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1

Mental health survey among landmine survivors in Siem Reap province, Cambodia.  

PubMed

Many survivors of the Khmer Rouge period in Cambodia and the subsequent war with Vietnam have now returned to Cambodia. In this two-stage household cluster survey in Siem Reap Province in Cambodia, we explored the mental health consequences on 166 landmine injury survivors selected from 1000 household in 50 clusters and an oversample of all landmine survivors. We found a prevalence of anxiety of 62% for all respondents, 74% for depression, and 34% for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These prevalences were statistically significantly higher than among the adult population who had not been injured by landmines. These data underscore the importance of providing mental health care services for the people in Siem Reap Province in Cambodia who have been injured by landmines. PMID:22873010

Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Blanton, Curtis; Zalewski, Tami; Tor, Svang; McDonald, Laura; Lavelle, James; Brooks, Robert; Anderson, Mark; Mollica, Richard

2012-01-01

2

The value of intermittent point-prevalence surveys of healthcare-associated infections for evaluating infection control interventions at Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background There are limited data on the epidemiology of paediatric healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) and infection control in low-income countries. We describe the value of intermittent point-prevalence surveys for monitoring HCAI and evaluating infection control interventions in a Cambodian paediatric hospital. Methods Hospital-wide, point-prevalence surveys were performed monthly in 2011. Infection control interventions introduced during this period included a hand hygiene programme and a ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) care bundle. Results Overall HCAI prevalence was 13.8/100 patients at-risk, with a significant decline over time. The highest HCAI rates (50%) were observed in critical care; the majority of HCAIs were respiratory (61%). Klebsiella pneumoniae was most commonly isolated and antimicrobial resistance was widespread. Hand hygiene compliance doubled to 51.6%, and total VAP cases/1000 patient-ventilator days fell from 30 to 10. Conclusion Rates of HCAI were substantial in our institution, and antimicrobial resistance a major concern. Point-prevalence surveys are effective for HCAI surveillance, and in monitoring trends in response to infection control interventions. PMID:23418156

Stoesser, N; Emary, K; Soklin, S; Peng An, K; Sophal, S; Chhomrath, S; Day, NPJ; Limmathurotsakul, D; Nget, P; Pangnarith, Y; Sona, S; Kumar, V; Moore, CE; Chanpheaktra, N; Parry, CM

2013-01-01

3

MEKONG RIVER CRUISE From Siem Reap to Saigon  

E-print Network

's incomparable and iconic temple complexes. Begin with the landmark temples of Angkor Wat and remote jungle centuries. Ta Prohm is unique in that it has been left largely as it was found: overgrown by jungle trees

Toronto, University of

4

Urinary antibiotic activity in paediatric patients attending an outpatient department in north-western Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Objective Antibiotic resistance is a prominent public and global health concern. We investigated antibiotic use in children by determining the proportion of unselected children with antibacterial activity in their urine attending a paediatric outpatient department in Siem Reap, Cambodia. Methods Caregiver reports of medication history and presence of possible infection symptoms were collected in addition to urine samples. Urine antibiotic activity was estimated by exposing bacteria to urine specimens, including assessment against multiresistant bacteria previously isolated from patients in the hospital (a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a multiresistant Salmonella typhi and an extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolate). Results Medication information and urine were collected from 775 children. Caregivers reported medication use in 69.0% of children in the preceding 48 h. 31.7% samples showed antibacterial activity; 16.3% showed activity against a local multiresistant organism. No specimens demonstrated activity against an ESBL-producing E. coli. Conclusions Antibiotics are widely used in the community setting in Cambodia. Parents are often ill-informed about drugs given to treat their children. Increasing the regulation and training of private pharmacies in Cambodia may be necessary. Regional surveillance of antibiotic use and resistance is also essential in devising preventive strategies against further development of antibiotic resistance, which would have both local and global consequences. PMID:25324202

Emary, Katherine R W; Carter, Michael J; Pol, Sreymom; Sona, Soeng; Kumar, Varun; Day, Nicholas P J; Parry, Christopher M; Moore, Catrin E

2015-01-01

5

Prevalence of Intestinal Helminths among Inhabitants of Cambodia (2006-2011)  

PubMed Central

In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia. PMID:25548418

Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S.; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

2014-01-01

6

Prevalence of Intestinal Helminths among Inhabitants of Cambodia (2006-2011).  

PubMed

In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia. PMID:25548418

Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

2014-12-01

7

A Prospective Study of the Causes of Febrile Illness Requiring Hospitalization in Children in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Febrile illnesses are pre-eminent contributors to morbidity and mortality among children in South-East Asia but the causes are poorly understood. We determined the causes of fever in children hospitalised in Siem Reap province, Cambodia. Methods and Findings A one-year prospective study of febrile children admitted to Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and outcome data were comprehensively analysed. Between October 12th 2009 and October 12th 2010 there were 1225 episodes of febrile illness in 1180 children. Median (IQR) age was 2.0 (0.8–6.4) years, with 850 (69%) episodes in children <5 years. Common microbiological diagnoses were dengue virus (16.2%), scrub typhus (7.8%), and Japanese encephalitis virus (5.8%). 76 (6.3%) episodes had culture-proven bloodstream infection, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (22 isolates, 1.8%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (13, 1.1%), Escherichia coli (8, 0.7%), Haemophilus influenzae (7, 0.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (6, 0.5%) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (6, 0.5%). There were 69 deaths (5.6%), including those due to clinically diagnosed pneumonia (19), dengue virus (5), and melioidosis (4). 10 of 69 (14.5%) deaths were associated with culture-proven bloodstream infection in logistic regression analyses (odds ratio for mortality 3.4, 95% CI 1.6–6.9). Antimicrobial resistance was prevalent, particularly in S. enterica Typhi, (where 90% of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and 86% were multi-drug resistant). Comorbid undernutrition was present in 44% of episodes and a major risk factor for acute mortality (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1–4.2), as were HIV infection and cardiac disease. Conclusion We identified a microbiological cause of fever in almost 50% of episodes in this large study of community-acquired febrile illness in hospitalized children in Cambodia. The range of pathogens, antimicrobial susceptibility, and co-morbidities associated with mortality described will be of use in the development of rational guidelines for infectious disease treatment and control in Cambodia and South-East Asia. PMID:23593267

Chheng, Kheng; Carter, Michael J.; Emary, Kate; Chanpheaktra, Ngoun; Moore, Catrin E.; Stoesser, Nicole; Putchhat, Hor; Sona, Soeng; Reaksmey, Sin; Kitsutani, Paul; Sar, Borann; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Uyen, Nguyen Hanh; Van Tan, Le; Paris, Daniel; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Amornchai, Premjit; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Parry, Christopher M.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Kumar, Varun

2013-01-01

8

MECHANICAL TESTING OF EPON SU-8 WITH SIEM  

SciTech Connect

High aspect ratio structures are often present in MEMS devices and EPON SU-8 is often used to produce such structures because of its low cost. It is essential to know the mechanical properties of SU-8 for producing reliable MEMS products. However, the mechanical properties of SU-8 may depend on the manufacturing process and the size of the structure, which is in the micron domain. Hence, one needs to test specimens that are similar in size to MEMS structures to determine if the mechanical properties change with processing protocol. In this work, the authors applied the newly developed technique SIEM (Speckle Interferometry with Electron Microscopy) to the determination of SU-8's mechanical properties.

CHANG,S.; WARREN,J.; CHIANG,F.P.

2000-06-08

9

Reaping benefits from intellectual capital.  

PubMed

The wealth and value of organizations are increasingly based on intellectual capital. Although acquiring talented individuals and investing in employee learning adds value to the organization, reaping the benefits of intellectual capital involves translating the wisdom of employees into reusable and sustained actions. This requires a culture that creates employee commitment, encourages learning, fosters sharing, and involves employees in decision making. An infrastructure to recognize and embed promising and best practices through social networks, evidence-based practice, customization of innovations, and use of information technology results in increased productivity, stronger financial performance, better patient outcomes, and greater employee and customer satisfaction. PMID:17198112

Weston, Marla J; Estrada, Nicolette A; Carrington, Jane

2007-01-01

10

Rabies Situation in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRabies, a fatal but preventable zoonosis, is a major public health problem in developing countries. In Cambodia the disease burden is largely underestimated because patients with encephalitis following dog bites are rarely hospitalized and die at home. Since 1998 Institut Pasteur in Cambodia (IPC), Phnom Penh has been the only source of free post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and post-mortem diagnosis.MethodsThe 1998–2007

Sowath Ly; Philippe Buchy; Nay Yim Heng; Sivuth Ong; Nareth Chhor; Hervé Bourhy; Sirenda Vong

2009-01-01

11

Group Proposal Vietnam-Cambodia tour  

E-print Network

An ·Flights from Danang to Siem Riep ·Flights from Siem Riep to Phnom Penh ·Sightseeing fees and permits@KayaVolunteer.com #12;outside, we will wander the grounds to see the one pillar pagoda and the presidential palace. Next

Sorin, Eric J.

12

Anne Carney, M.S., CCC-SLP Email: acarney@bu.edu  

E-print Network

of Massachusetts: Speech-Language Pathology License Experience: Boston University Aphasia Resource Center. Boston interdisciplinary aphasia pilot program. Jay Pritzker Foundation and Jay Pritzker Academy. Siem Reap, Cambodia and language evaluations. 4. Aphasia Center of California, Oakland, CA. June-August 2005 Assisted

Guenther, Frank

13

Reaping Energy Savings from Petroleum Refining  

E-print Network

REAPING ENERGY SAVINGS FROM PETROLEUM REFINING Alan Deng, Project Manager, San Francisco, CA, Ron Cascone, Project Manager, White Plains, NY, Nexant, Inc. ABSTRACT The refining industry is one of the largest energy users in Pacific Gas.... Market barriers include lack of standards and perceptions of unproven reliability for new technologies in petroleum refining, lack of understanding of the refining process by energy efficiency professionals, lack of capital investment, high up...

Deng, A.; Cascone, R.

2006-01-01

14

Fires in Thailand and Cambodia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many fires (red pixels) were seen burning across Thailand and Southern Cambodia on January 8, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. Almost the entire countries of Thailand (center) and Cambodia (lower right) were remarkably cloud-free in this true-color scene. Thailand is bordered by the countries of Myanmar to the west, Laos to the north and east, and Cambodia to the southeast. Thailand's capital city of Bangkok sits on its southern shore, where the Chao Phraya River flows into the large bay in the northern Gulf of Thailand. Moving eastward from Bangkok, one can see the Tonle Sap-Cambodia's largest inland body of water. Waters from the Tonle Sap flow southeastward and converge with the mighty Mekong River, just east of Phnom Penh, Cambodia's capital. The Mekong River defines much of the border between Thailand and Laos. The captal of Laos-Viangchan-is situated just across the Mekong from Thailand's northern border. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

15

REAP Briefings Management Briefing Paper 2 http://www.reap.ac.uk Advice on Managing Transformational Change  

E-print Network

Programme aimed to identify ways of using information and communication technologies (ICT) as a catalyst Practices (REAP) project (www.reap.ac.uk). Pedagogical Purpose A key first step in the application of technology to teaching and learning is to identify a clear pedagogical purpose and rationale for each

Azzopardi, Leif

16

Continuous CS Analysis of Using the SIEM to Introduction to Computer Programming Education in the School of Engineering Evening Division at the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve students’ motivation, the SIEM (School of Information Environment Method) which is the education method for the introduction of the computer programming education was developed. We focus on students’ motivation, and we have measured students’ motivation as the educational effects. After the SIEM was developed in the School of Information Environment, it applied to introduction to the computer programming education in the School of Engineering Evening Division at the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. It is effective for the improvement of students’ motivation. By adding the Customer Satisfaction Analysis to the SIEM Analysis, it was able to clarify the priority level of the SIEM assessment item. In this paper, we describe results of the Customer Satisfaction Analysis.

Dohi, Shinichi; Miyakawa, Osamu; Konno, Noriko

17

Health care clinics in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Under the Pol Pot Khmer Rouge regime, most physicians with clinical experience were either killed or fled the country. The few practitioners who managed to survive were forced to hide their knowledge; much of that knowledge and experience is now lost. As part of a general process of national rehabilitation, Cambodia has trained since the 1980s hundreds of physicians and physician assistants. There were 700 physicians, 1300 physician assistants, and 4000 nurses in the country by 1992. Problems do, however, remain with medical education in Cambodia. In particular, the medical texts and lectures are in French, a language which very few of the younger generation speak; instructional texts are designed to meet the needs of developing nations, not a rehabilitating one like Cambodia; emphasis is upon curative health care, hospitals, and vertical programs instead of primary and preventive health care; Cambodian physicians are used to a system based upon the division of patients by ability to pay instead of by age, disease, or need; corruption has grown as the cost of living has outstripped the level of official salaries; and there is neither professional contact, feedback, nor program evaluation within health care programs. The authors is a resident in obstetrics and gynecology at the University of Chicago who worked at two clinics during a stay in Phnom Penh. She recommends that instead of simply training more doctors, these training-related problems should be addressed, including a revision of the curriculum to include both primary health care medicine and psychiatry. Moreover, people in Cambodia need to be taught the importance of preventive health care, which should then reduce the number of visits to physicians. This process will be accomplished more effectively with the cooperation of physicians, the government, nongovernmental organizations, and international organizations associated with health care. PMID:7787486

Wollschlaeger, K

1995-04-01

18

iREAP: Improving Reading, Writing, and Thinking in the Wired Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that the REAP system (Read, Encode, Annotate, Ponder) improves reading, writing, and thinking. Describes how the "i" in iREAP represents its currency and connection to Internet community building. Presents applications to help students internalize REAP "spectrum thinking," or thinking from different perspectives, so that it becomes a habit…

Manzo, Anthony; Manzo, Ula; Albee, Julie Jackson

2002-01-01

19

Vietnam, Cambodia November 5 20, 2012  

E-print Network

's water puppet show is followed by dinner at the Press Club. Meals BLD noV. 7 ­ pagoda & perfume Fly sites in the country, before your boat cruise along the Perfume River. Meals BLD #12;CAMBODIA THAILAND

Connor, Ed

20

Cambodia: The Odyssey of the Khmer People  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bruce Sharp, in collaboration with a host of colleagues, has developed this Web site dealing with the history and culture of Cambodia. Paying close attention to the Khmer Rouge period of the country's history, the site contains a wealth of general information and statistics about Cambodia that will help visitors seeking a basic overview of the country's current status. The site is divided into numerous sections, several that will be of particular interest to visitors. The Oral Histories section contains a dozen narratives from Cambodian men and women who lived in Cambodia during the reign of Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge. A photo gallery hosts several photo essays by Mr. Sharp, including some dramatic shots of Angkor Wat. Finally, the site also has a search engine and a What's New section that lists new material that is periodically added to the site.

21

National news. Cambodia. The future of ARH.  

PubMed

The escalating HIV/AIDS crisis in Cambodia underscores the importance of reproductive health programs aimed at adolescents. Although the Cambodian Government has not developed a strategy specifically aimed at reaching youth, it has initiated several related health promotion and HIV/AIDS prevention programs. Such programming is especially urgent in light of rapid economic changes in Cambodia and the growing influence of the mass media on urban youth. An in-country paper prepared by a staff member of the Youth Department of Cambodia's Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports stressed the importance of four factors: 1) designation of young couples as a target for birth spacing campaigns and services, 2) realistic HIV/AIDS educational messages in the mass media, 3) incorporation of traditional practices in adolescent reproductive health campaigns, and 4) greater sensitivity to youth culture and habits. PMID:12158261

1998-06-01

22

Cambodia: human trafficking legislation threatens HIV response.  

PubMed

In February 2008, Cambodia's new Law on the Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation was promulgated and went into effect. The law criminalizes sex for money, public soliciting for prostitution and many forms of financial transactions connected to sex work. The law has been criticized for conflating sex work and trafficking. PMID:19294783

Pearshouse, Richard

2008-12-01

23

Policing in Cambodia: legitimacy in the making?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of police statistics, newspaper reports, and United Nations International Crime Victim Surveys (UNICVS) are used to describe trends in crime and changes in perceptions of security, corruption and confidence in police in post-conflict Cambodia. These data show that both violent crimes (including homicides and police or vigilante killings) and property crimes have declined. Modest reductions in fear of crime

Rod Broadhurst; Thierry Bouhours

2009-01-01

24

Mercury Contamination of Skin Whiteners in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven of 41 brands of skin whiteners that were collected in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and processed with a screening kit contained more than 2000 ?g\\/g mercury. Risk analysis indicates that these 11 brands were toxic. Nine of 19 of these skin whiteners analyzed with cold vapor atomic absorption (CVAA) spectrophotometry exceeded Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) guidelines for cosmetic

Thomas Murphy; Darell G. Slotton; Kim Irvine; Kom Sukontason; Charles R. Goldman

2009-01-01

25

Cambodia: Lasting key to Southeast Asia's stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite many positive changes inside Cambodia in recent years, it remains the region's weakest spot: It is caught forever between Vietnam's slow but inexorable expansion southward and westward over the centuries, Thailand's historic instinct to play hostile neighboring elements off against each other as a means of guaranteeing its own survival, and gigantic China to the north. With Russia and

Robert H. Miller

1995-01-01

26

A blueprint for transformational organisational change in higher education: REAP as a case study  

E-print Network

background, identify some barriers to institutional change and give a brief overview of the REAP project. We then discuss aspects of REAP that proved effective in addressing these barriers. The e-learning Transformation to show the strategic embedding of changes across the whole institution. Barriers to Transformational

Williamson, John

27

UNTAC, CEAT, other international actions and the restoration of Cambodia`s forestry policy  

SciTech Connect

Although no verifiable hard data regarding the rate of nation-wide deforestation in Cambodia exists, it is understood that on account of increasing logging activities, uncontrolled forest fires, increased demand for agricultural land and fuel wood for charcoal production and other domestic usage, the rates of deforestation and the degradation of existing forests will continue to be on the rise if no effective policy and management plans are established soon. There now seems to be international recognition and acceptance of the fact that unless the impact of human activities are incorporated into forestry management plans, the problems of deforestation in the world`s poorest regions will continue unabated. The depletion of this natural resource brings about complex changes in the environment which results in such phenomenon as global warming. Sound forest policies and management practices are central to the global warming solution. Without these, human survival remains, potentially, threatened. An essential key to the development of such policies and management practices lies in the identification of the problems related to the forests. In this process of identification and subsequent concrete actions in restoring Cambodia`s forest policies and management practices, the Royal government of Cambodia has been assisted and supported by the international community through organizations and agencies. The examine and appraisal of such assistance and the strategies and efforts of the Royal Government of Cambodia, is the main theme of this paper.

Mareth, M. [Secretariat of State for Environment of Cambodia, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Vanderstighelen, D.; Bann, C.; Ngongi, M.I. [Cambodian Environmental Advisory Team, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Aertgeerts, R. [Office for Project Services United Nations Development Program, New York, NY (United States); Eav, B.B. [Dept. of Agriculture, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1995-03-01

28

The Rocket Engine Advancement Program 2 (REAP2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Rocket Engine Advancement Program (REAP) 2 program is being conducted by a university propulsion consortium consisting of the University of Alabama in Huntsville, Penn State University, Purdue University, Tuskegee University and Auburn University. It has been created to bring their combined skills to bear on liquid rocket combustion stability and thrust chamber cooling. The research team involves well established and known researchers in the propulsion community. The cure team provides the knowledge base, research skills, and commitment to achieve an immediate and continuing impact on present and future propulsion issues. through integrated research teams composed of analysts, diagnosticians, and experimentalists working together in an integrated multi-disciplinary program. This paper provides an overview of the program, its objectives and technical approaches. Research on combustion instability and thrust chamber cooling are being accomplished

Harper, Brent (Technical Monitor); Hawk, Clark W.

2004-01-01

29

A COLLECTION OF AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES FROM HILLY EASTERN CAMBODIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first amphibian and reptile collection is reported from hilly eastern Cambodia since Henri Mouhot's work in 1859. The collection contains 30 species of amphibians and 42 species of reptiles. Leptobrachium mouhoti, new species, and Ophryophryne synoria, new species, are described. Of the remaining collection, 11 species of amphibians (39.3%) and seven species of snakes (33.3%) are reported from Cambodia

Bryan L. Stuart; Ko Sok; Thy Neang

30

Introduction of ICT and Multimedia into Cambodia's Teacher Training Centres  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the integration of ICT in the teacher training centres of Cambodia. It focuses on the collaboration between the Teacher Training Department of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MoEYS) of Cambodia and VVOB (Flemish Association for Development Cooperation and Technical Assistance), which is aimed at improving ICT…

Dionys, David

2012-01-01

31

Research Experience and Apprenticeship Program (REAP) Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP)  

E-print Network

Research Experience and Apprenticeship Program (REAP) Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP) Hamel Center for Undergraduate Research UNH FACULTY RECOMMENDATION Student's Name; and give it to the applicant for submission to the Hamel Center for Undergraduate Research. Questions

New Hampshire, University of

32

Research Experience and Apprenticeship Program (REAP) Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP)  

E-print Network

Research Experience and Apprenticeship Program (REAP) Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP) Hamel Center for Undergraduate Research FACULTY RECOMMENDATION Student's Name; and give it to the applicant for submission to the Hamel Center for Undergraduate Research. Questions

New Hampshire, University of

33

Cambodia: the women want justice and peace.  

PubMed

Refugees and internally displaced people are an unfortunate and inevitable consequence of war. Among these, women refugees are most vulnerable to sexual violence as they go through various stages of displacement. During the war in Cambodia, women refugees experienced sexual violence in the form of rape, gang rape, sexual exploitation, and forced prostitution. This report presents a summary of a testimony by Yi Leang Eng, a Cambodian woman refugee, on her experiences during the war. According to her, violations of rape happened inside and outside the refugee camps everyday, relegating the violence as a normal occurrence. In this regard, nongovernmental organizations and governments are urged to cooperate and insist that perpetrators of such crimes must be punished and such practices must be immediately stopped. In addition, the issue of supporting women survivors and ensuring that they are given justice should also be discussed. Moreover, for the women survivors themselves, the welfare of their families should be top priority. PMID:12179106

1999-01-01

34

78 FR 56832 - Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological Material From Cambodia From the Bronze...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Archaeological Material From Cambodia From the Bronze Age Through the Khmer Era AGENCIES...archaeological material from Cambodia from the Bronze Age through the Khmer era. The restrictions...archaeological material from the Bronze Age through the Khmer Era. Import...

2013-09-16

35

Hydrological change:reaping prosperity and pain inAustralia Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11(1), 7795, 2007  

E-print Network

and solution resulting from accelerated erosion in association with outbreaks of soil salinity and acidityHydrological change:reaping prosperity and pain inAustralia 77 Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11 a Creative Commons License. Hydrological change: reaping prosperity and pain in Australia F.X. Dunin1 , C

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

36

Collaborative Development of Anatomy Workshops for Medical and Dental Students in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After Phnom Penh was liberated from the Khmer Rouge in 1979, health science education in Cambodia had to be completely rebuilt. In this article, the authors report the results of a teaching collaboration between the University of Melbourne (Australia), the International University (Cambodia), and the University of Health Sciences (Cambodia). The…

Hayes, Jennifer A.; Ivanusic, Jason J.; le Roux, Cara M.; Hatzopoulos, Kate; Gonsalvez, David; Hong, Someth; Durward, Callum

2011-01-01

37

31 CFR 500.565 - Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. 500.565 Section 500...565 Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. (a) The remittances...provided that the relative is a national of Vietnam or Cambodia, is a resident of...

2010-07-01

38

Avian influenza: the political economy of disease control in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Abstract In the wake of avian flu outbreaks in 2004, Cambodia received $45 million in commitments from international donors to help combat the spread of animal and human influenza, particularly avian influenza (H5N1). How countries leverage foreign aid to address the specific needs of donors and the endemic needs of the nation is a complex and nuanced issue throughout the developing world. Cambodia is a particularly compelling study in pandemic preparedness and the management of avian influenza because of its multilayered network of competing local, national, and global needs, and because the level of aid in Cambodia represents approximately $2.65 million per human case-a disproportionately high number when compared with neighbors Vietnam and Indonesia. This paper examines how the Cambodian government has made use of animal and human influenza funds to protect (or fail to protect) its citizens and the global community. It asks how effective donor and government responses were to combating avian influenza in Cambodia, and what improvements could be made at the local and international level to help prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. Based on original interviews, a field survey of policy stakeholders, and detailed examination of Cambodia's health infrastructure and policies, the findings illustrate that while pandemic preparedness has shown improvements since 2004, new outbreaks and human fatalities accelerated in 2011, and more work needs to be done to align the specific goals of funders with the endemic needs of developing nations. PMID:22702421

Ear, Sophal

2011-01-01

39

Reap What You Sow: Spare Cells for Post-Silicon Metal Fix Kai-hui Chang  

E-print Network

Reap What You Sow: Spare Cells for Post-Silicon Metal Fix Kai-hui Chang University of Michigan EECS taped-out with latent bugs, and forced the manufacturers to resort to addi- tional design revisions increase in design complexity, more and more bugs escape pre-silicon validation and are found post

Bertacco, Valeria

40

The dilemmas of aid: Cambodia 1992-2002.  

PubMed

Cambodia is a small, poor, and sparsely-populated country between Vietnam and Thailand, which is making a slow recovery from a long history of conflict. 80% of its 11.4 million people live by subsistence farming; rice is their main crop. Infant mortality is 89.4/1000, and 12% of children die before the age of 5 years. Life expectancy is around 50 years, and about 45,000 Khmers (Cambodians) are missing at least one limb from a 30 year deposit of landmines and dumping unexploded ordinance. Despite a decade of concerted effort by the international community to improve Cambodia's prospects, disease and poverty still define life for most of the population. In April, 2002, I visited Cambodia for the fourth time in 10 years, to see how medical aid projects were faring in particular, and to assess whether the past decade of international aid and intervention has improved the provision of health care for Khmers. PMID:12241843

Gollogly, L

2002-09-01

41

The Teaching of Foreign Languages in Cambodia: A Historical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching of foreign languages in Cambodia is examined in the light of its recent history. The paper describes the French colonial period, beginning in 1863, the emergence of the independent state under King Sihanouk (1953-70), the Khmer Republic (1970-75) and Democratic Kampuchea (1975-79), during which the infamous mass killings took place,…

Neau, Vira

2003-01-01

42

Sculpture of Angkor and Ancient Cambodia: Virtual Tour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the National Gallery of Art allows visitors to take a virtual tour of a 1997 exhibition on sculpture of Angkor and ancient Cambodia. Each gallery section includes a text introduction, and within each section, users may select individual objects to learn more and view a larger image. RealAudio commentary is also provided for some items.

1997-01-01

43

A possible source in Cambodia for Australasian tektites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A possible crater representing the source of Australasian tektites is identified in northeastern Cambodia at longitude, 106 deg 34 min E, and latitude, 13 deg 55 min N. The crater is an incomplete oval ring of hills 10 km long and six km wide located near the center of the Muong Nong-type tektite strewnfield. The morphology of the structure may

J. B. Hartung; A. R. Rivolo

1979-01-01

44

Gender, Development, and Neoliberalism: HIV\\/ AIDS in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thanks to the anti-HIV\\/AIDS measures of international and non-governmental organizations, Cambodia has been considered a successful case in preventing the transmission of the virus. Declaration of such a victory for the Cambodian case is premature, however, given that HIV prevalence continues to rise among women and, according to Cambodian health officials, another wave of epidemic could occur soon. This study

Yavuz Yasar

2010-01-01

45

Anemia in Cambodia: prevalence, etiology and research needs.  

PubMed

Anemia is a severe global public health problem with serious consequences for both the human and socio-economic health. This paper presents a situation analysis of the burden of anemia in Cambodia, including a discussion of the country-specific etiologies and future research needs. All available literature on the prevalence and etiology of anemia in Cambodia was collected using standard search protocols. Prevalence data was readily identified for pre-school aged children and women of reproductive age, but there is a dearth of information for school-aged children, men and the elderly. Despite progress in nation-wide programming over the past decade, anemia remains a significant public health problem in Cambodia, especially for women and children. Anemia is a multifaceted disease and both nutritional and non-nutritional etiologies were identified, with iron deficiency accounting for the majority of the burden of disease. The current study highlights the need for a national nutrition survey, including collection of data on the iron status and prevalence of anemia in all population groups. It is impossible to develop effective intervention programs without a clear picture of the burden and cause of disease in the country. PMID:22507602

Charles, Christopher V; Summerlee, Alastair J S; Dewey, Cate E

2012-01-01

46

Ensuring Gender Equity in Education for All: Is Cambodia on Track?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender-equity goals in Cambodia are intimately linked with socio-economic and cultural biases that are embedded in the very system of education and in the society as a whole. There are, however, strong indicators that the vicious cycle in Cambodia's education system could be broken, and here the commitment of key stakeholders and partnership modes…

Velasco, Esther

2004-01-01

47

Highland Children's Education Project: A Pilot Project on Bilingual Education in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report was produced by UNESCO in partnership with CARE International in Cambodia for the "Highland Children's Education Project" (HCEP) to show how bilingual primary education has been implemented among the Tampuen and Kreung ethnic minority groups in six remote villages in the northeastern province of Ratanakiri, Cambodia. Central to HCEP is…

Middleborg, Jorn

2005-01-01

48

Reaping Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about collecting, describing and classifying terrestrial and lunar rocks. Learners will collect and describe rocks of varying texture, color and shapes. Descriptors will include color, presence or absence of grains and grain size, textures, banding and other patterns. From the descriptions, learners will classify their collected rocks and extend their knowledge to classify lunar rocks. This activity is in Unit 1 of the Exploring the Moon teacher's guide and is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

2012-08-03

49

"Scholarships provide us with the opportunity to attend a university such as this. We reap what we sow; thus, hard  

E-print Network

#12;"Scholarships provide us with the opportunity to attend a university such as this. We reap what we sow; thus, hard work and dedication pays off. I've been blessed with scholarships and if not for them, I would be unable to attend UCR." -Christina Hwee Ruth F. Lewis Endowed Scholarship College

Lyubomirsky, Ilya

50

Echinostoma ilocanum infection in Oddar Meanchey Province, Cambodia.  

PubMed

Fecal examinations using the Kato Katz technique were performed on a total of 1,287 villagers (945 students and 342 general inhabitants) of Oddar Meanchey Province, Cambodia in May 2007 and November 2009. The overall intestinal helminth egg positive rate was 23.9%, and the most prevalent helminth species was hookworms (21.6%). Other helminth eggs detected included echinostomes (1.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.8%), small trematode eggs (0.7%), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini and Haplorchis spp., and Hymenolepis nana (0.4%). In order to recover adult echinostomes, we treated 2 patients with 10-15 mg/kg praziquantel and purged. Total 14 adult echinostomes, 1 and 13 worms from each patient, were collected. The echinostomes characteristically had 49-51 collar spines and 2 round or slightly lobated testes. They were identified as Echinostoma ilocanum (Garrison, 1908) Odhner, 1911. So far as literature are concerned, this is the first record on the discovery of human E. ilocanum infection in Cambodia. PMID:21738278

Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Kang, A-Reum; Kim, Mok-Ryun; Park, Jung-Mi; Ji, Soo-Hyeon; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong; Chai, Jong-Yil

2011-06-01

51

Introducing the GRACEnet/REAP Data Contribution, Discovery, and Retrieval System.  

PubMed

Difficulties in accessing high-quality data on trace gas fluxes and performance of bioenergy/bioproduct feedstocks limit the ability of researchers and others to address environmental impacts of agriculture and the potential to produce feedstocks. To address those needs, the GRACEnet (Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network) and REAP (Renewable Energy Assessment Project) research programs were initiated by the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS). A major product of these programs is the creation of a database with greenhouse gas fluxes, soil carbon stocks, biomass yield, nutrient, and energy characteristics, and input data for modeling cropped and grazed systems. The data include site descriptors (e.g., weather, soil class, spatial attributes), experimental design (e.g., factors manipulated, measurements performed, plot layouts), management information (e.g., planting and harvesting schedules, fertilizer types and amounts, biomass harvested, grazing intensity), and measurements (e.g., soil C and N stocks, plant biomass amount and chemical composition). To promote standardization of data and ensure that experiments were fully described, sampling protocols and a spreadsheet-based data-entry template were developed. Data were first uploaded to a temporary database for checking and then were uploaded to the central database. A Web-accessible application allows for registered users to query and download data including measurement protocols. Separate portals have been provided for each project (GRACEnet and REAP) at nrrc.ars.usda.gov/slgracenet/#/Home and nrrc.ars.usda.gov/slreap/#/Home. The database architecture and data entry template have proven flexible and robust for describing a wide range of field experiments and thus appear suitable for other natural resource research projects. PMID:24216379

Del Grosso, S J; White, J W; Wilson, G; Vandenberg, B; Karlen, D L; Follett, R F; Johnson, J M F; Franzluebbers, A J; Archer, D W; Gollany, H T; Liebig, M A; Ascough, J; Reyes-Fox, M; Pellack, L; Starr, J; Barbour, N; Polumsky, R W; Gutwein, M; James, D

2013-07-01

52

Leptospira and Rodents in Cambodia: Environmental Determinants of Infection  

PubMed Central

We investigated infection of rodents and shrews by Leptospira spp. in two localities of Cambodia (Veal Renh, Kaev Seima) and in four types of habitat (forests, non-flooded lands, lowland rain-fed paddy fields, houses) during the wet and the dry seasons. Habitat preference was common, and rodent and shrew species were found only in houses or in rain-fed paddy fields or in forests. Among 649 small mammals trapped belonging to 12 rodent species and 1 shrew species, 71 of 642 animals tested were carriers of Leptospira according to the 16S ribosomal RNA marker used. Rodent infection was higher in low-slope locations, corresponding to rain-fed paddy fields, especially in the rainy season and in Kaev Seima. Rodents (Rattus exulans) and shrews (Suncus murinus) inhabiting households showed significantly low levels of infections, whereas rodents living in and near to forests (shrubby wasteland, orchards) showed high levels of infection. PMID:22665613

Ivanova, Svilena; Herbreteau, Vincent; Blasdell, Kim; Chaval, Yannick; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; Morand, Serge

2012-01-01

53

Multiple populations of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Cambodia.  

PubMed

We describe an analysis of genome variation in 825 P. falciparum samples from Asia and Africa that identifies an unusual pattern of parasite population structure at the epicenter of artemisinin resistance in western Cambodia. Within this relatively small geographic area, we have discovered several distinct but apparently sympatric parasite subpopulations with extremely high levels of genetic differentiation. Of particular interest are three subpopulations, all associated with clinical resistance to artemisinin, which have skewed allele frequency spectra and high levels of haplotype homozygosity, indicative of founder effects and recent population expansion. We provide a catalog of SNPs that show high levels of differentiation in the artemisinin-resistant subpopulations, including codon variants in transporter proteins and DNA mismatch repair proteins. These data provide a population-level genetic framework for investigating the biological origins of artemisinin resistance and for defining molecular markers to assist in its elimination. PMID:23624527

Miotto, Olivo; Almagro-Garcia, Jacob; Manske, Magnus; Macinnis, Bronwyn; Campino, Susana; Rockett, Kirk A; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Lim, Pharath; Suon, Seila; Sreng, Sokunthea; Anderson, Jennifer M; Duong, Socheat; Nguon, Chea; Chuor, Char Meng; Saunders, David; Se, Youry; Lon, Chantap; Fukuda, Mark M; Amenga-Etego, Lucas; Hodgson, Abraham V O; Asoala, Victor; Imwong, Mallika; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Nosten, François; Su, Xin-Zhuan; Ringwald, Pascal; Ariey, Frédéric; Dolecek, Christiane; Hien, Tran Tinh; Boni, Maciej F; Thai, Cao Quang; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; Conway, David J; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Zongo, Issaka; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Alcock, Daniel; Drury, Eleanor; Auburn, Sarah; Koch, Oliver; Sanders, Mandy; Hubbart, Christina; Maslen, Gareth; Ruano-Rubio, Valentin; Jyothi, Dushyanth; Miles, Alistair; O'Brien, John; Gamble, Chris; Oyola, Samuel O; Rayner, Julian C; Newbold, Chris I; Berriman, Matthew; Spencer, Chris C A; McVean, Gilean; Day, Nicholas P; White, Nicholas J; Bethell, Delia; Dondorp, Arjen M; Plowe, Christopher V; Fairhurst, Rick M; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

2013-06-01

54

Radar Image with Color as Height, Ancharn Kuy, Cambodia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of Ancharn Kuy, Cambodia, was taken by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR). The image depicts an area northwest of Angkor Wat. The radar has highlighted a number of circular village mounds in this region, many of which have a circular pattern of rice fields surrounding the slightly elevated site. Most of them have evidence of what seems to be pre-Angkor occupation, such as stone tools and potsherds. Most of them also have a group of five spirit posts, a pattern not found in other parts of Cambodia. The shape of the mound, the location in the midst of a ring of rice fields, the stone tools and the current practice of spirit veneration have revealed themselves through a unique 'marriage' of radar imaging, archaeological investigation, and anthropology.

Ancharn Kuy is a small village adjacent to the road, with just this combination of features. The region gets slowly higher in elevation, something seen in the shift of color from yellow to blue as you move to the top of the image.

The small dark rectangles are typical of the smaller water control devices employed in this area. While many of these in the center of Angkor are linked to temples of the 9th to 14th Century A.D., we cannot be sure of the construction date of these small village tanks. They may pre-date the temple complex, or they may have just been dug ten years ago!

The image dimensions are approximately 4.75 by 4.3 kilometers (3 by 2.7 miles) with a pixel spacing of 5 meters (16.4 feet). North is at top. Image brightness is from the C-band (5.6 centimeters, or 2.2 inches) wavelength radar backscatter, which is a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color; that is going from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again; corresponds to 10 meters (32.8 feet) of elevation change.

AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR mode, AIRSAR collects radar interferometry data from two spatially separated antennas (2.6 meters, or 8.5 feet). Information from the two antennas is used to form radar backscatter imagery and to generate highly accurate elevation data. Built, operated and managed by JPL, AIRSAR is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise program. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2002-01-01

55

Language and Institutional Capacity Building in Cambodia: A Case Study of the Faculty of Business in Phnom Penh.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent restructuring of the curriculum of the Faculty of Business of the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports in Phnom Penh (Cambodia) is described and offered as a model of the kind of reorganization occurring within Cambodia's higher education system. The history of language policy in the higher education system is chronicled briefly,…

Thong, Iv

56

Paleoenvironmental history of the West Baray, Angkor (Cambodia)  

PubMed Central

Angkor (Cambodia) was the seat of the Khmer Empire from the 9th to 15th century AD. The site is noted for its monumental architecture and complex hydro-engineering systems, comprised of canals, moats, embankments, and large reservoirs, known as barays. We infer a 1,000-y, 14C-dated paleoenvironmental record from study of an approximately 2-m sediment core taken in the largest Khmer reservoir, the West Baray. The baray was utilized and managed from the time of construction in the early 11th century, through the 13th century. During that time, the West Baray received relatively high rates of detrital input. In the 14th century, linear sedimentation rates diminished by an order of magnitude, yielding a condensed section that correlates temporally with episodes of regional monsoon failure during the late 14th and early 15th century, recorded in tree ring records from Vietnam. Our results demonstrate that changes in the water management system were associated with the decline of the Angkorian kingdom during that period. By the 17th century, the West Baray again functioned as a limnetic system. Ecologic and sedimentologic changes over the last millennium, detected in the baray deposits, are attributed to shifts in regional-scale Khmer water management, evolving land use practices in the catchment, and regional climate change. PMID:22215582

Day, Mary Beth; Hodell, David A.; Brenner, Mark; Chapman, Hazel J.; Curtis, Jason H.; Kenney, William F.; Kolata, Alan L.; Peterson, Larry C.

2012-01-01

57

High prevalence of large trematode eggs in schoolchildren in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Large trematode eggs (LTE) resembling Fasciola spp. eggs were reportedly found in the stools of schoolchildren in Kandal province, Cambodia. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of LTE in the stools of children attending the affected school, identify potential risk factors for infection and ascertain the trematode species. We performed a cross-sectional study involving an in-depth questionnaire administered to schoolchildren at the affected school, and examined cattle droppings in the surrounding area and the livers of slaughtered cattle. Three stool samples were examined per child, using Kato-Katz and formalin-ether concentration techniques. In addition, blood serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and coprological polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted for species clarification. Cattle droppings were examined by cup sedimentation and coprological ELISA. LTE were observed in the stools of 106 schoolchildren (46.5%). Two blood serum samples from schoolchildren were positive for Fasciola hepatica in a first ELISA but were negative in a confirmation immunofluorescence antibody test. Out of 221 PCR samples, only one tested positive for Fasciola spp. and none for Fasciolopsis buski. The consumption of raw aquatic plants (odds ratio (OR)=3.3) and fermented fish sauce (OR=2.1) were significantly associated with LTE in the stool. Fasciola spp. flukes were observed in 18.3% of 191 cattle livers. The prevalence of fascioliasis in cattle droppings was 88.8%. The low prevalence of schoolchildren that tested positive for Fasciola spp. with specific molecular diagnostics and who had no diagnostic evidence of F. buski strongly indicates that the majority of microscopically observed LTE are from Echinostoma spp. Fasciola spp. transmission from cattle to human is possible and public health services need to be alerted accordingly. PMID:25250828

Bless, Philipp J; Schär, Fabian; Khieu, Virak; Kramme, Stefanie; Muth, Sinuon; Marti, Hanspeter; Odermatt, Peter

2015-01-01

58

Situation Reports--Brasil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data relating to population and family planning in six foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Brazil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

59

Learning to Read in Ratanakiri: A Case Study from Northeastern Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Ratanakiri province, northeastern Cambodia, the majority of the local people are native speakers of ethnic minority languages. Primarily subsistence farmers, they use their own language to communicate with others in their villages, and as they work in their rice fields. A baseline survey taken between 1996 and 1998 in five such villages showed…

Gregerson, Marilyn J.

2009-01-01

60

Dengue in Thailand and Cambodia: An Assessment of the Degree of Underrecognized Disease Burden Based  

E-print Network

Buathong5 , Rekol Huy6 , G. William Letson1 , Arunee Sabchareon4 1 Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative lawful purpose. Funding: The Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI) received funds from the BillDengue in Thailand and Cambodia: An Assessment of the Degree of Underrecognized Disease Burden

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

61

The health status of Cambodia's elderly in a context of gendered violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses Cambodia's 2005 Demographic and Health Survey to explore differences in health status and health care access among elderly women and men, in the historical context of gendered violence during the Khmer Rouge regime. Results point to small disadvantages for women in becoming sick and seeking treatment, which are explained by their relatively lower socioeconomic status. However, no

Yana van der Meulen Rodgers

2009-01-01

62

Student Transition from Primary to Lower Secondary School in Cambodia: Narrative Insights into Complex Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article has three purposes. First, it presents findings from a study of student retention and dropout in Cambodia, as pupils transition from primary to lower secondary school. Second, it aims to understand from an in-depth, emic perspective the dynamics of this process and the challenges that individual families and their students face around…

Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Zimmermann, Thomas; Sitha, Chhinh; Williams, James H.; Kitamura, Yuto

2014-01-01

63

Violence, Democracy, and the Neoliberal “Order”: The Contestation of Public Space in Posttransitional Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neoliberal policies explain why authoritarianism and violence remain the principal modes of governance among many ruling elites in posttransitional settings. Using Cambodia as an empirical case to illustrate the neoliberalizing process, the promotion of intense marketization is revealed as a foremost causal factor in a country's inability to consolidate democracy following political transition. Neoliberalization effectively acts to suffocate an indigenous

Simon Springer

2009-01-01

64

Educational Financing and Budgeting in Cambodia. Financial Management of Education Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains a detailed description of the challenges faced by educational finance and budgeting in Cambodia. Until recently, educational financing took the form of emergency budgets and was limited to government planning for teacher salaries and costs of examinations. There has been a general lack of coordination between provinces and the…

Pheng, Duy; Sovonn, Hang; Soly, Yos

65

Dengue Incidence in Urban and Rural Cambodia: Results from Population-Based Active Fever Surveillance, 2006  

E-print Network

Dengue Incidence in Urban and Rural Cambodia: Results from Population-Based Active Fever in rural villages and urban areas during 2006­2008. Methods and Findings: Active surveillance for febrile.5­211.5/1,000 person-seasons (median 36.5). During a DENV-3 outbreak in 2007, rural areas were affected more than urban

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

66

Challenges of Adopting the Use of Technology in Less Developed Countries: The Case of Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on Everett Rogers's theory of the diffusion of innovations, this article identifies the barriers, challenges, and successes in the adoption of technology training by teacher trainers in Cambodia. The analysis was based on data collected from an open-ended survey, face-to-face interviews, and document analysis. Findings reveal that the…

Richardson, Jayson W.

2011-01-01

67

State of Cybersecurity and the Roadmap to Secure Cyber Community in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents background information and the progress of the government effort on Cyber Security in Cambodia. Firstly, this study establishes a framework to assess the current effort of Cambodian government on cybersecurity. Secondly, the results of the assessment are used to develop policy implication, serving as roadmap to secure national online community. Furthermore, this paper discusses the process to

Sopheak Cheang; Sinawong Sang

2009-01-01

68

Basic Education for Rural Children: Current Facts, Situation and Challenges in Post-Conflict Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was a comparative study conducted between the two schools namely Kdie Tatam (KT) supported by the State and NGOs and Kbal Samraong (KS) supported by the State only. A field work was conducted in Samraong district of Takeo province, Cambodia where data gathered from both primary and secondary sources. The primary data was fundamentally obtained from a household survey

Sok Serey

69

Benefit-Cost Analysis of Foot and Mouth Disease Control in Large Ruminants in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Cambodia and throughout the Greater Mekong Subregion and causes significant losses to rural smallholders owning the majority of the national large ruminant population. However, due to underreporting, paucity of knowledge of FMD impacts, limited veterinary capacity and deficits of data available for analysis, the quantifiable benefits of a national FMD control programme are unknown. To address this deficit, existing literature and research data from the 'Best practice health and husbandry of cattle, Cambodia' project conducted between 2007 and 2012, were used to develop a three-phase analysis framework to: assess the impacts of the recent widespread FMD epizootic in Cambodia in 2010, conduct a value chain analysis of the large ruminant market and estimate the costs and benefits for a national large ruminant biannual FMD vaccination programme. A trader survey conducted in 2010-2011 provided cattle and buffalo value chain information and was matched to village herd structure data to calculate a total large ruminant farm-gate value of USD 1.271 billion in 2010. Monte Carlo simulation modelling that implemented a 5-year biannual vaccination programme at a cost of USD 6.3 an animal per year identified a benefit-cost ratio of 1.40 (95% CI 0.96-2.20) when accounting for recent prices of cattle and buffalo in Cambodia and based on an expected annual incidence of 0.2 (assuming one major epizootic in the 5-year vaccination programme). Given that the majority of the large ruminants are owned by rural smallholders, and mostly the poor are involved in agricultural employment, the successful implementation of an FMD control programme in Cambodia would be expected to avoid estimated losses of USD 135 million; equivalent to 10.6% of the 2010 farm-gate value and contributing to important reductions in rural poverty and food insecurity. PMID:25382391

Young, J R; Suon, S; Rast, L; Nampanya, S; Windsor, P A; Bush, R D

2014-11-10

70

Cross-sectional studies of tuberculosis prevalence in Cambodia between 2002 and 2011  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To measure trends in the pulmonary tuberculosis burden between 2002 and 2011 and to assess the impact of the DOTS (directly observed treatment, short-course) strategy in Cambodia. Methods Cambodia’s first population-based nationwide tuberculosis survey, based on multistage cluster sampling, was conducted in 2002. The second tuberculosis survey, encompassing 62 clusters, followed in 2011. Participants aged 15 years or older were screened for active pulmonary tuberculosis with chest radiography and/or for tuberculosis symptoms. For diagnostic confirmation, sputum smear and culture were conducted on those whose screening results were positive. Findings Of the 40?423 eligible subjects, 37?417 (92.6%) participated in the survey; 103 smear-positive cases and 211 smear-negative, culture-positive cases were identified. The weighted prevalences of smear-positive tuberculosis and bacteriologically-positive tuberculosis were 271 (95% confidence interval, CI: 212–348) and 831 (95% CI: 707–977) per 100?000 population, respectively. Tuberculosis prevalence was higher in men than women and increased with age. A 38% decline in smear-positive tuberculosis (P?=?0.0085) was observed with respect to the 2002 survey, after participants were matched by demographic and geographical characteristics. The prevalence of symptomatic, smear-positive tuberculosis decreased by 56% (P?=?0.001), whereas the prevalence of asymptomatic, smear-positive tuberculosis decreased by only 7% (P?=?0.7249). Conclusion The tuberculosis burden in Cambodia has declined significantly, most probably because of the decentralization of DOTS to health centres. To further reduce the tuberculosis burden in Cambodia, tuberculosis control should be strengthened and should focus on identifying cases without symptoms and in the middle-aged and elderly population. PMID:25177072

Mao, Tan Eang; Yamada, Norio; Peou, Satha; Ota, Masaki; Saint, Saly; Kouet, Pichenda; Chea, Manith; Keo, Sokonth; Pheng, Sok Heng; Tieng, Sivanna; Khun, Kim Eam; Sugamoto, Tetsuhiro; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Yoshiyama, Takashi; Ito, Kunihiko; Onozaki, Ikushi

2014-01-01

71

Radar Image with Color as Height, Sman Teng, Temple, Cambodia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of Cambodia's Angkor region, taken by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), reveals a temple (upper-right) not depicted on early 19th Century French archeological survey maps and American topographic maps. The temple, known as 'Sman Teng,' was known to the local Khmer people, but had remained unknown to historians due to the remoteness of its location. The temple is thought to date to the 11th Century: the heyday of Angkor. It is an important indicator of the strategic and natural resource contributions of the area northwest of the capitol, to the urban center of Angkor. Sman Teng, the name designating one of the many types of rice enjoyed by the Khmer, was 'discovered' by a scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., working in collaboration with an archaeological expert on the Angkor region. Analysis of this remote area was a true collaboration of archaeology and technology. Locating the temple of Sman Teng required the skills of scientists trained to spot the types of topographic anomalies that only radar can reveal.

This image, with a pixel spacing of 5 meters (16.4 feet), depicts an area of approximately 5 by 4.7 kilometers (3.1 by 2.9 miles). North is at top. Image brightness is from the P-band (68 centimeters, or 26.8 inches) wavelength radar backscatter, a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color represents 25 meters (82 feet) of elevation change, so going from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again corresponds to 25 meters (82 feet) of elevation change.

AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR mode, AIRSAR collects radar interferometry data from two spatially separated antennas (2.6 meters, or 8.5 feet). Information from the two antennas is used to form radar backscatter imagery and to generate highly accurate elevation data. Built, operated and managed by JPL, AIRSAR is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise program. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2002-01-01

72

Farm-level bureaucrats in action (and inaction) : the distribution of veterinary services in Laos and Cambodia  

E-print Network

In this study, I analyze several dimensions of the institutional environment that govern contractual exchange between veterinary service providers and farmers in Laos and Cambodia. I hypothesize that the negotiation, ...

Ballard, Brett M

2005-01-01

73

Global Village Info Pack 2012 Habitat for Humanity  

E-print Network

. Habitat works to alleviate global poverty by developing long term, sustainable solutions that provide will be basic hotels/hostels in Siem Reap (during the build) and Phnom Penh ­ the exact locations

Blennerhassett, Peter

74

Water-Borne Diseases and Extreme Weather Events in Cambodia: Review of Impacts and Implications of Climate Change  

PubMed Central

Cambodia is prone to extreme weather events, especially floods, droughts and typhoons. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of such events. The Cambodian population is highly vulnerable to the impacts of these events due to poverty; malnutrition; agricultural dependence; settlements in flood-prone areas, and public health, governance and technological limitations. Yet little is known about the health impacts of extreme weather events in Cambodia. Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap. A literature review of the health impacts of floods, droughts and typhoons in Cambodia was conducted, with regional and global information reviewed where Cambodia-specific literature was lacking. Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. A time-series analysis under quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the association between floods and diarrhoeal disease incidence in Cambodian children between 2001 and 2012 in 16 Cambodian provinces. Floods were significantly associated with increased diarrhoeal disease in two provinces, while the analysis conducted suggested a possible protective effect from toilets and piped water. Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia. PMID:25546280

Davies, Grace I.; McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Yoonhee; Hashizume, Masahiro; Iddings, Steven; Chan, Vibol

2014-01-01

75

Water-borne diseases and extreme weather events in cambodia: review of impacts and implications of climate change.  

PubMed

Cambodia is prone to extreme weather events, especially floods, droughts and typhoons. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of such events. The Cambodian population is highly vulnerable to the impacts of these events due to poverty; malnutrition; agricultural dependence; settlements in flood-prone areas, and public health, governance and technological limitations. Yet little is known about the health impacts of extreme weather events in Cambodia. Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap. A literature review of the health impacts of floods, droughts and typhoons in Cambodia was conducted, with regional and global information reviewed where Cambodia-specific literature was lacking. Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. A time-series analysis under quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the association between floods and diarrhoeal disease incidence in Cambodian children between 2001 and 2012 in 16 Cambodian provinces. Floods were significantly associated with increased diarrhoeal disease in two provinces, while the analysis conducted suggested a possible protective effect from toilets and piped water. Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia. PMID:25546280

Davies, Grace I; McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Yoonhee; Hashizume, Masahiro; Iddings, Steven; Chan, Vibol

2014-01-01

76

Radar Image with Color as Height, Hariharalaya, Cambodia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hariharalaya, the ancient 9th Century A.D. capitol of the Khmer in Cambodia, is shown in the upper center portion of this NASA Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) image. The image was acquired during the 1996 PACRIM mission with AIRSAR operating in the TOPSAR mode. At the center of the image is the terraced sandstone temple mountain of the King Indravarman, the Bakong. The smaller enclosed rectangular feature just to the north is Preah Ko. Further to the south are more rectangular features, temples and water reservoirs attributed to other kings in the earlier part of the 9th Century A.D. and maybe even earlier. Just visible at the top on the image is a long linear feature that forms the southern border of the immense water reservoir, at the center of which is the Lolei temple. The city was the first capitol of the Khmer after the 802 A.D. ceremony consecrating the king as 'Devaraja'. This usually translated as 'god who was king' or 'king who was god'. In the next century, the center of power shifted to the northwest, to the area known today as Angkor.

Thus this early capital is unique both in being the first after the historical 'founding' of the Khmer Empire, and for being inhabited for a relatively short time. Although kings returned from Angkor in the 11th and 12th Centuries A.D. to build the temple known as the Lolei and to construct the tower in the center of Bakong, the city of Hariharalaya remained on the perimeter of royal power. It was revered, however, as part of a longstanding and important custom of ancestral veneration. This manifested itself in a complex set of rituals honoring one's forebears--also ensuring legitimacy for one's claim to the throne. So behind this seemingly simple patterning of rectangles on the radar image lies many layers of history, ritual and meaning for the Khmer people, past and present.

Image dimensions are approximately 6 by 4.8 kilometers (3.7 by 3 miles) with a pixel spacing of 5 meters (16.4 feet). North is at top. Image brightness is from the C-band (5.6 centimeters, or 2.2 inches wavelength) radar backscatter, which is a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color--from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again--represents 10 meters (32.8 feet) of elevation change.

AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR mode, AIRSAR collects radar interferometry data from two spatially separated antennas (2.6 meters, or 8.5 feet). Information from the two antennas is used to form radar backscatter imagery and to generate highly accurate elevation data. Built, operated and managed by JPL, AIRSAR is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise program. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2002-01-01

77

Radar Image with Color as Height, Lovea, Cambodia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of Lovea, Cambodia, was acquired by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR). Lovea, the roughly circular feature in the middle-right of the image, rises some 5 meters (16.4 feet) above the surrounding terrain. Lovea is larger than many of the other mound sites with a diameter of greater than 300 meters (984.3 feet). However, it is one of a number highlighted by the radar imagery. The present-day village of Lovea does not occupy all of the elevated area. However, at the center of the mound is an ancient spirit post honoring the legendary founder of the village. The mound is surrounded by earthworks and has vestiges of additional curvilinear features. Today, as in the past, these harnessed water during the rainy season, and conserved it during the long dry months of the year.

The village of Lovea located on the mound was established in pre-Khmer times, probably before 500 A.D. In the lower left portion of the image is a large trapeng and square moat. These are good examples of construction during the historical 9th to 14th Century A.D. Khmer period; construction that honored and protected earlier circular villages. This suggests a cultural and technical continuity between prehistoric circular villages and the immense urban site of Angkor. This connection is one of the significant finds generated by NASA's radar imaging of Angkor. It shows that the city of Angkor was a particularly Khmer construction. The temple forms and water management structures of Angkor were the result of pre-existing Khmer beliefs and methods of water management.

Image dimensions are approximately 6.3 by 4.7 kilometers (3.9 by 2.9 miles). North is at top. Image brightness is from the C-band (5.6 centimeters, or 2.2 inches wavelength) radar backscatter, which is a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color represents 20 meters (65.6 feet) of elevation change; that is, going from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again corresponds to 20 meters (65.6 feet) of elevation change.

AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR mode, AIRSAR collects radar interferometry data from two spatially separated antennas (2.6 meters, or 8.5 feet). Information from the two antennas is used to form radar backscatter imagery and to generate highly accurate elevation data. Built, operated and managed by JPL, AIRSAR is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise program. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2002-01-01

78

Knowledge and views regarding condom use among female garment factory workers in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Cambodia is experiencing a generalized HIV epidemic; there is evidence some populations within Cambodia are particularly vulnerable to infection. A mixed methods study was conducted in 2006 on the vulnerability to contract HIV of rural-to-urban migrant Cambodian garment factory workers. This paper reports the views of these female migrant workers regarding the use of condoms in their sexual relationships. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 20 workers about their knowledge and experiences regarding condom use. Both married and single women were knowledgeable about HIV transmission, but there was a spectrum of perspectives about condom use with their current or future partners. Some women insisted partners use condoms, while others did not expect partner compliance, and a third group avoided discussing condom use with their partners. HIV prevention programs should include male partners. For many of these migrant women, interventions focussing on education about HIV transmission and condom negotiation skills are insufficient since implementation requires male cooperation. PMID:20578559

Webber, Gail; Edwards, Nancy; Amaratunga, Carol; Graham, Ian D; Keane, Vincent; Ros, Socheat

2010-05-01

79

Toward modeling regionally specific human security using GIS: case study Cambodia.  

PubMed

A new methodology for measuring human security is presented. The three stages of the methodology are: i) threat assessment, ii) data collection and organization, and iii) data visualization and analysis, using Geographic Information Systems. Results from a Cambodia case study are highlighted. The United Nations Development Program's notion of human security, which gives equal weight to economic, health, food, political, personal, and environmental factors, is used. Country-specific threats in each category are determined, and local, spatially referenced data are collected. In this paper, poverty, dengue fever, and tuberculosis are used as examples of the analytic process. Regions of Cambodia exposed to all three of these threats ("hot spots") are located, and spatial correlation between poverty, dengue fever, and tuberculosis is calculated. The methodology i) advances a broad concept of human security, ii) will potentially assist policy and decision makers, and iii) identifies research questions that cannot be resolved using single-sector analysis. PMID:16201215

Owen, Taylor; Slaymaker, Olav

2005-08-01

80

A clinic based survey of blindness and eye disease in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To survey the spectrum of eye disease presenting to rural eye clinics in Cambodia.?METHODS—A total of 1381 patients seen consecutively at 13 eye clinics were examined and the findings recorded.?RESULTS—231 (16.7%) were bilaterally blind (visual acuity <3/60 in both eyes); 263 (19%) were unilaterally blind, and 169 (12%) had low vision (visual acuity <6/18 in the better eye). Cataract was the commonest cause of visual loss in all three categories and was responsible respectively in 69%, 40%, and 55% of each group. Trachoma was diagnosed in 13% of patients. Thirty three of them needed lid surgery for trichiasis.?CONCLUSION—With the difficult practical and political situation in Cambodia there seems little prospect of making substantial inroads into the backlog of avoidable blindness in the near future.?? PMID:9290373

Thomson, I.

1997-01-01

81

A first assessment of the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Cambodia is among the 22 high-burden TB countries, and has one of the highest rates of TB in South-East Asia. This study aimed to describe the genetic diversity among clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) isolates collected in Cambodia and to relate these findings to genetic diversity data from neighboring countries. Methods We characterized by 24 VNTR loci genotyping and spoligotyping 105 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates collected between 2007 and 2008 in the region of Phnom-Penh, Cambodia, enriched in multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates (n = 33). Results Classical spoligotyping confirmed that the East-African Indian (EAI) lineage is highly prevalent in this area (60%-68% respectively in whole sample and among non-MDR isolates). Beijing lineage is also largely represented (30% in whole sample, 21% among non-MDR isolates, OR = 4.51, CI95% [1.77, 11.51]) whereas CAS lineage was absent. The 24 loci MIRU-VNTR typing scheme distinguished 90 patterns with only 13 multi-isolates clusters covering 28 isolates. The clustering of EAI strains could be achieved with only 8 VNTR combined with spoligotyping, which could serve as a performing, easy and cheap genotyping standard for this family. Extended spoligotyping suggested relatedness of some unclassified "T1 ancestors" or "Manu" isolates with modern strains and provided finer resolution. Conclusions The genetic diversity of MTC in Cambodia is driven by the EAI and the Beijing families. We validate the usefulness of the extended spoligotyping format in combination with 8 VNTR for EAI isolates in this region. PMID:21299851

2011-01-01

82

Modelling arsenic hazard in Cambodia: A geostatistical approach using ancillary data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The As concentration in shallow groundwater in Cambodia was estimated using 1329 georeferenced water samples collected during the period 1986–2004 from wells between 16–100m depth. Arsenic concentrations were estimated using block regression-kriging on the log transformed As measurements. Auxiliary raster maps (DEM-parameters, remote sensing images and geology) were converted to 16 principal components that were used to explain the distribution

Luis Rodríguez Lado; David Polya; Lenny Winkel; Michael Berg; Aimee Hegan

2008-01-01

83

Status of intestinal parasite infections among children in Bat Dambang, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was conducted to determine the extent of intestinal parasite infection in Bat Dambang, Cambodia in March 2004. A total of 623 fecal specimens was collected from kindergarten and schoolchildren and examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The overall infection rate of intestinal parasites was 25.7% (boys, 26.2%; girls, 25.1%), and the infection rates of intestinal helminthes by species

Seung Kyu Park; Dong-Heui Kim; Young-Kun Deung; Hun-Joo Kim; Eun-Ju Yang; Soo-Jung Lim; Yong-Suk Ryang; Dan Jin; Kyu-Jae Lee

2004-01-01

84

Achieving universal access and moving towards elimination of new HIV infections in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Introduction In the mid-1990s, Cambodia faced one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in Asia. For its achievement in reversing this trend, and achieving universal access to HIV treatment, the country received a United Nations millennium development goal award in 2010. This article reviews Cambodia’s response to HIV over the past two decades and discusses its current efforts towards elimination of new HIV infections. Methods A literature review of published and unpublished documents, including programme data and presentations, was conducted. Results and discussion Cambodia classifies its response to one of the most serious HIV epidemics in Asia into three phases. In Phase I (1991–2000), when adult HIV prevalence peaked at 1.7% and incidence exceeded 20,000 cases, a nationwide HIV prevention programme targeted brothel-based sex work. Voluntary confidential counselling and testing and home-based care were introduced, and peer support groups of people living with HIV emerged. Phase II (2001–2011) observed a steady decline in adult prevalence to 0.8% and incidence to 1600 cases by 2011, and was characterized by: expanding antiretroviral treatment (coverage reaching more than 80%) and continuum of care; linking with tuberculosis and maternal and child health services; accelerated prevention among key populations, including entertainment establishment-based sex workers, men having sex with men, transgender persons, and people who inject drugs; engagement of health workers to deliver quality services; and strengthening health service delivery systems. The third phase (2012–2020) aims to attain zero new infections by 2020 through: sharpening responses to key populations at higher risk; maximizing access to community and facility-based testing and retention in prevention and care; and accelerating the transition from vertical approaches to linked/integrated approaches. Conclusions Cambodia has tailored its prevention strategy to its own epidemic, established systematic linkages across different services and communities, and achieved nearly universal coverage of HIV services nationwide. Still, the programme must continually (re)prioritize the most effective and efficient interventions, strengthen synergies between programmes, contribute to health system strengthening, and increase domestic funding so that the gains of the previous two decades are sustained, and the goal of zero new infections is reached. PMID:24950749

Vun, Mean Chhi; Fujita, Masami; Rathavy, Tung; Eang, Mao Tang; Sopheap, Seng; Sovannarith, Samreth; Chhorvann, Chhea; Vanthy, Ly; Sopheap, Oum; Welle, Emily; Ferradini, Laurent; Sedtha, Chin; Bunna, Sok; Verbruggen, Robert

2014-01-01

85

Decreased in vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum isolates to artesunate, mefloquine, chloroquine, and quinine in Cambodia from 2001 to 2007.  

PubMed

This study describes the results of in vitro antimalarial susceptibility assays and molecular polymorphisms of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Cambodia. The samples were collected from patients enrolled in therapeutic efficacy studies (TES) conducted by the Cambodian National Malaria Control Program for the routine efficacy monitoring of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) (artesunate-mefloquine and artemether-lumefantrine combinations). The isolates (n = 2,041) were obtained from nine sentinel sites during the years 2001 to 2007. Among these, 1,588 were examined for their in vitro susceptibilities to four antimalarials (artesunate, mefloquine, chloroquine, and quinine), and 851 isolates were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The geometric means of the 50% inhibitory concentrations (GMIC(50)s) of the four drugs tested were significantly higher for isolates from western Cambodia than for those from eastern Cambodia. GMIC(50)s for isolates from participants who failed artesunate-mefloquine therapy were significantly higher than those for patients who were cured (P, <0.001). In vitro correlation of artesunate with the other drugs was observed. The distributions of the SNPs differed between eastern and western Cambodia, suggesting different genetic backgrounds of the parasite populations in these two parts of the country. The GMIC(50)s of the four drugs tested increased significantly in eastern Cambodia during 2006 to 2007. These results are worrisome, because they may signal deterioration of the efficacy of artesunate-mefloquine beyond the Cambodian-Thai border. PMID:20194689

Lim, Pharath; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda; Chim, Pheaktra; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Chy, Sophy; Sem, Rithy; Nhem, Sina; Yi, Poravuth; Duong, Socheat; Bouth, Denis Mey; Genton, Blaise; Beck, Hans-Peter; Gobert, Jean Gerard; Rogers, William O; Coppee, Jean-Yves; Fandeur, Thierry; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Ringwald, Pascal; Le Bras, Jacques; Ariey, Frederic

2010-05-01

86

Decreased In Vitro Susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Isolates to Artesunate, Mefloquine, Chloroquine, and Quinine in Cambodia from 2001 to 2007 ?  

PubMed Central

This study describes the results of in vitro antimalarial susceptibility assays and molecular polymorphisms of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Cambodia. The samples were collected from patients enrolled in therapeutic efficacy studies (TES) conducted by the Cambodian National Malaria Control Program for the routine efficacy monitoring of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) (artesunate-mefloquine and artemether-lumefantrine combinations). The isolates (n = 2,041) were obtained from nine sentinel sites during the years 2001 to 2007. Among these, 1,588 were examined for their in vitro susceptibilities to four antimalarials (artesunate, mefloquine, chloroquine, and quinine), and 851 isolates were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The geometric means of the 50% inhibitory concentrations (GMIC50s) of the four drugs tested were significantly higher for isolates from western Cambodia than for those from eastern Cambodia. GMIC50s for isolates from participants who failed artesunate-mefloquine therapy were significantly higher than those for patients who were cured (P, <0.001). In vitro correlation of artesunate with the other drugs was observed. The distributions of the SNPs differed between eastern and western Cambodia, suggesting different genetic backgrounds of the parasite populations in these two parts of the country. The GMIC50s of the four drugs tested increased significantly in eastern Cambodia during 2006 to 2007. These results are worrisome, because they may signal deterioration of the efficacy of artesunate-mefloquine beyond the Cambodian-Thai border. PMID:20194689

Lim, Pharath; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda; Chim, Pheaktra; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Chy, Sophy; Sem, Rithy; Nhem, Sina; Yi, Poravuth; Duong, Socheat; Bouth, Denis Mey; Genton, Blaise; Beck, Hans-Peter; Gobert, Jean Gerard; Rogers, William O.; Coppee, Jean-Yves; Fandeur, Thierry; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Ringwald, Pascal; Le Bras, Jacques; Ariey, Frederic

2010-01-01

87

Review of Climate Change and Water-Related Diseases in Cambodia and Findings From Stakeholder Knowledge Assessments.  

PubMed

This project aims to increase the resilience of Cambodian communities to the health risks posed by climate change-related impacts on water-related diseases. There are a number of water-related diseases that are present in Cambodia and are likely to be susceptible to climate change. These include diarrheal diseases, typhoid fever, leptospirosis, melioidosis, viral hepatitis, and schistosomiasis. Certain subsectors of Cambodia's population may be more vulnerable than others with respect to climate change impacts on water and health, including agricultural workers and residents of flood-and drought-prone areas. The current level of understanding on the part of health professionals and other key stakeholders in Cambodia regarding the risks posed by climate change on water-sensitive diseases is relatively low. Strategies by which this understanding might be strengthened are suggested. PMID:25388662

McIver, Lachlan J; Chan, Vibol S; Bowen, Kathyrn J; Iddings, Steven N; Hero, Kol; Raingsey, Piseth P

2014-11-10

88

Sex work and HIV in Cambodia: trajectories of risk and disease in two cohorts of high-risk young women in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Objectives HIV prevalence among Cambodian female sex workers (FSW) is among the highest in Southeast Asia. We describe HIV prevalence and associated risk exposures in FSW sampled serially in Phnom Penh, Cambodia (Young Women's Health Study (YWHS)), before and after the implementation of a new law designed to combat human trafficking and sexual exploitation. Design Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from two prospective cohorts. Setting Community-based study in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Participants Women aged 15–29?years, reporting ?2 sexual partners in the last month and/or engaged in transactional sex in the last 3?months, were enrolled in the studies in 2007 (N=161; YWHS-1), and 2009 (N=220; YWHS-2) following information sessions where 285 and 345 women attended. Primary outcomes HIV prevalence, sexual risk behaviour, amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) and alcohol use, and work-related factors were compared in the two groups, enrolled before and after implementation of the new law. Results Participants in the two cohorts were similar in age (median 25?years), but YWHS-2 women reported fewer sex partners, more alcohol use and less ATS use. A higher proportion of YWHS-2 compared with YWHS-1 women worked in entertainment-based venues (68% vs 31%, respectively). HIV prevalence was significantly lower in the more recently sampled women: 9.2% (95% CI 4.5% to 13.8%) vs 23% (95% CI 16.5% to 29.7%). Conclusions Sex work context and risk have shifted among young FSW in Phnom Penh, following implementation of anti-prostitution and anti-trafficking laws. While both cohorts were recruited using the same eligibility criteria, more recently sampled women had lower prevalence of sexual risk and HIV infection. Women engaging more directly in transactional sex have become harder to sample and access. Future prevention research and programmes need to consider how new policies and demographic changes in FSW impact HIV transmission. PMID:24022389

Page, Kimberly; Stein, Ellen; Sansothy, Neth; Evans, Jennifer; Couture, Marie-Claude; Sichan, Keo; Cockroft, Melissa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Kaldor, John; Maher, Lisa

2013-01-01

89

Beliefs about tobacco, health, and addiction among adults in Cambodia: findings from a national survey.  

PubMed

There remains a very high rate of smoked and smokeless tobacco use in the Western Pacific Region. The most recent findings from national adult tobacco surveys indicate that very few daily users of tobacco intend to quit tobacco use. In Cambodia, a nation that is predominantly Buddhist, faith-based tobacco control programs have been implemented where, under the fifth precept of Buddhism that proscribes addictive behaviors, monks were encouraged to quit tobacco and temples have been declared smoke-free. In the present study, we included items on a large national tobacco survey to examine the relation between beliefs (faith-based, other) about tobacco, health, and addiction among adults (18 years and older). In a stratified, multistage cluster sample (n=13,988) of all provinces of Cambodia, we found that (1) 88-93% believe that Buddhist monks should not use tobacco, buy tobacco, or be offered tobacco during a religious ceremony; (2) 86-93% believe that the Wat (temple) should be a smoke-free area; (3) 93-95% believe that tobacco is addictive in the same way as habits (opium, gambling, alcohol) listed under the fifth precept of Buddhism; and (4) those who do not use tobacco are significantly more likely to cite a Buddhist principle as part of their anti-tobacco beliefs. These data indicate that anti-tobacco sentiments are highly prevalent in the Buddhist belief system of Cambodian adults and are especially evident among non-users of tobacco. Our findings indicate that faith-based initiatives could be an effective part of anti-tobacco campaigns in Cambodia. PMID:21948146

Yel, Daravuth; Bui, Anthony; Job, Jayakaran S; Knutsen, Synnove; Singh, Pramil N

2013-09-01

90

Self-Reported Serious Illnesses in Rural Cambodia: A Cross-Sectional Survey  

PubMed Central

Background There is substantial evidence that ill-health is a major cause of impoverishment in developing countries. Major illnesses can have a serious economic impact on poor households through treatment costs and income loss. However, available methods for measuring the impact of ill-health on household welfare display several shortcomings and new methods are thus needed. To understand the potential complex impact of major illnesses on household livelihoods, a study on poverty and illness was conducted in rural Cambodia, as part of an international comparative research project. A cross-sectional survey was performed to identify households affected by major illness for further in-depth interviews. Methodology and Principal Findings 5,975 households in three rural health districts were randomly selected through a two-stage cluster sampling and interviewed. 27% of the households reported at least one member with a serious illness in the year preceding the survey and 15% of the household members reported suffering from at least one serious illness. The most reported conditions include common tropical infectious diseases, chronic diseases (notably hypertension and heart diseases) and road traffic accidents. Such conditions were particularly concentrated among the poor, children under five, women, and the elderly. Poor women often reported complications related to pregnancy and delivery as serious illnesses. Conclusions and Significance Despite some methodological limitations, this study provides new information on the frequency of self-reported serious illnesses among the rural Cambodia's population, which serves as a basis for further in-depth investigation on ‘major illnesses’ and their economic consequences on poor households. This can in turn help policy makers to formulate appropriate interventions to protect the poor from the financial burden associated with ill-health. Our findings suggest that every year a considerable proportion of rural population in Cambodia, especially the poor and vulnerable, are affected by serious illnesses, both communicable and non-communicable diseases. PMID:20532180

Ir, Por; Men, Chean; Lucas, Henry; Meessen, Bruno; Decoster, Kristof; Bloom, Gerald; Van Damme, Wim

2010-01-01

91

DO MARRIAGES FORGET THEIR PAST? MARITAL STABILITY IN POST–KHMER ROUGE CAMBODIA*  

PubMed Central

This paper assesses the impact of three main destabilizing factors on marital stability in Cambodia: the radical reformation of marriage under the Khmers Rouges (KR); the imbalanced gender ratio among marriageable adults resulting from gendered mortality during the KR regime; and, after decades of isolation from the West, a period of rapid social change. Although there is evidence of declining marital stability in the most recent period, marriages contracted under the KR appear as stable as adjacent marriage cohorts. These findings suggest that the conditions under which spouses were initially paired matter less for marital stability than does their contemporaneous environment. PMID:16579210

HEUVELINE, PATRICK; POCH, BUNNAK

2014-01-01

92

Reduced Polymorphism in the Kelch Propeller Domain in Plasmodium vivax Isolates from Cambodia.  

PubMed

Polymorphism in the ortholog gene of the Plasmodium falciparum K13 gene was investigated in Plasmodium vivax isolates collected in Cambodia. All of them were Sal-1 wild-type alleles except two (2/284, 0.7%), and P. vivax K12 polymorphism was reduced compared to that of the P. falciparum K13 gene. Both mutant allele isolates had the same nonsynonymous mutation at codon 552 (V552I) and were from Ratanak Kiri province. These preliminary data should encourage additional studies for associating artemisinin or chloroquine resistance and K12 polymorphism. PMID:25385109

Popovici, Jean; Kao, Sokheng; Eal, Leanghor; Bin, Sophalai; Kim, Saorin; Ménard, Didier

2015-01-01

93

Cardiologist in the shadow of Angkor Wat: A medical mission to Cambodia  

PubMed Central

In a medical mission to Cambodia, our team of doctors, dentists, and nurses saw over 1000 patients during 4 days of clinics. The most common cardiovascular problems were hypertension (11%) and heart murmurs (3%). Obesity and a history of diabetes were very rare. Unlike the cardiac patients I typically see in my Atlanta office, the Cambodians were trim and muscular from their predominantly farming and, less often, construction jobs. They are a gentle, seemingly happy people, appreciative of whatever limited medical help we could offer. Tuberculosis was the most prevalent serious illness noted. PMID:24688208

2014-01-01

94

Gendered Motivations, Sociocultural Constraints, and Psychobehavioral Consequences of Transnational Partnerships in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Global flows of people, information and capital have created transnational spaces in Cambodia. Within those spaces exists the formation of complex and multilayered interpersonal relationships between people attempting to capitalize on the opportunities created by these flows. The purpose of this article is to describe these transnational relationships, namely between young women employed in the entertainment sectors in Phnom Penh, and their western male partners, while highlighting the racialized and gendered motivations of the global actors, the inevitable sociocultural conflicts/constraints/ misunderstandings that arise within the partnerships, and the resulting challenges and psychobehavioral consequences experienced by the mobile and differentiated individuals involved in these postcolonial relational formations. PMID:25221438

Hoefinger, Heidi

2014-01-01

95

Emerging infectious diseases and public health policy: insights from cambodia, Hong Kong and indonesia.  

PubMed

Emerging infectious diseases affect the health of animal and human populations, but the impact goes beyond health as it extends to political, economic, social and environmental domains, as well as inter-state relations. Deeper understanding of these impacts aids public health authorities in their duties of protection and improvement of the health of their communities, promotion of healthy practices and research on disease, injury and threat prevention and mitigation. This empirical essay gathers insights from Cambodia, Hong Kong and Indonesia as they attempt to design and implement control and surveillance systems against avian influenza - an infectious disease. PMID:23551938

Burgos, S; Ear, S

2015-02-01

96

Deployment of dual-sensor ALIS for humanitarian demining in Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are in the process of developing a high-resolution landmine scanning system "ALIS" which produces horizontal slices of the shallow subsurface for visualization of buried explosives and inert clutter. As many AP mines contain minimum amounts of metal, metal detectors need to be combined with a complimentary subsurface imaging sensor. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is widely accepted for subsurface sensing in the fields of geology, archaeology and utility detection. The demining application requires real-time imaging results with centimetre resolution in a highly portable package. The key requirement for sharp images of the subsurface is the precise tracking of the geophysical sensor(s) during data collection. We should also notice that GPR system is a very wide band radar system, and equivalent to UWB radar, which has recently been developed for short-range high-accuracy radar. We are testing simplified but effective signal processing for imaging mines. We are currently testing a dual sensor ALIS which is a realtime sensor tracking system based on a CCD camera and image processing. In this paper we introduce the GPR systems which we have developed for detection of buried antipersonnel mines and small size explosives. ALIS has been deployed in Cambodia since 2009 and detected more than 70 mines in mine fields, and returned more than 13ha cleaned fields to local farmers. We also report the current status of ALIS in Cambodia.

Sato, M.; Takahashi, K.

2013-06-01

97

Forest plunder in Southeast Asia: an environmental security nexus in Burma and Cambodia.  

PubMed

This article discusses the cycle of conversion, consumption, and corruption that undermines the environment and civil society in Cambodia and Burma (Myanmar). In these countries, forests are declining in patterns similar to other Southeast Asian deforestation. Illegal logging, prostitution, and heroin trafficking constitute the bulk of Cambodia's shadow economy. Revenues are used to provide financial support for political causes and build the private wealth of the elite. Major political and guerilla groups and the Cambodian military have been major beneficiaries of logging revenue, supported private sector forestry in many military zones, and facilitated logging and trade. About 40% of land goes to forest concessions granted to Southeast Asian companies, and revenues bypass the regular state budget. In Burma, the cease fire agreements in the early 1990s, led to remote border area forests being opened up to large, nonsustainable commercial timber mining. Land was divided into ethnic and government controlled areas. Timber profits were funneled into a business owned by members of the new ruling force, the SLORC, and used to launder drug exports and profits. Trading partners include Thailand, and most recently, China. It is speculated that deforested areas are replanted with opium poppies, and trade routes carry timber and heroin. The unregulated logging industry and the lack of financial accounting of the timber trade undermine the structures of civil society and good governance. Forest policies appear progressive but are in reality unenforced. Politics and agreements in both countries are closely tied to deforestation issues. PMID:12321720

Talbott, K; Brown, M

1998-01-01

98

Health seeking and access to care for children with suspected dengue in Cambodia: An ethnographic study  

PubMed Central

Background The continuing contribution of dengue fever to the hospitalization and deaths in hospital of infants and small children in Cambodia is associated with delays in presentation for medical attention, diagnosis and appropriate care. It is important to identify the reasons that influence these delays, in order to develop appropriate interventions to redress the impact of dengue. Methods Data on health seeking were collected during an ethnographic study conducted in two villages in the eastern province of Kampong Cham, Cambodia in 2004. Interviews were conducted with mothers whose children had been infected with suspected dengue fever, or who had been sick for other reasons, in 2003 and 2004. Results Women selected a therapeutic option based on perceptions of the severity of the child's condition, confidence in the particular modality, service or practitioner, and affordability of the therapy. While they knew what type of health care was required, poverty in combination with limited availability and perceptions of the poor quality of care at village health centers and public referral hospitals deterred them from doing so. Women initially used home remedies, then sought advice from public and private providers, shifting from one sector to another in a pragmatic response to the child's illness. Conclusion The lack of availability of financial resources for poor people and their continuing lack of confidence in the care provided by government centres combine to delay help seeking and inappropriate treatment of children sick with dengue. PMID:17892564

Khun, Sokrin; Manderson, Lenore

2007-01-01

99

Cluster randomized controlled trial of the plastic BioSand Water filter in Cambodia.  

PubMed

About half of the rural population of Cambodia lacks access to improved water; an even higher percentage lacks access to latrines. More than 35,000 concrete BioSand Water filters (BSF) have been installed in the country. However, the concrete BSF takes time to produce and weighs hundreds of pounds. A plastic BSF has been developed but may not perform to the same benchmarks established by its predecessor. To evaluate plastic BSF performance and health impact, we performed a cluster randomized controlled trial in 13 communities including 189 households and 1147 participants in the Angk Snoul district of Kandal Province from May to December 2008. The results suggest that villages with plastic BSFs had significantly lower concentrations of E. coli in drinking water and lower diarrheal disease (incidence rate ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval: 0.24-0.69) compared to control villages. As one of the first studies on the plastic BSF in Cambodia, these are important findings, especially in a setting where the concrete BSF has seen high rates of continued use years after installation. The study suggests the plastic BSF may play an important role in scaling up the distribution/implementation of the BSF, potentially improving water quality and health in the region. PMID:22129231

Stauber, C E; Printy, E R; McCarty, F A; Liang, K R; Sobsey, M D

2012-01-17

100

Can Human Movements Explain Heterogeneous Propagation of Dengue Fever in Cambodia?  

PubMed Central

Background Determining the factors underlying the long-range spatial spread of infectious diseases is a key issue regarding their control. Dengue is the most important arboviral disease worldwide and a major public health problem in tropical areas. However the determinants shaping its dynamics at a national scale remain poorly understood. Here we describe the spatial-temporal pattern of propagation of annual epidemics in Cambodia and discuss the role that human movements play in the observed pattern. Methods and Findings We used wavelet phase analysis to analyse time-series data of 105,598 hospitalized cases reported between 2002 and 2008 in the 135 (/180) most populous districts in Cambodia. We reveal spatial heterogeneity in the propagation of the annual epidemic. Each year, epidemics are highly synchronous over a large geographic area along the busiest national road of the country whereas travelling waves emanate from a few rural areas and move slowly along the Mekong River at a speed of ?11 km per week (95% confidence interval 3–18 km per week) towards the capital, Phnom Penh. Conclusions We suggest human movements – using roads as a surrogate – play a major role in the spread of dengue fever at a national scale. These findings constitute a new starting point in the understanding of the processes driving dengue spread. PMID:23236536

Teurlai, Magali; Huy, Rekol; Cazelles, Bernard; Duboz, Raphaël; Baehr, Christophe; Vong, Sirenda

2012-01-01

101

Long-term psychiatric consequences of exposure to trauma in Cambodia: A regional household survey.  

PubMed

The long-term psychiatric consequences of exposure to war and/or mass conflict continue to be of great concern and particularly in Cambodia. The current cross-sectional study examined the relationship between history of trauma and current psychiatric and functional morbidity in 3200 randomly selected adults aged 18-60 in Cambodia. Structured interviews were conducted from November 2011 until May 2012 in two predominantly rural regions purposively selected for differing duration of exposure to the Khmer Rouge occupation. Information was also collected regarding ongoing daily stressors and intimate partner violence. Despite high prevalence rates of conflict/war-related trauma, current rates of psychiatric disorders (depression, post-traumatic stress disorder) were relatively low, suggesting that the effects of trauma and extreme hardship in civilian populations may be modified by contextual factors and/or the passage of time. Poor to fair physical health was, however, reported by nearly 60% of the sample. Daily stressors were more important for current morbidity levels than history of trauma, especially in the region with shorter Khmer Rouge occupation. The results suggest that a focus exclusively on past trauma may overlook the contribution of adverse daily life circumstances towards current levels of well-being in civilian populations affected by war and/or mass conflict. PMID:25462614

Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Chak, Thida; Sunbaunat, Ka; Jarl, Johan; Larsson, Charlotte A

2014-10-28

102

Reduced artemisinin susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum ring stages in western Cambodia.  

PubMed

The declining efficacy of artemisinin derivatives against Plasmodium falciparum in western Cambodia is a major concern. The knowledge gap in the understanding of the mechanisms involved hampers designing monitoring tools. Here, we culture-adapted 20 isolates from Pailin and Ratanakiri (areas of artemisinin resistance and susceptibility in western and eastern Cambodia, respectively) and studied their in vitro response to dihydroartemisinin. No significant difference between the two sets of isolates was observed in the classical isotopic test. However, a 6-h pulse exposure to 700 nM dihydroartemisinin (ring-stage survival assay -RSA]) revealed a clear-cut geographic dichotomy. The survival rate of exposed ring-stage parasites (ring stages) was 17-fold higher in isolates from Pailin (median, 13.5%) than in those from Ratanakiri (median, 0.8%), while exposed mature stages were equally and highly susceptible (0.6% and 0.7%, respectively). Ring stages survived drug exposure by cell cycle arrest and resumed growth upon drug withdrawal. The reduced susceptibility to artemisinin in Pailin appears to be associated with an altered in vitro phenotype of ring stages from Pailin in the RSA. PMID:23208708

Witkowski, Benoit; Khim, Nimol; Chim, Pheaktra; Kim, Saorin; Ke, Sopheakvatey; Kloeung, Nimol; Chy, Sophy; Duong, Socheat; Leang, Rithea; Ringwald, Pascal; Dondorp, Arjen M; Tripura, Rupam; Benoit-Vical, Françoise; Berry, Antoine; Gorgette, Olivier; Ariey, Frédéric; Barale, Jean-Christophe; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Menard, Didier

2013-02-01

103

Reduced Artemisinin Susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Ring Stages in Western Cambodia  

PubMed Central

The declining efficacy of artemisinin derivatives against Plasmodium falciparum in western Cambodia is a major concern. The knowledge gap in the understanding of the mechanisms involved hampers designing monitoring tools. Here, we culture-adapted 20 isolates from Pailin and Ratanakiri (areas of artemisinin resistance and susceptibility in western and eastern Cambodia, respectively) and studied their in vitro response to dihydroartemisinin. No significant difference between the two sets of isolates was observed in the classical isotopic test. However, a 6-h pulse exposure to 700 nM dihydroartemisinin (ring-stage survival assay -RSA]) revealed a clear-cut geographic dichotomy. The survival rate of exposed ring-stage parasites (ring stages) was 17-fold higher in isolates from Pailin (median, 13.5%) than in those from Ratanakiri (median, 0.8%), while exposed mature stages were equally and highly susceptible (0.6% and 0.7%, respectively). Ring stages survived drug exposure by cell cycle arrest and resumed growth upon drug withdrawal. The reduced susceptibility to artemisinin in Pailin appears to be associated with an altered in vitro phenotype of ring stages from Pailin in the RSA. PMID:23208708

Khim, Nimol; Chim, Pheaktra; Kim, Saorin; Ke, Sopheakvatey; Kloeung, Nimol; Chy, Sophy; Duong, Socheat; Leang, Rithea; Ringwald, Pascal; Dondorp, Arjen M.; Tripura, Rupam; Benoit-Vical, Françoise; Berry, Antoine; Gorgette, Olivier; Ariey, Frédéric; Barale, Jean-Christophe; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

2013-01-01

104

Modelling flood, sedimentation processes, and water quality for environmental impact assessment and management support in the Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tonle Sap Lake (known also as the Great Lake), located in central Cambodia, is the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia and an important component in the Mekong River system. The area is globally unique and the lake has an extraordinary hydrological system. The importance of the Tonle Sap Lake goes far beyond provincial and even national boundaries. A

Matti KUMMU; Jorma KOPONEN

105

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Outbreak in Captive Wild Birds and Cats, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

From December 2003 through January 2004, the Phnom Tamao Wildlife Rescue Centre, Cambodia, was affected by the highly pathogenic influenza virus (H5N1). Birds from 26 species died. Influenza virus subtype H5N1 was detected in 6 of 7 species tested. Cats from 5 of 7 species were probably infected; none died. PMID:19239769

Marx, Nick; Ong, Sivuth; Gaidet, Nicolas; Hunt, Matt; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Sorn, San; Peiris, Malik; Van der Werf, Sylvie; Reynes, Jean-Marc

2009-01-01

106

The Pastoral Care and Challenges of the People from Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses responses of the Catholic church to the special needs of Indochinese refugees in the United States. Reviews the influence of Catholicism in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, and describes activities of itinerant ministries to Catholic refugee communities across the U.S. The church's mission must be openness and hospitality toward newcomers.…

Tran, Peter

1990-01-01

107

Distortions and Dichotomies in Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities in Cambodia in the Context of Globalisation and International Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the consequences of transferring technical information on disability and inclusive education from the North to the South within the context of international development. Based on data from the author's experiences as a US-trained Indian international consultant in Cambodia, it analyses how problems with translation and…

Kalyanpur, Maya

2014-01-01

108

he Documentation Center of Cambodia (DC-Cam) seeks several exceptional law students to serve as Summer Legal  

E-print Network

and the Southeast Asian region. In addition, the CLPJ is committed to promoting a culture that values human rights, democracy, and the rule of law by way of building the capacity of Cambodia's legal profession. Community important roles to play in the Witnessing Justice Project by carrying out the following duties: · Each

Carter, John

109

Private Tutoring and Mass Schooling in East Asia: Reflections of Inequality in Japan, South Korea, and Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines private tutoring systems in three East Asian countries (Japan, South Korea, and Cambodia) with the purpose of examining the relationship between those systems and formal education systems. The study of private tutoring systems in each nation can be used to reveal the inadequacies of the formal education system in meeting the…

Dawson, Walter

2010-01-01

110

Efficacy of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in Cambodia, 2008 to 2010.  

PubMed

We describe here the results of antimalarial therapeutic efficacy studies conducted in Cambodia from 2008 to 2010. A total of 15 studies in four sentinel sites were conducted using dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum infection and chloroquine (CQ) and DP for the treatment of P. vivax infection. All studies were performed according to the standard World Health Organization protocol for the assessment of antimalarial treatment efficacy. Among the studies of DP for the treatment of P. falciparum, an increase in treatment failure was observed in the western provinces. In 2010, the PCR-corrected treatment failure rates for DP on day 42 were 25% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 10 to 51%) in Pailin and 10.7% (95% CI = 4 to 23%) in Pursat, while the therapeutic efficacy of DP remained high (100%) in Ratanakiri and Preah Vihear provinces, located in northern and eastern Cambodia. For the studies of P. vivax, the day 28 uncorrected treatment failure rate among patients treated with CQ ranged from 4.4 to 17.4%; DP remained 100% effective in all sites. Further study is required to investigate suspected P. falciparum resistance to piperaquine in western Cambodia; the results of in vitro and molecular studies were not found to support the therapeutic efficacy findings. The emergence of artemisinin resistance in this region has likely put additional pressure on piperaquine. Although DP appears to be an appropriate new first-line treatment for P. vivax in Cambodia, alternative treatments are urgently needed for P. falciparum-infected patients in western Cambodia. PMID:23208711

Leang, Rithea; Barrette, Amy; Bouth, Denis Mey; Menard, Didier; Abdur, Rashid; Duong, Socheat; Ringwald, Pascal

2013-02-01

111

Efficacy of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in Cambodia, 2008 to 2010  

PubMed Central

We describe here the results of antimalarial therapeutic efficacy studies conducted in Cambodia from 2008 to 2010. A total of 15 studies in four sentinel sites were conducted using dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum infection and chloroquine (CQ) and DP for the treatment of P. vivax infection. All studies were performed according to the standard World Health Organization protocol for the assessment of antimalarial treatment efficacy. Among the studies of DP for the treatment of P. falciparum, an increase in treatment failure was observed in the western provinces. In 2010, the PCR-corrected treatment failure rates for DP on day 42 were 25% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 10 to 51%) in Pailin and 10.7% (95% CI = 4 to 23%) in Pursat, while the therapeutic efficacy of DP remained high (100%) in Ratanakiri and Preah Vihear provinces, located in northern and eastern Cambodia. For the studies of P. vivax, the day 28 uncorrected treatment failure rate among patients treated with CQ ranged from 4.4 to 17.4%; DP remained 100% effective in all sites. Further study is required to investigate suspected P. falciparum resistance to piperaquine in western Cambodia; the results of in vitro and molecular studies were not found to support the therapeutic efficacy findings. The emergence of artemisinin resistance in this region has likely put additional pressure on piperaquine. Although DP appears to be an appropriate new first-line treatment for P. vivax in Cambodia, alternative treatments are urgently needed for P. falciparum-infected patients in western Cambodia. PMID:23208711

Barrette, Amy; Bouth, Denis Mey; Menard, Didier; Abdur, Rashid; Duong, Socheat; Ringwald, Pascal

2013-01-01

112

Enteric fever in Cambodian children is dominated by multidrug-resistant H58 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi with intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin.  

PubMed

Infections with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates that are multidrug resistant (MDR: resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole) with intermediate ciprofloxacin susceptibility are widespread in Asia but there is little information from Cambodia. We studied invasive salmonellosis in children at a paediatric hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia. Between 2007 and 2011 Salmonella was isolated from a blood culture in 162 children. There were 151 children with enteric fever, including 148 serovar Typhi and three serovar Paratyphi A infections, and 11 children with a non-typhoidal Salmonella infection. Of the 148 serovar Typhi isolates 126 (85%) were MDR and 133 (90%) had intermediate ciprofloxacin susceptibility. Inpatient antimicrobial treatment was ceftriaxone alone or initial ceftriaxone followed by a step-down to oral ciprofloxacin or azithromycin. Complications developed in 37/128 (29%) children admitted with enteric fever and two (1.6%) died. There was one confirmed relapse. In a sample of 102 serovar Typhi strains genotyped by investigation of a subset of single nucleotide polymorphisms, 98 (96%) were the H58 haplotype, the majority of which had the common serine to phenylalanine substitution at codon 83 in the DNA gyrase. We conclude that antimicrobial-resistant enteric fever is common in Cambodian children and therapeutic options are limited. PMID:23122884

Emary, Kate; Moore, Catrin E; Chanpheaktra, Ngoun; An, Khun Peng; Chheng, Kheng; Sona, Soeng; Duy, Pham Thanh; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Kumar, Varun; Wijedoru, Lalith; Stoesser, Nicole E; Carter, Michael J; Baker, Stephen; Day, Nicholas P J; Parry, Christopher M

2012-12-01

113

Geostatistical modelling of soil-transmitted helminth infection in Cambodia: do socioeconomic factors improve predictions?  

PubMed

Soil-transmitted helminth infections are intimately connected with poverty. Yet, there is a paucity of using socioeconomic proxies in spatially explicit risk profiling. We compiled household-level socioeconomic data pertaining to sanitation, drinking-water, education and nutrition from readily available Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and World Health Surveys for Cambodia and aggregated the data at village level. We conducted a systematic review to identify parasitological surveys and made every effort possible to extract, georeference and upload the data in the open source Global Neglected Tropical Diseases database. Bayesian geostatistical models were employed to spatially align the village-aggregated socioeconomic predictors with the soil-transmitted helminth infection data. The risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection was predicted at a grid of 1×1km covering Cambodia. Additionally, two separate individual-level spatial analyses were carried out, for Takeo and Preah Vihear provinces, to assess and quantify the association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and socioeconomic indicators at an individual level. Overall, we obtained socioeconomic proxies from 1624 locations across the country. Surveys focussing on soil-transmitted helminth infections were extracted from 16 sources reporting data from 238 unique locations. We found that the risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection from 2000 onwards was considerably lower than in surveys conducted earlier. Population-adjusted prevalences for school-aged children from 2000 onwards were 28.7% for hookworm, 1.5% for Ascaris lumbricoides and 0.9% for Trichuris trichiura. Surprisingly, at the country-wide analyses, we did not find any significant association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and village-aggregated socioeconomic proxies. Based also on the individual-level analyses we conclude that socioeconomic proxies might not be good predictors at an aggregated large-scale analysis due to their large between- and within-village heterogeneity. Specific information of both the infection risk and potential predictors might be needed to obtain any existing association. The presented soil-transmitted helminth infection risk estimates for Cambodia can be used for guiding and evaluating control and elimination efforts. PMID:25205492

Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Odermatt, Peter; Biedermann, Patricia; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Muth, Sinuon; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

2015-01-01

114

Epidemiological and Virological Characteristics of Influenza Viruses Circulating in Cambodia from 2009 to 2011  

PubMed Central

Background The Cambodian National Influenza Center (NIC) monitored and characterized circulating influenza strains from 2009 to 2011. Methodology/Principal Findings Sentinel and study sites collected nasopharyngeal specimens for diagnostic detection, virus isolation, antigenic characterization, sequencing and antiviral susceptibility analysis from patients who fulfilled case definitions for influenza-like illness, acute lower respiratory infections and event-based surveillance. Each year in Cambodia, influenza viruses were detected mainly from June to November, during the rainy season. Antigenic analysis show that A/H1N1pdm09 isolates belonged to the A/California/7/2009-like group. Circulating A/H3N2 strains were A/Brisbane/10/2007-like in 2009 before drifting to A/Perth/16/2009-like in 2010 and 2011. The Cambodian influenza B isolates from 2009 to 2011 all belonged to the B/Victoria lineage represented by the vaccine strains B/Brisbane/60/2008 and B/Malaysia/2506/2004. Sequences of the M2 gene obtained from representative 2009–2011 A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm09 strains all contained the S31N mutation associated with adamantanes resistance except for one A/H1N1pdm09 strain isolated in 2011 that lacked this mutation. No reduction in the susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibitors was observed among the influenza viruses circulating from 2009 to 2011. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that A/H3N2 strains clustered each year to a distinct group while most A/H1N1pdm09 isolates belonged to the S203T clade. Conclusions/Significance In Cambodia, from 2009 to 2011, influenza activity occurred throughout the year with peak seasonality during the rainy season from June to November. Seasonal influenza epidemics were due to multiple genetically distinct viruses, even though all of the isolates were antigenically similar to the reference vaccine strains. The drug susceptibility profile of Cambodian influenza strains revealed that neuraminidase inhibitors would be the drug of choice for influenza treatment and chemoprophylaxis in Cambodia, as adamantanes are no longer expected to be effective. PMID:25340711

Ly, Sovann; Heng, Seng; Vong, Sirenda; Kitsutani, Paul; Ieng, Vannra; Tarantola, Arnaud; Ly, Sowath; Sar, Borann; Chea, Nora; Sokhal, Buth; Barr, Ian; Kelso, Anne; Horwood, Paul F.; Timmermans, Ans; Hurt, Aeron; Lon, Chanthap; Saunders, David; Ung, Sam An; Asgari, Nima; Roces, Maria Concepcion; Touch, Sok; Komadina, Naomi; Buchy, Philippe

2014-01-01

115

Middle Permian brachiopods from central Peninsular Malaysia — faunal affinities between Malaysia and west Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A moderately diverse Permian brachiopod fauna is described from a new rock unit, the Bera Formation, in the Bera District, central Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. The fauna consists of 19 taxa, including 14 genera and 17 (both identified and unidentified) typically Tethyan species. The fauna appears to be correlative on the basis of brachiopods with the Neoschwagerina-Yabeina fusulinid Zones in Indochina and South China. In particular, it has strong linkage to Member C ( Yabeina beds) of the Sisophon Limestone, west Cambodia. This is indicated by three of the Bera species — Urushtenoidea chaoi (Ching), Spyridiophora gubleri Termier and Termier, and Transennatia termierorum sp. nov., being shared with the Cambodian fauna. A possible early Capitanian (Middle Permian) age is proposed for the Bera brachiopod fauna.

Sone, Masatoshi; Leman, Mohd Shafeea; Shi, Guang R.

2001-02-01

116

Climate as a contributing factor in the demise of Angkor, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

The “hydraulic city” of Angkor, the capitol of the Khmer Empire in Cambodia, experienced decades-long drought interspersed with intense monsoons in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries that, in combination with other factors, contributed to its eventual demise. The climatic evidence comes from a seven-and-a-half century robust hydroclimate reconstruction from tropical southern Vietnamese tree rings. The Angkor droughts were of a duration and severity that would have impacted the sprawling city’s water supply and agricultural productivity, while high-magnitude monsoon years damaged its water control infrastructure. Hydroclimate variability for this region is strongly and inversely correlated with tropical Pacific sea surface temperature, indicating that a warm Pacific and El Niño events induce drought at interannual and interdecadal time scales, and that low-frequency variations of tropical Pacific climate can exert significant influence over Southeast Asian climate and society. PMID:20351244

Buckley, Brendan M.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Penny, Daniel; Fletcher, Roland; Cook, Edward R.; Sano, Masaki; Nam, Le Canh; Wichienkeeo, Aroonrut; Minh, Ton That; Hong, Truong Mai

2010-01-01

117

Removing arsenic from groundwater in Cambodia using high performance iron adsorbent.  

PubMed

In Cambodia, groundwater has been contaminated with arsenic, and purification of the water is an urgent issue. From 2010 to 2012, an international collaborative project between Japan and Cambodia for developing arsenic-removing technology from well water was conducted and supported by the foundation of New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Japan. Quality of well water was surveyed in Kandal, Prey Veng, and Kampong Cham Provinces, and a monitoring trial of the arsenic removal equipment using our patented amorphous iron (hydr)oxide adsorbent was performed. Of the 37 wells surveyed, arsenic concentration of 24 exceeded the Cambodian guideline value (50 ?g L(-1)), and those of 27 exceeded the WHO guideline for drinking water (10 ?g L(-1)). Levels of arsenic were extremely high in some wells (>1,000-6,000 ?g L(-1)), suggesting that arsenic pollution of groundwater is serious in these areas. Based on the survey results, 16 arsenic removal equipments were installed in six schools, three temples, two health centers, four private houses, and one commune office. Over 10 months of monitoring, the average arsenic concentrations of the treated water were between 0 and 10 ?g L(-1) at four locations, 10-50 ?g L(-1) at eight locations, and >50 ?g L(-1) at four locations. The arsenic removal rate ranged in 83.1-99.7%, with an average of 93.8%, indicating that the arsenic removal equipment greatly lower the risk of arsenic exposure to the residents. Results of the field trial showed that As concentration of the treated water could be reduced to <10 µg L(-1) by managing the As removal equipment properly, suggesting that the amorphous iron (hydr)oxide adsorbent has high adsorbing capacity for As not only in the laboratory environment but also in the field condition. This is one of the succeeding As removal techniques that could reduce As concentration of water below the WHO guideline value for As in situ. PMID:24894910

Kang, Y; Takeda, R; Nada, A; Thavarith, L; Tang, S; Nuki, K; Sakurai, K

2014-09-01

118

Prevention of lymphatic filariasis with insecticide-treated bednets in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Potential risk factors for lymphatic filariasis (LF), including the failure to use insecticide-treated bednets (ITN), were studied in four north-eastern provinces of Cambodia, using 43 cases of LF and 248 apparently healthy controls who were matched with the cases in terms of age (+/-5 years), gender and village. The results of a univariate matched analysis indicated that lack of ITN [odds ratio (OR)=20.1; 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.2-182.4; P=0.008] and frequent overnight stays in forests or paddy fields outside the village (OR=3.6; CI=1.3-10.0; P=0.012) were the most important risk factors. In a multivariate matched analysis, frequent overnight stays outside the village combined with bednet use showed a clear dose-response relationship, with untreated nets offering significant protection during such stays but ITN offering significantly better protection. Even if villagers used ITN during such stays, they were significantly more likely to develop LF than villagers who did not travel (OR=5.0; CI=1.5-16.3; P=0.008), and if they used untreated or no nets while away they were even more likely than the non-travellers to develop the disease (OR=1413; CI=28.0-71,189; P<0.001). Taken together, these results provide further evidence for the importance of bednet use and their impregnation in the prevention of LF. At least in north-eastern Cambodia, the use of bednets and, preferably, ITN is particularly important during overnight stays outside the home village. In areas where LF is endemic, the sustained distribution of insecticide-treated bednets or hammock nets appears to be a very good idea. PMID:18318935

Odermatt, P; Leang, R; Bin, B; Bunkea, T; Socheat, D

2008-03-01

119

Unfitness to stand trial decision-making in the extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia.  

PubMed

In the small number of trials for matters such as genocide and crimes against humanity that have taken place before the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, by 2014 three occasions had arisen in which the fitness of the accused persons to participate in their trials had become contentious. This is hardly surprising given that the key period of Khmer Rouge government occurred a very long while ago--between 1975 and 1979. The accused persons are all aged. In two instances, the Trial Chamber of the Courts of its own motion sought expert evaluations of the accused persons' fitness to stand trial and, promptly, upon receipt of such reports, determined them to be fit by reference to criteria utilised by the Appeal Chamber of the International Criminal Court for the Former Yugoslavia (the ICTY). In the other instance an accused person, leng Thirith, was found unfit to stand trial and a range of important issues was traversed as to the measures that can properly be taken to try to render a person fit for trial and how legitimate the imposition of detention for that purpose is, and then how legitimate encroachments on a person's civil liberties are to monitor them if there is only a remote possibility that their mental state might improve. It is likely that the balance adopted by the Supreme Court Chamber in the Courts of Cambodia in making significant efforts to render an accused person fit for trial and then in continuing to monitor their mental state when such efforts do not bear fruit, instead of simply releasing them back into the community, will stand as an important precedent for future occasions under international criminal law when issues of fitness to stand trial and how they should be handled arise. PMID:25087364

Freckelton, Ian; Karagiannakis, Magda

2014-06-01

120

Tropical tree water use under seasonal waterlogging and drought in central Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In central Cambodia, rapid growing non-endemic species are planted for future timber production. However, less is understood about the impact of the introduction of non-endemic species on the transpiration characteristics of the forest, which has been composed of native species that adapted to the highly seasonal environments. Sap flux of two native and one non-endemic tree species in central Cambodia was measured to reveal its seasonal trends and variability in the Monsoon Asia region. Measurements were carried out in a 10- to 15-year-old forest in the dry and rainy seasons that were defined by differing rainfall patterns. The seasonal trend in depth to water table differed from that of rainfall; groundwater table depth reached zero late in the rainy season and increased gradually after the onset of the dry season. The ratio of sap flux to an equilibrium evaporation condition of the native species, Popel (Shorea roxburghii), showed a sharp decline at the end of the dry season, whereas that of a non-endemic species, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), decreased in the mid rainy season while Tbeng (Dipterocarpus obtusifolius) did not show a clear trend. The ratio of sap flux to an equilibrium evaporation was negatively correlated with the depth to water table in Popel, but was positively correlated in eucalyptus, possibly because of the negative effects of flooding. In addition to the large seasonal variation, intra-species variation in sap flux was also large and was a major controlling factor for tree-level water uptake at this young forest site in both dry and rainy seasons. In conclusion, the transpiration characteristics of this forest were species-specific and were controlled more by the fluctuating depths to groundwater rather than the onset of the rainy/dry seasons defined by rainfall events.

Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Tateishi, Makiko; Komatsu, Hikaru; Ma, Vuthy; Kajisa, Tsuyoshi; Sokh, Heng; Mizoue, Nobuya; Kumagai, Tomo'omi

2014-07-01

121

Development of a participatory tool for the evaluation of Village Animal Health Workers in Cambodia.  

PubMed

In countries with a lack of primary care systems, health workers are of crucial importance to improving the delivery of health and animal health services at community level. But somehow they are rarely evaluated and usually with a top-down approach. This is the case in Cambodia, where thousands of Village Animal Health Workers (VAHWs) have been trained by the government, and where no standardized evaluation tool is available to accurately assess the situation. Based on methodology developed by the French NGO Agronomes et Vétérinaires Sans Frontières (AVSF) in Madagascar for farmers' association evaluation, we developed our own participatory methods to collect information about the VAHW context and build a criteria grid for their evaluation. In this framework, several participatory approaches were used such as problem trees, semi-structured interviews, pair-wise ranking and focus groups. The grid was built with the help of relevant stakeholders involved in the animal health system in Cambodia in order to (i) identify VAHW functions; (ii) set up criteria and associated questionnaires, and (iii) score the grid with all the stakeholders. The tool was divided into five categories of evaluation criteria: sustainability, treatment, production, vaccination and disease reporting. Our approach looked at local indicators of success developed and used by VAHWs themselves, which should lead to better acceptability of evaluation. This method gave priority to dialog aiming to engage decision makers and other stakeholders in a mutual learning process and could be applied in other countries to develop trust between health workers and official service representatives as well as to foster corrective action after evaluation. PMID:24583141

Calba, Clementine; Ponsich, Aurelia; Nam, Sophorn; Collineau, Lucie; Min, Sophoan; Thonnat, Jerome; Goutard, Flavie Luce

2014-06-01

122

Prevalence and risk factors of Strongyloides stercoralis in Takeo Province, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background The threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis, the most neglected helminth, affects an estimated 30-100 million people worldwide. Information on S. stercoralis infection is scarce in tropical and sub-tropical resource poor countries, including Cambodia. We determined S. stercoralis infection prevalence and risk factors for infection in the general population in Southern Cambodia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and April 2011 among 2,861 participants living in 60 villages of Takeo province, using Koga-agar plate culture, the Baermann technique and the Kato-Katz technique on a single stool sample. Results Eight intestinal helminth species were diagnosed. Hookworm (31.4%) and S. stercoralis (21.0%) occurred most frequently. Prevalence of S. stercoralis infection increased with age. In all age groups a higher prevalence was found among males than among females (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4 – 2.0; P

2014-01-01

123

A new species of wolf snake (Colubridae: Lycodon Fitzinger, 1826) from Phnom Samkos Wildlife Sanctuary, Cardamom Mountains, southwest Cambodia.  

PubMed

A new species of the genus Lycodon Fitzinger, 1826 is described from the Cardamom Mountains of southwest Cambodia. Lycodon zoosvictoriae distinctly differs from all other species of Lycodon in Southeast Asia by a combination of its morphometric characters and unique coloration. The new species has 17 dorsal scales at midbody; 2+2 temporals; 8 supralabials; 10 infralabials; loreal separated from internasal and orbit; 213 ventrals; 85 subcaudals; pale tan brown ground color; irregular dark brown blotches on anterior part, 31 transverse blotches on posterior part of body and 26 blotches on tail. Given its submontane type locality, the new species could prove to be endemic to the Cardamom Mountains of southwest Cambodia and probably Southeast Thailand. PMID:24943413

Neang, Thy; Hartmann, Timo; Hun, Seiha; Souter, Nicholas J; Furey, Neil M

2014-01-01

124

A study of genetic diversity of sesame ( Sesamum indicum L.) in Vietnam and Cambodia estimated by RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is a traditional oil crop cultivated throughout South East Asia. To estimate the genetic diversity of this crop in parts\\u000a at the region, 22 sesame accessions collected in Vietnam and Cambodia were analyzed using 10 RAPD markers. The 10 primers\\u000a generated 107 amplification products of which 88 were polymorphic fragments (83%). Genetic diversity of all populations

Toan Duc Pham; Tri Minh Bui; Gun Werlemark; Tuyen Cach Bui; Arnulf Merker; Anders S. Carlsson

2009-01-01

125

Microbial Community Analysis of Fresh and Old Microbial Biofilms on Bayon Temple Sandstone of Angkor Thom, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temples of Angkor monuments including Angkor Thom and Bayon in Cambodia and surrounding countries were exclusively constructed\\u000a using sandstone. They are severely threatened by biodeterioration caused by active growth of different microorganisms on the\\u000a sandstone surfaces, but knowledge on the microbial community and composition of the biofilms on the sandstone is not available\\u000a from this region. This study investigated

Wensheng Lan; Hui Li; Wei-Dong Wang; Yoko Katayama; Ji-Dong Gu

2010-01-01

126

Injections, Cocktails and Diviners: Therapeutic Flexibility in the Context of Malaria Elimination and Drug Resistance in Northeast Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Adherence to effective malaria medication is extremely important in the context of Cambodia’s elimination targets and drug resistance containment. Although the public sector health facilities are accessible to the local ethnic minorities of Ratanakiri province (Northeast Cambodia), their illness itineraries often lead them to private pharmacies selling “cocktails” and artemether injections, or to local diviners prescribing animal sacrifices to appease the spirits. Methods The research design consisted of a mixed methods study, combining qualitative (in-depth interviews and participant observation) and quantitative methods (household and cross-sectional survey). Results Three broad options for malaria treatment were identified: i) the public sector; ii) the private sector; iii) traditional treatment based on divination and ceremonial sacrifice. Treatment choice was influenced by the availability of treatment and provider, perceived side effects and efficacy of treatments, perceived etiology of symptoms, and patient-health provider encounters. Moreover, treatment paths proved to be highly flexible, changing mostly in relation to the perceived efficacy of a chosen treatment. Conclusions Despite good availability of anti-malarial treatment in the public health sector, attendance remained low due to both structural and human behavioral factors. The common use and under-dosage of anti-malaria monotherapy in the private sector (single-dose injections, single-day drug cocktails) represents a threat not only for individual case management, but also for the regional plan of drug resistance containment and malaria elimination. PMID:24244678

Gryseels, Charlotte; Uk, Sambunny; Erhart, Annette; Gerrets, René; Sluydts, Vincent; Durnez, Lies; Muela Ribera, Joan; Hausmann Muela, Susanna; Menard, Didier; Heng, Somony; Sochantha, Tho; D’Alessandro, Umberto; Coosemans, Marc; Peeters Grietens, Koen

2013-01-01

127

Is importing second-hand products a good thing? The cases of computers and tires in Cambodia  

SciTech Connect

Is importing second-hand products (SHPs) good for Cambodia? To answer this question, one must seriously consider environmental and social effects. The main objective of this study is to identify and assess the economic, social, and environmental impacts of imported SHPs to determine whether or not Cambodia benefits. Imported second-hand computers (SHPCs) and second-hand tires (SHTs) were selected as cases for the study. The study used a scaling checklist to identify significant impacts of these two imported items. Significant impacts were ranked and rated into a single value (score) for integration. Integrated impact assessment showed that imported SHPCs create a very small positive impact (+ 0.1 of + 5) and imported SHTs generate a large negative impact (- 2.83 of - 5). These scores are mainly the result of environmental impact, predominantly waste issues. Thus, current imports of SHPCs and SHTs do not really benefit Cambodia, but instead cause serious environmental problems from their waste issues. The import serves as a channel to transfer waste into developing countries.

Chanthy, Lay, E-mail: Lay.Chanthy@ait.ac.th; Nitivattananon, Vilas, E-mail: vilasn@ait.ac.t

2011-04-15

128

Paper presented at QAA Enhancement Themes Conference, Heriot-Watt University, March 2-3, 2011 To be published by the QAA in Higher Education in 2011 Available at www.reap.ac.uk/peer/project.aspx  

E-print Network

To be published by the QAA in Higher Education in 2011 Available at www.reap.ac.uk/peer/project.aspx - 1 propositions for assessment reform and the Osney Grange Group (2009) in the UK have produced Feedback - Developing the students' ability to construct feedback Professor David Nicol [d.j.nicol@strath.ac.uk

Azzopardi, Leif

129

Selling sex in unsafe spaces: sex work risk environments in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background The risk environment framework provides a valuable but under-utilised heuristic for understanding environmental vulnerability to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers. Brothels have been shown to be safer than street-based sex work, with higher rates of consistent condom use and lower HIV prevalence. While entertainment venues are also assumed to be safer than street-based sex work, few studies have examined environmental influences on vulnerability to HIV in this context. Methods As part of the Young Women's Health Study, a prospective observational study of young women (15-29 years) engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, we conducted in-depth interviews (n = 33) to explore vulnerability to HIV/STI and related harms. Interviews were conducted in Khmer by trained interviewers, transcribed and translated into English and analysed for thematic content. Results The intensification of anti-prostitution and anti-trafficking efforts in Cambodia has increased the number of women working in entertainment venues and on the street. Our results confirm that street-based sex work places women at risk of HIV/STI infection and identify significant environmental risks related to entertainment-based sex work, including limited access to condoms and alcohol-related intoxication. Our data also indicate that exposure to violence and interactions with the police are mediated by the settings in which sex is sold. In particular, transacting sex in environments such as guest houses where there is little or no oversight in the form of peer or managerial support or protection, may increase vulnerability to HIV/STI. Conclusions Entertainment venues may also provide a high risk environment for sex work. Our results indicate that strategies designed to address HIV prevention among brothel-based FSWs in Cambodia have not translated well to street and entertainment-based sex work venues in which increasing numbers of women are working. There is an urgent need for targeted interventions, supported by legal and policy reforms, designed to reduce the environmental risks of sex work in these settings. Future research should seek to investigate sex work venues as risk environments, explore the role of different business models in mediating these environments, and identify and quantify exposure to risk in different occupational settings. PMID:22099449

2011-01-01

130

Computational Pathology and Telepathology: SY05-2 PATHOLOGY AND TELEPATHOLOGY IN CAMBODIA.  

PubMed

Cambodia is one of underserved countries in Southeast Asia and is still suffering from its terrible history in the last 30 years when no pathologist survived from the genocide of Khmer Rouge regime. Today only 8 pathologists, mostly under qualified, are on service for more than 14 million inhabitants. There are 8 laboratories diagnosing 25,000 to 27,000 histological specimens and non-gynecological cytology, and 24,000 to 25,000 Pap smear screening per year. All laboratories are commonly providing routine histology with most on HE, Giemsa, PAP, and PAS staining. Two laboratories have a capability to provide some immunohistochemistry staining, mostly for only some markers to differentiate lymphomas and carcinomas. At present, no frozen section and no autopsy can be done in Cambodia. All these 8 laboratories are concentrated in the capital city and there is no pathology laboratory in provinces. Four laboratories have established a telepathology or personally have connection to outside world via E-mail. We have two intentions to send the cases to experts: one is to confirm our own diagnosis, second is to discuss the difficult and complex cases with senior experts to get a hint of reliable diagnosis. One lab has built up a clinico-pathological teleconference (CPC) in order to get a good connection and discussion for difficult cases. However, we still have challenging to the limits of teleconsultation due to the available experts time even the optimal clinical information, macro-images, X-rays, CT-scans, MRI are together submitted with microscopic images. There is a gap between newly established therapeutic facility, (e.g., hormone therapy in breast cancer, chemotherapy in soft tissue tumor) and the poor histological and immunohistochemistry methods in the country. Another problem is a personal isolation of Cambodian pathologists with low economic situation who cannot frequently attend international meeting outside of the country. Therefore the training level of Cambodian pathologists cannot be adapted to the standard which is demanded worldwide for sufficient tumor therapy. PMID:25188194

Vathana, Chhut Serey; Stauch, Gerhard

2014-10-01

131

Arsenic Concentrations in Rice and Associated Health Risks Along the Upper Mekong Delta, Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The consumption of arsenic contaminated food, such as rice, can be a significant portion of daily arsenic exposure, even for populations already exposed through drinking water. While arsenic contamination of rice grains has been documented in parts of Southern Asia, (e.g. Bangladesh), little research has been conducted on arsenic contamination of Cambodian-grown rice. We collected rice plant samples at various locations within the upper Mekong River Delta near Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and we analyzed total arsenic concentrations in plant digests of grains, husk, and straw. In addition, we used CaCl2-, DTPA-, and oxalate-extractable arsenic to define plant-available soil pools. We found variability of arsenic concentration in the plants, with grain arsenic ranging from 0.046 to 0.214 ?g g-1; other researchers have shown that concentrations higher than 0.1 ?g g-1 could be a concern for human health. Although more extensive sampling is needed to assess the risk of arsenic exposure from rice consumption on a country-wide basis, our work clearly illustrates the risk within regions of the Mekong Delta.

Barragan, L.; Seyfferth, A.; Fendorf, S.

2011-12-01

132

The Linked Response: Lessons Emerging from Integration of HIV and Reproductive Health Services in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

A qualitative assessment was made of service provider and user perceptions of the quality of integrated reproductive health services established through a pilot intervention in Cambodia. The intervention aimed to promote pregnant women's HIV testing and general utilization of reproductive health facilities as well as improve the follow-up of HIV-positive women and exposed infants through strengthened referral and operational linkages amongst health facilities/services and community-based support interventions for PLHIV. The study was conducted in one operational district where the intervention was piloted and for comparative purposes in a district where integrated services had yet to be implemented. Service providers in the pilot district reported improved collaboration and coordination of services, more effective referral, and the positive impact of improved proximity of HIV testing through integrated local level facilities. Community-based support teams for PLHIV embraced their expanded role, were valued by families receiving their assistance, and were understood to have had an important role in referral, PMTCT follow-up and countering PLHIV stigmatization; findings which underscore the potential role of community support in integrated service provision. Challenges identified included stigmatization of PLHIV by health staff at district hospital level and a lack of confidence amongst non-specialized health staff when managing deliveries by HIV-positive women, partly due to fear of HIV transmission. PMID:23424679

White, Joanna; Delvaux, Thérèse; Chhea, Chhorvann; Saramony, Sarun; Ouk, Vichea; Saphonn, Vonthanak

2013-01-01

133

Parental styles in the intergenerational transmission of trauma stemming from the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia.  

PubMed

The impact of parental styles in intergenerational transmission of trauma among mothers who survived the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia, in power from 1975 to 1979, and their teenaged children was examined in 2 studies. In Study 1, 46 Cambodian female high school students and their mothers were recruited. Each daughter completed anxiety and depression measures as well as assessment of her mother's role-reversing, overprotective, and rejecting parental styles, whereas the mothers completed measures of their trauma exposure during the Khmer Rouge regime and PTSD symptoms. In support of trauma transmission, the mother's PTSD symptoms were predictive of her daughter's anxiety. Moreover, the mother's role-reversing parental style was shown to mediate the relationship between her own and her daughter's symptoms. In support of their generalizability, the results were replicated in Study 2 in a Cambodian-American refugee sample comparing 15 mental health treatment-seeking mothers and their teenaged children with 17 nontreatment-seeking mother-child pairs. The implications of the findings within the larger literature on intergenerational trauma transmission stemming from genocide are discussed. PMID:24164520

Field, Nigel P; Muong, Sophear; Sochanvimean, Vannavuth

2013-10-01

134

Protection and participation: an interactive programme introducing the female condom to migrant sex workers in Cambodia.  

PubMed

The female condom has received much attention for its potential to empower users in negotiating safer sex. Studies demonstrate that the process used to introduce the method can influence subsequent use rates, resulting in calls for comprehensive documentation of introduction activities. This paper details an intervention study introducing the female condom to Vietnamese sex workers in Cambodia. Part of a wider community mobilization approach to reducing HIV/AIDS transmission, the intervention emphasized informed debate, group skills building and collective support. Research methods included both quantitative and qualitative data collection to evaluate the introduction's effect on sex workers' negotiation skills and social support networks. The findings show that approximately 16% of sex workers tried the female condom. Ever-use was significantly associated with participation in intervention workshops, and with indicators of both individual and community empowerment. Sex workers who incorporated the female condom into their work were also more likely to feel a sense of community identity. Introduced through an appropriate process, the female condom can serve as an 'entry point' to building community capacity. It can support sex workers in achieving protected sex and developing cooperative relationships, even in severely restrictive settings. PMID:15203418

Busza, J; Baker, S

2004-05-01

135

Strongyloides stercoralis infection and re-infection in a cohort of children in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Information on Strongyloides stercoralis re-infection after ivermectin treatment is scarce in S. stercoralis endemic countries. In semi-rural Cambodia, we determined S. stercoralis infection and re-infection rates among schoolchildren, two years after ivermectin treatment (2×100 ?g/kg PO, 24 h apart). The study was conducted among 484 children from four primary schools in semi-rural villages in Kandal province from 2009 to 2011, using Koga agar plate culture and the Baermann method on two stool samples per child. Complete data were available for 302 participants. We observed infections in 24.2% and 22.5% of the children at baseline and at follow-up, respectively. At baseline, 73 children were treated for S. stercoralis infection. At follow-up, one-third of those treated for S. stercoralis infection had been reinfected, while 19.6% of the 229 healthy children (at baseline) had been newly infected with S. stercoralis. Possession of shoes and defecation in toilet were negatively associated with S. stercoralis infection at follow-up. Infection and re-infection rates of S. stercoralis among schoolchildren are considerably high. However, 68.5% of infected children remained free of infection for at least two years. A large-scale cohort study is required to understand age-specific infection and re-infection dynamics in endemic countries. PMID:24970767

Khieu, Virak; Hattendorf, Jan; Schär, Fabian; Marti, Hanspeter; Char, Meng Chuor; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

2014-10-01

136

Microbiological effectiveness of locally produced ceramic filters for drinking water treatment in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Low-cost options for the treatment of drinking water at the household level are being explored by the Cambodian government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in Cambodia, where many lack access to improved drinking water sources and diarrhoeal diseases are the most prevalent cause of death in children under 5 years of age. The ceramic water purifier (CWP), a locally produced, low-cost ceramic filter, is now being implemented by several NGOs, and an estimated 100,000+households in the country now use them for drinking water treatment. Two candidate filters were tested for the reduction of bacterial and viral surrogates for waterborne pathogens using representative Cambodian drinking water sources (rainwater and surface water) spiked with Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Results indicate that filters were capable of reducing key microbes in the laboratory with mean reductions of E. coli of approximately 99% and mean reduction of bacteriophages of 90-99% over >600 litres throughput. Increased effectiveness was not observed in filters with an AgNO3 amendment. At under US$10 per filter, locally produced ceramic filters may be a promising option for drinking water treatment and safe storage at the household level. PMID:20009242

Brown, Joe; Sobsey, Mark D

2010-03-01

137

Reaching out and reaching up - developing a low cost drug treatment system in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Cambodia, confronted by the spread of drug misuse among young people, requested support from international agencies to develop a drug treatment programme in 2000. The initial plan developed by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime was to set up a number of conventional drug treatment centres in urban areas. During the planning phase, however, the project was redesigned as a community based outreach programme. Ten Community Counselling Teams have been formed and trained in pilot areas, and within the first year of operation 462 drug and alcohol users contacted. Comprising former drug users, family members affected by drug use and health care staff, they have drug scene credibility, local knowledge and connectivity, and a rudimentary level of medical competence. Crucially, they enjoy the support of village elders, who are involved in the planning and reporting stages. While the Community Counselling Teams with their basic training in addiction counselling are in no position as yet to either provide or refer clients to treatment, they can provide brief interventions, organise self help groups, and most importantly provide an alternative to law enforcement. By taking a development centred approach, with emphasis on community, empowerment and inclusion, it provides a constructive and inclusive alternative to medical approaches and the compulsory drug treatment centres. The paper is based on an evaluation involving interviews with a range of stakeholders and a review of project documents. PMID:22410105

2012-01-01

138

Municipal solid waste management in Phnom Penh, capital city of Cambodia.  

PubMed

This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) for both technical and regulatory arrangements in the municipality of Phnom Penh (MPP), Cambodia. Problems with the current MSWM are identified, and challenges and recommendations for future improvement are also given in this paper. MPP is a small city with a total area of approximately 374 km(2) and an urban population of about 1.3 million in 2008. For the last 14 years, average annual municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in MPP has increased rapidly from 0.136 million tons in 1995 to 0.361 million tons in 2008. The gross generation rate of MSW per capita was 0.74 kg day(-1). However, the per capita household waste generation was 0.487 kg day(- 1). At 63.3%, food waste is the predominant portion of generated waste, followed by plastics (15.5%), grass and wood (6.8%), and paper and cardboard (6.4%). The remaining waste, including metals, glass, rubber/leather, textiles, and ceramic/ stone, accounted for less than 3%. Waste recycling through informal sectors is very active; recycled waste accounted for about 9.3% of all waste generated in 2003. Currently, the overall technical arrangement, including storage and discharge, collection and transport, and disposal, is still in poor condition, which leads to environmental and health risks. These problems should be solved by improving legislation, environmental education, solid waste management facilities, and management of the waste scavengers. PMID:20813763

Seng, Bunrith; Kaneko, Hidehiro; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko

2011-05-01

139

Respondent-driven sampling on the Thailand-Cambodia border. II. Knowledge, perception, practice and treatment-seeking behaviour of migrants in malaria endemic zones  

PubMed Central

Background Population movements along the Thailand-Cambodia border, particularly among highly mobile and hard-to-access migrant groups from Cambodia and Myanmar, are assumed to play a key role in the spread of artemisinin resistance. Data on treatment-seeking behaviours, knowledge and perceptions about malaria, and use of preventive measures is lacking as characteristics of this population prevent them from being represented in routine surveillance and the lack of a sampling frame makes reliable surveys challenging. Methods A survey of migrant populations from Cambodia and Myanmar was implemented in five selected rural locations in Thailand along the Thai-Cambodian border using respondent driven sampling (RDS) to determine demographic characteristics of the population, migratory patterns, knowledge about malaria, and health-care -seeking behaviours. Results The majority of migrants from Myanmar are long-term residents (98%) with no plans to move back to Myanmar, understand spoken Thai (77%) and can therefore benefit from health messages in Thai, have Thai health insurance (99%) and accessed public health services in Thailand (63%) for their last illness. In comparison, the majority of Cambodian migrants are short-term (72%). Of the short-term Cambodian migrants, 92% work in agriculture, 18% speak Thai, 3.4% have Thai health insurance, and the majority returned to Cambodia for treatment (45%), self-treated (11%), or did not seek treatment for their last illness (27%). Conclusion Most highly mobile migrants along the Thai-Cambodia border are not accessing health messages or health treatment in Thailand, increasing their risk of malaria and facilitating the spread of potentially resistant Plasmodium falciparum as they return to Cambodia to seek treatment. Reaching out to highly mobile migrants with health messaging they can understand and malaria diagnosis and treatment services they can access is imperative in the effort to contain the spread of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum. PMID:21554711

2011-01-01

140

Spatial epidemiology and climatic predictors of paediatric dengue infections captured via sentinel site surveillance, Phnom Penh Cambodia 2011–2012  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue is a major contributor to morbidity in children aged twelve and below throughout Cambodia; the 2012 epidemic season was the most severe in the country since 2007, with more than 42,000 reported (suspect or confirmed) cases. Methods We report basic epidemiological characteristics in a series of 701 patients at the National Paediatric Hospital in Cambodia, recruited during a prospective clinical study (2011–2012). To more fully explore this cohort, we examined climatic factors using multivariate negative binomial models and spatial clustering of cases using spatial scan statistics to place the clinical study within a larger epidemiological framework. Results We identify statistically significant spatial clusters at the urban village scale, and find that the key climatic predictors of increasing cases are weekly minimum temperature, median relative humidity, but find a negative association with rainfall maximum, all at lag times of 1–6 weeks, with significant effects extending to 10 weeks. Conclusions Our results identify clustering of infections at the neighbourhood scale, suggesting points for targeted interventions, and we find that the complex interactions of vectors and climatic conditions in this setting may be best captured by rising minimum temperature, and median (as opposed to mean) relative humidity, with complex and limited effects from rainfall. These results suggest that real-time cluster detection during epidemics should be considered in Cambodia, and that improvements in weather data reporting could benefit national control programs by allow greater prioritization of limited health resources to both vulnerable populations and time periods of greatest risk. Finally, these results add to the increasing body of knowledge suggesting complex interactions between climate and dengue cases that require further targeted research. PMID:24972712

2014-01-01

141

Drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in a national referral hospital, Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background and objective There are no recent data on the prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR TB) in Cambodia. We aim to describe TB drug resistance amongst adults with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection in a national referral hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Design Between 22 November 2007 and 30 November 2009, clinical specimens from HIV-infected patients suspected of having TB underwent routine microscopy, Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture, and drug susceptibility testing. Laboratory and clinical data were collected for patients with positive M. tuberculosis cultures. Results M. tuberculosis was cultured from 236 HIV-infected patients. Resistance to any first-line TB drug occurred in 34.7% of patients; 8.1% had multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB). The proportion of MDR TB amongst new patients and previously treated patients was 3.7 and 28.9%, respectively (p<0.001). The diagnosis of MDR TB was made after death in 15.8% of patients; in total 26.3% of patients with MDR TB died. The diagnosis of TB was established by culture of extra-pulmonary specimens in 23.6% of cases. Conclusions There is significant resistance to first-line TB drugs amongst new and previously treated TB–HIV co-infected patients in Phnom Penh. These data suggest that the prevalence of DR TB in Cambodia may be higher than previously recognised, particularly amongst HIV-infected patients. Additional prevalence studies are needed. This study also illustrates the feasibility and utility of analysis of non-respiratory specimens in the diagnosis of TB, even in low-resource settings, and suggests that extra-pulmonary specimens should be included in TB diagnostic algorithms. PMID:25623609

Walls, Genevieve; Bulifon, Sophie; Breysse, Serge; Daneth, Thol; Bonnet, Maryline; Hurtado, Northan; Molfino, Lucas

2015-01-01

142

Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Pursat province, western Cambodia: a parasite clearance rate study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been reported in Pailin, western Cambodia, detected as a slow parasite clearance rate in vivo. Emergence of this phenotype in western Thailand and possibly elsewhere threatens to compromise the effectiveness of all artemisinin-based combination therapies. Parasite genetics is associated with parasite clearance rate but does not account for all variation. We investigated contributions of both parasite genetics and host factors to the artemisinin-resistance phenotype in Pursat, western Cambodia. Methods Between June 19 and Nov 28, 2009, and June 26 and Dec 6, 2010, we enrolled patients aged 10 years or older with uncomplicated falciparum malaria, a density of asexual parasites of at least 10 000 per ?L of whole blood, no symptoms or signs of severe malaria, no other cause of febrile illness, and no chronic illness. We gave participants 4 mg/kg artesunate at 0, 24, and 48 h, 15 mg/kg mefloquine at 72 h, and 10 mg/kg mefloquine at 96 h. We assessed parasite density on thick blood films every 6 h until undetectable. The parasite clearance half-life was calculated from the parasite clearance curve. We genotyped parasites with 18 microsatellite markers and patients for haemoglobin E, ?-thalassaemia, and a mutation of G6PD, which encodes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. To account for the possible effects of acquired immunity on half-life, we used three surrogates for increased likelihood of exposure to P falciparum: age, sex, and place of residence. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00341003. Findings We assessed 3504 individuals from all six districts of Pursat province seeking treatment for malaria symptoms. We enrolled 168 patients with falciparum malaria who met inclusion criteria. The geometric mean half-life was 5.85 h (95% CI 5.54–6.18) in Pursat, similar to that reported in Pailin (p=0.109). We identified two genetically different parasite clone groups: parasite group 1 (PG1) and parasite group 2 (PG2). Non-significant increases in parasite clearance half-life were seen in patients with haemoglobin E (0.55 h; p=0.078), those of male sex (0.96 h; p=0.064), and in 2010 (0.68 h; p=0.068); PG1 was associated with a significant increase (0.79 h; p=0.033). The mean parasite heritability of half-life was 0.40 (SD 0.17). Interpretation Heritable artemisinin resistance is established in a second Cambodian province. To accurately identify parasites that are intrinsically susceptible or resistant to artemisinins, future studies should explore the effect of erythrocyte polymorphisms and specific immune responses on half-life variation. Funding Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. PMID:22940027

Amaratunga, Chanaki; Sreng, Sokunthea; Suon, Seila; Phelps, Erika S; Stepniewska, Kasia; Lim, Pharath; Zhou, Chongjun; Mao, Sivanna; Anderson, Jennifer M; Lindegardh, Niklas; Jiang, Hongying; Song, Jianping; Su, Xin-zhuan; White, Nicholas J; Dondorp, Arjen M; Anderson, Tim J C; Fay, Michael P; Mu, Jianbing; Duong, Socheat; Fairhurst, Rick M

2013-01-01

143

Entrenched Geographical and Socioeconomic Disparities in Child Mortality: Trends in Absolute and Relative Inequalities in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Cambodia has made considerable improvements in mortality rates for children under the age of five and neonates. These improvements may, however, mask considerable disparities between subnational populations. In this paper, we examine the extent of the country's child mortality inequalities. Methods Mortality rates for children under-five and neonates were directly estimated using the 2000, 2005 and 2010 waves of the Cambodian Demographic Health Survey. Disparities were measured on both absolute and relative scales using rate differences and ratios, and where applicable, slope and relative indices of inequality by levels of rural/urban location, regions and household wealth. Findings Since 2000, considerable reductions in under-five and to a lesser extent in neonatal mortality rates have been observed. This mortality decline has, however, been accompanied by an increase in relative inequality in both rates of child mortality for geography-related stratifying markers. For absolute inequality amongst regions, most trends are increasing, particularly for neonatal mortality, but are not statistically significant. The only exception to this general pattern is the statistically significant positive trend in absolute inequality for under-five mortality in the Coastal region. For wealth, some evidence for increases in both relative and absolute inequality for neonates is observed. Conclusion Despite considerable gains in reducing under-five and neonatal mortality at a national level, entrenched and increased geographical and wealth-based inequality in mortality, at least on a relative scale, remain. As expected, national progress seems to be associated with the period of political and macroeconomic stability that started in the early 2000s. However, issues of quality of care and potential non-inclusive economic growth might explain remaining disparities, particularly across wealth and geography markers. A focus on further addressing key supply and demand side barriers to accessing maternal and child health care and on the social determinants of health will be essential in narrowing inequalities. PMID:25295528

Jimenez-Soto, Eliana; Durham, Jo; Hodge, Andrew

2014-01-01

144

Scenario analysis of the benefit of municipal organic-waste composting over landfill, Cambodia.  

PubMed

This paper presents insight into the benefits of organic waste recycling through composting over landfill, in terms of landfill life extension, compost product, and mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Future waste generation from 2003 to 2020 was forecast, and five scenarios of organic waste recycling in the municipality of Phnom Penh (MPP), Cambodia, were carried out. Organic waste-specifically food and garden waste-was used for composting, and the remaining waste was landfilled. The recycling scenarios were set based on organic waste generated from difference sources: households, restaurants, shops, markets, schools, hotels, offices, and street sweeping. Through the five scenarios, the minimum volume reductions of waste disposal were about 56, 123, and 219 m(3) d(-1) in 2003, 2012, and 2020, respectively, whereas the maximum volume reductions in these years were about 325, 643, and 1025 m(3) d(-1). These volume reductions reflect a landfill life extension of a minimum of half a year and a maximum of about four years. Compost product could be produced at a minimum of 14, 30, and 54 tons d(-1) in 2003, 2012, and 2020, respectively, and at a maximum in those years of about 80, 158, and 252 tons d(-1). At the same time benefit is gained in compost product, GHG emissions could be reduced by a minimum of 12.8% and a maximum of 65.0% from 2003 to 2020. This means about 3.23 (minimum) and 5.79 million tons CO(2)eq (maximum) contributed to GHG mitigation. In this regard, it is strongly recommended that MPP should try to initiate an organic-waste recycling strategy in a best fit scenario. PMID:23168253

Seng, Bunrith; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko; Ochiai, Satoru; Kaneko, Hidehiro

2013-01-15

145

The Socioeconomic Impacts of Clinically Diagnosed Haemorrhagic Septicaemia on Smallholder Large Ruminant Farmers in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute fatal infectious disease of mainly cattle and buffalo and outbreaks occur commonly in Cambodia. Disease outbreak reports were examined to select five villages from three provinces for a retrospective investigation of HS epidemiology and socioeconomic impact on smallholders, with an aim of identifying potential benefits from improving disease prevention through biosecurity and vaccination. The Village Animal Health Worker (VAHW) or Chief in each village and 66 affected smallholders were surveyed. At the village level, 24% of all households were affected with an estimated mean village herd morbidity of 10.1% and mortality of 28.8%. Affected farmers reported HS disease morbidity and mortality at 42.7% and 63.6% respectively. Buffalo had a higher morbidity (OR = 2.3; P = 0.003) and mortality (OR = 6.9; P < 0.001) compared with cattle, and unvaccinated large ruminants a higher morbidity (OR = 2.9; P = 0.001). The financial impact varied depending on whether the animal survived, provision of treatment, draught replacement and lost secondary income. The mean cost per affected household was USD 952.50 based on ownership of five large ruminants. The impact per affected animal was USD 375.00, reducing the pre-disease value by 66.1%. A partial budget revealed an overwhelming incentive for farmers to practice biannual vaccination, with a net benefit of USD 951.58 per household based on an annual disease incidence rate of 1. Sensitivity analysis showed that a net benefit of USD 32.42 remained based on an outbreak every 20 years. This study indicates HS can cause a catastrophic financial shock to smallholders and remains a critical constraint to improving large ruminant productivity and profitability. Addressing HS disease control requires a focus on improving smallholder farmer knowledge of biosecurity and vaccination and should be priority to stakeholders interested in addressing regional food insecurity and poverty reduction. PMID:24750574

Kawasaki, M; Young, J R; Suon, S; Bush, R D; Windsor, P A

2013-10-01

146

Can vouchers deliver? An evaluation of subsidies for maternal health care in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of vouchers for maternity care in public health-care facilities on the utilization of maternal health-care services in Cambodia. Methods The study involved data from the 2010 Cambodian Demographic and Health Survey, which covered births between 2005 and 2010. The effect of voucher schemes, first implemented in 2007, on the utilization of maternal health-care services was quantified using a difference-in-differences method that compared changes in utilization in districts with voucher schemes with changes in districts without them. Findings Overall, voucher schemes were associated with an increase of 10.1 percentage points (pp) in the probability of delivery in a public health-care facility; among women from the poorest 40% of households, the increase was 15.6 pp. Vouchers were responsible for about one fifth of the increase observed in institutional deliveries in districts with schemes. Universal voucher schemes had a larger effect on the probability of delivery in a public facility than schemes targeting the poorest women. Both types of schemes increased the probability of receiving postnatal care, but the increase was significant only for non-poor women. Universal, but not targeted, voucher schemes significantly increased the probability of receiving antenatal care. Conclusion Voucher schemes increased deliveries in health centres and, to a lesser extent, improved antenatal and postnatal care. However, schemes that targeted poorer women did not appear to be efficient since these women were more likely than less poor women to be encouraged to give birth in a public health-care facility, even with universal voucher schemes. PMID:24839322

Flores, Gabriela; Ir, Por; O’Donnell, Owen; Van Doorslaer, Eddy

2014-01-01

147

When social networking is not working: individuals with low self-esteem recognize but do not reap the benefits of self-disclosure on Facebook.  

PubMed

The popular media have publicized the idea that social networking Web sites (e.g., Facebook) may enrich the interpersonal lives of people who struggle to make social connections. The opportunity that such sites provide for self-disclosure-a necessary component in the development of intimacy--could be especially beneficial for people with low self-esteem, who are normally hesitant to self-disclose and who have difficulty maintaining satisfying relationships. We suspected that posting on Facebook would reduce the perceived riskiness of self-disclosure, thus encouraging people with low self-esteem to express themselves more openly. In three studies, we examined whether such individuals see Facebook as a safe and appealing medium for self-disclosure, and whether their actual Facebook posts enabled them to reap social rewards. We found that although people with low self-esteem considered Facebook an appealing venue for self-disclosure, the low positivity and high negativity of their disclosures elicited undesirable responses from other people. PMID:22318997

Forest, Amanda L; Wood, Joanne V

2012-03-01

148

Cytogenetic, cross-mating and molecular evidence of four cytological races of Anopheles crawfordi (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand and Cambodia.  

PubMed

Twenty-nine isolines of Anopheles crawfordi were established from wild-caught females collected from cow-baited traps in Thailand and Cambodia. Three types of X (X1, X2, X3) and four types of Y (Y1, Y2, Y3, and Y4) chromosomes were identified, according to differing amounts of extra heterochromatin. These sex chromosomes represent four metaphase karyotypes, i.e., Forms A (X1, X2, X3, Y1), B (X1, X2, X3, Y2), C (X2, Y3) and D (X2, Y4). Forms C and D are novel metaphase karyotypes confined to Thailand, whereas forms A and B appear to be common in both Thailand and Cambodia. Cross-mating experiments between the four karyotypic forms indicated genetic compatibility in yielding viable progenies and synaptic salivary gland polytene chromosomes. The results suggest that the forms are conspecific and A. crawfordi comprises four cytological races, which is further supported by very low intraspecific variation (mean genetic distance=0.000-0.018) of the nucleotide sequences in ribosomal DNA (ITS2) and mitochondrial DNA sequences (COI, COII). PMID:25444706

Saeung, Atiporn; Baimai, Visut; Thongsahuan, Sorawat; Otsuka, Yasushi; Srisuka, Wichai; Taai, Kritsana; Somboon, Pradya; Suwonkerd, Wannapa; Sochanta, Tho; Choochote, Wej

2014-11-01

149

Arsenic concentrations in paddy soil and rice and health implications for major rice-growing regions of Cambodia.  

PubMed

Despite the global importance of As in rice, research has primarily focused on Bangladesh, India, China, and the United States with limited attention given to other countries. Owing to both indigenous As within the soil and the possible increases arising from the onset of irrigation with groundwater, an assessment of As in rice within Cambodia is needed, which offers a "base-case" comparison against sediments of similar origin that comprise rice paddy soils where As-contaminated water is used for irrigation (e.g., Bangladesh). Here, we evaluated the As content of rice from five provinces (Kandal, Prey Veng, Battambang, Banteay Meanchey, and Kampong Thom) in the rice-growing regions of Cambodia and coupled that data to soil-chemical factors based on extractions of paddy soil collected and processed under anoxic conditions. At total soil As concentrations ranging 0.8 to 18 ?g g(-1), total grain As concentrations averaged 0.2 ?g g(-1) and ranged from 0.1 to 0.37 with Banteay Meanchey rice having significantly higher values than Prey Veng rice. Overall, soil-extractable concentrations of As, Fe, P, and Si and total As were poor predictors of grain As concentrations. While biogeochemical factors leading to reduction of As(V)-bearing Fe(III) oxides are likely most important for predicting plant-available As, husk and straw As concentrations were the most significant predictors of grain-As levels among our measured parameters. PMID:24712677

Seyfferth, Angelia L; McCurdy, Sarah; Schaefer, Michael V; Fendorf, Scott

2014-05-01

150

Breastfeeding trends in Cambodia, and the increased use of breast-milk substitute-why is it a danger?  

PubMed

A cross-sectional analysis of the Cambodia Demographic Health Surveys from 2000, 2005 and 2010 was conducted to observe the national trends in infant and young child feeding practices. The results showed that rates of exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged 0-5.9 months have increased substantially since 2000, concurrent with an increase in the rates of early initiation of breastfeeding and a reduction in the giving of pre-lacteal feeds. However, the proportion of infants being fed with breast-milk substitutes (BMS) during 0-5.9 months doubled in 5 years (3.4% to 7.0%) from 2000 to 2005, but then did not increase from 2005, likely due to extensive public health campaigns on exclusive breastfeeding. BMS use increased among children aged 6-23.9 months from 2000 to 2010 (4.8% to 9.3%). 26.1% of women delivering in a private clinic provided their child with breast-milk substitute at 0-5.9 months, which is five times more than women delivering in the public sector (5.1%), and the greatest increase in bottle use happened among the urban poor (5.8% to 21.7%). These findings are discussed with reference to the increased supply and marketing of BMS that is occurring in Cambodia. PMID:25054552

Prak, Sophonneary; Dahl, Miriam Iuell; Oeurn, Sam; Conkle, Joel; Wise, Aaron; Laillou, Arnaud

2014-07-01

151

PALSAR 50 m Mosaic Data Based National Level Biomass Estimation in Cambodia for Implementation of REDD+ Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Tropical countries like Cambodia require information about forest biomass for successful implementation of climate change mitigation mechanism related to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). This study investigated the potential of Phased Array-type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar Fine Beam Dual (PALSAR FBD) 50 m mosaic data to estimate Above Ground Biomass (AGB) in Cambodia. AGB was estimated using a bottom-up approach based on field measured biomass and backscattering (?o) properties of PALSAR data. The relationship between the PALSAR ?o HV and HH/HV with field measured biomass was strong with R2?=?0.67 and 0.56, respectively. PALSAR estimated AGB show good results in deciduous forests because of less saturation as compared to dense evergreen forests. The validation results showed a high coefficient of determination R2?=?0.61 with RMSE ?=?21 Mg/ha using values up to 200 Mg/ha biomass. There were some uncertainties because of the uncertainty in the field based measurement and saturation of PALSAR data. AGB map of Cambodian forests could be useful for the implementation of forest management practices for REDD+ assessment and policies implementation at the national level. PMID:24116012

Avtar, Ram; Suzuki, Rikie; Takeuchi, Wataru; Sawada, Haruo

2013-01-01

152

Whole-Genome Sequencing Confirms that Burkholderia pseudomallei Multilocus Sequence Types Common to Both Cambodia and Australia Are Due to Homoplasy.  

PubMed

Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates with shared multilocus sequence types (STs) have not been isolated from different continents. We identified two STs shared between Australia and Cambodia. Whole-genome analysis revealed substantial diversity within STs, correctly identified the Asian or Australian origin, and confirmed that these shared STs were due to homoplasy. PMID:25392354

De Smet, Birgit; Sarovich, Derek S; Price, Erin P; Mayo, Mark; Theobald, Vanessa; Kham, Chun; Heng, Seiha; Thong, Phe; Holden, Matthew T G; Parkhill, Julian; Peacock, Sharon J; Spratt, Brian G; Jacobs, Jan A; Vandamme, Peter; Currie, Bart J

2015-01-01

153

Pathways of Thriving and Resilience: Growth Responses to Adversity and Trauma in Two Cambodian Communities: A Comparative Study between Lowell, Massachusetts and Phnom Penh, Cambodia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study investigated individual, contextual, and cultural factors that promote trauma-related resilience and positive growth among Cambodian survivors of the Pol Pot regime who reside in Phnom Penh, Cambodia and Lowell, Massachusetts. A thriving paradigm framed semi-structured interviews that were conducted with 21 Cambodians in…

West, Cheryl D.

154

Situation Report--Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua & New Guinea, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti, Tonga.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data relating to population and family planning in fourteen foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua and New Guines, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti (French Polynesia), and Tonga. Information is provided under two…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

155

Hydrogeologic reconnaissance of the Mekong Delta in South Vietnam and Cambodia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The present report describes the results of a hydrogeologic reconnaissance in the Mekong Delta region by the writer, a hydrogeologist of the U.S. Geological Survey, while on assignment as an adviser to the Vietnamese Directorate of Water Supply from October 1968 to April 1970 under the auspices of the U.s. Agency for International Development. The delta of the Mekong River, comprising an area of about 70,000 square kilometres in South Vietnam and Cambodia, is an almost featureless plain rising gradually from sea level to about 5 metres above sea level at its apex 300 kilometres inland. Most of the shallow ground water in the Holocene Alluvium of the delta in Vietnam is brackish or saline down to depths of 50 to 100 metres. Moreover, in the Dong Thap Mu?oi (Plain of Reeds) the shallow ground water is alum-bearing. Locally, however, perched bodies of fresh ground water occur in ancient beach and dune ridges and are tapped by shallow dug wells or pits for village and domestic water supply. The Old Alluvium beneath the lower delta contains freshwater in some areas, notably in the Ca Mau Peninsula and adjacent areas, in the viciniy of Bau Xau near Saigon, and in the Tinh Long An area. Elsewhere in the lower delta both the Holocene and Old Alluvium may contain brackish or saline water from the land surface to depths of as much as 568 metres, as for example in Tinh Vinh Binh. Ground water in the outcrop area of Old Alluvium northwest of Saigon is generally fresh and potable, but high iron and low pH are locally troublesome. Although considerable exploratory drilling for ground water down to depths of as much as 568 metres has already been completed, large areas of the delta remain yet to be explored before full development of the ground-water potential can be realized. With careful development and controlled management to avoid saltwater contamination, however, it is estimated that freshwater aquifers could provide approximately 80 percent of existing needs for village and small municipal supplies in the delta.

Anderson, Henry R.

1978-01-01

156

Transpiration by trees under seasonal water logging and drought in monsoon central Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cambodia is situated in the center of Indochina Peninsula and experiences severe drought for 5 months of dry season and subsequent rainy season. Around the Tonlesap Lake where both natural and secondary forests exist without intensive destruction by human activity, forest hydrology is characterized by seasonal water logging in mid rainy season. Tree- and stand-scale transpiration is thought to be influenced by the changing soil water conditions and trees' site-specific adaptation to the environment, but less is measured about transpiration and leaf ecophysiological traits in this region. The objectives of this study is to reveal the ecophysiology of the two native (Dipterocarpus obtusifolius and Shorea roxburghii) and two exotic species (Acacia auriculiformis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis) and to detect the effects of soil water conditions on day to week scale transpiration in mid rainy and dry season. Seasonal leaf-level photosynthesis measurements suggested that photosynthetic capacity (Vcmax25) showed no clear seasonal change in each species without clear interspecific variation. Two native species had stomatal control in response to the environment different from previous studies and showed stomatal conductance higher than most woody species in other seasonal tropical forests, suggesting the species- and site-specific adaptation to the easy access to the ground water. Sap flow rate per leaf area was expressed in two parameters: measured transpiration rate based on the continuous sap flow measurements (Esap) and modeled transpiration rate (Emod) using a multilayer model based on the measured data of atmospheric environments, radiation and the leaf ecophysiological traits. Esap was lower in rainy season than those in dry season, with short but pronounced drop near the end of the dry season, although Emod was higher in rainy season than in dry season. In dry season, Emod well fit the diurnal and day to day trend of Esap, suggesting that soil drought did not limit transpiration. On the other hand, in rainy season, Emod overestimated Esap under high light intensities but not at low Emod conditions, suggesting that leaf water demand exceeded the water supply capacity, possibly due to the water logging effects on root activity. This study provided us new insights into the site specific transpiration patterns in this region, and the usefulness of the comparison between modeled and measured transpiration rate to detect the environmental and biological influence on transpiration for successful model prediction of forest transpiration at large time and spatial scales.

Miyazawa, Y.; Tateishi, M.; Kajisa, T.; Ma, V.; Heng, S.; Kumagai, T.; Mizoue, N.

2012-04-01

157

Patterns of Ecosystem Metabolism in the Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia with Links to Capture Fisheries  

PubMed Central

The Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia is a dynamic flood-pulsed ecosystem that annually increases its surface area from roughly 2,500 km2 to over 12,500 km2 driven by seasonal flooding from the Mekong River. This flooding is thought to structure many of the critical ecological processes, including aquatic primary and secondary productivity. The lake also has a large fishery that supports the livelihoods of nearly 2 million people. We used a state-space oxygen mass balance model and continuous dissolved oxygen measurements from four locations to provide the first estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) for the Tonle Sap. GPP averaged 4.1±2.3 g O2 m?3 d?1 with minimal differences among sites. There was a negative correlation between monthly GPP and lake level (r?=?0.45) and positive correlation with turbidity (r?=?0.65). ER averaged 24.9±20.0 g O2 m?3 d?1 but had greater than six-fold variation among sites and minimal seasonal change. Repeated hypoxia was observed at most sampling sites along with persistent net heterotrophy (GPP

Holtgrieve, Gordon W.; Arias, Mauricio E.; Irvine, Kim N.; Lamberts, Dirk; Ward, Eric J.; Kummu, Matti; Koponen, Jorma; Sarkkula, Juha; Richey, Jeffrey E.

2013-01-01

158

Little Evidence of Subclinical Avian Influenza Virus Infections among Rural Villagers in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

In 2008, 800 adults living within rural Kampong Cham Province, Cambodia were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. After enrollment, participants were contacted weekly for 24 months to identify acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI). Follow-up sera were collected at 12 and 24 months. A transmission substudy was also conducted among the family contacts of cohort members reporting ILI who were influenza A positive. Samples were assessed using serological or molecular techniques looking for evidence of infection with human and avian influenza viruses. Over 24 months, 438 ILI investigations among 284 cohort members were conducted. One cohort member was hospitalized with a H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus infection and withdrew from the study. Ninety-seven ILI cases (22.1%) were identified as influenza A virus infections by real-time RT-PCR; none yielded evidence for AIV. During the 2 years of follow-up, 21 participants (3.0%) had detectable antibody titers (?1?10) against the studied AIVs: 1 against an avian-like A/Migratory duck/Hong Kong/MPS180/2003(H4N6), 3 against an avian-like A/Teal/Hong Kong/w312/97(H6N1), 9 (3 of which had detectible antibody titers at both 12- and 24-month follow-up) against an avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), 6 (1 detected at both 12- and 24-month follow-up) against an avian-like A/Duck/Memphis/546/74(H11N9), and 2 against an avian-like A/Duck/Alberta/60/76(H12N5). With the exception of the one hospitalized cohort member with H5N1 infection, no other symptomatic avian influenza infections were detected among the cohort. Serological evidence for subclinical infections was sparse with only one subject showing a 4-fold rise in microneutralization titer over time against AvH12N5. In summary, despite conducting this closely monitored cohort study in a region enzootic for H5N1 HPAI, we were unable to detect subclinical avian influenza infections, suggesting either that these infections are rare or that our assays are insensitive at detecting them. PMID:24819948

Gray, Gregory C.; Krueger, Whitney S.; Chum, Channimol; Putnam, Shannon D.; Wierzba, Thomas F.; Heil, Gary L.; Anderson, Benjamin D.; Yasuda, Chadwick Y.; Williams, Maya; Kasper, Matthew R.; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Blair, Patrick J.

2014-01-01

159

Diagnosis, Treatment and Risk Factors of Strongyloides stercoralis in Schoolchildren in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide, an estimated 30 to 100 million people are infected with Strongyloides stercoralis, a soil-transmitted helminth. Information on the parasite is scarce in most settings. In semi-rural Cambodia, we determined infection rates and risk factors; compared two diagnostic methods (Koga agar plate [KAP] culture and Baermann technique) for detecting S. stercoralis infections, using a multiple stool examination approach; and assessed efficacy of ivermectin treatment. Methods/Principal Findings We performed a cross-sectional study in 458 children from four primary schools in semi-rural villages in Kandal province, using three diagnostic procedures (Kato-Katz, KAP culture and Baermann technique) on three stool samples. Infected children were treated with ivermectin (100 µg/kg/day for two days) and re-examined three weeks after treatment. Hookworm, S. stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, and small trematode eggs were most prevalent, with 24.4% of children being infected with S. stercoralis. The sensitivity of KAP culture and Baermann technique was 88.4% and 75.0%, respectively and their negative predictive values were 96.4% and 92.5%, respectively. The cumulative prevalence of S. stercoralis increased from 18.6% to 24.4%, after analyzing three stool samples, which was close to the modeled ‘true’ prevalence of 24.8%. Children who reported defecating in latrines were significantly less infected with S. stercoralis than those who did not use latrines (p<0.001). Itchy skin and diarrhea were significantly associated with S. stercoralis infection. The cure rate of ivermectin was 98.3%. Conclusions/Significance S. stercoralis infection is highly prevalent among semi-rural Cambodian schoolchildren. The sensitivity of KAP culture is higher than that of the Baermann technique. In the absence of a “gold standard”, analysis of multiple stool samples by different diagnostic methods is required to achieve a satisfactory level of sensitivity. Almost three-quarters of the infections could have been avoided by proper sanitation. Ivermectin is highly efficacious against S. stercoralis but prohibitive costs render the drug inaccessible to most Cambodians. PMID:23409200

Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Marti, Hanspeter; Sayasone, Somphou; Duong, Socheat; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

2013-01-01

160

Angkor site monitoring and evaluation by radar remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Angkor, in the northern province of Siem Reap, Cambodia, is one of the most important world heritage sites of Southeast Asia. Seasonal flood and ground sinking are two representative hazards in Angkor site. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing has played an important role for the Angkor site monitoring and management. In this study, 46 scenes of TerraSAR data acquired in the span of February, 2011 to December, 2013 were used for the time series analysis and hazard evaluation; that is, two-fold classification for flood area extracting and Multi-Temporal SAR Interferometry (MT-InSAR) for ground subsidence monitoring. For the flood investigation, the original Single Look Complex (SLC) TerraSAR-X data were transferred into amplitude images. Water features in dry and flood seasons were firstly extracted using a proposed mixed-threshold approach based on the backscattering; and then for the correlation analysis between water features and the precipitation in seasonally and annually. Using the MT-InSAR method, the ground subsidence was derived with values ranging from -50 to +12 mm/yr in the observation period of February, 2011 to June, 2013. It is clear that the displacement on the Angkor site was evident, implying the necessity of continuous monitoring.

Chen, Fulong; Jiang, Aihui; Ishwaran, Natarajan

2014-11-01

161

Improvement in smallholder farmer knowledge of cattle production, health and biosecurity in Southern Cambodia between 2008 and 2010.  

PubMed

Farmer knowledge surveys were conducted in 2008 and 2010 in Cambodia to evaluate the impact of a research project studying interventions that can improve cattle production and health, including biosecurity and practices relating to risks of transmission of transboundary diseases. The project hypothesis is that by increasing the value of smallholder-owned large ruminants through nutritional interventions and improved marketing, knowledge-based interventions including risk management for infectious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) can be implemented into a more sustainable pathway for rural development. Between 2008 and 2010, significant improvements in farmer knowledge and attitudes were recorded in three villages in three provinces of southern Cambodia. This was achieved through participatory 'applied field research', 'on the job' training plus 'formal' training programmes. No cases of FMD were recorded during the study period in the 'high-intervention' (HI) villages despite the common occurrence of the disease in a nearby 'low-intervention' and many other villages in the three provinces. Whilst it is likely that protection of these villages from FMD infection was from increasing the herd immunity by vaccination, it could also have been partly because of a decrease in risk behaviours by farmers as a result of their increasing knowledge of biosecurity. The research indicates that smallholder farmers are motivated by nutritional interventions that improve the value of their cattle 'bank' and offer better marketing opportunities. This provides a more receptive environment for introduction of disease risk management for infectious and other production limiting diseases, best implemented for smallholder farmers in Cambodia by intensive training programmes. In lieu of a widespread public awareness programme to deliver mass education of smallholder farmers in disease prevention and biosecurity, livestock development projects in South-East Asia should be encouraged to include training in disease risk management as an important intervention if the current momentum for trade in large ruminant livestock and large ruminant meat is to continue to progress and contribute to addressing global food security concerns. PMID:21791034

Nampanya, S; Suon, S; Rast, L; Windsor, P A

2012-04-01

162

The prevalence and psychological costs of household violence by family members against women with disabilities in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Women with disabilities (WWDs) are at triple jeopardy due to the combined risks associated with gender, disability, and violence. Not only are WWDs marginalized socially but the violence against them in their own homes is largely neglected in domestic violence research. Evidence from developing countries is particularly sparse. A cross-sectional survey conducted in Cambodia found rates of violence by household members besides intimate partners were significantly higher among WWDs than non-disabled women. This violence engendered increased levels of psychological distress and higher rates of physical injury but low rates of disclosure to health workers and other formal sources of potential support. Community-based strategies are recommended to radically change social and cultural attitudes, beliefs, and responses to WWDs who are victims of household violence to reduce negative social reactions toward them and to make it safer for them to disclose and receive psychosocial, legal, and other necessary support for this underreported type of violence. PMID:24879651

Astbury, Jill; Walji, Fareen

2014-11-01

163

Simulation of a rubber plantation productivity in central Cambodia using the individual-based dynamic vegetation model SEIB-DGVM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To provide a useful tool for building strategy of forest plantation management, we developed the Spatially Explicit Individual-Based (SEIB) Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) applicable to simulate productivity of tree plantations (SEIB-PP). Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers that are being replaced. Describing both primary and latex productivities in rubber plantations via SEIB-PP is, therefore, important to understanding the climatic impacts on productive processes. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia, and here, we show some examples of projections: the rubber plantation production under future climate change conditions.

Kumagai, T.; SATO, H.; Shinjiro, Ph. D., F.

2013-12-01

164

Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance  

PubMed Central

This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR) malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world's most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders. PMID:23865048

Bhumiratana, Adisak; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Maneekan, Pannamas; Koyadun, Surachart

2013-01-01

165

Identifying Conservation Successes, Failures and Future Opportunities; Assessing Recovery Potential of Wild Ungulates and Tigers in Eastern Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Conservation investment, particularly for charismatic and wide-ranging large mammal species, needs to be evidence-based. Despite the prevalence of this theme within the literature, examples of robust data being generated to guide conservation policy and funding decisions are rare. We present the first published case-study of tiger conservation in Indochina, from a site where an evidence-based approach has been implemented for this iconic predator and its prey. Despite the persistence of extensive areas of habitat, Indochina's tiger and ungulate prey populations are widely supposed to have precipitously declined in recent decades. The Seima Protection Forest (SPF), and broader Eastern Plains Landscape, was identified in 2000 as representing Cambodia's best hope for tiger recovery; reflected in its designation as a Global Priority Tiger Conservation Landscape. Since 2005 distance sampling, camera-trapping and detection-dog surveys have been employed to assess the recovery potential of ungulate and tiger populations in SPF. Our results show that while conservation efforts have ensured that small but regionally significant populations of larger ungulates persist, and density trends in smaller ungulates are stable, overall ungulate populations remain well below theoretical carrying capacity. Extensive field surveys failed to yield any evidence of tiger, and we contend that there is no longer a resident population within the SPF. This local extirpation is believed to be primarily attributable to two decades of intensive hunting; but importantly, prey densities are also currently below the level necessary to support a viable tiger population. Based on these results and similar findings from neighbouring sites, Eastern Cambodia does not currently constitute a Tiger Source Site nor meet the criteria of a Global Priority Tiger Landscape. However, SPF retains global importance for many other elements of biodiversity. It retains high regional importance for ungulate populations and potentially in the future for Indochinese tigers, given adequate prey and protection. PMID:23077476

O'Kelly, Hannah J.; Evans, Tom D.; Stokes, Emma J.; Clements, Tom J.; Dara, An; Gately, Mark; Menghor, Nut; Pollard, Edward H. B.; Soriyun, Men; Walston, Joe

2012-01-01

166

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Oral Artesunate Monotherapy in Patients with Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Western Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Artemisinin-resistant malaria along the Thailand-Cambodian border is an important public health concern, yet mechanisms of drug action and their contributions to the development of resistance are poorly understood. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral artesunate monotherapy were explored in a dose-ranging trial in an area of emerging artesunate resistance in western Cambodia. We enrolled 143 evaluable subjects with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in an open label study of directly observed artesunate monotherapy at 3 dose levels (2, 4, and 6 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 7 days at Tasanh Health Center, Tasanh, Cambodia. Clinical outcomes were similar among the 3 groups. Wide variability in artesunate and dihydroartemisinin concentrations in plasma was observed. No significant dose-effect or concentration-effect relationships between pharmacokinetic (PK) and parasite clearance parameters were observed, though baseline parasitemia was modestly correlated with increased parasite clearance times. The overall parasite clearance times were prolonged compared with the clearance times in a previous study at this site in 2006 to 2007, but this did not persist when the evaluation was limited to subjects with a comparable artesunate dose (4 mg/kg/day) and baseline parasitemia from the two studies. Reduced plasma drug levels with higher presentation parasitemias, previously hypothesized to result from partitioning into infected red blood cells, was not observed in this population with uncomplicated malaria. Neither in vitro parasite susceptibility nor plasma drug concentrations appeared to have a direct relationship with the pharmacodynamic (PD) effects of oral artesunate on malaria parasites. While direct concentration-effect relationships were not found, it remains possible that a population PK modeling approach that allows modeling of greater dose separation might discern more-subtle relationships. PMID:22869581

Khemawoot, Phisit; Vanachayangkul, Pattaraporn; Siripokasupkul, Raveewan; Bethell, Delia; Tyner, Stuart; Se, Youry; Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Chanthap, Lon; Lin, Jessica; Timmermans, Ans; Socheat, Doung; Ringwald, Pascal; Noedl, Harald; Smith, Bryan; Fukuda, Mark; Teja-isavadharm, Paktiya

2012-01-01

167

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral artesunate monotherapy in patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in western Cambodia.  

PubMed

Artemisinin-resistant malaria along the Thailand-Cambodian border is an important public health concern, yet mechanisms of drug action and their contributions to the development of resistance are poorly understood. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral artesunate monotherapy were explored in a dose-ranging trial in an area of emerging artesunate resistance in western Cambodia. We enrolled 143 evaluable subjects with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in an open label study of directly observed artesunate monotherapy at 3 dose levels (2, 4, and 6 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 7 days at Tasanh Health Center, Tasanh, Cambodia. Clinical outcomes were similar among the 3 groups. Wide variability in artesunate and dihydroartemisinin concentrations in plasma was observed. No significant dose-effect or concentration-effect relationships between pharmacokinetic (PK) and parasite clearance parameters were observed, though baseline parasitemia was modestly correlated with increased parasite clearance times. The overall parasite clearance times were prolonged compared with the clearance times in a previous study at this site in 2006 to 2007, but this did not persist when the evaluation was limited to subjects with a comparable artesunate dose (4 mg/kg/day) and baseline parasitemia from the two studies. Reduced plasma drug levels with higher presentation parasitemias, previously hypothesized to result from partitioning into infected red blood cells, was not observed in this population with uncomplicated malaria. Neither in vitro parasite susceptibility nor plasma drug concentrations appeared to have a direct relationship with the pharmacodynamic (PD) effects of oral artesunate on malaria parasites. While direct concentration-effect relationships were not found, it remains possible that a population PK modeling approach that allows modeling of greater dose separation might discern more-subtle relationships. PMID:22869581

Saunders, David; Khemawoot, Phisit; Vanachayangkul, Pattaraporn; Siripokasupkul, Raveewan; Bethell, Delia; Tyner, Stuart; Se, Youry; Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Chanthap, Lon; Lin, Jessica; Timmermans, Ans; Socheat, Doung; Ringwald, Pascal; Noedl, Harald; Smith, Bryan; Fukuda, Mark; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya

2012-11-01

168

Although only recently reopened, Angkor Wat already facing growing pains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tourism official proposes elephant ban at Angkorhttp://english.people.com.cn/200609/20/eng20060920_304606.htmlAPSARA [Macromedia Flash Player]http://www.autoriteapsara.org/Is Angkor Wat too touristy?http://travel.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,18409-2363554,00.htmlGreat Buildings Online: Angkor Wathttp://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Angkor_Wat.htmlInteractive Map of World Heritage Properties [Macromedia Flash Player]http://whc.unesco.org/en/mapCambodia Posthttp://www.cambodiajournal.com/Rulers have long sought to create lasting landmarks through grand buildings and public works projects, and Angkor Wat is certainly one of the most well known places in South East Asia, if not the entire world. Initially built in the early 12th century, the temple and its surrounding grounds have long been popular tourist destinations, and they have survived a number of potential threats, including the long civil war in Cambodia that engulfed the entire country and the region for several decades. However, another threat is looming that could have even more dire consequences, namely the arrival of millions of tourists. Tourism officials recently reported that close to two million tourists will visit the temples this year, and almost 500,000 of them will arrive in November and December. In the town of Siem Reap, which serves as the gateway to the Angkor complex, the bureau chief of the townâÂÂs tourism department remarked that âÂÂThere are too many people, and itâÂÂs difficult to supply and feed them.â The situation is also rather complex due to the fact that Cambodia as a whole is heavily reliant on tourism, and a number of government officials are hard pressed to reign in this booming sector of the nationâÂÂs economy. In the meantime, there are plans in place to improve the local infrastructure problems around Siem Reap, but it remains to be seen what sustainable measures might need to be taken to ensure the integrity of these important elements of the historical and cultural landscape.The first link will take users to piece on the issues raised by increased tourism around Angkor Wat from the Christian Science MonitorâÂÂs Adam Piore. The second link leads to a news story from the PeopleâÂÂs Daily Online that talks about the proposal offered by one tourism official which would ban elephants from the grounds. The third link leads to the website of the APSARA agency, which is responsible for providing stewardship of the buildings and the grounds. Here, visitor can learn about the areaâÂÂs history and art, and see maps of each monument. The fourth link whisks users away to a piece in the Sunday Times that offers some expert advice (along with the observations of other tourists) about whether or not Angkor Wat has become âÂÂtoo touristyâÂÂ. The fifth link leads to the entry from Great Buildings Online on Angkor Wat, which includes some basic history of the complex, along with a number of aerial photographs. The sixth link leads to the interactive map of World Heritage properties. Finally, the last link leads to a nice site that culls news stories about Cambodia and the region into one nice package for visitors who would like to stay abreast of ongoing events in the area.

Grinnell, Max

2006-01-01

169

Validation of satellite precipitation product GSMaP/NRT with ground rain gauges in Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation Near Real Time data (GSMaP/NRT) is one of the satellite precipitation datasets which is produced by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency with time resolution of 1 hour and spatial resolution of 0.1 degrees. Since it is published approximately 4 hours after the observation, it is expected to contribute to the early warning of floods and water resource management in developing countries as well which have poor ground observation network. Our target area, Cambodia in the Indochina Peninsula, is one of such countries. However, there had been few ground rain gauges so that it had been impossible to validate GSMaP/NRT. Thus, the accuracy of GSMaP/NRT in this area had been unclear. One of the major characteristics of this area is that it has a vast lake area with water surface temperature of more than 30 degrees all year round. With this lake surface, it has been relieved that a unique local atmospheric circulation and its associated precipitation occur in this area. In order to validate the rainfall amount in this area, we rehabilitated and newly installed rain gauges. As a result, we have 34 automatic rain-gauges now and data is available from September 2009. Using this data as well as hourly rainfall amount from GSMaP/NRT and brightness temperature (TB) from Multi-functional Transport Satellite Infrared 1 channel (MTSAT/IR1), we analyzed the error tendency of the GSMaP/NRT product. The analysis showed that the relationship between rain gauges and GSMaP/NRT were very poor. Especially, strong rainfall events in full-monsoon season over land with 208K < TB < 253K and those in post-monsoon season over the lake with TB < 208K were very much underestimated by GSMaP/NRT. The results suggest that it is still difficult to use GSMaP/NRT data for hydrological applications to get soil moisture distribution and river discharge in this area, especially at small river basins. In addition, although many rainfall events were produced by GSMaP/NRT when TB < 208K in full-monsoon season, almost no rainfall were actually recorded by rain gauges. Most of the rainfall events in full-monsoon season were found to be occurred under TB > 208K, sometimes even TB > 273K, but rainfalls with TB > 253K were poorly captured by GSMaP/NRT. When we take 720-hour (~1-month) -moving-average, post-monsoon rainfall with 253K < TB < 273K over and around the lake has almost linear relationship between the two and the slope is about 1. This tendency can be used to assess the available water resources and grasp the climatological characteristics.

Tsujimoto, Kumiko; Ohta, Tetsu; Koike, Toshio

2014-05-01

170

SEEING THE COMMUNITY FOR THE TREES: ASSESSING LOCALLY-DEVELOPED  

E-print Network

of a project. I selected a representative case study, the Angkor Community Forest Project, located in Siem Reap of the indicator sets against the Sustainability Indicators Standard (SIS). Locally-developed indicators perform better than the conventional indicators. However, neither set is a perfect match for sustainability

171

Forest conflict in Asia and the role of collective action in its Yurdi Yasmi, RECOFTC The Center for People and Forests  

E-print Network

of natural resource systems. CAPRi's Secretariat is hosted within the Environment and Production Technology, Property Rights, and Conflict in Natural Resources Management June 28th to July 1st, 2010, Siem Reap. To obtain permission to reprint, contact the IFPRI Communications Division at ifpri-copyright@cgiar.org. #12

172

Industrial cofiring reaps big rewards  

SciTech Connect

US industry operates over 2,000 coal-fired stoker boilers. They are typically over 30 years old, difficult to maintain, and hard to keep in environmental compliance. Natural gas cofiring of industrial stoker boilers offers a wide range of operational benefits. Boiler efficiency is improved because combustion air requirements are reduced (low excess air of LEA) and carbon burnout is improved (loss on ignition or LOI). On the emissions side, opacity problems are reduced and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions reduced as natural gas replaces a percentage of the coal. Further, operation is improved through easier, smoke-free start-up and warm-up, recovered steam generation, increased short-term peaking capacity, improved plant availability and improved low load operation. Fuel flexibility also increases and maintenance decreases. Cofire benefits and economics are, however, very site specific. Important factors include relative coal and gas pricing, coal and gas supply security, boiler capacity factor and seasonal use, and backup boiler capability. These factors are discussed using the example of the Dover Light and Power of Ohio.

NONE

1996-06-01

173

Embracing Technology is Reaping Rewards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews several studies focusing on technology-related student achievement gains and profiles programs that successfully use technology in teaching. Two benchmark studies by Houston's American Productivity and Quality Center document the effectiveness of total-immersion approaches, a focus on teaching and learning issues, and sufficient planning…

Odem, Margaret; Griffin, Richard A.

1999-01-01

174

Socially-marketed rapid diagnostic tests and ACT in the private sector: ten years of experience in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Whilst some populations have recently experienced dramatic declines in malaria, the majority of those most at risk of Plasmodium falciparum malaria still lack access to effective treatment with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) and others are already facing parasites resistant to artemisinins. In this context, there is a crucial need to improve both access to and targeting of ACT through greater availability of good quality ACT and parasitological diagnosis. This is an issue of increasing urgency notably in the private commercial sector, which, in many countries, plays an important role in the provision of malaria treatment. The Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm) is a recent initiative that aims to increase the provision of affordable ACT in public, private and NGO sectors through a manufacturer-level subsidy. However, to date, there is little documented experience in the programmatic implementation of subsidized ACT in the private sector. Cambodia is in the unique position of having more than 10 years of experience not only in implementing subsidized ACT, but also rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) as part of a nationwide social marketing programme. The programme includes behaviour change communication and the training of private providers as well as the sale and distribution of Malarine, the recommended ACT, and Malacheck, the RDT. This paper describes and evaluates this experience by drawing on the results of household and provider surveys conducted since the start of the programme. The available evidence suggests that providers' and consumers' awareness of Malarine increased rapidly, but that of Malacheck much less so. In addition, improvements in ACT and RDT availability and uptake were relatively slow, particularly in more remote areas. The lack of standardization in the survey methods and the gaps in the data highlight the importance of establishing a clear system for monitoring and evaluation for similar initiatives. Despite these limitations, a number of important lessons can still be learnt. These include the importance of a comprehensive communications strategy and of a sustained and reliable supply of products, with attention to the geographical reach of both. Other important challenges relate to the difficulty in incentivising providers and consumers not only to choose the recommended drug, but to precede this with a confirmatory blood test and ensure that providers adhere to the test results and patients to the treatment regime. In Cambodia, this is particularly complicated due to problems inherent to the drug itself and the emergence of artemisinin resistance. PMID:21851625

2011-01-01

175

Evaluation of the impact of the voucher and accreditation approach on improving reproductive behaviors and status in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Cost of delivering reproductive health services to low income populations will always require total or partial subsidization by government and/or development partners. Broadly termed "demand-side financing" or "output-based aid", these strategies include a range of interventions that channel government or donor subsidies to the user rather than the service provider. Initial pilot assessments of reproductive health voucher programs suggest that they can increase access, reduce inequities, and enhance program efficiency and service quality. However, there is a paucity of evidence describing how these programs function in different settings for various reproductive health services. Methods/Design Population Council, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, intends to generate evidence around the "voucher and accreditation" approaches to improving the reproductive health of low-income women in Cambodia. The study comprises of four populations: facilities, providers, women of reproductive age using facilities, and women and men who have been pregnant and/or used family planning within the previous 12 months. The study will be carried out in a sample of 20 health facilities that are accredited to provide maternal and newborn health and family planning services to women holding vouchers from operational districts in three provinces: Kampong Thom, Kampot and Prey Veng and a matched sample of non-accredited facilities in three other provinces. Health facility assessments will be conducted at baseline and endline to track temporal changes in quality-of-care, client out-of-pocket costs, and utilization. Facility inventories, structured observations, and client exit interviews will be used to collect comparable data across facilities. Health providers will also be interviewed and observed providing care. A population survey of about 3000 respondents will also be conducted in areas where vouchers are distributed and similar non-voucher locations. Discussion A quasi-experimental study will investigate the impact of the voucher approach on improving reproductive health behaviors, reproductive health status and reducing inequities at the population level and assess effects on access, equity and quality of care at the facility level. If the voucher scheme in Cambodia is found effective, it may help other countries adopt this approach for improving utilization and access to reproductive health and family planning services. PMID:21864405

2011-01-01

176

"Bad Boys", Big Trouble: Subcultural Formation and Resistance in a Cambodian Village  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the experiences of adolescent males in Cambodia who, simultaneous to their maltreatment and marginalization within the family and community, have reduced opportunities to produce identities of sociomoral value through access to cultural capital. It draws on ethnographic data gathered from adolescents boys aged 9 to 16 in Siem

Czymoniewicz-Klippel, Melina T.

2013-01-01

177

Condom negotiation across different relationship types by young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Cambodia's 100% Condom Use Programme is credited with an increase in consistent condom use in commercial sexual interactions and a decrease in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). There has been little improvement in condom use between FSWs and non-commercial partners, prompting calls for more innovative approaches to increasing condom use in these relationships. To understand why condoms are used or not used in sexual interactions involving FSWs, we examined condom negotiation across different types of relationships. We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with young (15 to 29 years) women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh. There was an important interplay between the meanings of condom use and the meanings of women's relationships. Commercial relationships were characterised as inherently risky and necessitated condom use. Despite a similar lack of sexual fidelity, sweetheart relationships were rarely construed as risky and typically did not involve condom use. Husbands and wives constructed their sexual interactions with each other differently, making agreement on condom use difficult. The lack of improvement in condom use in FSWs' non-commercial sexual relationships needs to be understood in relation to both sex work and the broader Cambodian sexual culture within which these relationships are embedded. PMID:23432108

Maher, Lisa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Couture, Marie-Claude; Kien, Serey Phal; Stein, Ellen; Bates, Anna Juong; Sansothy, Neth; Page, Kimberly

2013-01-01

178

Mid-Holocene mangrove succession and its response to sea-level change in the upper Mekong River delta, Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Middle Holocene vegetation and mangrove successions are clearly evident in the palynological records of two cores from the upper Mekong River delta in Cambodia. Spanning from ~ 9.4 to 6.3 cal ka BP, the cores mainly record a transgressive sequence from floodplain freshwater marsh to tidal flat, which was overlain by mangrove. Corresponding to the decelerated sea-level rise at ~ 8.3 cal ka BP, pioneer mangrove species Sonneratia alba and Sonneratia caseolaris appeared in the sediments, and then was replaced by regressive mangrove succession containing upward-increasing abundances of Rhizophora apiculata and Bruguiera spp. High salinity- and flooding-tolerant community S. alba was developed at the western core site PSG at ~ 8.2 cal ka BP, and the eastern core site PK at ~ 7.5 cal ka BP. The time difference of S. alba appearance between the two sites might be resulted from the complexity of sedimentary environment, where a higher sediment supply was provided to the western floodplain than to the eastern floodplain. After 7.5 cal ka BP, aggradational stacking of intertidal sediments, of which the thickness is larger than the present maximum tidal range, may have resulted from continuous sea-level rise during 7.5-7.0 cal ka BP.

Li, Zhen; Saito, Yoshiki; Mao, Limi; Tamura, Toru; Li, Zhen; Song, Bing; Zhang, Yulan; Lu, Anqing; Sieng, Sotham; Li, Jie

2012-09-01

179

Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Symptoms of Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Aquatic Farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.  

PubMed

Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers in Boeung Cheung Ek (BCE) Lake, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The study showed that 50% of the pesticides used belonged to WHO class I + II and personal protection among the farmers were inadequate. A majority of the farmers (88%) had experienced symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning, and this was significantly associated with the number of hours spent spraying with OPs/CMs (OR = 1.14, CI 95%: 1.02-1.28). The higher educated farmers reduced their risk of poisoning by 55% for each extra personal protective measure they adapted (OR = 0.45, CI 95%: 0.22-0.91). These findings suggest that improving safe pesticide management practices among the farmers and enforcing the effective banning of the most toxic pesticides will considerably reduce the number of acute pesticide poisoning episodes. PMID:21234245

Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming; Jørs, Erik; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Dalsgaard, Anders

2011-01-01

180

Technology, Culture and the Manufacturing Engineer: How Studying SME's in Cambodia Can Teach Manufacturing Students About Global Enterprise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In his book The World is Flat, Thomas Friedman describes what he calls "the quiet crisis" as the "erosion of Americas science and engineering base, which has always been the source of Americas innovation and our standard of living." The crisis is the increasing penetration of global competition on the economic output of the United States, now an issue to which engineering education is paying serious attention. However, it is not a crisis of just technical issues. What is needed with respect to global learning and experience is more than just technical competence and expertise. Bill Wulf said "engineering is now practiced in a global, holistic business context, and engineers must design under constraints that reflect that context. In the future, understanding other cultures, speaking other languages, and communicating with people from marketing and finance will be just as fundamental to the practice of engineering as physics and calculus." For faculty and students and BYU, a recent project of studying manufacturing in Cambodia also became a study of Cambodian history, government, and culture. As a result it became, for both students and faculty, a learning experience in the broader, more holistic context of manufacturing, engineering, technology, and global issues.

Hawks, Val D.; Miles, Michael

2011-11-21

181

Factors associated with use of improved water sources and sanitation among rural primary schoolchildren in Pursat Province, Cambodia.  

PubMed

Access to improved water supplies and sanitation generally reduces childhood diarrhea incidence. Using a cross-sectional stratified cluster sampling design, interviews were conducted among grade 4-6 primary schoolchildren from 10 primary schools in highland and lowland districts of Pursat Province, Cambodia, in both June (rainy season) and December (dry season) 2009 to determine the demographics and water sources/sanitation used. Parents also recorded any incidents of diarrhea in their children over those months. We explored the sociodemographic factors associated with use of improved water sources/sanitation, using mixed effect modelling. Participation was 84.7% (1,101/1,300). About half exclusively used improved water sources but less than 25% had access to improved sanitation during both seasons. Adjusting for clustering within households and within individuals over time, exclusive use of improved water sources and sanitation were associated with the following: dry season, more permanent housing type, family size < 8 members, and higher levels of education. Exclusive use of improved sanitation was associated with good hygiene practices and exclusive use of improved water sources was associated with male gender. Access to improved water sources and sanitation among rural Cambodian primary schoolchildren can be improved, particularly in those with lower socio-economic status. Programs to promote use of improved water sources/sanitation need to target less educated parents. PMID:22299486

En, Wee Liang; Gan, Goh Lee

2011-07-01

182

Bacterial communities in pigmented biofilms formed on the sandstone bas-relief walls of the Bayon Temple, Angkor Thom, Cambodia.  

PubMed

The Bayon temple in Angkor Thom, Cambodia has shown serious deterioration and is subject to the formation of various pigmented biofilms. Because biofilms are damaging the bas-reliefs, low reliefs engraved on the surface of sandstone, information about the microbial community within them is indispensable to control biofilm colonization. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of biofilm samples from the pigmented sandstone surfaces showed that the bacterial community members in the biofilms differed clearly from those in the air and had low sequence similarity to database sequences. Non-destructive sampling of biofilm revealed novel bacterial groups of predominantly Rubrobacter in salmon pink biofilm, Cyanobacteria in chrome green biofilm, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi in signal violet biofilm, Chloroflexi in black gray biofilm, and Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria, and Rubrobacter in blue green biofilm. Serial peeling-off of a thick biofilm by layers with adhesive sheets revealed a stratified structure: the blue-green biofilm, around which there was serious deterioration, was very rich in Cyanobacteria near the surface and Chloroflexi in deep layer below. Nitrate ion concentrations were high in the blue-green biofilm. The characteristic distribution of bacteria at different biofilm depths provides valuable information on not only the biofilm formation process but also the sandstone weathering process in the tropics. PMID:24334526

Kusumi, Asako; Li, Xianshu; Osuga, Yu; Kawashima, Arata; Gu, Ji-Dong; Nasu, Masao; Katayama, Yoko

2013-01-01

183

Linking Organic Matter Deposition And Iron Mineral Transformations to Groundwater Arsenic Levels in the Mekong Delta, Cambodia  

SciTech Connect

Enriched As in drinking water wells in south and Southeast Asia has increased the risk of cancer for nearly 100 million people. This enrichment is generally attributed to the reductive dissolution of Fe oxides; however, the complex expression of As enrichment in these areas is not yet well understood. Here, the coupled sedimentological and geochemical factors that contribute to the extent and spatial distribution of groundwater As concentrations in the Mekong River delta, Cambodia in an avulsed scroll bar sequence are examined. X-Ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to determine Fe and As speciation in redox preserved sediment collected from drilled cores. Dissolved As, Fe and S solution concentrations in existing and newly drilled wells (cores) differed considerably depending on their source sedimentology. The rapid burial of organic matter in the scroll bar sequence facilitated the development of extensive Fe-reducing conditions, and As release into the aquifer. In older features organic C levels are high enough to sustain extensive Fe reduction and provide ample SO{sub 4} which is reduced to sulfide. This S reduction impacts As levels; As is sequestered in sulfide minerals outside of the scrollbar sequence, decreasing pore water concentrations. In contrast, As is depleted in sediments from the scroll sequence, and associated with elevated pore water aqueous concentrations. The concentration and form of organic C in the scrollbar sequence is related to depositional environment, and can facilitate Fe and S mineral transformations, distinct sedimentary environments explain a portion of the inherent heterogeneity of aquifer As concentrations.

Quicksall, A.N.; Bostick, B.C.; Sampson, M.L.

2009-05-21

184

Socio-economic improvements and health system strengthening of maternity care are contributing to maternal mortality reduction in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Maternal mortality has been falling significantly in Cambodia since 2005 though it had been stagnant for at least 15 years before that. This paper analyzes the evolution of some major societal and health system factors based on recent national and international reports. The maternal mortality ratio fell from 472 per 100,000 live births in 2000-2005 to 206 in 2006-2010. Background factors have included peace and stability, economic growth and poverty reduction, improved primary education, especially for girls, improved roads, improved access to information on health and health services via TV, radio and cellphones, and increased ability to communicate with and within the health system. Specific health system improvements include a rapid increase in facility-based births and skilled birth attendance, notably investment in midwifery training and numbers of midwives providing antenatal care and deliveries within an expanding primary health care network, a monetary incentive for facility-based midwives for every live birth conducted, and an expanding system of health equity funds, making health care free of cost for poor people. Several major challenges remain, including post-partum care, family planning, prevention and treatment of breast and cervical cancer, and addressing sexual violence against women, which need the same priority attention as maternity care. PMID:22789083

Liljestrand, Jerker; Sambath, Mean Reatanak

2012-06-01

185

Protocol for REducing Anti-Psychotic use in residential care-Huntington Disease (REAP-HD): a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial of a multifaceted intervention for health professionals  

PubMed Central

Introduction Antipsychotics are commonly used for management of behavioural symptoms in dementia, among people in residential care. This continues to occur despite their modest effectiveness, potential harms including increased risk of death and stroke, and absence of detrimental effect when people with dementia were randomised to antipsychotic withdrawal. This study aims to test the hypothesis that the multifaceted REducing Anti-Psychotic use in residential care-Huntington Disease (REAP-HD) programme is more effective than standard staff education (SSE) in reducing antipsychotic use for people with HD in residential care facilities (RCF). Methods and analysis this is a cluster randomised controlled trial with blinded outcome assessment. The study population is healthcare professionals looking after people with HD in individual RCF, in the state of New South Wales. Each RCF will be centrally randomised to the REAP-HD programme or the comparator, SSE. Blinded outcome assessment will be performed by examining drug charts and using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Q (NPI-Q). Primary outcome is the proportion of people with HD who have had a reduction in antipsychotic use 4?months after the intervention. Secondary outcome measures are (1) change in severity of behavioural symptoms, as measured by the NPI-Q at 4?months (to ensure antipsychotic reduction has not lead to worsening behavioural symptoms), and (2) proportion of people with HD who have had a reduction in antipsychotic dosage at 4?months for each strategy, compared to 4?months prior to enrolment (to capture the possibility that both arms reduced antipsychotic use). Analysis will be by Intention-To-Treat and take into account the clustering. Recruitment is ongoing, as of July 2014. Ethics and dissemination This protocol has been approved by the Western Sydney Local Health District Human Research Ethics Committee, trial registration ACTRN12614000083695. Study results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publication in an anonymous manner. Trial registration number ACTRN12614000083695, the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. PMID:25468506

Loy, Clement T; Hayen, Andrew; McKinnon, Colleen

2014-01-01

186

Amphetamine-type stimulant use and HIV/STI risk behaviour among young female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Use of amphetamine-type substances (ATS) has been linked to increased risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) worldwide. In Cambodia, recent ATS use is independently associated with incident STI infection among young female sex workers (FSW). Methods We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with women (15–29 years old) engaged in sex work to explore ATS use and vulnerability to HIV/STI. Results Participants reported that ATS, primarily methamphetamine in pill and crystalline forms (yama), were cheap, widely available and commonly used. Yama was described as a “power drug” (thnam kamlang) which enabled women to work long hours and serve more customers. Use of ATS by clients was also common, with some providing drugs for women and/or encouraging their use, often resulting in prolonged sexual activity. Requests for unprotected sex were also more common among intoxicated clients and strategies typically employed to negotiate condom use were less effective. Conclusion ATS use was highly functional for young women engaged in sex work, facilitating a sense of power and agency and highlighting the occupational significance and normalization of ATS in this setting. This highly gendered dynamic supports the limited but emerging literature on women’s use of ATS, which to date has been heavily focused on men. Results indicate an urgent need to increase awareness of the risks associated with ATS use, to provide women with alternative and sustainable options for income generation, to better regulate the conditions of sex work, and to work with FSWs and their clients to develop and promote culturally appropriate harm reduction interventions. PMID:21316935

Maher, L; Phlong, P; Mooney-Somers, J; Keo, S; Stein, E; Page, K

2011-01-01

187

Promoting community knowledge and action for malaria control in rural Cambodia: potential contributions of Village Malaria Workers  

PubMed Central

Background Cambodia has been investing in Village Malaria Workers (VMWs) to improve malaria case management in rural areas. This study assessed the quality of the VMWs’ services compared to those by a government-run health center from the perspective of community members. We focused on VMWs’ contribution to promote their action to control malaria. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Kampot province in 2009. Interviews were conducted at every accessible household in a village with VMWs (n?=?153) and a village with a health center (n?=?159), using interviewer administered questionnaire. Preference of the interview was given to female household head. Multiple regression analyses were run to compare knowledge about malaria, preventive measures taken, and time before first malaria treatment between the two villages. Findings The villagers perceived the VMWs’ services equally as good as those provided by the health center. After controlling for confounding factors, the following indicators did not show any statistical significance between two villages: community members’ knowledge about malaria transmission (AOR?=?0.60, 95% CI?=?0.30-1.22) and government-recommended antimalarial (AOR?=?0.55, 95% CI?=?0.25-1.23), preventive measures taken (Beta?=??0.191, p?=?0.315), and time before the first treatment (Beta?=?0.053, p?=?0.721). However, knowledge about malaria symptoms was significantly lower in the village with VMWs than the village with a health center (AOR?=?0.40, 95% CI?=?0.19-0.83). Conclusions VMWs played an equivalent role as the health center in promoting malaria knowledge, action, and effective case management. Although VMWs need to enhance community knowledge about malaria symptoms, the current government policy on VMWs is reasonable and should be expanded to other malaria endemic villages. PMID:22863397

2012-01-01

188

Ex vivo activity of endoperoxide antimalarials, including artemisone and arterolane, against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Cambodia.  

PubMed

Novel synthetic endoperoxides are being evaluated as new components of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) to treat artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. We conducted blinded ex vivo activity testing of fully synthetic (OZ78 and OZ277) and semisynthetic (artemisone, artemiside, artesunate, and dihydroartemisinin) endoperoxides in the histidine-rich protein 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against 200 P. falciparum isolates from areas of artemisinin-resistant malaria in western and northern Cambodia in 2009 and 2010. The order of potency and geometric mean (GM) 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) were as follows: artemisone (2.40 nM) > artesunate (8.49 nM) > dihydroartemisinin (11.26 nM) > artemiside (15.28 nM) > OZ277 (31.25 nM) > OZ78 (755.27 nM). Ex vivo activities of test endoperoxides positively correlated with dihydroartemisinin and artesunate. The isolates were over 2-fold less susceptible to dihydroartemisinin than the artemisinin-sensitive P. falciparum W2 clone and showed sensitivity comparable to those with test endoperoxides and artesunate, with isolate/W2 IC50 susceptibility ratios of <2.0. All isolates had P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter mutations, with negative correlations in sensitivity to endoperoxides and chloroquine. The activities of endoperoxides (artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, OZ277, and artemisone) significantly correlated with that of the ACT partner drug, mefloquine. Isolates had mutations associated with clinical resistance to mefloquine, with 35% prevalence of P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1) amplification and 84.5% occurrence of the pfmdr1 Y184F mutation. GM IC50s for mefloquine, lumefantrine, and endoperoxides (artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, OZ277, OZ78, and artemisone) correlated with pfmdr1 copy number. Given that current ACTs are failing potentially from reduced sensitivity to artemisinins and partner drugs, newly identified mutations associated with artemisinin resistance reported in the literature and pfmdr1 mutations should be examined for their combined contributions to emerging ACT resistance. PMID:25049252

Lanteri, Charlotte A; Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Lon, Chanthap; Saunders, David L; Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Bathurst, Ian; Ding, Xavier C; Tyner, Stuart D

2014-10-01

189

Mid- to Late Holocene (5-3 ka) Origin of the Modern Tonle Sap Lake System, Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As Southeast Asia's largest lake, Tonle Sap plays a crucial role in Cambodia's culture and ecology. The lake provides a habitat for >500 fish species and is one of the most productive inland fisheries in the world. It is a vital protein source that nourishes Cambodians today and helped to sustain the ancient Angkorian Empire. The Mekong River plays a key role in driving the productivity of Tonle Sap by injecting nutrients into the lake during the annual flood pulse. The Mekong is linked to the lake today by the Tonle Sap River, which provides a pathway for monsoon floodwaters to flow into the lake during the region's rainy monsoon season. During the dry season, flow through the Tonle Sap River reverses, and the lake drains back into the Mekong. The history of the connection between the Tonle Sap and Mekong River remains uncertain. In order to determine the provenance of sediments in the Tonle Sap lake basin, we measured Sr and Nd isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr and ?Nd respectively) of a sediment core taken from the southeastern end of the lake. An upcore increase in 87Sr/86Sr and decrease in ?Nd towards isotopic values indicative of sediment input from the Mekong River suggests that the link between Tonle Sap and the Mekong River was established ~5-3 14C yr BP. The paleolimnological record may provide insight into the environmental conditions of Lake Tonle Sap Lake prior to its connection with the Mekong. The ancient lake may serve as an analog for a future Tonle Sap ecosystem in which the annual flood pulse, and associated nutrient input, is dampened or eliminated by damming of the Mekong River.

Day, M.; Hodell, D. A.; Brenner, M.; Curtis, J. H.; Kamenov, G. D.; Peterson, L. C.; Guilderson, T. P.; Kolata, A. L.

2008-12-01

190

Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia.  

PubMed

The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households' ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. PMID:25492724

Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

2015-02-01

191

Evaluation of community-based systems for the surveillance of day three-positive Plasmodium falciparum cases in Western Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites is used as an operational indicator of potential artemisinin resistance. Effective community-based systems to detect P. falciparum cases remaining positive 72 hours after initiating treatment would be valuable for guiding case follow-up in areas of known resistance risk and for detecting areas of emerging resistance. Methods Systems incorporating existing networks of village malaria workers (VMWs) to monitor day three-positive P. falciparum cases were piloted in three provinces in western Cambodia. Quantitative and qualitative data were used to evaluate the wider feasibility and sustainability of community-based surveillance of day three-positive P. falciparum cases. Results Of 294 day-3 blood slides obtained across all sites (from 297 day-0 positives), 63 were positive for P. falciparum, an overall day-3 positivity rate of 21%. There were significant variations in the systems implemented by different partners. Full engagement of VMWs and health centre staff is critical. VMWs are responsible for a range of individual tasks including preparing blood slides on day-0, completing forms, administering directly observed therapy (DOT) on days 0–2, obtaining follow-up slides on day-3 and transporting slides and paperwork to their supervising health centre. When suitably motivated, unsalaried VMWs are willing and able to produce good quality blood smears and achieve very high rates of DOT and day-3 follow-up. Conclusions Community-based surveillance of day-3 P. falciparum cases is feasible, but highly intensive, and as such needs strong and continuous support, particularly supervision and training. The purpose and role of community-based day-3 surveillance should be assessed in the light of resource requirements; scaling-up would need to be systematic and targeted, based on clearly defined epidemiological criteria. To be truly comprehensive, the system would need to be extended beyond VMWs to other public and private health providers. PMID:25052222

2014-01-01

192

Impacts on rural livelihoods in Cambodia following adoption of best practice health and husbandry interventions by smallholder cattle farmers.  

PubMed

To better understand how smallholder farmers whom own the majority of Cambodian cattle can contribute to efforts to address food security needs in the Mekong region, a five-year research project investigating methods to improve cattle health and husbandry practices was conducted. Cattle production in Cambodia is constrained by transboundary animal diseases (TADs) including foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) plus poor nutrition, reproduction and marketing knowledge. The project worked in six villages in Kandal, Takeo and Kampong Cham province during 2007-12. Farmers from three 'high intervention' (HI) villages incrementally received a participatory extension programme that included FMD and HS vaccination, forage development and husbandry training. Evaluation of project impacts on livelihoods was facilitated by comparison with three 'low intervention' (LI) villages where farmers received vaccinations only. Results of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) and socio-economic surveys conducted in 2012 of 120 participating farmers identified that farmer knowledge in the HI project sites exceeded LI sites on the topics of biosecurity, internal parasites, nutrition and reproduction. HI farmers adopted biosecurity practices including a willingness to vaccinate for FMD and HS at their own cost, separate sick from healthy cattle, grow and feed forages and displayed awareness of the benefits of building fattening pens. HI farmers that grew forages observed time savings exceeding two hours per day each for men, women and children, enabling expansion of farm enterprises, secondary employment and children's schooling. Logistic regression analysis revealed that farmers in the HI group significantly increased annual household income (P < 0.001), with 53% reporting an increase of 100% or more. We conclude that improving smallholder KAP of cattle health and production can lead to improved livelihoods. This strategy should be of interest to policymakers, donors, researchers and extension workers interested in addressing TAD control, food insecurity and rural poverty in Southeast Asia. PMID:24393407

Young, J R; O'Reilly, R A; Ashley, K; Suon, S; Leoung, I V; Windsor, P A; Bush, R D

2014-08-01

193

Arsenic in hair and nails of individuals exposed to arsenic-rich groundwaters in Kandal province, Cambodia.  

PubMed

The health implications of the consumption of high arsenic groundwater in Bangladesh and West Bengal are well-documented, however, little is known about the level of arsenic exposure elsewhere in Southeast Asia, where widespread exploitation of groundwater resources is less well established. We measured the arsenic concentrations of nail and hair samples collected from residents of Kandal province, Cambodia, an area recently identified to host arsenic-rich groundwaters, in order to evaluate the extent of arsenic exposure. Nail and hair arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.20 to 6.50 microg g(-1) (n=70) and 0.10 to 7.95 microg g(-1) (n=40), respectively, in many cases exceeding typical baseline levels. The arsenic content of the groundwater used for drinking water purposes (0.21-943 microg L(-1) (n=31)) was positively correlated with both nail (r=0.74, p<0.0001) and hair (r=0.86, p<0.0001) arsenic concentrations. In addition, the nail and hair samples collected from inhabitants using groundwater that exceeded the Cambodian drinking water legal limit of 50 microg L(-1) arsenic contained significantly more arsenic than those of individuals using groundwater containing <50 microg L(-1) arsenic. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy suggested that sulfur-coordinated arsenic was the dominant species in the bulk of the samples analysed, with additional varying degrees of As(III)-O character. Tentative linear least squares fitting of the XANES data pointed towards differences in the pattern of arsenic speciation between the nail and hair samples analysed, however, mismatches in sample and standard absorption peak intensity prevented us from unambiguously determining the arsenic species distribution. The good correlation with the groundwater arsenic concentration, allied with the relative ease of sampling such tissues, indicate that the arsenic content of hair and nail samples may be used as an effective biomarker of arsenic intake in this relatively recently exposed population. PMID:18234288

Gault, Andrew G; Rowland, Helen A L; Charnock, John M; Wogelius, Roy A; Gomez-Morilla, Inma; Vong, Sovathana; Leng, Moniphea; Samreth, Sopheap; Sampson, Mickey L; Polya, David A

2008-04-01

194

Vibrio parahaemolyticus enteritis outbreak following a wedding banquet in a rural village – Kampong Speu, Cambodia, April 2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction Foodborne outbreaks are common in Cambodia, but only a few investigations documenting the etiology and source have been conducted. In April, we learnt of 49 acute diarrhoea cases in a village following a wedding banquet. We undertook an investigation to identify the pathogen, source and mode of transmission. Methods We interviewed banquet hosts and food handlers to obtain the menu and guest list. Guests were asked about signs and symptoms and onset of illness, time of meal and food or drinks consumed. Rectal swabs were taken from 13 cases for culture. A case-control study was undertaken; cases were guests who had acute diarrhoea within three days after the wedding and controls were guests who remained well during the same time period. Results There were 256 guests. Of 69 interviewees, 52 got sick (attack rate 75%). Aside from diarrhoea, cases had abdominal pain (94%), vomiting (48%), nausea (42%) and fever (25%). Incubation periods ranged from seven to 51 hours (median 16.5). Rectal swabs from three cases grew Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Among the food and drinks served, vegetable salad with raw octopus was the only one associated with illness (odds ratio: 6.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.3–36.1, P = 0.01). Discussion Vegetable salad with raw octopus was the suspected vehicle for transmission of this Vibrio parahaemolyticus enteritis outbreak. Messages regarding the risks from eating raw seafood were disseminated, and food handlers were advised to cook seafood to high temperatures. Efforts to improve foodborne disease surveillance and food safety are being undertaken. PMID:23908935

Vandy, Som; Leakhann, Som; Phalmony, Has; Denny, Justin

2012-01-01

195

Immunity to polio, measles and rubella in women of child-bearing age and estimated congenital rubella syndrome incidence, Cambodia, 2012.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Significant gaps in immunity to polio, measles, and rubella may exist in adults in Cambodia and threaten vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) elimination and control goals, despite high childhood vaccination coverage. We conducted a nationwide serological survey during November-December 2012 of 2154 women aged 15-39 years to assess immunity to polio, measles, and rubella and to estimate congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) incidence. Measles and rubella antibodies were detected by IgG ELISA and polio antibodies by microneutralization testing. Age-structured catalytic models were fitted to rubella serological data to predict CRS cases. Overall, 29·8% of women lacked immunity to at least one poliovirus (PV); seroprevalence to PV1, PV2 and PV3 was 85·9%, 93·4% and 83·3%, respectively. Rubella and measles antibody seroprevalence was 73·3% and 95·9%, respectively. In the 15-19 years age group, 48·2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 42·4-54·1] were susceptible to either PV1 or PV3, and 40·3% (95% CI 33·0-47·5) to rubella virus. Based on rubella antibody seroprevalence, we estimate that >600 infants are born with CRS in Cambodia annually. Significant numbers of Cambodian women are still susceptible to polio and rubella, especially those aged 15-19 years, emphasizing the need to include adults in VPD surveillance and a potential role for vaccination strategies targeted at adults. PMID:25373419

Mao, B; Chheng, K; Wannemuehler, K; Vynnycky, E; Buth, S; Soeung, S C; Reef, S; Weldon, W; Quick, L; Gregory, C J

2014-11-01

196

How well do antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees represent the general population? A comparison of HIV prevalence from ANC sentinel surveillance sites with a population-based survey of women aged 15-49 in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether HIV-1 prevalence among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees in Cambodia provided a reasonable estimate of HIV-1 prevalence among all women 15-49 years. Methods Antenatal clinic attendees in five HIV sentinel surveillance sites (five provinces) were selected by consecutive sampling (n = 1695). The population survey of females by household was carried

Vonthanak Saphonn; Leng Bun Hor; Sun Penh Ly; Samrith Chhuon; Tobi Saidelb; Roger Detelsc

197

Is Nominal Public but de Facto Private Land Ownership Appropriate? A Comparative Study among Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam; Japan; Taiwan Provice of China; South Korea; China; Myanmar; and North Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the transition from the centrally planned economy to a market-oriented rural development, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam established a nominal state - but de facto private - land ownership. As a result, both new landlessness and inefficient land-holding immediately appeared. How to prevent these problems while still achieving market-oriented rural development? The Chinese model - a third way between the

J. M. Zhou

1998-01-01

198

Field Trial Evaluation of the Performances of Point-of-Care Tests for Screening G6PD Deficiency in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background User-friendly, accurate, point-of-care rapid tests to detect glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd) are urgently needed at peripheral level to safely recommend primaquine for malaria elimination. Methods The CareStart G6PD RDT (AccessBio, New Jersey, USA), a novel rapid diagnostic test and the most commonly used test, the fluorescent spot test (FST) were assessed against the quantitatively measured G6PD enzyme activity for detecting G6PDd. Subjects were healthy males and non-pregnant females aged 18 years or older residing in six villages in Pailin Province, western Cambodia. Findings Of the 938 subjects recruited, 74 (7.9%) were severe and moderately severe G6PD deficient (enzyme activity <30%), mostly in male population; population median G6PD activity was 12.0 UI/g Hb. The performances of the CareStart G6PD RDT and the FST, according to different cut-off values used to define G6PDd were very similar. For the detection of severe and moderately severe G6PDd (enzyme activity <30%, <3.6 UI/g Hb) in males and females, sensitivity and negative (normal status) predictive value were 100% for both point-of-care tools. When the G6PDd cut-off value increased (from <40% to <60%), the sensitivity for both PoCs decreased: 93.3% to 71.7% (CareStart G6PD RDT, p?=?10?6) and 95.5% to 73.2% (FST, p?=?10?6) while the specificity for both PoCs remained similar: 97.4% to 98.3% (CareStart G6PD RDT, p?=?0.23) and 98.7% to 99.6% (FST, p?=?0.06). The cut-off values for classifying individuals as normal were 4.0 UI/g Hb and 4.3 UI/g Hb for the CareStart G6PD RDT and the FST, respectively. Conclusions The CareStart G6PD RDT reliably detected moderate and severe G6PD deficient individuals (enzyme activity <30%), suggesting that this novel point-of-care is a promising tool for tailoring appropriate primaquine treatment for malaria elimination by excluding individuals with severe G6PDd for primaquine treatment. PMID:25541721

Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Chy, Sophy; Canier, Lydie; Kerleguer, Alexandra; Tor, Pety; Chuor, Char Meng; Kheng, Sim; Siv, Sovannaroth; Kachur, Patrick S.; Taylor, Walter R. J.; Hwang, Jimee; Menard, Didier

2014-01-01

199

Community-Based Active Tuberculosis Case Finding in Poor Urban Settlements of Phnom Penh, Cambodia: A Feasible and Effective Strategy  

PubMed Central

Background In light of the limitations of the current case finding strategies and the global urgency to improve tuberculosis (TB) case-detection, a renewed interest in active case finding (ACF) has risen. The WHO calls for more evidence on innovative ways of TB screening, especially from low-income countries, to inform global guideline development. We aimed to assess the feasibility of community-based ACF for TB among the urban poor in Cambodia and determine its impact on case detection, treatment uptake and outcome. Methods Between 9/2/2012-31/3/2013 the Sihanouk Hospital Center of HOPE conducted a door-to-door survey for TB in deprived communities of Phnom Penh. TB workers and community health volunteers performed symptom screening, collected sputum and facilitated specimen transport to the laboratories. Fluorescence microscopy was introduced at three referral hospitals. The GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert) was performed at tertiary level for individuals at increased risk of HIV-associated, drug-resistant or smear-negative TB. Mobile phone/short message system (SMS) was used for same-day issuing of positive results. TB workers contacted diagnosed patients and referred them for care at their local health centre. Results In 14 months, we screened 315.874 individuals; we identified 12.201 aged ?15 years with symptoms suggestive of TB; 84% provided sputum. We diagnosed 783, including 737 bacteriologically confirmed, TB cases. Xpert testing yielded 41% and 48% additional diagnoses among presumptive HIV-associated and multidrug-resistant TB cases, respectively. The median time from sputum collection to notification (by SMS) of the first positive (microscopy or Xpert) result was 3 days (IQR 2–6). Over 94% commenced TB treatment and 81% successfully completed it. Conclusion Our findings suggest that among the urban poor ACF for TB, using a sensitive symptom screen followed by smear-microscopy and targeted Xpert, contributed to improved case detection of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB, shortening the diagnostic delay, and successfully bringing patients into care. PMID:24675985

Lorent, Natalie; Choun, Kimcheng; Thai, Sopheak; Kim, Tharin; Huy, Sopheaktra; Pe, Reaksmey; van Griensven, Johan; Buyze, Jozefien; Colebunders, Robert; Rigouts, Leen; Lynen, Lutgarde

2014-01-01

200

Cervical human papillomavirus infection among young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia: prevalence, genotypes, risk factors and association with HIV infection  

PubMed Central

Background Although cervical cancer is the leading cancer in Cambodia, most women receive no routine screening for cervical cancer and few treatment options exist. Moreover, nothing is known regarding the prevalence of cervical HPV or the genotypes present among women in the country. Young sexually active women, especially those with multiple sex partners are at highest risk of HPV infection. We examine the prevalence and genotypes of cervical HPV, as well as the associated risk factors among young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among 220 young women (15–29?years) engaged in sex work in different venues including brothels or entertainment establishments, and on a freelance basis in streets, parks and private apartments. Cervical specimens were collected using standard cytobrush technique. HPV DNA was tested for by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyping using type-specific probes for 29 individual HPV types, as well as for a mixture of 10 less common HPV types. All participants were also screened for HIV status using blood samples. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess risk factors for any or multiple HPV infection. Results The prevalence of cervical HPV 41.1%. HPV 51 and 70 were the most common (5.0%), followed by 16 (4.6%), 71 (4.1%) and 81 (3.7%). Thirty-six women (16.4%) were infected with multiple genotypes and 23.3% were infected with at least one oncogenic HPV type. In multivariate analyses, having HIV infection and a higher number of sexual partners were associated with cervical HPV infection. Risk factors for infection with multiple genotypes included working as freelance female sex workers (FSW) or in brothels, recent binge use of drugs, high number of sexual partners, and HIV infection. Conclusions This is the first Cambodian study on cervical HPV prevalence and genotypes. We found that HPV infection was common among young FSW, especially among women infected with HIV. These results underscore the urgent need for accessible cervical cancer screening and treatment, as well as for a prophylactic vaccine that covers the HPV subtypes present in Cambodia. PMID:22839728

2012-01-01

201

Orthogonius species and diversity in Thailand (Coleoptera, Caraboidea, Orthogoniini), a result from the TIGER project  

PubMed Central

Abstract The carabid genus Orthogonius MacLeay is treated, based mainly on materials collected in Thailand through the TIGER project (the Thailand Inventory Group for Entomological Research). Among 290 specimens, 20 species are identified in total, 10 of them are new species: Orthogonius taghavianae sp. n. (Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park), Orthogonius coomanioides sp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius similaris sp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Loei: Phu Kradueng National Park), Orthogonius setosopalpiger sp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius gracililamella sp. n. (Loei: Phu Kradueng National Park; Chaiyaphum: Tat Tone National Park), Orthogonius pseudochaudoiri sp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park), Orthogonius constrictus sp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius pinophilus sp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius vari sp. n. (Cambodia: Siem Reap; Thailand: Ubon Ratchathani: Pha Taem National Park; Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park) and Orthogonius variabilis sp. n. (Thailand: Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park; Phetchabun: Nam Nao National Park; China: Yunnan). In addition, Orthogonius mouhoti Chaudoir, 1871 and Orthogonius kirirom Tian & Deuve, 2008 are recorded in Thailand for the first time. In total, 30 species of Orthogonius have been recorded from Thailand, indicating that Thailand holds one of the richest Orthogonius faunas in the world. A provisional key to all Thai species is provided. A majority of Thai Orthogonius species are endemic. Among the ten national parks in which orthogonine beetles were collected, Thung Salaeng Luang holds the richest fauna, including 16 species. PMID:22328852

Tian, Mingyi; Deuve, Thierry; Felix, Ron

2012-01-01

202

Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia  

PubMed Central

The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households’ ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. El Impacto de los Pagos por Servicios Ambientales y Áreas Protegidas sobre la Subsistencia Local y la Conservación del Bosque en el Norte de Camboya Resumen Los impactos potenciales de los pagos por servicios ambientales (PSA) y áreas protegidas (APs) sobre los resultados ambientales y las subsistencias locales en los países en desarrollo son polémicos y se han debatido ampliamente. La evidencia disponible es escasa; ha habido pocas evaluaciones rigurosas de los impactos ambientales y sociales de las APs y particularmente los PSA. Medimos el impacto sobre los bosques y el bienestar humano en tres diferentes programas de PSA que se llevan a cabo dentro de dos APs en el norte de Camboya usando un panel de aldeas de intervención y controles emparejados. Tanto los PSA como las APs brindaron resultados ambientales adicionales en relación a los contrafácticos, esto quiere decir que redujeron las tasas de deforestación significativamente en relación a los controles. Las áreas protegidas incrementaron el acceso seguro a los recursos del suelo y el bosque para las viviendas locales, beneficiando a los usuarios de los recursos del bosque pero restringiendo la habilidad de las viviendas para expandirse y diversificar su agricultura. Los impactos de los pagos por servicios ambientales sobre el bienestar de las viviendas estuvieron relacionados con la magnitud de los pagos proporcionados. Los dos programas de PSA de mayor paga y con conexión al mercado tuvieron impactos positivos significativos, mientras que un programa de menor paga con el objetivo de proteger a la biodiversidad no tuvo un efecto detectable sobre las viviendas, a pesar de sus resultados ambientales positivos. Las viviendas que se inscribieron a los programas de PSA con mayor paga, sin embargo, necesitaban típicamente más bienes capitales, por lo que eran menos pobres y tenían mayor seguridad alimentaria que otros aldeanos. Por esto, mientras los impactos de las APs sobre el bienestar de las viviendas fueron limitados en general y variaron dependiendo de las estrategias de subsistencia, los programas de PSA tuvieron impactos positivos significativos sobre las viviendas para aquellos que podían co

Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

2015-01-01

203

2005/6 2004/5 Table 1. The seasonal nature of snake trade  

E-print Network

J nuary February M ar hc 2005/6 2004/5 Table 1. The seasonal nature of snake trade based on the quantity landed at Chong Khneas port, Siem Reap. waTeR SnaKe TRade by ShaRon e. bRooKS, edwaRd h. alliSon, John d. ReynoldS, TouCh bunThang, PRoKRoTey Khoy There are a number of different markets for the snakes of Tonle

Reynolds, John D.

204

Virological Failure and HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations among Naive and Antiretroviral Pre-Treated Patients Entering the ESTHER Program of Calmette Hospital in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Introduction In resource limited settings, patients entering an antiretroviral therapy (ART) program comprise ART naive and ART pre-treated patients who may show differential virological outcomes. Methods This retrospective study, conducted in 2010–2012 in the HIV clinic of Calmette Hospital located in Phnom Penh (Cambodia) assessed virological failure (VF) rates and patterns of drug resistance of naive and pre-treated patients. Naive and ART pre-treated patients were included when a Viral Load (VL) was performed during the first year of ART for naive subjects or at the first consultation for pre-treated individuals. Patients showing Virological failure (VF) (>1,000 copies/ml) underwent HIV DR genotyping testing. Interpretation of drug resistance mutations was done according to 2013 version 23 ANRS algorithms. Results On a total of 209 patients, 164 (78.4%) were naive and 45 (21.5%) were ART pre-treated. Their median initial CD4 counts were 74 cells/mm3 (IQR: 30–194) and 279 cells/mm3 (IQR: 103–455) (p<0.001), respectively. Twenty seven patients (12.9%) exhibited VF (95% CI: 8.6–18.2%), including 10 naive (10/164, 6.0%) and 17 pre-treated (17/45, 37.8%) patients (p<0.001). Among these viremic patients, twenty-two (81.4%) were sequenced in reverse transcriptase and protease coding regions. Overall, 19 (86.3%) harbored ?1 drug resistance mutations (DRMs) whereas 3 (all belonging to pre-treated patients) harbored wild-types viruses. The most frequent DRMs were M184V (86.3%), K103N (45.5%) and thymidine analog mutations (TAMs) (40.9%). Two (13.3%) pre-treated patients harbored viruses that showed a multi-nucleos(t)ide resistance including Q151M, K65R, E33A/D, E44A/D mutations. Conclusion In Cambodia, VF rates were low for naive patients but the emergence of DRMs to NNRTI and 3TC occurred relatively quickly in this subgroup. In pre-treated patients, VF rates were much higher and TAMs were relatively common. HIV genotypic assays before ART initiation and for ART pre-treated patients infection should be considered as well. PMID:25166019

Limsreng, Setha; Him, Sovanvatey; Nouhin, Janin; Hak, Chanroeurn; Srun, Chanvatey; Viretto, Gerald; Ouk, Vara; Delfraissy, Jean Francois; Ségéral, Olivier

2014-01-01

205

Nonhuman primate retroviruses from Cambodia: high simian foamy virus prevalence, identification of divergent STLV-1 strains and no evidence of SIV infection.  

PubMed

Nonhuman primates (NHPs) carry retroviruses such as simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV), simian T-cell lymphotropic viruses (STLV) and simian foamy viruses (SFV). Here, we revisited NHPs from Cambodia to assess the prevalence and diversity of these retroviruses using updated viral detection tools. We screened blood from 118 NHPs consisting of six species (Macaca fascicularis (n=91), Macaca leonine (n=8), Presbytis cristata (n=3), Nycticebus coucang (n=1), Hylobates pileatus (n=14), and Pongo pygmaeus) (n=1) by using a Luminex-based multiplex serology assay that allows the detection of all known SIV/HIV and SFV lineages. We also used highly sensitive PCR assays to detect each simian retrovirus group. Positive PCR products were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed to infer evolutionary histories. Fifty-three of 118 (44.9%) NHPs tested positive for SFV by serology and 8/52 (15.4%), all from M. fascicularis, were PCR-confirmed. The 8 novel SFV sequences formed a highly supported distinct lineage within a clade composed of other macaque SFV. We observed no serological or molecular evidence of SIV infection among the 118 NHP samples tested. Four of 118 (3.3%) NHPs were PCR-positive for STLV, including one M. fascicularis, one P. cristata, and two H. pileatus. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the four novel STLV belonged to the PTLV-1 lineage, outside the African radiation of PTLV-1, like all Asian PTLV identified so far. Sequence analysis of the whole STLV-1 genome from a H. pileatus (C578_Hp) revealed a genetic structure characteristic of PTLV. Similarity analysis comparing the STLV-1 (C578_Hp) sequence with prototype PTLVs showed that C578_Hp is closer to PTLV-1s than to all other types across the entire genome. In conclusion, we showed a high frequency of SFV infection but found no evidence of SIV infection in NHPs from Cambodia. We identified for the first time STLV-1 in a P. cristata and in two H. pileatus. PMID:23612320

Ayouba, Ahidjo; Duval, Linda; Liégeois, Florian; Ngin, Sopheak; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Switzer, William M; Delaporte, Eric; Ariey, Frédéric; Peeters, Martine; Nerrienet, Eric

2013-08-01

206

Simulation of Canopy CO2/H2O Fluxes for a Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) Plantation in Central Cambodia: The Effect of the Regular Spacing of Planted Trees  

SciTech Connect

We developed a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model applicable to simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes from the canopies of rubber plantations, which are characterized by distinct canopy clumping produced by regular spacing of plantation trees. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers it is replacing. Describing the biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations via SVAT modeling is therefore essential to understanding the impacts on environmental processes. The regular spacing of plantation trees creates a peculiar canopy structure that is not well represented in most SVAT models, which generally assumes a non-uniform spacing of vegetation. Herein we develop a SVAT model applicable to rubber plantation and an evaluation method for its canopy structure, and examine how the peculiar canopy structure of rubber plantations affects canopy CO2 and H2O exchanges. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to account for intensive canopy clumping in order to reproduce observed rubber plantation fluxes. These results suggest a potentially optimal spacing of rubber trees to produce high productivity and water use efficiency.

Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Mudd, Ryan; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Liu, Wen; Giambelluca, Thomas; Kobayashi, N.; Lim, Tiva Khan; Jomura, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Huang, Maoyi; Chen, Qi; Ziegler, Alan; Yin, Song

2013-09-10

207

Poverty does not limit tobacco consumption in Cambodia: quantitative estimate of tobacco use under conditions of no income and adult malnutrition.  

PubMed

Current data indicate that under conditions of poverty, tobacco is consumed at the expense of basic needs. In a large national sample from Cambodia, we sought to determine whether tobacco consumption declines under extreme conditions of no income and malnutrition. Our major findings are as follows: (1) Among men, there was no significant difference in the number of cigarettes smoked for no income (425, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 395-456) versus >US$2 per day (442, 95% CI = 407-477); (2) among women, there was no significant difference in the amount of loose tobacco (ie, betel quid) consumed for no income (539 g, 95% CI = 441-637) versus >US$2 per day (558 g, 95% CI = 143-973); (3) for the contrast of no income + malnutrition versus >US$2 per day + no malnutrition in a linear model, there was no significant difference for men who smoked (462 vs 517 cigarettes/month, P = .82) or women who chewed (316 vs 404 g tobacco/month, P = .34), adjusting for confounders. Among the poorest and malnourished Cambodian adults, lack of resources did not appear to prevent them from obtaining smoked or smokeless tobacco. PMID:23666843

Singh, Pramil N; Washburn, Dawn; Yel, Daravuth; Kheam, They; Job, Jayakaran S

2013-09-01

208

Reaping the benefits of research: Technology transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a technology transfer project designed to transfer knowledge about model behavioral intervention\\u000a projects that significantly decreased HIV-related risk behaviors. The National AIDS Demonstration Research Program Technology\\u000a Transfer (NADR TT) Project encompassed: (1) preparation of manuals based on successful intervention research; (2) convening\\u000a of 7 Regional meetings on Behavior Change Strategies for Injection Drug Users

Yvonne P. Lewis; Nancy S. Record; Paul A. Young

1998-01-01

209

Hydrogen Reaction Experiment Reaps a Surprise  

NSF Publications Database

... occurs when a hydrogen atom (H) collides with a hydrogen molecule (H2). In the recent experiment ... the collision between a single hydrogen atom (H) and a heavy form of hydrogen molecule (D2, or ...

210

Early Followers Reap Benefits and Lower Costs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study evaluated restructuring by a faculty team of a large-enrollment computer fluency course at the University of Buffalo. It found that using existing online materials (acting as "early followers" rather than "early adopters") gave students multiple ways to learn and kept costs down. (EV)

Walters, Deborah; Alphonce, Carl; Kershner, Helene; Burhans, Debra

2001-01-01

211

Identification of molecular markers associated with alteration of receptor-binding specificity in a novel genotype of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses detected in Cambodia in 2013.  

PubMed

Human infections with influenza A(H5N1) virus in Cambodia increased sharply during 2013. Molecular characterization of viruses detected in clinical specimens from human cases revealed the presence of mutations associated with the alteration of receptor-binding specificity (K189R, Q222L) and respiratory droplet transmission in ferrets (N220K with Q222L). Discovery of quasispecies at position 222 (Q/L), in addition to the absence of the mutations in poultry/environmental samples, suggested that the mutations occurred during human infection and did not transmit further. PMID:25210193

Rith, Sareth; Davis, C Todd; Duong, Veasna; Sar, Borann; Horm, Srey Viseth; Chin, Savuth; Ly, Sovann; Laurent, Denis; Richner, Beat; Oboho, Ikwo; Jang, Yunho; Davis, William; Thor, Sharmi; Balish, Amanda; Iuliano, A Danielle; Sorn, San; Holl, Davun; Sok, Touch; Seng, Heng; Tarantola, Arnaud; Tsuyuoka, Reiko; Parry, Amy; Chea, Nora; Allal, Lotfi; Kitsutani, Paul; Warren, Dora; Prouty, Michael; Horwood, Paul; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Lindstrom, Stephen; Villanueva, Julie; Donis, Ruben; Cox, Nancy; Buchy, Philippe

2014-12-01

212

Strengthening institutional and organizational capacity for social health protection of the informal sector in lesser-developed countries: a study of policy barriers and opportunities in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Reaching out to the poor and the informal sector is a major challenge for achieving universal coverage in lesser-developed countries. In Cambodia, extensive coverage by health equity funds for the poor has created the opportunity to consolidate various non-government health financing schemes under the government's proposed social health protection structure. This paper identifies the main policy and operational challenges to strengthening existing arrangements for the poor and the informal sector, and considers policy options to address these barriers. Conducted in conjunction with the Cambodian Ministry of Health in 2011-12, the study reviewed policy documents and collected qualitative data through 18 semi-structured key informant interviews with government, non-government and donor officials. Data were analysed using the Organizational Assessment for Improving and Strengthening Health Financing conceptual framework. We found that a significant shortfall related to institutional, organisational and health financing issues resulted in fragmentation and constrained the implementation of social health protection schemes, including health equity funds, community-based health insurance, vouchers and others. Key documents proposed the establishment of a national structure for the unification of the informal-sector schemes but left unresolved issues related to structure, institutional capacity and the third-party status of the national agency. This study adds to the evidence base on appropriate and effective institutional and organizational arrangements for social health protection in the informal sector in developing countries. Among the key lessons are: the need to expand the fiscal space for health care; a commitment to equity; specific measures to protect the poor; building national capacity for administration of universal coverage; and working within the specific national context. PMID:23466261

Annear, Peter Leslie; Ahmed, Shakil; Ros, Chhun Eang; Ir, Por

2013-11-01

213

Outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia bloodstream infections traced to the use of Ringer lactate solution as multiple-dose vial for catheter flushing, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.  

PubMed

The Burkholderia cepacia complex is a group of Gram-negative bacteria known as respiratory pathogens in cystic fibrosis patients, but also increasingly reported as a cause of healthcare associated infections. We describe an outbreak of B. cepacia bloodstream infections in a referral hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Over a 1.5-month period, blood cultures from eight adult patients grew B. cepacia. Bloodstream infection occurred after a median of 2.5 days of hospitalisation. Three patients died: 7, 10 and 17 days after blood cultures were sampled. As part of the outbreak investigation, patient files were reviewed and environmental sampling was performed. All patients had peripheral venous catheters that were flushed with Ringer lactate drawn from a 1 L bag, used as multiple-dose vial at the ward. Cultures of unopened Ringer lactate and disinfectants remained sterile but an in-use bag of Ringer lactate solution and the dispensing pin grew B. cepacia. The isolates from patients and flushing solution were identified as B. cepacia by recA gene sequence analysis, and random amplified polymorphic DNA typing confirmed clonal relatedness. The onset of the outbreak had coincided with the introduction of a dispensing pin with a screw fit that did not allow proper disinfection. Re-enforcement of aseptic procedures with sterile syringe and needle has ended the outbreak. Growth of B. cepacia should alert the possibility of healthcare associated infection also in tropical resource-limited settings. The use of multiple-dose vials should be avoided and newly introduced procedures should be assessed for infection control risks. PMID:23173820

De Smet, B; Veng, C; Kruy, L; Kham, C; van Griensven, J; Peeters, C; Ieng, S; Phe, T; Vlieghe, E; Vandamme, P; Jacobs, J

2013-09-01

214

A child feeding index is superior to WHO IYCF indicators in explaining length-for-age Z-scores of young children in rural Cambodia.  

PubMed

Background: Adequate young child feeding practices are influenced by a multitude of factors which affect growth and development. A combination of indicators is needed to explain the role of complementary feeding practices in growth retardation. Methods: A cross-sectional nutrition baseline survey was conducted in rural Cambodia in September 2012. Villages in pre-selected communes were randomly selected using stunting as a primary indicator. Data were collected from 803 randomly selected households with children aged 6-23 months, based on a standardised questionnaire and on length/height and weight measurements of mother and child. WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators [minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF), minimum acceptable diet (MAD)] and a child feeding index (CFI) were created. The latter consisted of five components: breastfeeding, use of bottle, dietary diversity, food frequency and meal frequency which were adjusted for three age groups: 6-8, 9-11 and 12-23 months. The highest possible score was 10. Associations between length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ) and WHO indicators or CFI were explored. Results: Mean (SD) LAZ was -1·25 (1·14) (n ?=? 801). Mean (range) CFI was 6·7 (1-10) (n ?=? 797). Mean CFI was highest in the 9-11-months age group (7·93) and lowest for those aged 12-23 months (5·96). None of the WHO IYCF indicators was associated with LAZ, whereas CFI showed significant association with LAZ (P < 0·01). The association between higher CFI scores and LAZ became weaker as age increased. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to include a wide range of information in the analysis in order to understand the association between appropriate infant feeding practices and child growth. PMID:25226288

Reinbott, Anika; Kuchenbecker, Judith; Herrmann, Johannes; Jordan, Irmgard; Muehlhoff, Ellen; Kevanna, Ou; Krawinkel, Michael

2014-09-16

215

Facilitators and barriers to accessing reproductive health care for migrant beer promoters in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam: A mixed methods study  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of the research was to assess access to sexual and reproductive health services for migrant women who work as beer promoters. This mixed methods research was conducted in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Bangkok, Thailand, Vientiane, Laos, and Hanoi, Vietnam during 2010 to 2011. Methods Focus groups were held with beer promoters and separate focus groups or interviews with key informants to explore the factors affecting beer promoters’ access to health care institutions for reproductive health care. The findings of the focus groups were used to develop a survey for beer promoters. This survey was conducted in popular health institutions for these women in each of the four Asian cities. Results Several common themes were evident. Work demands prevented beer promoters from accessing health care. Institutional factors affecting care included cost, location, environmental factors (e.g. waiting times, cleanliness and confidentiality) and service factors (e.g. staff attitudes, clinic hours, and availability of medications). Personal factors affecting access were shyness and fear, lack of knowledge, and support from family and friends. The survey of the beer promoters confirmed that cost, location and both environmental and service factors impact on access to health care services for beer promoters. Many beer promoters are sexually active, and a significant proportion of those surveyed rely on sex work to supplement their income. Many also drink with their clients. Despite a few differences amongst the surveyed population, the findings were remarkably similar across the four research sites. Conclusions Recommendations from the research include the provision of evening and weekend clinic hours to facilitate access, free or low cost clinics, and health insurance through employer or government plans which are easy to access for migrants. Other improvements that would facilitate the access of beer promoters to these services include increased funding to hire more staff (reducing waiting times) and to stock more needed medications, mobile clinics to come to the workplace or free transportation for beer promoters to the clinics, improved training to reduce health care provider stigma against beer promoters, and public education about the importance of reproductive health care, including preventative services. PMID:22747607

2012-01-01

216

The effectiveness of text messages support for diabetes self-management: protocol of the TEXT4DSM study in the democratic Republic of Congo, Cambodia and the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Background People with diabetes find it difficult to sustain adequate self-management behaviour. Self-Management Support strategies, including the use of mobile technology, have shown potential benefit. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a mobile phone support intervention on top of an existing strategy in three countries, DR Congo, Cambodia and the Philippines to improve health outcomes, access to care and enablement of people with diabetes, with 480 people with diabetes in each country who are randomised to either standard support or to the intervention. Design/methods The study consists of three sub-studies with a similar design in three countries to be independently implemented and analysed. The design is a two-arm Randomised Controlled Trial, in which a total of 480 adults with diabetes participating in an existing DSME programme will be randomly allocated to either usual care in the existing programme or to usual care plus a mobile phone self-management support intervention. Participants in both arms complete assessments at baseline, one year and two years after inclusion. Glycosylated haemoglobin blood pressure, height, weight, waist circumference will be measured. Individual interviews will be conducted to determine the patients’ assessment of chronic illness care, degree of self-enablement, and access to care before implementation of the intervention, at intermediate moments and at the end of the study. Analyses of quantitative data including assessment of differences in changes in outcomes between the intervention and usual care group will be done. A probability of <0.05 is considered statistically significant. Outcome indicators will be plotted over time. All data are analysed for confounding and interaction in multivariate regression analyses taking potential clustering effects into account. Differences in outcome measures will be analysed per country and realistic evaluation to assess processes and context factors that influence implementation in order to understand why it works, for whom, under which circumstances. A costing study will be performed. Discussion The intervention addresses the problem that the greater part of diabetes management takes place without external support and that many challenges, unforeseen problems and questions occur at moments in between scheduled contacts with the support system, by exploiting communication technology. Trial registration ISRCTN86247213 PMID:23635331

2013-01-01

217

Biomarker validation of recent unprotected sexual intercourse in a prospective study of young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Summary A study of female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia found self-reported condom use to be of questionable validity, particularly among amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) users and those with multiple partners. Background Accurate measurement of unprotected sex is essential in HIV prevention research. Since 2001, the 100% Condom Use Program targeting female sex workers (FSW) has been a central element of the Cambodian National HIV/AIDS Strategy. We sought to assess the validity of self-reported condom use using the rapid prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test among Cambodian FSW. Methods From 2009 to 2010 we enrolled 183 FSW in Phnom Penh in a prospective study of HIV risk behavior. PSA test results from the OneStep ABAcard® were compared to self-reported condom use in the past 48 hours at quarterly follow-up visits. Results Among women positive for seminal fluid at the first follow-up visit, 42% reported only protected sex or no sex in the detection period. Discordant results were more likely among brothel and street-based FSW vs. entertainment (56% vs. 17%), recent (last 3 months) ATS users (53% vs. 20%), and those with >5 partners in the past month (58% vs. 13%). In multivariable regression models, positive PSA results were associated with recent ATS use (Adjusted Risk Ratio (ARR) = 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.1 – 2.2), having a non-paying last sex partner (ARR=1.7; CI:1.2 – 2.5), and sex work venue (ARR=3.0; CI:1.4 – 6.5). Correspondingly, women with a non-paying last sex partner were more likely to report unprotected sex (ARR=1.5; CI:1.1 – 2.2), but no associations were found with sex work venue or ATS use. Conclusions Results confirm the questionable validity of self-reported condom use among FSW. The PSA biomarker assay is an important monitoring tool in HIV/STI research including prevention trials. PMID:23680902

Evans, Jennifer L.; Couture, Marie-Claude; Stein, Ellen S.; Sansothy, Neth; Maher, Lisa; Page, Kimberly

2014-01-01

218

Quantifying changes in flooding and habitats in the Tonle Sap Lake (Cambodia) caused by water infrastructure development and climate change in the Mekong Basin.  

PubMed

The economic value of the Tonle Sap Lake Floodplain to Cambodia is arguably among the highest provided to a nation by a single ecosystem around the world. Nonetheless, the Mekong River Basin is changing rapidly due to accelerating water infrastructure development (hydropower, irrigation, flood control, and water supply) and climate change, bringing considerable modifications to the flood pulse of the Tonle Sap Lake in the foreseeable future. This paper presents research conducted to determine how the historical flooding regime, together with human action, influenced landscape patterns of habitats in the Tonle Sap Lake, and how these habitats might shift as a result of hydrological changes. Maps of water depth, annual flood duration, and flood frequency were created for recent historical hydrological conditions and for simulated future scenarios of water infrastructure development and climate change. Relationships were then established between the historical flood maps and land cover, and these were subsequently applied to assess potential changes to habitat cover in future decades. Five habitat groups were clearly distinguishable based on flood regime, physiognomic patterns, and human activity: (1) Open water, flooded for 12 months in an average hydrological year; (2) Gallery forest, with flood duration of 9 months annually; (3) Seasonally flooded habitats, flooded 5-8 months and dominated by shrublands and grasslands; (4) transitional habitats, flooded 1-5 months and dominated by abandoned agricultural fields, receding rice/floating rice, and lowland grasslands; and (5) Rainfed habitats, flooded up to 1 month and consisting mainly of wet season rice fields and village crops. It was found that water infrastructure development could increase the area of open water (+18 to +21%) and the area of rainfed habitats (+10 to +14%), while reducing the area covered with seasonally flooded habitats (-13 to -22%) and gallery forest (-75 to -83%). Habitat cover shifts as a result of climate change include a net increase of open water (2-21%), as well as a reduction of rainfed habitats by 2-5% and seasonally flooded habitats by 5-11%. Findings from this study will help guide on-going and future conservation and restoration efforts throughout this unique and critical ecosystem. PMID:22877742

Arias, Mauricio E; Cochrane, Thomas A; Piman, Thanapon; Kummu, Matti; Caruso, Brian S; Killeen, Timothy J

2012-12-15

219

Development of a real-time hydrological cycle - rice growth coupled simulation system as a tool for farmers' decision making in an ungauged basin in Cambodia for the better agricultural water resources management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The entire country of Cambodia depends on agriculture for its economy. Rice is the staple food, making it the major agricultural product (roughly 80% of total national production). The target area of this study is western Cambodia, where rice production is the greatest in the country and most land is rainfed. Since most farmers rely only on their (non-science-based) experience, they would not adjust to changing rainfall and degraded water resources under climate change, so food security in the region would be seriously threatened (Monichoth et al., 2013). Under this condition, irrigation master plans are being considered by several ODA projects. This study aims to contribute to the design of such irrigation plans through the development of a real-time hydrological cycle - rice growth coupled simulation system. The purpose of the development of this system is to support decision making 1) for determining the necessary agricultural water resources and 2) for allocating limited water resources to various sectors. Rice growing condition as affected by water stress due to the water shortage is supposed to be shown for both of the cases with and without irrigation for several rainfall patterns. A dynamically coupled model of a distributed hydrological model (WEB-DHM., Wang et al., 2009) and a rice growth model (SIMRIW-rainfed, Homma et al., 2009) has been developed with a simple irrigation model. The target basin, a small basin in western Cambodia, is basically an ungauged basin and the model was validated by soil moisture, LAI, dry matter production of the rice crop, and rice yield, using both intensive field observation and satellite observations. Calibrating hourly satellite precipitation dataset (GSMaP/NRT) using ground rain gauges, hydrological cycle (soil moisture at three layers, river discharge, irrigatable water amount, water level of each paddy field, water demand of each paddy field, etc.) and rice growth (LAI, developmental index of the rice crop, dry matter production of the rice crop, etc.) are being calculated on near real time basis and opened to the Cambodian governmental staff by a website with only 5-hour delay. This system enables the Cambodian local government to virtually experience the effectiveness of irrigation and to get qualitative information for the examination on whether or how much they will investigate for irrigation.

Tsujimoto, K.; Ohta, T.; Yasukawa, M.; Koike, T.; Kitsuregawa, M.; Homma, K.

2013-12-01

220

Evaluation of parasite subpopulations and genetic diversity of the msp1, msp2 and glurp genes during and following artesunate monotherapy treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Western Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Despite widespread coverage of the emergence of artemisinin resistance, relatively little is known about the parasite populations responsible. The use of PCR genotyping around the highly polymorphic Plasmodium falciparum msp1, msp2 and glurp genes has become well established both to describe variability in alleles within a population of parasites, as well as classify treatment outcome in cases of recurrent disease. The primary objective was to assess the emergence of minority parasite clones during seven days of artesunate (AS) treatment in a location with established artemisinin resistance. An additional objective was to investigate whether the classification of clinical outcomes remained valid when additional genotyping was performed. Methods Blood for parasite genotyping was collected from 143 adult patients presenting with uncomplicated falciparum malaria during a clinical trial of AS monotherapy in Western Cambodia. Nested allelic type-specific amplification of the genes encoding the merozoite surface proteins 1 and 2 (msp1 and msp2) and the glutamate-rich protein (glurp) was performed at baseline, daily during seven days of treatment, and again at failure. Allelic variants were analysed with respect to the size of polymorphisms using Quantity One software to enable identification of polyclonal infections. Results Considerable variation of msp2 alleles but well-conserved msp1 and glurp were identified. At baseline, 31% of infections were polyclonal for one or more genes. Patients with recurrent malaria were significantly more likely to have polyclonal infections than patients without recurrence (seven of nine versus 36 of 127, p?=?0.004). Emergence of minority alleles during treatment was detected in only one of twenty-three cases defined as being artemisinin resistant. Moreover, daily genotyping did not alter the final outcome classification in any recurrent cases. Conclusions The parasites responsible for artemisinin-resistant malaria in a clinical trial in Western Cambodia comprise the dominant clones of acute malaria infections rather than minority clones emerging during treatment. Additional genotyping during therapy was not beneficial. Disproportionately high rates of polyclonal infections in cases of recurrence suggest complex infections lead to poor treatment outcomes. Current research objectives should be broadened to include identification and follow-up of recurrent polyclonal infections so as to define their role as potential agents of emerging resistance. PMID:24206588

2013-01-01

221

Hydrological change: reaping prosperity and pain in Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adage: “There is no such thing as a free lunch”, is relevant to land-use hydrology in Australia. Changes in land use to achieve greater productivity of food and fibre may have an adverse effect on the water balance and hence on the natural resource capital of a catchment. An altered regime of catchment outflow accompanies those land-use changes which, together with land degradation, impairs available water resources in quantity and quality and threatens enterprise sustainability, notwithstanding the initial improvement in productivity. Central to any hydrological change is an altered pattern of seasonal and annual water use by vegetation that has become modified in function with an amended transpiration fraction of daily evapotranspiration. In Australia, since measurement of evapotranspiration became feasible, the hydrological consequences of changes in land use have been determined, allowing the benefits in terms of plant productivity achieved through enhanced water use efficiency to be weighed against changed catchment outflows, diminished in either quantity or quality. Four case studies are presented as examples of ecological and hydrological changes: two deal with the upland forest environment and two with arable lowlands. In an upland eucalypt forest, following wildfire with subsequent regeneration from natural seedling establishment, substantial reduction in water yield occurred throughout a 50-year period of succession in the even-aged stand. In comparison, the effect of converting eucalypt forest to pine plantations was less detrimental to the yield of water from the catchments, with substantial growth increases over 30 years. In the lowlands, agricultural productivity, both as annual pasture and as crop, far exceeds that of natural perennial grassland and woodland. This increase in productivity comes not so much from any change to the yield of total water outflow but at the expense of water quality, compromised with increased material transport in suspension and solution resulting from accelerated erosion in association with outbreaks of soil salinity and acidity. The present study is aimed at optimising management to give plant production outcomes that ensure environmental protection through resource conservation. In the uplands, harvesting of water is the dominant consideration so that conservative management with limited plant productivity is sought. In the lowlands, the objective is to devise novel ecosystems with profitable plant production that exercises due control on outflow in maintaining the chemical and physical integrity of the edaphic environment.

Dunin, F. X.; Smith, C. J.; Denmead, O. T.

2007-01-01

222

Reap what you sow: harvesting the deep Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the growth of the invisible Web, and efforts underway to make its contents more accessible. Dynamic Web publishing is described. The Open Archives Metadata Harvesting Protocol is reviewed, as are projects related to OCLC’s implementation of the Open Archives Initiative. Recent Dublin Core activities are reported.

Norm Medeiros

2002-01-01

223

Reaping the benefits of electronic medical record systems.  

PubMed

An electronic medical record system can provide benefits beyond the obvious functions of efficient and less labor-intensive scanning, archiving, retrieving, and printing of patient care information. The less tangible benefit of providing record access to several users simultaneously is difficult to quantify, but can enhance operations and improve the quality of patient care throughout a healthcare facility. PMID:10145825

Davis, M W

1993-06-01

224

Automate your supply chain and reap the benefits.  

PubMed

Web-based materials management saves hospitals money by making the process more efficient. It also aids in contract negotiations with vendors and even helps boost quality of care by freeing up clinical staff time. PMID:21682239

Page, Douglas

2011-05-01

225

Are Universities Reaping the Available Benefits Internship Programs Offer?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many research studies have examined the benefits student internships offer students and employers, but few looked at the benefits internships might lend to educational institutions. A survey instrument was developed and sent to 619 deans of all U.S. business programs. In all, 29% replied. The results indicate some institutions are gaining the…

Weible, Rick

2010-01-01

226

As you sow, so you will reap: implementing ERMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of research conducted during the period 2001-2005 in eight organizations in Iceland on the implementation of four Electronic Records Management Systems (ERMS). Methodology\\/approach – Qualitative methodology was used, involving open-ended interviews and participant observations. The participants were 38 employees of the eight organizations and six experts employed at

Joanna Gunnlaugsdottir

2008-01-01

227

Domestic Violence against Married Women in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluate the effects of marital resources and early-life experiences on recent domestic violence and attitudes about wife abuse among 2,074 married Cambodian women. Household standard of living was negatively associated with physical domestic violence. Women with 8-13 fewer years of schooling than their husbands more often experienced physical…

Yount, Kathryn M.; Carrera, Jennifer S.

2006-01-01

228

Domestic Violence Against Married Women in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate the effects of marital resources and early-life experiences on recent domestic violence and attitudes about wife abuse among 2,074 married Cambodian women. Household standard of living was negatively associated with physical domestic violence. Women with 8-13 fewer years of schooling than their husbands more often experienced physical and psychological domestic violence. Women with more living children more often

Kathryn M. Yount; Jennifer S. Carrera

2006-01-01

229

Chapter 2: Infrastructure Development in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally believed that the backbone of any sustainable development is physical infrastructure: roads and bridges, railways, ports and inland waterways, airports, electricity generation and network, irrigation, telecommunications, etc. The improvements in infrastructure will have a positive impact on both economic and social development, including education, health, tourism, and trade, as well as on a nation's integration with the

230

Education Reforms in Cambodia: Issues and Concerns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the key issues and concerns in the Cambodian government's efforts to implement three priority education policies for 2006-2010: ensure equitable access to education; increase quality and efficiency of the education services; and promote institutional development and capacity building for decentralisation. This paper identifies…

Tan, Charlene

2007-01-01

231

Reaping the Whirlwind: "The Wind that Shakes the Barley", Liberation and after in the Movies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Popular culture includes stories that define and justify the existence of groups and nations. Among those stories are creation accounts, especially stories of the forming of nations through struggles for liberation from oppression. The useful liberation myths are exemplified by two recent films: "V for Vendetta" and "Children of Men." Another…

Beck, Bernard

2008-01-01

232

A time to reap, a time to sow: mitophagy and biogenesis in cardiac pathophysiology.  

PubMed

Balancing mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis is essential for maintaining a healthy population of mitochondria and cellular homeostasis. Coordinated interplay between these two forces that govern mitochondrial turnover plays an important role as an adaptive response against various cellular stresses that can compromise cell survival. Failure to maintain the critical balance between mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis or homeostatic turnover of mitochondria results in a population of dysfunctional mitochondria that contribute to various disease processes. In this review we outline the mechanics and relationships between mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis, and discuss the implications of a disrupted balance between these two forces, with an emphasis on cardiac physiology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Mitochondria: From Basic Mitochondrial Biology to Cardiovascular Disease". PMID:25444712

Andres, Allen M; Stotland, Aleksandr; Queliconi, Bruno B; Gottlieb, Roberta A

2015-01-01

233

Introducing the GRACEnet/REAP data contribution, discovery and retrieval system  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Difficulties in accessing high quality data on trace gas fluxes and performance of bioenergy/bio-product feedstocks limit the ability of researchers and others to address environmental impacts of agriculture and the potential to produce feedstocks. To address those needs, the GRACEnet (Greenhouse ga...

234

(Almost) Word for Word: As Voice Recognition Programs Improve, Students Reap the Benefits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Voice recognition software is hardly new--attempts at capturing spoken words and turning them into written text have been available to consumers for about two decades. But what was once an expensive and highly unreliable tool has made great strides in recent years, perhaps most recognized in programs such as Nuance's Dragon NaturallySpeaking…

Smith, Mark

2006-01-01

235

The Weatherby Processing plant reaps big benefits from state-of-the-art technologies  

SciTech Connect

In the fall of 2003, the Weatherby Processing plant in Kanawha County, WV, USA launched a program to evaluate the overall operation and efficiency of its two heavy-medium cyclones circuits processing 2-inch x 0 raw coal with the intention of reducing coal losses misplaced to refuse. A plant sampling program was developed and conducted that provided the basis for the plant upgrade, which included the installation of a raw coal sizing screen, the establishment of coarse and fine heavy-medium cyclones circuits, a compound spirals circuit, and a column flotation circuit. The upgraded flowsheet resulted in a major improvement in separation efficiency as well as a significant reduction in magnetite consumption. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Bratton, R.C.; Raines, J. [Virginia Tech (United States). Dept. of Mining and Mineral Engineering

2006-10-15

236

The Outsider: Advancement Staffs Can Reap the Benefits When Campuses Hire a President from Outside Academia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that colleges and universities may gain financially when an outsider, i.e., not an academic, is hired as college president. Examples of presidents from fields such as law, business, and politics are offered to show that a business-minded approach attracts business-minded donors, that broad experience lends credibility with alumni, and…

McConnellogue, Ken

2000-01-01

237

Digging a Vegetarian Diet: Plant-Based Eating Can Reap Rewards  

MedlinePLUS

... and fish,” says NIH nutritionist Dr. Susan Krebs-Smith, who monitors trends in cancer risk factors. Most ... are many different types of vegetarian diets,” Krebs-Smith explains. “Some are more restrictive than others.” Strict ...

238

Weed 'Em and Reap: The Art of Weeding to Avoid Criticism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today media centers provide students the opportunity to learn and explore subjects of their interest in depth. The media center is the largest classroom in the school providing service to every student and every teacher in all curricular areas. The library should be a place to encourage students' interests and a place to broaden their horizons by…

Allen, Melissa

2010-01-01

239

Reap what you sow: spare cells for post-silicon metal fix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-silicon validation has recently become a major bottleneck in IC design. Several high prole IC designs have been taped-out with latent bugs, and forced the manufacturers to resort to addi- tional design revisions. Such changes can be applied through metal x; however, this is impractical without carefully pre-placed spare cells. In this work we perform the rst comprehensive analysis of

Kai-hui Chang; Igor L. Markov; Valeria Bertacco

2008-01-01

240

Sunbelt States Reap GI Bill Bonanza. Eastern and Midwestern Vietnam Veterans Lose Scholarship Opportunities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major issue covered in this report involves the unequal distribution of GI Bill education benefits in different states. It is noted that since differences in state tuition charges are not recognized, veterans in Eastern and Midwestern high-tuition states have a harder time using education and training opportunities than veterans in Sunbelt…

Feldman, Stuart F.

241

Sustainable Production of Crop Residue as a Cellulosic Ethanol Feedstock: REAP – Renewable Energy Assessment Project  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Domestic ethanol production is a strategy for reducing dependence on imported energy and release of greenhouse gases from use of fossil-energy-derived motor vehicle fuel. Federal and state governments are encouraging the use of ethanol. Initially energy crops, such as switchgrass, willow, and poplar...

242

As you weed, so shall you reap: on the origin of algaculture in damselfish  

PubMed Central

Within their territories, damselfish cultivate particular algae for consumption. A recent study in BMC Evolutionary Biology shows extensive variation among and within fish species in the composition of these algal 'gardens', varying from monocultures to cultures of mixed species, and in the mode of cultivation. This fish-algal agriculture may provide insight into the early stages of domestication. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/185 PMID:20594375

2010-01-01

243

REAPING THE MOST NUTRIENTS: WORKING WITH STARCH AND NONFIBER CARBOHYDRATE DIGESTIBILITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cows survive, grow, produce milk, reproduce, and store energy reserves based on the amount of digestible nutrients they obtain from their diets. There is consensus that cows do not have a starch requirement, but starch has been a staple source of digestible nutrients in dairy cattle diets. With conc...

244

CARPE DIEM: seizing the day and reaping the benefit of student involvement in tools development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employing students in your I.T. organization presents many management challenges, but offers at least as many opportunities as well, not the least of which are the daily opportunities we have to promote the core academic values of our institution: collegiality, creativity, intellectual and social engagement, innovation, and mutual respect.At Indiana University's Residential I.T. Services, we employ approximately 60 students each

Melody Childs

2005-01-01

245

Reaping the Benefits of Task Conflict in Teams: The Critical Role of Team Psychological Safety Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past research suggests that task conflict may improve team performance under certain conditions; however, we know little about these specific conditions. On the basis of prior theory and research on conflict in teams, we argue that a climate of psychological safety is one specific context under which task conflict will improve team performance.…

Bradley, Bret H.; Postlethwaite, Bennett E.; Klotz, Anthony C.; Hamdani, Maria R.; Brown, Kenneth G.

2012-01-01

246

Cambodia: An Historical Overview. A Workbook for Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides students with information about culture and trace important historical events that have brought this nation to its current position in the 20th century. Each chapter provides background information along with a glossary, student activities, and project suggestions. Chapters include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "The Early Period";…

Sharma, Sanjeev; Ladd, Ginger, Ed.

247

Exploring resilience: strengths of trafficking survivors in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Western literature provides an array of information regarding resilience within at-risk youth. Resilience research within non-Western contexts, and more specifically with exploited youth, is more limited. Despite exploitation, some youth develop a hardy ability to overcome adversity, allowing them more mastery over their environments and even increased psychological steadfastness. This project involved exploring the protective factors of resilience and psychological functioning in Cambodian youth, specifically a group of 24 survivors of sexual trafficking and another group of 24 rural youth without reported exploitation. The ages of participants ranged from 13 to 22 years, with the average age being 15.62 years [standard deviation (SD=2.68)]. Results indicated resilience constructs (mastery and relatedness) correlated with psychological functioning (anxiety and depression), as expected. The sense of relatedness was moderately associated with age. Also, as predicted, the trafficked young women demonstrated more resilience and less pathology. Consistent with previous research, earlier trauma is believed to inoculate survivors of trauma against further stress, mobilize them to better confront adversity and reduce psychological disruptions. Understanding these issues can help in understanding the relationship between resilience factors and psychological functioning as well as the strengths of many trauma survivors. Their strengths are particularly useful for developing effective treatment protocols for traumatized youth from non-Western backgrounds. PMID:23183739

Gray, Glori G; Luna, Lilia; Seegobin, Winston

2012-01-01

248

Addressing the human resources crisis: a case study of Cambodia’s efforts to reduce maternal mortality (1980–2012)  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify factors that have contributed to the systematic development of the Cambodian human resources for health (HRH) system with a focus on midwifery services in response to high maternal mortality in fragile resource-constrained countries. Design Qualitative case study. Review of the published and grey literature and in-depth interviews with key informants and stakeholders using an HRH system conceptual framework developed by the authors (‘House Model’; Fujita et al, 2011). Interviews focused on the perceptions of respondents regarding their contributions to strengthening midwifery services and the other external influences which may have influenced the HRH system and reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR). Setting Three rounds of interviews were conducted with senior and mid-level managers of the Ministries of Health (MoH) and Education, educational institutes and development partners. Participants A total of 49 interviewees, who were identified through a snowball sampling technique. Main outcome measures Scaling up the availability of 24?h maternal health services at all health centres contributing to MMR reduction. Results The incremental development of the Cambodian HRH system since 2005 focused on the production, deployment and retention of midwives in rural areas as part of a systematic strategy to reduce maternal mortality. The improved availability and access to midwifery services contributed to significant MMR reduction. Other contributing factors included improved mechanisms for decision-making and implementation; political commitment backed up with necessary resources; leadership from the top along with a growing capacity of mid-level managers; increased MoH capacity to plan and coordinate; and supportive development partners in the context of a conducive external environment. Conclusions Lessons from this case study point to the importance of a systemic and comprehensive approach to health and HRH system strengthening and of ongoing capacity enhancement and leadership development to ensure effective planning, implementation and monitoring of HRH policies and strategies. PMID:23674446

Fujita, Noriko; Abe, Kimiko; Rotem, Arie; Tung, Rathavy; Keat, Phuong; Robins, Ann; Zwi, Anthony B

2013-01-01

249

REAP is an apprenticeship experience designed for highly motivated, first-year students in the Honors Program. The REAP experience will provide a fast-track for talented students, enabling them to explore topics of interest,  

E-print Network

American Library: British Literature, Political Thought and the Transatlantic Slave Trade College of Life Evolution of Cuticular Hydrocarbons and Reproductive Division of Labor in Social Insects Sarah Piet

Pringle, James "Jamie"

250

Peer Editing in the 21st Century College Classroom: Do Beginning Composition Students Truly Reap the Benefits?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since its emergence in the 1960s, critics and instructors alike have lauded the benefits of peer collaboration in the college composition classroom, and more specifically, the value of peer editing. However, the benefits of peer editing are not necessarily realized in traditional entry level writing classes. A consultation of both quantitative and…

Jesnek, Lindsey M.

2011-01-01

251

Just Doing What They Gotta Do: Single Black Custodial Fathers Coping with the Stresses and Reaping the Rewards of Parenting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For single African American custodial fathers, parenting stress is exacerbated by the cultural expectation that Black fathers are "normally" absent and by the clustering of stresses that Black men are more likely to encounter. This sample of African American fathers have used a repertoire of problem-focused and cognitive coping strategies,…

Coles, Roberta L.

2009-01-01

252

Areawide suppression of European corn borer with Bt maize reaps savings to non-Bt maize growers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transgenic maize, engineered to express insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has become one of the most widely adopted pest management technologies in U.S. agriculture. In 2009, Bt maize was planted on more than 22.2 million ha, comprising 63% of the U.S. crop. The te...

253

Cultivating Leadership in Early Care and Education--Reaping the Harvest of a New Approach to Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urges addressing leadership demands in early childhood care and education. Identifies new adaptable organizational leadership theories and the need for their growth and development. Redefines traditional leadership, discusses the strength of diversity and change in leadership, and advocates using equity and reality to transform leadership in the…

Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Hallmark, Lynda G.

2001-01-01

254

Embarking on large-scale qualitative research: reaping the benefits of mixed methods in studying youth, clubs and drugs  

PubMed Central

Qualitative research is often conceptualized as inherently small-scale research, primarily conducted by a lone researcher enmeshed in extensive and long-term fieldwork or involving in-depth interviews with a small sample of 20 to 30 participants. In the study of illicit drugs, traditionally this has often been in the form of ethnographies of drug-using subcultures. Such small-scale projects have produced important interpretive scholarship that focuses on the culture and meaning of drug use in situated, embodied contexts. Larger-scale projects are often assumed to be solely the domain of quantitative researchers, using formalistic survey methods and descriptive or explanatory models. In this paper, however, we will discuss qualitative research done on a comparatively larger scale—with in-depth qualitative interviews with hundreds of young drug users. Although this work incorporates some quantitative elements into the design, data collection, and analysis, the qualitative dimension and approach has nevertheless remained central. Larger-scale qualitative research shares some of the challenges and promises of smaller-scale qualitative work including understanding drug consumption from an emic perspective, locating hard-to-reach populations, developing rapport with respondents, generating thick descriptions and a rich analysis, and examining the wider socio-cultural context as a central feature. However, there are additional challenges specific to the scale of qualitative research, which include data management, data overload and problems of handling large-scale data sets, time constraints in coding and analyzing data, and personnel issues including training, organizing and mentoring large research teams. Yet large samples can prove to be essential for enabling researchers to conduct comparative research, whether that be cross-national research within a wider European perspective undertaken by different teams or cross-cultural research looking at internal divisions and differences within diverse communities and cultures. PMID:22308079

Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Fazio, Adam

2012-01-01

255

Neuro-fuzzy reaping of shear wave velocity correlations derived by hybrid genetic algorithm-pattern search technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shear wave velocity is a critical physical property of rock, which provides significant data for geomechanical and geophysical studies. This study proposes a multi-step strategy to construct a model estimating shear wave velocity from conventional well log data. During the first stage, three correlation structures, including power law, exponential, and trigonometric were designed to formulate conventional well log data into shear wave velocity. Then, a Genetic Algorithm-Pattern Search tool was used to find the optimal coefficients of these correlations. Due to the different natures of these correlations, they might overestimate/underestimate in some regions relative to each other. Therefore, a neuro-fuzzy algorithm is employed to combine results of intelligently derived formulas. Neuro-fuzzy technique can compensate the effect of overestimation/underestimation to some extent, through the use of fuzzy rules. One set of data points was used for constructing the model and another set of unseen data points was employed to assess the reliability of the propounded model. Results have shown that the hybrid genetic algorithm-pattern search technique is a robust tool for finding the most appropriate form of correlations, which are meant to estimate shear wave velocity. Furthermore, neuro-fuzzy combination of derived correlations was capable of improving the accuracy of the final prediction significantly.

Asoodeh, Mojtaba; Bagheripour, Parisa

2013-06-01

256

Reaping the Benefits of Information Technology in OrganizationsA Framework Guiding Appropriation of Group Support Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As organizations employ information technologies to facilitate business process redesign and other organizational changes, they are not consistently observing the high levels of group performance touted by proponents of this technology. To achieve the breakthrough performance desired, organizations need a clearer and more systematic understanding of how to effectively use the technologies in specific group environments. This article develops a

Lindsley G. Boiney

1998-01-01

257

Digitization and the Creation of Virtual Libraries: The Princeton University Image Card Catalog--Reaping the Benefits of Imaging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project at the Princeton University libraries that converted the pre-1981 public card catalog, using digital imaging and optical character recognition technology, to fully tagged and indexed records of text in MARC format that are available on an online database and will be added to the online catalog. (LRW)

Henthorne, Eileen

1995-01-01

258

One-to-One in Alaska: In the Remote Alaskan Interior, Students are Reaping the Benefits of Laptop Computing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each school, district, or state has a unique set of circumstances and obstacles to deal with in implementing a one-to-one laptop program. That is especially true of Denali Borough School District in Alaska. Located in the Alaskan interior, it encompasses Denali National Park (with North America's tallest mountain), covers more than 12,000 square…

McHale, Tom

2007-01-01

259

They Can Hear You Now: Increasing Clarity in Speech and Instructional Media Reaps Big Dividends for Both Students and Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past few decades, school teachers have been embracing a number of electronic technologies for use in the classroom. Computers are now prevalent; overhead projectors are being replaced with dynamic teaching tools such as data projection, electronic whiteboards, and video media. One key technology is just beginning to catch up to the…

Jones, Elaine

2008-01-01

260

SHIPBOARD LABORATORY SAFETY PROGRAM  

E-print Network

SHIPBOARD LABORATORY SAFETY PROGRAM INTEGRATED OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM U.S. IMPLEMENTING ................................................................................................................................7 Other TAMU and SIEM Offshore Policies and Programs

261

Strengthening district health service management and delivery through internal contracting: lessons from pilot projects in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Following a decade of piloting different models of contracting, in mid-2009 the Cambodian Ministry of Health began to test a form of 'internal contracting' for health care delivery in selected health districts (including hospitals and health centers) contracted by the provincial health department as Special Operating Agencies (SOAs) and provided with greater management autonomy. This study assesses the internal contracting approach as a means for improving the management of district health services and strengthening service delivery. While the study may contribute to the emerging field now known as performance-based financing, the lessons deal more broadly with the impact of management reform and increased autonomy in contrast to traditional public sector line-management and budgeting. Carried out during 2011, the study was based on: (i) a review of the literature and of operational documents; (ii) primary data from semi-structured key informant interviews with 20 health officials in two provinces involved in four SOA pilot districts; and (iii) routine data from the 2011 SOA performance monitoring report. Five prerequisites were identified for effective contract management and improved service delivery: a clear understanding of roles and responsibilities by the contracting parties; implementation of clear rules and procedures; effective management of performance; effective monitoring of the contract; and adequate and timely provision of resources. Both the level and allocation of incentives and management bottlenecks at various levels continue to impede implementation. We conclude that, in contracted arrangements like these, the clear separation of contracting functions (purchasing, commissioning, monitoring and regulating), management autonomy where responsibilities are genuinely devolved and accepted, and the provision of resources adequate to meet contract demands are necessary conditions for success. PMID:23489889

Khim, Keovathanak; Annear, Peter Leslie

2013-11-01

262

Adolescent survivors of massive childhood trauma in Cambodia: Life events and current symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cambodian adolescents who survived massive trauma as children were studied to examine the relation of current trauma symptoms to sex, age, trauma exposure, and other current symptoms. Exposure to traumatic life events was expected to be very high, to relate to age and to other symptoms of current psychological functioning. Questionnaires assessed traumatic life events, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and

George M. Realmuto; Ann Masten; Linda Flies Carole; Jon Hubbard; Andrea Groteluschen; Bunkhean Chhun

1992-01-01

263

Implementing Quality Assurance at Royal University of Phnom Penh, Cambodia: Perceptions, Practices and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quality Assurance in higher education has been an ongoing international issue for discussion. As higher education institutions move toward an era of accountability and accreditation, groups of stakeholders require proof of high-quality academic programs and services from higher education providers. Since the mid-1990s, most providers have strived…

Ros, Soveacha

2010-01-01

264

Paradigm and Paradox: Education for All and the Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In keeping with international guidelines and to meet the target of Education for All (EFA) by 2015, the Cambodian government, with assistance from non-government and aid organisations, has instituted several initiatives towards including children with disabilities in the educational mainstream. This paper examines these efforts within the context…

Kalyanpur, Maya

2011-01-01

265

BURMA AND CAMBODIA: Human Rights, Social Disruption, and the Spread of HIV\\/AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

..AJDS-related human rights activism, sharing the ori- entation of the mainstream human rights movement, has focused on visible and purposeful governmental acts that jeop- ardize individual privacy, liberty, and protection against dis- crimination. Human rights obligations stemming from the right to health care, to social assistance, or from the neces- sity to improve the enjoyment of human rights through in-

Chris Beyrer

266

Snake prices and crocodile appetites: Aquatic wildlife supply and demand on Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia  

E-print Network

Snake prices and crocodile appetites: Aquatic wildlife supply and demand on Tonle Sap Lake trade Conservation Trade regulation Exploitation Crocodile farming Consumer preferences Substitutability is the domestic trade in snakes as crocodile food. We estimate that farmed crocodiles consume between 2.7 and 12

Reynolds, John D.

267

Variation in woodfuel consumption patterns in response to forest availability in Kampong Thom Province, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report details of woodfuel consumption patterns in three different village groupings classified according to population distribution and forest availability. Interview survey data collected from 240 households in 40 villages revealed large differences in woodfuel consumption patterns among the three groups. Areas with lower forest availability were associated with lower per capita woodfuel consumption, proportionately higher consumption of firewood from

Neth Top; Nobuya Mizoue; Shigetaka Kai; Toshio Nakao

2004-01-01

268

Vedic Science Based Education and Nonverbal Intelligence: A Preliminary Longitudinal Study in Cambodia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the effects on students' nonverbal intelligence of implementing an approach to higher education based on Vedic science, developed by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and including transcendental meditation. The approach was implemented in two Cambodian universities and its effects assessed in 70 undergraduate students. An increase in…

Fergusson, Lee C.; And Others

1996-01-01

269

"Medicine in Cambodia during the Pol Pot Regime (1975-1979): Foreign and Cambodian Influences"  

E-print Network

I am indebted to Prof. Evelyn Ackerman who translated this paper from French into English. 2;2 conditions under which the regime arose because they shed light both on how the Khmer Rouge ideology took over the Cambodian Communist movement. The Khmer Rouge Movement: Policy, Army, Ideology Pol Pot

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

270

The challenge of assessing social dimensions of avoided deforestation: Examples from Cambodia  

SciTech Connect

Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD +) has moved to the central stage of the climate change debate by being promoted as a significant, cheap, and quick win-win strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and thereby mitigate climate change. In order to be successful in reducing emissions while providing the projected social and environmental co-benefits, REDD + needs to overcome key challenges of insecure forest tenure and inequity in the distribution of benefits. Such challenges threaten to affect the livelihoods and well-being in the local communities and in turn the effectiveness of REDD+. While REDD + programs will affect the participating communities, there is limited knowledge as to what social impacts these projects may bring to the local population. Similarly, assessment of these social dimensions has received little attention until recently, and is consequently out of sync with the realities of REDD + projects. The present paper aims to shed light on the methodological and contextual challenges in the assessment of the social dimensions of REDD+. Some of the main social concerns of REDD + are outlined with an emphasis on the uniqueness and complexity of REDD + interventions. Recently proposed approaches to assess social impacts in REDD + are critically assessed in terms of the diversity of frameworks proposed, choice of social indicators, and data collection requirements. Specifically, these methodological implications are further discussed in the light of the social dimensions and the prescribed regulations of REDD + in a Cambodian context. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insecure tenure and inequitable benefit sharing are main social concerns in REDD +. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two guides to social assessments in REDD + are critically reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mismatch between social assessment requirements and the reality of REDD + is analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete, topical examples from Cambodian REDD + are used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Support the claim to add qualitative assessment of social dimensions in REDD +.

Pasgaard, M., E-mail: mase@life.ku.dk

2013-01-15

271

Prediction of contamination potential of groundwater arsenic in Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand using artificial neural network  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater has increasingly been recognized as a major global issue of concern. As groundwater resources are one of most important freshwater sources for water supplies in Southeast Asian countries, it is important to investigate the spatial distribution of As cont...

272

Chemical analysis of black crust on the Angkor sandstone at the Bayon temple, Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Angkor complex is the one of the greatest cultural heritages in the world. It is constructed in the early 12th century, designated as a world cultural heritage by UNESCO in 1992. The temples at the Angkor complex are mainly made of sandstone and laterite. However, due to the tropical climate, plants, lichens and various microorganisms are growing well on the rock surface. Black crusts are also easily found on the stone surface. The 21st technical session of the International Coordinating Committee for the Safeguarding and Development of the Historic Site of Angkor (ICC-Angkor) held in 2012 recommended that to preserve both the biofilms and the forest cover and to prohibit the biocides (chlorine-based) and organic biocides. However, there are many reports that lichens and microorganisms accelerate rock weathering. It is important to clarify that how the biofilm on the Angkor temples affect Angkor sandstones. We sampled Angkor sandstone covered by black crust at the Bayon temple, Angkor complex, and observed the section and the surface of the rock sample by using SEM. Surfaces of the samples are not polished in order to observe the original condition. The samples are coated with gold for 180 seconds. The depth of the black crust is up to 1 mm. Many filamentous materials were found on the black crust. Average energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data of the five areas of ca. 20 ?m ×15 ?m in the black crusts shows that over 80 % of the filamentous materials are compounds of carbon. It seems that these materials are hyphae. The shape of the hypha is like a thread and its size is few ?m in diameter and up to several centimeters in length. Black crusts are consisted of elements and compounds of carbon, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, and Fe. Further research has to be done to find out the better and proper way of conservation for the Angkor complex.

Song, Wonsuh; Oguchi, Chiaki; Waragai, Tetsuya

2014-05-01

273

GENOCIDE PREVENTION: GENOCIDE EDUCATION PROJECT NATIONAL TEACHER TRAINING FOR LOWER AND UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOL OF CAMBODIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piaget has been identified as a constructivist as well as an interactionist. His interest in cognitive development came from his interest in the origin of knowledge and his training in the natural sciences. Piaget was very interested in how children come to know and understand their world. He developed his cognitive theory by actually observing and studying children (some of

JEAN PIAGET

274

The environmental impact of Cambodia's ancient city of Mahendraparvata (Phnom Kulen).  

PubMed

The Khmer kingdom, whose capital was at Angkor from the 9(th) to the 14(th)-15(th) century, was founded in 802 by king Jayavarman II in a city called Mahandraparvata, on Phnom Kulen. Virtually nothing more is known of Mahandraparvata from the epigraphic sources, but systematic archaeological survey and excavation have identified an array of cultural features that point to a more extensive and enduring settlement than the historical record indicates. Recent remote sensing data have revolutionized our view, revealing the remains of a city with a complex and spatially extensive network of urban infrastructure. Here, we present a record of vegetation change and soil erosion from within that urban network, dating from the 8(th) century CE. Our findings indicate approximately 400 years of intensive land use, punctuated by discrete periods of intense erosion beginning in the mid 9(th) century and ending in the late 11(th) century. A marked change in water management practices is apparent from the 12(th) century CE, with implications for water supply to Angkor itself. This is the first indication that settlement on Mahendraparvata was not only extensive, but also intensive and enduring, with a marked environmental impact. PMID:24416206

Penny, Dan; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Tang, David; De Greef, Stéphane

2014-01-01

275

Health, women and environment in a marginal region of north-eastern Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a population of 70,000, the province of Ratanakiri, close to southern Laos and western central Vietnam, is inhabited\\u000a by proto-Chinese ethnic minorities who all practice slash and burn cultivation. Despite its natural wealth (wild forests,\\u000a precious stones, fertile basaltic lands), the region is still a relatively unexplored and deserted area. The geographical\\u000a isolation of the hilly territory has been

F. Bourdier

1998-01-01

276

Active prospective surveillance study with post-discharge surveillance of surgical site infections in Cambodia.  

PubMed

Barriers to the implementation of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance have been described in resource-limited settings. This study aimed to estimate the SSI incidence rate in a Cambodian hospital and to compare different modalities of SSI surveillance. We performed an active prospective study with post-discharge surveillance. During the hospital stay, trained surveyors collected the CDC criteria to identify SSI by direct examination of the surgical site. After discharge, a card was given to each included patient to be presented to all practitioners examining the surgical site. Among 167 patients, direct examination of the surgical site identified a cumulative incidence rate of 14 infections per 100 patients. An independent review of medical charts presented a sensitivity of 16%. The sensitivity of the purulent drainage criterion to detect SSIs was 83%. After hospital discharge, 87% of the patients provided follow-up data, and nine purulent drainages were reported by a practitioner (cumulative incidence rate: 20%). Overall, the incidence rate was dependent on the surveillance modalities. The review of medical charts to identify SSIs during hospitalization was not effective; the use of a follow-up card with phone calls for post-discharge surveillance was effective. PMID:25466596

Guerra, José; Guichon, Céline; Isnard, Margaux; So, Saphy; Chan, Sophors; Couraud, Sébastien; Duong, Bunn

2014-11-10

277

Cultural Orientation for Vietnamese Montagnard Refugees: A Special Project of IOM Cambodia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2002, the International Organization for Migration provided pre-arrival cultural orientation training to 905 Vietnamese Montagnard refugees living in a transit processing facility on the outskirts of Phnom Penh. The training was specifically designed to prepare the refugees for third country resettlement to the United States. It provided tools…

Timko, Leslie

278

The Environmental Impact of Cambodia's Ancient City of Mahendraparvata (Phnom Kulen)  

PubMed Central

The Khmer kingdom, whose capital was at Angkor from the 9th to the 14th-15th century, was founded in 802 by king Jayavarman II in a city called Mahandraparvata, on Phnom Kulen. Virtually nothing more is known of Mahandraparvata from the epigraphic sources, but systematic archaeological survey and excavation have identified an array of cultural features that point to a more extensive and enduring settlement than the historical record indicates. Recent remote sensing data have revolutionized our view, revealing the remains of a city with a complex and spatially extensive network of urban infrastructure. Here, we present a record of vegetation change and soil erosion from within that urban network, dating from the 8th century CE. Our findings indicate approximately 400 years of intensive land use, punctuated by discrete periods of intense erosion beginning in the mid 9th century and ending in the late 11th century. A marked change in water management practices is apparent from the 12th century CE, with implications for water supply to Angkor itself. This is the first indication that settlement on Mahendraparvata was not only extensive, but also intensive and enduring, with a marked environmental impact. PMID:24416206

Penny, Dan; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Tang, David; De Greef, Stéphane

2014-01-01

279

High Prevalence of Ancylostoma ceylanicum Hookworm Infections in Humans, Cambodia, 2012  

PubMed Central

Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a hookworm of canids and felids in Asia, is becoming the second most common hookworm infecting humans. In 2012, we investigated the prevalence and infection dynamics of and risk factors for hookworm infections in humans and dogs in a rural Cambodian village. Over 57% of the population was infected with hookworms; of those, 52% harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. The greatest intensities of A. ceylanicum eggs were in persons 21-30 years of age. Over 90% of dogs also harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. Characterization of the cytochrome oxidase-1 gene divided isolates of A. ceylanicum hookworms into 2 groups, 1 containing isolates from humans only and the other a mix of isolates from humans and animals. We hypothesize that preventative chemotherapy in the absence of concurrent hygiene and animal health programs may be a factor leading to emergence of A. ceylanicum infections; thus, we advocate for a One Health approach to control this zoonosis. PMID:24865815

Schär, Fabian; Dalsgaard, Anders; Khieu, Virak; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Chhoun, Chamnan; Sok, Daream; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter; Traub, Rebecca J.

2014-01-01

280

Microbial biofilms on the sandstone monuments of the Angkor Wat Complex, Cambodia.  

PubMed

Discoloring biofilms from Cambodian temples Angkor Wat, Preah Khan, and the Bayon and West Prasat in Angkor Thom contained a microbial community dominated by coccoid cyanobacteria. Molecular analysis identified Chroococcidiopsis as major colonizer, but low similarity values (<95%) suggested a similar genus or species not present in the databases. In only two of the six sites sampled were filamentous cyanobacteria, Microcoleus, Leptolyngbya, and Scytonema, found; the first two detected by sequencing of 16S rRNA gene library clones from samples of a moist green biofilm on internal walls in Preah Khan, where Lyngbya (possibly synonymous with Microcoleus) was seen by direct microscopy as major colonizer. Scytonema was detected also by microscopy on an internal wall in the Bayon. This suggests that filamentous cyanobacteria are more prevalent in internal (high moisture) areas. Heterotrophic bacteria were found in all samples. DNA sequencing of bands from DGGE gels identified Proteobacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Methylobacterium radiotolerans) and Firmicutes (Bacillus sp., Bacillus niacini, Bacillus sporothermodurans, Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Paenibacillus sp., Paenibacillus panacisoli, and Paenibacillus zanthoxyli). Some of these bacteria produce organic acids, potentially degrading stone. Actinobacteria, mainly streptomycetes, were present in most samples; algae and fungi were rare. A dark-pigmented filamentous fungus was detected in internal and external Preah Khan samples, while the alga Trentepohlia was found only in samples taken from external, pink-stained stone at Preah Khan. Results show that these microbial biofilms are mature communities whose major constituents are resistant to dehydration and high levels of irradiation and can be involved in deterioration of sandstone. Such analyses are important prerequisites to the application of control strategies. PMID:22006074

Gaylarde, Christine C; Rodríguez, César Hernández; Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Ortega-Morales, B Otto

2012-02-01

281

Improving Adult Learning and Professional Development in a Post-Conflict Area: The Case of Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All over the world, international development organizations try to increase professional capacity of local staff. These attempts are thought to fail because of financial constraints, but this is just part of the story. Professional development and adult learning theories approach learning from a western perspective, while many developing societies…

Berkvens, Jan B. Y.; Kalyanpur, Maya; Kuiper, Wilmad; Van den Akker, Jan

2012-01-01

282

Starting from Nowhere? Popular Music in Cambodia after the Khmer Rouge  

Microsoft Academic Search

illuminates the power of culture. By “culture,” I denote a traditional way of life, a rubric of familiar phenomena that include indigenous ritual, ideology, belief systems, and the spatial and temporal rhythms to which these systems move and integrate. Yet, also revealed in such a study is the power of cultural change—change fueled by a growing market economy, tourism, and

Stephen Mamula

2008-01-01

283

Beating the Odds: Parents Choose to Expand Their Family--Despite the Risks--And Reap The Rewards of Their Strength in The Face of Adversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the fall of 1995, Cindy Cook and her husband were anxiously awaiting the arrival of their first child. They were thrilled, excited and a little nervous about this new person that would be changing their lives. During a routine ultrasound around the fourth month of pregnancy, doctors noticed the walls of the baby's heart appeared thickened.…

Cook, Cindy

2006-01-01

284

Investments reap dividends for many universities, but access and quality of higher education across the United States continues to lag behind  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of noteworthy items related to the landscape of higher education found their way into major newspapers this week, including the announcement that Harvard University's endowment reported a 21.1 percent gain on its investments for the fiscal year 2004. This was the best performing year for Harvard's university fund since 2000, although the school also announced that the projected returns during the coming decade will be significantly lower than the past 10 years. Across the wide world of higher education throughout the United States, the news was not nearly as optimistic, at least in terms of access and affordability for those seeking higher education opportunities. A report issued this week from the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education on the state of higher education across the country noted that only three states (California, Utah, and Minnesota) scored higher than a "D" in terms of providing affordable options for attending college. The report essentially grades affordability by comparing net college costs with the average family income in each state, and by this measure, the Center has concluded that college is becoming less affordable in most states. Commenting on the report, David Breneman (dean of the Curry School of Education at the University of Virginia) remarked that "For at least another five to eight years we're looking at a real denial of opportunity." In conclusion, it should also be noted that the report also notes that the nation's high schools have improved over the past decade.The first link leads to an article on the spectacular performance by Harvard's endowment from this Wednesday's Boston Globe. The second link leads to a like-minded piece written by Alvin Powell of the Harvard News Office. The third link leads to a well-written piece in The Salt Lake Tribune that discusses the national affordable education report's comments on the state of Utah's higher education system. Visitors to the fourth link will find an article from The Sacramento Bee that discusses the generally fine performance of California's higher education system, but still offering the potential specter of increased tuition costs that may hinder efforts to increase accessibility and maintain affordability. The fifth link whisks visitors away to a piece from The Capital Times of Madison, Wisconsin, which discusses the ramifications of this national report throughout the state of Wisconsin, a place long lauded for its extensive and much-studied system of higher education. Finally, the last link leads to the homepage of the recently released National Report Card on Higher Education. Here visitors can view individual state reports, peruse a broad overview of national trends, and also compare states in terms of their overall performance during the past few years.

285

Dismantling the Justice Silos: avoiding the pitfalls and reaping the benefits of information-sharing between forensic science, medicine and law.  

PubMed

Forensic science is increasingly relied on by police and the courts to exonerate the innocent and to establish links to crime. With this increased reliance the potential for unjust outcomes increases, especially in serious matters for two reasons. The more serious the matter, the more likely that evidence mishandling can lead to wrongful imprisonment, and the more likely the personnel involved will be multi-disciplinary (police, medicine, law, forensic science), and multi-organisational (Health, Justice, private legal/medical, police). The importance of identifying effective multi-organisational interactions was highlighted in the recent wrongful imprisonment of an Australian male for a sexual assault he did not commit. One factor that led to this unjust outcome was the justice silo effect: where forensic practitioners from different agencies operate in isolation (rarely communicating or sharing information/knowledge). In this paper we discuss findings from the Interfaces Project designed to assess the extent of the justice silos within Australia. We interviewed 103 police, forensic scientists, lawyers, judges, coroners, pathologists and forensic physicians Australian-wide. Five main themes were identified in the data: the silo effect was only partial and in each jurisdiction some form of inter-agency communication was actively occurring; inter-agency meetings were more common in homicide than sexual assault cases; forensic physicians were semi-invisible; there had been considerable momentum over the past ten years for practice improvement groups, and; practitioners gain more benefits than pitfalls from inter-agency information-sharing. Based on these findings, five recommendations are made for improving practice. PMID:23159340

Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Ross, Alastair

2013-07-10

286

High-dose antipsychotic use in schizophrenia: a comparison between the 2001 and 2004 Research on East Asia Psychotropic Prescription (REAP) studies  

PubMed Central

AIMS We aimed to examine the frequency of high-dose (defined as mean chlorpromazine mg equivalent doses above 1000) antipsychotic prescriptions in schizophrenia and their clinical correlates in the context of a comparison between studies in 2001 and 2004 within six East Asian countries and territories. METHODS Prescriptions of high-dose antipsychotic for a sample of 2136 patients with schizophrenia from six countries and territories (mainland China, Hong Kong, Korea, Japan, Taiwan and Singapore) were evaluated in 2004 and compared with data obtained for 2399 patients in 2001. RESULTS Overall, the comparison between 2001 and 2004 showed a significant decrease in high-dose antipsychotic use from 17.9 to 6.5% [odds ratio (OR) 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.26, 0.39, P < 0.001]. Patients who received high-dose antipsychotics were significantly more likely to have multiple admissions (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.16, 3.33, P = 0.009), more positive psychotic symptoms such as delusions (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.38, 3.05, P < 0.001) and hallucinations (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.30, 2.64, P = 0.001), but less likely to have negative symptoms (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.40, 0.82, P = 0.002). Multivariate regression analyses revealed that prescription of high-dose antipsychotics was also predicted by younger age (P < 0.001), time period of study (2001; P < 0.001), use of first-generation antipsychotic (P < 0.001) and depot antipsychotics (P < 0.001) as well as antipsychotic polytherapy (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS We identified the clinical profile and treatment characteristics of patients who are at risk of receiving high antipsychotic doses. These findings should provide impetus for clinicians to constantly monitor the drug regimes and to foster rational, evidence-based prescribing practices. PMID:19133060

Sim, Kang; Su, Hsin Chuan; Fujii, Senta; Yang, Shu-yu; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Ungvari, Gabor; Si, Tianmei; He, Yan Ling; Chung, Eun Kee; Chan, Yiong Huak; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Kua, Ee Heok; Tan, Chay Hoon; Sartorius, Norman

2009-01-01

287

Water source and diarrhoeal disease risk in children under 5 years old in Cambodia: a prospective diary based study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite claims that the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) targets on access to safe drinking water have been met, many 100 s of millions of people still have no access. The challenge remains how to provide these people and especially young children with safe drinking water. Method We report a longitudinal study designed to assess the effectiveness of an intervention based on provided treated drinking water in containers on self-reported diarrhoea in children. The intervention was “1001 fontaines pour demain” (1001 F) is a non-governmental not for profit organization (created in 2004 and based in Caluire, France) that helps local entrepreneurs treat package, and sell safe drinking water. Cases and controls were chosen at village and household level by propensity score matching Participants were visited twice a month over six months and asked to complete a diarrhoea health diary. Results In total 4275 follow-up visits were completed on 376 participants from 309 homes. Diarrhoea was reported in 20.4% of children on each visit, equating to an incidence rate estimate of 5.32 episodes per child per year (95% confidence interval =?4.97 to 5.69). Compared to those drinking 1001 F water, children drinking surface water were 33% (95% CI -1 to 17%), those drinking protected ground water were 62% (95% CI 19 to 120%) and those drinking other bottled water 57% (95% CI 15 to 114%) more likely to report diarrhoea. Children drinking harvested rainwater had similar rates of diarrhoea to Children drinking 1001 F water. Conclusion Our study suggests that 1001 F water provides a safer alternative to groundwater or surface water. Furthermore, our study raises serious concerns about the validity of assuming protected groundwater to be safe water for the purposes of assessing the MDG targets. By contrast our study provides addition evidence of the relative safety of rainwater harvesting. PMID:24321624

2013-01-01

288

e-Learning in Higher Education Makes Its Debut in Cambodia: Implications of the Provincial Business Education Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing countries face a number of challenges in their efforts to compete successfully in the new global economy. Perhaps the most critical resource needed to achieve these goals is trained human capital. While many developing countries are trying to address this need through traditional means, this may not be the most effective or efficient…

Abdon, Buenafe R.; Ninomiya, Seishi; Raab, Robert T.

2007-01-01

289

Prevalence, numbers and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella serovars and Campylobacter spp. in retail poultry in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.  

PubMed

Salmonella and Campylobacter are common bacterial pathogens associated with human gastro-enteritis; and raw poultry is considered to be an important source of these bacteria. To evaluate whether the Salmonella serovars and Campylobacter spp. bacteria could be monitored for the purpose of microbial presence, enumeration and antimicrobial resistance in raw poultry, 152 poultry carcasses were randomly selected from 10 markets in retail outlets of Phnom Penh during March 2006 to February 2007. The majority of poultry samples was contaminated by Salmonella serovars (88.2%) and Campylobacter spp. (80.9%). A very high contamination of Salmonella was found at 3-4 log?? CFU/g for 22.4% of samples and of Campylobacter at 7-8 log?? CFU/g for 1.3% of samples. Fifty nine different Salmonella serovars contaminated 134 poultry carcasses; five most prevalent serovars covered 29.1% of serovars isolates (Anatum, Typhimurium, Corvallis, Stanley and Enteritidis). Three Campylobacter species contaminating 123 raw poultry were Campylobacter jejuni (50.0%), Campylobacter coli (29.0%) and Campylobacter lari (21.0%). High antibiotic resistance percentages were found among Salmonella serovars and Campylobacter spp. isolates. This study revealed that raw poultry at the retail outlets in Phnom Penh markets are contaminated with high prevalences of food-borne pathogens, and communicating the importance of minimizing this risk in reducing human infections. PMID:21060246

Lay, Kruy Sun; Vuthy, Yith; Song, Ping; Phol, Khem; Sarthou, Jean Louis

2011-03-01

290

8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...  

...Form G-325A) if the applicant is between 14 and 79 years of age; a report of medical examination (Form I-693 and vaccination supplement) specified in § 1245.5; and, if needed, an application for waiver of inadmissibility. Under Part 2,...

2014-01-01

291

8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Form G-325A) if the applicant is between 14 and 79 years of age; a report of medical examination (Form I-693 and vaccination supplement) specified in § 1245.5; and, if needed, an application for waiver of inadmissibility. Under Part 2,...

2013-01-01

292

8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Form G-325A) if the applicant is between 14 and 79 years of age; a report of medical examination (Form I-693 and vaccination supplement) specified in § 1245.5; and, if needed, an application for waiver of inadmissibility. Under Part 2,...

2011-01-01

293

8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Form G-325A) if the applicant is between 14 and 79 years of age; a report of medical examination (Form I-693 and vaccination supplement) specified in § 1245.5; and, if needed, an application for waiver of inadmissibility. Under Part 2,...

2012-01-01

294

8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Form G-325A) if the applicant is between 14 and 79 years of age; a report of medical examination (Form I-693 and vaccination supplement) specified in § 1245.5; and, if needed, an application for waiver of inadmissibility. Under Part 2,...

2010-01-01

295

8 CFR 245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Form G-325A) if the applicant is between 14 and 79 years of age; a report of medical examination (Form I-693 and vaccination supplement) specified in § 245.5; and, if needed, an application for waiver of inadmissibility. Under Part 2,...

2011-01-01

296

8 CFR 245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Form G-325A) if the applicant is between 14 and 79 years of age; a report of medical examination (Form I-693 and vaccination supplement) specified in § 245.5; and, if needed, an application for waiver of inadmissibility. Under Part 2,...

2010-01-01

297

Moo U and the Cambodia Invasion: Anti-Vietnam War Protest at Iowa State University, May 1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A detailed examination of the Vietnam war demonstrations on the Iowa State University campus and in Ames (Iowa) in May 1970, utilizing local and student newspaper accounts and interviews contained in an oral history archive, show how words of protest along with critically reasoned behavior led to purposeful student contributions. Through the…

Brown, Clyde; Brown, Gayle K. Pluta

298

Dams on Mekong tributaries as significant contributors of hydrological alterations to the Tonle Sap Floodplain in Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River tributaries have a key role in the biophysical functioning of the Mekong Basin. Of particular attention are the Sesan, Srepok, and Sekong (3S) rivers, which contribute nearly a quarter of the total Mekong discharge. Forty two dams are proposed in the 3S, and once completed they will exceed the active storage of China's large dam cascade in the upper Mekong. Given their proximity to the lower Mekong floodplains, the 3S dams could alter the flood-pulse hydrology driving the productivity of downstream ecosystems. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to quantify how hydropower development in the 3S would alter the hydrology of the Tonle Sap floodplain, the largest wetland in the Mekong and home to one of the most productive inland fisheries in the world. We coupled results from four numerical models representing the basin's surface hydrology, water resources development, and floodplain hydrodynamics. The scale of alterations caused by hydropower in the 3S was compared with the basin's definite future development scenario (DF) driven by the upper Mekong dam cascade. The DF or the 3S development scenarios could independently increase Tonle Sap's 30 day minimum water levels by 30 ± 5 cm and decrease annual water level fall rates by 0.30 ± 0.05 cm d-2. When analyzed together (DF + 3S), these scenarios are likely to eliminate all baseline conditions (1986-2000) of extreme low water levels, a particularly important component of Tonle Sap's environmental flows. Given the ongoing trends and large economic incentives in the hydropower business in the region, there is a high possibility that most of the 3S hydropower potential will actually be exploited and that dams would be built even in locations where there is a high risk of ecological disruptions. Hence, retrofitting current designs and operations to promote sustainable hydropower practices that optimize multiple river services - rather than just maximize hydropower generation - appear to be the most feasible alternative to mitigate hydropower-related disruptions in the Mekong.

Arias, M. E.; Piman, T.; Lauri, H.; Cochrane, T. A.; Kummu, M.

2014-02-01

299

Dams on Mekong tributaries as significant contributors of hydrological alterations to the Tonle Sap Floodplain in Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River tributaries have a key role in the biophysical functioning of the Mekong Basin. Of particular interest are the Sesan, Srepok, and Sekong (3S) rivers, which contribute nearly a quarter of the total Mekong discharge. Forty two dams are proposed in the 3S, and once completed they will exceed the active storage of China's large dam cascade in the Upper Mekong. Given their proximity to the Lower Mekong floodplains, the 3S dams could alter the flood-pulse hydrology driving the productivity of downstream ecosystems. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to quantify how hydropower development in the 3S, together with definite future (DF) plans for infrastructure development through the basin, would alter the hydrology of the Tonle Sap's Floodplain, the largest wetland in the Mekong and home to one of the most productive inland fisheries in the world. We coupled results from four numerical models representing the basin's surface hydrology, water resources development, and floodplain hydrodynamics. The scale of alterations caused by hydropower in the 3S was compared with the basin's DF scenario driven by the Upper Mekong dam cascade. The DF or the 3S development scenarios could independently increase Tonle Sap's 30-day minimum water levels by 30 ± 5 cm and decrease annual water level fall rates by 0.30 ± 0.05 cm day-1. When analyzed together (DF + 3S), these scenarios are likely to eliminate all baseline conditions (1986-2000) of extreme low water levels, a particularly important component of Tonle Sap's environmental flows. Given the ongoing trends and large economic incentives in the hydropower business in the region, there is a high possibility that most of the 3S hydropower potential will be exploited and that dams will be built even in locations where there is a high risk of ecological disruption. Hence, retrofitting current designs and operations to promote sustainable hydropower practices that optimize multiple river services - rather than just maximize hydropower generation - appear to be the most feasible alternative to mitigate hydropower-related disruptions in the Mekong.

Arias, M. E.; Piman, T.; Lauri, H.; Cochrane, T. A.; Kummu, M.

2014-12-01

300

Impact of the Provision of Safe Drinking Water on School Absence Rates in Cambodia: A Quasi-Experimental Study  

PubMed Central

Background Education is one of the most important drivers behind helping people in developing countries lift themselves out of poverty. However, even when schooling is available absenteeism rates can be high. Recently interest has focussed on whether or not WASH interventions can help reduce absenteeism in developing countries. However, none has focused exclusively on the role of drinking water provision. We report a study of the association between absenteeism and provision of treated water in containers into schools. Methods and Findings We undertook a quasi-experimental longitudinal study of absenteeism rates in 8 schools, 4 of which received one 20 L container of treated drinking water per day. The water had been treated by filtration and ultraviolet disinfection. Weekly absenteeism rates were compared across all schools using negative binomial model in generalized estimating equations. There was a strong association with provision of free water and reduced absenteeism (Incidence rate ratio?=?0.39 (95% Confidence Intervals 0.27–0.56)). However there was also a strong association with season (wet versus dry) and a significant interaction between receiving free water and season. In one of the intervention schools it was discovered that the water supplier was not fulfilling his contract and was not delivering sufficient water each week. In this school we showed a significant association between the number of water containers delivered each week and absenteeism (IRR?=?0.98 95%CI 0.96–1.00). Conclusion There appears to be a strong association between providing free safe drinking water and reduced absenteeism, though only in the dry season. The mechanism for this association is not clear but may in part be due to improved hydration leading to improved school experience for the children. PMID:24632573

Hunter, Paul R.; Risebro, Helen; Yen, Marie; Lefebvre, Hélène; Lo, Chay; Hartemann, Philippe; Longuet, Christophe; Jaquenoud, François

2014-01-01

301

FINANCIAL INDUSTRY FEDERAL RESERVE BANK OF DALLAS  

E-print Network

Economists Jeffery W. Gunther Robert R. Moore Kenneth J. Robinson Thomas F. Siems Sujit "Bob" Chakravorti. Killgo Graphic Designer Candi Aulbaugh Editors Jeffery W. Gunther Robert R. Moore Kenneth J. Robinson

Barr, Richard

302

A comparative analysis of public social assistance systems in Belgium and Health Equity Funds in Cambodia: an overview of lessons learned  

Microsoft Academic Search

Belgium has a solidly implemented multi-purposed public social assistance system that is the result of a long social and political history characterised by an evolution from charitable privately funded systems in the 19 th century to a publicly funded and operated social assistance system in the last quarter of the 20 th century. In a first part of this paper

Bart Criel; Wim Van Damme; Bruno Meessen; Por Ir

2008-01-01

303

Prolonged grief following the recent death of a daughter among mothers who experienced distal losses during the Khmer Rouge era: Validity of the prolonged grief construct in Cambodia.  

PubMed

This study addressed the validity of the prolonged grief (PG) construct in a Cambodian context. Eighty mothers who lost a young adult daughter stemming from a crowd stampede incident during the annual water festival were interviewed at the six-month post-loss point along with a control group of similarly aged women who were not recently bereaved. Both groups were assessed for PG, PTSD, anxiety, and depression symptoms and well as for the number of distal losses experienced during the Khmer Rouge (KR) regime - knowing that all the women were old enough to have lived through the KR regime. Support for the discriminant validity of PG was shown in a factor analysis in which its core symptoms were distinguished from anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms. Also, support was found for its incremental validity as shown in the unique sensitivity of PG in distinguishing the two groups when controlling for the other symptoms. Lastly, a positive relationship was found between the number of distal deaths experienced during the KR regime and PG symptom severity among the group of recently bereaved mothers, providing support for the predictive validity of PG. Implications as well as study limitations are discussed. PMID:24863868

Field, Nigel P; Strasser, Judith; Taing, Sopheap; Horiuchi, Shoko; Chhim, Sotheara; Packman, Wendy

2014-09-30

304

Emergence of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (HP-PRRS) in medium-scale swine farms in southeastern Cambodia.  

PubMed

Since 2006, reports from China and Viet Nam have alerted of an emergent highly pathogenic variant of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) in that region. The frequent occurrence of outbreaks in these countries puts Cambodian pig farms at high risk of infection, but no study had been conducted to investigate the presence of HP-PRRS in Cambodian farms. We investigated the presence of HP-PRRS in medium-scale (semi-commercial) swine farms in the Cambodian southeastern region. Specifically, one province bordering Viet Nam (Takeo) was selected due to the concentration of most semi-commercial farms in that province. A cross-sectional study was carried out, between July and September 2010 to assess whether the prevalence of infection in these farms was indicative of recent spread of PPRSV and to identify risk factors for infection. The number of farms to be sampled was established using methods for Lot Quality Assurance Surveys (LQAS), in order to achieve a pre-established ability to discriminate between two different prevalence settings. The target population comprised all semi-commercial farms in Takeo province from which a random sample of 35 farms was selected. Selected farms were visited and questionnaires administered to gather information on farm characteristics and husbandry practices. Blood samples from individual pigs were collected in each of the study farms and tested for PRRSV, along with a number of other swine respiratory pathogens in order to investigate potential interactions. Our results showed that the virus was already present in Takeo semi-commercial pig population (LQAS herd prevalence ?85%) at the time of sampling. The presence of sows in the farm and farm density were significantly associated (P<0.05) with the introduction and the presence of PRRS - but this was an unadjusted association as small sample size precluded multivariate analysis. Spatiotemporal description of the supposed pattern of infection revealed that the 1st farms infected were closely located to major national and provincial roads, connecting the Cambodian capital Phnom Penh to Viet Nam. PMID:25179789

Tornimbene, B; Frossard, J-P; Chhim, V; Sorn, S; Guitian, J; Drew, T W

2015-01-01

305

Sustainable gasificationbiochar systems? A case-study of rice-husk gasification in Cambodia, Part II: Field trial results, carbon abatement,  

E-print Network

an analysis of the physico-chemical properties of RHC, including an assessment of potential contaminants t In part I we described the gasification technology and characterised the physio-chemical properties through a dry process using (for example) a screw auger. In this part, we present results on utilisation

Haszeldine, Stuart

306

Plasma Concentrations, Efficacy and Safety of Efavirenz in HIV-Infected Adults Treated for Tuberculosis in Cambodia (ANRS 1295-CIPRA KH001 CAMELIA Trial)  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess efavirenz plasma concentrations and their association with treatment efficacy and tolerance of efavirenz 600 mg daily in HIV-tuberculosis co-infected patients. Methods HIV-infected adults with CD4+ T cell count ?200/mm3 received standard 6-month tuberculosis treatment and antiretroviral therapy including a daily-dose of 600 mg of efavirenz, irrespective of their body weight. Mid-dose blood samples were drawn both on tuberculosis treatment (week +2 and week +6 after antiretroviral therapy initiation, and week 22 of follow-up) and off tuberculosis treatment (week 50 of follow-up). Considered therapeutic range was 1,000 to 4,000 ng/mL. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the association between efavirenz concentration below 1,000 ng/mL and virological failure. Linear regression was used to test the association between efavirenz exposure and CD4+ T cell gain. Severe side effects potentially related to efavirenz were described and their association with efavirenz exposure was tested by multivariate analysis. Results Efavirenz plasma concentrations were available in 540 patients. Median [interquartile range] efavirenz concentrations were 2,674 ng/mL [1,690–4,533], 2,667 ng/mL [1,753–4,494] and 2,799 ng/mL [1,804–4,744] at week +2, week +6, week 22, respectively, and 2,766 ng/mL [1,941–3,976] at week 50. Efavirenz concentrations were lower at week 50 (off rifampicin) compared to week 22 (on rifampicin) (p<0.001). Late attendance to study visit and low hemoglobinemia were the only factors associated with an increased risk of efavirenz concentration below 1,000 ng/mL. Efavirenz concentration below 1,000 ng/mL was not associated with treatment failure. Efavirenz concentration above 4,000 ng/mL was associated with higher risk of central nervous system side effects (p<0.001) and of hepatotoxicity (p<0.001). Conclusion Body weight and tuberculosis treatment were not associated with low efavirenz concentrations or treatment failure, supporting the 600 mg daily-dose of efavirenz in HIV-tuberculosis co-infected patients. High efavirenz concentrations were related to a higher risk of central nervous system side effects and hepatotoxicity. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01300481 PMID:24608960

Borand, Laurence; Madec, Yoann; Laureillard, Didier; Chou, Monidarin; Marcy, Olivier; Pheng, Phearavin; Prak, Narom; Kim, Chindamony; Lak, Khemarin Kim; Hak, Chanroeun; Dim, Bunnet; Nerrienet, Eric; Fontanet, Arnaud; Sok, Thim; Goldfeld, Anne E.; Blanc, François-Xavier; Taburet, Anne-Marie

2014-01-01

307

19 CFR 12.104g - Specific items or categories designated by agreements or emergency actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Cambodia Archaeological Material from Cambodia from the Bronze Age through the Khmer Era. CBP Dec. 03-28 extended by...Archaeological material from Mali from the Paleolithic Era (Stone Age) to approximately the mid-eighteenth century CBP...

2012-04-01

308

19 CFR 12.104g - Specific items or categories designated by agreements or emergency actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Cambodia Archaeological Material from Cambodia from the Bronze Age through the Khmer Era. CBP Dec. 03-28 extended by...Archaeological material from Mali from the Paleolithic Era (Stone Age) to approximately the mid-eighteenth century CBP...

2013-04-01

309

19 CFR 12.104g - Specific items or categories designated by agreements or emergency actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Cambodia Archaeological Material from Cambodia from the Bronze Age through the Khmer Era. CBP Dec. 03-28 extended by...Archaeological material from Mali from the Paleolithic Era (Stone Age) to approximately the mid-eighteenth century CBP...

2011-04-01

310

77 FR 58606 - Notice of Closed Meeting of the Cultural Property Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cambodia Concerning the Imposition of Import Restrictions of Archaeological Material from the Kingdom of Cambodia from the Bronze Age through the Khmer Era, and the Memorandum of Understanding Between the Government of the United States of America...

2012-09-21

311

19 CFR 12.104g - Specific items or categories designated by agreements or emergency actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Cambodia Archaeological Material from Cambodia from the Bronze Age through the Khmer Era. CBP Dec. 03-28 extended by...Archaeological material from Mali from the Paleolithic Era (Stone Age) to approximately the mid-eighteenth century CBP...

2010-04-01

312

78 FR 976 - Notice of Meeting of the Cultural Property Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Kingdom of Cambodia Concerning the Imposition of Import Restrictions on Archaeological Material from Cambodia from the Bronze Age Through the Khmer Era (MOU) [Docket No. DOS-2012-0063]. An open session to receive oral public comment on...

2013-01-07

313

75 FR 9423 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Impact of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Emphasis Panel (SEP): Impact of Japanese Encephalitis Vaccination in Cambodia, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) CK10-003...received in response to ``Impact of Japanese Encephalitis Vaccination in Cambodia, FOA CK10-003.'' Contact Person for...

2010-03-02

314

31 CFR 500.560 - Bank accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. ...governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. ...governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam...

2010-07-01

315

31 CFR 500.558 - Accounts of blocked partnerships.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the laws of North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam, as...emigrated from North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam...limited, is in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South...

2010-07-01

316

31 CFR 500.554 - Gifts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...other than North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. ...directly from North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam: ...acquired in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam as...

2010-07-01

317

31 CFR 500.549 - Proof of origin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...which is North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam are...goods outside North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam prior...interest of North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South...

2010-07-01

318

Bank Failure Prediction Using DEA to Measure Management Quality  

E-print Network

Bank Failure Prediction Using DEA to Measure Management Quality Richard S. Barr \\Lambda Thomas F. Siems y June, 1996 Abstract Presented are new failure­prediction models for detecting a bank's troubled. Quality is assessed using data envelopment analysis (DEA), which views a bank as transforming multiple

Barr, Richard

319

Generalized Path Analysis and Generalized Simultaneous Equations Model for Recursive Systems with Responses of Mixed Types  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article generalizes linear path analysis (PA) and simultaneous equations models (SiEM) to deal with mixed responses of different types in a recursive or triangular system. An efficient instrumental variable (IV) method for estimating the structural coefficients of a 2-equation partially recursive generalized path analysis (GPA) model and…

Tsai, Tien-Lung; Shau, Wen-Yi; Hu, Fu-Chang

2006-01-01

320

Alcohol consumption is controlled by angiotensin II1 BJOERN MAUL,2  

E-print Network

Alcohol consumption is controlled by angiotensin II1 BJOERN MAUL,2 WOLF-EBERHARD SIEMS, MARGRET R in alcohol-consuming behavior and investigated the alcohol intake of mice harboring a rat angiotensino- gen- ther explain the effects in the transgenic mice. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS 1. Alcohol consumption is directly

Hoehe, Margret

321

Letter of Intent Study of oblate nuclear shapes and shape coexistence  

E-print Network

reactions. Some of them have been studied in great detail up to high spins, where, among other phenomenaLetter of Intent Study of oblate nuclear shapes and shape coexistence in neutron-deficient rare. Görgen (Saclay), S. Siem (Oslo) Motivation To first order, describing the nuclear potential as a harmonic

Johansen, Tom Henning

322

A doctrinal approach to property law scholarship. Who cares and Why?  

E-print Network

), Research Methods in Law (Routledge, London, 2013) 7 2 See Siems M and Mac Sithigh D, n 1 at 674-5. 3 Posner E, “The Rise of Interdisciplinary Approaches in American Legal Scholarship”, keynote address at the University of Tilburg Symposium, Towards a...

Dixon, Martin

2014-01-01

323

Exploring Crown Ethers as Shift Reagents for Ion Mobility Spectrometry  

E-print Network

.; Valentine, S. J.; Counterman, A. E.; Clemmer, D. E. Anal. Chem. 1999, 71, 291-301. (2) Valentine, S. J.; Schultz, A. J. Anal. Chem. 2000, 72, 3965-3971. (5) Wu, C.; Siems, W. F.; Klasmeier, J.; Hill, H. H., Jr. Anal. Chem. 2000, 72, 391. (6) Guevremont, R.; Barnett, D. A.; Purves, R. W.; Vandermey, J. Anal. Chem

Clemmer, David E.

324

77 FR 71001 - Notice of Agreements Filed  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...authorizes the parties to charter space to each other on a ad hoc, case by case basis, updates...Pacific AS/Hoegh Autoliners, Inc. Space Charter Agreement. Parties: Siem...authorizes the parties to charter space to each other [[Page...

2012-11-28

325

Detention to Deportation - Rethinking the Removal of Cambodian Refugees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is part of a symposium on Immigration and Civil Rights After September 11: The Impact on California.\\u000aThe United States helped to pull Cambodia into the Vietnam war, initially through secret bombings in Cambodia in 1969 and CIA support for a rightist coup in Cambodia in 1970. After the Khmer Rouge genocide of two million of its own

Bill Ong Hing

2005-01-01

326

48 CFR 52.219-1 - Small Business Program Representations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Aleuts, or Native Hawaiians). __ Asian-Pacific American (persons with origins from Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Japan, China, Taiwan, Laos, Cambodia (Kampuchea), Vietnam, Korea, The Philippines,...

2011-10-01

327

48 CFR 52.219-1 - Small Business Program Representations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Aleuts, or Native Hawaiians). __ Asian-Pacific American (persons with origins from Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Japan, China, Taiwan, Laos, Cambodia (Kampuchea), Vietnam, Korea, The Philippines,...

2013-10-01

328

48 CFR 1852.213-70 - Offeror Representations and Certifications-Other Than Commercial Items.  

...Aleuts, or Native Hawaiians). — Asian-Pacific American (persons with origins from Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Japan, China, Taiwan, Laos, Cambodia (Kampuchea), Vietnam, Korea, The Philippines,...

2014-10-01

329

48 CFR 52.219-1 - Small Business Program Representations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Aleuts, or Native Hawaiians). __ Asian-Pacific American (persons with origins from Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Japan, China, Taiwan, Laos, Cambodia (Kampuchea), Vietnam, Korea, The Philippines,...

2012-10-01

330

48 CFR 52.219-1 - Small Business Program Representations.  

...Aleuts, or Native Hawaiians). __ Asian-Pacific American (persons with origins from Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Japan, China, Taiwan, Laos, Cambodia (Kampuchea), Vietnam, Korea, The Philippines,...

2014-10-01

331

76 FR 13598 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chad, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Guinea- Bissau, Haiti, Kenya, Lao PDR, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Pakistan, Republic of...

2011-03-14

332

Student Health Service MSU-Bozeman PO Box 173260  

E-print Network

disease, diabetes, AIDS/HIV or take immunosuppressive medications such as prednisone? 4. Have you been TUBERCULOSIS SCREENING FORM Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Brazil, Cambodia, Cameroon, China, Cote d

Maxwell, Bruce D.

333

Effect of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Cytochrome P450 Isoenzyme and N-Acetyltransferase 2 Genes on the Metabolism of Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies in Malaria Patients from Cambodia and Tanzania  

PubMed Central

The pharmacogenetics of antimalarial agents are poorly known, although the application of pharmacogenetics might be critical in optimizing treatment. This population pharmacokinetic-pharmacogenetic study aimed at assessing the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cytochrome P450 isoenzyme genes (CYP, namely, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5) and the N-acetyltransferase 2 gene (NAT2) on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin-based combination therapies in 150 Tanzanian patients treated with artemether-lumefantrine, 64 Cambodian patients treated with artesunate-mefloquine, and 61 Cambodian patients treated with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. The frequency of SNPs varied with the enzyme and the population. Higher frequencies of mutant alleles were found in Cambodians than Tanzanians for CYP2C9*3, CYP2D6*10 (100C?T), CYP3A5*3, NAT2*6, and NAT2*7. In contrast, higher frequencies of mutant alleles were found in Tanzanians for CYP2D6*17 (1023C?T and 2850C?T), CYP3A4*1B, NAT2*5, and NAT2*14. For 8 SNPs, no significant differences in frequencies were observed. In the genetic-based population pharmacokinetic analyses, none of the SNPs improved model fit. This suggests that pharmacogenetic data need not be included in appropriate first-line treatments with the current artemisinin derivatives and quinolines for uncomplicated malaria in specific populations. However, it cannot be ruled out that our results represent isolated findings, and therefore more studies in different populations, ideally with the same artemisinin-based combination therapies, are needed to evaluate the influence of pharmacogenetic factors on the clearance of antimalarials. PMID:23229480

Staehli Hodel, Eva Maria; Csajka, Chantal; Ariey, Frédéric; Guidi, Monia; Kabanywanyi, Abdunoor Mulokozi; Duong, Socheat; Decosterd, Laurent Arthur; Olliaro, Piero; Genton, Blaise

2013-01-01

334

Effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 isoenzyme and N-acetyltransferase 2 genes on the metabolism of artemisinin-based combination therapies in malaria patients from Cambodia and Tanzania.  

PubMed

The pharmacogenetics of antimalarial agents are poorly known, although the application of pharmacogenetics might be critical in optimizing treatment. This population pharmacokinetic-pharmacogenetic study aimed at assessing the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cytochrome P450 isoenzyme genes (CYP, namely, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5) and the N-acetyltransferase 2 gene (NAT2) on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin-based combination therapies in 150 Tanzanian patients treated with artemether-lumefantrine, 64 Cambodian patients treated with artesunate-mefloquine, and 61 Cambodian patients treated with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. The frequency of SNPs varied with the enzyme and the population. Higher frequencies of mutant alleles were found in Cambodians than Tanzanians for CYP2C9*3, CYP2D6*10 (100C ? T), CYP3A5*3, NAT2*6, and NAT2*7. In contrast, higher frequencies of mutant alleles were found in Tanzanians for CYP2D6*17 (1023C ? T and 2850C ? T), CYP3A4*1B, NAT2*5, and NAT2*14. For 8 SNPs, no significant differences in frequencies were observed. In the genetic-based population pharmacokinetic analyses, none of the SNPs improved model fit. This suggests that pharmacogenetic data need not be included in appropriate first-line treatments with the current artemisinin derivatives and quinolines for uncomplicated malaria in specific populations. However, it cannot be ruled out that our results represent isolated findings, and therefore more studies in different populations, ideally with the same artemisinin-based combination therapies, are needed to evaluate the influence of pharmacogenetic factors on the clearance of antimalarials. PMID:23229480

Staehli Hodel, Eva Maria; Csajka, Chantal; Ariey, Frédéric; Guidi, Monia; Kabanywanyi, Abdunoor Mulokozi; Duong, Socheat; Decosterd, Laurent Arthur; Olliaro, Piero; Beck, Hans-Peter; Genton, Blaise

2013-02-01

335

Classroom success of an intelligent tutoring system for lexical practice and reading comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an intelligent tutoring system called REAP that provides reader-specific lexical practice for improved reading comprehension. REAP offers individualized practice to students by presenting authentic and appropriate reading materials selected automatically from the web. We encountered a number of challenges that must be met in order for the system to be effective in a classroom setting. These include general

Michael Heilman; Kevyn Collins-Thompson; Jamie Callan; Maxine Eskenazi

2006-01-01

336

Page 1 of 2 Visit us online: www.mcgill.ca/caps 2012-12-10  

E-print Network

/ Provincial Park Warden Naturalist Organic Food Grower Plant Breeding Production Supervisor Program Origination Specialist Growers' Advisor Horticulturist Livestock Production Specialist National://www.mapaq.gouv.qc.ca/ Resource Efficient Agricultural Production (R.E.A.P.) ­ Canada http://www.reap-canada.com/ If you wish

Kambhampati, Patanjali

337

31 CFR 500.559 - Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships...under the laws of North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam if the proprietor...due to persons in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. [41...

2010-07-01

338

Introduction to Cambodian Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet about the cultural background of Cambodia is one of three booklets that serve as a foundation for understanding the cultural diversity and values of Cambodian, Laotian, and Vietnamese students. Cambodia, or Kampuchea, has a population of about 7,000,000 and is located in mainland Southeast Asia. Its history is divided into the…

Chhim, Sun-Him

339

The Cambodian clothing industry in the post-MFA environment: a review of developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The period 2005–2008 provides an opportunity to examine the impact of ending the Multi-Fibre Arrangement's system of quotas on the development of Cambodia's clothing industry and the wider Cambodian economy. The question is particularly interesting because (1) Cambodia has incorporated independently monitored labour standards and trade union rights into its labour law and (2) the clothing industry plays a centrally

Melanie Beresford

2009-01-01

340

Lessons Learnt in the Use of "Contract" Teachers. Synthesis Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report sheds light on the use of contract teachers with a particular focus on Cambodia, Nicaragua and India--countries that have all relied on contract teachers at some point. The report documents the use of contract teachers in Cambodia, Nicaragua and India and outlines the experience of contract teachers in West Africa. It also discusses…

Duthilleul, Yael

2005-01-01

341

Hiroshima-Remembered.com: Documents about the Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Documents about the atomic boming of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These include: Potsdam Declaration, White House Press Release on Hiroshima, an Eyewitness Account of Atomic Bomb Over Nagasaki, Eyewitness Account of Hiroshima By Father John A. Siemes, The Voice of Hibakusha, The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by The Manhattan Engineer District, The Yields of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki Nuclear Explosions , On My Participation In The Atom Bomb Project - Albert Einstein, and Truman's Reflections on the Atomic Bombings.

Christopher Griffith

342

Sports and Technology. Resources in Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology is making a significant impact in all areas of sports and recreation. New equipment and computer training methods in spectator sports have had a major social and economic impact, and individual sports have reaped the benefits of technology. (JOW)

Hadley, Fred W.

1993-01-01

343

Adventures with a High School Book Club  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A library media specialist writes about high school book clubs describing about setting the administration, dealing with logistics, recruiting members, choosing the right books, reaping the benefits, publicizing the club and reaching out to other clubs.

McKee, Beverly

2005-01-01

344

A widget library for creating policy-aware semantic Web applications  

E-print Network

In order to truly reap the benefits of the Semantic Web, there must be adequate tools for writing Web applications that aggregate, view, and edit the widely varying data the Semantic Web makes available. As a step toward ...

Hollenbach, James Dylan

2010-01-01

345

Fitness and Your 13- to 18-year-old  

MedlinePLUS

... of organized sports and participation in daily physical education classes is a thing of the past. But given the opportunity and interest, teens can reap health benefits from almost any activity they enjoy, from skateboarding, ...

346

The Mechanization of Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses technological innovations affecting the economic and social basis of farm life, focusing on trends, farm equipment (plows, reaping tools, tractors, and harvesters), productivity, and influence of computers in all phases of agribusiness. (JN)

Rasmussen, Wayne D.

1982-01-01

347

78 FR 9357 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rural Business-Cooperative Service Title: Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements under the Rural...producers and rural small businesses to purchase renewable energy systems and make energy efficiency improvements. REAP...

2013-02-08

348

77 FR 59888 - Notice of Request for Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...grants and loan guarantees to eligible agricultural producers and rural small businesses for the purchase of renewable energy systems and the implementation of energy efficiency improvements. REAP also provides grants for renewable energy system...

2012-10-01

349

The Embedded Researcher Method for Involving Undergraduates in Research: New Data and Observations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduate research provides multiple educational advantages, and Hispanic students may reap particular benefits. The "embedded researcher" method avoids difficulties inherent in traditional apprenticeship models, providing meaningful research experience to multiple students within a standard didactic course structure while yielding…

Rogers, Darrin L.; Kranz, Peter L.; Ferguson, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

350

Design Decisions in the RideNow Project School of Information  

E-print Network

would decline. That would reduce conges- tion for everyone using the roads and reduce smog and other- convenience while others reap the benefits of reduced con- gestion and smog. To overcome these barriers

Resnick, Paul

351

Spacecraft formation flight exploiting potential fields  

E-print Network

The potential benefits that can be reaped from a distributed satellite system have led to the proposal of several multi-spacecraft missions by both NASA and DoD. One such benefit is the reconfigurability of these ...

Kong, Edmund Mun Choong, 1973-

2002-01-01

352

Third Generation Distance Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer-mediated communications attempt to overcome the isolation of distance education students and tutors. Technical and administrative barriers still must be overcome to reap the benefits of an "electronic classroom." (SK)

Birchall, David W.

1990-01-01

353

Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction  

MedlinePLUS

... Complementary Health Approaches: What You Need To Know Meditation: What You Need To Know Rheumatoid Arthritis and ... Reap Genetic Changes After a Day of Mindfulness Meditation (11/15/13) Meditation or Exercise May Help ...

354

Space and astronomy: The girl next door  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hanging bright in the morning sky, Venus's allure is obvious; but its blasted surface looks too hot to handle. Eric Hand investigates the difficulties of returning to the closest planet ? and new plans to reap the rewards of doing so.

Hand, Eric

2007-11-01

355

Improving the probability of effective organizational change in the Coast Guard through the combined use of System Dynamics and Enterprise Value Stream Mapping & Analysis  

E-print Network

Most major organizational changes never reap the benefits the original planners envisioned, they often take longer to implement than expected and in a dynamic environment that can spell disaster for a large enterprise. The ...

Johnston, Michael J., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01

356

A study of freeway off-ramp design and operation  

E-print Network

. Affected Through Versus Non-Affected Through Ve hie les. Raft Versus Non-Affected Through Vehicles . gait Versus Affected Through Vehicles . Qeneral Observations. Acceleration Noise ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 26 30 32 34 36 37 IVo ANALTSIS QF QPP...?ey Pilning Locatioes. 5. Reit 4 (Telephone Off-Reap) . S. Rxit 7 (Myrtle Off Reap) Saainary Of f-Rasp S. Acceleration Noise Locations. 9. Woodridge Of f-gasp. 10. Typical Pr~s Proc yiha Study. 11. Speed Recorder . . ~ . ~ . . ~ . . ~ 12. Vehicle...

Carvell, James Demus

2012-06-07

357

Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project  

SciTech Connect

The Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project (REAP), which is being conducted by the Probabilistic Integrity Safety Assessment (PISA) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under funding from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission s (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, aims to provide an archival source of information about the effect of neutron radiation on the properties of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Specifically, this project is an effort to create an Internet-accessible RPV steel embrittlement database. The project s website, https://reap.ornl.gov, provides information in two forms: (1) a document archive with surveillance capsule(s) reports and related technical reports, in PDF format, for the 104 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States, with similar reports from other countries; and (2) a relational database archive with detailed information extracted from the reports. The REAP project focuses on data collected from surveillance capsule programs for light-water moderated, nuclear power reactor vessels operated in the United States, including data on Charpy V-notch energy testing results, tensile properties, composition, exposure temperatures, neutron flux (rate of irradiation damage), and fluence, (Fast Neutron Fluence a cumulative measure of irradiation for E>1 MeV). Additionally, REAP contains data from surveillance programs conducted in other countries. REAP is presently being extended to focus on embrittlement data analysis, as well. This paper summarizes the current status of the REAP database and highlights opportunities to access the data and to participate in the project.

Klasky, Hilda B [ORNL] [ORNL; Bass, Bennett Richard [ORNL] [ORNL; Williams, Paul T [ORNL] [ORNL; Phillips, Rick [ORNL] [ORNL; Erickson, Marjorie A [ORNL] [ORNL; Kirk, Mark T [ORNL] [ORNL; Stevens, Gary L [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

358

12 CFR 1282.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent, including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam; (3) Black or African American...

2010-01-01

359

7 CFR 318.13-17 - Regulated articles from Guam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...chapter for similar articles offered for entry into such States from the countries of East and Southeast Asia, including Cambodia, India, Japan, Korea, Laos, the northeastern provinces of Manchuria, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam, or the...

2010-01-01

360

12 CFR 1281.1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America...example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine...person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other...

2012-01-01

361

7 CFR 318.13-17 - Regulated articles from Guam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...East and Southeast Asia, including Cambodia, India, Japan, Korea, Laos, the northeastern provinces of Manchuria, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam, or the islands of the Central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, and...

2011-01-01

362

12 CFR 1281.1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America...example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine...person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other...

2011-01-01

363

12 CFR 1281.1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America...example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine...person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other...

2013-01-01

364

31 CFR 500.410 - Currency, coins, and postage and other stamps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Currency, coins, and postage and other stamps issued by North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam are merchandise of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin subject to §...

2010-07-01

365

12 CFR 1281.1 - Definitions.  

...any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America...example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine...person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other...

2014-01-01

366

7 CFR 318.13-17 - Regulated articles from Guam.  

...East and Southeast Asia, including Cambodia, India, Japan, Korea, Laos, the northeastern provinces of Manchuria, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam, or the islands of the Central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, and...

2014-01-01

367

7 CFR 318.13-17 - Regulated articles from Guam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...East and Southeast Asia, including Cambodia, India, Japan, Korea, Laos, the northeastern provinces of Manchuria, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam, or the islands of the Central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, and...

2013-01-01

368

49 CFR 26.5 - What do the terms used in this part mean?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Central or South American, or other Spanish or Portuguese culture or origin...includes persons whose origins are from Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea, Burma (Myanmar), Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia...

2013-10-01

369

7 CFR 318.13-17 - Regulated articles from Guam.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...East and Southeast Asia, including Cambodia, India, Japan, Korea, Laos, the northeastern provinces of Manchuria, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam, or the islands of the Central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, and...

2012-01-01

370

Performance of "VIKIA Malaria Ag Pf/Pan" (IMACCESS), a new malaria rapid diagnostic test  

E-print Network

Performance of "VIKIA Malaria Ag Pf/Pan" (IMACCESS®), a new malaria rapid diagnostic test for detection of symptomatic malaria infections Monidarin Chou1, Email: cmonidarin, Phnom Penh, Cambodia 2 Malaria Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Phnom Penh

Boyer, Edmond

371

19 CFR 12.104g - Specific items or categories designated by agreements or emergency actions.  

...material representing Bulgaria's Middle Ages (681 A. D.) through approximately1750...Archaeological Material from Cambodia from the Bronze Age through the Khmer Era. CBP Dec...Mali from the Paleolithic Era (Stone Age) to approximately the...

2014-04-01

372

Fulbright U.S. Student Program, 1998-2011 Source: International Institute Fellowships Office  

E-print Network

, Germany Joshua Shanes, Austria Mark J. Fisher, Germany Bruce Kahn, Israel Bethel Saler, Canada Paul Carter, Cambodia Laura Craig, Mexico Christine Elliott, Laos Abram Foley, Germany Rebecca Ford, India

Turner, Monica G.

373

76 FR 18771 - Notification of the Removal of Conditions of Entry on Vessels Arriving From the Islamic Republic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cambodia, Cameroon, Republic of the Congo, Cuba, Equatorial Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Liberia, Madagascar, Sao Tome and Principe, Syria, Timor-Leste, and Venezuela. This notice is issued under authority of 46...

2011-04-05

374

76 FR 63935 - Notification of the Removal of Conditions of Entry on Vessels Arriving From the Republic of Congo  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cambodia, Cameroon, Comoros, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Equatorial Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Liberia, Madagascar, Sao Tome and Principe, Syria, Timor-Leste, and Venezuela. This notice is issued under authority of 46...

2011-10-14

375

49 CFR 26.5 - What do the terms used in this part mean?  

...are from Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea, Burma (Myanmar), Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia (Kampuchea), Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Brunei, Samoa, Guam, the U.S. Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands (Republic of...

2014-10-01

376

48 CFR 752.226-1 - Determination of status as disadvantaged enterprise.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Republic of Palau), the Northern Mariana Islands, Laos, Kampuchea (Cambodia), Taiwan, Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Republic of the Marshall Islands, or the Federated States of Micronesia. (2) Controlled by...

2012-10-01

377

48 CFR 752.226-1 - Determination of status as disadvantaged enterprise.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Republic of Palau), the Northern Mariana Islands, Laos, Kampuchea (Cambodia), Taiwan, Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Republic of the Marshall Islands, or the Federated States of Micronesia. (2) Controlled by...

2011-10-01

378

48 CFR 1426.7101 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Guam, the U.S. Trust Territories of the Pacific, Northern Marianas, Laos, Cambodia, Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Republic of the Marshall Islands, or the Federated States of...

2013-10-01

379

48 CFR 1426.7101 - Definitions.  

...Guam, the U.S. Trust Territories of the Pacific, Northern Marianas, Laos, Cambodia, Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Republic of the Marshall Islands, or the Federated States of...

2014-10-01

380

48 CFR 752.226-1 - Determination of status as disadvantaged enterprise.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Republic of Palau), the Northern Mariana Islands, Laos, Kampuchea (Cambodia), Taiwan, Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Republic of the Marshall Islands, or the Federated States of Micronesia. (2) Controlled by...

2013-10-01

381

49 CFR 23.3 - What do the terms used in this part mean?  

...are from Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea, Burma (Myanmar), Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia (Kampuchea), Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Brunei, Samoa, Guam, the U.S. Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands (Republic of...

2014-10-01

382

48 CFR 752.226-1 - Determination of status as disadvantaged enterprise.  

...Republic of Palau), the Northern Mariana Islands, Laos, Kampuchea (Cambodia), Taiwan, Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Republic of the Marshall Islands, or the Federated States of Micronesia. (2) Controlled by...

2014-10-01

383

48 CFR 1426.7101 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Guam, the U.S. Trust Territories of the Pacific, Northern Marianas, Laos, Cambodia, Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Republic of the Marshall Islands, or the Federated States of...

2012-10-01

384

Malaria volunteers fight to protect the best weapon.  

PubMed

The dedicated work of volunteer village malaria workers is essential to prevent resistant malaria spreading from Cambodia to Africa, but the challenges are great. Yin Soeum and Gozde Zorlu report. PMID:21836752

2011-08-01

385

15 CFR 768.1 - Introduction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...5) any other attribute relevant to the purpose for which the control was placed on the item. Controlled countries. Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Cuba, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,...

2013-01-01

386

15 CFR 768.1 - Introduction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...5) any other attribute relevant to the purpose for which the control was placed on the item. Controlled countries. Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Cuba, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,...

2011-01-01

387

31 CFR 505.10 - Prohibitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of 1954, 42 U.S.C. 2011-2297g-4, or successor acts restricting the esportation of strategic goods. Schedule Albania Bulgaria Cambodia The Czech Republic Estonia Latvia Lithuania North Korea Mongolia People's Republic...

2010-07-01

388

15 CFR 768.1 - Introduction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...5) any other attribute relevant to the purpose for which the control was placed on the item. Controlled countries. Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Cuba, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,...

2010-01-01

389

15 CFR 768.1 - Introduction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...5) any other attribute relevant to the purpose for which the control was placed on the item. Controlled countries. Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Cuba, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,...

2012-01-01

390

15 CFR 768.1 - Introduction.  

...5) any other attribute relevant to the purpose for which the control was placed on the item. Controlled countries. Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Cuba, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,...

2014-01-01

391

Part I: International and Regional Management Arrangements Global International Whaling Commission (IWC)  

E-print Network

, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chile, People Contracting Government, may be accompanied by one or more experts and advisors. Each member government has one

392

Welcome to Hankuk University of Foreign Studies (HUFS) where you can meet the world.  

E-print Network

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Korean Government Scholarship Program for Graduate Students (Hankuk University of Foreign Studies) 1. Program Objective The Korean Government Scholarship Program is designed to provide higher education, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chile, Colombia

Di Pillo, Gianni

393

78 FR 60317 - Notice of Updates to the Department of Labor's List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...removal of tobacco from Kazakhstan, charcoal from Namibia, and diamonds from Zimbabwe...Kazakhstan, diamonds from Zimbabwe, charcoal from Namibia, and salt from Cambodia...List. B. Research on Child Labor in Charcoal Production in Namibia In response...

2013-10-01

394

An Environmental and Policy Evaluation of Cellulosic Ethanol  

E-print Network

energy demand of 1.5% per year until 2030; with three quarters of this increase coming from China, India, and the Middle East. ?Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam collectively...

Hurtado, Lisa Diane

2012-07-16

395

Timing of onset of evening activity of adult chinese rose beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adult Chinese rose beetles, Adoretus sinicus (Burmeister) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Adoretini), present in China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, the Marianas Islands, the Caroline Islands, and the Hawaiian Islands, are nighttime defoliators that feed on a wide vari...

396

Student Health Service MSU-Bozeman PO Box 173260  

E-print Network

, Bangladesh, Brazil, Cambodia, Cameroon, China, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, India of alcoholism? 3. Do you have cancer, leukemia, kidney disease, diabetes, AIDS/HIV or take immunosuppressive

Dyer, Bill

397

Decker Student Health Services Center PO Box 6000  

E-print Network

HIV infection or AIDS, diabetes, leukemia, lymphoma or a chronic immune disorder? YES NO If yes Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile

Suzuki, Masatsugu

398

University Health Center Name The University of Georgia UGA ID # 81  

E-print Network

Grenadines Uzbekistan Cambodia Guyana Moldova-Rep Sao Tome & Principe Vanuatu Cameroon Haiti Mongolia Saudi No Fibrotic changes on a prior chest x-ray suggesting inactive or past TB disease Yes No HIV/AIDS Yes

Kissinger, Jessica

399

The spread of the H5N1 bird flu epidemic in Asia in 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

H5N1 avian influenza has spread to eight countries in eastern Asia including China, Japan, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia,\\u000a Thailand, and Indonesia in early 2004. This H5N1 influenza A virus is extremely virulent in poultry including chickens and\\u000a ducks, killing millions of birds throughout the region. Additionally this virus has transmitted to humans (mainly children)\\u000a in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Thailand,

R. G. Webster; Y. Guan; L. Poon; S. Krauss; R. Webby; E. Govorkova; M. Peiris

400

A comparison of F2 distributions of certain economic characters in crosses of six "foreign" upland cotton stocks with an American upland tester stock  

E-print Network

supplanted to a notable extent by G. hirsutum types. For the purpose of discussion in this paper "Upland" will denote those varieties or types of G. hirsutum (race latifolium) which were introduced into the United States from the center of origin and were... stocks included representatives of the African Upland, Indian Upland-Cambodia and Cambodia types of G. hirsutum race latifolium and one representative of the race punetaturn. Detailed information on the history of the six stocks is not available...

Niles, George Alva

2013-10-04

401

104 SHORT NOTES Forktail 27 (2011) Acknowledgements  

E-print Network

). Ferguson-Lees, J. & Christie, D.A. (2001) Raptors of the world. New York: Houghton Mifflin. Gibson-Hill, C-headedfish-eagle(Ichthyophagaichthyaetus)inthePrekToalcore area of Tonle Sap lake, Cambodia. J. Raptor Res. 40: 277­283. Tingay, R. E., Nicoll, M. A. C-headedfish-eagleatPrekToal,Tonle Sap lake, Cambodia. J. Raptor Res. 44: 165­174. Wang, L. K. & Hails, C. J. (2007) An annotated

Lees, Alexander

402

Growth Media Simulating Ileal and Colonic Environments Affect the Intracellular Proteome and Carbon Fluxes of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strain EDL933  

PubMed Central

In this study, the intracellular proteome of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) spectrometry after growth in simulated ileal environment media (SIEM) and simulated colonic environment media (SCEM) under aerobic and microaerobic conditions. Differentially expressed intracellular proteins were identified and allocated to functional protein groups. Moreover, metabolic fluxes were analyzed by isotopologue profiling with [U-13C6]glucose as a tracer. The results of this study show that EDL933 responds with differential expression of a complex network of proteins and metabolic pathways, reflecting the high metabolic adaptability of the strain. Growth in SIEM and SCEM is obviously facilitated by the upregulation of nucleotide biosynthesis pathway proteins and could be impaired by exposition to 50 µM 6-mercaptopurine under aerobic conditions. Notably, various stress and virulence factors, including Shiga toxin, were expressed without having contact with a human host. PMID:23563955

Polzin, Sabrina; Huber, Claudia; Eylert, Eva; Elsenhans, Ines; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

403

On-line disciplines: Computer-mediated scholarship in the humanities and social sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent creation of global-area computer networks invites the development of tools and resources that can reap the scholarly advantages of such technology. In this paper, we discuss prospects for the productive use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) for scholarly interaction. We begin by describing the technology used to deliver information over academic networks and the kinds of disciplinary services that

Teresa M. Harrison; Timothy Stephen

1992-01-01

404

SPECIAL INTERESTS AND FINANCIAL LIBERALIZATION: THE CASE OF MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Financial liberalization is often believed to enhance economic growth. Yet in many cases a few powerful incumbents seem to capture most of the gains from the reform. In this paper, I construct a model with endogenous formation of special interest groups that could reap most of the benefits of financial liberalization. In particular, these groups lobby to limit entry by

SERGEY V. MITYAKOV

2011-01-01

405

BEHIND THE SCENES: TAKE A LOOK AT THE CALIFORNIA  

E-print Network

, gives visitors a visual cue as to the location of campus and the Arboretum. Along the way take note. This minor paving change reaps huge benefits to improving stormwater quality as rain can now can seep back removed for health or safety reasons from campus or local municipalities. 8. Throughout the garden, staff

Pasternack, Gregory B.

406

Best Practices for Managing Organizational Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organizations with increasingly diverse workforces and customer populations face challenges in reaping diversity's benefits while managing its potentially disruptive effects. This article defines workplace diversity and identifies best practices supporting planned and positive diversity management. It explores how academic libraries can apply…

Kreitz, Patricia A.

2008-01-01

407

Dr. Jeffrey Doering, Professor/Chairperson  

E-print Network

group was also treated to a tour of the UW Biotechnology Center by postdoctoral fellow and former Loyola. With the last of the funds for the program spent, Dr. Laten looks forward to the future of the REU pro- gram years." Should funding be secured, new cohorts of students will reap the benefits of one of the few

Kelly, John J.

408

The development of nociceptive circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of pain development has come into its own. Reaping the rewards of years of developmental and molecular biology, it has now become possible to translate fundamental knowledge of signalling pathways and synaptic physiology into a better understanding of infant pain. Research has cast new light on the physiological and pharmacological processes that shape the newborn pain response, which

Maria Fitzgerald

2005-01-01

409

Patterns of participation and free riding in territorial conflicts among ringtailed lemurs ( Lemur catta )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperation in animal social groups may be limited by the threat of “free riding,” the potential for individuals to reap the benefits of other individuals’ actions without paying their share of the costs. Here we investigate the factors that influence individual contributions to group-level benefits by studying individual participation in territorial defense among female ringtailed lemurs ( Lemur catta). To

Charles L. Nunn; Robert O. Deaner

2004-01-01

410

Who Pays the Costs of Non-GMO Segregation and Identity Preservation&quest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim is to explore who pays the costs and who reaps the benefits of maintaining a dual-market system of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. We analyze the welfare effects of the introduction of consumer “hatred” given GMO technology and the introduction of GMO technology given hatred. Making alternative assumptions of competitive and then monopolistic supply, we recognize that

Marion Desquilbet; David S. Bullock

2009-01-01

411

Who Pays the Costs of Non-GMO Segregation and Identity Preservation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim is to explore who pays the costs and who reaps the benefits of maintaining a dual-market system of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. We analyze the welfare effects of the introduction of consumer “hatred” given GMO technology and the introduction of GMO technology given hatred. Making alternative assumptions of competitive and then monopolistic supply, we recognize that

Marion Desquilbet; David S. Bullock

2003-01-01

412

2009 Phase II Proposal A3.01-8549  

E-print Network

the development of an on-blade full-span camber control system that reaps many of the known benefits of advanced terminal system performance may not be a straightforward combination of individual performance indices with the application of advanced rotor system control concepts, none have been implemented to date on a production

413

10 Tips for Internet Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is not always easy to find the balance between protecting students from Internet dangers and distractions and reaping its benefits--but it is certainly on every district's tech priority list. Sharnell Jackson, chief e-learning officer for the 415,000-student Chicago Public Schools, and Miguel Guhlin, director of instructional technology…

Riley, Sheila

2007-01-01

414

A pragmatic and holistic approach to strategic formulation through adopting balanced scorecard, SWOT analysis and blue ocean strategy -- a case study of a consumer product manufacturer in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a holistic approach to strategic formulation as practiced by a large consumer product manufacturer in China. This approach combines the application of a few powerful strategic tools to reap synergetic benefits. Innovative strategic approaches are regularly invented, introduced and adopted with mixed outcomes. It is important to be able to accurately, flexibly and systematically ascertain the internal

L. C. Koo; Hannah Koo; Lewis Luk

2008-01-01

415

A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Kuwaiti and British Citizens' Views of E-Government Interface Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is difficult to conceive how Web users from different cultures can be encouraged to reap the benefits of an e-government initiative when its portal is suffering from culture-indifferent interface quality. Thus far, the e-government literature not only has paid scanty attention to web evaluation issues but also has been slow to embarking on…

Aladwani, Adel M.

2013-01-01

416

Design of Fuzzy Logic Missile Guidance Law with Minimal Rule Base  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuzzy logic controllers based on Proportional Navigation Guidance law with minimal rule base was proposed in this study. The fuzzy logic controller is a knowledge based controller, which alters the value of the equivalent navigational constant to reap the maximum benefits in terms of the missile performance. Genetic algorithm was employed to optimize the number of rules, and was

Shuang-quan Li; Li-ying Yuan

2009-01-01

417

Ensuring Security and Trust in Electronic Communication: Towards A European Framework for Digital Signatures And Encryption  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This European Commission European Internet Forum Policy Paper addresses the need for "a secure and trustworthy environment" in order to reap the benefits of the "commercial opportunities [for] electronic communication via open networks." The document contains major sections on digital signatures, encryption, and policy, as well as explanatory annexes on such topics as signature, encryption, key escrow, and relevant European Commission policy initiatives.

418

Steam Trap Management  

E-print Network

A medium-sized plant of a high technology company is reaping the benefits of a Pro-active Steam Trap Program provided by Yarway's TECH/SERV Division. Initial work began March '84 and the most recent steam trap feasibility study conducted in March...

Murphy, J. J.; Hirtner, H. H.

419

Volume203,number2,3 CHEMICAL PHYSICS LETTERS 19February1993 Transient grating spectroscopy of exciton sound waves  

E-print Network

of exciton sound waves in dense exciton fluids Jan A. Leegwater and Shaul Mukamel Department of Chemistry to that of sound waves in an ordinary gas. A method to probe these motions using transient grating with strong pump density may disappear and reap- pear later. The physical mechanism is analogous to that of sound waves

Mukamel, Shaul

420

Aligning Diversity, Quality, and Equity: The Implications of Legal and Public Policy Developments for Promoting Racial Diversity in Graduate Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diversity today is considered central to the capacity of postsecondary institutions to thrive in an increasingly multiracial and multiethnic society. However, as universities take steps to reap the educational benefits of racial and ethnic diversity, legal decisions and state laws increasingly restrict the tools these institutions have…

Garces, Liliana M.

2014-01-01

421

Children's Recess Physical Activity: Movement Patterns and Preferences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The benefits of recess can be reaped by all students regardless of socioeconomic status, race, or gender and at relatively little cost. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity (PA) variables related to the recess PA patterns of third and fourth grade children and the social preferences and individuals influencing their PA…

Woods, Amelia Mays; Graber, Kim C.; Daum, David Newman

2012-01-01

422

Helping Rural Schools Achieve Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Senator Collins of Maine plans to fight for proper federal funding of the Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) that allows rural schools to combine federal funding sources. Collins, and Senator Dianne Feinstein, will soon introduce legislation that will eliminate inequities in the current Social Security law that penalize teachers and other…

Collins, Susan

2003-01-01

423

Discovering History at the Community College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many of the history courses community college students take are fairly broad and ostensibly generic surveys of world, Western European, or American history. This chapter discusses an array of innovative practices that enable students to better appreciate how studying history can help them master the challenges--and reap the benefits--of a liberal…

Tai, Emily Sohmer

2013-01-01

424

How can we build enough physical activity into our busy lives, and  

E-print Network

in order to reap the maximum health benefits? The following tips can help ramp up your physical activity on a CD at home to your favorite music and get moving. Love the great outdoors? Try biking, gardening, RD, LDN, CDE, Family and Community Health Sciences Educator, Hunterdon County continued on page 8

Garfunkel, Eric

425

College of liberal arts University of alaska fairbanks Migration Story  

E-print Network

to reap the benefits of a CLA education. Impressive as the stories in this magazine are, there are so many child speaks ·Emerson Eads Composing a life in music ·Last Road North Ben Huff 's photographic journey ·Crime and Mediation Restorative justice at work #12;1 Conducting Life in Music: Music's multitalented

Wagner, Diane

426

Hospital borrowers finding it tougher to scale the wall on Wall Street.  

PubMed

More hospitals, many located in rural areas or battling tough competition, are getting the cold shoulder from tax-exempt bond investors, even though the facilities desperately need capital to advance their operations. Meanwhile, well-to-do systems and hospitals continue to reap the benefits of getting low-cost capital from the municipal bond market. PMID:10118645

Nemes, J

1992-06-22

427

Hospital chain's LBO reads like textbook case.  

PubMed

Health Management Associates' leveraged buyout was done during the swirling and headlong LBO mania of the 1980s, but this one was structured to keep the company from being crushed under the weight of its debt. That cool calculation is paying off in cool millions for management and institutional investors as a return to public ownership reaps stock-price dividends. PMID:10109171

Lutz, S

1991-02-18

428

EarthLink is Redefining Work EarthLink, a leading IT services and communications  

E-print Network

customers with managed services including cloud computing, managed and private cloud, and virtualization services such as managed hosting and cloud workspace. EarthLink also offers a robust portfolio, each individual makes a positive impact, yet still reaps the benefits and stability of an established

Rodriguez, Carlos

429

Toward Privacy-Assured Cloud Data Services with Flexible Search Functionalities  

E-print Network

, the cloud provider, application developers, and end-users can all reap benefits. Especially, the end by tapping in the cloud's shared pool of configurable computing resources [1]. Yet, despite the tremendous exclusive control of their data and computations. It is difficult for users to fully trust the cloud, due

Hou, Y. Thomas

430

(In press, 2013). In J. Holmes, M. Meyerhoff, & S. Ehrlich (Eds.), Handbook of Language and Gender, 2nd edition. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing.  

E-print Network

, and economically less powerful gender, especially likely to reap its benefits. The argument goes as follows: Text-to-face communication (e.g. Graddol and Swann 1989). Of course, men, too, stand to benefit from anonymous online communication; the difference is that for women, the technological environment purportedly removes barriers

Herring, Susan

431

Interdisciplinary Collaborations from a Health Informatics Prospective Katie A. Siek and Kay Connelly  

E-print Network

internal research group dynamic barriers such as a limited common lexicon [6, 8, 10-12], conflicting work researchers overcome these barriers to continue to conduct interdisciplinary research by improving communication with their collaborators, departments, and research communities and thus reap the benefits

Connelly, Kay

432

Kinship, Family, and Gender Effects in the Ultimatum Game  

E-print Network

and reap direct benefits from altruism (Alvard 2003). Furthermore, if there are sex differences Published online: 31 July 2008 # Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2008 Abstract Kinship relations on altruistic behavior in a kin-based horticultural community in rural Dominica. Results show sex

Quinlan, Robert

433

New York Taps into Israeli Institute's Expertise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A century after a New York banker donated $100,000 to help establish what would become the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, his hometown is reaping the benefits of his generosity. Last month the Technion, Israel's oldest university, and Cornell University won a closely watched competition to build an applied-sciences campus in New York…

Kalman, Matthew

2012-01-01

434

FALL/WINTER 2014 Volume 32, Nos. 3 & 4 Research in Michigan  

E-print Network

FALL/WINTER 2014 · Volume 32, Nos. 3 & 4 Research in Michigan reaps great rewards LAKE EFFECT #12;I feel fortunate to have been raised in Michigan and to have spent countless vacations within the Great of Michigan wine. This past summer, we rented a cottage in the heart of Glen Arbor -- the home of the Sleeping

Isaacs, Rufus

435

43 CFR 2521.5 - Annual proof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Expenditures for fencing all or a portion of the claim, for surveying for the purpose of ascertaining the levels for canals, ditches...to be reaped as a result of cultivation. Expenditures for surveying the claim in order to locate the corners of same...

2011-10-01

436

43 CFR 2521.5 - Annual proof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Expenditures for fencing all or a portion of the claim, for surveying for the purpose of ascertaining the levels for canals, ditches...to be reaped as a result of cultivation. Expenditures for surveying the claim in order to locate the corners of same...

2012-10-01

437

Employing broadband spectra and cluster analysis to assess thermal defoliation of cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Growers and field scouts need assistance in surveying cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fields subjected to thermal defoliation to reap the benefits provided by this nonchemical defoliation method. A study was conducted to evaluate broadband spectral data and unsupervised classification as tools for s...

438

43 CFR 2521.5 - Annual proof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Expenditures for fencing all or a portion of the claim, for surveying for the purpose of ascertaining the levels for canals, ditches...to be reaped as a result of cultivation. Expenditures for surveying the claim in order to locate the corners of same...

2013-10-01

439

Predicting Individuals' Learning Success from Patterns of Pre-Learning MRI Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance in most complex cognitive and psychomotor tasks improves with training, yet the extent of improvement varies among individuals. Is it possible to forecast the benefit that a person might reap from training? Several behavioral measures have been used to predict individual differences in task improvement, but their predictive power is limited. Here we show that individual differences in patterns

Loan T. K. Vo; Dirk B. Walther; Arthur F. Kramer; Kirk I. Erickson; Walter R. Boot; Michelle W. Voss; Ruchika S. Prakash; Hyunkyu Lee; Monica Fabiani; Gabriele Gratton; Daniel J. Simons; Bradley P. Sutton; Michelle Y. Wang

2011-01-01

440

Intra-alliance performance, control rights, and today's split of tomorrow's value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the differential benefits reaped by individual partners are a major determinant of the performance impact of strategic alliances, previous analysis has faced methodological challenges. In response we propose a measure for relative value appropriation and an explicit theoretical framework for predicting its variation in terms of relative bargaining position. With a sample of 180 biotechnology R&D alliances, we are

Tunji Adegbesan; Matthew J. Higgins

2007-01-01

441

Evaluation of the Implementation of the Rural and Low-Income School (RLIS) Program: Interim Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rural and Low-Income School (RLIS) program is part of the Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) that was authorized under Title VI, Part B of the "Elementary and Secondary Act of 1965" ("ESEA"), as amended by the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001" ("NCLB"). The RLIS program provides additional funds to help rural districts serving…

Magill, Kathleen; Reeves, Cynthia; Hallberg, Kelly; Hinojosa, Trisha

2009-01-01

442

Evaluation of the Implementation of the Rural and Low-Income School Program: Final Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rural and Low-Income School (RLIS) program is part of the Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) that was authorized under Title VI, Part B of the "Elementary and Secondary Act of 1965" ("ESEA"), as amended by the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001" ("NCLB"). The RLIS program provides additional funds to help rural districts serving…

Magill, Kathleen; Hallberg, Kelly; Hinojosa, Trisha; Reeves, Cynthia

2010-01-01

443

Social and Economic Effects of Large-Scale Energy Development in Rural Areas: An Assessment Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

General development, structure, and uses of a computerized impact projection model, the North Dakota Regional Environmental Assessment Program (REAP) Economic-Demographic Assessment Model, were studied not only to describe a model developed to meet informational needs of local decision makers (especially in a rural area undergoing development),…

Murdock, Steve H.; Leistritz, F. Larry

444

Now That I Have It, What Can I Do with It?  

Microsoft Academic Search

All JCE subscribers now have access to all areas of JCE Online. As a reader of the print Journal you may be wondering what benefits JCE Online offers you and how you can reap those benefits. Point your WWW browser at jchemed.chem.wisc.edu, login, and follow along. Keep in mind that the three benefits outlined below are those that directly benefit

Jon L. Holmes

1999-01-01

445

Investigating environmental burdens and benefits of biologically inspired self-cleaning surfaces  

E-print Network

for the technology claim potential environmental benefits based on expected reductions in cleaning intensity [2Investigating environmental burdens and benefits of biologically inspired self-cleaning surfaces Laura Raibeck 1 , John Reap 1 , Bert Bras * Georgia Institute of Technology, George W. Woodruff School

Das, Suman

446

"Kidney Health" Deaf Health Talks  

E-print Network

"Kidney Health" Deaf Health Talks September 22, 2010 #12;Supporters Deaf Health Community Committee Recreation Club for the Deaf ("REAP") #12;Overview What do kidneys do for us? What are common causes for kidney failure? What are common causes for kidney stones? How can we protect our kidneys? #12;Quiz How

Goldman, Steven A.

447

Advocating for Ag Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The strongest advocates for agricultural education are the educators who teach it and the students who reap the results of their learning. Teacher advocates in Idaho discuss how their efforts have made a difference at the local and state levels. The author describes an approach the teacher advocates take to advocacy which proves that it isn't just…

Fritsch, Julie

2012-01-01

448

Using GIS and GPS Technology as an Instructional Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS), two technologies that have been in general use for many years, but are more recently appearing in the educational sector, providing the opportunity to reap the benefits of technology while engaging young adolescents in an interactive environment. Discusses ways to…

Broda, Herbert W.; Baxter, Ryan E.

2002-01-01

449

Using GIS and GPS Technology as an Instructional Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Passive students staring blankly at computer screens has been a worrisome image for many educators. Often they fear that technology can remove students from contact with the real world. Two technologies that have been in general use for many years, but are more recently appearing in the educational sector, provide the opportunity to reap the…

Broda, Herbert W.; Baxter, Ryan E.

2003-01-01

450

Improving the Relationship between Continuing Education Leadership and Marketing Directors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this economy, college and university continuing education units will not automatically reap the benefits of returning adult learners as in past recessions: this economy caused a drastic reduction of resources available to the workforce and for personal revenue. As a result of decreased personal income and workforce training funding, competition…

Fong, Jim

2009-01-01

451

Laughter IS the Best Medicine Have you laughed today? You don't need jokes, a  

E-print Network

, or comedic motivation to reap the benefits of laughter. Laughter is a powerful antidote to stress, pain and conflict, and "fake" laughter has just as many emotional and physiological benefits as "real" laughterLaughter IS the Best Medicine Have you laughed today? You don't need jokes, a sense of humor

452

Trend Following Algorithms for Technical Trading in Stock Market  

E-print Network

Trend Following Algorithms for Technical Trading in Stock Market Simon Fong, Jackie Tai, Yain Whar the trading strategies in an attempt to predict stock market prices for reaping profits. Efforts market turn and momentum, in order to foresee an accurate stock market outcome. Stock market prediction

Si, Yain Whar "Lawrence"

453

Internet Guidance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that children need proper guidance and boundaries to reap the benefits of the Internet. Focuses on two issues: how parents can protect their children from the Internet's potential dangers and how they can help their children use the Internet to get work done. Includes suggestions for teachers to help parents meet these challenges. (VWC)

Savage, Frank X.

1999-01-01

454

The Duality of Individualism: Attitudes toward Women, Generation Me, and the Method of Cross-Temporal Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This author became intrigued by the idea that her generation, who had grown up reaping the benefits of second-wave feminism, might differ from previous generations in their attitudes toward women. What was unclear was how this period of progress might have combined with feminist backlash in affecting subsequent generations' responses to typical…

Twenge, Jean M.

2011-01-01

455

Climate change: impacts and adaptation in England's woodlands  

E-print Network

Climate change: impacts and adaptation in England's woodlands The changing climate presents associated with climate change, and the likely impact on trees, silviculture and forest operations that increase resilience whatever climate change brings, or that are likely to reap the greatest rewards

456

"Skin Cancer-What to Look For" Rochester Recreation  

E-print Network

"Skin Cancer- What to Look For" Rochester Recreation Club for the Deaf May 20, 2010 #12;Supporters for the Deaf ("REAP") #12;Overview Skin Overview What is skin cancer? Who is at risk? How common is skin cancer? Signs of skin cancer Prevention Treatments #12;Skin Overview Skin is the largest organ in your body

Goldman, Steven A.

457

Written Testimony of Suzanne Berger Professor of Political Science and Co-Chair,  

E-print Network

we need production capabilities located in the United States in order to reap the full benefits. Could manufacturing jobs come back? The brightest corporate superstars, like Apple, were locating to rebuild a dynamic economy? Would production capabilities at home be needed to capture the flow of benefits

de Weck, Olivier L.

458

How To Conduct a Solid Community Survey on a Shoestring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If a survey questionnaire is designed and worded effectively, volunteers can be used to conduct it. Apple Valley-Rosemount (Minnesota) found that volunteers need not be trained in interviewing techniques, and that the school board and administration can reap a wealth of high quality data and benefits not normally available with conventional, more…

Anderson, Paul S.

1973-01-01

459

Networking the Land: Rural America in the Information Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes 10 projects funded by the federal Technology Opportunities Program, in which people in isolated regions are finding ways to connect to new information networks and are reaping social, economic, and educational benefits. In the sprawling Navajo Nation, where many families lack even basic telephone service, local tribal…

Conte, Christopher

460

Iowa State University: Live Green Revolving Loan Fund. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The $3 million Live Green Revolving Loan Fund (LGRLF) at Iowa State University (ISU) was launched in 2008. The LGRLF is unique in its decentralized implementation structure which allows each department and building to reap the benefits of their own efficiency measures and gives individual departments the incentive to propose resource-saving…

Billingsley, Christina

2011-01-01

461

Service Learning and Simulations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both service learning and simulations have been shown to positively impact student outcomes, but they are not often used together. This article examines how to effectively combine these active learning styles to reap the benefits of both. After examining a case in which the two were combined and the impact this approach had on student evaluations…

Jenkins, Shannon

2010-01-01

462

Prototype expert system for load management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand Side Management (DSM) offers electric utilities a method to better serve their customer base. With efficient utilization of the demand side resource, a utility can reap economic benefit while improving system security without the need to build expensive generation that might rarely be used. Demand side management options represent the ability to have individual customers reduce their load upon

M. K. Goldenblatt; M. S. Giuffre; K. A. Glidden; D. H. Johnson; K. L. Nohalty

1992-01-01

463

TOPIC  

Cancer.gov

REAPS (Rapid Eating Assessment for Participants - Shortened Version) CJSegal-Isaacson, EdD RD, Judy-Wylie-Rosett, EdD RD, Kim Gans, PhD, MPH In an average week, how often do you: Usually/ Often Sometimes Rarely/ Never Does not apply to me

464

Taking a Holistic Approach to Sustainability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The benefits of sustainability go way beyond improving the environment. School districts that choose to build facilities using sustainable principles reap the benefits of environmentally friendly, healthy establishments; attractive work spaces (which improve recruiting and retention); and significant operational cost savings. Districts realize…

Girouard, Miles

2011-01-01

465

CMSC 412, Spring 2014 Due: Friday, February 18th, 2014 5:00 pm  

E-print Network

, discarding its Kernel_Thread object. Any process that is dead, but has not been reaped, is called a zombie or otherwise. More about process lifetimes: Zombies A process can be in one of four states on its way from being alive to being dead: 1. refCount=0, alive=false #12;This process is a zombie that's "totally dead

Hollingsworth, Jeffrey K.

466

Piecing together the puzzle of carnivore reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in feline and canine reproductive studies demonstrate how methodically piecing this information together is beginning to reap rewards for wildlife conservation programs. Non-invasive endocrinology can be used to monitor female reproductive function, time con-specific introductions or AI, and diagnose pregnancy. Sperm morphology characteristics and cell membrane function may be genetically inherited and differ between genetically diverse and inbred

K. L. Goodrowe; S. L. Walker; D. P. Ryckman; G. F. Mastromonaco; M. A. Hay; H. L. Bateman; W. T. Waddell

2000-01-01

467

Fieldbus brings protocol to process control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognizing the harvest to be reaped from a standardized interface for interconnecting their wares, the makers of electronic test and measuring instruments long ago devised the arrangement now known as the Standard Digital Interface for Programmable Instrumentation, or IEEE Standard 488. Movers and shakers in the world of process control saw things differently, as a consequence, that industry still lacks

M. Santori; K. Zech

1996-01-01

468

STATES OF SECRECY: AN INTRODUCTION Koen Vermeir and Dniel Margcsy  

E-print Network

of commercial and state secrets in scientific practice. Despite some qualifications about the practical needSTATES OF SECRECY: AN INTRODUCTION Koen Vermeir and Dániel Margócsy to appear in the British and Justified and Hermetic Order of little men who think they can reap the secrets of the ancients for a couple

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

469

Semi-Automatic Generation of Cloze Question Distractors Effect of Students' L1  

E-print Network

of an intelligent tutor for English as a Second Language (ESL) vocabulary learning. This tutor, REAP, retrieves of cloze question Currently, students read documents containing target words that they need to learn. Cloze by students ac- cording to their native language. 2. Background Goodrich [2] analyzed the potency (how

Eskenazi, Maxine

470

Political party use of radio and television in the 1960 campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although only about 1% of all broadcast revenues in 1960 could be attributed to time purchased for the Presidential election campaign, the total (close to $14 million) was enough to put a very?large dent into political party treasuries. At the same time, broadcasting stations and networks reaped a quadrennial bonanza. The following article describes and discusses the trends in party

Edward C. Dreyer

1964-01-01

471

Improving Doctor/Caregiver Communication  

MedlinePLUS

... Positive outcomes include: bet- ter care for the patient, less stress and ill- ness for the caregiver, more efficient use of doctors’ time, reduced costs for the health care system, and more satisfaction for all concerned. In order to reap these ...

472

Customer complaints: a managed care firm's best weapon in CQI.  

PubMed

Encouraging customer feedback and developing an automated customer complaint system are two essential steps a health plan must take if it wishes to develop a balanced relationship with the customer. The author explores how the right attitude and appropriate action can ensure that both customers and the company reap the benefits of a comprehensive customer complaint system. PMID:10139955

Polonski, G J

1995-01-01

473

Cost Concerns, Economic Anxieties Put Construction on Shaky Ground  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports that years of rising fuel and materials costs, compounded by current budget shortfalls and uncertainty about the marketability of construction bonds, have made school facilities directors eager to reap the benefits of President Barack Obama's economic-recovery initiative, which is slated to include federal money for building…

Ash, Katie

2009-01-01

474

The University of British Columbia Residential Environmental  

E-print Network

.1 July 2009 Sustainability #12;UBC REAP v2.0 Reference Guide UBC will model "a responsible, engaged. UBC Policy #5 ­ Sustainable Development UBC's goal is "to utilize its land resource to support, and sustainable community, dedicated to the principles of inclusivity and global citizenship." Trek 2010

Strynadka, Natalie

475

Authentication of Freshness for Outsourced Multi-Version Key-Value Stores Regular paper  

E-print Network

. Such intensive data streams are widely observed in system logs, network monitoring logs, social application logs of outsourced data while reaping the benefits of broadly available cloud services. I. INTRODUCTION In the big and scalable networked software. By delegating processing, storing, and query serving of data streams

Lee, Hsien-Hsin "Sean"

476

Implementing Innovative Feedback Approaches in English as a Foreign Language Contexts through University-School Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a university-school collaboration project that investigates six English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' attempts to change conventional feedback approaches in three secondary schools of Hong Kong, indicating the benefits university-school collaboration can reap for both teacher educators and school teachers.

Lee, Icy

2013-01-01

477

High Quality Art Education: For Inclusion and Resilience  

E-print Network

benefit the most from this type of learning continue to experience cutbacks in the curriculum (Arts EducationArts Education Partnership (2004), which included recognition that when learning through the arts all students reap academic and social benefits.education classroom, but the institutionalization of high-quality art brings benefits

Stewart, Rachel Dawn

2011-01-01

478

automotive excellence Why Coventry University received a Royal  

E-print Network

perfect match How a partnership with Coventry City Football Club is reaping benefits for all Applied Rese. From art to design, health to sports, regeneration to human security, mathematics to engineering recognised for being business-facing we are committed to providing an excellent education enriched by our

Low, Robert

479

"Deaf Health Talk" Sponsored by a Grant Provided by the Center for Community Health  

E-print Network

In Collaboration with RRCD's R.E.A.P DHCC is a Community Partner of the NCDHR Topic: "Skin Cancer ­ What to Look Lyell Avenue, Rochester, NY 14606 We will talk about skin cancer and other types of skin lesions. We Language. Areas of discussion: 1. Types of skin cancer and other common skin lesions 2. How to identify

Goldman, Steven A.

480

Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy  

E-print Network

Friday Meeting 29 Feb 2008 Day 1 Activities · Optical fibers removed except for VP #2 · Hg systemX solution, let dry ~4hrs, used vacuum to remove remaining liquid ­ Hg vapors ~200 µg/m^3 at floor level, ~0 floor ­ Vapor levels decreased by factor of 2 or better · Reap

McDonald, Kirk

481

Orthogonal Capability Building Blocks for Flexible AHS Deployment  

E-print Network

, orthogonal building blocks #12;2 INTRODUCTION Reaping the full benefits of an Automated Highway System (AHS1 Orthogonal Capability Building Blocks for Flexible AHS Deployment Philip Koopman Michelle Bayouth, PA 15213 USA Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA ABSTRACT Once a baseline level of full automation is possible

Koopman, Philip

482

Getting Ready for School: Piloting Universal Prekindergarten in an Urban County  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investments in high-quality early care and education have been shown to reap societal benefits across the lives of the children served. A key intervention point is in the lives of 3- to 5-year olds during the period prior to entering kindergarten. Many jurisdictions have developed broad-based prekindergarten initiatives. This study reports on a…

Fischer, Robert L.; Peterson, Lance T.; Bhatta, Tirth; Coulton, Claudia

2013-01-01

483

Calculating High School Graduation Rates. Education Policy Brief. Volume 6, Number 5, Spring 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports consistently demonstrate that the attainment of a high school diploma is not simply of value to the individual student, but that the benefit of a high school diploma is reaped by the graduate's community as well. Most educators readily acknowledge the importance of dropout prevention and the significance of a high school diploma. A…

Stanley, Kylie R.; Spradlin, Terry E.; Plucker, Jonathan A.

2008-01-01

484

Black Professors Managing Mentorship: Implications of Applying Social Exchange Frameworks to Analyses of Student Interactions and Their Influence on Scholarly Productivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Past research has focused on benefits that students reap from mentoring, but less attention has been focused on the faculty experience. Studies on faculty and mentorship tend to highlight the costs that can negatively influence faculty productivity rather than addressing any benefits they may accrue. Black faculty may be at…

Griffin, Kimberly A.

2012-01-01

485

Converting 15-Minute Interval Electricity Load Data into Reduced Demand, Energy Reduction and Cash Flow  

E-print Network

Whole-building-electric (WBE) 15-minute interval data is an extremely low-cost, easy approach to reap an immediate reduction in energy consumption. With the advance of lower cost Internet based metering technology integrated with TCP/IP Internet...

Herrin, D. G.

486

CUPS Software Users Manual  

E-print Network

The Printing Problem; The Technology; Jobs; Classes; Filters; Backends; Printer Drivers; Networking .... users (and applications) can reap the benefits of this new technology with no changes. ... Each file or set of files that is submitted for printing is called a job. ..... Apple Operating System Development License Exception;.

Easy Software Products

487

Efficacy of rapid, economical, acetic acid, Papanicolaou stain in cervical smears as an alternative to conventional Papanicolaou stain  

PubMed Central

Background: Papanicolaou (Pap) stain has been used over the years for cervical cytology screening. However; it utilizes a considerable amount of alcohol which is expensive and difficult to procure. In one of the modifications, ethyl alcohol is replaced by 1% acetic acid and is termed as rapid, economical, acetic acid Papanicolaou (REAP) stain. It is cost effective, easily available and provides a suitable and rapid staining alternative. Aim: This study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of REAP stain as an alternative method to conventional Pap stain. Materials and Methods: This study was done over a period of 18 months in a tertiary care hospital. Two sets of cervical smears were prepared of which one was stained with conventional Pap stain, and other was stained with REAP stain. The smears were examined for cytomorphological parameters and were evaluated using a modification of parameters given by Ng et al. Results: A total of 737 smears were examined in duplicate. Most of the conventional Pap smears showed excellent preservation (91.6%)