodia. Findings Of the 938 subjects recruited, 74 (7.9%) were severe and moderately severe G6PD deficient (enzyme activity <30%), mostly in male population; population median G6PD activity was 12.0 UI/g Hb. The performances of the CareStart G6PD RDT and the FST, according to different cut-off values used to define G6PDd were very similar. For the detection of severe and moderately severe G6PDd (enzyme activity <30%, <3.6 UI/g Hb) in males and females, sensitivity and negative (normal status) predictive value were 100% for both point-of-care tools. When the G6PDd cut-off value increased (from <40% to <60%), the sensitivity for both PoCs decreased: 93.3% to 71.7% (CareStart G6PD RDT, p = 10−6) and 95.5% to 73.2% (FST, p = 10−6) while the specificity for both PoCs remained similar: 97.4% to 98.3% (CareStart G6PD RDT, p = 0.23) and 98.7% to 99.6% (FST, p = 0.06). The cut-off values for classifying individuals as normal were 4.0 UI/g Hb and 4.3 UI/g Hb for the CareStart G6PD RDT and the FST, respectively. Conclusions The CareStart G6PD RDT reliably detected moderate and severe G6PD deficient individuals (enzyme activity <30%), suggesting that this novel point-of-care is a promising tool for tailoring appropriate primaquine treatment for malaria elimination by excluding individuals with severe G6PDd for primaquine treatment. PMID:25541721

  19. Focus: who reaps the benefits of biodiversity?

    PubMed Central

    Karasov, C

    2001-01-01

    The search for wild plant and animal products of potential value to medicine, agriculture, and other uses has been going on for hundreds, possibly thousands, of years. Many commonly prescribed medicines in the United States include ingredients derived from natural products, and roughly 80% of the world's people rely on natural products for their primary medical needs. Until the past decade, all of these natural products were collected without compensating the source countries. But the rules of collecting changed in 1992 with the establishment of the Convention on Biological Diversity, which offers financial compensation for natural products and seeks to conserve biological diversity, use natural products sustainably, and fairly share products made from gene stocks. Questions remain, however, as to how to share the benefits of biodiversity equitably, as well as whether the lack of both U.S. support for the agreement and enforceability render the convention impotent. PMID:11748021

  20. Local Area Networks: Reaping the Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Chadwick; Anderson, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Description of the planning and implementation of a microcomputer-based local area network in the Northbrook (Illinois) Public Library highlights: (1) applying for a grant; (2) network design; (3) the bidding process; (4) installation; (5) implementing the network; and (6) problems and cautions. (MES)

  1. Reaping the Benefits of Parent Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haakmat, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Martha Haakmat writes in this article that in some ways she understands why parents might have a harder time understanding why Montessori is education at its best, especially as their children progress past preschool. Haakmat goes on to say that the learning path at Montessori schools is more proactive. Montessori schools ask that parents partner…

  2. ASSESSMENT OF REAP-UPWARD BOUND.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LANG, MELVIN; HOPP, LAURENCE

    THE IMPACT OF AN UPWARD BOUND (UB) PROGRAM ON THE ATTITUDES, MOTIVATION, AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF DISADVANTAGED STUDENTS WITH COLLEGE POTENTIAL IS EVALUATED. THE PROGRAM IS ONE OF THE 21 UB PROGRAMS RANDOMLY SELECTED FOR INTENSIVE STUDY. AT RUTGERS UB STUDENTS' ATTITUDES AND MOTIVATION TOWARD COLLEGE GOALS, SELF-EVALUATION AND SELF-ESTEEM,…

  3. Cash Management Program Reaps Financial Rewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Joan Nesenkar

    1984-01-01

    Basic components of a New Jersey district's profitable cash management program include consolidating funds using a negotiated bank agreement, a short term investment policy, accurate flowcharts for precise planning, and revenue and expenditure analysis. Data collection and analysis and the alternative of using a bank service agreement are…

  4. Renewable Energy Applied Partnerships (REAP) Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Hirono, Mazie K. [D-HI-2

    2011-01-12

    02/25/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Pressure instrument calibration reaps SPC benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Kegel, T.M.

    1995-12-01

    Calibration laboratories are faced with the need to become accredited or registered to one or more quality standards. One requirement common to all of these standards is the need to have in place a measurement assurance program. What is a measurement assurance program? Brian Belanger, in Measurement Assurance Programs: Part 1, describes it as a {open_quotes}quality assurance program for a measurement process that quantifies the total uncertainty of the measurements (both random and systematic components of error) with respect to national or designated standards and demonstrates that the total uncertainty is sufficiently small to meet the user`s requirements.{close_quotes} Rolf Schumacher is more specific in Measurement Assurance in Your Own Laboratory. He states, {open_quotes}Measurement assurance is the application of broad quality control principles to measurements of calibrations.{close_quotes} Here, the focus is on one important part of any measurement assurance program: implementation of statistical process control (SPC). Paraphrasing Juran`s Quality Control Handbook, a process is in statistical control if the only observed variations are those that can be attributed to random causes. Conversely, a process that exhibits variations due to assignable causes is not in a state of statistical control. Finally, Carrol Croarkin states, {open_quotes}In the measurement assurance context the measurement algorithm including instrumentation, reference standards and operator interactions is the process that is to be controlled, and its direct product is the measurement per se. The measurements are assumed to be valid if the measurement algorithm is operating in a state of control.{close_quotes} Implicit in this statement is the important fact that an out-of-control process cannot produce valid measurements. 7 figs.

  6. Cervical human papillomavirus infection among young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia: prevalence, genotypes, risk factors and association with HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although cervical cancer is the leading cancer in Cambodia, most women receive no routine screening for cervical cancer and few treatment options exist. Moreover, nothing is known regarding the prevalence of cervical HPV or the genotypes present among women in the country. Young sexually active women, especially those with multiple sex partners are at highest risk of HPV infection. We examine the prevalence and genotypes of cervical HPV, as well as the associated risk factors among young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among 220 young women (15–29 years) engaged in sex work in different venues including brothels or entertainment establishments, and on a freelance basis in streets, parks and private apartments. Cervical specimens were collected using standard cytobrush technique. HPV DNA was tested for by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyping using type-specific probes for 29 individual HPV types, as well as for a mixture of 10 less common HPV types. All participants were also screened for HIV status using blood samples. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess risk factors for any or multiple HPV infection. Results The prevalence of cervical HPV 41.1%. HPV 51 and 70 were the most common (5.0%), followed by 16 (4.6%), 71 (4.1%) and 81 (3.7%). Thirty-six women (16.4%) were infected with multiple genotypes and 23.3% were infected with at least one oncogenic HPV type. In multivariate analyses, having HIV infection and a higher number of sexual partners were associated with cervical HPV infection. Risk factors for infection with multiple genotypes included working as freelance female sex workers (FSW) or in brothels, recent binge use of drugs, high number of sexual partners, and HIV infection. Conclusions This is the first Cambodian study on cervical HPV prevalence and genotypes. We found that HPV infection was common among young FSW, especially among women

  7. Sustained high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Cambodia: high turnover seriously challenges the 100% condom use programme

    PubMed Central

    Sopheab, Heng; Morineau, Guy; Neal, Joyce J; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Fylkesnes, Knut

    2008-01-01

    Background Cambodia's 100% Condom-Use Programme (CUP), implemented nationally in 2001, requires brothel-based female sex workers (FSWs) to use condoms with all clients. In 2005, we conducted a sexually transmitted infection (STI) survey among FSWs. This paper presents the STI prevalence and related risk factors, and discusses prevalence trends in the context of the 100% CUP in Cambodia. Methods From March-May, 1079 FSWs from eight provinces consented to participate, provided specimens for syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhoea testing, and were interviewed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with STIs. STI prevalence was compared with data from the 1996 and 2001 STI surveys. Results Most FSWs were young (55% aged 15–24) and new to sex work (60% had worked 12 ≤ months). Consistent condom use with clients was reported by 80% of FSWs, but only 38% of FSWs always used condoms with sweethearts or casual partners. Being new to sex work was the only factor significantly associated with "any STI" (OR = 2.1). Prevalence of syphiliwas 2.3%; chlamydia, 14.4%; gonorrhoea, 13.0%; and any STI, 24.4%. Prevalence of each STI in 2005 was significantly lower than in 1996, but essentially the same as prevalence observed in 2001. Conclusion New FSWs were found to have substantially higher prevalence than those with longer experience. The percent of FSWs who used condoms consistently was high with clients but remained low with non-paying sex partners. Because of the high turnover of FSWs, the prevention needs of new FSWs should be ascertained and addressed. Despite 100% CUP implementation, the prevalence of STIs among FSWs was the same in 2005 as it was in 2001. Limited coverage and weak implementation capacity of the programme along with questionable quality of the STI services are likely to have contributed to the sustained high prevalence. The programme should be carefully reviewed in terms of intensity, quality and

  8. Focused Screening and Treatment (FSAT): A PCR-Based Strategy to Detect Malaria Parasite Carriers and Contain Drug Resistant P. falciparum, Pailin, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Hoyer, Stefan; Nguon, Sokomar; Kim, Saorin; Habib, Najibullah; Khim, Nimol; Sum, Sarorn; Christophel, Eva-Maria; Bjorge, Steven; Thomson, Andrew; Kheng, Sim; Chea, Nguon; Yok, Sovann; Top, Samphornarann; Ros, Seyha; Sophal, Uth; Thompson, Michelle M.; Mellor, Steve; Ariey, Frédéric; Witkowski, Benoit; Yeang, Chhiang; Yeung, Shunmay; Duong, Socheat; Newman, Robert D.; Menard, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in Pailin province, along the border between Thailand and Cambodia, have become resistant to artemisinin derivatives. To better define the epidemiology of P. falciparum populations and to assess the risk of the possible spread of these parasites outside Pailin, a new epidemiological tool named “Focused Screening and Treatment” (FSAT), based on active molecular detection of asymptomatic parasite carriers was introduced in 2010. Cross-sectional malariometric surveys using PCR were carried out in 20 out of 109 villages in Pailin province. Individuals detected as P. falciparum carriers were treated with atovaquone-proguanil combination plus a single dose of primaquine if the patient was non-G6PD deficient. Interviews were conducted to elicit history of cross-border travel that might contribute to the spread of artemisinin-resistant parasites. After directly observed treatment, patients were followed up and re-examined on day 7 and day 28. Among 6931 individuals screened, prevalence of P. falciparum carriers was less than 1%, of whom 96% were asymptomatic. Only 1.6% of the individuals had a travel history or plans to go outside Cambodia, with none of those tested being positive for P. falciparum. Retrospective analysis, using 2010 routine surveillance data, showed significant differences in the prevalence of asymptomatic carriers discovered by FSAT between villages classified as “high risk” and “low risk” based on malaria incidence data. All positive individuals treated and followed-up until day 28 were cured. No mutant-type allele related to atovaquone resistance was found. FSAT is a potentially useful tool to detect, treat and track clusters of asymptomatic carriers of P. falciparum along with providing valuable epidemiological information regarding cross-border movements of potential malaria parasite carriers and parasite gene flow. PMID:23049687

  9. New outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in domestic poultry and wild birds in Cambodia in 2011.

    PubMed

    Theary, Ren; San, Sorn; Davun, Holl; Allal, Lotfi; Lu, Huaguang

    2012-12-01

    Five outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) have been diagnosed in domestic poultry and wild birds in Cambodia from January to November of 2011. Of the five outbreaks, one occurred in a village backyard flock in Kandal province in January; two occurred in native Cambodian chickens and ducks in Banteay Meanchey province in July and August, respectively; one was seen in wild birds in Phnom Tamao Zoo in Kandal Province in July; and one outbreak occurred in commercial broilers at Opong Moan in Battambang province in northwestern Cambodia in early November. Clinically, HPAI-infected broilers and native chickens showed sudden death, severe depression, ruffled feathers, edema of heads and necks, swollen and cyanotic combs and wattles, and swollen and congested conjunctiva, with occasional hemorrhage, paralysis, and other neurologic signs. In ducks, significantly swollen sinuses and eyes, cloudy corneas, difficulty standing, or paralysis were commonly seen. Some affected ducks showed sudden death without obvious clinical symptoms. Necropsy lesions showed congestion and necrotic debris within sinuses and severe hemorrhages in gizzards, livers, and lungs in both affected native chickens and ducks during the new outbreaks in 2011. All five outbreaks were diagnosed as H5N1 HPAI by virus isolation and real-time reverse transcription-PCR tests. Once a backyard flock in a village or a poultry farm was diagnosed as positive for H5N1 HPAI; the whole village backyard poultry and all farm flocks were culled immediately by Cambodian provincial and central authorities as per the strategies adopted for the control of HPAI. PMID:23402105

  10. Are Text Messages a Feasible and Acceptable Way to Reach Female Entertainment Workers in Cambodia with Health Messages? A Cross-Sectional Phone Survey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite great achievements in reducing the prevalence of HIV, eliminating new HIV infections remains a challenge in Cambodia. Entertainment venues such as restaurants, karaoke bars, beer gardens, cafes, pubs, and massage parlors are now considered important venues for HIV prevention efforts and other health outreach interventions. Objective The purpose of this study was to explore phone use and texting practices of female entertainment workers (FEWs) in order to determine if text messaging is a feasible and acceptable way to link FEWs to health services. Methods This cross-sectional phone survey was conducted in May 2015 with 97 FEWs aged 18–35 years and currently working at an entertainment venue in Phnom Penh. Results Of the 96 respondents, 51% reported sending text messages daily; of them, 47% used Khmer script and 45% used Romanized Khmer. Younger FEWs were more likely to report daily texting (P<.001). Most FEWs (98%) in this study reported feeling comfortable receiving private health messages despite the fact that 39% were sharing their phone with others. Younger FEWs were less likely to share their phone with others (P=.02). Of all of the FEWs, 47% reported owning a smartphone, and younger women were more likely to own a smartphone than were older women (P=.08). Conclusions The findings from this study support the development of mHealth interventions targeting high-risk groups in urban areas of Cambodia. Our data suggest that mHealth interventions using texting may be a feasible way of reaching FEWs in Phnom Penh. PMID:27207374

  11. Correlates of amphetamine-type stimulants use and associations with HIV-related risks among young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Couture, Marie-Claude; Evans, Jennifer L.; Sothy, Neth San; Stein, Ellen S.; Sichan, Keo; Maher, Lisa; Page, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Background Amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) use has increased in Cambodia and emerged as a significant problem among female sex workers (FSWs), potentially contributing to increased risk of HIV. We examined the prevalence of ATS use and its effect on sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STI) among FSWs in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods A one-year prospective study among young women engaged in sex work in brothels, entertainment establishments and on a freelance basis. Socio-demographics, sexual risks, and recent ATS use were assessed by self-report. Blood and urine samples were collected to detect HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC). Bivariate and multivariate longitudinal analyses were conducted to assess the effects of ATS use on number of sex partners, inconsistent condom use with paying partners and incident STI. Results ATS use was higher among women working freelance (35.6%) and in brothels (34.8%) compared to women working in entertainment establishments (17.7%) or in multiple venues (14.8%). ATS users reported more sex partners and days drunk in the previous month. In multivariate longitudinal analysis, ATS use was associated with having a higher number of sex partners (Adjusted Risk Ratio 1.49; 95% CI: 1.00–2.21) and incident STI (Adjusted Odds Ratio 5.41; 95% CI: 1.15–25.48), but not inconsistent condom use with paying partner. Conclusion ATS users had more sex partners, high level of alcohol use, and were at increased risk of STI. Our findings underscore ATS use as an important emerging risk exposure that should be integrated into HIV prevention interventions targeting this population. PMID:21820251

  12. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-01-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households’ ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. El Impacto de los Pagos por Servicios Ambientales y Áreas Protegidas sobre la Subsistencia Local y la Conservación del Bosque en el Norte de Camboya Resumen Los impactos

  13. Beriberi in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Nosten, François

    2015-01-01

    Beriberi had plagued humans for centuries. It was responsible for over 50% of infant deaths in the Philippines in the early 1900s. But since the discovery of its cause and treatment it has become a rarity, or has it? PMID:26744150

  14. Oral health status among 12-year-old children in primary schools participating in an oral health preventive school program in Phnom Penh City, Cambodia, 2002.

    PubMed

    Teng, O; Narksawat, K; Podang, J; Pacheun, O

    2004-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess dental caries status, knowledge, attitude and practice in oral health among 12-year-old primary schoolchildren participating in the Oral Health Preventive School Program (OHPSP) conducted since 1998 in Phnom Penh City, Cambodia. Schools were stratified into 3 groups by levels of cooperation (good, partial, and poor) with the OHPS program and samples of schools randomly selected from each group. A total sample size of 239 schoolchildren was randomly selected from the sampled schools. There were 79, 82, and 79 children from schools with good, partial, and poor cooperation, respectively. Dental caries status DMFT (Decayed Missing Filled teeth) and knowledge, attitude and practices in oral health were assessed from 21 January to 5 February 2002. Opinions of school directors toward the OHPS Program were evaluated by interview. The results showed the overall mean DMFT per person in schoolchildren in Phnom Penh City, Cambodia of 2.33 (95%CI=2.05-2.61) while mean DT(Decayed teeth) was 2.31 (95%CI=1.97-2.52) and mean MT (Missing teeth) and mean FT (Filled teeth) were 0.01 per person, which were quite small. Children from schools with good cooperation with the OHPSP had the lowest significant mean DMFT 1.62 (95%CI=1.25-1.98) compared to children from schools with partial and poor cooperation (Mean DMFT=2.67:95%CI=2.10-3.23, and 2.69:95%CI=2.19-3.19, respectively). There were no significant differences in levels of knowledge, attitude and practices in oral health among the 3 groups of schools, but the proportion of good practices was highest in good cooperation schools compared to the schools with partial and poor cooperation to the OHPSP (41.3%, 27.3%, and 31.3%, respectively). Among 35 school directors, the majority of them (97.1%) believed that the OHPS program can reduce the dental caries prevalence among schoolchildren. Only 20.0% agreed that parents of schoolchildren should pay money to the school for tooth brushes and

  15. Novel phenotypic assays for the detection of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Cambodia: in-vitro and ex-vivo drug-response studies

    PubMed Central

    Witkowski, Benoit; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Khim, Nimol; Sreng, Sokunthea; Chim, Pheaktra; Kim, Saorin; Lim, Pharath; Mao, Sivanna; Sopha, Chantha; Sam, Baramey; Anderson, Jennifer M; Duong, Socheat; Chuor, Char Meng; Taylor, Walter R J; Suon, Seila; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Fairhurst, Rick M; Menard, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum lengthens parasite clearance half-life during artemisinin monotherapy or artemisinin-based combination therapy. Absence of in-vitro and ex-vivo correlates of artemisinin resistance hinders study of this phenotype. We aimed to assess whether an in-vitro ring-stage survival assay (RSA) can identify culture-adapted P falciparum isolates from patients with slow-clearing or fast-clearing infections, to investigate the stage-dependent susceptibility of parasites to dihydroartemisinin in the in-vitro RSA, and to assess whether an ex-vivo RSA can identify artemisinin-resistant P falciparum infections. Methods We culture-adapted parasites from patients with long and short parasite clearance half-lives from a study done in Pursat, Cambodia, in 2010 (registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00341003) and used novel in-vitro survival assays to explore the stage-dependent susceptibility of slow-clearing and fast-clearing parasites to dihydroartemisinin. In 2012, we implemented the RSA in prospective parasite clearance studies in Pursat, Preah Vihear, and Ratanakiri, Cambodia (NCT01736319), to measure the ex-vivo responses of parasites from patients with malaria. Continuous variables were compared with the Mann-Whitney U test. Correlations were analysed with the Spearman correlation test. Findings In-vitro survival rates of culture-adapted parasites from 13 slow-clearing and 13 fast-clearing infections differed significantly when assays were done on 0–3 h ring-stage parasites (10·88% vs 0·23%; p=0·007). Ex-vivo survival rates significantly correlated with in-vivo parasite clearance half-lives (n=30, r=0·74, 95% CI 0·50–0·87; p<0·0001). Interpretation The in-vitro RSA of 0–3 h ring-stage parasites provides a platform for the molecular characterisation of artemisinin resistance. The ex-vivo RSA can be easily implemented where surveillance for artemisinin resistance is needed. Funding Institut

  16. Nonhuman primate retroviruses from Cambodia: high simian foamy virus prevalence, identification of divergent STLV-1 strains and no evidence of SIV infection.

    PubMed

    Ayouba, Ahidjo; Duval, Linda; Liégeois, Florian; Ngin, Sopheak; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Switzer, William M; Delaporte, Eric; Ariey, Frédéric; Peeters, Martine; Nerrienet, Eric

    2013-08-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHPs) carry retroviruses such as simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV), simian T-cell lymphotropic viruses (STLV) and simian foamy viruses (SFV). Here, we revisited NHPs from Cambodia to assess the prevalence and diversity of these retroviruses using updated viral detection tools. We screened blood from 118 NHPs consisting of six species (Macaca fascicularis (n=91), Macaca leonine (n=8), Presbytis cristata (n=3), Nycticebus coucang (n=1), Hylobates pileatus (n=14), and Pongo pygmaeus) (n=1) by using a Luminex-based multiplex serology assay that allows the detection of all known SIV/HIV and SFV lineages. We also used highly sensitive PCR assays to detect each simian retrovirus group. Positive PCR products were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed to infer evolutionary histories. Fifty-three of 118 (44.9%) NHPs tested positive for SFV by serology and 8/52 (15.4%), all from M. fascicularis, were PCR-confirmed. The 8 novel SFV sequences formed a highly supported distinct lineage within a clade composed of other macaque SFV. We observed no serological or molecular evidence of SIV infection among the 118 NHP samples tested. Four of 118 (3.3%) NHPs were PCR-positive for STLV, including one M. fascicularis, one P. cristata, and two H. pileatus. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the four novel STLV belonged to the PTLV-1 lineage, outside the African radiation of PTLV-1, like all Asian PTLV identified so far. Sequence analysis of the whole STLV-1 genome from a H. pileatus (C578_Hp) revealed a genetic structure characteristic of PTLV. Similarity analysis comparing the STLV-1 (C578_Hp) sequence with prototype PTLVs showed that C578_Hp is closer to PTLV-1s than to all other types across the entire genome. In conclusion, we showed a high frequency of SFV infection but found no evidence of SIV infection in NHPs from Cambodia. We identified for the first time STLV-1 in a P. cristata and in two H. pileatus. PMID:23612320

  17. Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Sputum using Selective Enrichment Broth and Ashdown’s Medium at Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Nhem, Somary; Letchford, Joanne; Meas, Chea; Thann, Sovanndeth; McLaughlin, James C.; Baron, Ellen Jo; West, T. Eoin

    2015-01-01

    Melioidosis, infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is increasingly reported in Cambodia. We hypothesized that implementation of an enhanced sputum testing protocol in a provincial hospital diagnostic microbiology laboratory would increase detection of B. pseudomallei. We tested 241 sputum specimens that were deemed acceptable for culture, comparing culture in selective enrichment broth followed by sub-culture on Ashdown’s medium to standard culture methods. Two specimens (0.8%) were positive for B. pseudomallei using the enhanced protocol whereas one specimen (0.4%) was positive using standard methods. Given the low numbers of positive specimens, we could not conclusively determine the utility of the enhanced sputum testing protocol. However, the ramifications of identification of  B. pseudomallei are substantial, and the benefit of the enhanced testing protocol may be more apparent in patients selected based on risk factors and clinical presentation. Promoting clinician awareness of the infection and encouraging utilization of diagnostic microbiology services are also likely to be important factors in facilitating identification of melioidosis. PMID:25717370

  18. ‘Plue plun’ male, ‘kath klei’ female: gender differences in suicidal behavior as expressed by young people in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Jegannathan, Bhoomikumar; Dahlblom, Kjerstin; Kullgren, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Few studies from low- and middle-income countries use qualitative methodology to explore suicidal behavior among young people. In Cambodia, young people face the challenge of rapidly changing times and are vulnerable for suicidal behavior as revealed by research in transitional economies. This study seeks to gain a deeper understanding of the suicidal phenomena from a gender, psychosocial and cultural perspective. Six focus-group discussions were conducted among boys and girls, aged 15–19 years, in two secondary schools in a suburban area close to Phnom Penh, the capital city. The data was analyzed using thematic analysis approach. The participants highlighted the gender difference in suicidal behavior by describing the suicide-prone, acting-out male as ‘plue plun’, while suicide-prone females were described as caught in constricted, tunneled-thinking behavior, expressed as ‘kath klei’. Parental attitude and family environment were also pointed out as the chief causes of discontent and there was a strong wish on the part of young people to find space for modern values within the traditional family. The young people's awareness of their challenges in everyday life suggests that school-based programs to prevent suicidal behavior ought to be gender-sensitive and peer-focused. PMID:24999370

  19. Elevated levels of iron in groundwater in Prey Veng province in Cambodia: a possible factor contributing to high iron stores in women.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Murphy, Heather M; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; Vercauteren, Suzanne M; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Porter, Keith; Kroeun, Hou; Eath, Many; McLean, Judy; Green, Timothy J

    2015-06-01

    Iron is a natural element found in food, water and soil and is essential for human health. Our aim was to determine the levels of iron and 25 other metals and trace elements in groundwater from 22 households in Prey Veng, Cambodia. Water analyses were conducted using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and optical emission spectrometry. Compared to the 2011 World Health Organization guidelines for drinking water quality, aluminum, iron and manganese exceeded maximum levels (in 4.5, 72.7 and 40.9% of samples, respectively). Compared to the 2004 Cambodian drinking water quality standards, iron and manganese exceeded maximum levels (in 59.1 and 36.4% of samples, respectively). We found no evidence of arsenic contamination. Guidelines for iron were established primarily for esthetic reasons (e.g. taste), whereas other metals and elements have adverse effects associated with toxicity. Iron in groundwater ranged from 134 to 5,200 μg/L (mean ∼1,422 μg/L). Based on a daily consumption of 3 L groundwater, this equates to ∼0.4-15.6 mg iron (mean ∼4.3 mg/day), which may be contributing to high iron stores and the low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in Prey Veng women. Elevated levels of manganese in groundwater are a concern and warrant further investigation. PMID:26042988

  20. Simulation of Canopy CO2/H2O Fluxes for a Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) Plantation in Central Cambodia: The Effect of the Regular Spacing of Planted Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Mudd, Ryan; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Liu, Wen; Giambelluca, Thomas; Kobayashi, N.; Lim, Tiva Khan; Jomura, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Huang, Maoyi; Chen, Qi; Ziegler, Alan; Yin, Song

    2013-09-10

    We developed a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model applicable to simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes from the canopies of rubber plantations, which are characterized by distinct canopy clumping produced by regular spacing of plantation trees. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers it is replacing. Describing the biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations via SVAT modeling is therefore essential to understanding the impacts on environmental processes. The regular spacing of plantation trees creates a peculiar canopy structure that is not well represented in most SVAT models, which generally assumes a non-uniform spacing of vegetation. Herein we develop a SVAT model applicable to rubber plantation and an evaluation method for its canopy structure, and examine how the peculiar canopy structure of rubber plantations affects canopy CO2 and H2O exchanges. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to account for intensive canopy clumping in order to reproduce observed rubber plantation fluxes. These results suggest a potentially optimal spacing of rubber trees to produce high productivity and water use efficiency.

  1. Integration of Multiplex Bead Assays for Parasitic Diseases into a National, Population-Based Serosurvey of Women 15-39 Years of Age in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Jeffrey W.; Jenks, M. Harley; Moss, Delynn M.; Mao, Bunsoth; Buth, Sokhal; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Soeung, Sann Chan; Lucchi, Naomi W.; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Gregory, Christopher J.; Huy, Rekol; Muth, Sinuon; Lammie, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Collection of surveillance data is essential for monitoring and evaluation of public health programs. Integrated collection of household-based health data, now routinely carried out in many countries through demographic health surveys and multiple indicator surveys, provides critical measures of progress in health delivery. In contrast, biomarker surveys typically focus on single or related measures of malaria infection, HIV status, vaccination coverage, or immunity status for vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD). Here we describe an integrated biomarker survey based on use of a multiplex bead assay (MBA) to simultaneously measure antibody responses to multiple parasitic diseases of public health importance as part of a VPD serological survey in Cambodia. A nationally-representative cluster-based survey was used to collect serum samples from women of child-bearing age. Samples were tested by MBA for immunoglobulin G antibodies recognizing recombinant antigens from Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, Wuchereria bancrofti, Toxoplasma gondii, Taenia solium, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Serologic IgG antibody results were useful both for generating national prevalence estimates for the parasitic diseases of interest and for confirming the highly focal distributions of some of these infections. Integrated surveys offer an opportunity to systematically assess the status of multiple public health programs and measure progress toward Millennium Development Goals. PMID:27136913

  2. Validity of measures of pain and symptoms in HIV/AIDS infected households in resources poor settings: results from the Dominican Republic and Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Gregory; Wolf, R Cameron; Morineau, Guy; Harding, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Background HIV/AIDS treatment programs are currently being mounted in many developing nations that include palliative care services. While measures of palliative care have been developed and validated for resource rich settings, very little work exists to support an understanding of measurement for Africa, Latin America or Asia. Methods This study investigates the construct validity of measures of reported pain, pain control, symptoms and symptom control in areas with high HIV-infected prevalence in Dominican Republic and Cambodia Measures were adapted from the POS (Palliative Outcome Scale). Households were selected through purposive sampling from networks of people living with HIV/AIDS. Consistencies in patterns in the data were tested used Chi Square and Mantel Haenszel tests. Results The sample persons who reported chronic illness were much more likely to report pain and symptoms compared to those not chronically ill. When controlling for the degrees of pain, pain control did not differ between the chronically ill and non-chronically ill using a Mantel Haenszel test in both countries. Similar results were found for reported symptoms and symptom control for the Dominican Republic. These findings broadly support the construct validity of an adapted version of the POS in these two less developed countries. Conclusion The results of the study suggest that the selected measures can usefully be incorporated into population-based surveys and evaluation tools needed to monitor palliative care and used in settings with high HIV/AIDS prevalence. PMID:16549003

  3. Integration of Multiplex Bead Assays for Parasitic Diseases into a National, Population-Based Serosurvey of Women 15-39 Years of Age in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Priest, Jeffrey W; Jenks, M Harley; Moss, Delynn M; Mao, Bunsoth; Buth, Sokhal; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Soeung, Sann Chan; Lucchi, Naomi W; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Gregory, Christopher J; Huy, Rekol; Muth, Sinuon; Lammie, Patrick J

    2016-05-01

    Collection of surveillance data is essential for monitoring and evaluation of public health programs. Integrated collection of household-based health data, now routinely carried out in many countries through demographic health surveys and multiple indicator surveys, provides critical measures of progress in health delivery. In contrast, biomarker surveys typically focus on single or related measures of malaria infection, HIV status, vaccination coverage, or immunity status for vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD). Here we describe an integrated biomarker survey based on use of a multiplex bead assay (MBA) to simultaneously measure antibody responses to multiple parasitic diseases of public health importance as part of a VPD serological survey in Cambodia. A nationally-representative cluster-based survey was used to collect serum samples from women of child-bearing age. Samples were tested by MBA for immunoglobulin G antibodies recognizing recombinant antigens from Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, Wuchereria bancrofti, Toxoplasma gondii, Taenia solium, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Serologic IgG antibody results were useful both for generating national prevalence estimates for the parasitic diseases of interest and for confirming the highly focal distributions of some of these infections. Integrated surveys offer an opportunity to systematically assess the status of multiple public health programs and measure progress toward Millennium Development Goals. PMID:27136913

  4. Pre-packing of cost effective antibiotic cement beads for the treatment of traumatic osteomyelitis in the developing world - an in-vitro study based in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Noor, S; Gilson, A; Kennedy, K; Swanson, A; Vanny, V; Mony, K; Chaudhry, T; Gollogly, J

    2016-04-01

    The developing world often lacks the resources to effectively treat the most serious injuries including osteomyelitis following open fractures or surgical fracture treatment. Antibiotic cement beads are a widely accepted method of delivering antibiotics locally to the infected area following trauma. This study is based in Cambodia, a low income country struggling to recover from a recent genocide. The study aims to test the effectiveness of locally made antibiotic beads and analyse their effectiveness after being gas sterilised, packaged and kept in storage Different antibiotic beads were manufactured locally using bone cement and tested against MRSA bacteria grown from a case of osteomyelitis. Each antibiotic was tested before and after a process of gas sterilisation as well as later being tested after storage in packaging up to 42 days. The gentamicin, vancomycin, amikacin and ceftriaxone beads all inhibited growth of the MRSA on the TSB and agar plates, both before and after gas sterilisation. All four antibiotics continued to show similar zones of inhibition after 42 days of storage. The results show significant promise to produce beads with locally obtainable ingredients in an austere environment and improve cost effectiveness by storing them in a sterilised condition. PMID:26899719

  5. Eight new species, a new record, and redescription of the genus Discoxenus Wasmann, 1904: The first record of termitophilous rove beetles in Cambodia (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae).

    PubMed

    Kanao, Taisuke; Maruyama, Munetoshi

    2015-01-01

    As the first record of the Cambodian termitophilous rove beetles, eight new species of the genus Discoxenus Wasmann, 1904 (Aleocharini: Compactopediina) are described, along with a redescription of the genus. Discoxenus katayamai Kanao & Maruyama, 2010, which was originally known from Thailand, is newly recorded from Cambodia and redescribed. Discoxenus species are morphologically divided into two species groups, namely the latiabdominalis and the assmuthi. The latiabdominalis species group includes D. latiabdominalis n. sp. and D. cambodiensis n. sp., and both species are associated with Odontotermes maesodensis Ahmad, 1965. The assmuthi species group comprises 11 species: D. assmuthi Wasmann, 1904, D. lepisma Wasmann, 1904, D. indicus Kistner, 1982, D. malaysiensis Kistner, 1982, D. phourini n. sp., D. kohkongensis n. sp., D. hirsutus n. sp., D. minutus n. sp., D. lucidus n. sp., D. kakizoei n. sp., and D. katayamai. The members in the assmuthi species group are associated with Odontotermes or Hypotermes termites. One of the unique morphological features of the assmuthi species group is the strongly developed distal crest of the male aedeagal median lobe while that observed in the latiabdominalis species group is not produced, which is general character state in the tribe Aleocharini. The character state of distal crest and several other morphological features such as mouthparts are considered to support the monophyly of respective species groups in Discoxenus. PMID:26624709

  6. Protocol of a cluster randomised stepped-wedge trial of behavioural interventions targeting amphetamine-type stimulant use and sexual risk among female entertainment and sex workers in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Page, Kimberly; Stein, Ellen S; Carrico, Adam W; Evans, Jennifer L; Sokunny, Muth; Nil, Ean; Ngak, Song; Sophal, Chhit; McCulloch, Charles; Maher, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV risk among female entertainment and sex workers (FESW) remains high and use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) significantly increases this risk. We designed a cluster randomised stepped wedge trial (The Cambodia Integrated HIV and Drug Prevention Implementation (CIPI) study) to test sequentially delivered behavioural interventions targeting ATS use. Methods and analysis The trial combines a 12-week Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) intervention with 4 weeks of cognitive-behavioural group aftercare (AC) among FESW who use ATS. The primary goal is to reduce ATS use and unprotected sex among FESW. The CCT+AC intervention is being implemented in 10 provinces where order of delivery was randomised. Outcome assessments (OEs) including biomarkers and self-reported measures of recent sexual and drug use behaviours are conducted prior to implementation, and at three 6-month intervals after completion. Consultation with multiple groups and stakeholders on implementation factors facilitated acceptance and operationalisation of the trial. Statistical power and sample size calculations were based on expected changes in ATS use and unprotected sex at the population level as well as within subjects. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approvals were granted by the Cambodia National Ethics Committee; University of New Mexico; University of California, San Francisco; and FHI360. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov. Dissemination of process indicators during the multiyear trial is carried out through annual in-country Stakeholder Meetings. Provincial ‘Close-Out’ forums are held at the conclusion of data collection in each province. When analysis is completed, dissemination meetings will be held in Cambodia with stakeholders, including community-based discussion sessions, policy briefs and results published and presented in the HIV prevention scientific journals and conferences. Conclusions CIPI is the first trial of an intervention to reduce ATS use

  7. A child feeding index is superior to WHO IYCF indicators in explaining length-for-age Z-scores of young children in rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Reinbott, Anika; Kuchenbecker, Judith; Herrmann, Johannes; Jordan, Irmgard; Muehlhoff, Ellen; Kevanna, Ou; Krawinkel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate young child feeding practices are influenced by a multitude of factors which affect growth and development. A combination of indicators is needed to explain the role of complementary feeding practices in growth retardation. Methods: A cross-sectional nutrition baseline survey was conducted in rural Cambodia in September 2012. Villages in pre-selected communes were randomly selected using stunting as a primary indicator. Data were collected from 803 randomly selected households with children aged 6–23 months, based on a standardised questionnaire and on length/height and weight measurements of mother and child. WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators [minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF), minimum acceptable diet (MAD)] and a child feeding index (CFI) were created. The latter consisted of five components: breastfeeding, use of bottle, dietary diversity, food frequency and meal frequency which were adjusted for three age groups: 6–8, 9–11 and 12–23 months. The highest possible score was 10. Associations between length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ) and WHO indicators or CFI were explored. Results: Mean (SD) LAZ was −1.25 (1.14) (n  =  801). Mean (range) CFI was 6.7 (1–10) (n  =  797). Mean CFI was highest in the 9–11-months age group (7.93) and lowest for those aged 12–23 months (5.96). None of the WHO IYCF indicators was associated with LAZ, whereas CFI showed significant association with LAZ (P < 0.01). The association between higher CFI scores and LAZ became weaker as age increased. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to include a wide range of information in the analysis in order to understand the association between appropriate infant feeding practices and child growth. PMID:25226288

  8. Fine-Scale Mapping by Spatial Risk Distribution Modeling for Regional Malaria Endemicity and Its Implications under the Low-to-Moderate Transmission Setting in Western Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Okami, Suguru; Kohtake, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    The disease burden of malaria has decreased as malaria elimination efforts progress. The mapping approach that uses spatial risk distribution modeling needs some adjustment and reinvestigation in accordance with situational changes. Here we applied a mathematical modeling approach for standardized morbidity ratio (SMR) calculated by annual parasite incidence using routinely aggregated surveillance reports, environmental data such as remote sensing data, and non-environmental anthropogenic data to create fine-scale spatial risk distribution maps of western Cambodia. Furthermore, we incorporated a combination of containment status indicators into the model to demonstrate spatial heterogeneities of the relationship between containment status and risks. The explanatory model was fitted to estimate the SMR of each area (adjusted Pearson correlation coefficient R2 = 0.774; Akaike information criterion AIC = 149.423). A Bayesian modeling framework was applied to estimate the uncertainty of the model and cross-scale predictions. Fine-scale maps were created by the spatial interpolation of estimated SMRs at each village. Compared with geocoded case data, corresponding predicted values showed conformity [Spearman’s rank correlation r = 0.662 in the inverse distance weighed interpolation and 0.645 in ordinal kriging (95% confidence intervals of 0.414–0.827 and 0.368–0.813, respectively), Welch’s t-test; Not significant]. The proposed approach successfully explained regional malaria risks and fine-scale risk maps were created under low-to-moderate malaria transmission settings where reinvestigations of existing risk modeling approaches were needed. Moreover, different representations of simulated outcomes of containment status indicators for respective areas provided useful insights for tailored interventional planning, considering regional malaria endemicity. PMID:27415623

  9. Strengthening institutional and organizational capacity for social health protection of the informal sector in lesser-developed countries: a study of policy barriers and opportunities in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Annear, Peter Leslie; Ahmed, Shakil; Ros, Chhun Eang; Ir, Por

    2013-11-01

    Reaching out to the poor and the informal sector is a major challenge for achieving universal coverage in lesser-developed countries. In Cambodia, extensive coverage by health equity funds for the poor has created the opportunity to consolidate various non-government health financing schemes under the government's proposed social health protection structure. This paper identifies the main policy and operational challenges to strengthening existing arrangements for the poor and the informal sector, and considers policy options to address these barriers. Conducted in conjunction with the Cambodian Ministry of Health in 2011-12, the study reviewed policy documents and collected qualitative data through 18 semi-structured key informant interviews with government, non-government and donor officials. Data were analysed using the Organizational Assessment for Improving and Strengthening Health Financing conceptual framework. We found that a significant shortfall related to institutional, organisational and health financing issues resulted in fragmentation and constrained the implementation of social health protection schemes, including health equity funds, community-based health insurance, vouchers and others. Key documents proposed the establishment of a national structure for the unification of the informal-sector schemes but left unresolved issues related to structure, institutional capacity and the third-party status of the national agency. This study adds to the evidence base on appropriate and effective institutional and organizational arrangements for social health protection in the informal sector in developing countries. Among the key lessons are: the need to expand the fiscal space for health care; a commitment to equity; specific measures to protect the poor; building national capacity for administration of universal coverage; and working within the specific national context. PMID:23466261

  10. Challenges from Tuberculosis Diagnosis to Care in Community-Based Active Case Finding among the Urban Poor in Cambodia: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Shelly; Koeut, Pichenda; Thai, Sopheak; Khun, Kim Eam; Colebunders, Robert; Lynen, Lut

    2015-01-01

    Background While community-based active case finding (ACF) for tuberculosis (TB) holds promise for increasing early case detection among hard-to-reach populations, limited data exist on the acceptability of active screening. We aimed to identify barriers and explore facilitators on the pathway from diagnosis to care among TB patients and health providers. Methods Mixed-methods study. We administered a survey questionnaire to, and performed in-depth interviews with, TB patients identified through ACF from poor urban settlements in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Additionally, we conducted focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with community and public health providers involved in ACF, respectively. Results Acceptance of home TB screening was strong among key stakeholders due to perceived reductions in access barriers and in direct and indirect patient costs. Privacy and stigma were not an issue. To build trust and facilitate communication, the participation of community representatives alongside health workers was preferred. Most health providers saw ACF as complementary to existing TB services; however, additional workload as a result of ACF was perceived as straining operating capacity at public sector sites. Proximity to a health facility and disease severity were the strongest determinants of prompt care-seeking. The main reasons reported for delays in treatment-seeking were non-acceptance of diagnosis, high indirect costs related to lost income/productivity and transportation expenses, and anticipated side-effects from TB drugs. Conclusions TB patients and health providers considered home-based ACF complementary to facility-based TB screening. Strong engagement with community representatives was believed critical in gaining access to high risk communities. The main barriers to prompt treatment uptake in ACF were refusal of diagnosis, high indirect costs, and anticipated treatment side-effects. A patient-centred approach and community involvement were essential

  11. Element concentrations in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.), fish and sediment from a wetland production system that receives wastewater from Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Marcussen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Holm, Peter E

    2009-01-01

    The Cheung Ek Lake, which is located south of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, receives most of the industrial and domestic wastewater that is produced in the city. The lake is used for fishing and production of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk). Concentrations of 35 elements were determined in water spinach and sediment that were collected along transects of two wastewater inlets in the lake, at the lake outlet, and in a non-wastewater exposed pond. Elevated concentrations of the potentially toxic elements (PTEs) Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn were found in the water spinach and sediment samples collected near the wastewater inlets. The highest determined PTE concentrations in water spinach were, in mg kg(- 1) fresh weight (f.w.), As 0.19, Cd 0.022, Cu 2.95, Fe 251, Pb 0.206 and Zn 9.08. For an adult person in Phnom Penh, the maximum intake of PTEs from consumption of water spinach harvested near the wastewater inlets amounts to 5.7% As, 1.4% Cd, 0.4% Cu, 20.5% Fe, 3.8% Pb and 0.6% Zn of the maximum tolerable intake set by the Codex Alimentarious Commission. Arsenic, Cd and Pb concentrations in the liver, skin, and muscle of three fish species caught in the lake were below or near the detection limits, except for a high accumulation of the three elements in the skin of the blackskin catfish. In conclusion, the consumption of water spinach and fish from Cheung Ek Lake constitutes a low food safety risk with respect to PTEs. PMID:19085597

  12. Climate change adaptation options in rainfed upland cropping systems in the wet tropics: A case study of smallholder farms in North-West Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Touch, Van; Martin, Robert John; Scott, Jeannette Fiona; Cowie, Annette; Liu, De Li

    2016-11-01

    While climate change is confirmed to have serious impacts on agricultural production in many regions worldwide, researchers have proposed various measures that farmers can apply to cope with and adapt to those changes. However, it is often the case that not every adaptation measure would be practical and adoptable in a specific region. Farmers may have their own ways of managing and adapting to climate change that need to be taken into account when considering interventions. This study aimed to engage with farmers to: (1) better understand small-holder knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to perceived or expected climate change; and (2) document cropping practices, climate change perceptions, constraints to crop production, and coping and adaptation options with existing climate variability and expected climate change. This study was conducted in 2015 in Sala Krau village near Pailin (12°52'N, 102°45'E) and Samlout (12°39'N, 102°36'E) of North-West Cambodia. The methods used were a combination of focus group discussions and one-on-one interviews where 132 farming households were randomly selected. We found that farmers were conscious of changes in climate over recent years, and had a good understanding of likely future changes. While farmers are aware of some practices that can be modified to minimize risk and cope with anticipated changes, they are reluctant to apply them. Furthermore; there are no government agricultural extension services provided at the village level and farmers have relied on each other and other actors in the value chain network for information to support their decision-making. There is a lack of knowledge of the principles of conservation agriculture that urgently require agricultural extension services in the region to build farmer ability to better cope and adapt to climate change. PMID:27479240

  13. The social determinants of health and health service access: an in depth study in four poor communities in Phnom Penh Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing urbanization and population density, and persisting inequities in health outcomes across socioeconomic groupings have raised concerns internationally regarding the health of the urban poor. These concerns are also evident in Cambodia, which prompted the design of a study to identify and describe the main barriers to access to health services by the poor in the capital city, Phnom Penh. Sources and Methods Main sources of data were through a household survey, followed by in-depth qualitative interviews with mothers, local authorities and health centre workers in four very poor communities in Phnom Penh. Main findings Despite low incomes and education levels, the study communities have moderate levels of access to services for curative and preventive care. However, qualitative findings demonstrate that households contextualize poor health and health access in terms of their daily living conditions, particularly in relation to environmental conditions and social insecurity. The interactions of low education, poor living conditions and high food costs in the context of low and irregular incomes reinforce a pattern of “living from moment to moment” and results in a cycle of disadvantage and ill health in these communities. There were three main factors that put poor communities at a health disadvantage; these are the everyday living conditions of communities, social and economic inequality and the extent to which a society assesses and acts on inequities in their health care access. Conclusions In order to improve access to health and health services for the urban poor, expansion of public health functions and capacities will be required, including building partnerships between health providers, municipal authorities and civil society. PMID:22900888

  14. Assessment of corporate compliance with guidance and regulations on labels of commercially produced complementary foods sold in Cambodia, Nepal, Senegal and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Lara; Pereira, Catherine; Ford, Rosalyn; Feeley, Alison B; Badham, Jane; Mengkheang, Khin; Adhikary, Indu; Sy Gueye, Ndèye Yaga; Coly, Aminata Ndiaye; Makafu, Cecilia; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    National legislation and global guidance address labelling of complementary foods to ensure that labels support optimal infant and young child feeding practices. This cross-sectional study assessed the labels of commercially produced complementary foods (CPCF) sold in Phnom Penh (n = 70), Cambodia; Kathmandu Valley (n = 22), Nepal; Dakar Department (n = 84), Senegal; and Dar es Salaam (n = 26), Tanzania. Between 3.6% and 30% of products did not provide any age recommendation and 8.6-20.2% of products, from all sites, recommended an age of introduction of <6 months. Few CPCF products provided a daily ration (0.0-8.6%) and 14.5-55.6% of those that did exceeded the daily energy recommendation for complementary foods for a breastfed child from 6 to 8.9 months of age. Only 3.6-27.3% of labels provided accurate and complete messages in the required language encouraging exclusive breastfeeding, and almost none (0.0-2.9%) provided accurate and complete messages regarding the appropriate introduction of complementary foods together with continued breastfeeding. Between 34.3% and 70.2% of CPCF manufacturers also produced breastmilk substitutes and 41.7-78.0% of relevant CPCF products cross-promoted their breastmilk substitutes products. Labelling practices of CPCF included in this study do not fully comply with international guidance on their promotion and selected aspects of national legislation, and there is a need for more detailed normative guidance on certain promotion practices in order to protect and promote optimal infant and young child feeding. PMID:27061960

  15. Bacterial Larvicide, Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Strain AM 65-52 Water Dispersible Granule Formulation Impacts Both Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) Population Density and Disease Transmission in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Setha, To; Chantha, Ngan; Benjamin, Seleena; Socheat, Doung

    2016-09-01

    A multi-phased study was conducted in Cambodia from 2005-2011 to measure the impact of larviciding with the bacterial larvicide, Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), a water dispersible granule (WG) formulation on the vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) and the epidemiology. In our studies, all in-use containers were treated at 8 g/1000 L, including smaller containers and animal feeders which were found to contribute 23% of Ae aegypti pupae. The treated waters were subjected to routine water exchange activities. Pupal production was suppressed by an average 91% for 8 weeks. Pupal numbers continued to remain significantly lower than the untreated commune (UTC) for 13 weeks post treatment in the peak dengue vector season (p<0.05). Suppression of pupal production was supported by very low adult numbers in the treated commune. An average 70% of the household harbored 0-5 Ae aegypti mosquitoes per home for 8 weeks post treatment, but in the same period of time >50% of the household in the UTC harbored ≥11 mosquitoes per home. The adult population continued to remain at significantly much lower numbers in the Bti treated commune than in the UTC for 10-12 weeks post treatment (p<0.05). In 2011, a pilot operational program was evaluated in Kandal Province, a temephos resistant site. It was concluded that 2 cycles of Bti treatment in the 6 months monsoon season with complete coverage of the target districts achieved an overall dengue case reduction of 48% in the 6 treated districts compared to the previous year, 2010. Five untreated districts in the same province had an overwhelming increase of 352% of dengue cases during the same period of time. The larvicide efficacy, treatment of all in-use containers at the start of the monsoon season, together with treatment coverage of entire districts interrupted disease transmission in the temephos resistant province. PMID:27627758

  16. Increasing Uptake of Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives in Cambodia Through a Voucher Program: Evidence From a Difference-in-Differences Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bajracharya, Ashish; Veasnakiry, Lo; Rathavy, Tung; Bellows, Ben

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This article evaluates the use of modern contraceptives among poor women exposed to a family planning voucher program in Cambodia, with a particular focus on the uptake of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs). Methods: We used a quasi-experimental study design and data from before-and-after intervention cross-sectional household surveys (conducted in 2011 and 2013) in 9 voucher program districts in Kampong Thom, Kampot, and Prey Veng provinces, as well as 9 comparison districts in neighboring provinces, to evaluate changes in use of modern contraceptives and particularly LARCs in the 12 months preceding each survey. Survey participants in the analytical sample were currently married, non-pregnant women ages 18 to 45 years (N = 1,936 at baseline; N = 1,986 at endline). Difference-in-differences (DID) analyses were used to examine the impact of the family planning voucher. Results: Modern contraceptive use increased in both intervention and control areas between baseline and endline: in intervention areas, from 22.4% to 31.6%, and in control areas, from 25.2% to 31.0%. LARC use also increased significantly between baseline and endline in both intervention (from 1.4% to 6.7%) and control (from 1.9% to 3.5%) areas, but the increase in LARC use was 3.7 percentage points greater in the intervention area than in the control area (P = .002), suggesting a positive and significant association of the voucher program with LARC use. The greatest increases occurred among the poorest and least educated women. Conclusion: A family planning voucher program can increase access to and use of more effective long-acting methods among the poor by reducing financial and information barriers. PMID:27540118

  17. Paleomagnetism of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous red beds from the Cardamom Mountains, southwestern Cambodia: Tectonic deformation of the Indochina Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiyama, Yukiho; Zaman, Haider; Sotham, Sieng; Samuth, Yos; Sato, Eiichi; Ahn, Hyeon-Seon; Uno, Koji; Tsumura, Kosuke; Miki, Masako; Otofuji, Yo-ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous red beds of the Phuquoc Formation were sampled at 33 sites from the Sihanoukville and Koah Kong areas of the Phuquoc-Kampot Som Basin, southwestern Cambodia. Two high-temperature remanent components with unblocking temperature ranging 650°-670 °C and 670-690 °C were identified. The magnetization direction for the former component (D = 5.2 °, I = 18.5 ° with α95 = 3.1 ° in situ) reveals a negative fold test that indicates a post-folding secondary nature. However, the latter component, carried by specular hematite, is recognized as a primary remanent magnetization. A tilt-corrected mean direction of D = 43.4 °, I = 31.9 ° (α95 = 3.6 °) was calculated for the primary component at 11 sites, corresponding to a paleopole of 47.7°N, 178.9°E (A95 = 3.6 °). When compared with the 130 Ma East Asian pole, a southward displacement of 6.0 ° ± 3.5 ° and a clockwise rotation of 33.1 ° ± 4.0 ° of the Phuquoc-Kampot Som Basin (as a part of the Indochina Block) with respect to East Asia were estimated. This estimate of the clockwise rotation is ∼15° larger than that of the Khorat Basin, which we attribute to dextral motion along the Wang Chao Fault since the mid-Oligocene. The comparison of the herein estimated clockwise rotation with the counter-clockwise rotation reported from the Da Lat area in Vietnam suggests the occurrence of a differential tectonic rotation in the southern tip of the Indochina Block. During the southward displacement of the Indochina Block, the non-rigid lithosphere under its southern tip moved heterogeneously, while the rigid lithosphere under the Khorat Basin moved homogeneously.

  18. Acute lower respiratory infections in ≥5 year -old hospitalized patients in Cambodia, a low-income tropical country: clinical characteristics and pathogenic etiology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few data exist on viral and bacterial etiology of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in ≥5 year –old persons in the tropics. Methods We conducted active surveillance of community-acquired ALRI in two hospitals in Cambodia, a low-income tropical country. Patients were tested for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) by direct sputum examination, other bacteria by blood and/or sputum cultures, and respiratory viruses using molecular techniques on nasopharyngeal/throat swabs. Pulmonologists reviewed clinical/laboratory data and interpreted chest X-rays (CXR) to confirm ALRI. Results Between April 2007 - December 2009, 1,904 patients aged ≥5 years were admitted with acute pneumonia (50.4%), lung sequelae-associated ALRI (24.3%), isolated pleural effusions (8.9%) or normal CXR-related ALRI (17.1%); 61 (3.2%) died during hospitalization. The two former diagnoses were predominantly due to bacterial etiologies while viral detection was more frequent in the two latter diagnoses. AFB-positive accounted for 25.6% of acute pneumonia. Of the positive cultures (16.8%), abscess-prone Gram-negative bacteria (39.6%) and Haemophilus influenzae (38.0%) were most frequent, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (17.7%). Of the identified viruses, the three most common viruses included rhinoviruses (49.5%), respiratory syncytial virus (17.7%) and influenza viruses (12.1%) regardless of the diagnostic groups. Wheezing was associated with viral identification (31.9% vs. 13.8%, p < 0.001) independent of age and time-to-admission. Conclusions High frequency of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae infections support the need for introduction of the respective vaccines in the national immunization program. Tuberculosis was frequent in patients with acute pneumonia, requiring further investigation. The relationship between respiratory viruses and wheezing merits further studies. PMID:23432906

  19. Stability of Vitamin A, Iron and Zinc in Fortified Rice during Storage and Its Impact on Future National Standards and Programs—Case Study in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Kuong, Khov; Laillou, Arnaud; Chea, Chantum; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank T.

    2016-01-01

    Fortified rice holds great potential for bringing essential micronutrients to a large part of the world population. The present study quantified the losses of three different micronutrients (vitamin A, iron, zinc) in fortified rice that were produced using three different techniques (hot extrusion, cold extrusion, and coating) and stored at two different environments (25 ± 5 °C at a humidity of 60% and 40 ± 5 °C at a humidity of 75%) for up to one year. Fortified rice premix from the different techniques was mixed with normal rice in a 1:100 ratio. Each sample was analyzed in triplicate. The study confirmed the high stability of iron and zinc during storage while the retention of vitamin A was significantly affected by storage and the type of techniques used to make rice premix. Losses for iron and zinc were typically <10% for any type of rice premix. After 12 months at mild conditions (25 °C and humidity of 60%), losses for vitamin A ranged from 20% for cold extrusion, 30% for hot extruded rice 77% for coated rice premix. At higher temperatures and humidity, losses of vitamin A were 40%–50% for extruded premix and 93% for coated premix after 6 months. We conclude that storage does lead to a major loss of vitamin A and question whether rice is a suitable food vehicle to fortify with vitamin A. For Cambodia, fortification of rice with iron and zinc could be an effective strategy to improve the micronutrient status of the population if no other food vehicles are available. PMID:26784227

  20. Facilitators and barriers to accessing reproductive health care for migrant beer promoters in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam: A mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of the research was to assess access to sexual and reproductive health services for migrant women who work as beer promoters. This mixed methods research was conducted in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Bangkok, Thailand, Vientiane, Laos, and Hanoi, Vietnam during 2010 to 2011. Methods Focus groups were held with beer promoters and separate focus groups or interviews with key informants to explore the factors affecting beer promoters’ access to health care institutions for reproductive health care. The findings of the focus groups were used to develop a survey for beer promoters. This survey was conducted in popular health institutions for these women in each of the four Asian cities. Results Several common themes were evident. Work demands prevented beer promoters from accessing health care. Institutional factors affecting care included cost, location, environmental factors (e.g. waiting times, cleanliness and confidentiality) and service factors (e.g. staff attitudes, clinic hours, and availability of medications). Personal factors affecting access were shyness and fear, lack of knowledge, and support from family and friends. The survey of the beer promoters confirmed that cost, location and both environmental and service factors impact on access to health care services for beer promoters. Many beer promoters are sexually active, and a significant proportion of those surveyed rely on sex work to supplement their income. Many also drink with their clients. Despite a few differences amongst the surveyed population, the findings were remarkably similar across the four research sites. Conclusions Recommendations from the research include the provision of evening and weekend clinic hours to facilitate access, free or low cost clinics, and health insurance through employer or government plans which are easy to access for migrants. Other improvements that would facilitate the access of beer promoters to these services include increased funding to hire

  1. Current MUAC Cut-Offs to Screen for Acute Malnutrition Need to Be Adapted to Gender and Age: The Example of Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentino, Marion; Sophonneary, Prak; Laillou, Arnaud; Whitney, Sophie; de Groot, Richard; Perignon, Marlène; Kuong, Khov; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early identification of children <5 yrs with acute malnutrition is a priority. Acute malnutrition is defined by the World Health Organization as a mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) <12.5 cm or a weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) <-2. MUAC is a simple and low-cost indicator to screen for acute malnutrition in communities, but MUAC cut-offs currently recommended by WHO do not identify the majority of children with weight-for-height Z-score (<-2 (moderate malnourished) or r<-3 (severe malnourished). Also, no cut-offs for MUAC are established for children >5 yrs. Therefore, this study aimed at defining gender and age-specific cut-offs to improve sensitivity of MUAC as an indicator of acute malnutrition. Methods To establish new age and gender-specific MUAC cut-offs, pooled data was obtained for 14,173 children from 5 surveys in Cambodia (2011–2013). Sensitivity, false positive rates, and areas under receiver-operator characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated using wasting for children <5yrs and thinness for children ≥5yrs as gold standards. Among the highest values of AUC, the cut-off with the highest sensitivity and a false positive rate ≤33% was selected as the optimal cut-off. Results Optimal cut-off values increased with age. Boys had higher cut-offs than girls, except in the 8–10.9 yrs age range. In children <2yrs, the cut-off was lower for stunted children compared to non stunted children. Sensitivity of MUAC to identify WHZ<-2 and <-3 z-scores increased from 24.3% and 8.1% to >80% with the new cut-offs in comparison with the current WHO cut-offs. Conclusion Gender and age specific MUAC cut-offs drastically increased sensitivity to identify children with WHZ-score <-2 z-scores. International reference of MUAC cut-offs by age group and gender should be established to screen for acute malnutrition at the community level. PMID:26840899

  2. Development of a real-time hydrological cycle - rice growth coupled simulation system as a tool for farmers' decision making in an ungauged basin in Cambodia for the better agricultural water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, K.; Ohta, T.; Yasukawa, M.; Koike, T.; Kitsuregawa, M.; Homma, K.

    2013-12-01

    The entire country of Cambodia depends on agriculture for its economy. Rice is the staple food, making it the major agricultural product (roughly 80% of total national production). The target area of this study is western Cambodia, where rice production is the greatest in the country and most land is rainfed. Since most farmers rely only on their (non-science-based) experience, they would not adjust to changing rainfall and degraded water resources under climate change, so food security in the region would be seriously threatened (Monichoth et al., 2013). Under this condition, irrigation master plans are being considered by several ODA projects. This study aims to contribute to the design of such irrigation plans through the development of a real-time hydrological cycle - rice growth coupled simulation system. The purpose of the development of this system is to support decision making 1) for determining the necessary agricultural water resources and 2) for allocating limited water resources to various sectors. Rice growing condition as affected by water stress due to the water shortage is supposed to be shown for both of the cases with and without irrigation for several rainfall patterns. A dynamically coupled model of a distributed hydrological model (WEB-DHM., Wang et al., 2009) and a rice growth model (SIMRIW-rainfed, Homma et al., 2009) has been developed with a simple irrigation model. The target basin, a small basin in western Cambodia, is basically an ungauged basin and the model was validated by soil moisture, LAI, dry matter production of the rice crop, and rice yield, using both intensive field observation and satellite observations. Calibrating hourly satellite precipitation dataset (GSMaP/NRT) using ground rain gauges, hydrological cycle (soil moisture at three layers, river discharge, irrigatable water amount, water level of each paddy field, water demand of each paddy field, etc.) and rice growth (LAI, developmental index of the rice crop, dry matter

  3. How do rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations behave under seasonal water stress in northeastern Thailand and central Cambodia?

    SciTech Connect

    Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Mudd, Ryan G.; Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Kobayashi, Nakako; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Lim, Tiva Khan; Liu, Wen; Huang, Maoyi; Fox, Jefferson M.; Ziegler, Alan D.; Yin, Song; Mak, Sophea Veasna; Kasemsap, Poonpipope

    2015-11-01

    Plantation rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) is a viable economic resource for Southeast Asian countries. Consequently, rubber plantations are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially changing the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with the traditional land covers they are replacing. Delineating the characteristics of biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations is therefore important to understanding the impacts of such land use change on environmental processes. We have conducted eddy flux measurements in two rubber plantation sites: (1) Som Sanuk (SS), located northern Thailand; and (2) Cambodian Rubber Research Institute (CRRI), central Cambodia. Both sites have a distinct dry season. Measurements were made over a 3-year period. We used combination of actual evapotranspiration (ET) flux measurements and an inversed version of a simple 2-layer ET model for estimating the mean canopy stomatal conductances (gs), which is among the most effective measures for describing water and energy exchanges and tree water use characteristics. A main novelty in this analysis is that the rubber canopy conductance can be extracted from total surface conductance (including the canopy and the vegetation floor effects) and hence environmental and biological controls on rubber tree gs are explicitly compared at each site in different seasons and years. It is demonstrated how each studied rubber plantation copes with each strong seasonal drought via tree water use strategies. Potential tree water use deficit (precipitation (P) – potential evaporation (ET_POT)) for each season (i.e., December-February: DJF, March-May: MAM, June-August: JJA, and September-November: SON) revealed in which season and how the water use should be controlled. We found that in seasons when actual tree water use deficit (P

  4. Are Universities Reaping the Available Benefits Internship Programs Offer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weible, Rick

    2010-01-01

    Many research studies have examined the benefits student internships offer students and employers, but few looked at the benefits internships might lend to educational institutions. A survey instrument was developed and sent to 619 deans of all U.S. business programs. In all, 29% replied. The results indicate some institutions are gaining the…

  5. School Yard Gardening Reaps Harvest of Learning and Lettuce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasgalla, June

    1989-01-01

    Describes the experiences of a kindergarten class that conducted an extensive outdoor vegetable gardening project with the help of parent volunteers. The article presents seven steps to assist PTAs in establishing such a project and notes the value of school gardens in developing student skills. (SM)

  6. Hydrological change: reaping prosperity and pain in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunin, F. X.; Smith, C. J.; Denmead, O. T.

    2007-01-01

    The adage: “There is no such thing as a free lunch”, is relevant to land-use hydrology in Australia. Changes in land use to achieve greater productivity of food and fibre may have an adverse effect on the water balance and hence on the natural resource capital of a catchment. An altered regime of catchment outflow accompanies those land-use changes which, together with land degradation, impairs available water resources in quantity and quality and threatens enterprise sustainability, notwithstanding the initial improvement in productivity. Central to any hydrological change is an altered pattern of seasonal and annual water use by vegetation that has become modified in function with an amended transpiration fraction of daily evapotranspiration. In Australia, since measurement of evapotranspiration became feasible, the hydrological consequences of changes in land use have been determined, allowing the benefits in terms of plant productivity achieved through enhanced water use efficiency to be weighed against changed catchment outflows, diminished in either quantity or quality. Four case studies are presented as examples of ecological and hydrological changes: two deal with the upland forest environment and two with arable lowlands. In an upland eucalypt forest, following wildfire with subsequent regeneration from natural seedling establishment, substantial reduction in water yield occurred throughout a 50-year period of succession in the even-aged stand. In comparison, the effect of converting eucalypt forest to pine plantations was less detrimental to the yield of water from the catchments, with substantial growth increases over 30 years. In the lowlands, agricultural productivity, both as annual pasture and as crop, far exceeds that of natural perennial grassland and woodland. This increase in productivity comes not so much from any change to the yield of total water outflow but at the expense of water quality, compromised with increased material transport in suspension and solution resulting from accelerated erosion in association with outbreaks of soil salinity and acidity. The present study is aimed at optimising management to give plant production outcomes that ensure environmental protection through resource conservation. In the uplands, harvesting of water is the dominant consideration so that conservative management with limited plant productivity is sought. In the lowlands, the objective is to devise novel ecosystems with profitable plant production that exercises due control on outflow in maintaining the chemical and physical integrity of the edaphic environment.

  7. Clinicians reaping benefits of new concepts in impressioning.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Nathaniel C; Burgess, John O

    2015-02-01

    While conventional elastomeric impression materials are still being used to generate excellent impressions, the future of impression-taking is undoubtedly with digital intraoral scanners. Advances in scanning systems are making this technology easier to use and more practical for dentists. PMID:25822643

  8. Boys, Masculinity and School Violence: Reaping What We Sow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Sandy White

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the author explores the relationship between masculinity and violence. She begins by pointing out that although all of the recent school shootings in the US have been perpetrated by boys, very few are associating the acts with the gender of the offenders. Perhaps this connection is not made because society is so conditioned to the…

  9. Evaluation of parasite subpopulations and genetic diversity of the msp1, msp2 and glurp genes during and following artesunate monotherapy treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Western Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite widespread coverage of the emergence of artemisinin resistance, relatively little is known about the parasite populations responsible. The use of PCR genotyping around the highly polymorphic Plasmodium falciparum msp1, msp2 and glurp genes has become well established both to describe variability in alleles within a population of parasites, as well as classify treatment outcome in cases of recurrent disease. The primary objective was to assess the emergence of minority parasite clones during seven days of artesunate (AS) treatment in a location with established artemisinin resistance. An additional objective was to investigate whether the classification of clinical outcomes remained valid when additional genotyping was performed. Methods Blood for parasite genotyping was collected from 143 adult patients presenting with uncomplicated falciparum malaria during a clinical trial of AS monotherapy in Western Cambodia. Nested allelic type-specific amplification of the genes encoding the merozoite surface proteins 1 and 2 (msp1 and msp2) and the glutamate-rich protein (glurp) was performed at baseline, daily during seven days of treatment, and again at failure. Allelic variants were analysed with respect to the size of polymorphisms using Quantity One software to enable identification of polyclonal infections. Results Considerable variation of msp2 alleles but well-conserved msp1 and glurp were identified. At baseline, 31% of infections were polyclonal for one or more genes. Patients with recurrent malaria were significantly more likely to have polyclonal infections than patients without recurrence (seven of nine versus 36 of 127, p = 0.004). Emergence of minority alleles during treatment was detected in only one of twenty-three cases defined as being artemisinin resistant. Moreover, daily genotyping did not alter the final outcome classification in any recurrent cases. Conclusions The parasites responsible for artemisinin-resistant malaria in a

  10. Natural polymorphisms of HIV-1 CRF01_AE integrase coding region in ARV-naïve individuals in Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam: an ANRS AC12 working group study.

    PubMed

    Nouhin, Janin; Donchai, Tawee; Hoang, Khanh Thu Huynh; Ken, Sreymom; Kamkorn, Jiraporn; Tran, Ton; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Peeters, Martine; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Lien, Truong Xuan; Nerrienet, Eric; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The HIV integrase enzyme is essential for the HIV life cycle as it mediates integration of HIV-1 proviral DNA into the infected cell's genome. Recently, the development of drugs capable of inhibiting integrase has provided major new options for HIV-infected, treatment-experienced patients with multidrug resistant virus, as well treatment-naïve patients. More than 40 amino acid substitutions within integrase have been described as associated mostly with resistance of HIV B-subtypes to currently available integrase inhibitors (INIs). We have analyzed the natural polymorphisms of the integrase coding region in 87 antiretroviral-naïve subjects (32 from Cambodia, 37 from Thailand and 18 from Vietnam) infected with CRF01_AE virus, the predominant HIV-1 strain circulating in Southeast Asia. The 864bp integrase coding region was sequenced using the ANRS consensus sequencing technique from plasma samples, and amino acid results were interpreted for drug resistance according to the ANRS (Updated July 2009, version 18) and Stanford algorithms (Version November 6, 2009). Alignment of the 87 amino acid sequences against the 2004 Los Alamos HIV-1 clade B consensus sequence showed that overall, 119 of 288 (41.3%) amino acid positions presented at least one polymorphism each. Substitutions found in >60% of study subjects occurred at: K14, A21, V31, S39, I72, T112, T124, T125, G134, I135, K136, D167, V201, L234 and S283. Also, new amino acid substitutions of as yet unknown significance were identified: E152K/H, S153F/L, N155I and E157G. None of the known integrase resistance mutations were observed, except E157Q found in one Cambodian subject (1.1%, CI 95% 0.02-6.3%). The clinical impact of this substitution on resistance of B and nonB-viruses to the licensed INI raltegravir is unclear. If this substitution is confirmed to compromise the virologic response to raltegravir, further studies will be needed to better assess the prevalence of this substitution among CRF01_AE virus

  11. [Clinical aspects of AIDS at the Calmette hospital in Phnom Penh, Kingdom of Cambodia A report on 356 patients hospitalized in the Medicine "B" Department of the Calmette Hospital].

    PubMed

    Pichith, K; Chanroeun, H; Bunna, P; Nyvanny, N; Thavary, S; Kosal, S; Crepin, P

    2001-01-01

    conclusions, tuberculosis is the most frequent of the opportunistic infections in Cambodia. Cryptococcal meningitis is in 3rd place for opportunistic infections. It is the first diagnosis that should be evoked in a meningeal irritation. PMID:11313228

  12. Domestic Violence against Married Women in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Carrera, Jennifer S.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of marital resources and early-life experiences on recent domestic violence and attitudes about wife abuse among 2,074 married Cambodian women. Household standard of living was negatively associated with physical domestic violence. Women with 8-13 fewer years of schooling than their husbands more often experienced physical…

  13. Education Reforms in Cambodia: Issues and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the key issues and concerns in the Cambodian government's efforts to implement three priority education policies for 2006-2010: ensure equitable access to education; increase quality and efficiency of the education services; and promote institutional development and capacity building for decentralisation. This paper identifies…

  14. Weed 'Em and Reap: The Art of Weeding to Avoid Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Today media centers provide students the opportunity to learn and explore subjects of their interest in depth. The media center is the largest classroom in the school providing service to every student and every teacher in all curricular areas. The library should be a place to encourage students' interests and a place to broaden their horizons by…

  15. Overcoming ash deposition: A case study. Part 2: Application of model reaps benefits -- The utility perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Backman, B.C.; Gunderson, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    The Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU) Company Coyote Station is a 425-MW Babcock and Wilcox cyclone-fired unit commissioned in 1981. The plant was designed to fire a high-ash-, high-sodium-content lignite from the adjacent Knife River Coal Mining Company (KRCMC) Beulah Mine. In recent years, the Coyote Station had been experiencing increasingly severe fouling and slagging, resulting in more frequent and often unscheduled outages. A joint project with the Energy and Environmental Research Center to address this problem was instituted by MDU and KRCMC. Plant operating parameters were reviewed and compared with historical coal data and PCQUEST modeling to identify fuel and operating effects on convective pass ash fouling. Results indicated separate and combined effects of fuel quality and operating parameters leading to troublesome ash-fouling tendencies. Historically, Coyote Station was down for cleaning between three and four times per year as a result of problematic boiler tube ash fouling and has been down as many as five times per year. Outages represent a considerable expense to the utility in both cleaning costs and lost generating revenue. Application of the model at the mine to deliver a consistent product, using the model at the plant to track incoming coal quality, and setting reasonable operating limits based on incoming coal quality have resulted in improved operation of the plant. Current operations suggest that between two and three outages per year on average will be required to maintain the unit.

  16. Precision Agriculture. Reaping the Benefits of Technological Growth. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Joel F.

    1998-01-01

    Technological innovations have revolutionized farming. Using precision farming techniques, farmers get an accurate picture of a field's attributes, such as soil properties, yield rates, and crop characteristics through the use of Differential Global Positioning Satellite hardware. (JOW)

  17. Sustainable Production of Crop Residue as a Cellulosic Ethanol Feedstock: REAP – Renewable Energy Assessment Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic ethanol production is a strategy for reducing dependence on imported energy and release of greenhouse gases from use of fossil-energy-derived motor vehicle fuel. Federal and state governments are encouraging the use of ethanol. Initially energy crops, such as switchgrass, willow, and poplar...

  18. Beyond reaping the first harvest: management objectives for timber production in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Zarin, Daniel J; Schulze, Mark D; Vidal, Edson; Lentini, Marco

    2007-08-01

    Millions of hectares of future timber concessions are slated to be implemented within large public forests under the forest law passed in 2006 by the Brazilian Congress. Additional millions of hectares of large, privately owned forests and smaller areas of community forests are certified as well managed by the Forest Stewardship Council, based on certification standards that will be reviewed in 2007. Forest size and ownership are two key factors that influence management objectives and the capacity of forest managers to achieve them. Current best ecological practices for timber production from Brazil's native Amazon forests are limited to reduced-impact logging (RIL) systems that minimize the environmental impacts of harvest operations and that obey legal restrictions regarding minimum diameters, rare species, retention of seed trees, maximum logging intensity, preservation of riparian buffers, fire protection, and wildlife conservation. Compared with conventional, predatory harvesting that constitutes >90% of the region's timber production, RIL dramatically reduces logging damage and helps maintain forest cover and the presence of rare tree species, but current RIL guidelines do not assure that the volume of timber removed can be sustained in future harvests. We believe it is counterproductive to expect smallholders to subscribe to additional harvest limitations beyond RIL, that larger private forested landholdings managed for timber production should be sustainable with respect to the total volume of timber harvested per unit area per cutting cycle, and that large public forests should sustain volume production of individual harvested species. These additional requirements would improve the ecological sustainability of forest management and help create a stable forest-based sector of the region's economy, but would involve costs associated with lengthened cutting cycles, reduced harvest intensities, and/or postharvest silviculture to promote adequate growth and regeneration. PMID:17650242

  19. Type 1 Diabetes--Reaping the Rewards of a Targeted Research Investment.

    PubMed

    Fradkin, Judith E; Wallace, Julie A; Akolkar, Beena; Rodgers, Griffin P

    2016-02-01

    The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) precipitated a major research effort to develop new approaches to achieve near-normal glycemic control in real-world settings in people with type 1 diabetes. Toward that end, a unique funding stream from the U.S. Congress-the Special Statutory Funding Program for Type 1 Diabetes Research-has provided nearly $2.5 billion for research into the prevention, cure, and treatment of type 1 diabetes since 1998. This funding generated a targeted, sustained investment in type 1 diabetes research with six specific goals: identifying new therapeutic targets through the understanding of disease etiology and pathogenesis, preventing or reversing the disease, developing cell replacement therapy, improving management and care, preventing or reducing the complications, and attracting new talent and applying new technologies to type 1 diabetes research. This Perspective describes exciting results that have emerged from the investment and further advances on the horizon, including artificial pancreas technologies, new therapies for diabetic retinopathy, and breakthroughs in laboratory production of β-cells. The recent program extension enables us to build on this foundation and pursue key new initiatives to harness emerging technologies and develop the next generation of type 1 diabetes researchers. PMID:26798117

  20. As you weed, so shall you reap: on the origin of algaculture in damselfish

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Within their territories, damselfish cultivate particular algae for consumption. A recent study in BMC Evolutionary Biology shows extensive variation among and within fish species in the composition of these algal 'gardens', varying from monocultures to cultures of mixed species, and in the mode of cultivation. This fish-algal agriculture may provide insight into the early stages of domestication. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/185 PMID:20594375