Science.gov

Sample records for sigact acm sigarch

  1. ACME-III and ACME-IV Final Campaign Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Biraud, S. C.

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s third and fourth Airborne Carbon Measurements (ACME) field campaigns, ACME-III and ACME-IV, are: 1) to measure and model the exchange of CO2, water vapor, and other greenhouse gases by the natural, agricultural, and industrial ecosystems of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) region; 2) to develop quantitative approaches to relate these local fluxes to the concentration of greenhouse gases measured at the Central Facility tower and in the atmospheric column above the ARM SGP Central Facility, 3) to develop and test bottom-up measurement and modeling approaches to estimate regional scale carbon balances, and 4) to develop and test inverse modeling approaches to estimate regional scale carbon balance and anthropogenic sources over continental regions. Regular soundings of the atmosphere from near the surface into the mid-troposphere are essential for this research.

  2. Quark ACM with topologically generated gluon mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Ishita Dutta; Lahiri, Amitabha

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the effect of a small, gauge-invariant mass of the gluon on the anomalous chromomagnetic moment (ACM) of quarks by perturbative calculations at one-loop level. The mass of the gluon is taken to have been generated via a topological mass generation mechanism, in which the gluon acquires a mass through its interaction with an antisymmetric tensor field Bμν. For a small gluon mass ( < 10 MeV), we calculate the ACM at momentum transfer q2 = -M Z2. We compare those with the ACM calculated for the gluon mass arising from a Proca mass term. We find that the ACM of up, down, strange and charm quarks vary significantly with the gluon mass, while the ACM of top and bottom quarks show negligible gluon mass dependence. The mechanism of gluon mass generation is most important for the strange quarks ACM, but not so much for the other quarks. We also show the results at q2 = -m t2. We find that the dependence on gluon mass at q2 = -m t2 is much less than at q2 = -M Z2 for all quarks.

  3. Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project is developing technology to build structures on planetary surfaces using in-situ resources. The project focuses on the construction of both 2D (landing pads, roads, and structure foundations) and 3D (habitats, garages, radiation shelters, and other structures) infrastructure needs for planetary surface missions. The ACME project seeks to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of two components needed for planetary surface habitation and exploration: 3D additive construction (e.g., contour crafting), and excavation and handling technologies (to effectively and continuously produce in-situ feedstock). Additionally, the ACME project supports the research and development of new materials for planetary surface construction, with the goal of reducing the amount of material to be launched from Earth.

  4. ACM TOMS replicated computational results initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, Michael Allen

    2015-06-03

    In this study, the scientific community relies on the peer review process for assuring the quality of published material, the goal of which is to build a body of work we can trust. Computational journals such as The ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS) use this process for rigorously promoting the clarity and completeness of content, and citation of prior work. At the same time, it is unusual to independently confirm computational results.

  5. ACM TOMS replicated computational results initiative

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Heroux, Michael Allen

    2015-06-03

    In this study, the scientific community relies on the peer review process for assuring the quality of published material, the goal of which is to build a body of work we can trust. Computational journals such as The ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS) use this process for rigorously promoting the clarity and completeness of content, and citation of prior work. At the same time, it is unusual to independently confirm computational results.

  6. How to recycle asbestos containing materials (ACM)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2000-04-11

    The current disposal of asbestos containing materials (ACM) in the private sector consists of sealing asbestos wetted with water in plastic for safe transportation and burial in regulated land fills. This disposal methodology requires large disposal volumes especially for asbestos covered pipe and asbestos/fiberglass adhering to metal framework, e.g. filters. This wrap and bury technology precludes recycle of the asbestos, the pipe and/or the metal frameworks. Safe disposal of ACM at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, likewise, requires large disposal volumes in landfills for non-radioactive ACM and large disposal volumes in radioactive burial grounds for radioactive and suspect contaminated ACM. The availability of regulated disposal sites is rapidly diminishing causing recycle to be a more attractive option. Asbestos adhering to metal (e.g., pipes) can be recycled by safely removing the asbestos from the metal in a patented hot caustic bath which prevents airborne contamination /inhalation of asbestos fibers. The dissolution residue (caustic and asbestos) can be wet slurry fed to a melter and vitrified into a glass or glass-ceramic. Palex glasses, which are commercially manufactured, are shown to be preferred over conventional borosilicate glasses. The Palex glasses are alkali magnesium silicate glasses derived by substituting MgO for B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in borosilicate type glasses. Palex glasses are very tolerant of the high MgO and high CaO content of the fillers used in forming asbestos coverings for pipes and found in boiler lashing, e.g., hydromagnesite (3MgCO{sub 3} Mg(OH){sub 2} 3H{sub 2}O) and plaster of paris, gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}). The high temperate of the vitrification process destroys the asbestos fibers and renders the asbestos non-hazardous, e.g., a glass or glass-ceramic. In this manner the glass or glass-ceramic produced can be recycled, e.g., glassphalt or glasscrete, as can the clean metal pipe or metal framework.

  7. Sealing Force Increasing of ACM Gasket through Electron Beam Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, D. J.; Batalha, G. F.

    2011-01-01

    Rubber is an engineering material largely used as sealing parts, in form of O-rings, solid gaskets and liquid gaskets, materials applied in liquid state with posterior vulcanization and sealing. Stress relaxation is a rubber characteristic which impacts negatively in such industrial applications (rings and solid gaskets). This work has the purpose to investigate the use of electron beam radiation (EB) as a technology able to decrease the stress relaxation in acrylic rubber (ACM), consequently increasing the sealing capability of this material. ACM samples were irradiated with dose of 100 kGy and 250 kGy, its behavior was comparatively investigated using, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and compression stress relaxation (CSR) experiments. The results obtained by DMA shown an increase of Tg and changes in dynamic mechanical behavior.

  8. Acme jumper pipe system for coke-oven charging

    SciTech Connect

    Medved, P.D.; Thomas, H.

    1996-08-01

    Acme Steel has operated larry cars with an attached jumper pipe since 1977 and had been able to meet the State Implementation Plan (SIP). With the advent of the Clean Air Act (CAA), Acme considered that it could not meet these new standards without modifications to the jumper pipe system. Several drop sleeve modifications, boot seal materials and configurations were tested that resulted in limited success in improving the boot seal life. These modifications showed that the Clean Air Act standards could be met, but it would be cost prohibitive to continue to operate in this manner. The company decided to install an off-car jumper pipe system which uses a traveling U-tube for connection to the assist oven through an additional hole in the roof of each oven. Temperature related failures of drop sleeve seals were eliminated. The off-car jumper pipe is a more efficient gas connection to the assist oven and enables the company to meet the Clean Air Act charging requirements in a cost effective manner.

  9. Fuel gas main replacement at Acme Steel's coke plant

    SciTech Connect

    Trevino, O. . Chicago Coke Plant)

    1994-09-01

    ACME Steel's Chicago coke plant consists of two 4-meter, 50-oven Wilputte underjet coke-oven batteries. These batteries were constructed in 1956--1957. The use of blast furnace gas was discontinued in the late 1960's. In 1977--1978, the oven walls in both batteries were reconstructed. Reconstruction of the underfire system was limited to rebuilding the coke-oven gas reversing cocks and meter in orifices. By the early 1980's, the 24-in. diameter underfire fuel gas mains of both batteries developed leaks at the Dresser expansion joints. These leaks were a result of pipe loss due to corrosion. Leaks also developed along the bottoms and sides of both mains. A method is described that permitted pushing temperatures to be maintained during replacement of underfire fuel gas mains. Each of Acme's two, 50-oven, 4-metric Wilputte coke-oven, gas-fired batteries were heated by converting 10-in. diameter decarbonizing air mains into temporary fuel gas mains. Replacement was made one battery at a time, with the temporary 10-in. mains in service for five to eight weeks.

  10. Towards an Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) with Reflex Autonomicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Hinchey, Mike; Sterritt, Roy

    2005-01-01

    Cluster computing, whereby a large number of simple processors or nodes are combined together to apparently function as a single powerful computer, has emerged as a research area in its own right. The approach offers a relatively inexpensive means of providing a fault-tolerant environment and achieving significant computational capabilities for high-performance computing applications. However, the task of manually managing and configuring a cluster quickly becomes daunting as the cluster grows in size. Autonomic computing, with its vision to provide self-management, can potentially solve many of the problems inherent in cluster management. We describe the development of a prototype Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) that exploits autonomic properties in automating cluster management and its evolution to include reflex reactions via pulse monitoring.

  11. Air Traffic Complexity Measurement Environment (ACME): Software User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A user's guide for the Air Traffic Complexity Measurement Environment (ACME) software is presented. The ACME consists of two major components, a complexity analysis tool and user interface. The Complexity Analysis Tool (CAT) analyzes complexity off-line, producing data files which may be examined interactively via the Complexity Data Analysis Tool (CDAT). The Complexity Analysis Tool is composed of three independently executing processes that communicate via PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) and Unix sockets. The Runtime Data Management and Control process (RUNDMC) extracts flight plan and track information from a SAR input file, and sends the information to GARP (Generate Aircraft Routes Process) and CAT (Complexity Analysis Task). GARP in turn generates aircraft trajectories, which are utilized by CAT to calculate sector complexity. CAT writes flight plan, track and complexity data to an output file, which can be examined interactively. The Complexity Data Analysis Tool (CDAT) provides an interactive graphic environment for examining the complexity data produced by the Complexity Analysis Tool (CAT). CDAT can also play back track data extracted from System Analysis Recording (SAR) tapes. The CDAT user interface consists of a primary window, a controls window, and miscellaneous pop-ups. Aircraft track and position data is displayed in the main viewing area of the primary window. The controls window contains miscellaneous control and display items. Complexity data is displayed in pop-up windows. CDAT plays back sector complexity and aircraft track and position data as a function of time. Controls are provided to start and stop playback, adjust the playback rate, and reposition the display to a specified time.

  12. Autolysis of Lactococcus lactis caused by induced overproduction of its major autolysin, AcmA.

    PubMed Central

    Buist, G; Karsens, H; Nauta, A; van Sinderen, D; Venema, G; Kok, J

    1997-01-01

    The optical density of a culture of lactococcus lactis MG1363 was reduced more than 60% during prolonged stationary phase. Reduction in optical density (autolysis) was almost absent in a culture of an isogenic mutant containing a deletion in the major autolysin gene, acmA. An acmA mutant carrying multiple coples of a plasmid encoding AcmA lysed to a greater extent than the wild-type strain did. Intercellular action of AcmA was shown by mixing end-exponential-phase cultures of an acmA deletion mutant and a tripeptidase (pepT) deletion mutant. PepT, produced by the acmA mutant, was detected in the supernatant of the mixed culture, but no PepT was present in the culture supernatant of the acmA mutant. A plasmid was constructed in which acmA, lacking its own promoter, was placed downstream of the inducible promoter/operator region of the temperate lactococcal bacteriophage r1t. After mitomycin induction of an exponential-phase culture of L. lactis LL302 carrying this plasmid, the cells became subject to autolysis, resulting in the release of intracellular proteins. PMID:9212419

  13. Design and implementation of GaAs HBT circuits with ACME

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchings, Brad L.; Carter, Tony M.

    1993-01-01

    GaAs HBT circuits offer high performance (5-20 GHz) and radiation hardness (500 Mrad) that is attractive for space applications. ACME is a CAD tool specifically developed for HBT circuits. ACME implements a novel physical schematic-capture design technique where designers simultaneously view the structure and physical organization of a circuit. ACME's design interface is similar to schematic capture; however, unlike conventional schematic capture, designers can directly control the physical placement of both function and interconnect at the schematic level. In addition, ACME provides design-time parasitic extraction, complex wire models, and extensions to Multi-Chip Modules (MCM's). A GaAs HBT gate-array and semi-custom circuits have been developed with ACME; several circuits have been fabricated and found to be fully functional .

  14. Pomegranate MR images analysis using ACM and FCM algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morad, Ghobad; Shamsi, Mousa; Sedaaghi, M. H.; Alsharif, M. R.

    2011-10-01

    Segmentation of an image plays an important role in image processing applications. In this paper segmentation of pomegranate magnetic resonance (MR) images has been explored. Pomegranate has healthy nutritional and medicinal properties for which the maturity indices and quality of internal tissues play an important role in the sorting process in which the admissible determination of features mentioned above cannot be easily achieved by human operator. Seeds and soft tissues are the main internal components of pomegranate. For research purposes, such as non-destructive investigation, in order to determine the ripening index and the percentage of seeds in growth period, segmentation of the internal structures should be performed as exactly as possible. In this paper, we present an automatic algorithm to segment the internal structure of pomegranate. Since its intensity of stem and calyx is close to the internal tissues, the stem and calyx pixels are usually labeled to the internal tissues by segmentation algorithm. To solve this problem, first, the fruit shape is extracted from its background using active contour model (ACM). Then stem and calyx are removed using morphological filters. Finally the image is segmented by fuzzy c-means (FCM). The experimental results represent an accuracy of 95.91% in the presence of stem and calyx, while the accuracy of segmentation increases to 97.53% when stem and calyx are first removed by morphological filters.

  15. ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements VI (ACME VI) Science Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Biraud, S

    2015-12-01

    From October 1 through September 30, 2016, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility will deploy the Cessna 206 aircraft over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, collecting observations of trace-gas mixing ratios over the ARM’s SGP facility. The aircraft payload includes two Atmospheric Observing Systems, Inc., analyzers for continuous measurements of CO2 and a 12-flask sampler for analysis of carbon cycle gases (CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, 13CO2, 14CO2, carbonyl sulfide, and trace hydrocarbon species, including ethane). The aircraft payload also includes instrumentation for solar/infrared radiation measurements. This research is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s ARM Climate Research Facility and Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Program and builds upon previous ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements (ARM-ACME) missions. The goal of these measurements is to improve understanding of 1) the carbon exchange at the SGP site, 2) how CO2 and associated water and energy fluxes influence radiative forcing, convective processes and CO2 concentrations over the SGP site, and 3) how greenhouse gases are transported on continental scales.

  16. In-situ Data Analysis Framework for ACME Land Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Yao, C.; Jia, Y.; Steed, C.; Atchley, S.

    2015-12-01

    The realistic representation of key biogeophysical and biogeochemical functions is the fundamental of process-based ecosystem models. Investigating the behavior of those ecosystem functions within real-time model simulation can be a very challenging due to the complex of both model and software structure of an environmental model, such as the Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME) Land Model (ALM). In this research, author will describe the urgent needs and challenges for in-situ data analysis for ALM simulations, and layouts our methods/strategies to meet these challenges. Specifically, an in-situ data analysis framework is designed to allow users interactively observe the biogeophyical and biogeochemical process during ALM simulation. There are two key components in this framework, automatically instrumented ecosystem simulation, in-situ data communication and large-scale data exploratory toolkit. This effort is developed by leveraging several active projects, including scientific unit testing platform, common communication interface and extreme-scale data exploratory toolkit. Authors believe that, based on advanced computing technologies, such as compiler-based software system analysis, automatic code instrumentation, and in-memory data transport, this software system provides not only much needed capability for real-time observation and in-situ data analytics for environmental model simulation, but also the potentials for in-situ model behavior adjustment via simulation steering.

  17. Comparative study of numerical schemes of TVD3, UNO3-ACM and optimized compact scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Duck-Joo; Hwang, Chang-Jeon; Ko, Duck-Kon; Kim, Jae-Wook

    1995-01-01

    Three different schemes are employed to solve the benchmark problem. The first one is a conventional TVD-MUSCL (Monotone Upwind Schemes for Conservation Laws) scheme. The second scheme is a UNO3-ACM (Uniformly Non-Oscillatory Artificial Compression Method) scheme. The third scheme is an optimized compact finite difference scheme modified by us: the 4th order Runge Kutta time stepping, the 4th order pentadiagonal compact spatial discretization with the maximum resolution characteristics. The problems of category 1 are solved by using the second (UNO3-ACM) and third (Optimized Compact) schemes. The problems of category 2 are solved by using the first (TVD3) and second (UNO3-ACM) schemes. The problem of category 5 is solved by using the first (TVD3) scheme. It can be concluded from the present calculations that the Optimized Compact scheme and the UN03-ACM show good resolutions for category 1 and category 2 respectively.

  18. CNTF-ACM promotes mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in cortical neurons through upregulating L-type calcium channel activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meiqun; Liu, Hongli; Xu, Huanbai; Wang, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaojing

    2016-09-01

    A specialized culture medium termed ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte-conditioned medium (CNTF-ACM) allows investigators to assess the peripheral effects of CNTF-induced activated astrocytes upon cultured neurons. CNTF-ACM has been shown to upregulate neuronal L-type calcium channel current activity, which has been previously linked to changes in mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate CNTF-ACM's effects upon mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in rat cortical neurons. Cortical neurons, CNTF-ACM, and untreated control astrocyte-conditioned medium (UC-ACM) were prepared from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rat cortical tissue. Neurons were cultured in either CNTF-ACM or UC-ACM for a 48-h period. Changes in the following parameters before and after treatment with the L-type calcium channel blocker isradipine were assessed: (i) intracellular calcium levels, (ii) mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), (iii) oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) formation, (iv) intracellular nitric oxide (NO) levels, (v) mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and (vi) susceptibility to the mitochondrial complex I toxin rotenone. CNTF-ACM neurons displayed the following significant changes relative to UC-ACM neurons: (i) increased intracellular calcium levels (p < 0.05), (ii) elevation in ΔΨm (p < 0.05), (iii) increased OCR and ATP formation (p < 0.05), (iv) increased intracellular NO levels (p < 0.05), (v) increased mitochondrial ROS production (p < 0.05), and (vi) increased susceptibility to rotenone (p < 0.05). Treatment with isradipine was able to partially rescue these negative effects of CNTF-ACM (p < 0.05). CNTF-ACM promotes mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in cortical neurons through elevating L-type calcium channel activity. PMID:27514537

  19. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FINAL REPORT, PHASE I - IMMEDIATE ASSESSMENT, ACME SOLVENTS SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a site assessment and feasibility study of incineration alternatives at the ACME Solvents Site at Rockford, Illinois. The document contains laboratory results that are reported to simulate incineration conditions but no details on test methods were provided. The d...

  20. ACME algorithms for contact in a multiphysics environment API version 2.2.

    SciTech Connect

    Heinstein, Martin Wilhelm; Glass, Micheal W.; Gullerud, Arne S.; Brown, Kevin H.; Voth, Thomas Eugene; Jones, Reese E.

    2004-07-01

    An effort is underway at Sandia National Laboratories to develop a library of algorithms to search for potential interactions between surfaces represented by analytic and discretized topological entities. This effort is also developing algorithms to determine forces due to these interactions for transient dynamics applications. This document describes the Application Programming Interface (API) for the ACME (Algorithms for Contact in a Multiphysics Environment) library.

  1. An audience-channel-message-evaluation (ACME) framework for health communication campaigns.

    PubMed

    Noar, Seth M

    2012-07-01

    Recent reviews of the literature have indicated that a number of health communication campaigns continue to fail to adhere to principles of effective campaign design. The lack of an integrated, organizing framework for the design, implementation, and evaluation of health communication campaigns may contribute to this state of affairs. The current article introduces an audience-channel-message-evaluation (ACME) framework that organizes the major principles of health campaign design, implementation, and evaluation. ACME also explicates the relationships and linkages between the varying principles. Insights from ACME include the following: The choice of audience segment(s) to focus on in a campaign affects all other campaign design choices, including message strategy and channel/component options. Although channel selection influences options for message design, choice of message design also influences channel options. Evaluation should not be thought of as a separate activity, but rather should be infused and integrated throughout the campaign design and implementation process, including formative, process, and outcome evaluation activities. Overall, health communication campaigns that adhere to this integrated set of principles of effective campaign design will have a greater chance of success than those using principles idiosyncratically. These design, implementation, and evaluation principles are embodied in the ACME framework. PMID:21441207

  2. Categorization of Computing Education Resources into the ACM Computing Classification System

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yinlin; Bogen, Paul Logasa; Fox, Dr. Edward A.; Hsieh, Dr. Haowei; Cassel, Dr. Lillian N.

    2012-01-01

    The Ensemble Portal harvests resources from multiple heterogonous federated collections. Managing these dynamically increasing collections requires an automatic mechanism to categorize records in to corresponding topics. We propose an approach to use existing ACM DL metadata to build classifiers for harvested resources in the Ensemble project. We also present our experience on utilizing the Amazon Mechanical Turk platform to build ground truth training data sets from Ensemble collections.

  3. Model Diagnostics for the Department of Energy's Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, B.

    2015-12-01

    In 2014, eight Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories, four academic institutions, one company, and the National Centre for Atmospheric Research combined forces in a project called Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) with the goal to speed Earth system model development for climate and energy. Over the planned 10-year span, the project will conduct simulations and modeling on DOE's most powerful high-performance computing systems at Oak Ridge, Argonne, and Lawrence Berkeley Leadership Compute Facilities. A key component of the ACME project is the development of an interactive test bed for the advanced Earth system model. Its execution infrastructure will accelerate model development and testing cycles. The ACME Workflow Group is leading the efforts to automate labor-intensive tasks, provide intelligent support for complex tasks and reduce duplication of effort through collaboration support. As part of this new workflow environment, we have created a diagnostic, metric, and intercomparison Python framework, called UVCMetrics, to aid in the testing-to-production execution of the ACME model. The framework exploits similarities among different diagnostics to compactly support diagnosis of new models. It presently focuses on atmosphere and land but is designed to support ocean and sea ice model components as well. This framework is built on top of the existing open-source software framework known as the Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT). Because of its flexible framework design, scientists and modelers now can generate thousands of possible diagnostic outputs. These diagnostics can compare model runs, compare model vs. observation, or simply verify a model is physically realistic. Additional diagnostics are easily integrated into the framework, and our users have already added several. Diagnostics can be generated, viewed, and manipulated from the UV-CDAT graphical user interface, Python command line scripts and programs

  4. Biological Control of Pathogens Causing Root Rot Complex in Field Pea Using Clonostachys rosea Strain ACM941.

    PubMed

    Xue, Allen G

    2003-03-01

    ABSTRACT Pea root rot complex (PRRC), caused by Alternaria alternata, Aphanomyces euteiches, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi, F. solani f. sp. pisi, Mycosphaerella pinodes, Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a major yield-limiting factor for field pea production in Canada. A strain of Clonostachys rosea (syn. Gliocladium roseum), ACM941 (ATCC 74447), was identified as a mycoparasite against these pathogens. When grown near the pathogen, ACM941 often was stimulated to produce lateral branches that grew directly toward the pathogen mycelium, typically entwining around the pathogen mycelium. When applied to the seed, ACM941 propagated in the rhizosphere and colonized the seed coat, hypocotyl, and roots as the plant developed and grew. ACM941 significantly reduced the recovery of all fungal pathogens from infected seed, increased in vitro seed germination by 44% and seedling emergence by 22%, and reduced root rot severity by 76%. The effects were similar to those of thiram fungicide, which increased germination and emergence by 33 and 29%, respectively, and reduced root rot severity by 65%. When soil was inoculated with selected PRRC pathogens in a controlled environment, seed treatment with ACM941 significantly increased emergence by 26, 38, 28, 13, and 21% for F. oxysporum f. sp. pisi, F. solani f. sp. pisi, M. pinodes, R. solani, and S. sclerotiorum, respectively. Under field conditions from 1995 to 1997, ACM941 increased emergence by 17, 23, 22, 13, and 18% and yield by 15, 6, 28, 6, and 19% for the five respective pathogens. The seed treatment effects of ACM941 on these PRRC pathogens were greater or statistically equivalent to those achieved with thiram. Results of this study suggest that ACM941 is an effective bioagent in controlling PRRC and is an alternative to existing chemical products. PMID:18944343

  5. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Acme Solvents, Morristown, Illinois, September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-27

    The Acme Solvents Reclaiming, Inc. facility is located approximately five miles south of Rockford, Illinois. From 1960 until 1973, the facility served as a disposal site for paints, oils and still bottoms from the solvent reclamation plant located in Rockford. In addition, empty drums were stored onsite. Wastes were dumped into depressions created from either previous quarrying activities or by scraping overburden from the near surface bedrock to form berms. In September 1972, the Illinois Pollution Control Board (IPCB) ordered Acme to remove all drums and wastes from the facility and to backfill the lagoons. Follow-up inspections revealed that wastes and crushed drums were being left onsite and merely covered with soil. Sampling of the site revealed high concentrations of chlorinated organics in the drinking water. The major source of hazardous substances at the facility are the waste disposal mounds. These mounds contain volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds and concentrations of PCBs up to several hundred mg/kg. The selected remedial action is included.

  6. AIHA position statement on the removal of asbestos-containing materials (ACM) from buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The health risks associated with asbestos exposure for building occupants has been demonstrated to be very low. The decision to remove asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in undamaged, intact condition that are not readily accessible to occupants should be made only after assessing all other options. Both technical and financial issues should be fully explored by a team of trained specialists, including industrial hygienists, architects, and engineers. The optimal solution will vary from building to building, based on factors unique to each situation. One important consideration is the use of a well-designed air-monitoring program to identify changes in airborne levels of asbestos. Special training and maintenance programs are needed to ensure the safety and health of building and contract workers who may encounter asbestos or who may disturb it during routine or nonroutine activities. Each building owner who has ACM in a building should identify an in-house asbestos manager, and it is also necessary to provide appropriate resources, including professional consultants, to develop and manage a responsible and effective in-place management program throughout the life of a building containing asbestos.

  7. Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS): A Demonstration of Autonomic Principles at Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldassari, James D.; Kopec, Christopher L.; Leshay, Eric S.; Truszkowski, Walt; Finkel, David

    2005-01-01

    Cluster computing, whereby a large number of simple processors or nodes are combined together to apparently function as a single powerful computer, has emerged as a research area in its own right. The approach offers a relatively inexpensive means of achieving significant computational capabilities for high-performance computing applications, while simultaneously affording the ability to. increase that capability simply by adding more (inexpensive) processors. However, the task of manually managing and con.guring a cluster quickly becomes impossible as the cluster grows in size. Autonomic computing is a relatively new approach to managing complex systems that can potentially solve many of the problems inherent in cluster management. We describe the development of a prototype Automatic Cluster Management System (ACMS) that exploits autonomic properties in automating cluster management.

  8. Sparse Polynomial Chaos Surrogate for ACME Land Model via Iterative Bayesian Compressive Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsyan, K.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Safta, C.; Debusschere, B.; Najm, H. N.; Thornton, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    For computationally expensive climate models, Monte-Carlo approaches of exploring the input parameter space are often prohibitive due to slow convergence with respect to ensemble size. To alleviate this, we build inexpensive surrogates using uncertainty quantification (UQ) methods employing Polynomial Chaos (PC) expansions that approximate the input-output relationships using as few model evaluations as possible. However, when many uncertain input parameters are present, such UQ studies suffer from the curse of dimensionality. In particular, for 50-100 input parameters non-adaptive PC representations have infeasible numbers of basis terms. To this end, we develop and employ Weighted Iterative Bayesian Compressive Sensing to learn the most important input parameter relationships for efficient, sparse PC surrogate construction with posterior uncertainty quantified due to insufficient data. Besides drastic dimensionality reduction, the uncertain surrogate can efficiently replace the model in computationally intensive studies such as forward uncertainty propagation and variance-based sensitivity analysis, as well as design optimization and parameter estimation using observational data. We applied the surrogate construction and variance-based uncertainty decomposition to Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME) Land Model for several output QoIs at nearly 100 FLUXNET sites covering multiple plant functional types and climates, varying 65 input parameters over broad ranges of possible values. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research, Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) project. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. AcmB Is an S-Layer-Associated β-N-Acetylglucosaminidase and Functional Autolysin in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brant R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autolysins, also known as peptidoglycan hydrolases, are enzymes that hydrolyze specific bonds within bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan during cell division and daughter cell separation. Within the genome of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, there are 11 genes encoding proteins with peptidoglycan hydrolase catalytic domains, 9 of which are predicted to be functional. Notably, 5 of the 9 putative autolysins in L. acidophilus NCFM are S-layer-associated proteins (SLAPs) noncovalently colocalized along with the surface (S)-layer at the cell surface. One of these SLAPs, AcmB, a β-N-acetylglucosaminidase encoded by the gene lba0176 (acmB), was selected for functional analysis. In silico analysis revealed that acmB orthologs are found exclusively in S-layer- forming species of Lactobacillus. Chromosomal deletion of acmB resulted in aberrant cell division, autolysis, and autoaggregation. Complementation of acmB in the ΔacmB mutant restored the wild-type phenotype, confirming the role of this SLAP in cell division. The absence of AcmB within the exoproteome had a pleiotropic effect on the extracellular proteins covalently and noncovalently bound to the peptidoglycan, which likely led to the observed decrease in the binding capacity of the ΔacmB strain for mucin and extracellular matrices fibronectin, laminin, and collagen in vitro. These data suggest a functional association between the S-layer and the multiple autolysins noncovalently colocalized at the cell surface of L. acidophilus NCFM and other S-layer-producing Lactobacillus species. IMPORTANCE Lactobacillus acidophilus is one of the most widely used probiotic microbes incorporated in many dairy foods and dietary supplements. This organism produces a surface (S)-layer, which is a self-assembling crystalline array found as the outermost layer of the cell wall. The S-layer, along with colocalized associated proteins, is an important mediator of probiotic activity through intestinal adhesion and modulation of

  10. Segmentation of solid subregion of high grade gliomas in MRI images based on active contour model (ACM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seow, P.; Win, M. T.; Wong, J. H. D.; Abdullah, N. A.; Ramli, N.

    2016-03-01

    Gliomas are tumours arising from the interstitial tissue of the brain which are heterogeneous, infiltrative and possess ill-defined borders. Tumour subregions (e.g. solid enhancing part, edema and necrosis) are often used for tumour characterisation. Tumour demarcation into substructures facilitates glioma staging and provides essential information. Manual segmentation had several drawbacks that include laborious, time consuming, subjected to intra and inter-rater variability and hindered by diversity in the appearance of tumour tissues. In this work, active contour model (ACM) was used to segment the solid enhancing subregion of the tumour. 2D brain image acquisition data using 3T MRI fast spoiled gradient echo sequence in post gadolinium of four histologically proven high-grade glioma patients were obtained. Preprocessing of the images which includes subtraction and skull stripping were performed and then followed by ACM segmentation. The results of the automatic segmentation method were compared against the manual delineation of the tumour by a trainee radiologist. Both results were further validated by an experienced neuroradiologist and a brief quantitative evaluations (pixel area and difference ratio) were performed. Preliminary results of the clinical data showed the potential of ACM model in the application of fast and large scale tumour segmentation in medical imaging.

  11. Development and first application of an Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) for quasi online compound specific aerosol measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohaus, Thorsten; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Trimborn, Dagmar; Jayne, John; Wahner, Andreas; Worsnop, Doug

    2010-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosols influence climate and human health on regional and global scales (IPCC, 2007). In many environments organics are a major fraction of the aerosol influencing its properties. Due to the huge variety of organic compounds present in atmospheric aerosol current measurement techniques are far from providing a full speciation of organic aerosol (Hallquist et al., 2009). The development of new techniques for compound specific measurements with high time resolution is a timely issue in organic aerosol research. Here we present first laboratory characterisations of an aerosol collection module (ACM) which was developed to allow for the sampling and transfer of atmospheric PM1 aerosol. The system consists of an aerodynamic lens system focussing particles on a beam. This beam is directed to a 3.4 mm in diameter surface which is cooled to -30 °C with liquid nitrogen. After collection the aerosol sample can be evaporated from the surface by heating it to up to 270 °C. The sample is transferred through a 60cm long line with a carrier gas. In order to test the ACM for linearity and sensitivity we combined it with a GC-MS system. The tests were performed with octadecane aerosol. The octadecane mass as measured with the ACM-GC-MS was compared versus the mass as calculated from SMPS derived total volume. The data correlate well (R2 0.99, slope of linear fit 1.1) indicating 100 % collection efficiency. From 150 °C to 270 °C no effect of desorption temperature on transfer efficiency could be observed. The ACM-GC-MS system was proven to be linear over the mass range 2-100 ng and has a detection limit of ~ 2 ng. First experiments applying the ACM-GC-MS system were conducted at the Jülich Aerosol Chamber. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was formed from ozonolysis of 600 ppbv of b-pinene. The major oxidation product nopinone was detected in the aerosol and could be shown to decrease from 2 % of the total aerosol to 0.5 % of the aerosol over the 48 hours of

  12. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Acme Solvent Reclaiming, Winnebago County, IL. (Second remedial action), December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The 20-acre Acme Solvent Reclaiming site is a former industrial disposal site in Winnebago County, Illinois. Land use in the area is mixed agricultural and residential. From 1960 to 1973, Acme Solvent Reclaiming disposed of paints, oils, and still bottoms onsite from its solvent reclamation plant. Wastes were dumped into depressions created from previous quarrying and landscaping operations, and empty drums also were stored onsite. State investigations in 1981 identified elevated levels of chlorinated organic compounds in ground water. A 1985 Record of Decision (ROD) provided for excavation and onsite incineration of 26,000 cubic yards of contaminated soil and sludge, supplying home carbon treatment units to affected residences, and further study of ground water and bedrock. During illegal removal actions taken by PRPs in 1986, 40,000 tons of soil and sludge were removed from the site. The selected remedial action for the site includes excavating and treating 6,000 tons of soil and sludge from two waste areas, using low-temperature thermal stripping; treating residuals using solidification, if necessary, followed by onsite or offsite disposal; treating the remaining contaminated soil and possibly bedrock using soil/bedrock vapor extraction; consolidating the remaining contaminated soil onsite with any treatment residuals, followed by capping; incinerating offsite 8,000 gallons of liquids and sludge from two remaining tanks, and disposing of the tanks offsite; providing an alternate water supply to residents with contaminated wells; pumping and onsite treatment of VOC-contaminated ground water.

  13. A 100-kV, 100-A/cm2 Electron Optical System for the EB-X3 X-Ray Mask Writer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Kenichi; Kato, Junichi; Matsuda, Tadahito; Nakayama, Yoshinori

    2000-12-01

    In order to increase the throughput of the EB-X3 variably shaped electron beam writing system, a method of increasing the current density with a zoom lens was introduced into the electron optical system. The electron optical characteristics were measured at current densities of 50 and 100 A/cm2 under various zoom-lens conditions, and the results show that this method can increase the current density to 100 A/cm2 without any change in the major electron optical characteristics. At this current density, the patterning resolution was estimated to be 55 nm, and no melting of the first shaping aperture and no microdischarges in the 100-kV electron gun were observed. This confirms that the current density of the EB-X3 can in fact be extended to 100 A/cm2 for the fabrication of X-ray masks with a minimum feature size of 100 nm and below.

  14. Twelve-fold increase in the number of usable ThO molecules for the ACME electron electric dipole measurement through STIRAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, C. D.; O'Leary, B. R.; Lasner, Z.; Petrik, E. S.; West, A. D.; Demille, D.; Doyle, J. M.; Gabrielse, G.

    2016-05-01

    The ACME Collaboration recently reported an order of magnitude improved limit on the electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM), setting more stringent constraints on many time reversal (T) violating extensions to the Standard Model. The experiment was performed using spin precession measurements in a molecular beam of thorium oxide. We report here on a new method of preparing the coherent spin superposition state that serves as the initial state of the spin precession measurement using STImulated Raman Adiabatic Passage (STIRAP). We demonstrate a transfer efficiency of 75 % , giving a twelve-fold increase in signal. We discuss the particularities of implementing STIRAP in the ACME measurement and the methods we have used to overcome various challenges. This work was performed as part of the ACME Collaboration, to whom we are grateful for its contributions, and was supported by the NSF.

  15. CLIC-ACM: generic modular rad-hard data acquisition system based on CERN GBT versatile link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielawski, B.; Locci, F.; Magnoni, S.

    2015-01-01

    CLIC is a world-wide collaboration to study the next ``terascale'' lepton collider, relying upon a very innovative concept of two-beam-acceleration. This accelerator, currently under study, will be composed of the subsequence of 21000 two-beam-modules. Each module requires more than 300 analogue and digital signals which need to be acquired and controlled in a synchronous way. CLIC-ACM (Acquisition and Control Module) is the 'generic' control and acquisition module developed to accommodate the controls of all these signals for various sub-systems and related specification in term of data bandwidth, triggering and timing synchronization. This paper describes the system architecture with respect to its radiation-tolerance, power consumption and scalability.

  16. Annual evaporite deposition at the acme of the Messinian salinity crisis: evidence for solar-lunar climate forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzi, Vinicio; Gennari, Rocco; Lugli, Stefano; Roveri, Marco; Scafetta, Nicola; Schreiber, B. Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    We studied two evaporite successions (one halite and the other gypsum) consisting of annual varves in order to reconstruct the paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental conditions existing during the acme of the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC; ≈5.5 Ma), when huge volumes of evaporites accumulated on the floor of the Mediterranean basin. The spectral analyses of these varved evaporitic successions reveal significant peaks in periodicity at around 3-5, 9, 11-13, 20-27 and 50-100 yr. The deposition of varved sedimentary deposits is usually controlled by climate conditions. A comparison with modern precipitation data in the western Mediterranean shows that during the acme of the MSC the climate was not in a permanent evaporitic stage, but in a dynamic state where evaporite deposition was controlled by quasi-periodic climate oscillations similar to modern analogs including Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, El Niño Southern Oscillation, and decadal to secular lunar- and solar-induced cycles. Particularly, we found a significant quasi-decadal oscillation with a prominent 9-year peak that is also common in modern temperature records and is present in both the contemporary Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index. These cyclical patterns are common to both ancient and modern climate records because they can be associated with solar and solar-lunar tidal cycles. During the Messinian, the Mediterranean basin as well as the global ocean, were characterized by somewhat different continent distribution, ocean size, geography, hydrological connections, and ice-sheet volume with respect to the modern configuration. The recognition of modern-style climate oscillations during the Messinian, however, suggests that, although local geographic factors acted as pre-conditioning factors turning the Mediterranean Sea into a giant brine pool, external climate forcing, regulated by solar-lunar cycles and largely independent of those local geographic

  17. Extremely high current density over 1000 A/cm2 operation in M-GaN LEDs on bulk GaN substrates with low-efficiency droop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokogawa, Toshiya; Inoue, Akira

    2014-02-01

    A high current density over 1000 A/cm2 operation in small chip size m-plane GaN-LED has been successfully demonstrated. The LED with chip size 450 × 450 μm2 has emitted 1353 mW in light output power and 39.2% in external quantum efficiency (EQE) at 1000 A/cm2 (1134 mA). The m-plane GaN-LED has showed asymmetric radiation characteristics. The radiation patterns are controlled by the surface of LED package, the height of LED chip, and striped texture on top m-plane surface.

  18. Proceeding of the ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (1st, Roanoke, Virginia, June 24-28, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY.

    Papers in this Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (Roanoke, Virginia, June 24-28, 2001) discuss: automatic genre analysis; text categorization; automated name authority control; automatic event generation; linked active content; designing e-books for legal research; metadata harvesting; mapping the…

  19. On the modeling of a single-stage, entrained-flow gasifier using Aspen Custom Modeler (ACM)

    SciTech Connect

    Kasule, J.; Turton, R.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Zitney, S.

    2010-01-01

    Coal-fired gasifiers are the centerpiece of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. The gasifier produces synthesis gas that is subsequently converted into electricity through combustion in a gas turbine. Several mathematical models have been developed to study the physical and chemical processes taking place inside the gasifier. Such models range from simple one-dimensional (1D) steady-state models to sophisticated dynamic 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models that incorporate turbulence effects in the reactor. The practical operation of the gasifier is dynamic in nature but most 1D and some higher-dimensional models are often steady state. On the other hand, many higher order CFD-based models are dynamic in nature, but are too computationally expensive to be used directly in operability and controllability dynamic studies. They are also difficult to incorporate in the framework of process simulation software such as Aspen Plus Dynamics. Thus lower-dimensional dynamic models are still useful in these types of studies. In the current study, a 1D dynamic model for a single-stage, downward-firing, entrained-flow GE-type gasifier is developed using Aspen Custom Modeler{reg_sign} (ACM), which is a commercial equation-based simulator for creating, editing, and re-using models of process units. The gasifier model is based on mass, momentum, and energy balances for the solid and gas phases. The physical and chemical reactions considered in the model are drying, devolatilization/pyrolysis, gasification, combustion, and the homogeneous gas phase reactions. The dynamic gasifier model is being developed for use in a plant-wide dynamic model of an IGCC power plant. For dynamic simulation, the resulting highly nonlinear system of partial differential algebraic equations (PDAE) is solved in ACM using the well-known Method of Lines (MoL) approach. The MoL discretizes the space domain and leaves the time domain continuous, thereby converting the PDAE to

  20. Assessment of Two Planetary Boundary Layer Schemes (ACM2 and YSU) within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, J.; Harrold, M.; Xu, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is a highly configurable numerical weather prediction system used in both research and operational forecasting applications. Rigorously testing select configurations and evaluating the performance for specific applications is necessary due to the flexibility offered by the system. The Developmental Testbed Center (DTC) performed extensive testing and evaluation with the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) dynamic core for two physics suite configurations with a goal of assessing the impact that the planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme had on the final forecast performance. The baseline configuration was run with the Air Force Weather Agency's physics suite, which includes the Yonsei University PBL scheme, while the second configuration was substituted with the Asymmetric Convective Model (ACM2) PBL scheme. This presentation will focus on assessing the forecast performance of the two configurations; both configurations were run over the same set of cases, allowing for a direct comparison of performance. The evaluation was performed over a 15 km CONUS domain for a testing period from September 2013 through August 2014. Simulations were initialized every 36 hours and run out to 48 hours; a 6-hour "warm start" spin-up, including data assimilation using the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation system preceded each simulation. The extensive testing period allows for robust results as well as the ability to investigate seasonal and regional differences between the two configurations. Results will focus on the evaluation of traditional verification metrics for surface and upper air variables, along with an assessment of statistical and practical significance.

  1. Detection of structural and numerical chomosomal abnormalities by ACM-FISH analysis in sperm of oligozoospermic infertility patients

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, T E; Brinkworth, M H; Hill, F; Sloter, E; Kamischke, A; Marchetti, F; Nieschlag, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2003-11-10

    Modern reproductive technologies are enabling the treatment of infertile men with severe disturbances of spermatogenesis. The possibility of elevated frequencies of genetically and chromosomally defective sperm has become an issue of concern with the increased usage of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), which can enable men with severely impaired sperm production to father children. Several papers have been published about aneuploidy in oligozoospermic patients, but relatively little is known about chromosome structural aberrations in the sperm of these patients. We examined sperm from infertile, oligozoospermic individuals for structural and numerical chromosomal abnormalities using a multicolor ACM FISH assay that utilizes DNA probes specific for three regions of chromosome 1 to detect human sperm that carry numerical chromosomal abnormalities plus two categories of structural aberrations: duplications and deletions of 1pter and 1cen, and chromosomal breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was a significant increase in the average frequencies of sperm with duplications and deletions in the infertility patients compared with the healthy concurrent controls. There was also a significantly elevated level of breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was no evidence for an increase in chromosome-1 disomy, or in diploidy. Our data reveal that oligozoospermia is associated with chromosomal structural abnormalities suggesting that, oligozoospermic men carry a higher burden of transmissible, chromosome damage. The findings raise the possibility of elevated levels of transmissible chromosomal defects following ICSI treatment.

  2. Hydrologic effects of phreatophyte control, Acme-Artesia reach of the Pecos River, New Mexico, 1967-82

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welder, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation began a phreatophyte clearing and control program in the bottom land of the Acme-Artesia reach of the Pecos River in March 1967. The initial cutting of 19,000 acres of saltcedar trees, the dominant phreatophyte in the area, was completed in May 1969. Saltcedar regrowth continued each year until July 1975, when root plowing eradicated most of the regrowth. The major objective of the clearing and control program was to salvage water that could be put to beneficial use. Measurements of changes in the water table in the bottom land and changes in the base flow of the Pecos River were made in order to determine the hydrologic effects of the program. Some salvage of water was indicated, but it is not readily recognized as an increase in base flow. The quantity of salvage probably is less than the average annual base-flow gain of 19 ,110 acre-ft in the reach during 1967-82. (Author 's abstract)

  3. Prescriptions for ACME's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felch, William Campbell

    1991-01-01

    Five prescriptions for the future agenda of the Alliance for Continuing Medical Education are (1) a core curriculum; (2) informatics; (3) remedial continuing medical education (CME); (4) focus on the individual learner; and (5) practice-oriented CME. (SK)

  4. WTP Calculation Sheet: Determining the LAW Glass Former Constituents and Amounts for G2 and Acm Models. 24590-LAW-M4C-LFP-00002, Rev. B

    SciTech Connect

    Gimpel, Rodney F.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2013-12-16

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the LAW glass former recipe and additives with their respective amounts. The methodology and equations contained herein are to be used in the G2 and ACM models until better information is supplied by R&T efforts. This revision includes calculations that determines the mass and volume of the bulk chemicals/minerals needed per batch. Plus, it contains calculations (for the G2 model) to help prevent overflow in LAW Feed Preparation Vessel.

  5. Experimental determination of the partitioning coefficient and volatility of important BVOC oxidation products using the Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) coupled to a PTR-ToF-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkatzelis, G.; Hohaus, T.; Tillmann, R.; Schmitt, S. H.; Yu, Z.; Schlag, P.; Wegener, R.; Kaminski, M.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol can alter the Earth's radiative budget and global climate but can also affect human health. A dominant contributor to the submicrometer particulate matter (PM) is organic aerosol (OA). OA can be either directly emitted through e.g. combustion processes (primary OA) or formed through the oxidation of organic gases (secondary organic aerosol, SOA). A detailed understanding of SOA formation is of importance as it constitutes a major contribution to the total OA. The partitioning between the gas and particle phase as well as the volatility of individual components of SOA is yet poorly understood adding uncertainties and thus complicating climate modelling. In this work, a new experimental methodology was used for compound-specific analysis of organic aerosol. The Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) is a newly developed instrument that deploys an aerodynamic lens to separate the gas and particle phase of an aerosol. The particle phase is directed to a cooled sampling surface. After collection particles are thermally desorbed and transferred to a detector for further analysis. In the present work, the ACM was coupled to a Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) to detect and quantify organic compounds partitioning between the gas and particle phase. This experimental approach was used in a set of experiments at the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR to investigate SOA formation. Ozone oxidation with subsequent photochemical aging of β-pinene, limonene and real plant emissions from Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) were studied. Simultaneous measurement of the gas and particle phase using the ACM-PTR-ToF-MS allows to report partitioning coefficients of important BVOC oxidation products. Additionally, volatility trends and changes of the SOA with photochemical aging are investigated and compared for all systems studied.

  6. Enterococcus faecium biofilm formation: identification of major autolysin AtlAEfm, associated Acm surface localization, and AtlAEfm-independent extracellular DNA Release.

    PubMed

    Paganelli, Fernanda L; Willems, Rob J L; Jansen, Pamela; Hendrickx, Antoni; Zhang, Xinglin; Bonten, Marc J M; Leavis, Helen L

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium is an important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen causing biofilm-mediated infections in patients with medical devices. Insight into E. faecium biofilm pathogenesis is pivotal for the development of new strategies to prevent and treat these infections. In several bacteria, a major autolysin is essential for extracellular DNA (eDNA) release in the biofilm matrix, contributing to biofilm attachment and stability. In this study, we identified and functionally characterized the major autolysin of E. faecium E1162 by a bioinformatic genome screen followed by insertional gene disruption of six putative autolysin genes. Insertional inactivation of locus tag EfmE1162_2692 resulted in resistance to lysis, reduced eDNA release, deficient cell attachment, decreased biofilm, decreased cell wall hydrolysis, and significant chaining compared to that of the wild type. Therefore, locus tag EfmE1162_2692 was considered the major autolysin in E. faecium and renamed atlAEfm. In addition, AtlAEfm was implicated in cell surface exposure of Acm, a virulence factor in E. faecium, and thereby facilitates binding to collagen types I and IV. This is a novel feature of enterococcal autolysins not described previously. Furthermore, we identified (and localized) autolysin-independent DNA release in E. faecium that contributes to cell-cell interactions in the atlAEfm mutant and is important for cell separation. In conclusion, AtlAEfm is the major autolysin in E. faecium and contributes to biofilm stability and Acm localization, making AtlAEfm a promising target for treatment of E. faecium biofilm-mediated infections. IMPORTANCE Nosocomial infections caused by Enterococcus faecium have rapidly increased, and treatment options have become more limited. This is due not only to increasing resistance to antibiotics but also to biofilm-associated infections. DNA is released in biofilm matrix via cell lysis, caused by autolysin, and acts as a matrix stabilizer. In this study

  7. Enterococcus faecium Biofilm Formation: Identification of Major Autolysin AtlAEfm, Associated Acm Surface Localization, and AtlAEfm-Independent Extracellular DNA Release

    PubMed Central

    Paganelli, Fernanda L.; Willems, Rob J. L.; Jansen, Pamela; Hendrickx, Antoni; Zhang, Xinglin; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Leavis, Helen L.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterococcus faecium is an important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen causing biofilm-mediated infections in patients with medical devices. Insight into E. faecium biofilm pathogenesis is pivotal for the development of new strategies to prevent and treat these infections. In several bacteria, a major autolysin is essential for extracellular DNA (eDNA) release in the biofilm matrix, contributing to biofilm attachment and stability. In this study, we identified and functionally characterized the major autolysin of E. faecium E1162 by a bioinformatic genome screen followed by insertional gene disruption of six putative autolysin genes. Insertional inactivation of locus tag EfmE1162_2692 resulted in resistance to lysis, reduced eDNA release, deficient cell attachment, decreased biofilm, decreased cell wall hydrolysis, and significant chaining compared to that of the wild type. Therefore, locus tag EfmE1162_2692 was considered the major autolysin in E. faecium and renamed atlAEfm. In addition, AtlAEfm was implicated in cell surface exposure of Acm, a virulence factor in E. faecium, and thereby facilitates binding to collagen types I and IV. This is a novel feature of enterococcal autolysins not described previously. Furthermore, we identified (and localized) autolysin-independent DNA release in E. faecium that contributes to cell-cell interactions in the atlAEfm mutant and is important for cell separation. In conclusion, AtlAEfm is the major autolysin in E. faecium and contributes to biofilm stability and Acm localization, making AtlAEfm a promising target for treatment of E. faecium biofilm-mediated infections. PMID:23592262

  8. d-Alanyl Ester Depletion of Teichoic Acids in Lactobacillus plantarum Results in a Major Modification of Lipoteichoic Acid Composition and Cell Wall Perforations at the Septum Mediated by the Acm2 Autolysin

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, Emmanuelle; Deghorain, Marie; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Geyer, Armin; Hartung, Thomas; Morath, Siegfried; Hols, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    The insertional inactivation of the dlt operon from Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB8826 had a strong impact on lipoteichoic acid (LTA) composition, resulting in a major reduction in d-alanyl ester content. Unexpectedly, mutant LTA showed high levels of glucosylation and were threefold longer than wild-type LTA. The dlt mutation resulted in a reduced growth rate and increased cell lysis during the exponential and stationary growth phases. Microscopy analysis revealed increased cell length, damaged dividing cells, and perforations of the envelope in the septal region. The observed defects in the separation process, cell envelope perforation, and autolysis of the dlt mutant could be partially attributed to the L. plantarum Acm2 peptidoglycan hydrolase. PMID:16672624

  9. Multilingual Information Discovery and AccesS (MIDAS): A Joint ACM DL'99/ ACM SIGIR'99 Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oard, Douglas; Peters, Carol; Ruiz, Miguel; Frederking, Robert; Klavans, Judith; Sheridan, Paraic

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a multidisciplinary workshop that addressed issues concerning internationally distributed information networks. Highlights include multilingual information access in media other than character-coded text; cross-language information retrieval and multilingual metadata; and evaluation of multilingual systems. (LRW)

  10. ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements (ARM-ACME) and ARM-ACME 2.5 Final Campaign Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Biraud, S. C.; Tom, M. S.; Sweeney, C.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a 5-year multi-institution and multi-agency airborne study of atmospheric composition and carbon cycling at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, with scientific objectives that are central to the carbon-cycle and radiative-forcing goals of the U.S. Global Change Research Program and the North American Carbon Program (NACP). The goal of these measurements is to improve understanding of 1) the carbon exchange of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) SGP region; 2) how CO2 and associated water and energy fluxes influence radiative-forcing, convective processes, and CO2 concentrations over the ARM SGP region, and 3) how greenhouse gases are transported on continental scales.

  11. Unforgeable noise-tolerant quantum tokens

    PubMed Central

    Pastawski, Fernando; Yao, Norman Y.; Jiang, Liang; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Cirac, J. Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    The realization of devices that harness the laws of quantum mechanics represents an exciting challenge at the interface of modern technology and fundamental science. An exemplary paragon of the power of such quantum primitives is the concept of “quantum money” [Wiesner S (1983) ACM SIGACT News 15:78–88]. A dishonest holder of a quantum bank note will invariably fail in any counterfeiting attempts; indeed, under assumptions of ideal measurements and decoherence-free memories such security is guaranteed by the no-cloning theorem. In any practical situation, however, noise, decoherence, and operational imperfections abound. Thus, the development of secure “quantum money”-type primitives capable of tolerating realistic infidelities is of both practical and fundamental importance. Here, we propose a novel class of such protocols and demonstrate their tolerance to noise; moreover, we prove their rigorous security by determining tight fidelity thresholds. Our proposed protocols require only the ability to prepare, store, and measure single quantum bit memories, making their experimental realization accessible with current technologies.

  12. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes/polymer composites in absence and presence of acrylic elastomer (ACM).

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Rath, T; Mahaling, R N; Mukherjee, M; Khatua, B B; Das, C K

    2009-05-01

    Polyetherimide/Multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNTs) nanocomposites containing as-received and modified (COOH-MWNT) carbon nanotubes were prepared through melt process in extruder and then compression molded. Thermal properties of the composites were characterized by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed that the MWNTs were well dispersed and formed an intimate contact with the polymer matrix without any agglomeration. However the incorporation of modified carbon nanotubes formed fascinating, highly crosslinked, and compact network structure throughout the polymer matrix. This showed the increased adhesion of PEI with modified MWNTs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) also showed high degree of dispersion of modified MWNTs along with broken ends. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results showed a marginal increase in storage modulus (E') and glass transition temperature (T(g)) with the addition of MWNTs. Increase in tensile strength and impact strength of composites confirmed the use the MWNTs as possible reinforcement agent. Both thermal and electrical conductivity of composites increased, but effect is more pronounced on modification due to formation of network of carbon nanotubes. Addition of acrylic elastomer to developed PEI/MWNTs (modified) nanocomposites resulted in the further increase in thermal and electrical properties due to the formation of additional bond between MWNTs and acrylic elastomers at the interface. All the results presented are well corroborated by SEM and FESEM studies. PMID:19452959

  13. USL NASA/RECON project presentations at the 1985 ACM Computer Science Conference: Abstracts and visuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Chum, Frank Y.; Gallagher, Suzy; Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Moreau, Dennis R.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1985-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry represents the abstracts and visuals associated with presentations delivered by six USL NASA/RECON research team members at the above named conference. The presentations highlight various aspects of NASA contract activities pursued by the participants as they relate to individual research projects. The titles of the six presentations are as follows: (1) The Specification and Design of a Distributed Workstation; (2) An Innovative, Multidisciplinary Educational Program in Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval; (3) Critical Comparative Analysis of the Major Commercial IS and R Systems; (4) Design Criteria for a PC-Based Common User Interface to Remote Information Systems; (5) The Design of an Object-Oriented Graphics Interface; and (6) Knowledge-Based Information Retrieval: Techniques and Applications.

  14. Pathfinder Lander Rover Recharge System, and MARCO POLO Controls and ACME Regolith Feed System Controls and Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Sarah Diem

    2015-01-01

    This project stems from the Exploration, Research, and Technology Directorate (UB) Projects Division, and one of their main initiatives is the "Journey to Mars". Landing on the surface of Mars which is millions of miles away is an incredibly large challenge. The terrain is covered in boulders, deep canyons, volcanic mountains, and spotted with sand dunes. The robotic lander is a kind of spacecraft with multiple purposes. One purpose is to be the protective shell for the Martian rover and absorb the impact from the landing forces; another purpose is to be a place where the rovers can come back to, actively communicate with, and recharge their batteries from. Rovers have been instrumental to the Journey to Mars initiative. They have been performing key research on the terrain of the red planet, trying to unlock the mysteries of the land for over a decade. The rovers that will need charging will not all have the same kind of internal battery either. RASSOR batteries may differ from the PbAC batteries inside Red Rover's chassis. NASA has invested heavily in the exploration of the surface of Mars. A driving force behind further exploration is the need for a more efficient operation of Martian rovers. One way is to reduce the weight as much as possible to reduce power consumption given the same mission parameters. In order to reduce the mass of the rovers, power generation, communication, and sample analysis systems currently onboard Martian rovers can be moved to a stationary lander deck. Positioning these systems from the rover to the Lander deck allows a taskforce of smaller, lighter rovers to perform the same tasks currently performed by or planned for larger rovers. A major task in transferring these systems to a stationary lander deck is ensuring that power can be transferred to the rovers.

  15. ARM-ACME V: ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements V on the North Slope of Alaska Science and Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Biraud, S

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric temperatures are warming faster in the Arctic than predicted by climate models. The impact of this warming on permafrost degradation is not well understood, but it is projected to increase carbon decomposition and greenhouse gas production (CO₂ and/or CH₄) by arctic ecosystems. Airborne observations of atmospheric trace gases, aerosols, and cloud properties at the North Slope of Alaska are improving our understanding of global climate, with the goal of reducing the uncertainty in global and regional climate simulations and projections.

  16. Production increase with high rates of natural gas injection at Acme Steel and National Steel`s Granite City Division

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    Supplemental fuels are injected at the tuyere level of blast furnaces to reduce coke consumption and increase productivity. These fuels include natural gas, coke oven gas, oil, tar, and coal. The economic benefits derived from supplemental fuel are of two types: (1) the reduction in costs of hot metal production arising primarily from decreased coke consumption, and (2) the value of the increased production of hot metal- and steel - that can be sold. Essentially all blast furnaces in North America inject supplemental fuel. Approximately 70 percent inject natural gas in the range from 80-210 pounds per ton of hot metal (lb/THM) or from 1,800 to 4,700 standard cubic feet per ton of hot metal (scf/THM). Currently, natural gas injection rates average 110 lb/THM or 2,500 scf/THM. The total amount of gas consumed in North American blast furnaces now exceeds 101 billion cubic feet per year (bcfy).

  17. Papers Presented at the ACM SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Academic Education in Computer Science [held in Houston, Texas, November 16, 1970].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Robert M., Ed.

    1970-01-01

    The papers given at this symposium were selected for their description of how specific problems were tackled, and with what success, as opposed to proposals unsupported by experience. The goal was to permit the audience to profit from the trials (and errors) of others. The eighteen papers presented are: "Business and the University Computer…

  18. U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory Solid-State Lighting Core Technologies Light Emitting Diodes on Semipolar Bulk GaN Substrate with IQE > 80% at 150 A/cm2 and 100 0C

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Arpan; David, Aurelien; Grundmann, Michael; Tyagi, Anurag; Craven, Michael; Hurni, Christophe; Cich, Michael

    2015-03-31

    GaN is a crucial material for light-emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting in the violet-to-green range. Despite its good performance, it still suffers from significant technical limitations. In particular, the efficiency of GaN-based LEDs decreases at high current (“current droop”) and high temperature (“temperature droop”). This is problematic in some lighting applications, where a high-power operation is required. This program studied the use of particular substrates to improve the efficiency of GaN-based LEDs: bulk semipolar (SP) GaN substrates. These substrates possess a very high material quality, and physical properties which are distinctly different from legacy substrates currently used in the LED industry. The program focused on the development of accurate metrology to quantify the performance of GaN-based LEDs, and on improvement to LED quality and design on SP substrates. Through a thorough optimization process, we demonstrated violet LEDs with very high internal quantum efficiency, exceeding 85% at high temperature and high current. We also investigated longer-wavelength blue emitters, but found that the limited strain budget was a key limitation.

  19. 40 CFR 763.83 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... crumbling of the ACM surface; water damage; significant or repeated water stains, scrapes, gouges, mars or..., mars or other signs of physical injury on the ACM. Asbestos debris originating from the ACBM...

  20. A NEW COMBINED LOCAL AND NON-LOCAL PBL MODEL FOR METEOROLOGY AND AIR QUALITY MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new version of the Asymmetric Convective Model (ACM) has been developed to describe sub-grid vertical turbulent transport in both meteorology models and air quality models. The new version (ACM2) combines the non-local convective mixing of the original ACM with local eddy diff...

  1. Cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells are a source of adipocytes in arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sommariva, E.; Brambilla, S.; Carbucicchio, C.; Gambini, E.; Meraviglia, V.; Dello Russo, A.; Farina, F.M.; Casella, M.; Catto, V.; Pontone, G.; Chiesa, M.; Stadiotti, I.; Cogliati, E.; Paolin, A.; Ouali Alami, N.; Preziuso, C.; d'Amati, G.; Colombo, G.I.; Rossini, A.; Capogrossi, M.C.; Tondo, C.; Pompilio, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a genetic disorder mainly due to mutations in desmosomal genes, characterized by progressive fibro-adipose replacement of the myocardium, arrhythmias, and sudden death. It is still unclear which cell type is responsible for fibro-adipose substitution and which molecular mechanisms lead to this structural change. Cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells (C-MSC) are the most abundant cells in the heart, with propensity to differentiate into several cell types, including adipocytes, and their role in ACM is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether C-MSC contributed to excess adipocytes in patients with ACM. Methods and results We found that, in ACM patients' explanted heart sections, cells actively differentiating into adipocytes are of mesenchymal origin. Therefore, we isolated C-MSC from endomyocardial biopsies of ACM and from not affected by arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (NON-ACM) (control) patients. We found that both ACM and control C-MSC express desmosomal genes, with ACM C-MSC showing lower expression of plakophilin (PKP2) protein vs. controls. Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy C-MSC cultured in adipogenic medium accumulated more lipid droplets than controls. Accordingly, the expression of adipogenic genes was higher in ACM vs. NON-ACM C-MSC, while expression of cell cycle and anti-adipogenic genes was lower. Both lipid accumulation and transcription reprogramming were dependent on PKP2 deficiency. Conclusions Cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells contribute to the adipogenic substitution observed in ACM patients' hearts. Moreover, C-MSC from ACM patients recapitulate the features of ACM adipogenesis, representing a novel, scalable, patient-specific in vitro tool for future mechanistic studies. PMID:26590176

  2. Preparation of magnetic polybutylcyanoacrylate nanospheres encapsulated with aclacinomycin A and its effect on gastric tumor

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hong; Wang, Ji-Yao; Shen, Xi-Zhong; Deng, Yong-Hui; Zhang, Wei

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of aclacinomycin A-loaded magnetic polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles on gastric tumor growth in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: Magnetic polybutylcyanoacrylate (PBCA) nanospheres encapsulated with aclacinomycin A (MPNS-ACM) were prepared by interfacial polymerization. Particle size, shape and drug content were examined. Female BABL/c nude mice were implanted with MKN-45 gastric carcinoma tissues subcutaneously to establish human gastric carcinoma model. The mice were randomly divided into 5 groups of 6 each: ACM group (8 mg/kg bm); group of high dosage of MPNS-ACM (8 mg/kg bm); group of low dosage of MPNS-ACM (1.6 mg/kg bm); group of magnetic PBCA nanosphere (MPNS) and control group (normal saline). Magnets (2.5 T) were implanted into the tumor masses in all of the mice one day before the therapy. Above-mentioned drugs were administered intravenously to the mice of every group on the first day and sixth day. When the mice were sacrificed, tumor weight was measured, and the assay of granulocyte- macrophage colony forming-unit (CFU-GM) was performed on semi-solid culture. White blood cell, alanine aminotransferase and creatine were examined. 3-[4-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) was used to examine the viability of MKN-45 cells after incubation with different concentrations of ACM, MPNS and MPNS-ACM suspension respectively for 48 h. RESULTS: Content of ACM in MPNS-ACM was 12.0% and the average diameter of the particles was 210 nm. The inhibitory rates of ACM (8 mg/kg bm), high dosage of MPNS-ACM (8 mg/kg bm), low dosage of MPNS-ACM (1.6 mg/kg bm) and MPNS on human gastric carcinoma in nude mice were 22.63%, 52.55%, 30.66% and 10.22%, respectively. There was a significant decrease in the number of CFU-GM of bone marrow in ACM group compared with control group, whereas no obvious change was observed in that of the nanosphere groups. The values of 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of ACM, MPNS and MPNS-ACM were 0

  3. Physical and electrochemical properties of supercapacitor composite electrodes prepared from biomass carbon and carbon from green petroleum coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awitdrus, Deraman, M.; Talib, I. A.; Farma, R.; Omar, R.; Ishak, M. M.; Taer, E.; Dolah, B. N. M.; Basri, N. H.; Nor, N. S. M.

    2015-04-01

    The green monoliths (GMs) were prepared from the mixtures of pre-carbonized fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches (or self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG)) and green petroleum coke (GPC) with the mixing ratio of 0, 10, 30, 50 and 70 % GPC, respectively. The GMs were carbonized in N2 environment at 800°C to produce carbon monoliths (CM00, CM10, CM30, CM50 and CM70). The CMs were CO2 activated at 800°C for 1 hour to produced activated carbon monolith electrodes (ACM00, ACM10, ACM30, ACM50 and ACM70). For each percentage of GPC, three duplicate symmetrical supercapacitor cells were fabricated using these activated carbon monolith electrodes respectively, and the capacitive performance amongst the cells was compared and analyzed in order to observe the relationship between the capacitive performance and the physical properties (microstructure and porosity) of the ACMs electrodes containing varying percentage of GPC.

  4. Growth and acid production of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 in the fermentation of algal carcass.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Zhang, G F; Mao, X; Wang, J Y; Duan, C Y; Wang, Z J; Liu, L B

    2016-06-01

    Algal carcass is a low-value byproduct of algae after its conversion to biodiesel. Dried algal carcass is rich in protein, carbohydrate, and multiple amino acids, and it is typically well suited for growth and acid production of lactic acid bacteria. In this study, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was used to ferment different algal carcass media (ACM), including 2% ACM, 2% ACM with 1.9% glucose (ACM-G), and 2% ACM with 1.9% glucose and 2g/L amino acid mixture (ACM-GA). Concentrations of organic acids (lactic acid and acetic acid), acetyl-CoA, and ATP were analyzed by HPLC, and activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acetokinase (ACK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and phosphofructokinase (PFK) were determined by using a chemical approach. The growth of L. bulgaricus cells in ACM-GA was close to that in the control medium (de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe). Lactic acid and acetic acid contents were greatly reduced when L. bulgaricus cells were grown in ACM compared with the control medium. Acetyl-CoA content varied with organic acid content and was increased in cells grown in different ACM compared with the control medium. The ATP content of L. bulgaricus cells in ACM was reduced compared with that of cells grown in the control medium. Activities of PFK and ACK of L. bulgaricus cells grown in ACM were higher and those of PK and LDH were lower compared with the control. Thus, ACM rich in nutrients may serve as an excellent substrate for growth by lactic acid bacteria, and addition of appropriate amounts of glucose and amino acids can improve growth and acid production. PMID:26995135

  5. Assessment of pesticide residues in army cutworm moths (Euxoa auxiliaris) from the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and their potential consequences to foraging grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robison, H.L.; Schwartz, C.C.; Petty, J.D.; Brussard, P.F.

    2006-01-01

    During summer, a grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) (USA) can excavate and consume millions of army cutworm moths (Euxoa auxiliaris) (ACMs) that aggregate in high elevation talus. Grizzly bears in the GYE were listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service in 1975 and were proposed for delisting in 2005. However, questions remain about key bear foods. For example, ACMs are agricultural pests and concern exists about whether they contain pesticides that could be toxic to bears. Consequently, we investigated whether ACMs contain and transport pesticides to bear foraging sites and, if so, whether these levels could be toxic to bears. In 1999 we collected and analyzed ACMs from six bear foraging sites. ACMs were screened for 32 pesticides with gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Because gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) can be more sensitive than GC-ECD for certain pesticides, we revisited one site in 2001 and analyzed these ACMs with GC-MS/MS. ACMs contained trace or undetectable levels of pesticides in 1999 and 2001, respectively. Based on chemical levels in ACMs and numbers of ACMs a bear can consume, we calculated the potential of chemicals to reach physiological toxicity. These calculations indicate bears do not consume physiologically toxic levels of pesticides and allay concerns they are at risk from pesticides transported by ACMs. If chemical control of ACMs changes in the future, screening new ACM samples taken from bear foraging sites may be warranted. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of Biosynthetic Genes of Ascamycin/Dealanylascamycin Featuring a 5′-O-Sulfonamide Moiety in Streptomyces sp. JCM9888

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunhua; Qi, Jianzhao; Tao, Weixing; He, Lei; Xu, Wei; Chan, Jason; Deng, Zixin

    2014-01-01

    Ascamycin (ACM) and dealanylascamycin (DACM) are nucleoside antibiotics elaborated by Streptomyces sp. JCM9888. The later shows broad spectrum inhibition activity to various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, eukaryotic Trypanosoma and is also toxic to mice, while ascamycin is active against very limited microorganisms, such as Xanthomonas. Both compounds share an unusual 5′-O-sulfonamide moiety which is attached to an adenosine nucleoside. In this paper, we first report on the 30 kb gene cluster (23 genes, acmA to acmW) involved in the biosynthesis of these two antibiotics and a biosynthetic assembly line was proposed. Of them, six genes (AcmABGKIW) are hypothetical genes involved in 5′-O-sulfonamide formation. Two flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent chlorinase genes acmX and acmY were characterized which are significantly remote from acmA-W and postulated to be required for adenine C2-halogenation. Notably gene disruption of acmE resulted in a mutant which could only produce dealanylascamycin but was blocked in its ability to biosynthesize ascamycin, revealing its key role of conversion of dealanylascamycin to ascamycin. PMID:25479601

  7. Central role for GSK3β in the pathogenesis of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chelko, Stephen P.; Asimaki, Angeliki; Andersen, Peter; Bedja, Djahida; Amat-Alarcon, Nuria; DeMazumder, Deeptankar; Jasti, Ravirasmi; MacRae, Calum A.; Leber, Remo; Kleber, Andre G.; Saffitz, Jeffrey E.; Judge, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is characterized by redistribution of junctional proteins, arrhythmias, and progressive myocardial injury. We previously reported that SB216763 (SB2), annotated as a GSK3β inhibitor, reverses disease phenotypes in a zebrafish model of ACM. Here, we show that SB2 prevents myocyte injury and cardiac dysfunction in vivo in two murine models of ACM at baseline and in response to exercise. SB2-treated mice with desmosome mutations showed improvements in ventricular ectopy and myocardial fibrosis/inflammation as compared with vehicle-treated (Veh-treated) mice. GSK3β inhibition improved left ventricle function and survival in sedentary and exercised Dsg2mut/mut mice compared with Veh-treated Dsg2mut/mut mice and normalized intercalated disc (ID) protein distribution in both mutant mice. GSK3β showed diffuse cytoplasmic localization in control myocytes but ID redistribution in ACM mice. Identical GSK3β redistribution is present in ACM patient myocardium but not in normal hearts or other cardiomyopathies. SB2 reduced total GSK3β protein levels but not phosphorylated Ser 9–GSK3β in ACM mice. Constitutively active GSK3β worsens ACM in mutant mice, while GSK3β shRNA silencing in ACM cardiomyocytes prevents abnormal ID protein distribution. These results highlight a central role for GSKβ in the complex phenotype of ACM and provide further evidence that pharmacologic GSKβ inhibition improves cardiomyopathies due to desmosome mutations. PMID:27170944

  8. Influence of Miscibility Phenomenon on Crystalline Polymorph Transition in Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride)/Acrylic Rubber/Clay Nanocomposite Hybrid

    PubMed Central

    Abolhasani, Mohammad Mahdi; Naebe, Minoo; Jalali-Arani, Azam; Guo, Qipeng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, intercalation of nanoclay in the miscible polymer blend of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and acrylic rubber(ACM) was studied. X-ray diffraction was used to investigate the formation of nanoscale polymer blend/clay hybrid. Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray analysis revealed the coexistence of β and γ crystalline forms in PVDF/Clay nanocomposite while α crystalline form was found to be dominant in PVDF/ACM/Clay miscible hybrids. Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (B) was used to further explain the miscibility phenomenon observed. The B parameter was determined by combining the melting point depression and the binary interaction model. The estimated B values for the ternary PVDF/ACM/Clay and PVDF/ACM pairs were all negative, showing both proper intercalation of the polymer melt into the nanoclay galleries and the good miscibility of PVDF and ACM blend. The B value for the PVDF/ACM blend was almost the same as that measured for the PVDF/ACM/Clay hybrid, suggesting that PVDF chains in nanocomposite hybrids interact with ACM chains and that nanoclay in hybrid systems is wrapped by ACM molecules. PMID:24551141

  9. 48 CFR 301.604-71 - HCA authorities and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities...-delegate the authorities in (1) and (2) to OPDIV Acquisition Career Managers (ACMs) or other...

  10. Evaluation of rotor-bearing system dynamic response to unbalance. [air conditioning equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, R. E.; Ozimek, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    The vibration environment within air conditioner rotating machinery referred to as an air cycle machine (ACM) was investigated to effectively increase ACM reliability. To assist in the selection of design changes which would result in improved ACM performance, various design modifications were incorporated into a baseline ACM configuration. For each design change, testing was conducted with the best balance achieveable (baseline) and with various degrees of unbalance. Relationships between unbalance (within the context of design changes) and the parameters associated with design goals were established. The results of rotor dynamics tests used to establish these relationships are presented.

  11. Arnold‐Chiari‐II malformation and cognitive functioning in spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Vinck, A; Maassen, B; Mullaart, R; Rotteveel, J

    2006-01-01

    Spina bifida is a multifaceted neurological condition with complex neuropsychological sequelae. The cognitive outcome in spina bifida has frequently been attributed to the severity of the hydrocephalus. However, because of complex neuropathology, the influence of hydrocephalus alone does not sufficiently explain the deficits in the cognitive profile in spina bifida. To date, little is known of the role of Arnold‐Chiari‐II malformation (ACM) in the cognitive profile of these patients. Aim of the current study is to delineate the specific contribution of the ACM in spina bifida by comparing children with ACM and those without ACM. 46 children between 6 and 15 years of age underwent a neuropsychological assessment covering intelligence and a wide range of cognitive functions, such as visuo‐motor processing, attention, memory, word fluency and speed of information processing. Comparisons were made between patients with ACM (ACM+) and those without ACM (ACM−); all children with ACM+ also had hydrocephalus. Confounding effects of global cognitive impairment were excluded, such that groups were matched on verbal IQ. Because of complex neuropathology, which is inherent to spina bifida, the method applied was based on a comparison of cognitive profiles of the study group with profiles of patients with cerebellar damage and hydrocephalus found in the literature. Impaired visual analysis and synthesis, verbal memory, and verbal fluency, even after correction for global cognitive impairment, were observed in children with ACM. The hypothesis that in addition to impairment in visual analysis and synthesis, which are related to both hydrocephalus and ACM, specific deficiencies in verbal memory and fluency may be attributed to ACM is supported. PMID:16690692

  12. Integrating Information Assurance and Security into IT Education: A Look at the Model Curriculum and Emerging Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dark, Melissa Jane; Ekstrom, Joseph J.; Lunt, Barry M.

    2006-01-01

    In December 2001 a meeting of interested parties from fifteen four-year IT programs from the US along with representatives from IEEE, ACM, and ABET (CITC-1) began work on the formalization of Information Technology as an accredited academic discipline. The effort has evolved into SIGITE, the ACM SIG for Information Technology Education. During…

  13. Asteroids, comets, meteors, and their interrelations. Part II: Editorial review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muinonen, Karri; Granvik, Mikael; Penttilä, Antti; Gritsevich, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2014 (ACM 2014) conference was organized in Helsinki in June 30-July 4, 2014, with the first collection of the peer-reviewed papers published in December 2015 in the Special Issue of Planetary and Space Science (Muinonen et al., 2015). The present issue contains the second collection of papers from ACM 2014.

  14. Learning micro incision surgery without the learning curve

    PubMed Central

    Navin, Shoba; Parikh, Rajul

    2008-01-01

    We describe a method of learning micro incision cataract surgery painlessly with the minimum of learning curves. A large-bore or standard anterior chamber maintainer (ACM) facilitates learning without change of machine or preferred surgical technique. Experience with the use of an ACM during phacoemulsification is desirable. PMID:18292624

  15. Adaptive Patterns of Stress Responsivity: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Giudice, Marco; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Ellis, Bruce J.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2012-01-01

    The adaptive calibration model (ACM) is an evolutionary-developmental theory of individual differences in stress responsivity. In this article, we tested some key predictions of the ACM in a middle childhood sample (N = 256). Measures of autonomic nervous system activity across the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches validated the 4-pattern…

  16. Design of an Information Technology Undergraduate Program to Produce IT Versatilists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koohang, Alex; Riley, Liz; Smith, Terry; Floyd, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to present a model for designing an IT undergraduate program that is based on the recommendations of the Association for Computer Machinery/Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers--Information Technology (ACM/IEEE--IT) Curriculum Model. The main intent is to use the ACM/IEEE--IT Curriculum Model's recommendations as a…

  17. OJPOT: Online Judge & Practice Oriented Teaching Idea in Programming Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Gui Ping; Chen, Shu Yu; Yang, Xin; Feng, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Practical abilities are important for students from majors including Computer Science and Engineering, and Electrical Engineering. Along with the popularity of ACM International Collegiate Programming Contest (ACM/ICPC) and other programming contests, online judge (OJ) websites achieve rapid development, thus providing a new kind of programming…

  18. Guidance Manual: Asbestos Operations & Maintenance Work Practices. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Building Sciences, Washington, DC.

    This technical manual provides detailed guidance to building owners, asbestos program managers, and operations and maintenance (O&M) workers for managing asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in buildings. The manual addresses four different types of ACM found in buildings and three different levels of precaution which may be warranted by specific…

  19. Effect of electrolyte concentration on performance of supercapacitor carbon electrode from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farma, R.; Deraman, M.; Talib, I. A.; Awitdrus, Omar, R.; Ishak, M. M.; Taer, E.; Basri, N. H.; Dolah, B. N. M.

    2015-04-01

    Fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches were used to produce self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG). The SACG green monoliths were carbonized in N2 environment at 800°C to produce carbon monoliths (CM) and the CM was CO2 activated at 800°C for 4 hour to produce activated carbon monolith electrodes (ACM). The physical properties of the CMs and ACMs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. ACMs were used as electrode to fabricate symmetry supercapacitor cells and the cells which used H2SO4 electrolyte at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 M were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge standard techniques. In this paper we report the physical properties of the ACM electrodes and the effect of electrolyte concentration on the electrochemical properties the ACM electrodes.

  20. Fabrication and electrical properties of metal-coated acrylate rubber microspheres by electroless plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, D. L.; Zhan, M. S.

    2009-01-01

    Electroless copper plating on micron-scale acrylate rubber (ACM) microspheres was studied. The core-shell structured Cu-coated ACM microspheres with high conductivity and low density were fabricated by introducing a reaction control method. Via multi-times activating treatment, the acrylate rubber (ACM) microspheres were implanted with more Ag catalytic active centers on the surfaces to promote the formation of coatings. The surface-coating structures and the electrical properties of Cu-coated ACM microspheres were investigated. It was found that the Cu-coated ACM microspheres were a kind of elastic particles. The different coating structures could be produced by controlling the extent of plating reaction. The coated microspheres with different coating structures were conductive, and their volume resistivities decreased remarkably with the increasing of applied pressure and varied with the temperature according to their surface coating structures.

  1. Evaluating adaptive co-management as conservation conflict resolution: Learning from seals and salmon.

    PubMed

    Butler, J R A; Young, J C; McMyn, I A G; Leyshon, B; Graham, I M; Walker, I; Baxter, J M; Dodd, J; Warburton, C

    2015-09-01

    By linking iterative learning and knowledge generation with power-sharing, adaptive co-management (ACM) provides a potential solution to resolving complex social-ecological problems. In this paper we evaluate ACM as a mechanism for resolving conservation conflict using a case study in Scotland, where seal and salmon fishery stakeholders have opposing and entrenched objectives. ACM emerged in 2002, successfully resolving this long-standing conflict. Applying evaluation approaches from the literature, in 2011 we interviewed stakeholders to characterise the evolution of ACM, and factors associated with its success over 10 years. In common with other ACM cases, triggers for the process were shifts in slow variables controlling the system (seal and salmon abundance, public perceptions of seal shooting), and exogenous shocks (changes in legal mandates, a seal disease outbreak). Also typical of ACM, three phases of evolution were evident: emerging local leadership preparing the system for change, a policy window of opportunity, and stakeholder partnerships building the resilience of the system. Parameters maintaining ACM were legal mechanisms and structures, legal power held by government, and the willingness of all stakeholders to reach a compromise and experiment with an alternative governance approach. Results highlighted the critical role of government power and support in resolving conservation conflict, which may constrain the extent of local stakeholder-driven ACM. The evaluation also demonstrated how, following perceived success, the trajectory of ACM has shifted to a 'stakeholder apathy' phase, with declining leadership, knowledge exchange, stakeholder engagement, and system resilience. We discuss remedial actions required to revive the process, and the importance of long term government resourcing and alternative financing schemes for successful conflict resolution. Based on the results we present a generic indicator framework and participatory method for the

  2. RGD-modified liposomes enhance efficiency of aclacinomycin A delivery: evaluation of their effect in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chan; Li, Xiaoyan; Dong, Chunyan; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhang, Xie; Gao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, long-circulating Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-modified aclacinomycin A (ACM) liposomes were prepared by thin film hydration method. Their morphology, particle size, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro release were investigated. The RGD-ACM liposomes was about 160 nm in size and had the visual appearance of a yellowish suspension. The zeta potential was −22.2 mV and the encapsulation efficiency was more than 93%. The drug-release behavior of the RGD-ACM liposomes showed a biphasic pattern, with an initial burst release and followed by sustained release at a constant rate. After being dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4) and kept at 4°C for one month, the liposomes did not aggregate and still had the appearance of a milky white colloidal solution. In a pharmacokinetic study, rats treated with RGD-ACM liposomes showed slightly higher plasma concentrations than those treated with ACM liposomes. Maximum plasma concentrations of RGD-ACM liposomes and ACM liposomes were 4,532 and 3,425 ng/mL, respectively. RGD-ACM liposomes had a higher AUC0–∞ (1.54-fold), mean residence time (2.09-fold), and elimination half-life (1.2-fold) when compared with ACM liposomes. In an in vivo study in mice, both types of liposomes inhibited growth of human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells and markedly decreased tumor size when compared with the control group. There were no obvious pathological tissue changes in any of the treatment groups. Our results indicate that RGD-modified ACM liposomes have a better antitumor effect in vivo than their unmodified counterparts. PMID:26316700

  3. Precursor salt assisted syntheses of high-index faceted concave hexagon and nanorod-like polyoxometalates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Jaya; Ganguly, Mainak; Mondal, Chanchal; Negishi, Yuichi; Pal, Tarasankar

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes an effective method for a precursor salt assisted fabrication and reshaping of two different polyoxometalates [(NH4)2Cu(MoO4)2 (ACM) and Cu3(MoO4)2(OH)2 (CMOH)] into five distinctive shapes through straightforward and indirect routes. Explicit regulation of the structural arrangements of ACM and CMOH has been studied in detail with altered precursor salt concentration employing our laboratory developed modified hydrothermal (MHT) method. Morphologically different ACM 3D architectures are evolved with higher molybdate concentration, whereas 1D growth of CMOH is observed with increased copper concentration. Interesting morphological transformation of the products has been accomplished employing one precursor salt at a time without using any other foreign reagent. It has been proven that large ACMs become labile in the presence of incoming Cu(ii) and NH4+ ions of the precursor salts. A new strategy for the conversion of faceted ACMs (hexagonal plate, circular plate and hollow flower) to exclusive CMOH nanorods through a Cu(ii) assisted reaction has been adopted. According to thermodynamic consideration, the synthesis of rare concave nanostructures with high index facet is still challenging due to their higher reactivity. In this study, concave hexagonal ACM with high index facet {hkl} has been successfully prepared for the first time from hexagonal ACM through simple etching with ammonium heptamolybdate (AHM), which is another precursor salt. Hexagonal ACM corrugates to a concave hexagon because of the higher reactivity of the {001} crystal plane than that of the {010} plane. It has been shown that high index facet exposed concave hexagonal ACM serves as a better catalyst for the photodegradation of dye than the other microstructures enclosed by low index facets.This paper describes an effective method for a precursor salt assisted fabrication and reshaping of two different polyoxometalates [(NH4)2Cu(MoO4)2 (ACM) and Cu3(MoO4)2(OH)2 (CMOH)] into

  4. Sensitivity of two Iberian lakes to North Atlantic atmospheric circulation modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Armand; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Pla-Rabes, Sergi; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Jerez, Sonia; Rico-Herrero, Mayte; Vega, José C.; Jambrina-Enríquez, Margarita; Giralt, Santiago

    2015-12-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) exerts a major influence on the climate of the North Atlantic region. However, other atmospheric circulation modes (ACMs), such as the East Atlantic (EA) and Scandinavian (SCAND) patterns, also play significant roles. The dynamics of lakes on the Iberian Peninsula are greatly controlled by climatic parameters, but their relationship with these various ACMs has not been investigated in detail. In this paper, we analyze monthly meteorological and limnological long-term datasets (1950-2011 and 1992-2011, respectively) from two lakes on the northern and central Iberian Peninsula (Sanabria and Las Madres) to develop an understanding of the seasonal sensitivity of these freshwater systems to the NAO, EA and SCAND circulation modes. The limnological variability within Lake Sanabria is primarily controlled by fluctuations in the seasonal precipitation and wind, and the primary ACMs associated with the winter limnological processes are the NAO and the SCAND modes, whereas only the EA mode appears to weakly influence processes during the summer. However, Lake Las Madres is affected by precipitation, wind and, to a lesser extent, temperature, whereas the ACMs have less influence. Therefore, we aim to show that the lakes of the Iberian Peninsula are sensitive to these ACMs. The results presented here indicate that the lake dynamics, in some cases, have a higher sensitivity to variations in the ACMs than single local meteorological variables. However, certain local features, such as geography, lake morphology and anthropic influences, are crucial to properly record the signals of these ACMs.

  5. Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Attitude Control Motor Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Paschal, Keith B.; Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Foley, Robert; Mayfield, David; Cross, Jared

    2011-01-01

    Current Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) configurations use an eight-jet, solid-fueled Attitude Control Motor (ACM) to provide required vehicle control for all proposed abort trajectories. Due to the forward position of the ACM on the LAV, it is necessary to assess the effects of jet-interactions (JI) between the various ACM nozzle plumes and the external flow along the outside surfaces of the vehicle. These JI-induced changes in flight control characteristics must be accounted for in developing ACM operations and LAV flight characteristics. A test program to generate jet interaction aerodynamic increment data for multiple LAV configurations was conducted in the NASA Ames and NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels from August 2007 through December 2009. Using cold air as the simulant gas, powered subscale models were used to generate interaction data at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic test conditions. This paper presents an overview of the complete ACM JI experimental test program for Orion LAV configurations, highlighting ACM system modeling, nozzle scaling assumptions, experimental test techniques, and data reduction methodologies. Lessons learned are discussed, and sample jet interaction data are shown. These data, in conjunction with computational predictions, were used to create the ACM JI increments for all relevant flight databases.

  6. Effect of carbonization temperature on the physical and electrochemical properties of supercapacitor electrode from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Ishak, M. M.; Deraman, M. Talib, I. A.; Basri, N. H.; Omar, R.; Nor, N. S. M.; Dolah, B. N. M.; Awitdrus,; Farma, R.; Taer, E.

    2015-04-16

    Self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG) was prepared from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches. The SACG green monoliths were carbonized in N{sub 2} environment at 400, 500, 600 and 700°C to produce carbon monoliths labeled as CM1, CM2, CM3 and CM4 respectively. The CMs were activated in CO{sub 2} surrounding at 800°C for 1 hour to produce activated carbon monolith electrodes (ACM1, ACM2, ACM3 and ACM4). The physical properties of the CMs and ACMs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherm techniques. ACMs were used as electrode to fabricate symmetry supercapacitor cells and the cells’ performances were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) standard techniques. In this paper we report the physical and electrochemical properties of the ACM electrodes by analyzing the influence of the carbonization temperature on these properties.

  7. Effect of carbonization temperature on the physical and electrochemical properties of supercapacitor electrode from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, M. M.; Deraman, M.; Talib, I. A.; Basri, N. H.; Awitdrus, Farma, R.; Taer, E.; Omar, R.; Nor, N. S. M.; Dolah, B. N. M.

    2015-04-01

    Self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG) was prepared from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches. The SACG green monoliths were carbonized in N2 environment at 400, 500, 600 and 700°C to produce carbon monoliths labeled as CM1, CM2, CM3 and CM4 respectively. The CMs were activated in CO2 surrounding at 800°C for 1 hour to produce activated carbon monolith electrodes (ACM1, ACM2, ACM3 and ACM4). The physical properties of the CMs and ACMs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm techniques. ACMs were used as electrode to fabricate symmetry supercapacitor cells and the cells' performances were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) standard techniques. In this paper we report the physical and electrochemical properties of the ACM electrodes by analyzing the influence of the carbonization temperature on these properties.

  8. Early Fungicidal Activity as a Candidate Surrogate Endpoint for All-Cause Mortality in Cryptococcal Meningitis: A Systematic Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Montezuma-Rusca, Jairo M.; Powers, John H.; Follmann, Dean; Wang, Jing; Sullivan, Brigit; Williamson, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a leading cause of HIV-associated mortality. In clinical trials evaluating treatments for CM, biomarkers of early fungicidal activity (EFA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been proposed as candidate surrogate endpoints for all- cause mortality (ACM). However, there has been no systematic evaluation of the group-level or trial-level evidence for EFA as a candidate surrogate endpoint for ACM. Methods We conducted a systematic review of randomized trials in treatment of CM to evaluate available evidence for EFA measured as culture negativity at 2 weeks/10 weeks and slope of EFA as candidate surrogate endpoints for ACM. We performed sensitivity analysis on superiority trials and high quality trials as determined by Cochrane measures of trial bias. Results Twenty-seven trials including 2854 patients met inclusion criteria. Mean ACM was 15.8% at 2 weeks and 27.0% at 10 weeks with no overall significant difference between test and control groups. There was a statistically significant group-level correlation between average EFA and ACM at 10 weeks but not at 2 weeks. There was also no statistically significant group-level correlation between CFU culture negativity at 2weeks/10weeks or average EFA slope at 10 weeks. A statistically significant trial-level correlation was identified between EFA slope and ACM at 2 weeks, but is likely misleading, as there was no treatment effect on ACM. Conclusions Mortality remains high in short time periods in CM clinical trials. Using published data and Institute of Medicine criteria, evidence for use of EFA as a surrogate endpoint for ACM is insufficient and could provide misleading results from clinical trials. ACM should be used as a primary endpoint evaluating treatments for cryptococcal meningitis. PMID:27490100

  9. Precursor salt assisted syntheses of high-index faceted concave hexagon and nanorod-like polyoxometalates.

    PubMed

    Pal, Jaya; Ganguly, Mainak; Mondal, Chanchal; Negishi, Yuichi; Pal, Tarasankar

    2015-01-14

    This paper describes an effective method for a precursor salt assisted fabrication and reshaping of two different polyoxometalates [(NH4)2Cu(MoO4)2 (ACM) and Cu3(MoO4)2(OH)2 (CMOH)] into five distinctive shapes through straightforward and indirect routes. Explicit regulation of the structural arrangements of ACM and CMOH has been studied in detail with altered precursor salt concentration employing our laboratory developed modified hydrothermal (MHT) method. Morphologically different ACM 3D architectures are evolved with higher molybdate concentration, whereas 1D growth of CMOH is observed with increased copper concentration. Interesting morphological transformation of the products has been accomplished employing one precursor salt at a time without using any other foreign reagent. It has been proven that large ACMs become labile in the presence of incoming Cu(II) and NH4(+) ions of the precursor salts. A new strategy for the conversion of faceted ACMs (hexagonal plate, circular plate and hollow flower) to exclusive CMOH nanorods through a Cu(II) assisted reaction has been adopted. According to thermodynamic consideration, the synthesis of rare concave nanostructures with high index facet is still challenging due to their higher reactivity. In this study, concave hexagonal ACM with high index facet {hkl} has been successfully prepared for the first time from hexagonal ACM through simple etching with ammonium heptamolybdate (AHM), which is another precursor salt. Hexagonal ACM corrugates to a concave hexagon because of the higher reactivity of the {001} crystal plane than that of the {010} plane. It has been shown that high index facet exposed concave hexagonal ACM serves as a better catalyst for the photodegradation of dye than the other microstructures enclosed by low index facets. PMID:25500856

  10. CNTF-Treated Astrocyte Conditioned Medium Enhances Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel Activity in Rat Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meiqun; Liu, Hongli; Xu, Huanbai; Wang, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaojing

    2016-08-01

    Seizure activity is linked to astrocyte activation as well as dysfunctional cortical neuron excitability produced from changes in calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channel function. Ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte conditioned medium (CNTF-ACM) can be used to investigate the peripheral effects of activated astrocytes upon cortical neurons. However, CNTF-ACM's effect upon KCa channel activity in cultured cortical neurons has not yet been investigated. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were performed in rat cortical neurons to evaluate CNTF-ACM's effects upon charybdotoxin-sensitive large-conductance KCa (BK) channel currents and apamin-sensitive small-conductance KCa (SK) channel current. Biotinylation and RT-PCR were applied to assess CNTF-ACM's effects upon the protein and mRNA expression, respectively, of the SK channel subunits SK2 and SK3 and the BK channel subunits BKα1 and BKβ3. An anti-fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) monoclonal neutralizing antibody was used to assess the effects of the FGF-2 component of CNTF-ACM. CNTF-ACM significantly increased KCa channel current density, which was predominantly attributable to gains in BK channel activity (p < 0.05). CNTF-ACM produced a significant increase in BKα1 and BKβ3 expression (p < 0.05) but had no significant effect upon SK2 or SK3 expression (p > 0.05). Blocking FGF-2 produced significant reductions in KCa channel current density (p > 0.05) as well as BKα1 and BKβ3 expression in CNTF-ACM-treated neurons (p > 0.05). CNTF-ACM significantly enhances BK channel activity in rat cortical neurons and that FGF-2 is partially responsible for these effects. CNTF-induced astrocyte activation results in secretion of neuroactive factors which may affect neuronal excitability and resultant seizure activity in mammalian cortical neurons. PMID:27097551

  11. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Porous Mullite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiung, Chwan-Hai Harold

    Mullite (3 Al2O3 : 2 SiO2) is a technologically important ceramic due to its thermal stability, corrosion resistance, and mechanical robustness. One variant, porous acicular mullite (ACM), has a unique needle-like microstructure and is the material platform for The Dow Chemical Company's diesel particulate filter AERIFY(TM). The investigation described herein focuses on the microstructure-mechanical property relationships in acicular mullites as well as those with traditional porous microstructures with the goal of illuminating the critical factors in determining their modulus, strength, and toughness. Mullites with traditional pore morphologies were made to serve as references via slipcasting of a kaolinite-alumina-starch slurry. The starch was burned out to leave behind a pore network, and the calcined body was then reaction-sintered at 1600C to form mullite. The samples had porosities of approximately 60%. Pore size and shape were altered by using different starch templates, and pore size was found to influence the stiffness and toughness. The ACM microstructure was varied along three parameters: total porosity, pore size, and needle size. Total porosity was found to dominate the mechanical behavior of ACM, while increases in needle and pore size increased the toughness at lower porosities. ACM was found to have much improved (˜130%) mechanical properties relative to its non-acicular counterpart at the same porosity. A second set of investigations studied the role of the intergranular glassy phase which wets the needle intersections of ACM. Removal of the glassy phase via an HF etch reduced the mechanical properties by ˜30%, highlighting the intergranular phase's importance to the enhanced mechanical properties of ACM. The composition of the glassy phase was altered by doping the ACM precursor with magnesium and neodymium. Magnesium doping resulted in ACM with greatly reduced fracture strength and toughness. Studies showed that the mechanical properties of the

  12. Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy - New Insights into Disease Mechanisms and Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Asimaki, Angeliki; Kléber, André G.; MacRae, Calum A.; Saffitz, Jeffrey E.

    2014-01-01

    Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a primary myocardial disorder characterized by the early appearance of ventricular arrhythmias often out of proportion to the degree of ventricular remodeling and dysfunction. ACM typically presents in adolescence or early adulthood. It accounts for 10% of sudden cardiac deaths in individuals under the age of 18 years. Although there has been significant progress in recognizing the genetic determinants of ACM, how specific gene mutations cause the disease remains poorly understood. Here, we review insights gained from studying the human disease as well as in vivo and in vitro experimental models. These observations have advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of ACM and may lead to development of new mechanism-based therapies. PMID:25506190

  13. Planetary Basalt Construction of a Launch/Landing Pad - PISCES Project Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, R. M.

    2015-10-01

    Provide a briefing on the progress of a joint project between the PISCES and NASA to develop and demonstrate technologies associated with planetary robotic construction using basalt: called “Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement” (ACME).

  14. Research Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Cornelia, Comp.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that research can provide a cutting edge for the profession and essential information for teachers as they plan new instructional strategies, evaluation techniques, and advocacy efforts. Presents an annotated bibliography of 17 items related to music education research. (ACM)

  15. 75 FR 52551 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Company, Ltd. of Piscataway, NJ; Ziprint Image Corporation of Walnut, CA; Nano Pacific Corporation of... Tech of South El Monte, CA; ACM Technologies, Inc. of Corona, CA; Virtual Imaging Products Inc....

  16. 75 FR 62564 - In the Matter of: Certain Toner Cartridges and Components Thereof; Notice of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ..., Piscataway, NJ 08854. Ziprint Image Corporation, 19805 Harrison Avenue, Walnut, CA 91789. Nano Pacific... Image Tech, 1718 Potrero Avenue Suite A, South El Monte, CA 91733. ACM Technologies, Inc., 2535...

  17. Fixing the Problem With Empathy: Development and Validation of the Affective and Cognitive Measure of Empathy.

    PubMed

    Vachon, David D; Lynam, Donald R

    2016-04-01

    Low empathy is a criterion for most externalizing disorders, and empathy training is a regular component of treatment for aggressive people, from school bullies to sex offenders. However, recent meta-analytic evidence suggests that current measures of empathy explain only 1% of the variance in aggressive behavior. A new assessment of empathy was developed to more fully represent the empathy construct and better predict important outcomes-particularly aggressive behavior and externalizing psychopathology. Across three independent samples (N = 210-708), the 36-item Affective and Cognitive measure of Empathy (ACME) was internally consistent, structurally reliable, and invariant across sex. The ACME bore significant associations to important outcomes, which were incremental relative to other measures of empathy and generalizable across sex. Importantly, the affective scales of the ACME-particularly a new "Affective Dissonance" scale-yielded moderate to strong associations with aggressive behavior and externalizing disorders. The ACME is a short, reliable, and useful measure of empathy. PMID:25612628

  18. Adaptive Patterns of Stress Responsivity: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Del Giudice, Marco; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Ellis, Bruce J.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive calibration model (ACM) is an evolutionary–developmental theory of individual differences in stress responsivity. In this article, we tested some key predictions of the ACM in a middle childhood sample (N = 256). Measures of autonomic nervous system activity across the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches validated the 4-pattern taxonomy of the ACM via finite mixture modeling. Moreover, the 4 patterns of responsivity showed the predicted associations with family stress levels but no association with measures of ecological stress. Our hypotheses concerning sex differences in responsivity were only partly confirmed. This preliminary study provides initial support for the key predictions of the ACM and highlights some of the methodological challenges that will need to be considered in future research on this topic. PMID:22148947

  19. Autolysis of Lactococcus lactis Is Increased upon d-Alanine Depletion of Peptidoglycan and Lipoteichoic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Steen, Anton; Palumbo, Emmanuelle; Deghorain, Marie; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro; Delcour, Jean; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Kok, Jan; Buist, Girbe; Hols, Pascal

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in the genes encoding enzymes responsible for the incorporation of d-Ala into the cell wall of Lactococcus lactis affect autolysis. An L. lactis alanine racemase (alr) mutant is strictly dependent on an external supply of d-Ala to be able to synthesize peptidoglycan and to incorporate d-Ala in the lipoteichoic acids (LTA). The mutant lyses rapidly when d-Ala is removed at mid-exponential growth. AcmA, the major lactococcal autolysin, is partially involved in the increased lysis since an alr acmA double mutant still lyses, albeit to a lesser extent. To investigate the role of d-Ala on LTA in the increased cell lysis, a dltD mutant of L. lactis was investigated, since this mutant is only affected in the d-alanylation of LTA and not the synthesis of peptidoglycan. Mutation of dltD results in increased lysis, showing that d-alanylation of LTA also influences autolysis. Since a dltD acmA double mutant does not lyse, the lysis of the dltD mutant is totally AcmA dependent. Zymographic analysis shows that no degradation of AcmA takes place in the dltD mutant, whereas AcmA is degraded by the extracellular protease HtrA in the wild-type strain. In L. lactis, LTA has been shown to be involved in controlled (directed) binding of AcmA. LTA lacking d-Ala has been reported in other bacterial species to have an improved capacity for autolysin binding. Mutation of dltD in L. lactis, however, does not affect peptidoglycan binding of AcmA; neither the amount of AcmA binding to the cells nor the binding to specific loci is altered. In conclusion, d-Ala depletion of the cell wall causes lysis by two distinct mechanisms. First, it results in an altered peptidoglycan that is more susceptible to lysis by AcmA and also by other factors, e.g., one or more of the other (putative) cell wall hydrolases expressed by L. lactis. Second, reduced amounts of d-Ala on LTA result in decreased degradation of AcmA by HtrA, which results in increased lytic activity. PMID:15601695

  20. Air cycle machine for an aircraft environmental control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decrisantis, Angelo A. (Inventor); O'Coin, James R. (Inventor); Taddey, Edmund P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An ECS system includes an ACM mounted adjacent an air-liquid heat exchanger through a diffuser that contains a diffuser plate. The diffuser plate receives airflow from the ACM which strikes the diffuser plate and flows radially outward and around the diffuser plate and into the air-liquid heat exchanger to provide minimal pressure loss and proper flow distribution into the air-liquid heat exchanger with significantly less packaging space.

  1. Association Between Physical Activity and Risk of All-Cause Mortality and Cardiovascular Disease in Patients With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Satoru; Tanaka, Shiro; Heianza, Yoriko; Fujihara, Kazuya; Horikawa, Chika; Shimano, Hitoshi; Saito, Kazumi; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Ohashi, Yasuo; Sone, Hirohito

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The association between habitual physical activity (PA) and lowered risk of all-cause mortality (ACM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been suggested in patients with diabetes. This meta-analysis summarizes the risk reduction in relation to PA, focusing on clarifying dose-response associations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Electronic literature searches were conducted for cohort studies that examined relative risk (RR) of ACM or CVD in relation to PA in patients with diabetes. For the qualitative assessment, RR for the highest versus the lowest PA category in each study was pooled with a random-effects model. We added linear and spline regression analyses to assess the quantitative relationship between increases in PA and ACM and CVD risk. RESULTS There were 17 eligible studies. Qualitatively, the highest PA category had a lower RR [95% CI] for ACM (0.61 [0.52–0.70]) and CVD (0.71 [0.60–0.84]) than the lowest PA category. The linear regression model indicated a high goodness of fit for the risk of ACM (adjusted R2 = 0.44, P = 0.001) and CVD (adjusted R2 = 0.51, P = 0.001), with the result that a 1 MET-h/day incrementally higher PA was associated with 9.5% (5.0–13.8%) and 7.9% (4.3–11.4%) reductions in ACM and CVD risk, respectively. The spline regression model was not significantly different from the linear model in goodness of fit (P = 0.14 for ACM risk; P = 0.60 for CVD risk). CONCLUSIONS More PA was associated with a larger reduction in future ACM and CVD risk in patients with diabetes. Nevertheless, any amount of habitual PA was better than inactivity. PMID:23349151

  2. Mineralogical conversion of asbestos containing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsford, S.K.; Foltz, A.D.; Ek, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    The principal objective of the Technical Task Plan (TTP) is to demonstrate a thermal-chemical mineralogical asbestos conversion unit at the Hanford Site, which converts non-radiological asbestos containing materials (ACMs) into an asbestos-free material. The permanent thermal-chemical mineralogical conversion of ACMs to a non-toxic, non-hazardous, potentially marketable end product should not only significantly reduce the waste stream volumes but terminate the {open_quotes}cradle to grave{close_quotes} ownership liabilities.

  3. O-Glycosylation as a Novel Control Mechanism of Peptidoglycan Hydrolase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Rolain, Thomas; Bernard, Elvis; Beaussart, Audrey; Degand, Hervé; Courtin, Pascal; Egge-Jacobsen, Wolfgang; Bron, Peter A.; Morsomme, Pierre; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre; Dufrêne, Yves F.; Hols, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Acm2, the major autolysin of Lactobacillus plantarum, is a tripartite protein. Its catalytic domain is surrounded by an O-glycosylated N-terminal region rich in Ala, Ser, and Thr (AST domain), which is of low complexity and unknown function, and a C-terminal region composed of five SH3b peptidoglycan (PG) binding domains. Here, we investigate the contribution of these two accessory domains and of O-glycosylation to Acm2 functionality. We demonstrate that Acm2 is an N-acetylglucosaminidase and identify the pattern of O-glycosylation (21 mono-N-acetylglucosamines) of its AST domain. The O-glycosylation process is species-specific as Acm2 purified from Lactococcus lactis is not glycosylated. We therefore explored the functional role of O-glycosylation by purifying different truncated versions of Acm2 that were either glycosylated or non-glycosylated. We show that SH3b domains are able to bind PG and are responsible for Acm2 targeting to the septum of dividing cells, whereas the AST domain and its O-glycosylation are not involved in this process. Notably, our data reveal that the lack of O-glycosylation of the AST domain significantly increases Acm2 enzymatic activity, whereas removal of SH3b PG binding domains dramatically reduces this activity. Based on this antagonistic role, we propose a model in which access of the Acm2 catalytic domain to its substrate may be hindered by the AST domain where O-glycosylation changes its conformation and/or mediates interdomain interactions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that O-glycosylation is shown to control the activity of a bacterial enzyme. PMID:23760506

  4. Curative effect of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume. tuber on N-nitrosodiethylamine- induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats.

    PubMed

    Ansil, Puthuparampil Nazarudeen; Nitha, Anand; Prabha, Santhibhavan Prabhakaran; Latha, Mukalel Sankunni

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the curative effect of Amorphophallus campanulatus tuber methanolic extract (ACME) on N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in experimental rats. All of the rats except those in the normal control group received 0.02% NDEA orally (2 mL, 5 days/week) for the first 20 weeks of the experiment. In different treatment groups, after 20 weeks of NDEA challenge, rats were supplemented with ACME (125 and 250 mg/kg body weight, orally) for the following 28 days. In addition, a standard drug control group was supplemented with silymarin (100 mg/kg bw, orally), a known tumorsuppressive agent against HCC. Administration of ACME significantly inhibited the NDEA-induced increase of hepatic nodule incidence, nodule multiplicity, and serum biochemical indices, and improved the hepatocellular architecture in a dose-dependent manner. The biochemical analysis of hepatic tissues further demonstrated that ACME counteracts NDEA-induced oxidative stress through the restoration of antioxidant enzymes. NDEAadministered rats also showed amplified expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the liver, and decreased expression of this proliferative marker was clearly observed upon the supplementation of ACME. Notably, 250 mg/kg bw ACME supplementation showed better results than the other treatment regimens; this result might be associated with the enhancement of antioxidant activity and inhibition of hepatic cell proliferation. PMID:25272059

  5. Preparation of binderless activated carbon monolith from pre-carbonization rubber wood sawdust by controlling of carbonization and activation condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taer, E.; Deraman, M.; Taslim, R.; Iwantono

    2013-09-01

    Binderless activated carbon monolith (ACM) was prepared from pre-carbonized rubber wood sawdust (RWSD). The effect of the carbonization temperature (400, 500, 600, 700, 800 dan 900 °C) on porosity characteristic of the ACM have been studied. The optimum carbonization temperature for obtaining ACM with high surface area of 600 °C with CO2 activation at 800 °C for one hour. At this condition, the surface area as high as 733 m2 g-1 could be successfully obtained. By improved the activation temperature at 900 °C for 2.5 h, it was found that the surface area of 860 m2 g-1. For this condition, the ACM exhibit the specific capacitance of 90 F g-1. In addition the termogravimertic (TG)-differential termografimertic (DTG) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) measurement were also performed on the ACMs and the result has been studied. Finally, it was conclude that the high surface area of ACM from RWSD could be produced by proper selections of carbonization and activation condition.

  6. An international observational study suggests that artificial intelligence for clinical decision support optimizes anemia management in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Carlo; Molina, Manuel; Ponce, Pedro; Tothova, Monika; Cattinelli, Isabella; Ion Titapiccolo, Jasmine; Mari, Flavio; Amato, Claudia; Leipold, Frank; Wehmeyer, Wolfgang; Stuard, Stefano; Stopper, Andrea; Canaud, Bernard

    2016-08-01

    Managing anemia in hemodialysis patients can be challenging because of competing therapeutic targets and individual variability. Because therapy recommendations provided by a decision support system can benefit both patients and doctors, we evaluated the impact of an artificial intelligence decision support system, the Anemia Control Model (ACM), on anemia outcomes. Based on patient profiles, the ACM was built to recommend suitable erythropoietic-stimulating agent doses. Our retrospective study consisted of a 12-month control phase (standard anemia care), followed by a 12-month observation phase (ACM-guided care) encompassing 752 patients undergoing hemodialysis therapy in 3 NephroCare clinics located in separate countries. The percentage of hemoglobin values on target, the median darbepoetin dose, and individual hemoglobin fluctuation (estimated from the intrapatient hemoglobin standard deviation) were deemed primary outcomes. In the observation phase, median darbepoetin consumption significantly decreased from 0.63 to 0.46 μg/kg/month, whereas on-target hemoglobin values significantly increased from 70.6% to 76.6%, reaching 83.2% when the ACM suggestions were implemented. Moreover, ACM introduction led to a significant decrease in hemoglobin fluctuation (intrapatient standard deviation decreased from 0.95 g/dl to 0.83 g/dl). Thus, ACM support helped improve anemia outcomes of hemodialysis patients, minimizing erythropoietic-stimulating agent use with the potential to reduce the cost of treatment. PMID:27262365

  7. Asbestos-containing materials in New York City buildings.

    PubMed

    Lundy, P; Barer, M

    1992-06-01

    The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) carried out a survey to assess the public's risk of exposure in buildings to in-place asbestos-containing materials (ACM). Data regarding the presence of in-place asbestos and the potential for exposure to asbestos were collected in 886 buildings from 16 different building categories in New York City. Overall 68% of the buildings in New York City contain ACM. The estimated total amount of ACM in the city is 323 million ft2 most of which is thermal system insulation. Overall, 16% of all ACM had greater than 10% of its surface damaged and another 68% of ACM had some, but less than 10% of its surface damaged. About half of all ACM is in mechanical spaces within buildings. On the basis of results of the survey, buildings in New York City were prioritized for management and an in-place management bill was introduced into the New York City Council. PMID:1597168

  8. Antibody Colocalization Microarray: A Scalable Technology for Multiplex Protein Analysis in Complex Samples*

    PubMed Central

    Pla-Roca, M.; Leulmi, R. F.; Tourekhanova, S.; Bergeron, S.; Laforte, V.; Moreau, E.; Gosline, S. J. C.; Bertos, N.; Hallett, M.; Park, M.; Juncker, D.

    2012-01-01

    DNA microarrays were rapidly scaled up from 256 to 6.5 million targets, and although antibody microarrays were proposed earlier, sensitive multiplex sandwich assays have only been scaled up to a few tens of targets. Cross-reactivity, arising because detection antibodies are mixed, is a known weakness of multiplex sandwich assays that is mitigated by lengthy optimization. Here, we introduce (1) vulnerability as a metric for assays. The vulnerability of multiplex sandwich assays to cross-reactivity increases quadratically with the number of targets, and together with experimental results, substantiates that scaling up of multiplex sandwich assays is unfeasible. We propose (2) a novel concept for multiplexing without mixing named antibody colocalization microarray (ACM). In ACMs, both capture and detection antibodies are physically colocalized by spotting to the same two-dimensional coordinate. Following spotting of the capture antibodies, the chip is removed from the arrayer, incubated with the sample, placed back onto the arrayer and then spotted with the detection antibodies. ACMs with up to 50 targets were produced, along with a binding curve for each protein. The ACM was validated by comparing it to ELISA and to a small-scale, conventional multiplex sandwich assay (MSA). Using ACMs, proteins in the serum of breast cancer patients and healthy controls were quantified, and six candidate biomarkers identified. Our results indicate that ACMs are sensitive, robust, and scalable. PMID:22171321

  9. Chemopreventive effect of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) blume tuber against aberrant crypt foci and cell proliferation in 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ansil, Puthuparampil Nazarudeen; Prabha, Santhibhavan Prabhakaran; Nitha, Anand; Latha, Mukalel Sankunni

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death, both in men and women. This study investigated the effects of Amorphophallus campanulatus tuber methanolic extract (ACME) on aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation, colonic cell proliferation, lipid peroxidative damage and the antioxidant status in a long term preclinical model of 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups, viz., group I rats served as controls; group II rats treated as drug controls receiving 250 mg/ kg body weight of ACME orally; group III rats received DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) subcutaneously once a week for the first 15 weeks; groups IV, V and VI rats received ACME along with DMH during the initiation, post- initiation stages and the entire period of the study, respectively. All the rats were sacrificed at the end of 30 weeks and the intestinal and colonic tissues from different groups were subjected to biochemical and histological studies. Administration of DMH resulted in significant (p ≤ 0.05) intestinal and colonic lipid peroxidation (MDA) and reduction of antioxidants such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S- transferase and reduced glutathione. Whereas the supplementation of ACME significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved the intestinal and colonic MDA and reduced glutathione levels and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in DMH intoxicated rats. ACME administration also significantly suppressed the formation and multiplicity of ACF. In addition, the DMH administered rats showed amplified expression of PCNA in the colon and decreased expression of this proliferative marker was clearly noted with initiation, post-initiation and entire period of ACME treatment regimens. These results indicate that ACME could exert a significant chemopreventive effect on colon carcinogenesis induced by DMH. PMID:24175821

  10. Secondary progressive and relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis leads to motor-related decreased anatomical connectivity.

    PubMed

    Lyksborg, Mark; Siebner, Hartwig R; Sørensen, Per S; Blinkenberg, Morten; Parker, Geoff J M; Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Garde, Ellen; Larsen, Rasmus; Dyrby, Tim B

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) damages central white matter pathways which has considerable impact on disease-related disability. To identify disease-related alterations in anatomical connectivity, 34 patients (19 with relapsing remitting MS (RR-MS), 15 with secondary progressive MS (SP-MS) and 20 healthy subjects underwent diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) of the brain. Based on the dMRI, anatomical connectivity mapping (ACM) yielded a voxel-based metric reflecting the connectivity shared between each individual voxel and all other brain voxels. To avoid biases caused by inter-individual brain-shape differences, they were estimated in a spatially normalized space. Voxel-based statistical analyses using ACM were compared with analyses based on the localized microstructural indices of fractional anisotropy (FA). In both RR-MS and SP-MS patients, considerable portions of the motor-related white matter revealed decreases in ACM and FA when compared with healthy subjects. Patients with SP-MS exhibited reduced ACM values relative to RR-MS in the motor-related tracts, whereas there were no consistent decreases in FA between SP-MS and RR-MS patients. Regional ACM statistics exhibited moderate correlation with clinical disability as reflected by the expanded disability status scale (EDSS). The correlation between these statistics and EDSS was either similar to or stronger than the correlation between FA statistics and the EDSS. Together, the results reveal an improved relationship between ACM, the clinical phenotype, and impairment. This highlights the potential of the ACM connectivity indices to be used as a marker which can identify disease related-alterations due to MS which may not be seen using localized microstructural indices. PMID:24748023

  11. Cost-benefit analysis of avian influenza control in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Karki, S; Lupiani, B; Budke, C M; Karki, N P S; Rushton, J; Ivanek, R

    2015-12-01

    Numerous outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza A strain H5N1 have occurred in Nepal since 2009 despite implementation of a national programme to control the disease through surveillance and culling of infected poultry flocks. The objective of the study was to use cost-benefit analysis to compare the current control programme (CCP) with the possible alternatives of: i) no intervention (i.e., absence of control measures [ACM]) and ii) vaccinating 60% of the national poultry flock twice a year. In terms of the benefit-cost ratio, findings indicate a return of US $1.94 for every dollar spent in the CCP compared with ACM. The net present value of the CCP versus ACM, i.e., the amount of money saved by implementing the CCP rather than ACM, is US $861,507 (the benefits of CCP [prevented losses which would have occurred under ACM] minus the cost of CCP). The vaccination programme yields a return of US $2.32 for every dollar spent when compared with the CCR The net present value of vaccination versus the CCP is approximately US $12 million. Sensitivity analysis indicated thatthe findings were robust to different rates of discounting, whereas results were sensitive to the assumed market loss and the number of birds affected in the outbreaks under the ACM and vaccination options. Overall, the findings of the study indicate that the CCP is economically superior to ACM, but that vaccination could give greater economic returns and may be a better control strategy. Future research should be directed towards evaluating the financial feasibility and social acceptability of the CCP and of vaccination, with an emphasis on evaluating market reaction to the presence of H5N1 infection in the country. PMID:27044153

  12. Crystallization of bifonazole and acetaminophen within the matrix of semicrystalline, PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Liu, Zhengsheng; Qian, Feng

    2015-02-01

    The morphology and microstructure of crystalline drug/polymer solid dispersions could influence their physical stability and dissolution performance. In this study, the drug crystallization mechanism within PEG, PPG, and poloxamer matrix was investigated, and the resultant microstructure of various solid dispersions of acetaminophen (ACM) and bifonazole (BFZ) in the aforementioned polymers was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscopy (POM), and wide/small-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD/SAXS). With a stronger molecular interaction with the PEG segments, ACM decreased the crystallization onset temperature and crystallinity of PEG and poloxamers much more than BFZ. The stronger molecular interaction and better miscibility between ACM and PEG also induced a more defective lamellar structure in the ACM solid dispersions compared with that in the BFZ systems, as revealed by DSC and SAXS investigation. Observed under polarized optical microscopy, PEG, PPG, and poloxamer could all significantly improve the crystallization rate of ACM and BFZ, because of the largely reduced Tg of the solid dispersions by these low Tg polymers. Moreover, when the drug loading was below 60%, crystallization of BFZ in PEG or poloxamer occurred preferably along the radial direction of PEG spherulite, rather than the perpendicular direction, which was attributed to the geometric restriction of well-ordered polymer lamellar structure in the BFZ solid dispersions. Similar phenomena were not observed in the ACM solid dispersions regardless of the drug loading, presumably because ACM could diffuse freely across the perpendicular direction of the PEG spherulite, through the well-connected interlamellar or interfibrillar spaces produced by the defective PEG lamellar structure. The different drug-polymer interaction also caused a difference in the microstructure of polymer crystal, as well as a difference in drug distribution within the polymer matrix, which

  13. Effect of electrolyte concentration on performance of supercapacitor carbon electrode from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Farma, R.; Awitdrus,; Taer, E.; Deraman, M. Talib, I. A.; Omar, R.; Ishak, M. M.; Basri, N. H.; Dolah, B. N. M.

    2015-04-16

    Fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches were used to produce self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG). The SACG green monoliths were carbonized in N{sub 2} environment at 800°C to produce carbon monoliths (CM) and the CM was CO{sub 2} activated at 800°C for 4 hour to produce activated carbon monolith electrodes (ACM). The physical properties of the CMs and ACMs were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. ACMs were used as electrode to fabricate symmetry supercapacitor cells and the cells which used H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 M were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge standard techniques. In this paper we report the physical properties of the ACM electrodes and the effect of electrolyte concentration on the electrochemical properties the ACM electrodes.

  14. Liver segmentation with new supervised method to create initial curve for active contour.

    PubMed

    Zareei, Abouzar; Karimi, Abbas

    2016-08-01

    The liver performs a critical task in the human body; therefore, detecting liver diseases and preparing a robust plan for treating them are both crucial. Liver diseases kill nearly 25,000 Americans every year. A variety of image segmentation methods are available to determine the liver's position and to detect possible liver tumors. Among these is the Active Contour Model (ACM), a framework which has proven very sensitive to initial contour delineation and control parameters. In the proposed method based on image energy, we attempted to obtain an initial segmentation close to the liver's boundary, and then implemented an ACM to improve the initial segmentation. The ACM used in this work incorporates gradient vector flow (GVF) and balloon energy in order to overcome ACM limitations, such as local minima entrapment and initial contour dependency. Additionally, in order to adjust active contour control parameters, we applied a genetic algorithm to produce a proper parameter set close to the optimal solution. The pre-processing method has a better ability to segment the liver tissue during a short time with respect to other mentioned methods in this paper. The proposed method was performed using Sliver CT image datasets. The results show high accuracy, precision, sensitivity, specificity and low overlap error, MSD and runtime with few ACM iterations. PMID:27286186

  15. Self-Organized Amorphous TiO2 Nanotube Arrays on Porous Ti Foam for Rechargeable Lithium and Sodium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Zhonghe; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Menchhofer, Paul A; Dehoff, Ryan R; Bridges, Craig A; Chi, Miaofang; Guo, Bingkun; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Self-organized amorphous TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) were successfully fabricated on both Ti foil and porous Ti foam through electrochemical anodization techniques. The starting Ti foams were fabricated using ARCAM s Electron Beam Melting (EBM) technology. The TiO2 NTAs on Ti foam were used as anodes in lithium ion batteries; they exhibited high capacities of 103 Ahcm-2 at 10 Acm-2 and 83 Ahcm-2 at 500 Acm-2, which are two to three times higher than those achieved on the standard Ti foil, which is around 40 Ahcm-2 at 10 Acm-2 and 24 Ahcm-2 at 500 Acm-2, respectively. This improvement is mainly attributed to higher surface area of the Ti foam and higher porosity of the nanotube arrays layer grown on the Ti foam. In addition, a Na-ion half-cell composed of these NTAs anodes and Na metal showed a self-improving specific capacity upon cycling at 10 Acm-2. These results indicate that TiO2 NTAs grown on Ti porous foam are promising electrodes for Li-ion or Na-ion rechargeable batteries.

  16. Periodontal responses to augmented corticotomy with collagen membrane application during orthodontic buccal tipping in dogs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Yeol; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Herr, Yeek; Kwon, Young-Hyuk; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to examine the effects of absorbable collagen membrane (ACM) application in augmented corticotomy using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), during orthodontic buccal tipping movement in the dog. After buccal circumscribing corticotomy and DBBM grafting into the decorticated area, flaps were repositioned and sutured on control sides. ACM was overlaid and secured with membrane tacks, on test sides only, and the flaps were repositioned and sutured. Closed coil springs were used to apply 200 g orthodontic force in the buccolingual direction on the second and third premolars, immediately after primary flap closure. The buccal tipping angles were 31.19 ± 14.60° and 28.12 ± 11.48° on the control and test sides, respectively. A mean of 79.5 ± 16.0% of the buccal bone wall was replaced by new bone on the control side, and on the test side 78.9 ± 19.5% was replaced. ACM application promoted an even bone surface. In conclusion, ACM application in augmented corticotomy using DBBM might stimulate periodontal tissue reestablishment, which is useful for rapid orthodontic treatment or guided bone regeneration. In particular, ACM could control the formation of mesenchymal matrix, facilitating an even bone surface. PMID:25276824

  17. Periodontal Responses to Augmented Corticotomy with Collagen Membrane Application during Orthodontic Buccal Tipping in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Yeek; Kwon, Young-Hyuk; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to examine the effects of absorbable collagen membrane (ACM) application in augmented corticotomy using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), during orthodontic buccal tipping movement in the dog. After buccal circumscribing corticotomy and DBBM grafting into the decorticated area, flaps were repositioned and sutured on control sides. ACM was overlaid and secured with membrane tacks, on test sides only, and the flaps were repositioned and sutured. Closed coil springs were used to apply 200 g orthodontic force in the buccolingual direction on the second and third premolars, immediately after primary flap closure. The buccal tipping angles were 31.19 ± 14.60° and 28.12 ± 11.48° on the control and test sides, respectively. A mean of 79.5 ± 16.0% of the buccal bone wall was replaced by new bone on the control side, and on the test side 78.9 ± 19.5% was replaced. ACM application promoted an even bone surface. In conclusion, ACM application in augmented corticotomy using DBBM might stimulate periodontal tissue reestablishment, which is useful for rapid orthodontic treatment or guided bone regeneration. In particular, ACM could control the formation of mesenchymal matrix, facilitating an even bone surface. PMID:25276824

  18. On the Relationship between Variational Level Set-Based and SOM-Based Active Contours

    PubMed Central

    Abdelsamea, Mohammed M.; Gnecco, Giorgio; Gaber, Mohamed Medhat; Elyan, Eyad

    2015-01-01

    Most Active Contour Models (ACMs) deal with the image segmentation problem as a functional optimization problem, as they work on dividing an image into several regions by optimizing a suitable functional. Among ACMs, variational level set methods have been used to build an active contour with the aim of modeling arbitrarily complex shapes. Moreover, they can handle also topological changes of the contours. Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) have attracted the attention of many computer vision scientists, particularly in modeling an active contour based on the idea of utilizing the prototypes (weights) of a SOM to control the evolution of the contour. SOM-based models have been proposed in general with the aim of exploiting the specific ability of SOMs to learn the edge-map information via their topology preservation property and overcoming some drawbacks of other ACMs, such as trapping into local minima of the image energy functional to be minimized in such models. In this survey, we illustrate the main concepts of variational level set-based ACMs, SOM-based ACMs, and their relationship and review in a comprehensive fashion the development of their state-of-the-art models from a machine learning perspective, with a focus on their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25960736

  19. Joule-Heating-Induced Damage in Cu-Al Wedge Bonds Under Current Stressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tsung-Han; Lin, Yu-Min; Ouyang, Fan-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Copper wires are increasingly used to replace gold wires in wire-bonding technology owing to their better electrical properties and lower cost. However, not many studies have been conducted on electromigration-induced failure of Cu wedge bonds on Al metallization. In this study, we investigated the failure mechanism of Cu-Al wedge bonds under high current stressing from 4 × 104 A/cm2 to 1 × 105 A/cm2 at ambient temperature of 175°C. The resistance evolution of samples during current stressing and the microstructure of the joint interface between the Cu wire and Al-Si bond pad were examined. The results showed that abnormal crack formation accompanying significant intermetallic compound growth was observed at the second joint of the samples, regardless of the direction of electric current for both current densities of 4 × 104 A/cm2 and 8 × 104 A/cm2. We propose that this abnormal crack formation at the second joint is mainly due to the higher temperature induced by the greater Joule heating at the second joint for the same current stressing, because of its smaller bonded area compared with the first joint. The corresponding fluxes induced by the electric current and chemical potential difference between Cu and Al were calculated and compared to explain the failure mechanism. For current density of 1 × 105 A/cm2, the Cu wire melted within 0.5 h owing to serious Joule heating.

  20. On the Relationship between Variational Level Set-Based and SOM-Based Active Contours.

    PubMed

    Abdelsamea, Mohammed M; Gnecco, Giorgio; Gaber, Mohamed Medhat; Elyan, Eyad

    2015-01-01

    Most Active Contour Models (ACMs) deal with the image segmentation problem as a functional optimization problem, as they work on dividing an image into several regions by optimizing a suitable functional. Among ACMs, variational level set methods have been used to build an active contour with the aim of modeling arbitrarily complex shapes. Moreover, they can handle also topological changes of the contours. Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) have attracted the attention of many computer vision scientists, particularly in modeling an active contour based on the idea of utilizing the prototypes (weights) of a SOM to control the evolution of the contour. SOM-based models have been proposed in general with the aim of exploiting the specific ability of SOMs to learn the edge-map information via their topology preservation property and overcoming some drawbacks of other ACMs, such as trapping into local minima of the image energy functional to be minimized in such models. In this survey, we illustrate the main concepts of variational level set-based ACMs, SOM-based ACMs, and their relationship and review in a comprehensive fashion the development of their state-of-the-art models from a machine learning perspective, with a focus on their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25960736

  1. On-the-fly Ambiguity Resolution Using an Estimator of the Modified Ambiguity Covariance Matrix for the GNSS Positioning Model Based on Phase Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellmer, S.

    2012-01-01

    On-the-fly ambiguity resolution (OTF AR) is based on a small data set, obtained from a very short observation session or even from a single epoch observation. In these cases, a classical approach to ambiguity resolution (e.g. the Lambda method) can meet some numerical problems. The basis of the Lambda method is an integer decorrelation of the positive definite ambiguity covariance matrix (ACM). The necessary condition for the proper performing of this procedure is a positive definiteness of ACM. However, this condition is not satisfied in cases of very short observation sessions or single epoch positioning if phase-only observations are used. The subject of this contribution is such a case where phase-only observations are used in the final part of the computational process. The modification of ACM is proposed in order to ensure its positive definiteness. An estimator of modified ACM is a good ACM approximation for the purpose of performing the LAMBDA method. Another problem of short sessions (or a single epoch) positioning is the poor quality of the float solution. In this paper, a cascade adjustment with wide-lane combinations of signals L1 and L2 as a method of solving this problem is presented.

  2. Estimating the Additional Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Korea: Focused on Demolition of Asbestos Containing Materials in Building.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Chan; Hong, Won-Hwa; Zhang, Yuan-Long; Son, Byeung-Hun; Seo, Youn-Kyu; Choi, Jun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    When asbestos containing materials (ACM) must be removed from the building before demolition, additional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are generated. However, precedent studies have not considered the removal of ACM from the building. The present study aimed to develop a model for estimating GHG emissions created by the ACM removal processes, specifically the removal of asbestos cement slates (ACS). The second objective was to use the new model to predict the total GHG emission produced by ACM removal in the entire country of Korea. First, an input-equipment inventory was established for each step of the ACS removal process. Second, an energy consumption database for each equipment type was established. Third, the total GHG emission contributed by each step of the process was calculated. The GHG emissions generated from the 1,142,688 ACS-containing buildings in Korea was estimated to total 23,778 tonCO₂eq to 132,141 tonCO₂eq. This study was meaningful in that the emissions generated by ACS removal have not been studied before. Furthermore, the study deals with additional problems that can be triggered by the presence of asbestos in building materials. The method provided in this study is expected to contribute greatly to the calculation of GHG emissions caused by ACM worldwide. PMID:27626433

  3. Characterization of Protein Flexibility Using Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering and Amplified Collective Motion Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Bin; Peng, Junhui; Zuo, Xiaobing; Gong, Qingguo; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale flexibility within a multidomain protein often plays an important role in its biological function. Despite its inherent low resolution, small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) is well suited to investigate protein flexibility and determine, with the help of computational modeling, what kinds of protein conformations would coexist in solution. In this article, we develop a tool that combines SAXS data with a previously developed sampling technique called amplified collective motions (ACM) to elucidate structures of highly dynamic multidomain proteins in solution. We demonstrate the use of this tool in two proteins, bacteriophage T4 lysozyme and tandem WW domains of the formin-binding protein 21. The ACM simulations can sample the conformational space of proteins much more extensively than standard molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Therefore, conformations generated by ACM are significantly better at reproducing the SAXS data than are those from MD simulations. PMID:25140431

  4. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Guzzo-Merello, Gonzalo; Cobo-Marcos, Marta; Gallego-Delgado, Maria; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM. PMID:25228956

  5. Toward domain-specific design environments: Some representation ideas from the telecommunications domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenspan, Sol; Feblowitz, Mark

    1992-01-01

    ACME is an experimental environment for investigating new approaches to modeling and analysis of system requirements and designs. ACME is built on and extends object-oriented conceptual modeling techniques and knowledge representation and reasoning (KRR) tools. The most immediate intended use for ACME is to help represent, understand, and communicate system designs during the early stages of system planning and requirements engineering. While our research is ostensibly aimed at software systems in general, we are particularly motivated to make an impact in the telecommunications domain, especially in the area referred to as Intelligent Networks (IN's). IN systems contain the software to provide services to users of a telecommunications network (e.g., call processing services, information services, etc.) as well as the software that provides the internal infrastructure for providing the services (e.g., resource management, billing, etc.). The software includes not only systems developed by the network proprietors but also by a growing group of independent service software providers.

  6. Ancient Chinese medical ethics and the four principles of biomedical ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, D F

    1999-01-01

    The four principles approach to biomedical ethics (4PBE) has, since the 1970s, been increasingly developed as a universal bioethics method. Despite its wide acceptance and popularity, the 4PBE has received many challenges to its cross-cultural plausibility. This paper first specifies the principles and characteristics of ancient Chinese medical ethics (ACME), then makes a comparison between ACME and the 4PBE with a view to testing out the 4PBE's cross-cultural plausibility when applied to one particular but very extensive and prominent cultural context. The result shows that the concepts of respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice are clearly identifiable in ACME. Yet, being influenced by certain socio-cultural factors, those applying the 4PBE in Chinese society may tend to adopt a "beneficence-oriented", rather than an "autonomy-oriented" approach, which, in general, is dissimilar to the practice of contemporary Western bioethics, where "autonomy often triumphs". PMID:10461594

  7. Continuous-wave InAs/GaAs quantum-dot laser diodes monolithically grown on Si substrate with low threshold current densities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andrew; Jiang, Qi; Tang, Mingchu; Seeds, Alwyn; Liu, Huiyun

    2012-09-24

    We report the first room-temperature continuous-wave operation of III-V quantum-dot laser diodes monolithically grown on a Si substrate. Long-wavelength InAs/GaAs quantum-dot structures were fabricated on Ge-on-Si substrates. Room-temperature lasing at a wavelength of 1.28 μm has been achieved with threshold current densities of 163 A/cm(2) and 64.3 A/cm(2) under continuous-wave and pulsed conditions for ridge-waveguide lasers with as cleaved facets, respectively. The value of 64.3 A/cm(2) represents the lowest room-temperature threshold current density for any kind of laser on Si to date. PMID:23037366

  8. Antenna Calibration and Measurement Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochblatt, David J.; Cortes, Manuel Vazquez

    2012-01-01

    A document describes the Antenna Calibration & Measurement Equipment (ACME) system that will provide the Deep Space Network (DSN) with instrumentation enabling a trained RF engineer at each complex to perform antenna calibration measurements and to generate antenna calibration data. This data includes continuous-scan auto-bore-based data acquisition with all-sky data gathering in support of 4th order pointing model generation requirements. Other data includes antenna subreflector focus, system noise temperature and tipping curves, antenna efficiency, reports system linearity, and instrument calibration. The ACME system design is based on the on-the-fly (OTF) mapping technique and architecture. ACME has contributed to the improved RF performance of the DSN by approximately a factor of two. It improved the pointing performances of the DSN antennas and productivity of its personnel and calibration engineers.

  9. The Importance of Simulation Workflow and Data Management in the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) Project is concluding its first year. Supported by the Office of Science in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), its vision is to be "an ongoing, state-of-the-science Earth system modeling, modeling simulation and prediction project that optimizes the use of DOE laboratory resources to meet the science needs of the nation and the mission needs of DOE." Included in the "laboratory resources," is a large investment in computational, network and information technologies that will be utilized to both build better and more accurate climate models and broadly disseminate the data they generate. Current model diagnostic analysis and data dissemination technologies will not scale to the size of the simulations and the complexity of the models envisioned by ACME and other top tier international modeling centers. In this talk, the ACME Workflow component plans to meet these future needs will be described and early implementation examples will be highlighted.

  10. Hybrid thermal link-wise artificial compressibility method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrecht, Christian; Kuznik, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    Thermal flow prediction is a subject of interest from a scientific and engineering points of view. Our motivation is to develop an accurate, easy to implement and highly scalable method for convective flows simulation. To this end, we present an extension to the link-wise artificial compressibility method (LW-ACM) for thermal simulation of weakly compressible flows. The novel hybrid formulation uses second-order finite difference operators of the energy equation based on the same stencils as the LW-ACM. For validation purposes, the differentially heated cubic cavity was simulated. The simulations remained stable for Rayleigh numbers up to Ra =108. The Nusselt numbers at isothermal walls and dynamics quantities are in good agreement with reference values from the literature. Our results show that the hybrid thermal LW-ACM is an effective and easy-to-use solution to solve convective flows.

  11. Time Accurate CFD Simulations of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle in the Transonic Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph; Rojahn, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Significant asymmetries in the fluid dynamics were calculated for some cases in the CFD simulations of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle through its abort trajectories. The CFD simulations were performed steady state with symmetric boundary conditions and geometries. The trajectory points at issue were in the transonic regime, at 0 and 5 angles of attack with the Abort Motors with and without the Attitude Control Motors (ACM) firing. In some of the cases the asymmetric fluid dynamics resulted in aerodynamic side forces that were large enough that would overcome the control authority of the ACMs. MSFC s Fluid Dynamics Group supported the investigation into the cause of the flow asymmetries with time accurate CFD simulations, utilizing a hybrid RANS-LES turbulence model. The results show that the flow over the vehicle and the subsequent interaction with the AB and ACM motor plumes were unsteady. The resulting instantaneous aerodynamic forces were oscillatory with fairly large magnitudes. Time averaged aerodynamic forces were essentially symmetric.

  12. Modeling aerosol emissions from the combustion of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roop, J. A.; Caldwell, D. J.; Kuhlmann, K. J.

    1994-01-01

    The use of advanced composite materials (ACM) in the B-2 bomber, composite armored vehicle, and F-22 advanced tactical fighter has rekindled interest concerning the health risk of burned or burning ACM. The objective of this work was to determine smoke production from burning ACM and its toxicity. A commercial version of the UPITT II combustion toxicity method developed at the University of Pittsburgh, and subsequently refined through a US Army-funded basic research project, was used to established controlled combustion conditions which were selected to evaluate real-world exposure scenarios. Production and yield of toxic species varied with the combustion conditions. Previous work with this method showed that the combustion conditions directly influenced the toxicity of the decomposition products from a variety of materials.

  13. Alcohol use and congestive heart failure: incidence, importance, and approaches to improved history taking.

    PubMed

    Skotzko, Christine E; Vrinceanu, Alina; Krueger, Lynnette; Freudenberger, Ronald

    2009-03-01

    Alcohol use, abuse, and dependence have the potential to result in alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). This distinct form of congestive heart failure (CHF) is responsible for 21-36% of all cases of nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy in Western society. Without complete abstinence, the 4-year mortality for ACM approaches 50%. Therefore, accurate and detailed assessment of alcohol use in congestive heart failure is essential. The prevalence of problematic alcohol use is unrecognized by many clinicians. Clinical assessment of alcohol intake is often reduced to a simple question such as, "Do you drink?" Denial and minimization are hallmarks of alcohol abuse, with many individuals underreporting their use of alcohol. Clinicians can overcome these hurdles by implementing practical history taking measures to improve the accuracy of self-reported alcohol use. The data regarding the dangers of ongoing alcohol use in individuals with ACM make attempts to engage individuals in treatment to support abstinence essential. Suggestions for detailed and accurate assessment are discussed. PMID:18034302

  14. Cassini atmospheric chemistry mapper. Volume 1. Investigation and technical plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William Hayden; Baines, Kevin Hays; Drossart, Pierre; Fegley, Bruce; Orton, Glenn; Noll, Keith; Reitsema, Harold; Bjoraker, Gordon L.

    1990-01-01

    The Cassini Atmospheric Chemistry Mapper (ACM) enables a broad range of atmospheric science investigations for Saturn and Titan by providing high spectral and spatial resolution mapping and occultation capabilities at 3 and 5 microns. ACM can directly address the major atmospheric science objectives for Saturn and for Titan, as defined by the Announcement of Opportunity, with pivotal diagnostic measurements not accessible to any other proposed Cassini instrument. ACM determines mixing ratios for atmospheric molecules from spectral line profiles for an important and extensive volume of the atmosphere of Saturn (and Jupiter). Spatial and vertical profiles of disequilibrium species abundances define Saturn's deep atmosphere, its chemistry, and its vertical transport phenomena. ACM spectral maps provide a unique means to interpret atmospheric conditions in the deep (approximately 1000 bar) atmosphere of Saturn. Deep chemistry and vertical transport is inferred from the vertical and horizontal distribution of a series of disequilibrium species. Solar occultations provide a method to bridge the altitude range in Saturn's (and Titan's) atmosphere that is not accessible to radio science, thermal infrared, and UV spectroscopy with temperature measurements to plus or minus 2K from the analysis of molecular line ratios and to attain an high sensitivity for low-abundance chemical species in the very large column densities that may be achieved during occultations for Saturn. For Titan, ACM solar occultations yield very well resolved (1/6 scale height) vertical mixing ratios column abundances for atmospheric molecular constituents. Occultations also provide for detecting abundant species very high in the upper atmosphere, while at greater depths, detecting the isotopes of C and O, constraining the production mechanisms, and/or sources for the above species. ACM measures the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols via their opacity at 3 microns and, particularly, at 5

  15. Characterization of protein flexibility using small-angle x-ray scattering and amplified collective motion simulations.

    PubMed

    Wen, Bin; Peng, Junhui; Zuo, Xiaobing; Gong, Qingguo; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2014-08-19

    Large-scale flexibility within a multidomain protein often plays an important role in its biological function. Despite its inherent low resolution, small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) is well suited to investigate protein flexibility and determine, with the help of computational modeling, what kinds of protein conformations would coexist in solution. In this article, we develop a tool that combines SAXS data with a previously developed sampling technique called amplified collective motions (ACM) to elucidate structures of highly dynamic multidomain proteins in solution. We demonstrate the use of this tool in two proteins, bacteriophage T4 lysozyme and tandem WW domains of the formin-binding protein 21. The ACM simulations can sample the conformational space of proteins much more extensively than standard molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Therefore, conformations generated by ACM are significantly better at reproducing the SAXS data than are those from MD simulations. PMID:25140431

  16. The right and wrong stuff in civil aviation.

    PubMed

    Leimann Patt, H O

    1988-10-01

    Aircrewmembers (ACMs) enter a mortally hostile environment when they take off from Earth in their flying machines. Their physiological adaptation has been augmented and supported through ergonomics, avionics, and engineering, but no such technological aid helps them adapt their minds to that atypical condition. They must rely upon their own psychic resources, i.e. "aeronautical motivation" in the three levels of consciousness, and defense mechanisms to counteract their "aeronautical anxiety." Various relationships of motivation and defense give rise either to the flying adaptation syndrome or the various forms of the secondary flying disadaptation syndrome when ACMs must face the dangers of flight. These alterations of the ACMs' psychic balance may cause temporary or permanent medical disqualification due to the impairment of safety which they provoke. This paper proposes an analysis of the interplay between motivation, psychic defenses, and aviation stress to explain the manifestations of flight adaptation and disadaptation seen in some aircrewmembers. PMID:3190623

  17. Structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades : SE 265 Final Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Barkley, W. C.; Jacobs, Laura D.; Rutherford, A. C.; Puckett, Anthony

    2006-03-23

    ACME Wind Turbine Corporation has contacted our dynamic analysis firm regarding structural health monitoring of their wind turbine blades. ACME has had several failures in previous years. Examples are shown in Figure 1. These failures have resulted in economic loss for the company due to down time of the turbines (lost revenue) and repair costs. Blade failures can occur in several modes, which may depend on the type of construction and load history. Cracking and delamination are some typical modes of blade failure. ACME warranties its turbines and wishes to decrease the number of blade failures they have to repair and replace. The company wishes to implement a real time structural health monitoring system in order to better understand when blade replacement is necessary. Because of warranty costs incurred to date, ACME is interested in either changing the warranty period for the blades in question or predicting imminent failure before it occurs. ACME's current practice is to increase the number of physical inspections when blades are approaching the end of their fatigue lives. Implementation of an in situ monitoring system would eliminate or greatly reduce the need for such physical inspections. Another benefit of such a monitoring system is that the life of any given component could be extended since real conditions would be monitored. The SHM system designed for ACME must be able to operate while the wind turbine is in service. This means that wireless communication options will likely be implemented. Because blade failures occur due to cyclic stresses in the blade material, the sensing system will focus on monitoring strain at various points.

  18. [Removal of fluorescent whitening agent by hydrogen peroxide oxidation catalyzed by activated carbon].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Long; Zhang, Zhong-Min; Zhao, Xia; Jiao, Ru-Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Degradation of fluorescent whitening agent VBL in the processes of activated carbon (AC) and activated carbon modified (ACM) adsorptions, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidation, and hydrogen peroxide oxidation catalyzed by activated carbon were studied. Mechanism of the above catalytic oxidation was also investigated by adding tert-Butyl alcohol (TBA), the free radical scavenger, and detecting the released gases. The results showed that: the activated carbon modified by Fe (NO3)3 (ACM)exhibited better adsorption removal than AC. Catalytic oxidation showed efficient removal of VBL, and the catalytic removal of AC (up to 95%) was significantly higher than that of ACM (58% only). Catalytic oxidation was inhibited by TBA, which indicates that the above reaction involved *OH radicals and atom oxygen generated by hydrogen peroxide with the presence of AC. The results of H2O2 decomposition and released gases detection involved in the process showed that activated carbon enhanced the decomposition of H2O2 which released oxygen and heat. More O2 was produced and higher temperature of the reactor was achieved, which indicated that H2O2 decomposition catalyzed by ACM was significantly faster than that of AC. Combining the results of VBL removal, it could be concluded that the rate of active intermediates (*OH radicals and atom oxygen) production by ACM catalytic reaction was faster than that of AC. These intermediates consumed themselves and produced O2 instead of degrading VBL. It seemed that the improper mutual matching of the forming rate of activating intermediates and the supply rate of reactants was an important reason for the lower efficiency of ACM catalytic reaction comparing with AC. PMID:25158496

  19. Cardiovascular Comorbidity and Mortality in Men With Prostate Cancer Treated With Brachytherapy-Based Radiation With or Without Hormonal Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nanda, Akash; Chen, Ming-Hui; Moran, Brian J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors and sequelae on the risk of all-cause mortality (ACM) in men treated for prostate cancer (PC). Methods and Materials: The study cohort comprised 5077 men with PC consecutively treated with curative intent between 1997 and 2006 at the Chicago Prostate Cancer Center. Cox and Fine and Gray's competing risks regression multivariable analyses were performed, assessing whether cardiovascular comorbidity impacted the risk of ACM and PC-specific mortality, respectively, adjusting for CAD risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, or hypertension) and sequelae (congestive heart failure or myocardial infarction), age, year and type of treatment, and known PC prognostic factors. Results: When compared with men with no comorbidity there was a significantly increased risk of ACM in men with congestive heart failure or myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 1.96, P<.001) and in men with diabetes mellitus (AHR 1.60, P=.03) and hypertension (AHR 1.25, P=.04). In contrast, men with hypercholesterolemia had a similar risk of ACM (AHR 0.68, P=.17) when compared with men with no comorbidity. Other factors associated with a significantly increased risk of ACM included age (AHR 1.09, P<.001), prostate-specific antigen level (AHR 1.25, P=.008), and Gleason score 8-10 disease (AHR 1.71, P=.003). Cardiovascular comorbidity did not impact the risk of PC-specific mortality. Conclusions: In addition to age and unfavorable PC prognostic factors, select CAD risk factors and sequelae are associated with an increased risk of ACM in men treated for PC. These comorbidity prognostic factors predict time courses of mortality from competing causes, which may be factored into the decision-making process when considering management options for PC in a given individual.

  20. High-throughput screening identifies aclacinomycin as a radiosensitizer of EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Daniel C; Charest, Jonathan; Sebolt, Katrina; Lehrman, Mark; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Contessa, Joseph N

    2013-06-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) provides a specialized environment for the folding and modification of trans-membrane proteins, including receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), which are vital for the growth and survival of malignancies. To identify compounds which disrupt the function of the ER and thus could potentially impair cancer cell survival signaling, we adapted a set of glycosylation-sensitive luciferase reporters for the development and optimization of a cell-based high-throughput screen (HTS). Secondary screens for false-positive luciferase activation and tertiary lectin-based and biochemical analyses were also devised for compound triage. Through a pilot screen of 2802 compounds from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) chemical libraries, we identified aclacinomycin (Acm) as a compound that preferentially affects ER function. We report that Acm reduces plasma membrane expression of glycoproteins including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Met but does not inhibit N-linked glycosylation or generalized protein translation. Fluorescence microscopy co-localization experiments were also performed and demonstrated Acm accumulation in the ER in further support of the overall HTS design. The consequences of Acm treatment on cell survival were analyzed through clonogenic survival analysis. Consistent with the reduction of EGFR levels, pretreatment with Acm sensitizes the EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines HCC827 and HCC2935 to ionizing radiation and did not affect the sensitivity of the RTK-independent and KRAS-mutant A549 NSCLC cell line. Thus, Acm and similar compounds targeting the ER may represent a novel approach for radiosensitizing tumor cells dependent on RTK function. PMID:23730419

  1. Astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 and TDP43 trigger motoneuron death that is mediated via sodium channels and nitroxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Fabiola; Cortes, Nicole; Abarzua, Sebastian; Dyrda, Agnieszka; van Zundert, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal paralytic disorder caused by dysfunction and degeneration of motor neurons. Multiple disease-causing mutations, including in the genes for SOD1 and TDP-43, have been identified in ALS. Astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 are strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of ALS: we have shown that media conditioned by astrocytes carrying mutant SOD1G93A contains toxic factor(s) that kill motoneurons by activating voltage-sensitive sodium (Nav) channels. In contrast, a recent study suggests that astrocytes expressing mutated TDP43 contribute to ALS pathology, but do so via cell-autonomous processes and lack non-cell-autonomous toxicity. Here we investigate whether astrocytes that express diverse ALS-causing mutations release toxic factor(s) that induce motoneuron death, and if so, whether they do so via a common pathogenic pathway. We exposed primary cultures of wild-type spinal cord cells to conditioned medium derived from astrocytes (ACM) that express SOD1 (ACM-SOD1G93A and ACM-SOD1G86R) or TDP43 (ACM-TDP43A315T) mutants; we show that such exposure rapidly (within 30–60 min) increases dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence (indicative of nitroxidative stress) and leads to extensive motoneuron-specific death within a few days. Co-application of the diverse ACMs with anti-oxidants Trolox or esculetin (but not with resveratrol) strongly improves motoneuron survival. We also find that co-incubation of the cultures in the ACMs with Nav channel blockers (including mexiletine, spermidine, or riluzole) prevents both intracellular nitroxidative stress and motoneuron death. Together, our data document that two completely unrelated ALS models lead to the death of motoneuron via non-cell-autonomous processes, and show that astrocytes expressing mutations in SOD1 and TDP43 trigger such cell death through a common pathogenic pathway that involves nitroxidative stress, induced at least in part by Nav channel activity. PMID:24570655

  2. Intercomparison tests of moored current measurements in the upper ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, David; Weller, Robert A.; Briscoe, Melbourne G.; Davis, Russ E.; McCullough, James R.

    1981-01-01

    During the August-September 1977 Mixed Layer Experiment (Mile) and the July-September 1978 Joint Air-Sea Interaction (Jasin) project, moored current measurements were made in the upper ocean with Savonius rotor and vane vector-averaging current meters (VACM), dual orthogonal propeller vector-measuring current meters (VMCM), and dual orthogonal acoustic travel-time vector-averaging current meters (ACM). Wind speeds and significant wave heights reached 20ms-1 and 5 m. The influence of mooring motion upon ACM, VACM, and VMCM measurements are described. In the mixed layer above about 30 m depth where mean currents are relatively large, the effect of a surface-following buoy upon ACM, VACM, and VMCM velocity fluctuations at frequencies less than 0.3 cph was negligible; at frequencies above 4 cph, the VACM data contained the largest amount of mooring induced contamination. Below the mixed layer at depths greater than about 75 m, a subsurface mooring should be used; however, when a surface-following buoy was used, then VMCM data better approximated the spectrum of the fluctuations than VACM data. A spar-buoy should not be used to measure currents at depths as deep as 80 m. The frequency-dependent differences between VACM and VMCM and between VACM and ACM measurements are described. At frequencies less than 0.3 cph, the differences between the VACM and ACM or the VMCM records were not significant with 95% confidence limits, were always positive, and above 80 m depth were less than 20%. At frequencies above 4 cph, the VACM-VMCM differences were about 5 times larger than the VACM-ACM differences.

  3. Effects of acetaminophen on cadmium metabolism in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, G.R.; Atkins, L.M.; Smith, A.B.; Walker, E.M. Jr.; Fody, E.P.

    1986-02-01

    Acetaminophen (ACM) administration to mice of the (C57BL/6 X DBA/2)F1 strain produced a typical hepatic centrilobular necrosis similar to that observed in rodents and humans. To determine the effects of this drug-induced necrosis on cadmium (Cd) metabolism, mice were given a sublethal dose of CdCl2 . 2.5 H2O containing 109CdCl2 and maintained for a period of time sufficient for Cd-metallothionein (Cd-MT) to be synthesized and distributed. Subsequent administration of ACM ip or po evoked a marked redistribution of Cd from livers to kidneys of mice, and increased the amount of Cd excreted in urine and feces. There were only minimal or no effects on Cd concentrations in other organs assessed. The effect of ACM on Cd redistribution was antagonized by administration of cysteine, a glutathione precursor, and was enhanced by pretreatment with phenobarbital, a potent inducer of the cytochrome P-450 mixed-function oxidase system. Pretreatment of mice with ACM 6 or 24 hr prior to Cd administration caused aberrations of the normal Cd distribution pattern, but no effect was noted when Cd administration was delayed for 48 hr after ACM injection, indicating recovery of the mechanisms of Cd-MT synthesis and sequestration. Sephadex G-75 gel filtration chromatography of serum from ACM-treated mice showed that most of the Cd was associated with high-molecular-weight proteins, and only a minor portion was present as Cd-MT. Cd excreted in urine was predominantly in a low-molecular-weight form, but there was evidence of two minor components of higher molecular weight, neither of which eluted as Cd-MT. Cd excreted in feces was insoluble following homogenization in 0.25 M sucrose solution. Cd in livers and kidneys of ACM-treated mice eluted as Cd-MT. Persons who have a moderately high Cd burden may be at risk of Cd nephrotoxicity if they incur hepatic necrosis subsequent to ACM abuse.

  4. Framework for Uncertainty Assessment - Hanford Site-Wide Groundwater Flow and Transport Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, M. P.; Cole, C. R.; Murray, C. J.; Thorne, P. D.; Wurstner, S. K.

    2002-05-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is in the process of development and implementation of an uncertainty estimation methodology for use in future site assessments that addresses parameter uncertainty as well as uncertainties related to the groundwater conceptual model. The long-term goals of the effort are development and implementation of an uncertainty estimation methodology for use in future assessments and analyses being made with the Hanford site-wide groundwater model. The basic approach in the framework developed for uncertainty assessment consists of: 1) Alternate conceptual model (ACM) identification to identify and document the major features and assumptions of each conceptual model. The process must also include a periodic review of the existing and proposed new conceptual models as data or understanding become available. 2) ACM development of each identified conceptual model through inverse modeling with historical site data. 3) ACM evaluation to identify which of conceptual models are plausible and should be included in any subsequent uncertainty assessments. 4) ACM uncertainty assessments will only be carried out for those ACMs determined to be plausible through comparison with historical observations and model structure identification measures. The parameter uncertainty assessment process generally involves: a) Model Complexity Optimization - to identify the important or relevant parameters for the uncertainty analysis; b) Characterization of Parameter Uncertainty - to develop the pdfs for the important uncertain parameters including identification of any correlations among parameters; c) Propagation of Uncertainty - to propagate parameter uncertainties (e.g., by first order second moment methods if applicable or by a Monte Carlo approach) through the model to determine the uncertainty in the model predictions of interest. 5)Estimation of combined ACM and scenario uncertainty by a double sum with each component of the inner sum (an individual CCDF

  5. Development of Axial Continuous Metal Expeller for melt conditioning of alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassinath, Z.; Prasada Rao, A. K.

    2016-02-01

    ACME (Axial, centrifugal metal expeller) is a novel processing technology developed independently for conditioning liquid metal prior to solidification processing. The ACME process is based on an axial compressor and uses a rotor stator mechanism to impose a high shear rate and a high intensity of turbulence to the liquid metal, so that the conditioned liquid metal has uniform temperature and uniform chemical composition as it is expelled. The microstructural refinement is achieved through the process of dendrite fragmentation while taking advantage of the thixotropic property of semisolid metal slurry so that it can be conveyed for further downstream operations. This paper introduces the concept and its advantages over current technologies.

  6. An extended doubly-adaptive quadrature method based on the combination of the Ninomiya and the FLR schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Takemitsu; Hibino, Susumu; Hosoda, Yohsuke; Ninomiya, Ichizo

    2007-08-01

    An improvement is made to an automatic quadrature due to Ninomiya (J. Inf. Process. 3:162?170, 1980) of adaptive type based on the Newton?Cotes rule by incorporating a doubly-adaptive algorithm due to Favati, Lotti and Romani (ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 17:207?217, 1991; ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 17:218?232, 1991). We compare the present method in performance with some others by using various test problems including Kahaner?s ones (Computation of numerical quadrature formulas. In: Rice, J.R. (ed.) Mathematical Software, 229?259. Academic, Orlando, FL, 1971).

  7. Reactive oxygen species trigger motoneuron death in non-cell-autonomous models of ALS through activation of c-Abl signaling

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Fabiola; Gonzalez, David; Cortes, Nicole; Ampuero, Estibaliz; Hernández, Diego E.; Fritz, Elsa; Abarzua, Sebastián; Martinez, Alexis; Elorza, Alvaro A.; Alvarez, Alejandra; Court, Felipe; van Zundert, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease in which pathogenesis and death of motor neurons are triggered by non-cell-autonomous mechanisms. We showed earlier that exposing primary rat spinal cord cultures to conditioned media derived from primary mouse astrocyte conditioned media (ACM) that express human SOD1G93A (ACM-hSOD1G93A) quickly enhances Nav channel-mediated excitability and calcium influx, generates intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and leads to death of motoneurons within days. Here we examined the role of mitochondrial structure and physiology and of the activation of c-Abl, a tyrosine kinase that induces apoptosis. We show that ACM-hSOD1G93A, but not ACM-hSOD1WT, increases c-Abl activity in motoneurons, interneurons and glial cells, starting at 60 min; the c-Abl inhibitor STI571 (imatinib) prevents this ACM-hSOD1G93A-mediated motoneuron death. Interestingly, similar results were obtained with ACM derived from astrocytes expressing SOD1G86R or TDP43A315T. We further find that co-application of ACM-SOD1G93A with blockers of Nav channels (spermidine, mexiletine, or riluzole) or anti-oxidants (Trolox, esculetin, or tiron) effectively prevent c-Abl activation and motoneuron death. In addition, ACM-SOD1G93A induces alterations in the morphology of neuronal mitochondria that are related with their membrane depolarization. Finally, we find that blocking the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore with cyclosporine A, or inhibiting mitochondrial calcium uptake with Ru360, reduces ROS production and c-Abl activation. Together, our data point to a sequence of events in which a toxic factor(s) released by ALS-expressing astrocytes rapidly induces hyper-excitability, which in turn increases calcium influx and affects mitochondrial structure and physiology. ROS production, mediated at least in part through mitochondrial alterations, trigger c-Abl signaling and lead to motoneuron death. PMID:26106294

  8. Flip-chip blue LEDs grown on (20\\bar{2}1) bulk GaN substrates utilizing photoelectrochemical etching for substrate removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonkee, Benjamin P.; SaifAddin, Burhan; Leonard, John T.; DenBaars, Steven P.; Nakamura, Shuji

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a 440 nm emitting flip-chip GaN LED utilizing photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching for substrate removal. The device was flip-chip-bonded to a thermally conductive silicon carbide substrate, which allowed for CW operation at current densities up to 200 A/cm2 with minimal thermal droop. The PEC etch provided a damage-free method of removing substrates and could allow for substrate reuse. The epitaxially defined etch also exposed a highly doped n-contact layer, which contributed to the low operating voltage of 3.74 V at 400 A/cm2 and a peak wall plug efficiency (WPE) of 7%.

  9. Study of a very low cost air combat maneuvering trainer aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, G. C.; Bowles, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    A very low cost aircraft for performing Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) training was studied using the BD-5J sport plane as a point of departure. The installation of a larger engine and increased fuel capacity were required to meet the performance and mission objectives. Reduced wing area increased the simulation of the ACM engagement, and a comparison with current tactical aircraft is presented. Other factors affecting the training transfer are considered analytically, but a flight evaluation is recommended to determine the concept utility.

  10. Quantification of mitral regurgitation by automated cardiac output measurement: experimental and clinical validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, J. P.; Yang, X. S.; Qin, J. X.; Greenberg, N. L.; Zhou, J.; Vazquez, C. J.; Griffin, B. P.; Stewart, W. J.; Thomas, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate an automated noninvasive method to quantify mitral regurgitation. BACKGROUND: Automated cardiac output measurement (ACM), which integrates digital color Doppler velocities in space and in time, has been validated for the left ventricular (LV) outflow tract but has not been tested for the LV inflow tract or to assess mitral regurgitation (MR). METHODS: First, to validate ACM against a gold standard (ultrasonic flow meter), 8 dogs were studied at 40 different stages of cardiac output (CO). Second, to compare ACM to the LV outflow (ACMa) and inflow (ACMm) tracts, 50 normal volunteers without MR or aortic regurgitation (44+/-5 years, 31 male) were studied. Third, to compare ACM with the standard pulsed Doppler-two-dimensional echocardiographic (PD-2D) method for quantification of MR, 51 patients (61+/-14 years, 30 male) with MR were studied. RESULTS: In the canine studies, CO by ACM (1.32+/-0.3 liter/min, y) and flow meter (1.35+/-0.3 liter/min, x) showed good correlation (r=0.95, y=0.89x+0.11) and agreement (deltaCO(y-x)=0.03+/-0.08 [mean+/-SD] liter/min). In the normal subjects, CO measured by ACMm agreed with CO by ACMa (r=0.90, p < 0.0001, deltaCO=-0.09+/-0.42 liter/min), PD (r=0.87, p < 0.0001, deltaCO=0.12+/-0.49 liter/min) and 2D (r=0.84, p < 0.0001, deltaCO=-0.16+/-0.48 liter/min). In the patients, mitral regurgitant volume (MRV) by ACMm-ACMa agreed with PD-2D (r= 0.88, y=0.88x+6.6, p < 0.0001, deltaMRV=2.68+/-9.7 ml). CONCLUSIONS: We determined that ACM is a feasible new method for quantifying LV outflow and inflow volume to measure MRV and that ACM automatically performs calculations that are equivalent to more time-consuming Doppler and 2D measurements. Additionally, ACM should improve MR quantification in routine clinical practice.

  11. Algorithms for Contact in a Mulitphysics Environment

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-12-19

    Many codes require either a contact capability or a need to determine geometric proximity of non-connected topological entities (which is a subset of what contact requires). ACME is a library to provide services to determine contact forces and/or geometric proximity interactions. This includes generic capabilities such as determining points in Cartesian volumes, finding faces in Cartesian volumes, etc. ACME can be run in single or multi-processor mode (the basic algorithms have been tested up tomore » 4500 processors).« less

  12. Experimental investigation of electron guns for THz microwave vacuum amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtsev, A. A.; Grigor'ev, Yu. A.; Navrotsky, I. A.; Rogovin, V. I.; Sakhadzhi, G. V.; Shumikhin, K. V.

    2016-05-01

    Single-sheet and multiple beam electron emitters based on thermionic minicathodes for terahertz traveling-wave tubes have been studied. Data are presented for impregnated blade thermionic cathode with dimensions 0.1 × 0.7 mm and a maximum current density of 114 A/cm2 in a pulsed mode. A variant of the five-beam electron gun with 0.25-mm-diameter cylindrical minicathodes in cells of a control grid is proposed that provides a current density of 85.5 A/cm2 at a grid potential of 900-1000 V.

  13. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  14. GtfA and GtfB Are Both Required for Protein O-Glycosylation in Lactobacillus plantarum

    PubMed Central

    Lee, I-Chiao; van Swam, Iris I.; Tomita, Satoru; Morsomme, Pierre; Rolain, Thomas; Hols, Pascal; Bron, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Acm2, the major autolysin of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1, was recently found to be O-glycosylated with N-acetylhexosamine, likely N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). In this study, we set out to identify the glycosylation machinery by employing a comparative genomics approach to identify Gtf1 homologues, which are involved in fimbria-associated protein 1 (Fap1) glycosylation in Streptococcus parasanguinis. This in silico approach resulted in the identification of 6 candidate L. plantarum WCFS1 genes with significant homology to Gtf1, namely, tagE1 to tagE6. These candidate genes were targeted by systematic gene deletion, followed by assessment of the consequences on glycosylation of Acm2. We observed a changed mobility of Acm2 on SDS-PAGE in the tagE5E6 deletion strain, while deletion of other tagE genes resulted in Acm2 mobility comparable to that of the wild type. Subsequent mass spectrometry analysis of excised and in-gel-digested Acm2 confirmed the loss of glycosylation on Acm2 in the tagE5E6 deletion mutant, whereas a lectin blot using GlcNAc-specific succinylated wheat germ agglutinin (sWGA) revealed that besides Acm2, tagE5E6 deletion also abolished all but one other sWGA-reactive, protease-sensitive signal. Only complementation of both tagE5 and tagE6 restored those sWGA lectin signals, establishing that TagE5 and TagE6 are both required for the glycosylation of Acm2 as well as the vast majority of other sWGA-reactive proteins. Finally, sWGA lectin blotting experiments using a panel of 8 other L. plantarum strains revealed that protein glycosylation is a common feature in L. plantarum strains. With the establishment of these enzymes as protein glycosyltransferases, we propose to rename TagE5 and TagE6 as GtfA and GtfB, respectively. PMID:24532775

  15. Extracts of Artocarpus communis Decrease α-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone-Induced Melanogenesis through Activation of ERK and JNK Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yi-Tzu; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Ko, Horng-Huey; Yen, Feng-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Artocarpus communis is an agricultural plant that is also used in folk medicine to prevent skin diseases, including acne and dermatitis. Extracts of A. communis have been used to effectively inhibit melanogenesis; however, the antimelanogenesis mechanism of these extracts has not yet been investigated. The present study utilized a cell-free tyrosinase assay as well as α-melanocyte stimulating hormone- (-MSH-) induced tyrosinase assay conducted in B16F10 cells, performed a cytotoxicity assay, and determined cellular melanin content to examine the effects of a methanolic extract of A. communis (ACM) and various organic partition fractions of A. communis on melanogenesis. In addition, we performed western blot analysis to elucidate the mechanism of their antimelanogenesis effect. Our results indicated that, except for the n-hexane extract, ACM and the various partition extracts at noncytotoxic concentrations effectively decreased melanin content and tyrosinase activity by downregulating microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB). Moreover, ACM and the partition fractions activated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) to inhibit the synthesis of MITF and finally to decrease melanin production. In conclusion, we suggest that noncytotoxic concentrations of ACM and the various partition fractions may be useful as references for developing skin-lighting agents for use in medicines or cosmetics. PMID:24737988

  16. Contextualized IT Education in Tanzania: Beyond Standard IT Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedre, Matti; Bangu, Nicholas; Nyagava, Seth I.

    2009-01-01

    Tumaini University at Iringa, Tanzania, started a new B.Sc. program in IT in 2007. In the course of planning and implementation of the program, we found out that standard ACM/IEEE IT curricula are not adequate for an IT program in a poor, developing country. The standard curricula describe, in detail, the competences that IT specialists in…

  17. Long-term accelerometry-triggered video monitoring and detection of tonic–clonic and clonic seizures in a home environment: Pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Van de Vel, Anouk; Milosevic, Milica; Bonroy, Bert; Cuppens, Kris; Lagae, Lieven; Vanrumste, Bart; Van Huffel, Sabine; Ceulemans, Berten

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of our study was to test the efficacy of the VARIA system (video, accelerometry, and radar-induced activity recording) and validation of accelerometry-based detection algorithms for nocturnal tonic–clonic and clonic seizures developed by our team. Methods We present the results of two patients with tonic–clonic and clonic seizures, measured for about one month in a home environment with four wireless accelerometers (ACM) attached to wrists and ankles. The algorithms were developed using wired ACM data synchronized with the gold standard video-/electroencephalography (EEG) and then run offline on the wireless ACM signals. Detection of seizures was compared with semicontinuous monitoring by professional caregivers (keeping an eye on multiple patients). Results The best result for the two patients was obtained with the semipatient-specific algorithm which was developed using all patients with tonic–clonic and clonic seizures in our database with wired ACM. It gave a mean sensitivity of 66.87% and false detection rate of 1.16 per night. This included 13 extra seizures detected (31%) compared with professional caregivers' observations. Conclusion While the algorithms were previously validated in a controlled video/EEG monitoring unit with wired sensors, we now show the first results of long-term, wireless testing in a home environment. PMID:27144123

  18. Evaluating the Equal-Interval Hypothesis with Test Score Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domingue, Benjamin Webre

    2012-01-01

    In psychometrics, it is difficult to verify that measurement instruments can be used to produce numeric values with the desirable property that differences between units are equal-interval because the attributes being measured are latent. The theory of additive conjoint measurement (e.g., Krantz, Luce, Suppes, & Tversky, 1971, ACM) guarantees…

  19. Astrocyte-Secreted Factors Selectively Alter Neural Stem and Progenitor Cell Proliferation in the Fragile X Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Sourial, Mary; Doering, Laurie C.

    2016-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence indicates that astrocytes contribute to the governance and fine tuning of stem and progenitor cell production during brain development. The effect of astrocyte function in cell production in neurodevelopmental disorders is unknown. We used the Neural Colony Forming Cell assay to determine the effect of astrocyte conditioned media (ACM) on the generation of neurospheres originating from either progenitor cells or functional stem cells in the knock out (KO) Fragile X mouse model. ACM from both normal and Fmr1-KO mice generated higher percentages of smaller neurospheres indicative of restricted proliferation of the progenitor cell population in Fmr1-KO brains. Wild type (WT) neurospheres, but not KO neurospheres, showed enhanced responses to ACM from the Fmr1-KO mice. In particular, Fmr1-KO ACM increased the percentage of large neurospheres generated, representative of spheres produced from neural stem cells. We also used 2D DIGE to initiate identification of the astrocyte-secreted proteins with differential expression between Fmr1-KO and WT cortices and hippocampi. The results further support the critical role of astrocytes in governing neural cell production in brain development and point to significant alterations in neural cell proliferation due to astrocyte secreted factors from the Fragile X brain. Highlights: • We studied the proliferation of neural stem and progenitor cells in Fragile X. • We examined the role of astrocyte-secreted factors in neural precursor cell biology. • Astrocyte-secreted factors with differential expression in Fragile X identified. PMID:27242437

  20. 40 CFR 763.80 - Scope and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation of asbestos waste is covered by the Department of Transportation (49 CFR part 173, subpart J) and disposal is covered by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 CFR part..., sampling such materials if they are not assumed to be ACM, and having samples analyzed by...

  1. Estimation of Volcanic Ash Plume Top Height using AATSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, Timo; Kolmonen, Pekka; Sogacheva, Larisa; Sundström, Anu-Maija; Rodriguez, Edith; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    The AATSR Correlation Method (ACM) height estimation algorithm is presented. The algorithm uses Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) satellite data to detect volcanic ash plumes and to estimate the plume top height. The height estimate is based on the stereo-viewing capability of the AATSR instrument, which allows to determine the parallax between the satellite's 55° forward and nadir views, and thus the corresponding height. Besides the stereo view, AATSR provides another advantage compared to other satellite based instruments. With AATSR it is possible to detect ash plumes using brightness temperature difference between thermal infrared (TIR) channels centered at 11 and 12 µm. The automatic ash detection makes the algorithm efficient in processing large quantities of data: the height estimate is calculated only for the ash-flagged pixels. In addition, it is possible to study the effect of using different wavelengths in the height estimate, ranging from visible (555 nm) to thermal infrared (12 µm). The ACM algorithm can be applied to the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR), scheduled for launch at the end of 2015. Accurate information on the volcanic ash position is important for air traffic safety. The ACM algorithm can provide valuable data of both horizontal and vertical ash dispersion. These data may be useful for comparisons with existing volcanic ash dispersion models and retrieval methods. We present ACM plume top height estimate results for the Eyjafjallajökull eruption, and comparisons against available ground based and satellite observations.

  2. Coal mine subsidence and fires in the Sheridan, Wyoming, area

    SciTech Connect

    Dunrud, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    Subsidence and fire studies in the Sheridan, Wyo., area are discussed. Construction of a strip mine firebreak or isolation trench is proposed as the best method to control large underground fires such as those burning in the New Monarch and Acme mines in the Sheridan area. 10 refs.

  3. Administration of the Glial Condition Medium in the Nucleus Accumbens Prolong Maintenance and Intensify Reinstatement of Morphine-Seeking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Arezoomandan, Reza; Khodagholi, Fariba; Haghparast, Abbas

    2016-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggested that glial cells are involved in synaptic plasticity and behavioral changes induced by drugs abuse. The role of these cells in maintenance and reinstatement of morphine (MRP) conditioned place preference (CPP) remains poorly characterized. The aim of present study was to investigate the direct role of glial cells in nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the maintenance and reinstatement of MRP-seeking behavior. CPP induced with injection of MRP (5 mg/kg, s.c. for 3 days), lasted for 7 days after cessation of MRP treatment and priming dose of MRP (1 mg/kg, s.c.) reinstated the extinguished MRP-induced CPP. The astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM) and neuroglia conditioned medium (NCM) exposed to MRP (10 and 100 µM) have been microinjected into the NAc. Intra-NAc administration of ACM during extinction period failed to change the maintenance of MRP-CPP, but MRP 100-treated ACM could slightly increase the magnitude of reinstatement. In contrast to ACM, intra-NAc administration of MRP 100-treated NCM caused slower extinction by 3 days and significantly increased the magnitude of reinstatement. Our findings suggest the involvement of glial cells activation in the maintenance and reinstatement of MRP-seeking behaviors, and provides new evidence that these cells might be a potential target for the treatment of MRP addiction. PMID:26547198

  4. 14. INTERIOR VIEW OF THIRD FLOOR OF FACTORY ADDITION, NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR VIEW OF THIRD FLOOR OF FACTORY ADDITION, NORTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING. AT THE CENTER IS THE BUFFING MACHINE, MANUFACTURED BY THE ACME CO. OF DETROIT, MICHIGAN. IT WAS HERE THAT ALUMINUM WARES WERE BROUGHT FOR FINAL GRINDING AND BUFFING. THE HOSES REMOVED DUST AND DEBRIS. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  5. Interactive effects of trait and state affect on top-down control of attention.

    PubMed

    Hur, Juyoen; Miller, Gregory A; McDavitt, Jenika R B; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Crocker, Laura D; Infantolino, Zachary P; Towers, David N; Warren, Stacie L; Heller, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    Few studies have investigated how attentional control is affected by transient affective states while taking individual differences in affective traits into consideration. In this study, participants completed a color-word Stroop task immediately after undergoing a positive, neutral or negative affective context manipulation (ACM). Behavioral performance was unaffected by any ACM considered in isolation. For individuals high in trait negative affect (NA), performance was impaired by the negative but not the positive or neutral ACM. Neuroimaging results indicate that activity in primarily top-down control regions of the brain (inferior frontal gyrus and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex) was suppressed in the presence of emotional arousal (both negative and positive ACMs). This effect appears to have been exacerbated or offset by co-occurring activity in other top-down control regions (parietal) and emotion processing regions (orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala and nucleus accumbens) as a function of the valence of state affect (positive or negative) and trait affect (trait NA or trait PA). Neuroimaging results are consistent with behavioral findings. In combination, they indicate both additive and interactive influences of trait and state affect on top-down control of attention. PMID:25556211

  6. Asbestos in the air of public buildings: a public health risk?

    PubMed

    Whysner, J; Covello, V T; Kuschner, M; Rifkind, A B; Rozman, K K; Trichopoulos, D; Williams, G M

    1994-01-01

    The Environmental Health and Safety Council of the American Health Foundation has examined current estimates of cancer risks associated with the presence of asbestos-containing materials (ACM) in public buildings. The Council finds that even complete removal of asbestos from all of these buildings will provide no measurable benefit to public health. The removal of nonfriable ACM only can be postulated to protect the public against a small hypothetical risk that cannot be measured epidemiologically. Moreover, examination of the assumptions used in the risk assessment calculations leads to the conclusion that these small calculated risks are likely to represent overestimates. In recent surveys, the measured asbestos levels in indoor air cast some doubt on whether occupant exposure to asbestos levels are contributed to significantly by ACM even when some of the material is friable or in bad condition. Furthermore, the models used for cancer risk estimates assume no threshold level for cancer and conclude that any exposure is carcinogenic. This may be unjustified in light of information on the mechanisms for some asbestos-caused disease. Based on the best available data, it is very unlikely that cancer will result from indoor asbestos exposure, especially where ACM is well maintained. PMID:8016027

  7. Creating a New Model Curriculum: A Rationale for "Computing Curricula 1990".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Kim B.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a model for the design of undergraduate curricula in the discipline of computing that was developed by the ACM/IEEE (Association for Computing Machinery/Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) Computer Society Joint Curriculum Task Force. Institutional settings and structures in which computing degrees are awarded are…

  8. Outcomes after heart transplantation for amyloid cardiomyopathy in the modern era.

    PubMed

    Davis, M K; Kale, P; Liedtke, M; Schrier, S; Arai, S; Wheeler, M; Lafayette, R; Coakley, T; Witteles, R M

    2015-03-01

    We conducted a review of patients undergoing heart transplantation (HT) at our institution for amyloid cardiomyopathy (ACM) between 2008 and 2013. Complete follow-up was available for all patients. Nineteen patients with ACM underwent HT during the study period, accounting for 9.4% of all HT performed at our institution during this period. Amyloid subtype was light chain (AL) in 9 patients and transthyretin (ATTR) in 10 (2 wild-type, 7 familial, 1 unknown). Eight of nine patients with AL amyloidosis began chemotherapy prior to HT, six have resumed chemotherapy since HT, and five have undergone autologous stem cell transplantation. Most recent free light chain levels in AL patients decreased by a median of 85% from peak values. Only one patient developed recurrent graft amyloidosis, occurring at 3.5 years post-HT and asymptomatic. After a median follow-up of 380 days, 17 (89.5%) patients are alive. To our knowledge, this is the largest single-center series reported of ACM patients undergoing HT in the modern era. Our results suggest that acceptable outcomes following HT can be achieved in the short-to-intermediate term and that this is a feasible option for end-stage ACM with careful patient selection and aggressive control of amyloidogenic light chains in AL patients. PMID:25648766

  9. A Placement Test for Computer Science: Design, Implementation, and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Gwen; Soh, Leen-Kiat; Samal, Ashok; Lang, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    An introductory CS1 course presents problems for educators and students due to students' diverse background in programming knowledge and exposure. Students who enroll in CS1 also have different expectations and motivations. Prompted by the curricular guidelines for undergraduate programmes in computer science released in 2001 by the ACM/IEEE, and…

  10. Air Combat Training: Good Stick Index Validation. Final Report for Period 3 April 1978-1 April 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Samuel B.; And Others

    A study was conducted to investigate and statistically validate a performance measuring system (the Good Stick Index) in the Tactical Air Command Combat Engagement Simulator I (TAC ACES I) Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) training program. The study utilized a twelve-week sample of eighty-nine student pilots to statistically validate the Good Stick…

  11. Hard Biscuits: Motivation to Learn in Secondary School Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that much of the high school curriculum, particularly in social studies, contains innumerable facts that have no use except to pass school tests. Reviews research on effective instruction as applied to social studies. Includes 17 characteristics of highly engaging social studies teaching and learning. (ACM)

  12. Amniotic liquid derived stem cells as reservoir of secreted angiogenic factors capable of stimulating neo-arteriogenesis in an ischemic model.

    PubMed

    Mirabella, Teodelinda; Teodelinda, Mirabella; Cilli, Michele; Michele, Cilli; Carlone, Sebastiano; Sebastiano, Carlone; Cancedda, Ranieri; Ranieri, Cancedda; Gentili, Chiara; Chiara, Gentili

    2011-05-01

    Most urgent health problems are related to a blood vessel formation failure. The use of stem cells from different sources or species for both in vitro and in vivo engineering of endothelium does not necessarily imply their direct commitment towards a vascular phenotype. In the present study, we used human amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC) to evoke a strong angiogenic response in murine recipients, in terms of host guided-regeneration of new vessels, and we demonstrated that the AFSC secretome is responsible for the vascularising properties of these cells. We indentified in AFSC conditioned media (ACM) pro-angiogenic soluble factors, such as MCP-1, IL-8, SDF-1, VEGF. Our in vitro results suggest that ACM are cytoprotective, pro-differentiative and chemoattractive for endothelial cells. We also tested ACM on a pre-clinical model of hind-limb ischemic mouse, concluding that ACM contain mediators that promote the neo-arteriogenesis, as remodelling of pre-existing collateral arteries to conductance vessels, thus preventing the capillary loss and the tissue necrosis of distal muscles. In line with the current regenerative medicine trend, in the present study we assert the concept that stem cell-secreted mediators can guide the tissue repair by stimulating or recruiting host reparative cells. PMID:21371750

  13. EVALUATION OF ASBESTOS LEVELS IN TWO SCHOOLS BEFORE AND AFTER ASBESTOS REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a statistical evaluation of airborne asbestos data collected at two schools before and after removal of asbestos-containing material (ACM). Although the monitoring data, are not totally consistent with new Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) requir...

  14. Low threshold interband cascade lasers operating above room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. J.; Yang, B.; Yang, R. Q.

    2003-01-01

    Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers were demonstrated in pulsed mode at temperatures up to 325 K and in continuous mode up to 200 K. At 80 K, the threshold current density was 8.9 A/cm2 and a cw outpout power of 140 mW/facet was obtained.

  15. 75 FR 20597 - Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change the Community of License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ...The following applicants filed AM or FM proposals to change the community of license: COCHISE BROADCASTING LLC, Station KZXQ, Facility ID 78273, BPH-20071025ACM, From RESERVE, NM, To CONCHO, AZ; DAILEY CORPORATION, Station WETZ-FM, Facility ID 18534, BPH- 20100329AFI, From NEW MARTINSVILLE, WV, To VIENNA, WV; LOUT, JAMES M, Station NEW, Facility ID 170971, BMPH-20100301ABS, From PINELAND, TX,......

  16. EVALUATION OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ASBESTOS OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE PROGRAMS IN NEW JERSEY SCHOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Removal of asbestos-containing materials (ACM) was encouraged over alternative approaches of asbestos management in the past. However, in-place management and operstions nd maintenance programs are currently viewed by the EPA as the most appropriate overall strategy for managemen...

  17. Gender, Ethnicity, and the Structure of Self-Esteem: An Attitude Theory Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tashakkori, Abbas

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of 305 African American and 338 white middle school students to determine whether self-beliefs underlying self-esteem are different across ethnic and gender boundaries. Finds that academic self-beliefs, as opposed to nonacademic self-beliefs were not strong predictors of self-esteem among any of the groups. (ACM)

  18. 14 CFR 139.315 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.315 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. (a) An... alternate compliance must be described in the ACM and must include: (1) Pre-arranged firefighting...

  19. 14 CFR 139.315 - Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index... CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.315 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Index determination. (a) An... alternate compliance must be described in the ACM and must include: (1) Pre-arranged firefighting...

  20. Programming Contest Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotman, Andrew; Handley, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Each year the ACM hosts a truly international programming contest--the International Collegiate Programming Contest (ICPC). Dating back to a contest held by Texas A&M University in 1970, this annual event, along with the associated regional contests, has grown to 5606 teams from 1733 universities in 84 countries (in the year 2006). Despite the…

  1. Extracts of Artocarpus communis decrease α-melanocyte stimulating hormone-induced melanogenesis through activation of ERK and JNK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yi-Tzu; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Ko, Horng-Huey; Yen, Feng-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Artocarpus communis is an agricultural plant that is also used in folk medicine to prevent skin diseases, including acne and dermatitis. Extracts of A. communis have been used to effectively inhibit melanogenesis; however, the antimelanogenesis mechanism of these extracts has not yet been investigated. The present study utilized a cell-free tyrosinase assay as well as α-melanocyte stimulating hormone- (-MSH-) induced tyrosinase assay conducted in B16F10 cells, performed a cytotoxicity assay, and determined cellular melanin content to examine the effects of a methanolic extract of A. communis (ACM) and various organic partition fractions of A. communis on melanogenesis. In addition, we performed western blot analysis to elucidate the mechanism of their antimelanogenesis effect. Our results indicated that, except for the n-hexane extract, ACM and the various partition extracts at noncytotoxic concentrations effectively decreased melanin content and tyrosinase activity by downregulating microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB). Moreover, ACM and the partition fractions activated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) to inhibit the synthesis of MITF and finally to decrease melanin production. In conclusion, we suggest that noncytotoxic concentrations of ACM and the various partition fractions may be useful as references for developing skin-lighting agents for use in medicines or cosmetics. PMID:24737988

  2. How to Implement Rigorous Computer Science Education in K-12 Schools? Some Answers and Many Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubwieser, Peter; Armoni, Michal; Giannakos, Michail N.

    2015-01-01

    Aiming to collect various concepts, approaches, and strategies for improving computer science education in K-12 schools, we edited this second special issue of the "ACM TOCE" journal. Our intention was to collect a set of case studies from different countries that would describe all relevant aspects of specific implementations of…

  3. Teaching Perspectives among Introductory Computer Programming Faculty in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainier, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    This study identified the teaching beliefs, intentions, and actions of 80 introductory computer programming (CS1) faculty members from institutions of higher education in the United States using the Teacher Perspectives Inventory. Instruction method used inside the classroom, categorized by ACM CS1 curriculum guidelines, was also captured along…

  4. A CS1 Pedagogical Approach to Parallel Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rague, Brian William

    2010-01-01

    Almost all collegiate programs in Computer Science offer an introductory course in programming primarily devoted to communicating the foundational principles of software design and development. The ACM designates this introduction to computer programming course for first-year students as CS1, during which methodologies for solving problems within…

  5. 29 CFR 4.188 - Ineligibility for further contracts when violations occur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regal Mfg. Co., Decision of the Administrator, PC-245, March 1, 1946; Acme Sportswear Co., Decision of the Hearing Examiner, PC-275, May 8, 1946; Gearcraft, Inc., Decision of the ALJ, PCX-1, May 3, 1972... Co., Inc., Decision of the Hearing Examiner, PC-632, August 9, 1957). (2) Nor is interest...

  6. TRANSFECTION WITH BACULOVIRUS DNA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purified DNA from the nuclear polyhedrosis viruses of Autographa californica (AcM NPV) and Rachiplusia ou (RoM NPV) were found to be infectious in TN-368 cells employing the calcium phosphate precipitation technique (F.L. Graham and A.J. van der Eb, Virology, 52, 456-467, 1973). ...

  7. Automatic segmentation of vertebral contours from CT images using fuzzy corners.

    PubMed

    Athertya, Jiyo S; Saravana Kumar, G

    2016-05-01

    Automatic segmentation of bone in computed tomography (CT) images is critical for the implementation of computer-assisted diagnosis which has increasing potential in the evaluation of various spine disorders. Of the many techniques available for delineating the region of interest (ROI), active contour methods (ACM) are well-established techniques that are used to segment medical images. The initialization for these methods is either through manual intervention or by applying a global threshold, thus making them semi-automatic in nature. The paper presents a methodology for automatic contour initialization in ACM and demonstrates the applicability of the method for medical image segmentation from spinal CT images. Initially, a set of feature markers from the image is extracted to construct an initial contour for the ACM. A fuzzified corner metric, based on image intensity, is proposed to identify the feature markers to be enclosed by the contour. A concave hull based on α shape, is constructed using these fuzzy corners to give the initial contour. The proposed method was evaluated against conventional feature detectors and other initialization methods. The results show the method׳s robust performance in the presence of simulated Gaussian noise levels. The method enables the ACM to efficiently converge to the ground truth segmentation. The reference standard for comparison was the annotated images from a radiologist, and the Dice coefficient and Hausdorff distance measures were used to evaluate the segmentation. PMID:27017068

  8. Austin Collaborative for Mathematics Education 1999-2000 Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelder, Michelle

    The Austin Collaborative for Mathematics Education (ACME) is a districtwide initiative to improve mathematics education in all elementary and middle school classrooms in the Austin Independent School District, Texas (AISD). The initiative, funded by the National Science Foundation and the school district, provides long-term, high-quality…

  9. 48 CFR 301.607-77 - Governance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... designate an additional ACM, whose professional background includes program and project management. See Appendix B, Federal Acquisition Certification—Program and Project Managers—Roles and Responsibilities, in... is responsible for administering the program. To support the overall management of the...

  10. 48 CFR 301.607-77 - Governance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... designate an additional ACM, whose professional background includes program and project management. See Appendix B, Federal Acquisition Certification—Program and Project Managers—Roles and Responsibilities, in... is responsible for administering the program. To support the overall management of the...

  11. 48 CFR 301.607-77 - Governance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... designate an additional ACM, whose professional background includes program and project management. See Appendix B, Federal Acquisition Certification—Program and Project Managers—Roles and Responsibilities, in... is responsible for administering the program. To support the overall management of the...

  12. 48 CFR 301.607-77 - Governance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... designate an additional ACM, whose professional background includes program and project management. See Appendix B, Federal Acquisition Certification—Program and Project Managers—Roles and Responsibilities, in... is responsible for administering the program. To support the overall management of the...

  13. 48 CFR 301.607-77 - Governance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... designate an additional ACM, whose professional background includes program and project management. See Appendix B, Federal Acquisition Certification—Program and Project Managers—Roles and Responsibilities, in... is responsible for administering the program. To support the overall management of the...

  14. Design and reliability analysis of high-speed and continuous data recording system based on disk array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Changlong; Ma, Cheng; He, Ning; Zhang, Xugang; Wang, Chongyang; Jia, Huibo

    2002-12-01

    In many real-time fields the sustained high-speed data recording system is required. This paper proposes a high-speed and sustained data recording system based on the complex-RAID 3+0. The system consists of Array Controller Module (ACM), String Controller Module (SCM) and Main Controller Module (MCM). ACM implemented by an FPGA chip is used to split the high-speed incoming data stream into several lower-speed streams and generate one parity code stream synchronously. It also can inversely recover the original data stream while reading. SCMs record lower-speed streams from the ACM into the SCSI disk drivers. In the SCM, the dual-page buffer technology is adopted to implement speed-matching function and satisfy the need of sustainable recording. MCM monitors the whole system, controls ACM and SCMs to realize the data stripping, reconstruction, and recovery functions. The method of how to determine the system scale is presented. At the end, two new ways Floating Parity Group (FPG) and full 2D-Parity Group (full 2D-PG) are proposed to improve the system reliability and compared with the Traditional Parity Group (TPG). This recording system can be used conveniently in many areas of data recording, storing, playback and remote backup with its high-reliability.

  15. Alginate coated chitosan microparticles mediated oral delivery of diphtheria toxoid. Part A. Systematic optimization, development and characterization.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Anshuman; Mishra, Vijay; Bhoop, Bhupinder Singh; Katare, Om Prakash

    2015-11-10

    The current study was embarked upon to develop "optimized" alginate coated chitosan microparticles (ACMs) loaded with Diphtheria toxoid (DTx) employing formulation by design approach. The developed system was characterized for particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology, acidic degradation protection studies, in process stability studies, storage stability studies and in-vivo uptake studies. Microparticles with minimum of average size of 5 μm (PDI, 0.184) were chosen after optimizing the composition and process conditions. The optimized chitosan microparticles were subjected to alginate coating for better protection of loaded antigen till it reached to uptake site i.e. M cells in the Peyer's patches (PPs) and transport of higher amount antigen to the PPs. The zeta-potential values for uncoated chitosan microparticles and ACMs were found to be +29 ± 3.3 mV and -32.6 ± 4.2 mV, respectively. This change of zeta potential, for uncoated to coated, can be explained by the fact that the coating of alginate on chitosan microparticles led to negative side of the zeta potential by virtue of its predominance on the surface. The developed ACMs were able to transport the antigen effectively to the M cell as revealed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Further, DTx-loaded ACMs demonstrated significant immune responses at serum IgG as well as mucosal sIgA level. PMID:26319633

  16. A Learning Research Informed Design and Evaluation of a Web-Enhanced Object Oriented Programming Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgantaki, Stavroula C.; Retalis, Symeon D.

    2007-01-01

    "Object-Oriented Programming" subject is included in the ACM Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate and Graduate Degree Programs in Computer Science as well as in Curriculum for K-12 Computer Science. In a few research studies learning problems and difficulties have been recorded, and therefore, specific pedagogical guidelines and educational…

  17. Academic-Career Integration in Magnet High Schools: Assessing the Level of Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokarska, Barbara; And Others

    An ongoing study examined implementation and student response to academic career magnet (ACM) programs in New York City high schools. The programs emphasize both college preparation and career education, demonstrating one approach to the current emphasis on integrating academic and vocational education. New York City offers a wide array of magnet…

  18. Are Academic Programs Adequate for the Software Profession?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koster, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, close to 1.8 million people, or 77% of all computer professionals, were working in the design, development, deployment, maintenance, and management of software in 2006. The ACM [Association for Computing Machinery] model curriculum for the BS in computer science proposes that about 42% of the core body…

  19. The calculation of electrostatic interactions and their role in determining the energies and geometries of explosive molecular crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, J.P.; Kober, E.M.; Copenhaver, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    Three different procedures were used to calculate electrostatic interactions in explosive molecular crystals. The use of Potential Derived Charges (PDC's) and atom-centered multipole expansions (ACME's) provides reasonable fits of the molecular electrostatic potential. The ability of these approaches to reproduce observed crystal structures was also evaluated.

  20. Self-Perceived and Observable Self-Direction in an Online Asynchronous Programming Course Using Peer Learning Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaspar, Alessio; Langevin, Sarah; Boyer, Naomi; Armitage, William

    2009-01-01

    This study broadens the objectives of previous work (Boyer, N., Langevin, S., Gaspar, A. (2008). "Self direction and constructivism in programming education." "Proceedings of the ACM Special Interest Group in IT Education Conference," 16-18 October 2008, Cincinnati, OH) in which we used a survey-based instrument, the Personal Responsibility…

  1. Study on Corrosion Resistance of Fe-based Amorphous Coating by Laser Cladding in Hydrochloric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q. J.; Guo, S. B.; Yang, X. J.; Zhou, X. L.; Hua, X. Z.; Zhu, X. H.; Duan, Z.

    In this study, the Fe41Co7Cr15Mo14C15B6Y2 bulk amorphous alloy with high glass-forming ability was prepared using the arc- melting copper mold casting technique, and corresponding amorphous coating was obtained using the laser melt amorphous powders on the surface of carbon steel. The corrosion resistance performance of the laser cladding coating in hydrochloric acid was analyzed and tested in experiments under the conditions of different laser cladding speeds. The amorphous alloy coating with different fabrication parameters have the difference internal structure, which lead to the difference corrosion resistance in the same environment to some extent. The nature of amorphous alloy and the corrosion morphology were investigated using XRD and SEM method, respectively. The corrosion experiments showed that: when the laser power was 3300W, the corrosion resistance of four kinds of samples in hydrochloric acid from strong to weak as follows: as-cast sample > the coating with laser cladding speed 110 mm/min > the coating with laser cladding speed 120 mm/min > the coating with laser cladding speed 130 mm/min. The free corrosion current density of casting sample, sample 1, sample 2 and sample 3 is 3.304 × 10-6 A/cm2, 2.600×10-3 A/cm2, 2.030×10-3 A/cm2 and 3.396×10-4 A/cm2, respectively.

  2. Radioprotective Effect of Achillea millefolium L Against Genotoxicity Induced by Ionizing Radiation in Human Normal Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shahani, Somayeh; Rostamnezhad, Mostafa; Ghaffari-rad, Vahid; Ghasemi, Arash; Allahverdi Pourfallah, Tayyeb

    2015-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of Achillea millefolium L (ACM) extract was investigated against genotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation (IR) in human lymphocytes. Peripheral blood samples were collected from human volunteers and incubated with the methanolic extract of ACM at different concentrations (10, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL) for 2 hours. At each dose point, the whole blood was exposed in vitro to 2.5 Gy of X-ray and then the lymphocytes were cultured with mitogenic stimulation to determine the micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked binucleated cell. Antioxidant capacity of the extract was determined using free radical-scavenging method. The treatment of lymphocytes with the extract showed a significant decrease in the incidence of micronuclei binucleated cells, as compared with similarly irradiated lymphocytes without any extract treatment. The maximum protection and decrease in frequency of micronuclei were observed at 200 μg/mL of ACM extract which completely protected genotoxicity induced by IR in human lymphocytes. Achillea millefolium extract exhibited concentration-dependent radical-scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radicals. These data suggest that the methanolic extract of ACM may play an important role in the protection of normal tissues against genetic damage induced by IR. PMID:26675116

  3. A Review of Models for Teacher Preparation Programs for Precollege Computer Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deek, Fadi P.; Kimmel, Howard

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the need for adequate precollege computer science education and focuses on the issues of teacher preparation programs and requirements needed to teach high school computer science. Presents models of teacher preparation programs and compares state requirements with Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) recommendations. (Author/LRW)

  4. 40 CFR 763.94 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.94 Recordkeeping. (a) Records required under this section... of storage or disposal site of the ACM. (g) For each time that major asbestos activity under §...

  5. 40 CFR 763.94 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.94 Recordkeeping. (a) Records required under this section... of storage or disposal site of the ACM. (g) For each time that major asbestos activity under §...

  6. 40 CFR 763.94 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.94 Recordkeeping. (a) Records required under this section... of storage or disposal site of the ACM. (g) For each time that major asbestos activity under §...

  7. 40 CFR 763.94 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.94 Recordkeeping. (a) Records required under this section... of storage or disposal site of the ACM. (g) For each time that major asbestos activity under §...

  8. 40 CFR 763.94 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools § 763.94 Recordkeeping. (a) Records required under this section... of storage or disposal site of the ACM. (g) For each time that major asbestos activity under §...

  9. Multi-Sensory Informatics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katai, Zoltan; Toth, Laszlo; Adorjani, Alpar Karoly

    2014-01-01

    A recent report by the joint Informatics Europe & ACM Europe Working Group on Informatics Education emphasizes that: (1) computational thinking is an important ability that all people should possess; (2) informatics-based concepts, abilities and skills are teachable, and must be included in the primary and particularly in the secondary school…

  10. Interactions between sealing materials and lubricating oil additives

    SciTech Connect

    Winkenbach, R.; Von Arndt, E.M.; Mindermann, H.

    1987-01-01

    Due to the increasingly higher application demands, engine and transmission manufactures are today using lubrication oils with more and more additives. The result is that seal materials are being damaged when exposed to such conditions and such additives. This paper shows the effects of basic oils with, and without, additives on elastomeric materials such as NBR, ACM, MVQ and FPM.

  11. Europe and Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingwersen, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Discusses recent European library and information science (LIS) events. Describes the development and use of regional and intra-European Union networks for science. Highlights three European conferences held in 1996: ACM-SIGIR on information retrieval held in Switzerland, Information Seeking in Context (ISIC) held in Finland, and Conceptions of…

  12. Beyond the Model: Building an Effective and Dynamic IT Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Jeffrey; Harriger, Alka; Mendonca, John

    2006-01-01

    A model curriculum, such as that developed by the ACM/SIGITE Curriculum Committee (2005), has two important functions. First, it provides a base structure for newly developing programs that can use it as a platform for articulating a curriculum. Second, it offers an existing curriculum framework that can be used for validation by existing…

  13. A Stylistic Study on the Linguistic Deviations in E. E. Cummings' Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xin; Shi, Mengchen

    2015-01-01

    Regarded as the pioneer of experimental poetry, E. E. Cummings' unconventional treatment of poetic language has reached an unprecedented acme, which has intrigued and baffled numerous scholars, researchers and readers alike. Nevertheless, the very existence of poetry, like other types of literary texts, demonstrates the significance and value of…

  14. Made in Hawai'i: Critical Studies and the Academy for Creative Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Konrad

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author offers a brief history of the Academy for Creative Media (ACM)--the University of Hawai'i's primary academic program for the production and study of film, animation, and computer game design--and its mission to fulfill the Hawai'i state government's agenda to diversify the economy with creative media and high…

  15. Quantitative analysis of aortic regurgitation: real-time 3-dimensional and 2-dimensional color Doppler echocardiographic method--a clinical and a chronic animal study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiota, Takahiro; Jones, Michael; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Qin, Jian Xin; Zetts, Arthur D.; Greenberg, Neil L.; Cardon, Lisa A.; Panza, Julio A.; Thomas, James D.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For evaluating patients with aortic regurgitation (AR), regurgitant volumes, left ventricular (LV) stroke volumes (SV), and absolute LV volumes are valuable indices. AIM: The aim of this study was to validate the combination of real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and semiautomated digital color Doppler cardiac flow measurement (ACM) for quantifying absolute LV volumes, LVSV, and AR volumes using an animal model of chronic AR and to investigate its clinical applicability. METHODS: In 8 sheep, a total of 26 hemodynamic states were obtained pharmacologically 20 weeks after the aortic valve noncoronary (n = 4) or right coronary (n = 4) leaflet was incised to produce AR. Reference standard LVSV and AR volume were determined using the electromagnetic flow method (EM). Simultaneous epicardial real-time 3DE studies were performed to obtain LV end-diastolic volumes (LVEDV), end-systolic volumes (LVESV), and LVSV by subtracting LVESV from LVEDV. Simultaneous ACM was performed to obtain LVSV and transmitral flows; AR volume was calculated by subtracting transmitral flow volume from LVSV. In a total of 19 patients with AR, real-time 3DE and ACM were used to obtain LVSVs and these were compared with each other. RESULTS: A strong relationship was found between LVSV derived from EM and those from the real-time 3DE (r = 0.93, P <.001, mean difference (3D - EM) = -1.0 +/- 9.8 mL). A good relationship between LVSV and AR volumes derived from EM and those by ACM was found (r = 0.88, P <.001). A good relationship between LVSV derived from real-time 3DE and that from ACM was observed (r = 0.73, P <.01, mean difference = 2.5 +/- 7.9 mL). In patients, a good relationship between LVSV obtained by real-time 3DE and ACM was found (r = 0.90, P <.001, mean difference = 0.6 +/- 9.8 mL). CONCLUSION: The combination of ACM and real-time 3DE for quantifying LV volumes, LVSV, and AR volumes was validated by the chronic animal study and was shown to be clinically applicable.

  16. Identification of key peptidoglycan hydrolases for morphogenesis, autolysis, and peptidoglycan composition of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus plantarum is commonly used in industrial fermentation processes. Selected strains are also marketed as probiotics for their health beneficial effects. Although the functional role of peptidoglycan-degrading enzymes is increasingly documented to be important for a range of bacterial processes and host-microbe interactions, little is known about their functional roles in lactobacilli. This knowledge holds important potential for developing more robust strains resistant to autolysis under stress conditions as well as peptidoglycan engineering for a better understanding of the contribution of released muramyl-peptides as probiotic immunomodulators. Results Here, we explored the functional role of the predicted peptidoglycan hydrolase (PGH) complement encoded in the genome of L. plantarum by systematic gene deletion. From twelve predicted PGH-encoding genes, nine could be individually inactivated and their corresponding mutant strains were characterized regarding their cell morphology, growth, and autolysis under various conditions. From this analysis, we identified two PGHs, the predicted N-acetylglucosaminidase Acm2 and NplC/P60 D,L-endopeptidase LytA, as key determinants in the morphology of L. plantarum. Acm2 was demonstrated to be required for the ultimate step of cell separation of daughter cells, whereas LytA appeared to be required for cell shape maintenance and cell-wall integrity. We also showed by autolysis experiments that both PGHs are involved in the global autolytic process with a dominant role for Acm2 in all tested conditions, identifying Acm2 as the major autolysin of L. plantarum WCFS1. In addition, Acm2 and the putative N-acetylmuramidase Lys2 were shown to play redundant roles in both cell separation and autolysis under stress conditions. Finally, the analysis of the peptidoglycan composition of Acm2- and LytA-deficient derivatives revealed their potential hydrolytic activities by the disappearance of specific cleavage

  17. Design of a 40/50 GHz satellite ground station for fade mitigation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koudelka, O.; Schmidt, M.; Ebert, J.

    2013-05-01

    Due to the increasing demand in satellite capacity, driven by applications such as high-definition television (HDTV), 3D-TV and interactive broadband services, higher frequency bands will have to be exploited. The capacity on Ku-band is already becoming scarce and Ka-band systems are more commonly used. It can be expected that 40 and 50 GHz (Q and V band) will have to be used in the future. At these frequencies the wave propagation effects have a significant impact on the performance. The traditional approach of implementing large fade margins in the system design is not suitable as it leads to expensive ground terminals. Fade mitigation by adaptive coding and modulation (ACM) is a cost-efficient method. To investigate the Q/V-band for future commercial exploitation, ESA's ALPHASAT satellite will provide experimental payloads for communications and wave propagation experiments. In Graz a Q/V-band ground station is currently under development. It will be equipped with a 3 m tracking antenna, a 50 W Klystron amplifier and a 290 K LNA. Fade mitigation experiments will be conducted, initially using DVB-S2 modems which allow to vary the modulation scheme, the Forward Error Correction code and the symbol rate under control of the ACM computer. In addition, uplink power control can be combined with the ACM methods. A specially developed signal analyser provides precise measurement of the signal/noise ratio. In addition, propagation data will be available from a beacon receiver, also developed by Joanneum Research. Important goals of the experiment are to investigate the reliability of links under realistic operating conditions using ACM and to develop efficient ACM and signal/noise ratio measurement algorithms which can be later implemented in optimised modems for Q/V-band. The paper describes the ground station design and addresses the planned fade mitigation experiments.

  18. Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Bl. tuber extracts against human colon carcinoma cell line HCT-15.

    PubMed

    Ansil, P N; Wills, P J; Varun, R; Latha, M S

    2014-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide and is the third most common form of malignancy in both men and women. Several possible colon cancer chemopreventive agents are found in edible plants. Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume (family: Araceae) is a tuber crop, largely cultivated throughout the plains of India for using its corm as food. This tuber has also been traditionally used for the treatment of abdominal tumors, liver diseases, piles etc. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing effects of the sub fractions of A. campanulatus tuber methanolic extract (ACME) viz. petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CHF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and methanolic fraction (MEF) on the colon cancer cell line, HCT-15. Antiproliferative effects of the sub fractions of ACME were studied by MTT assay. Apoptotic activity was assessed by DAPI, Annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. The chemotherapeutic drug, 5-flurouracil (5-FU) was used as positive drug control. The sub fractions of ACME significantly inhibited the proliferation of HCT-15 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the extracts were found to induce apoptosis and were confirmed by DAPI, Annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. A pronounced results of cytotoxic and apoptotic activities were observed in the cells treated with 5-FU and CHF, whereas, EAF and MEF treated cells exhibited a moderate result and the least effect was observed in PEF treated cells. Our results suggested that, among the sub fractions of ACME, CHF had potent cytotoxic and apoptotic activity and thus it could be explored as a novel target for anticancer drug development. Furthermore, these findings confirm that the sub fractions of ACME dose-dependently suppress the proliferation of HCT-15 cells by inducing apoptosis. PMID:25473360

  19. Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Bl. tuber extracts against human colon carcinoma cell line HCT-15

    PubMed Central

    Ansil, P.N.; Wills, P.J.; Varun, R.; Latha, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide and is the third most common form of malignancy in both men and women. Several possible colon cancer chemopreventive agents are found in edible plants. Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume (family: Araceae) is a tuber crop, largely cultivated throughout the plains of India for using its corm as food. This tuber has also been traditionally used for the treatment of abdominal tumors, liver diseases, piles etc. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing effects of the sub fractions of A. campanulatus tuber methanolic extract (ACME) viz. petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CHF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and methanolic fraction (MEF) on the colon cancer cell line, HCT-15. Antiproliferative effects of the sub fractions of ACME were studied by MTT assay. Apoptotic activity was assessed by DAPI, Annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. The chemotherapeutic drug, 5-flurouracil (5-FU) was used as positive drug control. The sub fractions of ACME significantly inhibited the proliferation of HCT-15 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the extracts were found to induce apoptosis and were confirmed by DAPI, Annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. A pronounced results of cytotoxic and apoptotic activities were observed in the cells treated with 5-FU and CHF, whereas, EAF and MEF treated cells exhibited a moderate result and the least effect was observed in PEF treated cells. Our results suggested that, among the sub fractions of ACME, CHF had potent cytotoxic and apoptotic activity and thus it could be explored as a novel target for anticancer drug development. Furthermore, these findings confirm that the sub fractions of ACME dose-dependently suppress the proliferation of HCT-15 cells by inducing apoptosis. PMID:25473360

  20. Modulatory potentials of aqueous leaf and unripe fruit extracts of Carica papaya Linn. (Caricaceae) against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Yemitan, Omoniyi; Ise, Peter Uduak; Ikumawoyi, Victor Olabowale

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Carica papaya Linn is used in a traditional medicine for hepatobiliary disorders. This study investigated the hepatomodulatory effects of aqueous extracts of C. papaya leaf (CPL) and unripe fruit (CPF) at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and acetaminophen (ACM)-induced liver toxicities in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were administered CCl4 (3 ml/kg in olive oil, i.p.) followed by oral administration of CPL and CPF at 2, 6 and 10 h intervals. The ACM model proceeded with the same method but inclusive of animals treated with N-acetyl cysteine (3 ml/kg i.p). At the end of the study, serum levels of liver biomarkers and antioxidant enzymes were assessed and histology of the liver tissues determined. Results: There was a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in CCl4 and ACM-induced increases in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and direct bilirubin at 100 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. The levels of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase and reduced GSH were decreased in both models with corresponding significantly (P < 0.05) elevated level of malondialdehyde. However, these antioxidant enzymes were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in CPL and CPF-treated rats. Histopathological assessment of the liver confirmed the protective effects of CPL and CPF on CCl4 and ACM-induced hepatic damage evidenced by the normal presentation of liver tissue architecture. Conclusion: These results indicate that aqueous extracts of C. papaya may be useful in preventing CCl4 and ACM-induced liver toxicities. PMID:27069723

  1. Brain tissue modifications induced by cholinergic therapy in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bozzali, Marco; Parker, Geoff J M; Spanò, Barbara; Serra, Laura; Giulietti, Giovanni; Perri, Roberta; Magnani, Giuseppe; Marra, Camillo; G Vita, Maria; Caltagirone, Carlo; Cercignani, Mara

    2013-12-01

    A previous preliminary investigation based on a novel MRI approach to map anatomical connectivity revealed areas of increased connectivity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but not in mild cognitive impairment patients. This prompted the hypothesis tested here, that these areas might reflect phenomena of brain plasticity driven by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs). Thirty-eight patients with probable AD (19 under medication with AChEIs and 19 drug-naïve) were recruited together with 11 healthy controls. All subjects had MRI scanning at 3T, including volumetric and diffusion-weighted scans. Probabilistic tractography was used to initiate streamlines from all parenchymal voxels, and anatomical connectivity maps (ACMs) were obtained by counting, among the total number of streamlines initiated, the fraction passing through each brain voxel. After normalization into standard space, ACMs were used to test for between-group comparisons, and for interactions between the exposure to AChEIs and global level of cognition. Patients with AD had reduced ACM values in the fornix, cingulum, and supramarginal gyri. The ACM value was strongly associated with the AChEI dosage-x-duration product in the anterior limb (non-motor pathway) of the internal capsule. Tractography from this region identified the anterior thalamic radiation as the main white matter (WM) tract passing through it. The reduced connectivity in WM bundles connecting the hippocampi with the rest of the brain (fornix/cingulum) suggests a possible mechanism for the spread of AD pathology. An intriguing explanation for the interaction between AChEIs and ACM is related to the mechanisms of brain plasticity, partially driven by neurotrophic properties of acetylcholine replacement. PMID:22711258

  2. NOX2 amplifies acetaldehyde-mediated cardiomyocyte mitochondrial dysfunction in alcoholic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Moritz; Garlapati, Venkata; Oelze, Matthias; Sotiriou, Efthymios; Knorr, Maike; Kröller-Schön, Swenja; Kossmann, Sabine; Schönfelder, Tanja; Morawietz, Henning; Schulz, Eberhard; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Daiber, Andreas; Münzel, Thomas; Wenzel, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) resulting from excess alcohol consumption is an important cause of heart failure (HF). Although it is assumed that the cardiotoxicity of the ethanol (EtOH)-metabolite acetaldehyde (ACA) is central for its development and progression, the exact mechanisms remain obscure. Murine cardiomyocytes (CMs) exposed to ACA or EtOH showed increased superoxide (O2(•-)) levels and decreased mitochondrial polarization, both being normalized by NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibition. C57BL/6 mice and mice deficient for the ACA-degrading enzyme mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2(-/-)) were fed a 2% EtOH diet for 5 weeks creating an ACA-overload. 2% EtOH-fed ALDH-2(-/-) mice exhibited a decreased cardiac function, increased heart-to-body and lung-to-body weight ratios, increased cardiac levels of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as increased NOX activity and NOX2/glycoprotein 91(phox) (NOX2/gp91(phox)) subunit expression compared to 2% EtOH-fed C57BL/6 mice. Echocardiography revealed that ALDH-2(-/-)/gp91(phox-/-) mice were protected from ACA-overload-induced HF after 5 weeks of 2% EtOH-diet, demonstrating that NOX2-derived O2(•-) contributes to the development of ACM. Translated to human pathophysiology, we found increased gp91(phox) expression in endomyocardial biopsies of ACM patients. In conclusion, ACM is promoted by ACA-driven mitochondrial dysfunction and can be improved by ablation of NOX2/gp91(phox). NOX2/gp91(phox) therefore might be a potential pharmacological target to treat ACM. PMID:27624556

  3. Effects of Obesity and Diabetes on α- and β-Cell Mass in Surgically Resected Human Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Inaishi, Jun; Sato, Seiji; Kou, Kinsei; Murakami, Rie; Watanabe, Yuusuke; Kitago, Minoru; Kitagawa, Yuko; Yamada, Taketo; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Context: The ethnic difference in β-cell regenerative capacity in response to obesity may be attributable to different phenotypes of type 2 diabetes among ethnicities. Objective: This study aimed to clarify the effects of diabetes and obesity on β- (BCM) and α-cell mass (ACM) in the Japanese population. Design, Setting, and Participants: We obtained the pancreases of 99 individuals who underwent pancreatic surgery and whose resected pancreas sample contained adequate normal pancreas for histological analysis. Questionnaires on a family history of diabetes and history of obesity were conducted in 59 patients. Pancreatic sections were stained for insulin or glucagon, and fractional β- and α-cell area were measured. Islet size and density as well as β-cell turnover were also quantified. Results: In patients with diabetes, BCM was decreased by 46% compared with age- and body mass index-matched nondiabetic patients (1.48% ± 1.08% vs 0.80% ± 0.54%, P < .001), whereas there was no difference in ACM between the groups. There was no effect of obesity or history of obesity on BCM and ACM irrespective of the presence or absence of diabetes. There was a negative correlation between BCM, but not ACM, and glycated hemoglobin before and after pancreatic surgery. In addition, reduced BCM was observed in patients with pancreatic cancer compared with those with other pancreatic tumors. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the increase in BCM in the face of insulin resistance is extremely limited in the Japanese, and BCM rather than ACM has a major role in regulating blood glucose level in humans. PMID:27070277

  4. Characterization and impact of "dead-zone" eddies in the tropical Northeast Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuette, Florian; Karstensen, Johannes; Krahmann, Gerd; Hauss, Helena; Fiedler, Björn; Brandt, Peter; Visbeck, Martin; Körtzinger, Arne

    2016-04-01

    Localized open-ocean low-oxygen dead-zones in the tropical Northeast Atlantic are recently discovered ocean features that can develop in dynamically isolated water masses within cyclonic eddies (CE) and anticyclonic modewater eddies (ACME). Analysis of a comprehensive oxygen dataset obtained from gliders, moorings, research vessels and Argo floats shows that eddies with low oxygen concentrations at 50-150 m depths can be found in surprisingly high numbers and in a large area (from about 5°N to 20°N, from the shelf at the eastern boundary to 30°W). Minimum oxygen concentrations of about 9 μmol/kg in CEs and close to anoxic concentrations (< 1 μmol/kg) in ACMEs were observed. In total, 495 profiles with oxygen concentrations below the minimum background concentration of 40 μmol/kg could be associated with 27 independent "dead-zone" eddies (10 CEs; 17 ACMEs). The low oxygen concentration right beneath the mixed layer has been attributed to the combination of high productivity in the surface waters of the eddies and the isolation of the eddies' cores. Indeed eddies of both types feature a cold sea surface temperature anomaly and enhanced chlorophyll concentrations in their center. The oxygen minimum is located in the eddy core beneath the mixed layer at around 80 m depth. The mean oxygen anomaly between 50 to 150 m depth for CEs (ACMEs) is -49 (-81) μmol/kg. Eddies south of 12°N carry weak hydrographic anomalies in their cores and seem to be generated in the open ocean away from the boundary. North of 12°N, eddies of both types carry anomalously low salinity water of South Atlantic Central Water origin from the eastern boundary upwelling region into the open ocean. This points to an eddy generation near the eastern boundary. A conservative estimate yields that around 5 dead-zone eddies (4 CEs; 1 ACME) per year entering the area north of 12°N between the Cap Verde Islands and 19°W. The associated contribution to the oxygen budget of the shallow oxygen minimum

  5. Impact of liming and drying municipal sewage sludge on the amount and availability of (14)C-acetyl sulfamethoxazole and (14)C-acetaminophen residues.

    PubMed

    Geng, Chunnu; Bergheaud, Valérie; Garnier, Patricia; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Haudin, Claire-Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Acetyl Sulfamethoxazole (AC-SMX) and acetaminophen (ACM) can be found in municipal sewage sludge, and their content and availability may be influenced by sludge treatments, such as drying and liming. A sludge similarly centrifuged with/without a flocculant was spiked with (14)C-labelled AC-SMX or ACM. Then, it was either limed (20% CaO) or/and dried under different laboratory conditions (1 week at ambient temperature; and 48 h at 40 or 80 °C). The total amount and distribution of the (14)C-compounds among several chemical fractions, based on the sludge floc definition, were assessed at the end of the treatments. All the (14)C-activity brought initially was recovered in the limed and/or dried sludges for AC-SMX but only between 44.4 and 84.9% for ACM, with the highest rate obtained for the limed sludge. Drying at 80 °C or liming increased the percentage of the sludge total organic carbon recovered in the extracts containing soluble extracellular polymeric substances (S-EPS) and the percentage of the total (14)C-activity extracted simultaneously. The non-extractable residues represented only 3.9-11.6% of the total (14)C-activity measured in the treated sludges for AC-SMX and 16.9-21.8% for ACM. The presence of AC-SMX and ACM residues in the treated sludges, after liming and drying under different conditions, was shown using some (14)C-labelled molecules. At this time scale and according to the extraction method selected, most of the (14)C-residues remained soluble and easily extractable for both compounds. This result implies that certain precautions should be taken when storing sludges before being spread on the field. Sludge piles, particularly the limed sludge, should be protected from rain to limit the production of lixiviates, which may contain residues of AC-SMX and ACM. PMID:26492342

  6. Validating An Analytic Completeness Model for Kepler Target Stars Based on Flux-level Transit Injection Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanzarite, Joseph; Burke, Christopher J.; Li, Jie; Seader, Shawn; Haas, Michael R.; Batalha, Natalie; Henze, Christopher; Christiansen, Jessie; Kepler Project, NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division

    2016-06-01

    The Kepler Mission is developing an Analytic Completeness Model (ACM) to estimate detection completeness contours as a function of exoplanet radius and period for each target star. Accurate completeness contours are necessary for robust estimation of exoplanet occurrence rates.The main components of the ACM for a target star are: detection efficiency as a function of SNR, the window function (WF) and the one-sigma depth function (OSDF). (Ref. Burke et al. 2015). The WF captures the falloff in transit detection probability at long periods that is determined by the observation window (the duration over which the target star has been observed). The OSDF is the transit depth (in parts per million) that yields SNR of unity for the full transit train. It is a function of period, and accounts for the time-varying properties of the noise and for missing or deweighted data.We are performing flux-level transit injection (FLTI) experiments on selected Kepler target stars with the goal of refining and validating the ACM. “Flux-level” injection machinery inserts exoplanet transit signatures directly into the flux time series, as opposed to “pixel-level” injection, which inserts transit signatures into the individual pixels using the pixel response function. See Jie Li's poster: ID #2493668, "Flux-level transit injection experiments with the NASA Pleiades Supercomputer" for details, including performance statistics.Since FLTI is affordable for only a small subset of the Kepler targets, the ACM is designed to apply to most Kepler target stars. We validate this model using “deep” FLTI experiments, with ~500,000 injection realizations on each of a small number of targets and “shallow” FLTI experiments with ~2000 injection realizations on each of many targets. From the results of these experiments, we identify anomalous targets, model their behavior and refine the ACM accordingly.In this presentation, we discuss progress in validating and refining the ACM, and we

  7. Fabrication of high-performance (Ba,K)Fe2As2 superconducting wires by powder-in-tube method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Q. P.; Prombood, T.; Mohan, S.; Y. Tsuchiya; Nakajima, Y.; Tamegai, T.

    (Ba,K)Fe2As2 superconducting wires have been fabricated by ex-situ powder-in-tube method. In addition to the pure (Ba,K)Fe2As2 wires, silver powder was also used as a chemical addition to improve the performance of these superconducting wires. The transport critical current density (Jc) has reached 1.3×104 A/cm2 at 4.2 K under self field in the wire with Ag addition. The self-field Jc is the highest among all the reported Fe-based superconducting wires so far. We have also performed magneto-optical imaging to this (Ba,K)Fe2As2 superconducting wire with Ag addition, and intragranular Jc of 6.0×104 A/cm2 at 20 K is obtained, which is similar to the estimation from M-H measurement.

  8. Biaxially aligned YBa 2Cu 3O 7-x thin film tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, Yasuhiro; Tanabe, Nobuo; Ikeno, Yoshimitsu; Kohno, Osamu

    1991-12-01

    We report the formation of biaxially oriented films of yttorium-stabilized ZrO 2 (YSZ) on a polycrystalline, Ni-based alloy (Hastelloy c276) by Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition (IBAD), and the subsequent a-b plane aligned YBa 2Cu 3O 7-x (YBCO) films deposited by laser ablation. Jc of 6.0×10 4 A/cm 2 (77 K, O T) and 1.4×10 4 A/cm 2 (77 K, 0.6 T) were obtained. A new method to prevent intergranular-weak-links has been developed for application of oxide superconducting thin films, for tape-shaped cables, magnets, magnetic shields, microwave devices, etc.

  9. Numerical analysis of boosting scheme for scalable NMR quantum computation

    SciTech Connect

    SaiToh, Akira; Kitagawa, Masahiro

    2005-02-01

    Among initialization schemes for ensemble quantum computation beginning at thermal equilibrium, the scheme proposed by Schulman and Vazirani [in Proceedings of the 31st ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC'99) (ACM Press, New York, 1999), pp. 322-329] is known for the simple quantum circuit to redistribute the biases (polarizations) of qubits and small time complexity. However, our numerical simulation shows that the number of qubits initialized by the scheme is rather smaller than expected from the von Neumann entropy because of an increase in the sum of the binary entropies of individual qubits, which indicates a growth in the total classical correlation. This result--namely, that there is such a significant growth in the total binary entropy--disagrees with that of their analysis.

  10. Investigation of domain wall motion in RE-TM magnetic wire towards a current driven memory and logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awano, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    Current driven magnetic domain wall (DW) motions of ferri-magnetic TbFeCo wires have been investigated. In the case of a Si substrate, the critical current density (Jc) of DW motion was successfully reduced to 3×106 A/cm2. Moreover, by using a polycarbonate (PC) substrate with a molding groove of 600 nm width, the Jc was decreased to 6×105 A/cm2. In order to fabricate a logic in memory, a current driven spin logics (AND, OR, NOT) have been proposed and successfully demonstrated under the condition of low Jc. These results indicate that TbFeCo nanowire is an excellent candidate for next generation power saving memory and logic.

  11. Side-illuminated tip-enhanced Raman study of edge phonon in graphene at the electrical breakdown limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuno, Yoshito; Vantasin, Sanpon; Yang, In-Sang; Son, Jangyup; Hong, Jongill; Tanaka, Yoshito Yannick; Nakata, Yasushi; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Naka, Nobuyuki

    2016-04-01

    Nanoscale integration of graphene into a circuit requires a stable performance under high current density. However, the effects of the current density that approach the electronic breakdown limit of graphene are not well understood. We explored the effects of a high current density, close to the electronic breakdown limit of 10 A/cm (˜3.0 × 108 A/cm2), on graphene, using tip-enhanced Raman scattering. The results showed that the high current density induces Raman bands at 1456 and 1530 cm-1, which were assigned to edge-phonon modes originating from zigzag and armchair edges. This led us to conclude that C-C bonds are cleaved due to the high current density, leaving edge structures behind, which were detected through the observation of localized phonons.

  12. System design of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 9: Attitude control/mechanisms subsystems studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neil, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    The Pioneer Venus mission study was conducted for a probe spacecraft and an orbiter spacecraft to be launched by either a Thor/Delta or an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle. Both spacecraft are spin stabilized. The spin speed is controlled by ground commands to as low as 5 rpm for science instrument scanning on the orbiter and as high as 71 rpm for small probes released from the probe bus. A major objective in the design of the attitude control and mechanism subsystem (ACMS) was to provide, in the interest of costs, maximum commonality of the elements between the probe bus and orbiter spacecraft configurations. This design study was made considering the use of either launch vehicle. The basic functional requirements of the ACMS are derived from spin axis pointing and spin speed control requirements implicit in the acquisition, cruise, encounter and orbital phases of the Pioneer Venus missions.

  13. Control of incidental asbestos exposure at hazardous waste sites.

    PubMed

    Koustas, R N

    1991-07-01

    This paper discusses asbestos regulations that are not part of Superfund and examines how these regulations can help to identify, evaluate and manage the risk associated with Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) at hazardous waste cleanup sites. Unless one knows where to look for ACM at hazardous waste sites, it may go undetected even after all the traditional sampling is done. Although EPA is currently developing a policy for evaluating risk from asbestos exposure at certain Superfund sites, information from existing regulations can be used to manage hazards associated with asbestos exposure at hazardous waste sites. This paper also identifies where to find governmental agency personnel and consultants who may be retained for site-specific help. PMID:1930954

  14. Rapid diagnosis of electromigration induced failure time of Pb-free flip chip solder joints by high resolution synchrotron radiation laminography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Tian; Xu, Feng; Kyu Han, Jung; Choi, Daechul; Cheng, Yin; Helfen, Lukas; Di Michiel, Marco; Baumbach, Tilo; Tu, K. N.

    2011-08-01

    We performed a rapid diagnosis of electromigration induced void nucleation and growth in Pb-free flip chip solder joints. Quantitative measurements of the growth rate of voids during the stressing by 1.0 × 104 A/cm2 and 7.5 × 103 A/cm2 at 125 °C were conducted by synchrotron radiation high resolution x-ray laminography. The results were analyzed by the statistical model of Weibull distribution function [W. Weibull, ASME Trans. J. Appl. Mech. 18(3), 293 (1951)] of lifetime data. The Johnson-Mehl-Avrami phase transformation theory is proposed to provide a physical link to the statistical model and to estimate the lifetime of the joints at early stages.

  15. Study program for encapsulation materials interface for low cost silicon solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaelble, D. H.; Mansfeld, F. B.; Lunsden, J. B., III; Leung, C.

    1980-01-01

    An atmospheric corrosion model was developed and verified by five months of corrosion rate and climatology data acquired at the Mead, Nebraska LSA test site. Atmospheric corrosion rate monitors (ACM) show that moisture condensation probability and ionic conduction at the corroding surface or interface are controlling factors in corrosion rate. Protection of the corroding surface by encapsulant was shown by the ACM recordings to be maintained, independent of climatology, over the five months outdoor exposure period. The macroscopic corrosion processes which occur at Mead are shown to be reproduced in the climatology simulator. Controlled experiments with identical moisture and temperature aging cycles show that UV radiation causes corrosion while UV shielding inhibits LSA corrosion.

  16. Selective natural induction of laccases in Pleurotus sajor-caju, suitable for application at a biofuel cell cathode at neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Fokina, Oleksandra; Eipper, Jens; Kerzenmacher, Sven; Fischer, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    Laccases are multicopper oxidoreductases with broad substrate specificity and are applied in biofuel cells at the cathode to improve its oxygen reduction performance. However, the production of laccases by e.g. fungi is often accompanied by the need of synthetic growth supplements for increased enzyme production. In this study we present a strategy for the white-rot fungus Pleurotus sajor-caju for natural laccase activity induction using lignocellulose substrates and culture supernatant of Aspergillus nidulans. P. sajor-caju laccases were secreted into the supernatant, which was directly used at a carbon-nanotube buckypaper cathode in a biofuel cell. Maximal current densities of -148±3μAcm(-2) and -102±9μAcm(-2) at 400mV were achieved at pH 5 and 7, respectively. Variations in cathode performance were observed with culture supernatants produced under different conditions due to the induction of specific laccases. PMID:27393835

  17. MOCVD of YBa 2Cu 3O 7-x thin films using a Ba fluorocarbon-based precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich, K.; Šouc, J.; Chromik, S.; Machajdik, D.; Kliment, V.

    1992-11-01

    We have prepared superconducting YBa 2Cu 3O 7- x films by MOCVD using fluorocarbon based Ba(hfa) 2 precursor. The films were deposited at 500°C and annealed in low pressure ( pO2=10 -2Pa) dry oxygen atmosphere as well as in argon/oxygen mixture in the presence of water vapour. The samples on a MgO single crystal substrate had Tc( R=0)=79 K and Jc=10 4 A/cm 2 at T=30 K in zero magnetic field while the film on SrTiO 3, annealed under the same conditions had Tc( R=0)=86 K and Jc reached a value of 10 5 A/cm 2 at T=78 K.

  18. Aqueous microwave-assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis using fmoc strategy. II. Racemization studies and water based synthesis of cysteine-containing peptides.

    PubMed

    Hojo, Keiko; Shinozaki, Natsuki; Hara, Asaki; Onishi, Mare; Fukumori, Yoshinobu; Ichikawa, Hideki

    2013-10-01

    We have developed a microwave (MW)-assisted peptide synthesis using Fmoc-amino acid nanoparticles in water previously. It is an organic solvent-free, environmentally friendly method for peptide synthesis. In this study, we have investigated the racemization of cysteine during an aqueous based coupling reaction with MW irradiation. Under our MW-assisted protocol using WSCI and DMTMM, the coupling reaction can be performed with low levels of racemization of cysteine. We also demonstrated the synthesis of the nonapeptide oxytocin analogue, Cys(Acm)-Tyr-Ile-Gln-Asn- Cys(Acm)-Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2 using our water based MW-assisted protocol with Fmoc-amino acid nanoparticles. PMID:23517723

  19. Multi-UAV autonomous collaborative behaviors for convoy protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.-L.; Peot, M.; Lee, J.; Sundareswaran, V.; Altshuler, T.

    2007-04-01

    Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) are expected to dramatically alter the way future battles are fought. Autonomous collaborative operation of teams of UAVs is a key enabler for efficient and effective deployment of large numbers of UAVs under the U. S. Army's vision for Force Transformation. Autonomous Collaborative Mission Systems (ACMS) is an extensible architecture and collaborative behavior planning approach to achieve multi-UAV autonomous collaborative capability. Under this architecture, a rich set of autonomous collaborative behaviors can be developed to accomplish a wide range of missions. In this article, we present our simulation results in applying various autonomous collaborative behaviors developed in the ACMS to an integrated convoy protection scenario using a heterogeneous team of UAVs.

  20. OJPOT: online judge & practice oriented teaching idea in programming courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gui Ping; Chen, Shu Yu; Yang, Xin; Feng, Rui

    2016-05-01

    Practical abilities are important for students from majors including Computer Science and Engineering, and Electrical Engineering. Along with the popularity of ACM International Collegiate Programming Contest (ACM/ICPC) and other programming contests, online judge (OJ) websites achieve rapid development, thus providing a new kind of programming practice, i.e. online practice. Due to fair and timely feedback results from OJ websites, online practice outperforms traditional programming practice. In order to promote students' practical abilities in programming and algorithm designing, this article presents a novel teaching idea, online judge & practice oriented teaching (OJPOT). OJPOT is applied to Programming Foundation course. OJPOT cultivates students' practical abilities through various kinds of programming practice, such as programming contests, online practice and course project. To verify the effectiveness of this novel teaching idea, this study conducts empirical research. The experimental results show that OJPOT works effectively in enhancing students' practical abilities compared with the traditional teaching idea.

  1. EnergyPlus Analysis Capabilities for Use in California Building Energy Efficiency Standards Development and Compliance Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tianzhen; Buhl, Fred; Haves, Philip

    2008-03-28

    nonresidential Alternative Calculation Method (ACM) of the Title-24 Standards. The AEC team identified gaps between EnergyPlus modeling capabilities and the requirements of Title 24 and ACMs. AEC's evaluation was based on the 2005 version of Title 24 and ACMs and the version 1.2.1 of EnergyPlus released on October 1, 2004. AEC's evaluation is useful for understanding the functionality and technical merits of EnergyPlus for implementing the performance-based compliance methods described in the ACMs. However, it did not study the performance of EnergyPlus in actually making building energy simulations for both the standard and proposed building designs, as is required for any software program to be certified by the CEC for use in doing Title-24 compliance calculations. In 2005, CEC funded LBNL to evaluate the use of EnergyPlus for compliance calculations by comparing the ACM accuracy test runs between DOE-2.1E and EnergyPlus. LBNL team identified key technical issues that must be addressed before EnergyPlus can be considered by the CEC for use in developing future Nonresidential Title-24 Standards or as an ACM tool. With Title 24 being updated to the 2008 version (which adds new requirements to the standards and ACMs), and EnergyPlus having been through several update cycles from version 1.2.1 to 2.1, it becomes crucial to review and update the previously identified gaps of EnergyPlus for use in Title 24, and more importantly to close the gaps which would help pave the way for EnergyPlus to be adopted as a Title 24 compliance ACM. With this as the key driving force, CEC funded LBNL in 2008 through this PIER (Public Interest Energy Research) project with the overall technical goal to expand development of EnergyPlus to provide for its use in Title-24 standard compliance and by CEC staff.

  2. Synthesis of phytochelatins by the continuous flow solid phase procedure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Hemmasi, B

    1993-11-01

    A nona- and an undecapeptide corresponding to phytochelatins with the general structure H-[gamma-Glu-Cys]n-Gly-OH were each synthesized by the continuous flow solid phase method using two different methodologies. Fmoc-amino acid derivatives were used as precursors, and two different H2N-POE-PS supports were employed. Different procedures were used to remove Acm protecting groups from Cys residues. In a second synthesis, Acm groups were removed before cleavage of the peptides from the polymer supports. The partially protected peptides of the first synthesis were purified by preparative HPLC. The purity and identity of all the synthesized peptides were verified by analytical HPLC and IS-MS and in some cases by amino acid analysis. PMID:8292265

  3. Critical Current Density Performance of Malic Acid Doped Magnesium Diboride Wires at Different Operating Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Kim, J. H.; Zhang, Y.; Jercinovic, M.; Babic, E.

    We investigated the effects of different operating temperatures on the performance of transport critical current density, Jc, for MgB2 + 10 wt% C4H6O5 MgB2/Fe wires. It was shown that the Jc values of the malic acid doped wires sintered at 900°C reached 104 Acm-2 at 20 K and 5 T. The Jc value extrapolated to 2 T and 20 K exceeds the practical level of 105 Acm-2. According to the Kramer plots, the pinning force, FK = Jc1/2 x B1/4, is expected to be a linear function of magnetic field B. The irreversibility field, Birr, at which extrapolated FK reaches zero, was 1.8 T at 32.8 K, 2.8 T at 30 K, 5.7 T at 25 K, 8.6 T at 20 K, and 12.5 T at 15 K, respectively.

  4. Optical properties of titania films prepared by ion-assisted deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, M. G.; Narasimharao, K.; Mohan, Sangeneni

    1992-07-01

    Thin films of titanium dioxide have been deposited using ion-assisted deposition with oxygen ions produced using: (1) a Heitmann ion source (HIS) for ions with energy less than 100 eV and (2) a broad beam Kaufman ion source (KIS) for ions in the energy range 100 to 500 eV and current densities up to 100 (mu) A/cm2. It has been observed that the refractive index of the films increases up to 300 eV and the extinction coefficient only nominally up to 300 eV. The maximum refractive index obtained was 2.49 at an energy of 300 eV and 50 (mu) A/cm2 current density. The refractive index of the films deposited using the HIS was lower than those deposited using the KIS. The refractive index of the HIS films increased with increasing substrate temperature with very little change in the extinction coefficient.

  5. BOA II: Asbestos Pipe-Insulation Removal Robot System. Innovative Technology Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    The objective of this task is to develop and demonstrate a mechanical, asbestos-removal system that can be remotely operated without a containment area. The technology, known as BOA, consists of a pipe-crawler removal head and a boom vehicle system with dual robots. BOA's removal head can be remotely placed on the outside of the pipe and can crawl along the pipe, removing lagging and insulation. The lagging and insulation is cut using a hybrid endmill water-jet cutter and then diced into 2-inch cube sections of ACM. These ACM sections are then removed from the pipe using a set of blasting fan- spray nozzles, vacuumed off through a vacuum hose, and bagged. Careful attention to vacuum and entrapment air flow ensures that the system can operate without a containment area while meeting local and federal standards for fiber count.

  6. A simulator investigation of air-to-air combat maneuvering for tilt-rotor aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, William A.; Isleib, Douglas; Johns, John

    1989-01-01

    As part of the Marine Corps's development of employment methods and maneuver techniques for the V-22 Osprey tilt-rotor aircraft, a piloted simulation study of one-on-one air-combat maneuvering (ACM) was conducted at NASA Ames. In addition to V-22 ACM, the simulation provided an opportunity for a preliminary investigation of maneuver requirements for a possible armed-escort tilt-rotor aircraft. Results from the study indicate that the tilt-rotor's low-speed masking and high-speed dash capabilities significantly enhance its survivability against both fixed-wing and helicopter aggressors. Furthermore, the tilt-rotor's conversion capability and, in turn, the variety and extent of its maneuvering characteristics make it an effective air-combat aircraft.

  7. Studies on Pulsed Laser Deposited YbBa_2Cu_3O_7-x Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, S.; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.; Pinto, R.; Bhatnagar, Anil K.

    1998-03-01

    We have deposited high quality YbBa_2Cu_3O_7-x thin films on LaAlO_3<100> substrates using pulsed laser deposition(PLD) method. Films are characterized by XRD, Resistivity, SQUID measurements and surface morphology using Atomic Force Microscopy. We have noticed spiral like growth in a film by AFM. The critical T_co around 88 K and critical current density at zero field is 2x10^6 A/cm^2 at 77 K and SQUID measurement calculations have shown critical current densities as high as 10^7 A/cm^2 at 77K. ( One of the Authors would like to thank UGC-CSIR for financial assistance and is grateful to CSIR for the research support)

  8. Using EnergyPlus for California Title-24 compliancecalculations

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Joe; Bourassa, Norman; Buhl, Fred; Erdem, Ender; Hitchcock, Rob

    2006-08-26

    For the past decade, the non-residential portion of California's Title-24 building energy standard has relied on DOE-2.1E as the reference computer simulation program for development as well as compliance. However, starting in 2004, the California Energy Commission has been evaluating the possible use of Energy Plus as the reference program in future revisions of Title-24. As part of this evaluation, the authors converted the Alternate Compliance Method (ACM) certification test suite of 150 DOE-2 files to Energy Plus, and made parallel DOE-2 and Energy Plus runs for this extensive set of test cases. A customized version of DOE-2.1E named doe2ep was developed to automate the conversion process. This paper describes this conversion process, including the difficulties in establishing an apples-to-apples comparison between the two programs, and summarizes how the DOE-2 and Energy Plus results compare for the ACM test cases.

  9. Terahertz ambipolar dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Lever, L; Hinchcliffe, N M; Khanna, S P; Dean, P; Ikonic, Z; Evans, C A; Davies, A G; Harrison, P; Linfield, E H; Kelsall, R W

    2009-10-26

    Terahertz frequency quantum cascade lasers (THz QCLs) are compact solid-state sources of terahertz radiation that were first demonstrated in 2002. They have a broad range of potential applications ranging from gas sensing and non-destructive testing, through to security and medical imaging, with many polycrystalline compounds having distinct fingerprint spectra in the terahertz frequency range. In this article, we demonstrate an electrically-switchable dual-wavelength THz QCL which will enable spectroscopic information to be obtained within a THz QCL-based imaging system. The device uses the same active region for both emission wavelengths: in forward bias, the laser emits at 2.3 THz; in reverse bias, it emits at 4 THz. The corresponding threshold current densities are 490 A/cm(2) and 330 A/cm(2), respectively, with maximum operating temperatures of 98K and 120 K. PMID:19997216

  10. Manual and automated intima-media thickness and diameter measurements of the common carotid artery in patients with renal failure disease.

    PubMed

    Loizou, Christos P; Kasparis, Takis; Lazarou, Theodoros; Pattichis, Constandinos S; Pantziaris, Marios

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate differences in intima-media thickness (IMT) and diameter (D) measurements of the common carotid artery (CCA) in ultrasound imaging in normal subjects and renal failure disease (RFD) patients. Manual measurements by two experts and automated segmentation measurements (based on snakes and active contour models (ACM)) were carried out on 73 normal subjects, and 80 RFD patients. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test at p<0.05. Results demonstrated that the mean IMT and D measurements were significantly higher for the RFD group versus the normal group. Moreover, there was no significant difference between the manual and automated measurements. The ACM segmentation was slightly more accurate than segmentation based on snakes. Further work is needed to validate these findings on a larger group of subjects. PMID:25173810